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Sample records for 97ru precision measurement

  1. /sup 97/Ru-DMSA for delayed renal imaging. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Gil, M.C.; Goldman, A.G.; Fairchild, R.G.; Meinken, G.E.; Srivastava, S.C.; Atkins, H.L.; Richards, P.; Brill, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was labeled with /sup 97/Ru both with and without the addition of SnCl.2H/sub 2/O. The tin-containing preparation was found to induce higher cortical deposition of /sup 97/Ru-DMSA than the tin-free preparation. Visualization of the renal cortex was excellent 4 to 48 hours after injection in normal dogs with renal insufficiency. It is concluded that /sup 97/Ru-(Sn+/sup 2/)-DMSA is a potentially useful renal imaging agent when delayed scintigraphy is necessary because of decompensaton of the kidneys.

  2. /sup 97/Ru-DMSA for delayed renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Gil, M.C.

    1981-10-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was labeled with /sup 97/Ru both with and without the addition of SnCl-2H/sub 2/O. The tin-containing preparation was found to induce higher cortical deposition of /sup 97/Ru-DMSA than the tin-free preparation. Visualization of the renal cortex was excellent 4 to 48 hours after injection in normal dogs and in dogs with renal insufficiency. It is concluded that /sup 97/Ru-(SN/sup 2 +/)-DMSA is a potentially useful renal imaging agent when delayed scintigraphy is necessary because of decompensation of the kidneys.

  3. A new radioisotope tracing method of UHMWPE wear particle dispersion using 97Ru.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jacob A; Gladkis, Laura G; Timmers, Heiko

    2011-07-01

    A new method of radioisotope labelling, using the reaction 92Zr(12C,α3n)97Ru, has been demonstrated. The method places radioactive 97Ru tracer atoms into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The radioisotope 97Ru (half-life t1/2=2.9 days) was implanted in 5 mm×5 mm UHMWPE samples to a maximum depth of 5 μm. The radioisotope is identified via a characteristic gamma-ray emission from its daughter 97Tc at 216 keV. The new method is advantageous since the concentration profile of the 97Ru label is almost constant starting at the surface. In order to show the efficacy of the method for wear measurements on prostheses, the labeled UHMWPE samples were worn in a model system. The model system involved bi-directional sliding actuation on a steel block. Debris transport, via the two pathways linking the polymer with the articulating steel surface and with the lubricant, respectively, has been quantified. Surface roughness of the steel and the load on the steel were varied. Changing the surface roughness of the steel from (110±30) to (340±90) nm increased the amount of debris dispersed in the lubricant from (21±3)% to (67±3)%. Furthermore, changing the load from 1 to 5 kg also increased debris transport along this pathway.

  4. Precision Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radius, Marcie; And Others

    The manual provides information for precision measurement (counting of movements per minute of a chosen activity) of achievement in special education students. Initial sections give guidelines for the teacher, parent, and student to follow for various methods of charting behavior. It is explained that precision measurement is a way to measure the…

  5. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  6. Precision Measurement in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  7. Precision electroweak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} and {ital p{anti p}} colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct {ital m{sub t}} measurements. Using the world`s electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs` mass are discussed.

  8. Precise Measurement for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A metrology instrument known as PhaseCam supports a wide range of applications, from testing large optics to controlling factory production processes. This dynamic interferometer system enables precise measurement of three-dimensional surfaces in the manufacturing industry, delivering speed and high-resolution accuracy in even the most challenging environments.Compact and reliable, PhaseCam enables users to make interferometric measurements right on the factory floor. The system can be configured for many different applications, including mirror phasing, vacuum/cryogenic testing, motion/modal analysis, and flow visualization.

  9. Precise measurement of planeness.

    PubMed

    Schulz, G; Schwider, J

    1967-06-01

    Interference methods are reviewed-particularly those developed at the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin-with which the deviations of an optically flat surface from the ideal plane can be measured with a high degree of exactness. One aid to achieve this is the relative methods which measure the differences in planeness between two surfaces. These are then used in the absolute methods which determine the absolute planeness of a surface. This absolute determination can be effected in connection with a liquid surface, or (as done by the authors) only by suitable evaluation of relative measurements between unknown plates in various positional combinations. Experimentally, one uses two- or multiple-beam interference fringes of equal thickness(1) or of equal inclination. The fringes are observed visually, scanned, or photographed, and in part several wavelengths or curves of equal density (Aquidensiten) are employed. The survey also brings the following new methods: a relative method, where, with the aid of fringes of superposition, the fringe separation is subdivided equidistantly thus achieving an increase of measuring precision, and an absolute method which determines the deviations of a surface from ideal planeness along arbitrary central sections, without a liquid surface, from four relative interference photographs.

  10. Fundamental Physics and Precision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, T. W.

    2006-11-01

    "Very high precision physics has always appealed to me. The steady improvement in technologies that afford higher and higher precision has been a regular source of excitement and challenge during my career. In science, as in most things, whenever one looks at something more closely, new aspects almost always come into play …" With these word from the book "How the Laser happened", Charles H. Townes expresses a passion for precision that is now shared by many scientists. Masers and lasers have become indispensible tools for precision measurements. During the past few years, the advent of femtosecond laser frequency comb synthesizers has revolutionized the art of directly comparing optical and microwave frequencies. Inspired by the needs of precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom, such frequency combs are now enabling ultra-precise spectroscopy over wide spectral ranges. Recent laboratory experiments are already setting stringent limits for possible slow variations of fundamental constants. Laser frequency combs also provide the long missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks that may ultimately reach a precision of parts in 1018 and beyond. Such tools will open intriguing new opportunities for fundamental experiments including new tests of special and general relativity. In the future, frequency comb techniques may be extended into the extreme ultraviolet and soft xray regime, opening a vast new spectral territory to precision measurements. Frequency combs have also become a key tool for the emerging new field of attosecond science, since they can control the electric field of ultrashort laser pulses on an unprecedented time scale. The biggest surprise in these endeavours would be if we found no surprise.

  11. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  12. Precision ozone vapor pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D.; Mauersberger, K.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure above liquid ozone has been measured with a high accuracy over a temperature range of 85 to 95 K. At the boiling point of liquid argon (87.3 K) an ozone vapor pressure of 0.0403 Torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 0.7 percent. A least square fit of the data provided the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for liquid ozone; a latent heat of 82.7 cal/g was calculated. High-precision vapor pressure data are expected to aid research in atmospheric ozone measurements and in many laboratory ozone studies such as measurements of cross sections and reaction rates.

  13. Precision Mass Measurements at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascar, D.; van Schelt, J.; Savard, G.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Clark, J. A.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Sternberg, M.; Sun, T.; Zabransky, B. J.; Segel, R.; Sharma, K.

    2010-02-01

    Neutron separation energies (Sn) are essential inputs to models of explosive r-process nucleosynthesis. However, for nuclei farther from stability, the precision of Sn decreases as production decreases and observation of those nuclei become more difficult. Many of the most critical inputs to the models are based on extrapolations from measurements of masses closer to stability than the predicted r-process path. Measuring masses that approach and lie on the predicted r-process path will further constrain the systematic uncertainties in these extrapolated values. The Canadian Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer (CPT) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has measured the masses of more than 160 nuclei to high precision. A recent move to the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) at ANL has given the CPT unique access to weakly produced nuclei that cannot be easily reached via proton induced fission of ^238U. CARIBU will eventually use a 1 Ci source of ^252Cf to produce these nuclei. Installation of the CPT at CARIBU as well as the first CPT mass measurements of neutron rich nuclei at CARIBU will be discussed. )

  14. Precision Measurement Of Corneal Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Paul R.; Macri, Timothy F.; Telfair, William B.; Bennett, Peter S.; Martin, Clifford A.; Warner, John W.

    1989-05-01

    We describe a new electro-optical device being developed to provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional topography of the human cornea. This device, called a digital keratoscope, is intended primarily for use in preparing for and determining the effect of corneal surgery procedures such as laser refractive keratectomy, radial keratotomy or corneal transplant on the refractive power of the cornea. It also may serve as an aid in prescribing contact lenses. The basic design features of the hardware and of the associated computer software are discussed, the means for alignment and calibration are described and typical results are given.

  15. Precision Measurements in 37K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anholm, Melissa; Ashery, Daniel; Behling, Spencer; Fenker, Benjamin; Melconian, Dan; Mehlman, Michael; Behr, John; Gorelov, Alexandre; Olchanski, Konstantin; Preston, Claire; Warner, Claire; Gwinner, Gerald

    2015-10-01

    We have performed precision measurements of the kinematics of the daughter particles in the decay of 37K. This isotope decays by β+ emission in a mixed Fermi/Gamow-Teller transition to its isobaric analog, 37Ar. Because the higher-order standard model corrections to this decay process are well understood, it is an ideal candidate for for improving constraints on interactions beyond the standard model. Our setup utilizes a magneto-optical trap to confine and cool samples of 37K, which are then spin-polarized by optical pumping. This allows us to perform measurements on both polarized and unpolarized nuclei, which is valuable for a complete understanding of systematic effects. Precision measurements of this decay are expected to be sensitive to the presence of right-handed vector currents, as well as a linear combination of scalar and tensor currents. Progress towards a final result is presented here. Support provided by: NSERC, NRC through TRIUMF, DOE ER40773, Early Career ER41747, Israel Science Foundation.

  16. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  17. Automatic precision measurement of spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B A; Sansonetti, C J; Andrew, K L

    1978-08-01

    A fully automatic comparator has been designed and implemented to determine precision wavelengths from high-resolution spectrograms. The accuracy attained is superior to that of an experienced operator using a semiautomatic comparator with a photoelectric setting device. The system consists of a comparator, slightly modified for simultaneous data acquisition from two parallel scans of the spectrogram, interfaced to a minicomputer. The software which controls the system embodies three innovations of special interest. (1) Data acquired from two parallel scans are compared and used to separate unknown from standard lines, to eliminate spurious lines, to identify blends of unknown with standard lines, to improve the accuracy of the measured positions, and to flag lines which require special examination. (2) Two classes of lines are automatically recognized and appropriate line finding methods are applied to each. This provides precision measurement for both simple and complex line profiles. (3) Wavelength determination using a least-squares fitted grating equation is supported in addition to polynomial interpolation. This is most useful in spectral regions with sparsely distributed standards. The principles and implementation of these techniques are fully described.

  18. Theoretical investigation of cross sections and astrophysical S-factors for the 92Mo(α,n)95Ru and 94Mo(α,n)97Ru reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Abdullah; Yıldız, Ercan; Sarpün, Ismail Hakki

    2016-11-01

    Molybdenum is commonly applied as a constructive material in different types of nuclear reactors. The cross sections of the 92Mo(α,n)95Ru and 94Mo(α,n)97Ru reactions have been calculated at 5-20 MeV energy ranges. In theoretical calculations, the TALYS1.6 and NONSMOKER codes were used. Also the astrophysical S-factors were calculated. Results of our calculations were checked to the experimental data obtained from EXFOR database.

  19. Precision QCD measurements at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirumov, Hayk

    2014-11-01

    A review of recent experimental results on perturbative QCD from the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS is presented. All inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering are combined. They span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q2, and in Bjorken x. This data set is used as the sole input to NLO and NNLO QCD analyses to determine new sets of parton distributions, HERAPDF2.0, with small experimental uncertainties and an estimate of model and parametrisation uncertainties. Also shown are new results on inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering. The precision jet data is used to extract the strong coupling αs at NLO with small experimental errors.

  20. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  1. Towards Precision Measurements at UASLP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzeloui, S.; Arias, N.; Abediyeh, V.; Martínez, D.; Gutiérrez, M.; Uruñuela, E.; del Rio, E.; Cerda-Méndez, E.; Gomez, E.; Valenzuela, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    Atomic interferometry is a very sensitive technique to measure small forces. Here we present an overview of the progress towards interferometric measurements in our laboratory. We characterize the magnetic field noise and describe the strategies to minimize the sensitivity to magnetic field fluctuations. We introduce as well a system for Raman excitation with minimum phase noise and the frequency filtering needed to implement it. Finally, we demonstrate atomic interferometry with a frequency sensitivity of 3 Hz.

  2. Theory of precision electroweak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1990-03-01

    In these lectures, I will review the theoretical concepts needed to understand the goals and implications of experiments in this new era of weak interactions. I will explain how to compute the most important order-{alpha} radiative corrections to weak interaction processes and discuss the physical implications of these correction terms. I hope that this discussion will be useful to those --- experimentalists and theorists --- who will try to interpret the new data that we will soon receive. This paper is organized as follows: I will review the structure of the standard weak interaction model at zeroth order. I will discuss the measurement of the Z{sup 0} boson mass in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation. This measurement is affected by radiative correction to the form of the Z{sup 0} resonance, and so I will review the theory of the resonance line shape. I will briefly review the modifications of the properties of the Z{sup 0} which would be produced by additional neutral gauge bosons. I will review the theory of the renormalization of weak interaction parameters such as sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub {omega}}, concentrating especially on the contributions of the top quark and other heavy, undiscovered particles.

  3. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Carl E.

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  4. Precision measurement for particle physics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Axions and other light particles are strongly motivated. For example, the axion is the crucial element in the recently proposed solution to the hierarchy problem using dynamical relaxation in the early universe. However, such particles are challenging to search for experimentally. Precision measurement technologies such as atom interferometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, high precision magnetometry, and torsion balances allow novel, highly sensitive experiments for direct detection of such light dark matter and of gravitational waves. Thus precision measurement technologies open new avenues for probing the origin and composition of the universe.

  5. High Precision Pressure Measurement with a Funnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Arias, T.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experimental device for high precision differential pressure measurements is presented. Its working mechanism recalls that of a hydraulic press, where pressure is supplied by insufflating air under a funnel. As an application, we measure air pressure inside a soap bubble. The soap bubble is inflated and connected to a funnel which is…

  6. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Rianon, Nahid; Feiveson, Alan; Shackelford, Linda; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Bone Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift. The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values (less than 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  7. Precision of Four Acoustic Bone Measurement Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher; Feiveson, Alan H.; Shackelford, Linda; Rianon, Nahida; LeBlanc, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Though many studies have quantified the precision of various acoustic bone measurement devices, it is difficult to directly compare the results among the studies, because they used disparate subject pools, did not specify the estimation methodology, or did not use consistent definitions for various precision characteristics. In this study, we used a repeated measures design protocol to directly determine the precision characteristics of four acoustic bone measurement devices: the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA), the UBA-575+, the SoundScan 2000 (S2000), and the Sahara Ultrasound Done Analyzer. Ten men and ten women were scanned on all four devices by two different operators at five discrete time points: Week 1, Week 2, Week 3, Month 3 and Month 6. The percent coefficient of variation (%CV) and standardized coefficient of variation were computed for the following precision characteristics: interoperator effect, operator-subject interaction, short-term error variance, and long-term drift, The MRTA had high interoperator errors for its ulnar and tibial stiffness measures and a large long-term drift in its tibial stiffness measurement. The UBA-575+ exhibited large short-term error variances and long-term drift for all three of its measurements. The S2000's tibial speed of sound measurement showed a high short-term error variance and a significant operator-subject interaction but very good values ( < 1%) for the other precision characteristics. The Sahara seemed to have the best overall performance, but was hampered by a large %CV for short-term error variance in its broadband ultrasound attenuation measure.

  8. Needs and challenges in precision wear measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.

    1996-01-10

    Accurate, precise wear measurements are a key element in solving both current wear problems and in basic wear research. Applications range from assessing durability of micro-scale components to accurate screening of surface treatments and thin solid films. Need to distinguish small differences in wear tate presents formidable problems to those who are developing new materials and surface treatments. Methods for measuring wear in ASTM standard test methods are discussed. Errors in using alterate methods of wear measurement on the same test specimen are also described. Human judgemental factors are a concern in common methods for wear measurement, and an experiment involving measurement of a wear scar by ten different people is described. Precision in wear measurement is limited both by the capabilities of the measuring instruments and by the nonuniformity of the wear process. A method of measuring wear using nano-scale indentations is discussed. Current and future prospects for incorporating advanced, higher-precision wear measurement methods into standards are considered.

  9. A Radiometer for Precision Coherent Radiation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Douglas B.; Zalewski, Edward F.

    1992-01-01

    A radiometer has been designed for precision colierent radiation measurements and tested for long-term repeatability at wavelengths of 488 and 633 nm. The radiometer consists of a pn silicon photodiode maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere with a quartz window designed to eliminate interference problems. Ratio measurements between the radiometer and an absolute type detector were made over a period of 215 d. At 0.5 mW, the standard deviations were 0.008% and 0.009% at 488 and 633 nm, respectively. The maximum deviations from the mean were 0.016% and 0.015% at the respective wavelengths. Measurements were also made on the radiometer with respect to angular and spatial uniformity and linearity. The high precision, simplicity, and portability of the radiometer suggest it for use as a transfer standard for radiometric measurements. PMID:28053435

  10. Precision lifetime measurements in light exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutchan, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of ab-initio calculations, based on realistic two- and three-body forces have had a profound impact on our understanding of nuclei. They have shed light on topics such as the origin of effective forces (like spin-orbit and tensor interactions) and the mechanisms behind cluster and pairing correlations. New precise data are required to both better parameterize the three body forces and to improve numerical methods. A sensitive probe of the structure of light nuclei comes from their electromagnetic transition rates. A refined Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) will be outlined which is used to precisely measure lifetimes in light nuclei and helps to reduce and quantity systematic uncertainties in the measurement. Using this careful DSAM, we have made a series of precise measurements of electromagnetic transition strengths in Li isotopes, A =10 nuclei, and the exotic halo nucleus, 12Be. Various phenomena, such as alpha clustering and meson-exchange currents, can be investigated in these seemingly simple systems, while the collection of data spanning stable to neutron-rich, allows us to probe the influence of additional valence neutrons. This talk will report on what has been learned, and the challenges that lie in the future, both in experiment and theory, as we push to describing and measuring even more exotic systems. Work supported by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  11. Precision measurements of fundamental muon properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec, P. T.

    2003-02-01

    The g-factor of the muon differs from two due to the excitation of virtual field quanta and particles. The deviation from two, the g-factor anomaly, can be calculated with high precision in the Standard Model of particle physics. The g-factor anomaly can be measured with high precision by determining the rate at which the spin direction of high-energy muons circulating in a storage ring precesses. The Brookhaven National Laboratory g-2 experiment (BNL g-2 collaboration) has measured g-2 to 1.3 ppm. The result is essentially in agreement with the Standard Model. The result puts interesting constraints on Standard Model extensions. Data under analysis will reduce the uncertainty to the order of 0.5 ppm. The precision timing techniques used in the g-2 experiment are a central element of a new experiment to measure the lifetime of the positive muon. The goal of this experiment is to determine the lifetime to 1 ppm, and the Fermi coupling constant to 0.5 ppm. The high statistics demand of this measurement is satisfied by one of the surface muon beams of the Paul Scherrer Institute. An artificial time structure is imposed on the continuous beam by an electrostatic kicker. The decay positrons are detected in a 180 element quasi-spherical detector. The effective counting rate is of the order of 1 MHz. The experiment is designed to control systematic errors to a level below 1 ppm.

  12. Low cost automated precise time measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, A.; Liposchak, P.

    1973-01-01

    The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (AGMC) has the responsibility for the dissemination of Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) to Air Force timing systems requiring microsecond time. In order to maintain traceability to the USNO Master Clock in Washington D.C., and accomplish efficient logging of time and frequency data on individual precision clocks, a simple automatic means of acquiring precise time has been devised. The Automatic Time Interval Measurement System (ATIMS) consists of a minicomputer (8K Memory), teletype terminal, electronic counter, Loran C receiver, time base generator and locally-manufactured relay matrix panel. During the measurement process, the computer controls the relay matrix which selects for comparison 13 atomic clocks against a reference clock and the reference versus Loran C. Through use of the system teletype, the operator is able to set the system clock (hours, minutes and seconds), examine and/or modify all clock data and constants, and set measurement intervals. This is done in a conversational manner. A logic flow diagram, system schematic, source listing and software components are included in the presentation.

  13. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  14. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  15. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  16. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dustin; Apreysan, Artur; Bornheim, Adi; Duarte, Javier; Newman, Harvey; Pena, Cristian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2014-11-21

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm3 lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm3 LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  17. Precision optical displacement measurements using biphotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Kevin; Pang, Shengshi; Kwiat, Paul G.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and examine the use of biphoton pairs, such as those created in parametric down-conversion or four-wave mixing, to enhance the precision and the resolution of measuring optical displacements by position-sensitive detection. We show that the precision of measuring a small optical beam displacement with this method can be significantly enhanced by the correlation between the two photons, given the same optical mode. The improvement is largest if the correlations between the photons are strong, and falls off as the biphoton correlation weakens. More surprisingly, we find that the smallest resolvable parameter of a simple split detector scales as the inverse of the number of biphotons for small biphoton number ("Heisenberg scaling"), because the Fisher information diverges as the parameter to be estimated decreases in value. One usually sees this scaling only for systems with many entangled degrees of freedom. We discuss the transition for the split-detection scheme to the standard quantum limit scaling for imperfect correlations as the biphoton number is increased. An analysis of an N -pixel detector is also given to investigate the benefit of using a higher resolution detector. The physical limit of these metrology schemes is determined by the uncertainty in the birth zone of the biphoton in the nonlinear crystal.

  18. Precision measurements in 20F beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Maximilian; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Paulauskas, Stan; Huyan, Xueying

    2017-01-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of the beta particle energy spectrum provide a sensitive window to search for new interactions beyond the standard model. The decay of 20F offers an attractive system due to the simple decay scheme for a coincidence measurement. A beam of 20F ions, produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, was implanted into a beta-detector. A gamma-ray detection system surrounded the beta detector to detect the beta-delayed gammas in coincidence to reduce the background. Preliminary analysis of these data focus on the half-life of 20F due to the statistical inconsistency of previous work. Monte Carlo simulations are ongoing to analyze the shape of the beta energy spectrum. Results of the analysis of the half-life will be presented. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1102511.

  19. Rapid and precise measurement of flatband voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, S. P.; Ryan, M.; Bates, E. T.

    1976-01-01

    The paper outlines the design, principles of operation, and calibration of a five-IC network intended to give a rapid, precise, and automatic determination of the flatband voltage of MOS capacitors. The basic principle of measurement is to compare the analog output voltage of a capacitance meter - which is directly proportional to the capacitance being measured - with a preset or dialed-in voltage proportional to the calculated flatband capacitance by means of a comparator circuit. The bias to the MOS capacitor supplied through the capacitance meter is provided by a ramp voltage going from a negative toward a positive voltage level and vice versa. The network employs two monostable multivibrators for reading and recording the flatband voltage and for resetting the initial conditions and restarting the ramp. The flatband voltage can be held and read on a digital voltmeter.

  20. Precision Measurements with a Molecular Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, Andrew; McDonald, Mickey; McGuyer, Bart; Iwata, Geoffrey; Apfelbeck, Florian; Tarallo, Marco; Zelevinsky, Tanya

    2015-05-01

    We report on recent results obtained with photoassociated Sr2 molecules confined in a lattice. Sr2 has a range of electronically excited bound states which are readily accessible with optical wavelengths using the narrow 1S0->3P1 intercombination line. As in Nat. Phys. 11, 32, we measure the lifetimes of the narrow, deeply-bound subradiant states in the 1g (1S0+3P1 dissociative limit) potential, allowing for coherent control of molecules and a comparison with theoretical predictions of the lifetimes and transition strengths of these states. Next, we study ultracold photodissociation of Sr2 molecules through abortion of one and two photons near the atomic intercombination line. This allows us to observe the vector character of transition elements through the angular dissociation pattern and to directly measure barrier heights in the excited state potentials. Finally, as shown in PRL 114, 023001, we demonstrate that in a non-magic lattice, a narrow transition can be used to measure the trapped gas temperature through the linewidth of the spectral feature corresponding to the carrier transitions. We use this technique to measure the temperature of Sr2 molecules to 10x higher precision than with standard techniques. We discuss future prospects with this molecular lattice clock. Funding from NIST, ARO, and NSF IGERT.

  1. KamLAND's precision neutrino oscillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decowski, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    The KamLAND experiment started operation in the Spring of 2002 and is operational to this day. The experiment observes signals from electron antineutrinos from distant nuclear reactors. The program, spanning more than a decade, allowed the determination of LMA-MSW as the solution to the solar neutrino transformation results (under the assumption of CPT invariance) and the measurement of various neutrino oscillation parameters. In particular, the solar mass-splitting Δ m212 was determined to high precision. Besides the study of neutrino oscillation, KamLAND started the investigation of geologically produced antineutrinos (geo-ν‾e). The collaboration also reported on a variety of other topics related to particle and astroparticle physics.

  2. Sfermion precision measurements at a linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    A. Freitas et al.

    2003-09-25

    At future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders, the event rates and clean signals of scalar fermion production--in particular for the scalar leptons--allow very precise measurements of their masses and couplings and the determination of their quantum numbers. Various methods are proposed for extracting these parameters from the data at the sfermion thresholds and in the continuum. At the same time, NLO radiative corrections and non-zero width effects have been calculated in order to match the experimental accuracy. The substantial mixing expected for the third generation sfermions opens up additional opportunities. Techniques are presented for determining potential CP-violating phases and for extracting tan {beta} from the stau sector, in particular at high values. The consequences of possible large mass differences in the stop and sbottom system are explored in dedicated analyses.

  3. Laser System for Precise, Unambiguous Range Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Lay, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    The Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Range (MSTAR) architecture is the basis of design of a proposed laser-based heterodyne interferometer that could measure a range (distance) as great as 100 km with a precision and resolution of the order of 1 nm. Simple optical interferometers can measure changes in range with nanometer resolution, but cannot measure range itself because interference is subject to the well-known integer-multiple-of-2 -radians phase ambiguity, which amounts to a range ambiguity of the order of 1 m at typical laser wavelengths. Existing rangefinders have a resolution of the order of 10 m and are therefore unable to resolve the ambiguity. The proposed MSTAR architecture bridges the gap, enabling nanometer resolution with an ambiguity range that can be extended to arbitrarily large distances. The MSTAR architecture combines the principle of the heterodyne interferometer with the principle of extending the ambiguity range of an interferometer by using light of two wavelengths. The use of two wavelengths for this purpose is well established in optical metrology, radar, and sonar. However, unlike in traditional two-color laser interferometry, light of two wavelengths would not be generated by two lasers. Instead, multiple wavelengths would be generated as sidebands of phase modulation of the light from a single frequency- stabilized laser. The phase modulation would be effected by applying sinusoidal signals of suitable frequencies (typically tens of gigahertz) to high-speed electro-optical phase modulators. Intensity modulation can also be used

  4. Facilitating Precision Mass Measurements at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascar, Daniel; van Schelt, Jon; Savard, Guy; Segel, Ralph; Clark, Jason; Sharma, Kumar; Caldwell, Shane; Gang, Li; Sternberg, Matthew; Greene, John; Levand, Anthony; Zabransky, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer (CPT) has begun a campaign of precision mass measurements of neutron-rich nuclei produced via spontaneous fission of 252Cf as part of the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory. As of the time of submission of this abstract, we have measured neutron rich isotopes of Cs, I, Te, Sb, and Sn. CARIBU is currently running with a 60 mCi source of 252Cf which will be upgraded to a 1 Ci source in the future. In order to make this campaign possible, several upgrades to the CARIBU and CPT system were required including a new Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) ion buncher to CARIBU's low energy beamline, cryogenic cooling of the RFQ Paul trap below the CPT, and an electrostatic elevator to allow for transport of ion bunches from a 50 kV platform to the CPT system's 2 kV beamline. Construction and commissioning of the buncher and modified Paul Trap will be discussed as well as their impact on the measurements in this campaign. Support from U.S. DOE, Nucl Phys Div and NSERC Canada.

  5. Precision Electroweak Measurements on the Z Presonance

    SciTech Connect

    Aleph,Delphi,L3,Opal,SLD , Collaborations

    2005-09-08

    The authors report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. the data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLD experiment using a polarized beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarized asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, m{sub Z} and {Lambda}{sub Z}, and its couplings to fermions, for example the {rho} parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: m{sub Z} = 91.1875 {+-} 0.0021 GeV; {Lambda}{sub Z} = 2.4952 {+-} 0.0023 GeV; {rho}{sub {ell}} = 1.0050 {+-} 0.0010; sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}{sup lept} = 0.23153 {+-} 0.00016. The number of light neutrino species is determined to be 2.9840 {+-} 0.0082, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. At the Z-pole, electroweak radiative corrections beyond the running of the QED and QCD coupling constants are observed with a significance of five standard deviations, and in agreement with the Standard Model. of the many Z-pole measurements, the forward-backward asymmetry in b-quark production shows the largest difference with respect to its Standard Model expectation, at the level of 2.8 standard deviations. Through radiative corrections evaluated in the framework of the Standard Model, the Z-pole data are also used to predict the mass of the top quark, m{sub t} = 173{sub -10}{sup +13} GeV, and the mass of the W boson, m{sub W} = 80.363 {+-} 0.032 GeV. These indirect constraints are compared to the direct measurements, providing a stringent test of the Standard Model. Using in addition the direct measurements of m{sub t} and m{sub W}, the mass of the as yet unobserved Standard Model Higgs boson is predicted with a

  6. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  7. Improving the Precision of Weak Measurements by Postselection Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Brun, Todd A.

    2015-09-01

    Postselected weak measurement is a useful protocol for amplifying weak physical effects. However, there has recently been controversy over whether it gives any advantage in precision. While it is now clear that retaining failed postselections can yield more Fisher information than discarding them, the advantage of postselection measurement itself still remains to be clarified. In this Letter, we address this problem by studying two widely used estimation strategies: averaging measurement results, and maximum likelihood estimation, respectively. For the first strategy, we find a surprising result that squeezed coherent states of the pointer can give postselected weak measurements a higher signal-to-noise ratio than standard ones while all standard coherent states cannot, which suggests that raising the precision of weak measurements by postselection calls for the presence of "nonclassicality" in the pointer states. For the second strategy, we show that the quantum Fisher information of postselected weak measurements is generally larger than that of standard weak measurements, even without using the failed postselection events, but the gap can be closed with a proper choice of system state.

  8. High precision measurements in crustal dynamic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, F.; Berger, J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of high-precision instrumentation for monitoring benchmark stability and evaluating coseismic strain and tilt signals is reviewed. Laser strainmeter and tilt observations are presented. Examples of coseismic deformation in several geographic locations are given. Evidence suggests that the Earth undergoes elastic response to abrupt faulting.

  9. Precision Measurements of Tau Lepton Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data collected with the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II electron-positron storage ring operating at a centre-of-mass energy near 10.58 GeV, the branching fractions B(τ- → π-π-π+ντ) =(8.83±0.01±0.13)%, B(τ- → K-π-π+ντ) =(0.273± 0.002 ± 0.009)%, B(τ- → K-π-K+ντ) =(0.1346 ± 0.0010 ± 0.0036)%, and B(τ- → K-K-K+ντ) =(1.58 ± 0.13 ± 0.12) × 10-5 are measured where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The invariant mass distribution for the τ- → π-π-π+ντ , τ- → K-π-π+ντ , τ- → K-π-K+ντ and τ- → K-K-K+ντ decays are unfolded to correct for detector effects. A measurement of B(τ- → φπ-ντ ) =(3.42±0.55±0.25)×10-5, a measurement of B(τ- → φK-ντ) =(3.39±0.20±0.28)× 10-5 and an upper limit on B(τ- → K-K-K+ντ [ex.φ]) ≤ 2.5 × 10-6@90%CL are determined from a binned maximum likelihood fit of the τ- → K-π-K+ντ and τ- → K-K-K+ντ K+K- invariant mass distributions. The branching ratio B(τ-→K-ντ )/ B(τ-→π-ντ ) is measured to be (6.531±0.056±0.093)×10-2 from which |Vus| is determined to be 0.2255 ± 0.0023. The branching ratio B(τ-→μ-ντ $\\bar{v}$μ)/ B(τ-→e-ντ $\\bar{v}$e) =(9.796 ± 0.016 ± 0.035) × 10-1 is measured enabling a precision test of the Standard Model assumption of

  10. Higgs triplets and limits from precision measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Dawson, Sally; Krupovnickas, Tadas; /Brookhaven

    2006-04-01

    In this letter, they present the results on a global fit to precision electroweak data in a Higgs triplet model. In models with a triplet Higgs boson, a consistent renormalization scheme differs from that of the Standard Model and the global fit shows that a light Higgs boson with mass of 100-200 GeV is preferred. Triplet Higgs bosons arise in many extensions of the Standard Model, including the left-right model and the Little Higgs models. The result demonstrates the importance of the scalar loops when there is a large mass splitting between the heavy scalars. It also indicates the significance of the global fit.

  11. Precision Antenna Measurement System (PAMS) Engineering Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    Any variation of these variables are classified as errors. The first step is to divide the sources of error into two groups , namely system and...collecting the data fall into two groups . First, the system and bias errors are measured. These measurements are made with stationary signal sources...becomes available. The s.econd group of measurements will concern themselves with the dynamic errors. This group of measurements can be accomplished

  12. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  13. Precise displacement measurement for a local surface.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sheng Lih; Lin, Shyh Tsong; Chang, Yu Hsin

    2009-11-01

    An optical measurement method to get the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of a local surface using a laser is proposed. The proposed method simultaneously derives the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements by measuring the shift of interference fringes formed by scattered beams. The average errors of the in-plane and out-of-plane displacement measurements are significantly smaller than 10 nm. Moreover, the proposed method uses only low-cost optical elements.

  14. Machine learning for precise quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C

    2010-02-12

    Adaptive feedback schemes are promising for quantum-enhanced measurements yet are complicated to design. Machine learning can autonomously generate algorithms in a classical setting. Here we adapt machine learning for quantum information and use our framework to generate autonomous adaptive feedback schemes for quantum measurement. In particular, our approach replaces guesswork in quantum measurement by a logical, fully automatic, programable routine. We show that our method yields schemes that outperform the best known adaptive scheme for interferometric phase estimation.

  15. Note: High precision measurements using high frequency gigahertz signals.

    PubMed

    Jin, Aohan; Fu, Siyuan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Pullerits, Tõnu; Öwall, Viktor; Karki, Khadga Jung

    2014-12-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5 × 10(8) to measure signals with very high precision. In this Note, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example, the change in length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in situ virtual metrology in material design.

  16. Velocity precision measurements using laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopheide, D.; Taux, G.; Narjes, L.

    1985-07-01

    A Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) was calibrated to determine its applicability to high pressure measurements (up to 10 bars) for industrial purposes. The measurement procedure with LDA and the experimental computerized layouts are presented. The calibration procedure is based on absolute accuracy of Doppler frequency and calibration of interference strip intervals. A four-quadrant detector allows comparison of the interference strip distance measurements and computer profiles. Further development of LDA is recommended to increase accuracy (0.1% inaccuracy) and to apply the method industrially.

  17. On precision and accuracy (bias) statements for measurement procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckner, L.A.; Hume, M.W.; Delvin, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement procedures are often required to contain precision and accuracy of precision and bias statements. This paper contains a glossary that explains various terms that often appear in these statements as well as an example illustrating such statements for a specific set of data. Precision and bias statements are shown to vary according to the conditions under which the data were collected. This paper emphasizes that the error model (an algebraic expression that describes how the various sources of variation affect the measurement) is an important consideration in the formation of precision and bias statements.

  18. Precision QCD measurements in DIS at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzger, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    New and recent results on QCD measurements from the H1 and ZEUS experiments at the HERA ep collider are reviewed. The final results on the combined deep-inelastic neutral and charged current cross-sections are presented and their role in the extractions of parton distribution functions (PDFs) is studied. The PDF fits give insight into the compatibility of QCD evolution and heavy flavor schemes with the data as a function of kinematic variables such as the scale Q2. Measurements of jet production cross-sections in ep collisions provide direct proves of QCD and extractions of the strong coupling constants are performed. Charm and beauty cross-section measurements are used for the determination of the heavy quark masses. Their role in PDF fits is investigated. In the regime of diffractive DIS and photoproduction, dijet and prompt photon production cross-sections provide insights into the process of factorization and the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  19. Calibration of line-scan cameras for precision measurement.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Linghui; Yang, Shourui; Niu, Zhiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Calibration of line-scan cameras for precision measurement should have large calibration volume and be flexible in the actual measurement field. In this paper, we present a high-precision calibration method. Instead of using a large 3D pattern, we use a small planar pattern and a precalibrated matrix camera to obtain plenty of points with a suitable distribution, which would ensure the precision of the calibration results. The matrix camera removes the necessity of precise adjustment and movement and links the line-scan camera to the world easily, both of which enhance flexibility in the measurement field. The method has been verified by experiments. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method gives a practical solution to calibrate line scan cameras for precision measurement.

  20. Precision Measurement of Nuclear Electron Capture Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltick, David; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Haoyu; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    The method of accurately measuring the radioactive decay constant of a isotope by measuring the decay rate as a function of time requires that both the detector and environment be stable over time periods comparable to the life-time of the isotope. In addition statistical accuracy requires initial counting rates be high but limited by the dead time capability of the data collection system and the detectors double-event resolving time. A High Purity Germanium (HPGe) spectrometer, sensitive to radiation from 3-KeV to over 3-MeV, has been built to measure radioactive decay constants to a level of 10-5 10-6 at a location only 6 meters from the core of the High Flux Isotope Reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Such accuracy requires understanding of, background, signal-processing algorithms, and both the double and triple event pile-up in the observed spectrum. The approach taken is to fit the collected energy spectrum with invariant shapes, independent of event rate. By fixing the source-detector geometry and environmental conditions, the invariant shapes are (1) ideal energy spectrum without pile-up and background, (2) the ideal double event pile-up spectrum, (3) the ideal triple event pile-up spectrum, and (4) the stable background spectrum. A method is presented that finds these ideal shapes using the collected data in situ. Taking this approach the HPGe detector photopeak shape in the absence of background and pile-up is presented showing associated structure over a range of 7 orders of magnitude.

  1. Covariate Imbalance and Precision in Measuring Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofeng Steven

    2011-01-01

    Covariate adjustment can increase the precision of estimates by removing unexplained variance from the error in randomized experiments, although chance covariate imbalance tends to counteract the improvement in precision. The author develops an easy measure to examine chance covariate imbalance in randomization by standardizing the average…

  2. Michelson interferometer for precision angle measurement.

    PubMed

    Ikram, M; Hussain, G

    1999-01-01

    An angle-measuring technique based on an optical interferometer is reported. The technique exploits a Michelson interferometric configuration in which a right-angle prism and a glass strip are introduced into a probe beam. Simultaneous rotation of both components along an axis results in an optical path difference between the reference and the probe beams. In a second arrangement two right-angle prisms and glass strips are introduced into two beams of a Michelson interferometer. The prisms and the strips are rotated simultaneously to introduce an optical path difference between the two beams. In our arrangement, optimization of various parameters makes the net optical path difference between the two beams approximately linear for a rotation as great as +/-20 degrees . Results are simulated that show an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude in error and nonlinearity compared with a previously reported technique.

  3. High-precision camera distortion measurements with a ``calibration harp''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongwei; Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Monasse, Pascal; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-01

    This paper addresses the high precision measurement of the distortion of a digital camera from photographs. Traditionally, this distortion is measured from photographs of a flat pattern which contains aligned elements. Nevertheless, it is nearly impossible to fabricate a very flat pattern and to validate its flatness. This fact limits the attainable measurable precisions. In contrast, it is much easier to obtain physically very precise straight lines by tightly stretching good quality strings on a frame. Taking literally "plumb-line methods", we built a "calibration harp" instead of the classic flat patterns to obtain a high precision measurement tool, demonstrably reaching 2/100 pixel precisions. The harp is complemented with the algorithms computing automatically from harp photographs two different and complementary lens distortion measurements. The precision of the method is evaluated on images corrected by state-of-the-art distortion correction algorithms, and by popular software. Three applications are shown: first an objective and reliable measurement of the result of any distortion correction. Second, the harp permits to control state-of-the art global camera calibration algorithms: It permits to select the right distortion model, thus avoiding internal compensation errors inherent to these methods. Third, the method replaces manual procedures in other distortion correction methods, makes them fully automatic, and increases their reliability and precision.

  4. Precision measurement of cosmic magnification from 21 cm emitting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengjie; Pen, Ue-Li; /Canadian Inst. Theor. Astrophys.

    2005-04-01

    We show how precision lensing measurements can be obtained through the lensing magnification effect in high redshift 21cm emission from galaxies. Normally, cosmic magnification measurements have been seriously complicated by galaxy clustering. With precise redshifts obtained from 21cm emission line wavelength, one can correlate galaxies at different source planes, or exclude close pairs to eliminate such contaminations. We provide forecasts for future surveys, specifically the SKA and CLAR. SKA can achieve percent precision on the dark matter power spectrum and the galaxy dark matter cross correlation power spectrum, while CLAR can measure an accurate cross correlation power spectrum. The neutral hydrogen fraction was most likely significantly higher at high redshifts, which improves the number of observed galaxies significantly, such that also CLAR can measure the dark matter lensing power spectrum. SKA can also allow precise measurement of lensing bispectrum.

  5. Precision measurements of linear scattering density using muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åström, E.; Bonomi, G.; Calliari, I.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Donzella, A.; Faraci, E.; Forsberg, F.; Gonella, F.; Hu, X.; Klinger, J.; Sundqvist Ökvist, L.; Pagano, D.; Rigoni, A.; Ramous, E.; Urbani, M.; Vanini, S.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that muon tomography can be used to precisely measure the properties of various materials. The materials which have been considered have been extracted from an experimental blast furnace, including carbon (coke) and iron oxides, for which measurements of the linear scattering density relative to the mass density have been performed with an absolute precision of 10%. We report the procedures that are used in order to obtain such precision, and a discussion is presented to address the expected performance of the technique when applied to heavier materials. The results we obtain do not depend on the specific type of material considered and therefore they can be extended to any application.

  6. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  7. A New Precision Measurement of the Lifetime of ^19Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, Leah; Pattie, Robert; Back, Henning; Young, Albert; Dammalapati, Umakanth; de, Subhadeep; Dendooven, Peter; Dermois, Otto; Huisman, Leo; Jungmann, Klaus; Mol, Aran; Gerco Onderwater, C.; Rogachevskiy, Andrey; Sohani, Moslem; Traykov, Emil; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans

    2008-04-01

    The mixed 12^+->12^+ decay of ^19Ne is an important system for studies of the weak interaction. A measurement of the lifetime of this decay at the 10-4 level combined with the measured value of the β-asymmetry enables a determination of Vud that rivals the precision obtained from 0^+->0^+ superallowed Fermi beta decays. The lifetime is currently known to a precision of about 0.08%, and by utilizing the unique capabilities of the Trapped Radioactive Isotopes: μicro-laboratories for fundamental Physics (TRIμP) facility at the Kernfysich Versneller Instituut (KVI), we can improve this precision by up to a factor of three. We describe recent progress towards a high-precision lifetime measurement and present preliminary results.

  8. An instrument for precision magnetic measurements of large magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, D.; Bordas, J.; Campmany, J.; Molins, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Traveria, M.

    2001-02-01

    A high precision-system for measuring the three-dimensional distribution of magnetic fields over large volumes, such as those produced by accelerator magnets, has been designed and commissioned. This instrument can be calibrated to a precision of ±1 G for magnetic fields of up to 1.5 T by means of an NMR system. A moving arm containing a 3D Hall probe scans the volume (up to 500×250×3000 mm 3) with a precision of ±50 μm in any direction. After appropriate identification of the various sources of error, and the optimisation of the various parts of the instrument where they are generated, an overall precision of ±2 G has been achieved, i.e. a relative precision of ±2×10 -4 for a nominal field of 1 T.

  9. CCD evaluation for estimating measurement precision in lateral shearing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingcai; Li, Bing; Tian, Ailing; Li, Baopeng

    2013-06-01

    Because of larger measurement ability of wave-front deviation and no need of reference plat, the lateral shearing interferometry based on four step phase shifting has been widely used for wave-front measurement. After installation shearing interferograms are captured by CCD camera, and the actual phase data of wave-front can be calculated by four step phase shift algorithm and phase unwrapping. In this processing, the pixel resolution and gray scale of CCD camera is the vital factor for the measurement precision. In this paper, Based on the structure of lateral shearing surface interferometer with phase shifting, pixel resolution more or less for measurement precision is discussed. Also, the gray scale is 8 bit, 12 bit or 16 bit for measurement precision is illustrated by simulation.

  10. The measurement of frequency and frequency stability of precision oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The specification and performance of precision oscillators is discussed as a very important topic to the owners and users of these oscillators. This paper presents at the tutorial level some convenient methods of measuring the frequencies of precision oscillators -- giving advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Further it is shown that by processing the data from the frequency measurements in certain ways, one may be able to state more general characteristics of the oscillators being measured. The goal in this regard is to allow the comparisons of different manufacturers' specifications and more importantly to help assess whether these oscillators will meet the standard of performance the user may have in a particular application.

  11. Corrections for Wavelength Variations in Precision Interferometric Displacement Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jack; Phillips, Steven D.; Mandolfo, Gary A.

    1996-01-01

    Precision interferometric displacement measurements require deadpath corrections to account for variations in wavelength during the course of the measurement. This paper discusses common errors in applying deadpath corrections and describes the correction necessary to fully account for variations in wavelength. PMID:27805085

  12. Precise measurement of the {sup 19}Ne half-life

    SciTech Connect

    Triambak, S.

    2011-11-30

    We describe a high-precision measurement of the half-life of the T = 1/2 nucleus {sup 19}Ne, performed at TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vancouver, Canada. Some implications of this measurement related to tests of the Standard Model are discussed.

  13. Precision Measurement of Transition Matrix Elements via Light Shift Cancellation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    vanishes, provide precise constraints on the matrix elements. We make the fhstmeasurement of the 5s-6p matrix elements in rubidium by measuring the...We make the first measurement of the 5s-6p matrix elements in rubidium by measuring the light shift around the 421 and 423 nm zeros through...elements in rubidium by measuring the light shift around the 421 and 423 nm zeros through diffraction of a condensate off a sequence of standing wave

  14. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  15. Space camera optical axis pointing precision measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Meng, Fanbo; Yang, Zijun; Guo, Yubo; Ye, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize the space camera which on satellite optical axis pointing precision measurement, a monocular vision measurement system based on object-image conjugate is established. In this system the algorithms such as object-image conjugate vision models and point by point calibration method are applied and have been verified. First, the space camera axis controller projects a laser beam to the standard screen for simulating the space camera's optical axis. The laser beam form a target point and has been captured by monocular vision camera. Then the two-dimensional coordinates of the target points on the screen are calculated by a new vision measurement model which based on a looking-up and matching table, the table has been generated by object-image conjugate algorithm through point by point calibration. Finally, compare the calculation of coordinates offered by measurement system with the theory of coordinate offered by optical axis controller, the optical axis pointing precision can be evaluated. Experimental results indicate that the absolute precision of measurement system up to 0.15mm in 2m×2m FOV. This measurement system overcome the nonlinear distortion near the edge of the FOV and can meet the requirement of space camera's optical axis high precision measurement and evaluation.

  16. Self-referenced prism deflection measurement schemes with microradian precision

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Rebecca; Paul, Justin; Bergeson, Scott; Durfee, Dallin S

    2005-08-01

    We have demonstrated several inexpensive methods that can be used to measure the deflection angles of prisms with microradian precision. The methods are self-referenced, where various reversals are used to achieve absolute measurements without the need of a reference prism or any expensive precision components other than the prisms under test. These techniques are based on laser interferometry and have been used in our laboratory to characterize parallel-plate beam splitters, penta prisms, right-angle prisms, and corner cube reflectors using only components typically available in an optics laboratory.

  17. Improving the precision of weak measurement by nonclassical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Brun, Todd A.

    Weak value amplification is a useful protocol to amplify tiny physical effects by postselecting the system in a weak measurement. However, there has been controversy over its precision advantage in parameter estimation recently, since it discards unselected results of the postselection measurement on the system, which may take away useful information. While it is now clear that retaining failed postselections can yield more Fisher information than discarding them, the advantage of postselection measurement itself still remains to be clarified. If a weak measurement with postselection measurement cannot not produce higher precision than without postselection measurement, it would be meaningless to discuss the use of postselection results. In this work, we address this problem by studying the optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of postselected weak measurement. We find a surprising result that when the probe is initially prepared in a proper squeezed coherent state, the postselected weak measurement can give a higher SNR than the standard weak measurement, while such an advantage vanishes when the probe is prepared in a normal coherent state. This suggests that raising the precision of weak measurement by postselection calls for the presence of ``nonclassicality'' in the probe state.

  18. Precision spectroscopic measurements in few-electron ions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.; Berry, H.G.; Church, D.A.; Dinneen, T.P.; Hass, M.; Liu, C.J.; Berrah-Mansour, N.; Pardo, R.C.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.; Young, L.; Zabransky, B.J. ); Curtis, L.J. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1990-01-01

    We describe recent precision experiments in few-electron ions including measurements of the lifetimes of two-photon-emitting levels in Ni{sup 26+} and Ni{sup 27+}, a measurement of the lifetime of the 2{sup 3}S{sub 1} level in Br{sup 33+} and measurements of the 2{sup 3}S{sub 1} {yields} 2{sup 3}{sub 0,1,2} transition energies in B{sup 3+}. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Precision Measuring Equipment (PME) Individualized Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, William E.; And Others

    Self-paced programed and audiovisual (AV) instructional materials covering portions of the Air Force course, Precision Measuring Equipment (PME) Specialist, were developed, administered, and evaluated as means of assessing the feasibility of individualizing the PME course as part of the Air Force's Advanced Instructional System (AIS). The…

  20. The precision of higgs boson measurements and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    J. Conway et al.

    2002-12-05

    The prospects for a precise exploration of the properties of a single or many observed Higgs bosons at future accelerators are summarized, with particular emphasis on the abilities of a Linear Collider (LC). Some implications of these measurements for discerning new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) are also discussed.

  1. Precision half-life measurement of 17F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodeur, M.; Nicoloff, C.; Ahn, T.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Becchetti, F. D.; Gupta, Y. K.; Hall, M. R.; Hall, O.; Hu, J.; Kelly, J. M.; Kolata, J. J.; Long, J.; O'Malley, P.; Schultz, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    Background: The precise determination of f t values for superallowed mixed transitions between mirror nuclide are gaining attention as they could provide an avenue to test the theoretical corrections used to extract the Vu d matrix element from superallowed pure Fermi transitions. The 17F decay is particularly interesting as it proceeds completely to the ground state of 17O, removing the need for branching ratio measurements. The dominant uncertainty on the f t value of the 17F mirror transition stems from a number of conflicting half-life measurements. Purpose: A precision half-life measurement of 17F was performed and compared to previous results. Methods: The life-time was determined from the β counting of implanted 17F on a Ta foil that was removed from the beam for counting. The 17F beam was produced by transfers reaction and separated by the TwinSol facility of the Nuclear Science Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame. Results: The measured value of t1/2 new=64.402 (42) s is in agreement with several past measurements and represents one of the most precise measurements to date. In anticipation of future measurements of the correlation parameters for the decay and using the new world average t1/2 world=64.398 (61) s, we present a new estimate of the mixing ratio ρ for the mixed transition as well as the correlation parameters based on assuming Standard Model validity. Conclusions: The relative uncertainty on the new world average for the half-life is dominated by the large χ2=31 of the existing measurements. More precision measurements with different systematics are needed to remedy to the situation.

  2. Alignment techniques required by precise measurement of effective focal length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of false color imagery produced by instrumentation on earth resource mapping satellites are examined. The spatial fidelity of the imagery is dependent upon the geometric accuracy (GA) and the band-to-band registration (BBR) with which the telescope instrument is assembled. BBR and GA require knowledge of telescope effective focal length (EFL) to one part in 10,000 in order that the next generation of earth mappers be able to carry out their missions. The basis for this level of precision is briefly considered, and a description is given of the means by which such precise EFL measurements have been carried out. Attention is given to accuracy requirements, the technique used to measure effective focal length, possible sources of error in the EFL measurement, approaches for eliminating errors, and the results of the efforts to control measurement errors in EFL determinations.

  3. Precision measurements of positronium decay rate and energy level

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, S.; Kataoka, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Namba, T.; Suehara, T.; Akimoto, G.; Ishida, A.; Hashimoto, M. M.; Saito, H.; Idehara, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2008-08-08

    Positronium is an ideal system for the research of the bound state QED. New precise measurement of orthopositronium decay rate has been performed with an accuracy of 150 ppm, and the result combined with the last three is 7.0401{+-}0.0007 {mu}s{sup -1}. It is the first result to validate the 2nd order correction. The Hyper Fine Splitting of positronium is sensitive to the higher order corrections of the QED prediction and also to the new physics beyond Standard Model via the quantum oscillation into virtual photon. The discrepancy of 3.5{sigma} is found recently between the measured values and the QED prediction (O({alpha}{sup 3})). It might be due to the contribution of the new physics or the systematic problems in the previous measurements: (non-thermalized Ps and non-uniformity of the magnetic field). We propose new methods to measure HFS precisely without the these uncertainties.

  4. Precision Rosenbluth measurement of the proton elastic form factors

    SciTech Connect

    I. A. Qattan; J. Arrington; R. E. Segel; X. Zheng; K. Aniol; O. K. Baker; R. Beams; E. J. Brash; J. Calarco; A. Camsonne; J.-P. Chen; M. E. Christy; D. Dutta; R. Ent; S. Frullani; D. Gaskell; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; C. Glashausser; K. Hafidi; J.-O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; R. J. Holt; G. M. Huber; H. Ibrahim; L. Jisonna; M. K. Jones; C. E. Keppel; E. Kinney; G. J. Kumbartzki; A. Lung; D. J. Margaziotis; K. McCormick; D. Meekins; R. Michaels; P. Monaghan; P. Moussiegt; L. Pentchev; C. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; R. Ransome; J. Reinhold; B. Reitz; A. Saha; A. Sarty; E. C. Schulte; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; V. Sulkosky; K. Wijesooriya; B. Zeidman

    2004-10-01

    We report the results of a new Rosenbluth measurement of the proton form factors at Q{sup 2} values of 2.64, 3.20 and 4.10 GeV{sup 2}. Cross sections were determined by detecting the recoiling proton in contrast to previous measurements in which the scattered electron was detected. At each Q{sup 2}, relative cross sections were determined to better than 1%. The measurement focused on the extraction of G{sub E}/G{sub M} which was determined to 4-8% and found to approximate form factor scaling, i.e. {mu}{sub p}G{sub E} {approx} G{sub M}. These results are consistent with and much more precise than previous Rosenbluth extractions. However, they are inconsistent with recent polarization transfer measurements of comparable precision, implying a systematic difference between the two techniques.

  5. Report of the Working Group on precision measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond L. Brock et al.

    2001-10-03

    Precision measurements of electroweak quantities are carried out to test the Standard Model (SM). In particular, measurements of the top quark mass, m{sub top}, when combined with precise measurements of the W mass, M{sub W}, and the weak mixing angle, sin{sup 2} {bar {theta}}{sub W}, make it possible to derive indirect constraints on the Higgs boson mass, M{sub H}, via top quark and Higgs boson electroweak radiative corrections to M{sub W}. Comparison of these constraints on M{sub H} with the mass obtained from direct observation of the Higgs boson in future collider experiments will be an important test of the SM. In this report, the prospects for measuring the W parameters (mass and width) and the weak mixing angle in Run II are discussed, and a program for extracting the probability distribution function of M{sub H} is described.

  6. Automated high precision secondary pH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastkowski, F.; Jakobsen, P. T.; Stefan, F.; Kristensen, H. B.; Jensen, H. D.; Kawiecki, R.; Wied, C. E.; Kauert, A.; Seidl, B.; Spitzer, P.; Eberhardt, R.; Adel, B.

    2013-04-01

    A new setup for high precision, automated secondary pH measurements together with a reference measurement procedure has been developed and tested in interlaboratory comparisons using buffers pH 4.005, pH 7.000, and pH 10.012 at 25 °C and 37 °C. Using primary buffers as standards, a standard uncertainty in pH better than 0.005 can be reached. The central measuring device is a one piece, thermostatted cell of PFA (perfluoroalkoxy) with a built-in Hamilton® Single Pore™ Glass electrode. Due to its flow-through principle this device allows pH measurements with low consumption of measurement solutions. The very hydrophobic and smooth PFA as construction material facilitates complete emptying of the cell. Furthermore, the tempering unit affords very precise temperature control and hence contributes to the low target uncertainty of the produced secondary buffer solutions. Use of a symmetric measurement sequence and the two point calibration was sufficient to reach high precision and accuracy.

  7. Precision assessment of biofluid viscosity measurements using molecular rotors.

    PubMed

    Akers, Walter J; Haidekker, Mark A

    2005-06-01

    Blood viscosity changes with many pathologic conditions, but its importance has not been fully investigated because the current methods of measurement are poorly suited for clinical applications. The use of viscosity-sensitive fluorescent molecular rotors to determine fluid viscosity in a nonmechanical manner has been investigated recently, but it is unknown how the precision of the fluorescence-based method compares to established mechanical viscometry. Human blood plasma viscosity was modulated with high-viscosity plasma expanders, dextran, pentastarch, and hetastarch. The samples were divided into a calibration and a test set. The relationship between fluorescence emission and viscosity was established using the calibration set. Viscosity of the test set was determined by fluorescence and by cone-and-plate viscometer, and the precision of both methods compared. Molecular rotor fluorescence intensity showed a power law relationship with solution viscosity. Mechanical measurements deviated from the theoretical viscosity value by less than 7.6%, while fluorescence-based measurements deviated by less than 6%. The average coefficient of variation was 6.9% (mechanical measurement) and 3.4% to 3.8% (fluorescence-based measurement, depending on the molecular rotor used). Fluorescence-based viscometry exhibits comparable precision to mechanical viscometry. Fluorescence viscometry does not apply shear and is therefore more practical for biofluids which have apparent non-Newtonian properties. In addition, fluorescence instrumentation makes very fast serial measurements possible, thus promising new areas of application in laboratory and clinical settings.

  8. Precise measurement of magnetization characteristics in high pulsed field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahata, Y.; Borkowski, B.; Shimoji, H.; Yamada, K.; Todaka, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2012-04-01

    Permanent magnets, especially Nd-Fe-B magnets, are very important engineering elements that are widely used in many applications. The detailed design of electrical and electronic equipment using permanent magnets requires the precise measurement of magnetization characteristics. High pulsed magnetic fields can be used to measure the magnetization characteristics of permanent magnets in the easy and hard magnetization directions. Errors influencing the measurements stem from the relationship between the tested material, pick-up sensor configuration, and excitation coil. We present an analysis of the effect of the sensor construction on the accuracy of the measurements of the material's magnetic properties. We investigated the coaxial and series types sensor configurations.

  9. Navy precision optical interferometer measurements of 10 stellar oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, Ellyn K.; Armstrong, J. Thomas; Schmitt, Henrique R.; Benson, James A.; Zavala, R. T.; Van Belle, Gerard T.

    2014-02-01

    Using the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer, we measured the angular diameters of 10 stars that have previously measured solar-like oscillations. Our sample covered a range of evolutionary stages but focused on evolved subgiant and giant stars. We combined our angular diameters with Hipparcos parallaxes to determine the stars' physical radii, and used photometry from the literature to calculate their bolometric fluxes, luminosities, and effective temperatures. We then used our results to test the scaling relations used by asteroseismology groups to calculate radii and found good agreement between the radii measured here and the radii predicted by stellar oscillation studies. The precision of the relations is not as well constrained for giant stars as it is for less evolved stars.

  10. Electric Quadrupole Transition Measurements of Hydrogen Molecule with High Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cun-Feng; Wang, Jin; Tan, Yan; Liu, An-Wen; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen is the most fundamental, and the only neutral molecule expected to be both calculated and measured with extremely high accuracy. High-precision measurements of its spectroscopy, especially the levels at the electric ground state, play an important role in the examination of precise quantum chemistry calculations and some fundamental physical constants. In the infrared region, H_2, being a homonuclear diatomic molecule, only has very weak electric quadrupole transitions. We established a new spectroscopy approach with ultra-high precision and sensitivity as well, based on a laser-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer. An equivalent absorption path-length of thousands of kilometers and a frequency precision of 10^{-5} cm^{-1} have been achieved. Ro-vibrational spectra of the second overtone of H_2 have been recorded. The obtained results will provide a direct examination of the high-accuracy quantum theory. It also shades light on the determination of fundamental physical constants such as the electron/proton mass ratio in a molecular system.

  11. Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

  12. Precision Spectroscopy, Diode Lasers, and Optical Frequency Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollberg, Leo (Editor); Fox, Richard (Editor); Waltman, Steve (Editor); Robinson, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    This compilation is a selected set of reprints from the Optical Frequency Measurement Group of the Time and Frequency Division of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and consists of work published between 1987 and 1997. The two main programs represented here are (1) development of tunable diode-laser technology for scientific applications and precision measurements, and (2) research toward the goal of realizing optical-frequency measurements and synthesis. The papers are organized chronologically in five, somewhat arbitrarily chosen categories: Diode Laser Technology, Tunable Laser Systems, Laser Spectroscopy, Optical Synthesis and Extended Wavelength Coverage, and Multi-Photon Interactions and Optical Coherences.

  13. High Precision Measurement of the ^19Ne Lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broussard, Leah; Back, H. O.; Boswell, M. S.; Crowell, A. S.; Howell, C. R.; Kidd, M. F.; Pattie, R. W., Jr.; Young, A. R.; Dendooven, P. G.; Giri, G. S.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Sohani, M.; Versolota, O. O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, a rigorous review of the T=12 mirror transitions has identified several systems which can contribute to high precision tests exploring deviations from the Standard Model's description of the electroweak interaction. Arguably, one of the best candidates is the &+circ; decay of ^19Ne to ^19F. In this system, the main contribution to the uncertainty of extracted Standard Model parameters is due to the measured value of the lifetime of the decay. In March 2009, a high precision measurement of the lifetime of ^19Ne was made by a collaboration between the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) at the Trapped Radioactive Isotopes: Microlaboratories for Fundamental Physics (Triμp) facility. An overview of the experiment and preliminary results will be presented.

  14. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-11

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D0 at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the results obtained in high-Q{sup 2} interactions, and used to predict results in low-Q{sup 2} experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Moller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2007 are new combinations of results on the W-boson mass and width and the mass of the top quark.

  15. A precise measurement of the B^0 meson oscillation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; C. Forshaw, D.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; K. Kuonen, A.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusardi, N.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; W. Ronayne, J.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The oscillation frequency, Δ m_d, of B^0 mesons is measured using semileptonic decays with a D^- or D^{*-} meson in the final state. The data sample corresponds to 3.0fb^{-1} of pp collisions, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies √{s} = 7 and 8 TeV. A combination of the two decay modes gives Δ m_d = (505.0 ± 2.1 ± 1.0) ns^{-1}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This is the most precise single measurement of this parameter. It is consistent with the current world average and has similar precision.

  16. Atom lasers: Production, properties and prospects for precision inertial measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, N. P.; Altin, P. A.; Debs, J. E.; Close, J. D.

    2013-08-01

    We review experimental progress on atom lasers out-coupled from Bose-Einstein condensates, and consider the properties of such beams in the context of precision inertial sensing. The atom laser is the matter-wave analogue of the optical laser. Both devices rely on Bose-enhanced scattering to produce a macroscopically populated trapped mode that is output-coupled to produce an intense beam. In both cases, the beams often display highly desirable properties such as low divergence, high spectral flux and a simple spatial mode that make them useful in practical applications, as well as the potential to perform measurements at or below the quantum projection noise limit. Both devices display similar second-order correlations that differ from thermal sources. Because of these properties, atom lasers are a promising source for application to precision inertial measurements.

  17. Precision measurements on the photoionization of neutral atomic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Wayne

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to studies on rare gas atoms, experimental studies of open-shell atoms offers very challenging problems, such as creation of the atom, low signal, purity and stability. Because of this, studies of inner-shell excitations for open shell atoms are limited. In this talk I will discuss precision experimental measurements for photoionization of atomic oxygen, nitrogen, and chlorine over the last two decades on various beamlines at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Advanced Light Source.

  18. New Precise Measurement of the Hyperfine Splitting of Positronium

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, A.

    2015-09-15

    Positronium (Ps) is an ideal system for precision test of bound state quantum electrodynamics. The hyperfine splitting (HFS) of the ground state of Ps, which is one of the most precisely tested quantity, has a large discrepancy of 16 ppm (4.5 σ) between previous experiments and theoretical calculation up to O(α{sup 3}lnα{sup −1}) and part of O(α{sup 3}) corrections. A new experiment which reduces possible systematic uncertainties of Ps thermalization effect and nonuniformity of magnetic field was performed. It revealed that the Ps thermalization effect was as large as 10 ± 2 ppm. Treating the thermalization effect correctly, a new result of 203.3942 ± 0.0016(stat., 8.0 ppm) ± 0.0013(sys., 6.4 ppm) GHz was obtained. This result is consistent with theory within 1.1 σ, whereas it disfavors the previous experimental result by 2.6 σ. It shows that the Ps thermalization effect is crucial for precision measurement of HFS. Future prospects for improved precision are briefly discussed.

  19. Precision Measurement of Cylinder Surface Profile on an Ultra-Precision Machine Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Noh, Y. J.; Arai, Y.; Gao, W.; Park, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of the surface straightness profile of a cylinder workpiece on an ultra-precision machine tool which has a T-base design with a spindle, an X-slide and a Z-slide. The movement range of the X-slide is 220 mm and that of the Z-slide is 150 mm, which have roller bearings in common. Two capacitive sensors are employed to scan a cylinder workpiece mounted on the spindle along the Z-axis. The straightness error motion of the Z-slide is measured to be approximately 100 nm by the reversal method. The straightness profile of the cylinder workpiece is evaluated to be approximately 400 nm by separation of the motion error, simultaneously.

  20. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lou; Yuan, Qian; Sheng-hong, Fan; Chang-ru, Liu; Hai-ren, Wang; Ying-xi, Zuo; Jin-quan, Cheng; Ji, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the test equipment, most of high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be put into application under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high-resolution industrial camera sitting on the automatic testing platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm (rms) is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, the surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under the room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness differences of the targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C to obtain the rule of variation of surface deformation of the panel under low temperatures.

  1. Precision Measurements of Top Quark Production with the ATLAS Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    The top quark is the heaviest known fundamental particle. It is the only quark that decays before it hadronises which gives us the unique opportunity to probe the properties of bare quarks and to test perturbative QCD. This overview will focus on a few recent precision top quark measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration at the LHC: Fiducial top pair and single top production cross-sections including differential distributions will be presented and compared with QCD predictions. The results include the first top quark measurements at 13 TeV using data from LHC Run 2.

  2. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  3. Precision Measurements of Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation at LBNF

    DOE PAGES

    Worcester, Elizabeth

    2015-08-06

    In a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the primary physics objectives are to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, to determine the octant of the neutrino mixing angle θ23, to search for CP violation in neutrino oscillation, and to precisely measure the size of any CP-violating effect that is discovered. This presentation provides a brief introduction to these measurements and reports on efforts to optimize the design of a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, the status of LBNE, and the transition to an international collaboration at LBNF.

  4. Precision measurement of a particle mass at the linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Milstene, C.; Freitas, A.; Schmitt, M.; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

    2007-06-01

    Precision measurement of the stop mass at the ILC is done in a method based on cross-sections measurements at two different center-of-mass energies. This allows to minimize both the statistical and systematic errors. In the framework of the MSSM, a light stop, compatible with electro-weak baryogenesis, is studied in its decay into a charm jet and neutralino, the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP), as a candidate of dark matter. This takes place for a small stop-neutralino mass difference.

  5. Precision of the CAESAR scan-extracted measurements.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Daanen, Hein A M

    2006-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) body scanners are increasingly used to derive 1D body dimensions from 3D whole body scans for instance, as input for clothing grading systems to make made-to-measure clothing or for width and depth dimensions of a seated workstation. In this study, the precision of the scanner-derived 1D dimensions from the CAESAR survey, a multinational anthropometric survey, was investigated. Two combinations of scanning teams with 3D whole body scanners were compared, one called the US Team and the other the Dutch Team. Twenty subjects were measured three times by one scanner and one team, and three times by the other combination. The subjects were marked prior to scanning using small dots, and the linear distances between the dots were calculated after processing the scans. The mean absolute difference (MAD) of the repetitions was calculated and this was compared to reported acceptable errors in manual measurements from the US Army's ANSUR survey when similar measurements were available. In addition, the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for all measurements. The results indicate that the CAESAR scan-extracted measurements are highly reproducible; for most measures the MAD is less than 5mm. In addition, more than 93% of the MAD values for CAESAR are significantly smaller than the ANSUR survey acceptable errors. Therefore, it is concluded that the type of scan-extracted measures used in CAESAR are as good as or better than comparable manual measurements. Scan-extracted measurements that do not use markers or are not straight-line distances are not represented here and additional studies would be needed to verify their precision.

  6. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    For 60 years, superallowed 0+→0+ nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision (±0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix (±0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from 10C to 74Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, GV, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, Vud. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  7. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J. C.

    2012-11-20

    For 60 years, superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision ({+-}0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix ({+-}0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from {sup 10}C to {sup 74}Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, G{sub V}, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, V{sub ud}. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  8. Precision Measurements of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2010-08-01

    New high precision polarization measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio in the Q^2 from 0.3 to 0.7 [GeV/c]^2 have been made. These elastic H(e,e'p) measurementswere done in Jefferson Lab's Hall A using 80% longitudinally polarized electrons and recoil polarimetry. For Q^2 greater than 1 [GeV/c]^2, previous polarization data indicated a strong deviation of the form factor ratio from unity which sparked renewed theoretical and experimental interest in how two-photon diagrams have been taken into account. The new high precision data indicate that the deviation from unity, while small, persists even at Q^2 less than 1 [GeV/c]^2.

  9. Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Kohl, M.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J. R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; Degrush, A.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Karpius, P.; Kolster, H.; Lee, T.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; McIlhany, K.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Rapaport, J.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Sindile, A.; Širca, S.; Six, E.; Smith, T.; Tonguc, B.; Tschalär, C.; Tsentalovich, E.; Turchinetz, W.; Xiao, Y.; Xu, W.; Zhou, Z.-L.; Ziskin, V.; Zwart, T.

    2011-12-01

    We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T20 and T21 at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50fm-1 with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors GC and GQ were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of GC was confirmed at Q=4.19±0.05fm-1. The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T20 and the first node of GC.

  10. Note: precision viscosity measurement using suspended microchannel resonators.

    PubMed

    Lee, I; Park, K; Lee, J

    2012-11-01

    We report the characterization of a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) for viscosity measurements in a low viscosity regime (<10 mPa s) using two measurement schemes. First, the quality factor (Q-factor) of the SMR was characterized with glycerol-water mixtures. The measured Q-factor at 20 °C exhibits a bilinear behavior with the sensitivity of 1281 (mPa s)(-1) for a lower (1-4 mPa s) and 355 (mPa s)(-1) for a higher viscosity range (4-8 mPa s), respectively. The second scheme is the vibration amplitude monitoring of the SMR running in a closed loop feedback. When compared in terms of the measurement time, the amplitude-based measurement takes only 0.1 ~ 1 ms while the Q-factor-based measurement takes ~30 s. However, the viscosity resolution of the Q-factor-based measurement is at least three times better than the amplitude-based measurement. By comparing the Q-factors of heavy water and 9.65 wt.% glycerol-water mixture that have very similar viscosities but different densities, we confirmed that the SMR can measure the dynamic viscosity without the density correction. The obtained results demonstrate that the SMR can measure the fluid viscosity with high precision and even real-time monitoring of the viscosity change is possible with the amplitude-based measurement scheme.

  11. Note: Precision viscosity measurement using suspended microchannel resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.; Park, K.; Lee, J.

    2012-11-01

    We report the characterization of a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) for viscosity measurements in a low viscosity regime (<10 mPa s) using two measurement schemes. First, the quality factor (Q-factor) of the SMR was characterized with glycerol-water mixtures. The measured Q-factor at 20 °C exhibits a bilinear behavior with the sensitivity of 1281 (mPa s)-1 for a lower (1-4 mPa s) and 355 (mPa s)-1 for a higher viscosity range (4-8 mPa s), respectively. The second scheme is the vibration amplitude monitoring of the SMR running in a closed loop feedback. When compared in terms of the measurement time, the amplitude-based measurement takes only 0.1 ˜ 1 ms while the Q-factor-based measurement takes ˜30 s. However, the viscosity resolution of the Q-factor-based measurement is at least three times better than the amplitude-based measurement. By comparing the Q-factors of heavy water and 9.65 wt.% glycerol-water mixture that have very similar viscosities but different densities, we confirmed that the SMR can measure the dynamic viscosity without the density correction. The obtained results demonstrate that the SMR can measure the fluid viscosity with high precision and even real-time monitoring of the viscosity change is possible with the amplitude-based measurement scheme.

  12. Note: Precision viscosity measurement using suspended microchannel resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Park, K.

    2012-11-15

    We report the characterization of a suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) for viscosity measurements in a low viscosity regime (<10 mPa s) using two measurement schemes. First, the quality factor (Q-factor) of the SMR was characterized with glycerol-water mixtures. The measured Q-factor at 20 Degree-Sign C exhibits a bilinear behavior with the sensitivity of 1281 (mPa s){sup -1} for a lower (1-4 mPa s) and 355 (mPa s){sup -1} for a higher viscosity range (4-8 mPa s), respectively. The second scheme is the vibration amplitude monitoring of the SMR running in a closed loop feedback. When compared in terms of the measurement time, the amplitude-based measurement takes only 0.1 {approx} 1 ms while the Q-factor-based measurement takes {approx}30 s. However, the viscosity resolution of the Q-factor-based measurement is at least three times better than the amplitude-based measurement. By comparing the Q-factors of heavy water and 9.65 wt.% glycerol-water mixture that have very similar viscosities but different densities, we confirmed that the SMR can measure the dynamic viscosity without the density correction. The obtained results demonstrate that the SMR can measure the fluid viscosity with high precision and even real-time monitoring of the viscosity change is possible with the amplitude-based measurement scheme.

  13. Multiply-ionized Atoms at Low Energy for Precise Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwell Hoogerheide, Shannon; Tan, Joseph N.

    2014-05-01

    Recent work at NIST introduced a new system for the slowing, capture and manipulation of multiply-ionized atoms in a controlled environment suitable for precision measurements. As a demonstration of its potentials, we have measured the lifetimes of metastable states in krypton and argon (gases), and are now extending this technique to metals such as iron. Work is also underway on a table-top apparatus that incorporates a miniature electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) coupled to a cryo-cooled, compact Penning trap to enable spectroscopic studies of interest for atomic physics, astrophysics, and metrology. This apparatus will allow charge exchange between laser-excited Rydberg rubidium atoms and isolated bare nuclei, opening the way for precision spectroscopy of one-electron ions in Rydberg states using optical frequency comb technology. Earlier theoretical work at NIST has shown that such measurements would provide a new determination of the Rydberg constant that was independent of the proton radius. Such a measurement could help resolve the proton-radius puzzle. Additional applications could include the study of very-long-lived atomic states proposed for new atomic frequency standards or laboratory studies of potential time variation of the fine structure constant. SFH acknowledges funding through a National Research Council Reseach Associateship award.

  14. Precise Measurement of Drift Velocities in Active-Target Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Louis

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear experiments with radioactive beams are needed to improve our understanding of nuclei structure far from stability. Radioactive beams typically have low beam rates, but active-target detectors can compensate for these low beam rates. In active-target detectors that are also Time-Projection Chambers (TPC), ionized electrons drift through an electric fieldto a detection device to imagethe trajectory of charged-particle ionization tracks within the chamber's gas volume. The measurement of the ionized electrons' drift velocity is crucial for the accurate imaging of these tracks. In order to measure this drift velocity, we will use a UV laser and photo-sensitive foil in a the ND-Cubedetector we are developing, periodically releasingelectrons from the foil at a known timesand a known distance from the electron detector, thereby precisely measuring the drift velocity in situ. We have surveyed several materials to find a material that will work well with typical solid-state UV lasers on the market. We plan to determine the best material and thickness of the foil to maximize the number of photoelectrons. The precision that will be afforded by this measurement of the drift velocity will allow us to eliminate a source of systematic uncertainty.

  15. Precision lifetime measurements of the 2p levels in lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Kurtz, C.; Tanner, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    These measurements are motivated by the theoretical challenges posed by lithium. The three-electron lithium atom is one of the simplest atomic systems with which to test atomic structure calculations. Recently, there were several ab initio calculations of the lithium 2s-2p oscillator strengths, which agree to 0.15%. However, the theoretical results differ by 5 sigma from the precise fast-beam-laser lifetime measurement of Gaupp and Andra (Berlin). Hence the need for a new independent and precise measurement. Improvements were added to the fast beam laser techniques developed for cesium in order to measure the lithium 2p state lifetime. Although the technique is similar to that of cesium, the lithium atom presents a few new complications. Since the atom is lighter, it travels more quickly through the interaction and detection regions. Therefore, the 670 nm wavelength requires a dye laser to produce sufficient intensity to populate the excited state. Unfortunately, the intensity of the dye laser is inherently less stable than that of a diode laser. Another complication is that the ion-beam intensity is much more sensitive to fluctuations in the accelerating voltage. Two detectors were added: one to monitor the ion-beam intensity, and the other to monitor the laser power. With the information from the additional detectors, a new data analysis scheme was developed. Sufficient data were taken to evaluate the benefits of the new detectors. No additional work is planned at Argonne for this experiment.

  16. Precise measurement of chromium isotopes by MC-ICPMS

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Martin; Van Kooten, Elishevah; Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We report novel analytical procedures allowing for the concurrent determination of the stable and mass-independent Cr isotopic composition of silicate materials by multiple collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). In particular, we focus on improved precision of the measurement of the neutron-rich isotope 54Cr. Because nitride and oxide interferences are a major obstacle to precise and accurate 54Cr measurements by MC-ICPMS, our approach is designed to minimize these interferences. Based on repeat measurements of standards, we show that the mass-independent 53Cr and 54Cr compositions can be routinely determined with an external reproducibility better than 2.5 and 5.8 ppm (2 sd), respectively. This represents at least a two-fold improvement compared to previous studies. Although this approach uses significantly more Cr (30–60 μg) than analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), our result indicate that it is possible to obtain an external reproducibility of 19 ppm for the μ54Cr when consuming amounts similar to that typically analyzed by TIMS (1 μg). In addition, the amount of time required for analysis by MC-ICPMS is much shorter thereby enabling a higher sample throughput. As a result of the improved analytical precision, we identified small apparent mass-independent differences between different synthetic Cr standards and bulk silicate Earth (BSE) when using the kinetic law for the mass bias correction. These differences are attributed to the Cr loss by equilibrium processes during production of the synthetic standards. The stable isotope data concurrently obtained have a precision of 0.05‰ Da −1, which is comparable to earlier studies. Comparison of the measured isotopic composition of four meteorites with published data indicates that Cr isotope data measured by the technique described here are accurate to stated uncertainties. The stable Cr composition of the Bilanga and NWA 2999 achondrites suggests that the

  17. High-precision measurements of global stellar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachinda, S. I.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the development of devices and techniques for high-precision measurements of stellar magnetic fields. Two main approaches for the processing of spectral-polarimetric observations are described: the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), which is used to find a mean-weighted average of the normalized polarization profile using a set of spectral lines, and a method in which each individual spectral line is used to determine the magnetic field, viz., the single line method (SL). The advantages and disadvantages of the LSD and SL methods are discussed.

  18. High Precision Oxygen Measurements as a Tool for CCS Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, A. T.; Dvonch, C.; Clegg, S. M.; Rahn, T.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 emissions from below ground carbon storage reservoirs can be difficult to discriminate from CO2 produced via natural plant and microbial respiration. However, because respiration produces CO2 and consumes O2 in an approximately 1:1 ratio, it is possible to characterize leakage sources by measurement of simultaneous changes of both O2 and CO2. This approach is complicated by the fact that O2 comprises approximately 21% of the atmosphere, while CO2 is only present in the background atmosphere at ~400 parts per million, making it necessary to accurately measure changes in O2 concentration to six significant figures. Here we describe a portable high precision oxygen measurement system that employs a modified commercial fuel cell analyzer to quantify small changes in O2 concentration. High precision is achieved through precise control of flow and pressure, allowing near part per million precision of O2 and CO2 concentrations. This system has been incorporated into a mobile laboratory and has been deployed to the ZERT controlled release site in Bozeman, Montana and to a natural analog CO2 leak at Soda Springs, Idaho. Samples were collected at ground level, 1 meter, and 3 meters above the CO2 source and are displayed as the ratio of the O2 difference relative to a reference to the CO2 difference in concentration relative to the same reference (ΔO2/ΔCO2). It was observed that at wind speeds ≤ 2 m/s, the ΔO2/ΔCO2 anomaly decreased with height and was still significantly different from background at 3 m. With increasing wind speed, ΔO2/ΔCO2 anomalies decreased to background levels at 1 and 3 m but remained detectable at the ground surface. We will discuss attempts to quantify the CO2 release rate utilizing the measured ΔO2/ΔCO2 elevation profiles and will present complementary eddy covariance data for comparison.

  19. EDITORIAL: Precision Density Measurements of Solids and Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettin, Horst

    2006-10-01

    This special feature is dedicated to methods and applications of density measurements of the highest precision. It contains papers from the 210th PTB Seminar 'Precision Density Measurements of Solids and Liquids', which was held at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, on 24 26 October 2005 and was sponsored by the Helmholtz Funds e.V., Germany. More than 55 density experts from 20 countries attended the seminar. The participants came from national metrological institutes, calibration laboratories, verification offices, universities and manufactures of density meters. Thus, many interesting discussions were stimulated between various groups, in particular between those in research and those working on applications. The main topics of the seminar were the realization of the density unit and its dissemination by comparison methods. The research activities for the determination of the Avogadro constant stimulated the development of new methods as well as the improvement of more conventional methods in order to reach density uncertainties below 0.1 ppm. Technical and physical limitations of the methods were discussed as well as applications and future trends. This special feature contains nine papers based on presentations given at the seminar. Two additional papers on liquid density reference standards and compressibility measurements of liquids complete the feature. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the authors who contributed to this special feature, which I hope provides an excellent compendium of the topics discussed at the seminar.

  20. Precision top-quark mass measurement at CDF.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Dell'Orso, M; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, M; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Funakoshi, Y; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kim, Y J; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Klimenko, S; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lin, C-J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Mastrandrea, P; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Prokoshin, F; Pranko, A; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Riddick, T; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Soha, A; Sorin, V; Song, H; Squillacioti, P; Stancari, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Varganov, A; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R L; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Wick, F; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2012-10-12

    We present a precision measurement of the top-quark mass using the full sample of Tevatron √s = 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions collected by the CDF II detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 8.7 fb(-1). Using a sample of tt¯ candidate events decaying into the lepton+jets channel, we obtain distributions of the top-quark masses and the invariant mass of two jets from the W boson decays from data. We then compare these distributions to templates derived from signal and background samples to extract the top-quark mass and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets with in situ calibration. The likelihood fit of the templates from signal and background events to the data yields the single most-precise measurement of the top-quark mass, M(top)=172.85±0.71(stat)±0.85(syst) GeV/c(2).

  1. Accurate and precise zinc isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Simone; Weiss, Dominik; Coles, Barry; Arnold, Tim; Babinski, Marly

    2008-12-15

    We developed an analytical method and constrained procedural boundary conditions that enable accurate and precise Zn isotope ratio measurements in urban aerosols. We also demonstrate the potential of this new isotope system for air pollutant source tracing. The procedural blank is around 5 ng and significantly lower than published methods due to a tailored ion chromatographic separation. Accurate mass bias correction using external correction with Cu is limited to Zn sample content of approximately 50 ng due to the combined effect of blank contribution of Cu and Zn from the ion exchange procedure and the need to maintain a Cu/Zn ratio of approximately 1. Mass bias is corrected for by applying the common analyte internal standardization method approach. Comparison with other mass bias correction methods demonstrates the accuracy of the method. The average precision of delta(66)Zn determinations in aerosols is around 0.05 per thousand per atomic mass unit. The method was tested on aerosols collected in Sao Paulo City, Brazil. The measurements reveal significant variations in delta(66)Zn(Imperial) ranging between -0.96 and -0.37 per thousand in coarse and between -1.04 and 0.02 per thousand in fine particular matter. This variability suggests that Zn isotopic compositions distinguish atmospheric sources. The isotopic light signature suggests traffic as the main source. We present further delta(66)Zn(Imperial) data for the standard reference material NIST SRM 2783 (delta(66)Zn(Imperial) = 0.26 +/- 0.10 per thousand).

  2. Precision Measures of the Primordial Abundance of Deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of deuterium absorption in the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.88) damped Lyα system at z abs = 3.06726 toward the QSO SDSS J1358+6522. On the basis of 13 resolved D I absorption lines and the damping wings of the H I Lyα transition, we have obtained a new, precise measure of the primordial abundance of deuterium. Furthermore, to bolster the present statistics of precision D/H measures, we have reanalyzed all of the known deuterium absorption-line systems that satisfy a set of strict criteria. We have adopted a blind analysis strategy (to remove human bias) and developed a software package that is specifically designed for precision D/H abundance measurements. For this reanalyzed sample of systems, we obtain a weighted mean of (D/H)p = (2.53 ± 0.04) × 10-5, corresponding to a universal baryon density 100 Ωb, 0 h 2 = 2.202 ± 0.046 for the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). By combining our measure of (D/H)p with observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), we derive the effective number of light fermion species, N eff = 3.28 ± 0.28. We therefore rule out the existence of an additional (sterile) neutrino (i.e., N eff = 4.046) at 99.3% confidence (2.7σ), provided that the values of N eff and of the baryon-to-photon ratio (η10) did not change between BBN and recombination. We also place a strong bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, independent of the 4He primordial mass fraction, Y P: ξD = +0.05 ± 0.13 based only on the CMB+(D/H)p observations. Combining this value of ξD with the current best literature measure of Y P, we find a 2σ upper bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, |ξ| <= +0.062. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (VLT program IDs: 68.B-0115(A), 70.A-0425(C), 078.A-0185(A), 085.A-0109(A)), and at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of

  3. Precision measures of the primordial abundance of deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Jorgenson, Regina A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-01-20

    We report the discovery of deuterium absorption in the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] = –2.88) damped Lyα system at z {sub abs} = 3.06726 toward the QSO SDSS J1358+6522. On the basis of 13 resolved D I absorption lines and the damping wings of the H I Lyα transition, we have obtained a new, precise measure of the primordial abundance of deuterium. Furthermore, to bolster the present statistics of precision D/H measures, we have reanalyzed all of the known deuterium absorption-line systems that satisfy a set of strict criteria. We have adopted a blind analysis strategy (to remove human bias) and developed a software package that is specifically designed for precision D/H abundance measurements. For this reanalyzed sample of systems, we obtain a weighted mean of (D/H){sub p} = (2.53 ± 0.04) × 10{sup –5}, corresponding to a universal baryon density 100 Ω{sub b,} {sub 0} h {sup 2} = 2.202 ± 0.046 for the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). By combining our measure of (D/H){sub p} with observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), we derive the effective number of light fermion species, N {sub eff} = 3.28 ± 0.28. We therefore rule out the existence of an additional (sterile) neutrino (i.e., N {sub eff} = 4.046) at 99.3% confidence (2.7σ), provided that the values of N {sub eff} and of the baryon-to-photon ratio (η{sub 10}) did not change between BBN and recombination. We also place a strong bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, independent of the {sup 4}He primordial mass fraction, Y {sub P}: ξ{sub D} = +0.05 ± 0.13 based only on the CMB+(D/H){sub p} observations. Combining this value of ξ{sub D} with the current best literature measure of Y {sub P}, we find a 2σ upper bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, |ξ| ≤ +0.062.

  4. Acceleration of matrix element computations for precision measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Oleg; Gutierrez, Gaston; Wang, M. H.L.S.; Ye, Zhenyu

    2014-11-25

    The matrix element technique provides a superior statistical sensitivity for precision measurements of important parameters at hadron colliders, such as the mass of the top quark or the cross-section for the production of Higgs bosons. The main practical limitation of the technique is its high computational demand. Using the example of the top quark mass, we present two approaches to reduce the computation time of the technique by a factor of 90. First, we utilize low-discrepancy sequences for numerical Monte Carlo integration in conjunction with a dedicated estimator of numerical uncertainty, a novelty in the context of the matrix element technique. We then utilize a new approach that factorizes the overall jet energy scale from the matrix element computation, a novelty in the context of top quark mass measurements. The utilization of low-discrepancy sequences is of particular general interest, as it is universally applicable to Monte Carlo integration, and independent of the computing environment.

  5. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF MUON G-2 AND ACCELERATOR RELATED ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,H.N.; BUNCE,G.; CAREY,R.M.; CUSHMAN,P.; DANBY,G.T.; DEBEVEC,P.T.; DEILE,M.; DENG,H.; DENINGER,W.; DHAWAN,S.K.; ET AL; MENG,W.

    2001-09-21

    A precision measurement of the anomalous g value, a{sub {mu}}=(g-2)/2, for the positive muon has been made using high intensity protons available at the Brookhaven AGS. The result based on the 1999 data a{sub {mu}}=11659202(14)(6) x 10{sup 10} (1.3ppm) is in good agreement with previous measurements and has an error one third that of the combined previous data. The current theoretical value from the standard model is a{sub {mu}} (SM)=11659159.6(6.7) x 10{sup 10} (0.57 ppm) and differ by over 2.5 standard deviation with experiment. Issues with reducing systematic errors and enhancing the injection and storage efficiencies are discussed.

  6. Broadband Lidar Technique for Precision CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.

    2008-01-01

    Presented are preliminary experimental results, sensitivity measurements and discuss our new CO2 lidar system under development. The system is employing an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), superluminescent light emitting diode (SLED) as a source and our previously developed Fabry-Perot interferometer subsystem as a detector part. Global measurement of carbon dioxide column with the aim of discovering and quantifying unknown sources and sinks has been a high priority for the last decade. The goal of Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission is to significantly enhance the understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The National Academy of Sciences recommended in its decadal survey that NASA put in orbit a CO2 lidar to satisfy this long standing need. Existing passive sensors suffer from two shortcomings. Their measurement precision can be compromised by the path length uncertainties arising from scattering within the atmosphere. Also passive sensors using sunlight cannot observe the column at night. Both of these difficulties can be ameliorated by lidar techniques. Lidar systems present their own set of problems however. Temperature changes in the atmosphere alter the cross section for individual CO2 absorption features while the different atmospheric pressures encountered passing through the atmosphere broaden the absorption lines. Currently proposed lidars require multiple lasers operating at multiple wavelengths simultaneously in order to untangle these effects. The current goal is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive new lidar system for precise column measurements of CO2 changes in the lower atmosphere that uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer based system as the detector portion of the instrument and replaces the narrow band laser commonly used in lidars with the newly available high power SLED as the source. This approach reduces the number of individual lasers used in the system from three or more

  7. Picometer Precision Measurements of Fringe Phase and Wavelengths in MAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), a micro-arcsecond astrometry mission, is the only mission, either operational or in planning, that will be capable of measuring the mass of extra-solar planets, mass being the fundamental property that determines whether the planet is capable of holding an Earth-like atmosphere. One of the SIM testbeds at JPL, the Micro-Arcsecond Metrology (MAM) testbed, addresses how to measure interferometer fringe phase and wavelengths accurately at the level of picometers (10-12 m). The MAM testbed uses a pathlength modulation scheme for fringe detection, using ten samples per stroke, with stroke-length close to the wavelength of a spectral channel. The MAM testbed has demonstrated the measurement of optical pathlength delays to picometer precision. Longer strokes (tens of microns) enable both fringe and modulation envelope to be detected, yielding accurate wavelength measurements at the picometer level for the first time. This paper describes the fundamental principles of a new technique for calibration and measurement of fringes for targets that have various spectra, in which effective wavelength varies significantly for different spectral channels. Test results and variations with time are analyzed. Conformation of measurenet accuracy and stability are described in this paper.

  8. Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2007-08-01

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

  9. Prospects for Precision Measurement of CO2 Column from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Burris, John F.; Wilson, Emily L.; Georgieva, Elena; Miodek, Marty

    2005-01-01

    In order to address the problem of sources and sinks of CO2 measurements are needed on a global scale. Clearly a satellite is a promising approach to meeting this requirement. Unfortunately, most methods for making a CO2 measurement from space involve the whole column. Since sources and sinks at the surface represent a small perturbation to the total column one is faced with the need to measure the column with a precision better than 1%. No species has ever been measured from space at this level. We have developed over the last 3 years a small instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot interferometer that is very sensitive to atmospheric CO2 and has a high signal to noise ratio. We have tested this instrument in a ground based configuration and from aircraft platforms simulating operation from a satellite. We will present results from these tests and discuss ways that this promising new instrument could be used to improve our understanding of the global carbon budget.

  10. Precision measurement of the electromagnetic dipole strengths in Be11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.; Summers, N. C.; Hackman, G.; Drake, T. E.; Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R.; Ball, G. C.; Bender, P. C.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Chester, A.; Close, A.; Cline, D.; Cross, D. S.; Dunlop, R.; Finlay, A.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Hayes, A. B.; Laffoley, A. T.; Nano, T.; Navrátil, P.; Pearson, C. J.; Pore, J.; Quaglioni, S.; Svensson, C. E.; Starosta, K.; Thompson, I. J.; Voss, P.; Williams, S. J.; Wang, Z. M.

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic dipole strength in Be11 between the bound states has been measured using low-energy projectile Coulomb excitation at bombarding energies of 1.73 and 2.09 MeV/nucleon on a Pt196 target. An electric dipole transition probability B(E1;1/2-→1/2+)=0.102(2) e2fm was determined using the semi-classical code Gosia, and a value of 0.098(4) e2fm was determined using the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method with the quantum mechanical code FRESCO. These extracted B(E1) values are consistent with the average value determined by a model-dependent analysis of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements and are approximately 14% lower than that determined by a lifetime measurement. The much-improved precisions of 2% and 4% in the measured B(E1) values between the bound states deduced using Gosia and the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method, respectively, compared to the previous accuracy of ˜10% will help in our understanding of and better improve the realistic inter-nucleon interactions.

  11. Precision Magnet Measurements for X-Band Accelerator Quadrupole Triplets

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Armstrong, J P

    2012-05-16

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-Ray) technology at LLNL. Beamline magnets will include an emittance compensation solenoid, windowpane steering dipoles, and quadrupole magnets. Demanding tolerances have been placed on the alignment of these magnets, which directly affects the electron bunch beam quality. A magnet mapping system has been established at LLNL in order to ensure the delivered magnets match their field specification, and the mountings are aligned and capable of reaching the specified alignment tolerances. The magnet measurement system will be described which uses a 3-axis Lakeshore gauss probe mounted on a 3-axis translation stage. Alignment accuracy and precision will be discussed, as well as centering measurements and analysis. The dependence on data analysis over direct multi-pole measurement allows a significant improvement in useful alignment information. Detailed analysis of measurements on the beamline quadrupoles will be discussed, including multi-pole content both from alignment of the magnets, and the intrinsic level of multi-pole magnetic field.

  12. Precision of light intensity measurement in biological optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bernas, Tytus; Barnes, David; Asem, Elikplimi K; Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek

    2007-05-01

    Standardization and calibration of optical microscopy systems have become an important issue owing to the increasing role of biological imaging in high-content screening technology. The proper interpretation of data from high-content screening imaging experiments requires detailed information about the capabilities of the systems, including their available dynamic range, sensitivity and noise. Currently available techniques for calibration and standardization of digital microscopes commonly used in cell biology laboratories provide an estimation of stability and measurement precision (noise) of an imaging system at a single level of signal intensity. In addition, only the total noise level, not its characteristics (spectrum), is measured. We propose a novel technique for estimation of temporal variability of signal and noise in microscopic imaging. The method requires registration of a time series of images of any stationary biological specimen. The subsequent analysis involves a multi-step process, which separates monotonic, periodic and random components of every pixel intensity change in time. The technique allows simultaneous determination of dark, photonic and multiplicative components of noise present in biological measurements. Consequently, a respective confidence interval (noise level) is obtained for each level of signal. The technique is validated using test sets of biological images with known signal and noise characteristics. The method is also applied to assess uncertainty of measurement obtained with two CCD cameras in a wide-field microscope.

  13. High precision metrology based microwave effective linewidth measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Nan; Green, Jerome J.; Beitscher, Bailey A.; Patton, Carl E.

    2007-11-15

    A precision microwave effective linewidth measurement technique for magnetic samples has been developed. The measurement utilizes a high-Q cylindrical cavity that contains the sample of interest, a highly stable and programable static magnetic field source, a computer controlled network analyzer for cavity center frequency {omega}{sub c} and quality factor Q{sub c} determinations, and the standard metrological substitution ABA method for accurate relative {omega}{sub c} and Q{sub c} measurements. Sequential long term ABA measurements show that the time and temperature drifts and random errors are the dominant sources of error, with uncertainties in {omega}{sub c}/2{pi} and Q{sub c} in the range of 50 kHz and 25, respectively. The ABA method is applied to eliminate these drifts and minimize the random errors. For measurements over 25 ABA cycles, accuracy is improved to 0.14 kHz for {omega}{sub c}/2{pi} and 3 for Q{sub c}. The temperature variation over a single ABA cycle is generally on the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} deg. C and there is no need for any further temperature stabilization or correction measures. The overall uncertainty in the 10 GHz effective linewidth determinations for a 3 mm diam, 0.5 mm thick polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) disk is 0.15 Oe or less, well below the intrinsic single crystal YIG linewidth. This represents a factor of 10 improvement in measurement accuracy over previous work.

  14. Precision measurement of the D*0 decay branching fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    Using 482 pb-1 of data taken at √{s }=4.009 GeV , we measure the branching fractions of the decays of D*0 into D0π0 and D0γ to be B (D*0→D0π0)=(65.5 ±0.8 ±0.5 )% and B (D*0→D0γ )=(34.5 ±0.8 ±0.5 )% , respectively, by assuming that the D*0 decays only into these two modes. The ratio of the two branching fractions is B (D*0→D0π0)/B (D*0→D0γ )=1.90 ±0.07 ±0.05 , which is independent of the assumption made above. The first uncertainties are statistical and the second ones systematic. The precision is improved by a factor of 3 compared to the present world average values.

  15. Monolithic interferometer for high precision radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Wang, Ji; Lee, Brian

    2009-08-01

    In high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies, a stable wide field Michelson interferometer is very critical in Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instruments. Adopting a new design, monolithic interferometers are homogenous and continuous in thermal expansion, and field compensation and thermal compensation are both satisfied. Interferometer design and fabrication are decrypted in details. In performance evaluations, field angle is typically 22° and thermal sensitivity is typically -1.7 x 10-6/°C, which corresponds to ~500 m/s /°C in RV scale. In interferometer stability monitoring using a wavelength stabilized laser source, phase shift data was continuously recorded for nearly seven days. Appling a frequent calibration every 30 minutes as in typical star observations, the interferometer instability contributes less than 1.4 m/s in RV error, in a conservative estimation.

  16. Precise measurement of the performance of thermoelectric modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Chao, Pablo; Muñiz-Piniella, Andrés; Selezneva, Ekaterina; Cuenat, Alexandre

    2016-08-01

    The potential exploitation of thermoelectric modules into mass market applications such as exhaust gas heat recovery in combustion engines requires an accurate knowledge of their performance. Further expansion of the market will also require confidence on the results provided by suppliers to end-users. However, large variation in performance and maximum operating point is observed for identical modules when tested by different laboratories. Here, we present the first metrological study of the impact of mounting and testing procedures on the precision of thermoelectric modules measurement. Variability in the electrical output due to mechanical pressure or type of thermal interface materials is quantified for the first time. The respective contribution of the temperature difference and the mean temperature to the variation in the output performance is quantified. The contribution of these factors to the total uncertainties in module characterisation is detailed.

  17. Precise Frequency Measurements Using a Superconducting Cavity Stabilized Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Yeh, N.-C.; Jiang, W.; Anderson, V. L.; Asplund, N.

    1999-01-01

    Many physics experiments call on improved resolution to better define the experimental results, thus improving tests of theories. Modern microwave technology combined with high-Q resonators can achieve frequency readout and control with resolutions up to a part in 10(exp 18). When the physical quantity in question in the experiment can be converted to a frequency or a change in frequency, a high-stability microwave oscillator can be applied to obtain state-of-the-art precision. In this work we describe the overall physical concepts and the required experimental procedures for optimizing a high-resolution frequency measurement system that employs a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity and a low-noise frequency synthesizer. The basic approach is to resolve the resonant frequencies of a high-Q (Q > 10(exp 10)) cavity to extremely high precision (one part in 10(exp 17)- 10(exp 18)). Techniques for locking the synthesizer frequency to a resonant frequency of the superconducting cavity to form an ultra-stable oscillator are described. We have recently set up an ultra-high-vacuum high-temperature annealing system to process superconducting niobium cavities, and have been able to consistently achieve Q > 10(exp 9). We have integrated high-Q superconducting cavities with a low-noise microwave synthesizer in a phase-locked-loop to verify the frequency stability of the system. Effects that disturb the cavity resonant frequency (such as the temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations) and methods to mitigate those effects are also considered. Applicability of these techniques to experiments will be discussed, and our latest experimental progress in achieving high-resolution frequency measurements using the superconducting-cavity-stabilized-oscillator will be presented.

  18. A Precise measurement of the B0(s) lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Rio de Janeiro State U. /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota

    2006-04-01

    The authors report a measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime in the semileptonic decay channel B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{mu}{sup +}{nu}X (and its charge conjugate), using approximately 0.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector during 2002-2004. They have reconstructed 5176 D{sub s}{sup -} {mu}{sup +} signal events, where the D{sub s}{sup -} is identified via the decay D{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup -}, followed by {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. Using these events, they have measured the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime to be {tau}(B{sub s}{sup 0}) = 1.398 {+-} 0.044 (stat){sub -0.025}{sup +0.028}(syst) ps. This is the most precise measurement of the B{sub s}{sup 0} lifetime to date.

  19. Critical tests of line broadening theories by precision measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S.H.

    1996-02-22

    The spectral line profiles of ionized emitters in plasmas play an important role in the calculation of opacity, for short-wavelength laser studies, and for the diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Sophisticated theoretical methods and modeling have been advanced and applied in recent years to calculate spectral line profiles in the limits where broadening by electron collisions or by ion microfield dominates. Here, the authors describe recent measurements of spectral line profiles of a z-pinch experiment employing precision plasma diagnostic techniques. In particular, the electron-collisional-broadened 2s--2p transitions in B{sub III} have been investigated because their line profiles provide an excellent test for electron-impact line shape theories and electron collision strength calculations. Although they find good agreement with semiclassical calculations, a factor of two discrepancy with the most elaborate quantum-mechanical five-state close coupling calculations is observed. They discuss the experimental error estimates of the various measured quantities and show that the observed discrepancy can not be explained by experimental shortcomings. They further discuss measurements of non-isolated spectral lines of some {Delta}n = 1 transitions in C{sub IV}--O{sub VI}. For these transitions ion broadening dominates. Excellent agreement for the whole line profile with line broadening calculations is obtained for all cases only when including ion dynamic effects. The latter are calculated using the frequency-fluctuation model and account for about 10--25% of the line width of the considered ions.

  20. Precision Neutron Scattering Length Measurements with Neutron Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. G.; Arif, M.; Jacobson, D. L.; Pushin, D. A.; Abutaleb, M. O.; Shahi, C. B.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Black, T. C.

    2011-10-01

    Since its inception, single-crystal neutron interferometry has often been utilized for precise neutron scattering length, b, measurements. Scattering length data of light nuclei is particularly important in the study of few nucleon interactions as b can be predicted by two + three nucleon interaction (NI) models. As such they provide a critical test of the accuracy 2+3 NI models. Nuclear effective field theories also make use of light nuclei b in parameterizing mean-field behavior. The NIST neutron interferometer and optics facility has measured b to less than 0.8% relative uncertainty in polarized 3He and to less than 0.1% relative uncertainty in H, D, and unpolarized 3He. A neutron interferometer consists of a perfect silicon crystal machined such that there are three separate blades on a common base. Neutrons are Bragg diffracted in the blades to produce two spatially separate (yet coherent) beam paths much like an optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A gas sample placed in one of the beam paths of the interferometer causes a phase difference between the two paths which is proportional to b. This talk will focus on the latest scattering length measurement for n-4He which ran at NIST in Fall/Winter 2010 and is currently being analyzed.

  1. Acceleration of matrix element computations for precision measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Brandt, Oleg; Gutierrez, Gaston; Wang, M. H.L.S.; ...

    2014-11-25

    The matrix element technique provides a superior statistical sensitivity for precision measurements of important parameters at hadron colliders, such as the mass of the top quark or the cross-section for the production of Higgs bosons. The main practical limitation of the technique is its high computational demand. Using the example of the top quark mass, we present two approaches to reduce the computation time of the technique by a factor of 90. First, we utilize low-discrepancy sequences for numerical Monte Carlo integration in conjunction with a dedicated estimator of numerical uncertainty, a novelty in the context of the matrix elementmore » technique. We then utilize a new approach that factorizes the overall jet energy scale from the matrix element computation, a novelty in the context of top quark mass measurements. The utilization of low-discrepancy sequences is of particular general interest, as it is universally applicable to Monte Carlo integration, and independent of the computing environment.« less

  2. Precision measurement of the muon decay parameters {rho} and {delta}

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, R. P.; Gaponenko, A.; Quraan, M. A.; Bayes, R.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Faszer, W.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Grossheim, A.; Gumplinger, P.; Henderson, R. S.; Hillairet, A.; Hu, J.; Kitching, P.; Marshall, G. M.; Mischke, R. E.; Nozar, M.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Openshaw, R.

    2008-08-01

    The TWIST Collaboration has performed new measurements of two of the parameters that describe muon decay: {rho}, which governs the shape of the overall momentum spectrum, and {delta}, which governs the momentum dependence of the parity-violating decay asymmetry. This analysis gives the results {rho}=0.750 14{+-}0.000 17(stat){+-}0.000 44(syst){+-}0.000 11({eta}), where the last uncertainty arises from the correlation between {rho} and the decay parameter {eta}, and {delta}=0.750 67{+-}0.000 30(stat){+-}0.000 67(syst). These are consistent with the value of 3/4 given for both parameters in the standard model of particle physics, and are a factor of two more precise than the measurements previously published by TWIST. A new global analysis of all available muon decay data incorporating these results is presented. Improved lower and upper limits on the decay parameter P{sub {mu}}{sup {pi}}{xi} of 0.995 24

  3. Precise Measurement of the K - to Pi -E E- Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Batley, J.R.; Culling, A.J.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; /CERN /Dubna, JINR /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Birmingham U. /Dubna, JINR /CERN /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Sofiya U. /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /INFN, Perugia /Dubna, JINR /Dubna, JINR /Northwestern U. /Dubna, JINR /Chicago U., EFI /Marseille, CPPM /Chicago U., EFI /Edinburgh U. /George Mason U. /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /CERN /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Modena U. /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Urbino U. /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Urbino U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Bonn U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Northwestern U. /SLAC /Northwestern U. /Northwestern U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Northwestern U. /Northwestern U. /UCLA /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Frascati /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Barcelona, IFAE /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /DAPNIA, Saclay /DAPNIA, Saclay /CERN /DAPNIA, Saclay /Siegen U. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Bern U. /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /CERN /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Madrid, CIEMAT /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Vienna, OAW

    2011-11-22

    A sample of 7253 K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}e{sup +}e{sup -}({gamma}) decay candidates with 1.0% background contamination has been collected by the NA 48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, which allowed a precise measurement of the decay properties. The branching ratio in the full kinematic range was measured to be BR = (3.11 {+-} 0.12) x 10{sup -7}, where the uncertainty includes also the model dependence. The shape of the form factor W(z), where z = (M{sub ee}/M{sub K}){sup 2}, was parameterized according to several models, and, in particular, the slope {delta} of the linear form factor W(z) = W{sub 0}(1 + {delta}z) was determined to be {delta} = 2.32 {+-} 0.18. A possible CP violating asymmetry of K{sup +} and K{sup -} decay widths was investigated, and a conservative upper limit of 2.1 x 10{sup -2} at 90% CL was established.

  4. Qweak: A Precision Measurement of the Proton's Weak Charge

    SciTech Connect

    David Armstrong; Todd Averett; James Birchall; James Bowman; Roger Carlini; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Charles Davis; J. Doornbos; James Dunne; Rolf Ent; Jens Erler; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; David Gaskell; Klaus Grimm; C. Hagner; F. Hersman; Maurik Holtrop; Kathleen Johnston; R.T. Jones; Kyungseon Joo; Cynthia Keppel; Elie Korkmaz; Stanley Kowalski; Lawrence Lee; Allison Lung; David Mack; Stanislaw Majewski; Gregory Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Norman Morgan; Allena Opper; Shelley Page; Seppo Penttila; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; William Ramsay; Michael Ramsey-musolf; Julie Roche; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Riad Suleiman; Simon Taylor; Willem Van Oers; Steven Wells; W.S. Wilburn; Stephen Wood; Carl Zorn

    2004-02-05

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to make a 4% measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering at very low Q{sup 2} of a longitudinally polarized electron beam on a proton target. The experiment will measure the weak charge of the proton, and thus the weak mixing angle at low energy scale, providing a precision test of the Standard Model. Since the value of the weak mixing angle is approximately 1/4, the weak charge of the proton Q{sub w}{sup p} = 1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} is suppressed in the Standard Model, making it especially sensitive to the value of the mixing angle and also to possible new physics. The experiment is approved to run at JLab, and the construction plan calls for the hardware to be ready to install in Hall C in 2007. The theoretical context of the experiment and the status of its design are discussed.

  5. Results of precision mass measurements from CARIBU with the CPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schelt, J.; Lascar, D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Greene, J. P.; Levand, A. F.; Sun, T.; Zabransky, B. J.; Caldwell, S.; Sternberg, M. G.; Chaudhuri, A.; Sharma, K. S.; Li, G.

    2011-10-01

    An array of neutron-rich nuclides from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) at ANL beyond 132Sn has been subjected to precision mass measurements with the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer, including many never-before-measured nuclides. Neutron-separation energies calculated directly from these results provide essential input to models of the astrophysical r-process. Trends in binding energies far from stability provide input to nuclear mass models and identify regions of deformation. Additional nuclear structure information can be extracted from symmetry energy and observations of isomeric states. Implications for all of these topics will be discussed as well as future plans with the more intense CARIBU source. This work performed under the auspices of NSERC, Canada, application number 216974, and the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Nos. DE-AC02- 06CH11357, DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-98ER41086 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Measuring Crustal Deformation in Europe by High Precision Geodetic VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J.; Nothnagel, A.; Vennebusch, M.

    2002-06-01

    At the western tip of the Eurasian plate, the European continent is besieged by thrusting and receding neighbour plates causing deformations and ruptures of the Earth's crust evidenced by earthquakes and volcanic outbursts. Measuring the extent and progress of crustal deformation has become one of the primary tasks of geodesists and geophysicists. Realizing that Europe enjoys one of the densest networks of radio telescopes especially equipped for high precision, geodetic VLBI has provided the incentive to organise a campaign of regular geodetic VLBI observations in the European network of fixed radio telescopes. The measurements have been carried out since the late eighties at an average rate of six sessions per year. From these data, site coordinates, baseline length changes and station velocity vectors have been derived with steadily increasing accuracy. The overall picture of the observed present-day site motions emulates quite well the pattern of tectonic motions inferred from the geotectonic setting of central Europe and the western Mediterranean. Interesting details are emerging for horizontal motions of the three stations in Italy, which are strongly affected by the complex interactions between the different tectonic regimes in this area. The accuracy of the vertical components is also improving with increasing length of the observational record, allowing to detect significant trends among the relative vertical motions of the sites. The geodetic VLBI network operations have received supportive funding by the European Union under the 2nd and 4th Framework Programmes.

  7. A precise measurement of the top quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Brian N.

    2007-04-01

    We present a measurement of the mass of the top quark using data from proton-antiproton collisions recorded at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. Events are selected from the single lepton plus jets final state (t$\\bar{t}$ → W+bW-$\\bar{b}$ → ℓvbq$\\bar{q}$'$\\bar{b}$). The top quark mass is extracted using a calculation of the probability density for a t$\\bar{t}$ final state to resemble a data event. This probability density is a function of both top quark mass and energy scale of calorimeter jets, constrained in situ with the hadronic W boson mass. Using 167 events observed in 955 pb-1 integrated luminosity, we achieve the single most precise measurement of top quark mass to date of 170.8 ± 2.2 (stat.) ± 1.4 (syst.) GeV/c2, where the quoted statistical uncertainty includes uncertainty from the determination of the jet energy scale.

  8. Measurement of local chromatin compaction by spectral precision distance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Joachim; Hausmann, Michael; Solovei, Irina; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Christoph G.

    2000-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) offers an appropriate technique to specifically label any given chromatin region by multi spectrally labeled, specific DNA probes. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, quantitative measurements on the spatial distribution of labeling sites can be performed in 3D conserved cell nuclei. Recently, 'Spectral Precision Distance Microscopy' has been developed that allows 3D distance measurements between point-like fluorescence objects of different spectral signatures far beyond the diffraction limited resolution. In a well characterized and sequenced DNA region, the Prader- Willi/Angelman region q11-13 on chromosome 15, geometric distances between the fluorescence intensity bary centers of four different 'point-like' labeling sites were measured. More than 300 cell nuclei were evaluated with a 3D resolution equivalent better than 100 nm. The geometric bary center distances in nanometers were compared with the genomic bary center distance in kilobases (kb). A direct correlation, for instance linear correlation between geometric and genomic distances was not observed. From the measured values, a local compaction factor for the high order chromatin folding in the analyzed genome region was calculated. Along the 1000 kb chromatin segment analyzed, which spans nearly the compete Prader-Willi/Angelman region, different compaction factors were found. The compaction factor 40 typical for a straight 30 nm chromatin fiber was not observed. This shows that chromatin folding and compaction in intact nuclei may be more complex. With SPDM, however, a microscopical technique is available that can sensitively analyze chromatin organization in the 100 nm range in 3D conserved cell nuclei.

  9. Constraints on Lava Flow Emplacement Derived From Precision Topographic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Bjonnes, E. E.

    2005-12-01

    Precision topography obtained with a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to derive constraints on the physical properties of two lava flows on the Big Island of Hawaii. We used a Trimble 4800 DGPS to collect positional information across the lava flows with < 2 cm horizontal and < 4 cm vertical precision (but field tests show that points are usually repeatable to < 1 cm both horizontally and vertically). The DGPS data were overlaid on georeferenced aerial and satellite imaging data, allowing us to correlate the measured topographic points to field notes and photographs, as well as to the local setting evident in the vertical images. We combined field and imaging data for the eastern lobe of the 1907 basalt flow from the southwestern rift zone of Mauna Loa volcano, east of the Ocean View Estates subdivision, and for portions of a grass-covered Pleistocene benmoreite flow near Mana on the western flank of Mauna Kea volcano. Measured physical dimensions of the Hawaiian lava flows obtained from the DGPS data were then used to calculate the yield strength, average effusion rate, and effective viscosity of the lavas using published relationships derived from diverse theories of fluid flow. Yield strengths obtained from three different expressions ranged from 5800 to 56000 Pa for the Mauna Loa basalt flow and from 13000 to 28000 Pa for the Mauna Kea benmoreite flow. Total flow length could not be determined for the Mauna Kea flow, but the entire surface portion of the 1907 flow is well exposed; this allowed us to calculate an average effusion rate of 29 m/s and effective viscosities ranging from 17000 to 280000 Pa-s for this flow, broadly consistent with values published for the 1984 basalt flow from the eastern rift zone of Mauna Loa. These results improve our confidence in being able to derive similar constraints on the likely emplacement conditions of lava flows on other planets, such as the enormous lava flows commonly found on the martian, venusian

  10. A GPS measurement system for precise satellite tracking and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is pursuing two key applications of differential positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS): sub-decimeter tracking of earth satellites and few-centimeter determination of ground-fixed baselines. Key requirements of the two applications include the use of dual-frequency carrier phase data, multiple ground receivers to serve as reference points, simultaneous solution for use position and GPS orbits, and calibration of atmospheric delays using water vapor radiometers. Sub-decimeter tracking will be first demonstrated on the TOPEX oceanographic satellite to be launched in 1991. A GPS flight receiver together with at least six ground receivers will acquire delta range data from the GPS carriers for non-real-time analysis. Altitude accuracies of 5 to 10 cm are expected. For baseline measurements, efforts will be made to obtain precise differential pseudorange by resolving the cycle ambiguity in differential carrier phase. This could lead to accuracies of 2 or 3 cm over a few thousand kilometers. To achieve this, a high-performance receiver is being developed, along with improved calibration and data processing techniques. Demonstrations may begin in 1986.

  11. Force measurement enabling precise analysis by dynamic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Taninaka, Atsushi; Hirano, Yuuichi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) makes it possible to investigate specific interactions between two molecules such as ligand-receptor pairs at the single-molecule level. In the DFS method based on the Bell-Evans model, the unbinding force applied to a molecular bond is increased at a constant rate, and the force required to rupture the molecular bond is measured. By analyzing the relationship between the modal rupture force and the logarithm of the loading rate, microscopic potential barrier landscapes and the lifetimes of bonds can be obtained. However, the results obtained, for example, in the case of streptavidin/biotin complexes, have differed among previous studies and some results have been inconsistent with theoretical predictions. In this study, using an atomic force microscopy technique that enables the precise analysis of molecular interactions on the basis of DFS, we investigated the effect of the sampling rate on DFS analysis. The shape of rupture force histograms, for example, was significantly deformed at a sampling rate of 1 kHz in comparison with that of histograms obtained at 100 kHz, indicating the fundamental importance of ensuring suitable experimental conditions for further advances in the DFS method.

  12. Precision measurements of IVB parameters and bounds on new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltoni, M.

    2000-02-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to discuss the impact of electroweak precision measurements on the present knowledge of particle physics, both in the framework of the Standard Model and of its most straightforward extensions. In Chapter 1 we give a general overview of the electroweak sector of the SM and of SUSY phenomenology. In Chapter 2 we deal with different definitions of the electroweak mixing angle, with particular attention to the relation between the phenomenological angle θ and the MS parameter hatθ. In Chapter 3 we use results found in the previous chapter to discuss in detail how both the decoupling and the non-decoupling approach to the running of coupling constants in the MS scheme produce the same numerical value of m_{GUT}, despite of the different initial conditions. In Chapter 4 we derive simple analytical formulas for the contribution of a chargino almost degenerate with the lightest neutralino to electroweak observables, showing that in the case of wino domination the study of oblique corrections allows a concrete improvement of experimental bounds on chargino mass. Finally, in Chapter 5 we consider the possibility of extra fermion generations, proving that they are strongly disfavoured by the present experimental data if all particles are heavier that Z-boson, while for the specific case of the extra neutrino around 50 GeV in mass (still allowed by experimental data) the quality of the fit is not worse than the SM.

  13. Interferometric apparatus for ultra-high precision displacement measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Feng (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A high-precision heterodyne interferometer measures relative displacement by creating a thermally-insensitive system generally not subject to polarization leakage. By using first and second light beams separated by a small frequency difference (.DELTA.f), beams of light at the first frequency (f.sub.0) are reflected by co-axial mirrors, the first mirror of which has a central aperture through which the light is transmitted to and reflected by the second mirror. Prior to detection, the light beams from the two mirrors are combined with light of the second and slightly different frequency. The combined light beams are separated according to the light from the mirrors. The change in phase (.DELTA..phi.) with respect to the two signals is proportional to the change in distance of Fiducial B by a factor of wavelength (.lambda.) divided by 4.pi. (.DELTA.L=.lambda..DELTA..phi.1/(4.pi.)). In a second embodiment, a polarizing beam splitting system can be used.

  14. An Ultra-Precise System for Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    LaBrecque, Douglas J; Adkins, Paula L

    2008-12-09

    The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of building and operating an ERT system that will allow measurement precision that is an order of magnitude better than existing systems on the market today and in particular if this can be done without significantly greater manufacturing or operating costs than existing commercial systems. Under this proposal, we performed an estimation of measurement errors in galvanic resistivity data that arise as a consequence of the type of electrode material used to make the measurements. In our laboratory, measurement errors for both magnitude and induced polarization (IP) were estimated using the reciprocity of data from an array of electrodes as might be used for electrical resistance tomography using 14 different metals as well as one non-metal - carbon. In a second phase of this study, using archival data from two long-term ERT surveys, we examined long-term survivability of electrodes over periods of several years. The survey sites were: the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (which was sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy as part of the civilian radioactive waste management program), and a water infiltration test at a site adjacent to the New Mexico Institute of Mines and Technology in Socorro, New Mexico (sponsored by the Sandia/Tech vadose program). This enabled us to compare recent values with historical values and determine electrode performance over the long-term as well as the percentage of electrodes that have failed entirely. We have constructed a prototype receiver system, made modifications and revised the receiver design. The revised prototype uses a new 24 bit analog to digital converter from Linear Technologies with amplifier chips from Texas Instruments. The input impedance of the system will be increased from 107 Ohms to approximately 1010 Ohms. The input noise level of the system has been decreased to approximately 10 Nanovolts and system resolution to about 1 Nanovolt at

  15. Precision and Accuracy of Topography Measurements on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, R.; Hurford, T. A.; Foley, M. A.; Varland, K.

    2007-03-01

    Reports of the death of the melt-through model for chaotic terrain on Europa have been greatly exaggerated, to paraphrase Mark Twain. They are based on topographic maps of insufficient quantitative accuracy and precision.

  16. Open Quantum Systems with Applications to Precision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieri, David

    A spectrally pure coherent light source is an important component in precision measurement applications, such as an atomic clock. The more spectrally pure the coherent light source, or the narrower the linewidth of its power spectrum, the better for atomic clock experiments. A coherent light light source, such as a laser, is intrinsically an open quantum system, meaning that it gains and loses energy from an external environment. The aim of this thesis is to study various open quantum systems in an attempt to discover a scheme in which an extremely spectrally pure coherent light source might be realized. Therefore, this thesis begins by introducing the two main approaches to treating open quantum systems, the quantum master equation approach, and the quantum Langevin equation approach. In addition to deriving these from first principles, many of the solution methods to these approaches are given and then demonstrated using computer simulations. These include the quantum jump algorithm, the quantum state diffusion algorithm, the cumulant expansion method, and the method of c-number Langevin equations. Using these methods, the theory of the crossover between lasing and steady state superradiance is presented. It is shown that lasing and steady state superradiance might be demonstrated in the same physical system, but in different parameter regimes. The parameter space between these two extreme limits is explored, and the benefits and drawbacks of operating a system at a given set of parameters, i.e. to achieve the most spectrally pure light source, are discussed. We also consider the phase stability of a laser that is locked to a cavity QED system comprised of atoms with an ultra-narrow optical transition. Although the atomic motion introduces Doppler broadening, the standing wave nature of the cavity causes saturated absorption, which can be used to achieve an extremely high degree of phase stabilization. The inhomogeneity introduced by finite atomic velocities can

  17. A 3-D Multilateration: A Precision Geodetic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Fliegel, H. F.; Jaffe, R. M.; Muller, P. M.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.

    1972-01-01

    A system was designed with the capability of determining 1-cm accuracy station positions in three dimensions using pulsed laser earth satellite tracking stations coupled with strictly geometric data reduction. With this high accuracy, several crucial geodetic applications become possible, including earthquake hazards assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital determination.

  18. Application of Geo-refrenced Geophysical Measurements to Precision Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop yield varies within a field because conventional farming manages fields uniformly with no consideration for spatial variability. Site-specific management units (SSMUs), a key component of precision agriculture, have been proposed as a means of handling the spatial variability of various factor...

  19. Precision Teaching: Advancing Student Achievement through Daily Drill and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawers, Lois J.

    1983-01-01

    After reviewing the conceptual bases and practical application of precision teaching, this analysis traces its evolution as the Sacajawea Plan, reports on its implementation in central Oregon school districts, and details the costs and procedures of adoption. Developed by Ogden Lindsley from B. F. Skinner's work in operant conditioning and…

  20. Preparation of cold molecules for high-precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Molecules can be used to test fundamental physics. Such tests often require cold molecules for detailed spectroscopic analysis. Cooling internal degrees of freedom provides a high level of state-selectivity, with large populations in the molecular states of interest. Cold translational motion allows slow, bright beams to be created, allowing long interaction times. In this tutorial article we describe the common techniques for producing cold molecules for high-precision spectroscopy experiments. For each technique we give examples of its application in experiments that use molecular structure to probe fundamental physics, choosing one experiment in particular as a case study. We then discuss a number of new techniques, some currently under development, others proposed, that promise high flux sources of cold molecules applicable to precise spectroscopic tests of fundamental physics.

  1. Precise Proper-Motion Measurement of Solar Granulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    representation of the numerical method for the spatially localized cross correlation and displacement map. Two original granulation J(x) images obtained at times t...quadratic methods give displacements correct to a precision of - 10%. V. NOISE ANALYSIS We now dis,;uss a time series of solar granulation images taken with...estimate the extreme position of a function. To analyze these methods further, we digitized along the 45 diagonal the sample granulation photograph at 12

  2. Corrections for Wavelength Variations in Precision Interferometric Displacement Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    intercomparison tech- niques by John Beers and Ted Doiron of the NIST Di- mensional Metrology Group (along with Jack Stone, one of the authors); we are indebted to...single-pass interferometer. Acknowledgments This research was funded in part by NIST’s computa- tional metrology project. Partial funding was also pro...Division of the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at NIST. Steven Phillips is the leader of the Large Scale Coordinate Metrology Group in the Precision

  3. Three-D multilateration: A precision geodetic measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Ong, K. M.; Vonroos, O. H.; Shumate, M. S.; Jaffe, R. M.; Fliegel, H. F.; Muller, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A technique of satellite geodesy for determining the relative three dimensional coordinates of ground stations within one centimeter over baselines of 20 to 10,000 kilometers is discussed. The system is referred to as 3-D Multilateration and has applications in earthquake hazard assessment, precision surveying, plate tectonics, and orbital mechanics. The accuracy is obtained by using pulsed lasers to obtain simultaneous slant ranges between several ground stations and a moving retroreflector with known trajectory for aiming the lasers.

  4. Measurements of atomic beam velocities with phase choppers and precision measurements of alkali atomic polarizabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromada, Ivan, Jr.

    Atom interferometers, in which de Broglie waves are coherently split and recombined to make interference fringes, now serve as precision measurement tools for several quantities in physics. Examples include measurements of Newton's constant, the fine structure constant, van der Waals potentials, and atomic polarizabilities. To make next-generation measurements of static electric dipole atomic polarizabilities with an atom beam interferometer, I worked on new methods to precisely measure the velocity distribution for atom beams. I will explain how I developed and used phase choppers to measure lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium atomic beam velocities with 0.07% accuracy. I also present new measurements of polarizability for these atoms. I classify systematic errors into two broad categories: (1) fractional errors that are similar for all different types of atoms in our experiments, and (2), errors that scale with de Broglie wavelength or inverse atomic momentum in our experiments. This distinction is important for estimating the uncertainty in our measurements of ratios of atomic polarizabilities, e.g., alpha Cs/alphaNa = 2.488(12).

  5. Realization of the wavepacket collapse and its relation with the measurement precision limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu-ming, Duan; Guang-can, Guo

    1996-12-01

    An interpretation of the wavepacket collapse (WPC) is given. We find a connection between the WPC and the measurement precision limitation caused by quantum fluctuation. A quantitative relation between the decay of the off-diagonal density matrix elements and the measurement precision limitation is obtained for any measurements.

  6. Precision Measurements of Solar Energetic Particle Elemental Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spaceraft were used to determined, solar energetic particle abundances or upper limits for all elements with Z 30 from a combined set of 10 solar flares during the 1977 to 1982 time period. Statistically meaningful abundances were determined for several rare elements including P, C1, K, Ti and Mn, while the precision of the mean abundances for the more abundant elements was proved. When compared to solar photospheric spectroscopic abundances, these new SEP abundances more clearly exhibit the step-function dependence on first ionization potential previously reported.

  7. Electronic measurement of variable torques in precision work technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maehr, M.

    1978-01-01

    Approaches for the determination of torques on the basis of length measurements are discussed. Attention is given to torque determinations in which the deformation of a shaft is measured, an electric measurement of the torsion angle, and an approach proposed by Buschmann (1970). Methods for a torque determination conducted with the aid of force measurements make use of piezoelectric approaches. The components used by these methods include a quartz crystal and a charge amplifier.

  8. Do stochastic inhomogeneities affect dark-energy precision measurements?

    PubMed

    Ben-Dayan, I; Gasperini, M; Marozzi, G; Nugier, F; Veneziano, G

    2013-01-11

    The effect of a stochastic background of cosmological perturbations on the luminosity-redshift relation is computed to second order through a recently proposed covariant and gauge-invariant light-cone averaging procedure. The resulting expressions are free from both ultraviolet and infrared divergences, implying that such perturbations cannot mimic a sizable fraction of dark energy. Different averages are estimated and depend on the particular function of the luminosity distance being averaged. The energy flux being minimally affected by perturbations at large z is proposed as the best choice for precision estimates of dark-energy parameters. Nonetheless, its irreducible (stochastic) variance induces statistical errors on Ω(Λ)(z) typically lying in the few-percent range.

  9. Precise Measurement of Lunar Spectral Irradiance at Visible Wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, CE; Lykke, KR; Woodward, JT; Smith, AW

    2013-01-01

    We report a measurement of lunar spectral irradiance with an uncertainty below 1 % from 420 nm to 1000 nm. This measurement uncertainty meets the stability requirement for many climate data records derived from satellite images, including those for vegetation, aerosols, and snow and ice albedo. It therefore opens the possibility of using the Moon as a calibration standard to bridge gaps in satellite coverage and validate atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Our measurement technique also yields detailed information about the atmosphere at the measurement site, suggesting that lunar observations are a possible solution for aerosol monitoring during the polar winter and can provide nighttime measurements to complement aerosol data collected with sun photometers. Our measurement, made with a novel apparatus, is an order of magnitude more accurate than the previous state-of-the-art and has continuous spectral coverage, removing the need to interpolate between filter passbands. PMID:26401440

  10. Precise Measurement of Lunar Spectral Irradiance at Visible Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Cramer, C E; Lykke, K R; Woodward, J T; Smith, A W

    2013-01-01

    We report a measurement of lunar spectral irradiance with an uncertainty below 1 % from 420 nm to 1000 nm. This measurement uncertainty meets the stability requirement for many climate data records derived from satellite images, including those for vegetation, aerosols, and snow and ice albedo. It therefore opens the possibility of using the Moon as a calibration standard to bridge gaps in satellite coverage and validate atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Our measurement technique also yields detailed information about the atmosphere at the measurement site, suggesting that lunar observations are a possible solution for aerosol monitoring during the polar winter and can provide nighttime measurements to complement aerosol data collected with sun photometers. Our measurement, made with a novel apparatus, is an order of magnitude more accurate than the previous state-of-the-art and has continuous spectral coverage, removing the need to interpolate between filter passbands.

  11. The study of precision measurement of pelvis spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Ouyang, Jianfei; Qu, Xinghua

    2009-12-01

    Osteometry is fundamental for anthropometry. It provides the key technology and value to the study of palaeoanthropology, medicine, and criminal investigation. The traditional osteometry that has been widely accepted and used since 18th century has no longer met the information demand for modern research and application. It is significant and necessary to create an advanced 3-dimensional osteometry technique for anthropometry. This paper presents a new quick and accurate method to measure human pelvis through mathematical modeling. The pelvis is a complex combination of bones, which consists of three connected parts: hipbones, sacrum, and coccyx. There are over 40 items to be measured for the 1-dimension characteristics. In this paper, a combined measuring technology is developed for pelvis measurement. It uses machine vision systems and a portable measuring arm to obtain key geometry parameters of the pelvis. The mathematics models of the pelvis spatial structure and its parts are created through the process of data collecting, digging, assembling, and modeling. The experiment shows that the proposed technology can meet traditional osteometry and obtain entire 1D geometric parameters of the pelvis, such as maximum breadth and height, diameter of obstetric conjugata, inclination angle, and sakralneigungswinkel, etc. at the same time after modeling. Besides making the measurements above, the proposed technology can measure the geometry characteristics of pelvis and its parts, such as volume, surface area, curvature, and spatial structure, which are almost impossible for traditional technology. The overall measuring error is less than 0.1mm.

  12. The study of precision measurement of pelvis spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiang; Ouyang, Jianfei; Qu, Xinghua

    2010-03-01

    Osteometry is fundamental for anthropometry. It provides the key technology and value to the study of palaeoanthropology, medicine, and criminal investigation. The traditional osteometry that has been widely accepted and used since 18th century has no longer met the information demand for modern research and application. It is significant and necessary to create an advanced 3-dimensional osteometry technique for anthropometry. This paper presents a new quick and accurate method to measure human pelvis through mathematical modeling. The pelvis is a complex combination of bones, which consists of three connected parts: hipbones, sacrum, and coccyx. There are over 40 items to be measured for the 1-dimension characteristics. In this paper, a combined measuring technology is developed for pelvis measurement. It uses machine vision systems and a portable measuring arm to obtain key geometry parameters of the pelvis. The mathematics models of the pelvis spatial structure and its parts are created through the process of data collecting, digging, assembling, and modeling. The experiment shows that the proposed technology can meet traditional osteometry and obtain entire 1D geometric parameters of the pelvis, such as maximum breadth and height, diameter of obstetric conjugata, inclination angle, and sakralneigungswinkel, etc. at the same time after modeling. Besides making the measurements above, the proposed technology can measure the geometry characteristics of pelvis and its parts, such as volume, surface area, curvature, and spatial structure, which are almost impossible for traditional technology. The overall measuring error is less than 0.1mm.

  13. Development of Methods Precision Length Measurement Using Transported Laser Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, E. A.; Epikhin, V. M.; Mazur, M. M.; Suddenok, Y. A.; Shorin, V. N.

    The paper shows the results of a comparison of a developed transported laser interferometer (TLI) with a measurement interferometer XL-80 Renishaw at the distance 0-60 meters. Testings of a breadboard model of the TLI showed that a difference between the travel measurements of the two interferometers does not exceed 6 μm. The mean value of the difference of indications between the TLI and a Renishaw travel measurer at the distance near 58 m approximately equals to 0,5 μm. Root-mean square deviation of the indications of the interferometers approximately equals to 3 μm. At comparison of the sections with the same name between the TLI and the Renishaw travel measurer, measured at different days, a repeatability of the results for the sections with the same name is noted.

  14. Global positioning system measurements for crustal deformation: Precision and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Davis, J.L.; Svarc, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of 27 repeated observations of Global Positioning System (GPS) position-difference vectors, up to 11 kilometers in length, indicates that the standard deviation of the measurements is 4 millimeters for the north component, 6 millimeters for the east component, and 10 to 20 millimeters for the vertical component. The uncertainty grows slowly with increasing vector length. At 225 kilometers, the standard deviation of the measurement is 6, 11, and 40 millimeters for the north, east, and up components, respectively. Measurements with GPS and Geodolite, an electromagnetic distance-measuring system, over distances of 10 to 40 kilometers agree within 0.2 part per million. Measurements with GPS and very long baseline interferometry of the 225-kilometer vector agree within 0.05 part per million.

  15. Precise on-line position measurement for particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Actis, O.; Meer, D.; König, S.

    2014-12-01

    An on-line beam position monitoring and regular beam stability tests are of utmost importance for the Quality Assurance (QA) of the patient treatment at any particle therapy facility. The Gantry 2 at the Paul Scherrer Institute uses a strip ionization chamber for the on-line beam position verification. The design of the strip chamber placed in the beam in front of the patient allows for a small beam penumbra in order to achieve a high-quality lateral beam delivery. The position error of 1 mm in a lateral plane (plane perpendicular to the beam direction) can result in a dose inhomogeneity of more than 5%. Therefore the goal of Gantry 2 commissioning was to reach a sub-millimeter level of the reconstruction accuracy in order to bring a dose uncertainty to a level of 1%. In fact, we observed that for beams offered by Gantry 2 signal profiles in a lateral plane can be reconstructed with a precision of 0.1 mm. This is a necessary criterion to perform a reliable patient treatment. The front end electronics and the whole data processing sequence have been optimized for minimizing the dead time in between two consecutive spots to about 2 ms: the charge collection is performed in about 1 ms, read-out takes place in about 100μs while data verification and logging are completed in less than 1 ms.

  16. High precision speed measurement by using interferometric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ávila, M. A.; Ochoa Valiente, R.; García Trujillo, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the experimental realization of speed measurement by the use of a two wave interferometer and digital signal processing techniques. We built an automated Michelson interferometer and using an He-Ne laser and with the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and computer algorithms we derived a method for finding the speed of displacement. We report uncertainties in the order of 2-3 μm/s. with the use of this procedure. This brings the potential of another physical variable measurement like distance or pressure by this indirect measurement method. This approach is compared with an ultrasonic Logger Pro ® speed measurement system, and the results are compared between systems.

  17. Generating high precision ionospheric ground-truth measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila (Inventor); Sparks, Lawrence (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus and article of manufacture provide ionospheric ground-truth measurements for use in a wide-area augmentation system (WAAS). Ionospheric pseudorange/code and carrier phase data as primary observables is received by a WAAS receiver. A polynomial fit is performed on the phase data that is examined to identify any cycle slips in the phase data. The phase data is then leveled. Satellite and receiver biases are obtained and applied to the leveled phase data to obtain unbiased phase-leveled ionospheric measurements that are used in a WAAS system. In addition, one of several measurements may be selected and data is output that provides information on the quality of the measurements that are used to determine corrective messages as part of the WAAS system.

  18. Precision frequency measurement of visible intercombination lines of strontium.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, G; Cancio, P; Drullinger, R; Giusfredi, G; Poli, N; Prevedelli, M; Toninelli, C; Tino, G M

    2003-12-12

    We report the direct frequency measurement of the visible 5s(2) 1S0-5s5p 3P1 intercombination line of strontium that is considered a possible candidate for a future optical-frequency standard. The frequency of a cavity-stabilized laser is locked to the saturated fluorescence in a thermal Sr atomic beam and is measured with an optical-frequency comb generator referenced to the SI second through a global positioning system signal. The 88Sr transition is measured to be at 434 829 121 311 (10) kHz. We measure also the 88Sr-86Sr isotope shift to be 163 817.4 (0.2) kHz.

  19. Prospects for the precision measurement of {alpha}{sub s}

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Dixon, L.; El-Khadra, A.X.

    1996-12-01

    The prospects for the measurement of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub MS}(M{sub Z}) to a relative uncertainty of 1 % are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the implications relating to future High Energy Physics facilities.

  20. High Precision Atomic Mass Measurements: Tests of CVC and IMME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eronen, Tommi

    2011-11-01

    Atomic mass is one of the key ingredients in testing the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis and Isobaric Mass Multiplet Equation (IMME). With JYFLTRAP Penning trap installation at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, several atomic massses related to these studies have been measured. The performed atomic mass measurements for CVC tests cover almost all the nuclei that are relevant for these studies. To test IMME, masses in two isobaric mass chains (A = 23 and A = 32) have been determined.

  1. High Precision Atomic Mass Measurements: Tests of CVC and IMME

    SciTech Connect

    Eronen, Tommi; Collaboration: JYFLTRAP Collaboration

    2011-11-30

    Atomic mass is one of the key ingredients in testing the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis and Isobaric Mass Multiplet Equation (IMME). With JYFLTRAP Penning trap installation at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, several atomic massses related to these studies have been measured. The performed atomic mass measurements for CVC tests cover almost all the nuclei that are relevant for these studies. To test IMME, masses in two isobaric mass chains (A = 23 and A = 32) have been determined.

  2. Precision Measurement of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant by Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, G.; D'Amico, G.; Tino, G. M.; Cacciapuoti, L.; Prevedelli, M.; Sorrentino, F.

    We report on the latest determination of the Newtonian gravitational constant G using our atom interferometry gravity gradiometer. After a short introduction on the G measurement issue we will provide a description of the experimental method employed, followed by a discussion of the experimental results in terms of sensitivity and systematic effects. Finally, prospects for future cold atom-based experiments devoted to the measurement of this fundamental constant are reported.

  3. Diffraction correction for precision surface acoustic wave velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz M., Alberto; Nagy, Peter B.

    2002-09-01

    Surface wave dispersion measurements can be used to nondestructively characterize shot-peened, laser shock-peened, burnished, and otherwise surface-treated specimens. In recent years, there have been numerous efforts to separate the contribution of surface roughness from those of near-surface material variations, such as residual stress, texture, and increased dislocation density. As the accuracy of the dispersion measurements was gradually increased using state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic scanning and sophisticated digital signal processing methods, it was recognized that a perceivable dispersive effect, similar to the one found on rough shot-peened specimens, is exhibited by untreated smooth surfaces as well. This dispersion effect is on the order of 0.1%, that is significantly higher than the experimental error associated with the measurements and comparable to the expected velocity change produced by near-surface compressive residual stresses in metals below their yield point. This paper demonstrates that the cause of this apparent dispersion is the diffraction of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) as it travels over the surface of the specimen. The results suggest that a diffraction correction may be introduced to increase the accuracy of surface wave dispersion measurements. A simple diffraction correction model was developed for surface waves and this correction was subsequently validated by laser-interferometric velocity measurements on aluminum specimens. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  4. A Precise Calibration Technique for Measuring High Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Schultz, Donald F.

    2000-01-01

    A technique was developed for direct measurement of gas temperatures in the range of 2050 K 2700 K with improved accuracy and reproducibility. The technique utilized the low-emittance of certain fibrous materials, and the uncertainty of the technique was United by the uncertainty in the melting points of the materials, i.e., +/-15 K. The materials were pure, thin, metal-oxide fibers whose diameters varied from 60 microns to 400 microns in the experiments. The sharp increase in the emittance of the fibers upon melting was utilized as indication of reaching a known gas temperature. The accuracy of the technique was confirmed by both calculated low emittance values of transparent fibers, of order 0.01, up to a few degrees below their melting point and by the fiber-diameter independence of the results. This melting-point temperature was approached by increments not larger than 4 K, which was accomplished by controlled increases of reactant flow rates in hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen-oxygen flames. As examples of the applications of the technique, the gas-temperature measurements were used: (a) for assessing the uncertainty in inferring gas temperatures from thermocouple measurements, and (b) for calibrating an IR camera to measure gas temperatures. The technique offers an excellent calibration reference for other gas-temperature measurement methods to improve their accuracy and reliably extending their temperature range of applicability.

  5. A Precise Calibration Technique for Measuring High Gas Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Schultz, Donald F.

    1999-01-01

    A technique was developed for direct measurement of gas temperatures in the range of 2050 K - 2700 K with improved accuracy and reproducibility. The technique utilized the low-emittance of certain fibrous Materials, and the uncertainty of the technique was limited by the uncertainty in the melting points of the materials, i.e., +/- 15 K. The materials were pure, thin, metal-oxide fibers whose diameters varied from 60 mm to 400 mm in the experiments. The sharp increase in the emittance of the fibers upon melting was utilized as indication of reaching a known gas temperature. The accuracy of the technique was confirmed by both calculated low emittance values of transparent fibers, of order 0.01, up to a few degrees below their melting point and by the fiber-diameter independence of the results. This melting-point temperature was approached by increments not larger than 4 K, which was accomplished by controlled increases of reactant flow rates in hydrogen-air and/or hydrogen- oxygen flames. As examples of the applications of the technique, the gas-temperature measurements were used (a) for assessing the uncertainty in infering gas temperatures from thermocouple measurements, and (b) for calibrating an IR camera to measure gas temperatures. The technique offers an excellent calibration reference for other gas-temperature measurement methods to improve their accuracy and reliably extending their temperature range of applicability.

  6. Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Oblath, Noah

    2007-10-26

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

  7. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  8. Improving Measurement Precision of Hierarchical Latent Traits Using Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Many latent traits in social sciences display a hierarchical structure, such as intelligence, cognitive ability, or personality. Usually a second-order factor is linearly related to a group of first-order factors (also called domain abilities in cognitive ability measures), and the first-order factors directly govern the actual item responses.…

  9. High Precision Measurement of the Avogadro Constant Based on Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes an attempt to replace the present definition of the kilogram with the mass of a certain number of carbon atoms. This requires determination of the Avogadro constant, NA, with a relative uncertainty of 1 × 10-8. Silicon crystals are used in this determination. At present, a limiting factor is the measurement of the average molar mass of natural Si. Consequently, a worldwide collaboration has been set up, to produce, approximately, 5 kg of 28Si single-crystal with an enrichment greater than 99.985% and of sufficient chemical purity to be used for the determination of NA with a target relative measurement uncertainty better than 2 × 10-8.

  10. Strain tensors in layer systems by precision ion channeling measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trinkaus, H.; Buca, D.; Hollaender, B.; Minamisawa, R. A.; Mantl, S.; Hartmann, J. M.

    2010-06-15

    A powerful method for analyzing general strain states in layer systems is the measurement of changes in the ion channeling directions. We present a systematic derivation and compilation of the required relations between the strain induced angle changes and the components of the strain tensor for general crystalline layer systems of reduced symmetry compared to the basic (cubic) crystal. It is shown that, for the evaluation of channeling measurements, virtually all layers of interest may be described as being 'pseudo-orthorhombic'. The commonly assumed boundary conditions and the effects of surface misorientations on them are discussed. Asymmetric strain relaxation in layers of reduced symmetry is attributed to a restriction in the slip system of the dislocations inducing it. The results are applied to {l_brace}110{r_brace}SiGe/Si layer systems.

  11. An experimental assembly for precise measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Wayne M.; Castañeda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John R.; Gallis, Michael A.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    An experimental apparatus has been developed to determine thermal accommodation coefficients for a variety of gas-surface combinations. Results are obtained primarily through measurement of the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Measured heat-flux data are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations to determine the coefficients. The assembly also features a complementary capability for measuring the variation in gas density between the plates using electron-beam fluorescence. Surface materials examined include 304 stainless steel, gold, aluminum, platinum, silicon, silicon nitride, and polysilicon. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness, and surface contamination have been investigated with this system; the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Without special cleaning procedures, thermal accommodation coefficients for most materials and surface finishes were determined to be near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Surface cleaning by in situ argon-plasma treatment reduced coefficient values by up to 0.10 for helium and by ˜0.05 for nitrogen and argon. Results for both single-species and gas-mixture experiments compare favorably to DSMC simulations.

  12. Precise Measurement of the 21+ Level Lifetime in 12Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Johnson, T. D.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Merchan, E.; Prasher, V. S.; Iwasaki, H.; Weisshaar, D.; Gade, A.; Bader, V. M.; Beceiro Novo, S.; Loelius, C.; Lunderberg, E. M.; Morse, C.; Recchia, F.; Whitmore, K.

    2013-10-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that 12Be exhibits a breakdown of the N = 8 shell gap. This reflects the tension between the propensity for alpha-clustering in beryllium, with 12Be appearing as a 2-alpha dumb bell bound by a cloud of four poorly bound neutrons, and a more conventional Shell Model picture with the N = 8 neutrons filling the p-shell and holding the nucleus to a near spherical shape. To provide a better understanding of the extent of the breakdown of the N = 8 shell gap, the lifetime of the first 2+ state in 12Be was measured using intermediate-energy inelastic scattering of a 12Be beam combined with the Doppler Shift attenuation method. Gamma rays emitted at the target position were measured with GRETINA in coincidence with reaction residues detected in the S800 spectrometer at NSCL. Three different targets were measured, allowing for consistency checks and a better understanding of systematic effects. Preliminary results on the B(E2) transition strength from the first 2+ state will be presented. Work supported by the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848.

  13. Precision measurement of the local bias of dark matter halos

    SciTech Connect

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Wagner, Christian; Schmidt, Fabian; Baldauf, Tobias E-mail: cwagner@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2016-02-01

    We present accurate measurements of the linear, quadratic, and cubic local bias of dark matter halos, using curved 'separate universe' N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength overdensity. This can be seen as an exact implementation of the peak-background split argument. We compare the results with the linear and quadratic bias measured from the halo-matter power spectrum and bispectrum, and find good agreement. On the other hand, the standard peak-background split applied to the Sheth and Tormen (1999) and Tinker et al. (2008) halo mass functions matches the measured linear bias parameter only at the level of 10%. The prediction from the excursion set-peaks approach performs much better, which can be attributed to the stochastic moving barrier employed in the excursion set-peaks prediction. We also provide convenient fitting formulas for the nonlinear bias parameters b{sub 2}(b{sub 1}) and b{sub 3}(b{sub 1}), which work well over a range of redshifts.

  14. EDITORIAL: Precision Measurement Technology at the 56th International Scientific Colloquium in Ilmenau Precision Measurement Technology at the 56th International Scientific Colloquium in Ilmenau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manske, E.; Froehlich, T.

    2012-07-01

    The 56th International Scientific Colloquium was held from 12th to 16th September 2011 at the Ilmenau University of Technology in Germany. This event was organized by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering under the title: 'Innovation in Mechanical Engineering—Shaping the Future' and was intended to reflect the entire scope of modern mechanical engineering. In three main topics many research areas, all involving innovative mechanical engineering, were addressed, especially in the fields of Precision Engineering and Precision Measurement Technology, Mechatronics and Ambient-Assisted Living and Systems Technology. The participants were scientists from 21 countries, and 166 presentations were given. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions on 'Precision Engineering and Precision Measurement Technology'. Over three days the conference participants discussed novel scientific results in two sessions. The main topics of these sessions were: Measurement and Sensor Technology Process measurement Laser measurement Force measurement Weighing technology Temperature measurement Measurement dynamics and Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Technology Nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines Nanometrology Probes and tools Mechanical design Signal processing Control and visualization in NPM devices Significant research results from the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 622 'Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machines' funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) were presented as part of this topic. As the Chairmen, our special thanks are due to the International Programme Committee, the Organization Committee and the conference speakers as well as colleagues from the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology who helped make the conference a success. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the referees for their time spent reviewing the contributions and their valuable comments, and the whole

  15. Antenna pointing compensation based on precision optical measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, L. L.; Vivian, H. C.

    1988-01-01

    The pointing control loops of the Deep Space Network 70 meter antennas extend only to the Intermediate Reference Structure (IRS). Thus, distortion of the structure forward of the IRS due to unpredictable environmental loads can result in uncompensated boresight shifts which degrade blind pointing accuracy. A system is described which can provide real time bias commands to the pointing control system to compensate for environmental effects on blind pointing performance. The bias commands are computed in real time based on optical ranging measurements of the structure from the IRS to a number of selected points on the primary and secondary reflectors.

  16. A continuous measure of fingertip friction during precision grip.

    PubMed

    André, Thibaut; Lefèvre, Philippe; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2009-05-15

    When humans manipulate an object, the minimal grip force (GF) required to avoid slipping depends on the frictional properties between the fingers and the object. As a consequence, fingertip skin friction plays a critical role during object manipulation. Here, the effects of the normal force and moisture content on the skin's static coefficient of friction (CF) for human fingertips were studied. Ten subjects were asked to pinch an object with a given normal force. Slippage of the object on the fingertips was generated for different ranges of normal force using a linear translation stage. The exerted forces and moisture of the fingertips were then measured, and the static coefficient of friction was calculated as the ratio between the tangential force and normal force at slippage. These results demonstrate that the effects of the normal force and moisture content on the CF exhibit a complex interaction. For a given moisture condition, the CF varies as a power function of the normal force; in contrast, for a given normal force, the CF is described by a "bell-shaped" function of moisture. A global expression of the CF as a function of the normal force and moisture content is derived, and a method is proposed for a continuous measure of the CF. This new method shall be of particular interest in investigating dexterous manipulation.

  17. Precision measurement of the Λb(0) baryon lifetime.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palczewski, T; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-09-06

    The ratio of the Λb(0) baryon lifetime to that of the B(0) meson is measured using 1.0  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity in 7 TeV center-of-mass energy pp collisions at the LHC. The Λb(0) baryon is observed for the first time in the decay mode Λb(0)→J/ψpK-, while the B(0) meson decay used is the well known B(0)→J/ψπ+ K- mode, where the π+ K- mass is consistent with that of the K(*0)(892) meson. The ratio of lifetimes is measured to be 0.976±0.012±0.006, in agreement with theoretical expectations based on the heavy quark expansion. Using previous determinations of the B(0) meson lifetime, the Λb(0) lifetime is found to be 1.482±0.018±0.012  ps. In both cases, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic.

  18. Precision measurement of the {Sigma}{sup 0} hyperon mass

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.H.L.S.; Hartouni, E.P.; Kreisler, M.N.

    1998-02-17

    The research that is described in this paper is part of a program to study strong interaction mechanisms in proton proton collisions. The program consists of two experiments: Brookhaven E766 in which we studied the reactions pp {yields} p+ all charged particles with 27.5 GeV/c incident protons and Fermilab E690 in which we studied the reactions pp {yields} p+ all charged particles with 800 GeV/c incident protons. In these experiments, we employed state-of-the-art data acquisition sys- tems and acquired large samples of data: at Brookhaven we amassed 300 million high multiplicity events and at Fermilab, 5.5 billion events. Our uncertainty in the {Sigma}{sup 0} mass is more than 7 times smaller than the best previous result and was based on 16 times the statistics. Likewise, the {Sigma}{sup 0} - {Lambda}{sup 0} mass difference is more than 14 times more accurate than the previous best result. Finally, we note that this measurement is the first direct measurement of the {Sigma}{sup 0} mass.

  19. Precision measurement of crack closure state with vibrothermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefelbein, Bryan E.; Holland, Stephen D.; Bastawros, Ashraf

    2016-02-01

    Crack closure state is a controlling parameter in Vibrothermographpy testing as well as other Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques. The closure phenomenon reduces probability of detection (POD) by reducing the effective crack size. For this reason, understanding and quantifying closure has implications in the field of NDE. Cracks grown under fatigue have unpredictable and diffcult to quantify closure states. We propose a simple model to quantify crack closure and measure residual stress. The analysis is limited to the case of 1D residual loading of a through crack. Extensions can be made to the more applicable semi-elliptical surface crack. This model is introduced to replace the model previously suggested by Renshaw [1]. The model is applied to thermal data taken on rectangular test specimens with fatigue cracks.

  20. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-01

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  1. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  2. High Precision SC Cavity Diagnostics with HOM Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Josef; Hendrickson, Linda; McCormick, Douglas; May, Justin; Molloy, Stephen; Ross, Marc; /SLAC

    2006-08-18

    Experiments at the FLASH linac at DESY have demonstrated that the Higher Order Modes induced in Superconducting Cavities can be used to provide a variety of beam and cavity diagnostics. The centers of the cavities can be determined from the beam orbit which produces minimum power in the dipole HOM modes. The phase and amplitude of the dipole modes can be used as a high resolution beam position monitor, and the phase of the monopole modes to measure the beam phase relative to the accelerator RF. Beam orbit feedback which minimizes the dipole HOM power in a set of structures has been demonstrated. For most SC accelerators, the existing HOM couplers provide the necessary signals, and the down mix and digitizing electronics are straightforward, similar to those for a conventional BPM.

  3. Precise polarization measurements via detection of compton scattered electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Tvaskis, Vladas; Dutta, Dipangkar; Gaskell, David J.; Narayan, Amrendra

    2014-01-01

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to make a 4% measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering at very low Q{sup 2} of a longitudinally polarized electron beam off a proton target. One of the dominant experimental systematic uncertainties in Qweak will result from determining the beam polarization. A new Compton polarimeter was installed in the fall of 2010 to provide a non-invasive and continuous monitoring of the electron beam polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The Compton-scattered electrons are detected in four planes of diamond micro-strip detectors. We have achieved the design goals of <1% statistical uncertainty per hour and expect to achieve <1% systematic uncertainty.

  4. Precision measurement of the neutron spin dependent structure functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kolomensky, Y.G.

    1997-02-01

    In experiment E154 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center the spin dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup n} (x, Q{sup 2}) of the neutron was measured by scattering longitudinally polarized 48.3 GeV electrons off a longitudinally polarized {sup 3}He target. The high beam energy allowed the author to extend the kinematic coverage compared to the previous SLAC experiments to 0.014 {le} x {le} 0.7 with an average Q{sup 2} of 5 GeV{sup 2}. The author reports the integral of the spin dependent structure function in the measured range to be {integral}{sub 0.014}{sup 0.7} dx g{sub 1}{sup n}(x, 5 GeV{sup 2}) = {minus}0.036 {+-} 0.004(stat.) {+-} 0.005(syst.). The author observes relatively large values of g{sub 1}{sup n} at low x that call into question the reliability of data extrapolation to x {r_arrow} 0. Such divergent behavior disagrees with predictions of the conventional Regge theory, but is qualitatively explained by perturbative QCD. The author performs a Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD analysis of the world data on the nucleon spin dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n} paying careful attention to the experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Using the parameterizations of the helicity-dependent parton distributions obtained in the analysis, the author evolves the data to Q{sup 2} = 5 GeV{sup 2}, determines the first moments of the polarized structure functions of the proton and neutron, and finds agreement with the Bjorken sum rule.

  5. High-precision rotation angle measurement method based on monocular vision.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Zhao, Lingna; Xu, Shengli

    2014-07-01

    To accurately measure the attitude angles (pitch, roll, and yaw) of a rigid object that rotates in a space, we propose a high-precision rotation angle measurement method based on monocular vision. This method combines camera self-calibration, multiview geometry, and 3D measurement. This monocular vision measuring system consists of an area scan CCD, a prime lens, and a spots array target, which are fixed on the measured object. We can calculate the rotation angle according to the rebuilt rotating spots array target by using this monocular vision measuring system. The measurement precision of rotation angle can reach 1 arc sec in this paper's experiments. This method has high measurement precision and good stability. Therefore we can widely use this method in machinery manufacturing, engineering measurement, aerospace, and the military.

  6. Alignment Jig for the Precise Measurement of THz Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid H.

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized instrumentation package comprising a (1) Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, (2) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) consisting largely of surface-micromachined sensors of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, and (3) a microprocessor, all residing on a single circuit board, is part of the navigation system of a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft [e.g., the International Space Station (ISS)] for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. Variants of the package may also be useful in terrestrial collision-detection and -avoidance applications. The navigation solution obtained by integrating the IMU outputs is fed back to a correlator in the GPS receiver to aid in tracking GPS signals. The raw GPS and IMU data are blended in a Kalman filter to obtain an optimal navigation solution, which can be supplemented by range and velocity data obtained by use of (l) a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard the robotic spacecraft and/or (2) a laser dynamic range imager aboard the ISS. The novelty of the package lies mostly in those aspects of the design of the MEMS IMU that pertain to controlling mechanical resonances and stabilizing scale factors and biases.

  7. Precision electron flow measurements in a disk transmission line.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Waylon T.; Pelock, Michael D.; Martin, Jeremy Paul; Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.; Pointon, Timothy David

    2008-01-01

    An analytic model for electron flow in a system driving a fixed inductive load is described and evaluated with particle in cell simulations. The simple model allows determining the impedance profile for a magnetically insulated transmission line given the minimum gap desired, and the lumped inductance inside the transition to the minimum gap. The model allows specifying the relative electron flow along the power flow direction, including cases where the fractional electron flow decreases in the power flow direction. The electrons are able to return to the cathode because they gain energy from the temporally rising magnetic field. The simulations were done with small cell size to reduce numerical heating. An experiment to compare electron flow to the simulations was done. The measured electron flow is {approx}33% of the value from the simulations. The discrepancy is assumed to be due to a reversed electric field at the cathode because of the inductive load and falling electron drift velocity in the power flow direction. The simulations constrain the cathode electric field to zero, which gives the highest possible electron flow.

  8. Effect of inhomogeneities on high precision measurements of cosmological distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peel, Austin; Troxel, M. A.; Ishak, Mustapha

    2014-12-01

    We study effects of inhomogeneities on distance measures in an exact relativistic Swiss-cheese model of the Universe, focusing on the distance modulus. The model has Λ CDM background dynamics, and the "holes" are nonsymmetric structures described by the Szekeres metric. The Szekeres exact solution of Einstein's equations, which is inhomogeneous and anisotropic, allows us to capture potentially relevant effects on light propagation due to nontrivial evolution of structures in an exact framework. Light beams traversing a single Szekeres structure in different ways can experience either magnification or demagnification, depending on the particular path. Consistent with expectations, we find a shift in the distance modulus μ to distant sources due to demagnification when the light beam travels primarily through the void regions of our model. Conversely, beams are magnified when they propagate mainly through the overdense regions of the structures, and we explore a small additional effect due to time evolution of the structures. We then study the probability distributions of Δ μ =μΛ CDM-μSC for sources at different redshifts in various Swiss-cheese constructions, where the light beams travel through a large number of randomly oriented Szekeres holes with random impact parameters. We find for Δ μ the dispersions 0.004 ≤σΔ μ≤0.008 mag for sources with redshifts 1.0 ≤z ≤1.5 , which are smaller than the intrinsic dispersion of, for example, magnitudes of type Ia supernovae. The shapes of the distributions we obtain for our Swiss-cheese constructions are peculiar in the sense that they are not consistently skewed toward the demagnification side, as they are in analyses of lensing in cosmological simulations. Depending on the source redshift, the distributions for our models can be skewed to either the demagnification or the magnification side, reflecting a limitation of these constructions. This could be the result of requiring the continuity of Einstein

  9. A Precision Measurement of the Top Quark Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Kevin Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes the measurement of the top quark mass using events recorded during a ~ 230 pb-1 exposure of the D0 detector to proton-anti-proton (p$\\bar{p}$) collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The Standard Model of particle physics predicts that the top quark will decay into a bottom quark and a W boson close to 100% of the time. The bottom quark will hadronize (bind with another quark) and produce a jet of hadronic particles. The W bosons can decay either into a charged lepton and a neutrino or a pair of quarks. this dissertation focuses on the top quark (t$\\bar{t}$) events in which one W decays hadronically and the other decays leptonically. Two methods of identifying t$\\bar{t}$ events from the large number of events produced are used. The first is based on the unique topology of the final state particles of a heavy particle. By using the topological information of the event, the t$\\bar{t}$ events can be efficiently extracted from the background. The second method relies on the identification of the remnants of the long lived bottom quarks that are expected to be produced in the decay of almost every top quark. Because the largest background processes do not contain bottom quarks, this is an extremely efficient way to select the events retaining about 60% of the t$\\bar{t}$ events and removing almost 90% of the background. A kinematic fit to the top quark mass is performed on the t$\\bar{t}$ candidate events using the final state particles that are seen in the detector. A likelihood technique is then used to extract the most likely value of the top quark mass, mt, and signal fraction. The result for the topological selection is mt = 169.9 ± 5.8(statistical)$+8.0\\atop{-7.8}$(systematic) GeV while the results on the sample selected from identification of a b quark in the event is mt = 170.6 ± 4.2(statistical)$+6.3\\atop{-6.8}$(systematic) GeV.

  10. Precision Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters with KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation describes a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters m2 21, θ12 and constraints on θ13 based on a study of reactor antineutrinos at a baseline of ~ 180 km with the KamLAND detector. The data presented here was collected between April 2002 and November 2009, and amounts to a total exposure of 2.64 ± 0.07 × 1032 proton-years. For this exposure we expect 2140 ± 74(syst) antineutrino candidates from reactors, assuming standard model neutrino behavior, and 350±88(syst) candidates from background. The number observed is 1614. The ratio of background-subtracted candidates observed to expected is (NObs - NBkg)/ (NExp) = 0.59 ± 0.02(stat) ± 0.045(syst) which confirms reactor neutrino disappearance at greater than 5σ significance. Interpreting this deficit as being due to neutrino oscillation, the best-fit oscillation parameters from a three-flavor analysis are m2 21= 7.60+0.20 -0.19×10-5eV2, θ12 = 32.5 ± 2.9 degrees and sin2 θ13 = 0.025+0.035 -0.035, the 95% confidence-level upper limit on sin2 θ13 is sin2 θ13 < 0.083. Assuming CPT invariance, a combined analysis of KamLAND and solar neutrino data yields best-fit values: m2 21 = 7.60+0.20 -0.20 × 10-5eV2, θ12 = 33.5+1.0 -1.1 degrees, and sin2 θ13 = 0.013 ± 0.028 or sin2 θ13 < 0.06 at the 95% confidence level.

  11. Precision Mass Property Measurements Using a Five-Wire Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, Aaron J.

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring the moment of inertia of an object using a five-wire torsion pendulum design is described here. Typical moment of inertia measurement devices are capable of 1 part in 10(exp 3) accuracy and current state of the art techniques have capabilities of about one part in 10(exp 4). The five-wire apparatus design shows the prospect of improving on current state of the art. Current measurements using a laboratory prototype indicate a moment of inertia measurement precision better than a part in 10(exp 4). In addition, the apparatus is shown to be capable of measuring the mass center offset from the geometric center. Typical mass center measurement devices exhibit a measurement precision up to approximately 1 micrometer. Although the five-wire pendulum was not originally designed for mass center measurements, preliminary results indicate an apparatus with a similar design may have the potential of achieving state of the art precision.

  12. The Measurement of Little g: A Fertile Ground for Precision Measurement Science

    PubMed Central

    Faller, James E.

    2005-01-01

    The occasion of the 100th anniversary of Einstein’s “golden year” provides a wonderful opportunity to discuss some aspects of gravity—gravitation being an interest of Einstein’s that occurred a few years after 1905. I’ll do this by talking about the measurement of little g, the free-fall acceleration on the Earth’s surface that is mainly due to the Earth’s gravity but whose value is also affected by centrifugal forces that are a result of the Earth’s rotation. I will also describe two equivalence experiments and a test of the inverse-square law of gravitation. Finally, I will make some observations on the science of precision measurement—a subject that underpins much of scientific progress. PMID:27308179

  13. Spectropolarimetry with PEPSI at the LBT: accuracy vs. precision in magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Ilya; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Woche, Manfred; Hofmann, Axel

    2009-04-01

    We present the design of the new PEPSI spectropolarimeter to be installed at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in Arizona to measure the full set of Stokes parameters in spectral lines and outline its precision and the accuracy limiting factors.

  14. An automated 60 GHz open resonator system for precision dielectric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsar, Mohammed N.; Li, Xiaohui; Chi, Hua

    1990-12-01

    An automated open resonator system was designed and constructed for precision measurement of the loss tangent and dielectric permittivity of low absorbing materials at 60 GHz. The use of a high-Q hemispherical Fabry-Perot cavity together with highly stabilized synthesized phase-locked Gunn oscillator sources and a superheterodyne receiver made it possible to measure loss tangent values as low as 10 microrad. Both cavity length variation and frequency variation techniques were utilized to provide precise data.

  15. Nuclear Targets for a Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Radiative Width

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Philippe; Clinton, Eric; McWilliams, R.; Lawrence, Dave; Miskimen, Rory; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Asaturyan, Arshak; Baker, O.; Benton, LaRay; Bernstein, Aron; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Dale, Daniel; Danagoulian, Samuel; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, Raphael; Deur, Alexandre; DOLGOLENKO, A.; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Evdokimov, Anatoly; Feng, JIng; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Gasparian, Ashot; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hardy, K.; Ito, Mark; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kingsberry, Paul; Kolarkar, Ameya; Konchatnyi, Mykhailo; Korchin, O.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kowalski, Stanley; Kubantsev, Mikhail; Kubarovsky, Valery; LARIN, Ilya; MATVEEV, V.; McNulty, Dustin; Milbrath, Brian; Minehart, Ralph; Mochalov, Vasiliy; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Nakagawa, Itaru; Overby, Steven; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Payen, Marvin; Pedroni, Ronald; Prok, Yelena; Ritchie, Barry; Salgado, Carlos; Sitnikov, Anatoly; Sober, Daniel; Stephens, W.; Teymurazyan, Aram; Underwood, Jarreas; VASILIEV, A.; VEREBRYUSOV, V.; Vishnyakov, Vladimir; Wood, Michael

    2009-12-01

    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, density * T, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and 208Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +/- 0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an x-ray attenuation technique is +/- 0.43%.

  16. Pipken Award: Nuclear physics mysteries revealed by precision ion trap measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Physics is a fundamental science discipline for over 100 years, and started with precision measurements by Rutherford. Much has been learned and understood in the meantime, but some questions remain and also new nuclear phenomena have been discovered. Precision experiments open new venue to address these. Ion trap technologies, originally conceived for atomic and molecular physics have been adapted to the specific requirements stemming from nuclear physics, for example, to couple ion traps to accelerators and achieve very high speed and efficiencies. In this talk I will show some recent examples and technical developments pertaining to nuclear physics questions and phenomena and how they are addressed with precision ion trap measurements.

  17. Methods for high precision 14C AMS measurement of atmospheric CO2 at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Graven, H D; Guilderson, T P; Keeling, R F

    2006-10-18

    Development of {sup 14}C analysis with precision better than 2{per_thousand} has the potential to expand the utility of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} measurements for carbon cycle investigations as atmospheric gradients currently approach traditional measurement precision of 2-5{per_thousand}. The AMS facility at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, produces high and stable beam currents that enable efficient acquisition times for large numbers of {sup 14}C counts. One million {sup 14}C atoms can be detected in approximately 25 minutes, suggesting that near 1{per_thousand} counting precision is economically feasible at LLNL. The overall uncertainty in measured values is ultimately determined by the variation between measured ratios in several sputtering periods of the same sample and by the reproducibility of replicate samples. Experiments on the collection of one million counts on replicate samples of CO{sub 2} extracted from a whole air cylinder show a standard deviation of 1.7{per_thousand} in 36 samples measured over several wheels. This precision may be limited by the reproducibility of Oxalic Acid I standard samples, which is considerably poorer. We outline the procedures for high-precision sample handling and analysis that have enabled reproducibility in the cylinder extraction samples at the <2{per_thousand} level and describe future directions to continue increasing measurement precision at LLNL.

  18. Application of machine vision based measurement in precise assembly of miniature parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cui; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiwen; Wang, Lin; Luo, Yi

    2010-08-01

    In manufacturing of precise miniature devices, automatic assembly is the trend to replace manual work for better quality and higher yield. Precise measurement is a critical issue during assembly process because the parts are often complicated and quite different in size, shapes, surface condition, etc. The position and orientation error must be determined precisely before assembly. In the developed automatic assembly system, microscopic machine vision and precise linear stages were integrated in the measurement system for higher detection resolution and larger measurement range in working space. As to the extract of contour of parts with different surface condition, dynamic illumination control and different combination of feature detection algorithms were applied. The errors brought by non-perpendicularity among precision linear stages were compensated and the movement errors were reduced with effective measurement strategy. The measuring accuracy was validated with a special fabricated precise template. Assembly tests were done with the developed system and results indicate that the required position and orientation accuracy can be met successfully and consequently the assembly task can be fulfilled.

  19. A study of artificial eyes for the measurement of precision in eye-trackers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Mulvey, Fiona B; Pelz, Jeff B; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2016-07-06

    The precision of an eye-tracker is critical to the correct identification of eye movements and their properties. To measure a system's precision, artificial eyes (AEs) are often used, to exclude eye movements influencing the measurements. A possible issue, however, is that it is virtually impossible to construct AEs with sufficient complexity to fully represent the human eye. To examine the consequences of this limitation, we tested currently used AEs from three manufacturers of eye-trackers and compared them to a more complex model, using 12 commercial eye-trackers. Because precision can be measured in various ways, we compared different metrics in the spatial domain and analyzed the power-spectral densities in the frequency domain. To assess how precision measurements compare in artificial and human eyes, we also measured precision using human recordings on the same eye-trackers. Our results show that the modified eye model presented can cope with all eye-trackers tested and acts as a promising candidate for further development of a set of AEs with varying pupil size and pupil-iris contrast. The spectral analysis of both the AE and human data revealed that human eye data have different frequencies that likely reflect the physiological characteristics of human eye movements. We also report the effects of sample selection methods for precision calculations. This study is part of the EMRA/COGAIN Eye Data Quality Standardization Project.

  20. Machine vision for high-precision volume measurement applied to levitated containerless material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, R.C.; Schmidt, D.P.; Rogers, J.R.; Kelton, K.F.; Hyers, R.W.

    2005-12-15

    By combining the best practices in optical dilatometry with numerical methods, a high-speed and high-precision technique has been developed to measure the volume of levitated, containerlessly processed samples with subpixel resolution. Containerless processing provides the ability to study highly reactive materials without the possibility of contamination affecting thermophysical properties. Levitation is a common technique used to isolate a sample as it is being processed. Noncontact optical measurement of thermophysical properties is very important as traditional measuring methods cannot be used. Modern, digitally recorded images require advanced numerical routines to recover the subpixel locations of sample edges and, in turn, produce high-precision measurements.

  1. High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement with frequency scanned interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.-J.; Deibel, Jason; Nyberg, Sven; Riles, Keith

    2005-07-01

    We report high-precision absolute distance and vibration measurements performed with frequency scanned interferometry using a pair of single-mode optical fibers. Absolute distance was determined by counting the interference fringes produced while scanning the laser frequency. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to determine frequency changes during scanning. Two multiple-distance-measurement analysis techniques were developed to improve distance precision and to extract the amplitude and frequency of vibrations. Under laboratory conditions, measurement precision of {approx}50 nm was achieved for absolute distances ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m by use of the first multiple-distance-measurement technique. The second analysis technique has the capability to measure vibration frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an amplitude as small as a few nanometers without a priori knowledge.

  2. High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement with frequency scanned interferometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Jun; Deibel, Jason; Nyberg, Sven; Riles, Keith

    2005-07-01

    We report high-precision absolute distance and vibration measurements performed with frequency scanned interferometry using a pair of single-mode optical fibers. Absolute distance was determined by counting the interference fringes produced while scanning the laser frequency. A high-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer was used to determine frequency changes during scanning. Two multiple-distance-measurement analysis techniques were developed to improve distance precision and to extract the amplitude and frequency of vibrations. Under laboratory conditions, measurement precision of approximately 50 nm was achieved for absolute distances ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m by use of the first multiple-distance-measurement technique. The second analysis technique has the capability to measure vibration frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an amplitude as small as a few nanometers without a priori knowledge.

  3. Flexible, non-contact and high-precision measurements of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, A.

    2016-06-01

    A high-accuracy cylindrical coordinate measuring instrument developed for the measurement of optical components is presented. It is equipped with an optical point sensor system including a high aperture probe. This setup allows measurements to be performed with high accuracy in a flexible way. Applications include the measurement of the topography of high-precision aspheric and freeform lenses and diffractive structures. High measuring speeds guarantee the implementation in a closed-loop production process.

  4. Research on high precision equal-angle scanning method in rotary kiln temperature measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaosheng; Guo, Zhongyuan; You, Changhui; Liu, Jinsong; Cheng, Yang; Tang, Huaming

    2016-05-01

    Aiming at traditional horizontal equal-angle scanning method's disadvantage of measurement error, a high precision equal-angle scanning method is proposed, the proposed method establishes a tilt scanning model by the following steps: introducing height variable, precisely calculating the viewing angle, building scanning model. The model is used to calculate scanning position on rotary kiln's surface, which helps to locate and track temperature variation. The experiment shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the precision of temperature spots' location on the rotary kiln surface.

  5. Measurement method for the transition width of precision approach path indicator based on spectral means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Haiping; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Wanlu; Pan, Jiangen; Liu, Muqing

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces a new colorimetric measurement method for the transition width of the precision approach path indicator. The measurement system consists of a spectrometer, a fiber probe, a moving means and a ruler. The spectrometer is used to measure the chromaticity coordinates to distinguish the white and red light. The fiber probe is the input of the spectrometer. It is fixed to the moving means, which can move along with the upright rule. The precision approach path indicator certain distance away projects the light to the fiber probe. By moving the fiber probe crossing the transition sector up and down, the chromaticity coordinate of the light moves from the white area to the red area. The intermediate distance of the fiber probe is the width of the transition sector. Use the ruler to measure it and then calculate it to angle. With the measurement distance of 10 meter and the precision of the ruler 1 millimeter, the precision of the system can be 21 seconds of arc. Compared with the traditional measurement methods, the method introduced in this paper is more precise and it strictly accords with the ICAO standard Annex 14.

  6. A high-precision K-band LFMCW radar for range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yingzhuo; Chen, Xiuwei; Zou, Yongliao

    2016-11-01

    K-band LFMCW radar may be applied in high-precision range measurement, if its range resolution is made be close to mm magnitude, good performance is not only needed in hardware design, algorithm selection and optimization is but also needed. In K-band LFMCW radar system, CZT algorithm is modified according to practical radar echo signal, its simulation model is built in the System Generator tool software, the corresponding algorithm is implemented in FPGA. K-band LFMCW radar may be applied in range measurement of great volume storage tank, the outfield experiment was done according to application, experiment result shows that range measurement precision may reach mm magnitude, the system can meet the requirement of remote high-precision measurement.

  7. Method to precisely measure the phase of few-cycle laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qing; Lu, Peixiang; Lan, Pengfei; Yang, Zhenyu; Li, Yunhua

    2008-04-28

    A new method of accurately measuring the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of few-cycle pulses is presented. The high-energy photo-electron spectrum by a few-cycle pulse is dominated by photoelectrons bursting in very few short time intervals near the maximum of the pulse envelope. For high laser intensities, the positions of interference fringes in the high-energy cutoff region are very sensitive to the CEP, which can be used to measure and stabilize the CEP precisely. The measurement precision of the CEP strongly depends on the laser intensity for the fastest photoelectrons.

  8. A Precision Measurement Of The Neutral Pion Lifetime: The PRIMEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Miskimen, Rory

    2008-10-13

    The PRIMEX collaboration at Jefferson Lab is completing an experimental analysis to obtain a precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime. Results from the experiment will be presented and comparisons made with the chiral anomaly prediction and NLO calculations. An extension of the experiment to 12 GeV for measurements of the {eta} and {eta}' radiative widths is discussed.

  9. Progress on Passive Sensor for Ultra-Precise Measurement of C02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Georgieva, Elena; Wilson, Emily

    2003-01-01

    We will present results from a novel instrument employing a Fabry-Perot interferometer to measure column carbon dioxide with great precision. These measurements are very important for improving our understanding of the global warming phenomenon. The instrument technique can be extended to a number of other important trace gases in the atmosphere.

  10. Measurement Model and Precision Analysis of Accelerometers for Maglev Vibration Isolation Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qianqian; Yue, Honghao; Liu, Rongqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Ding, Liang; Liang, Tian; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-01-01

    High precision measurement of acceleration levels is required to allow active control for vibration isolation platforms. It is necessary to propose an accelerometer configuration measurement model that yields such a high measuring precision. In this paper, an accelerometer configuration to improve measurement accuracy is proposed. The corresponding calculation formulas of the angular acceleration were derived through theoretical analysis. A method is presented to minimize angular acceleration noise based on analysis of the root mean square noise of the angular acceleration. Moreover, the influence of installation position errors and accelerometer orientation errors on the calculation precision of the angular acceleration is studied. Comparisons of the output differences between the proposed configuration and the previous planar triangle configuration under the same installation errors are conducted by simulation. The simulation results show that installation errors have a relatively small impact on the calculation accuracy of the proposed configuration. To further verify the high calculation precision of the proposed configuration, experiments are carried out for both the proposed configuration and the planar triangle configuration. On the basis of the results of simulations and experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed configuration has higher angular acceleration calculation precision and can be applied to different platforms. PMID:26287203

  11. Measurement Model and Precision Analysis of Accelerometers for Maglev Vibration Isolation Platforms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qianqian; Yue, Honghao; Liu, Rongqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyou; Ding, Liang; Liang, Tian; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-08-14

    High precision measurement of acceleration levels is required to allow active control for vibration isolation platforms. It is necessary to propose an accelerometer configuration measurement model that yields such a high measuring precision. In this paper, an accelerometer configuration to improve measurement accuracy is proposed. The corresponding calculation formulas of the angular acceleration were derived through theoretical analysis. A method is presented to minimize angular acceleration noise based on analysis of the root mean square noise of the angular acceleration. Moreover, the influence of installation position errors and accelerometer orientation errors on the calculation precision of the angular acceleration is studied. Comparisons of the output differences between the proposed configuration and the previous planar triangle configuration under the same installation errors are conducted by simulation. The simulation results show that installation errors have a relatively small impact on the calculation accuracy of the proposed configuration. To further verify the high calculation precision of the proposed configuration, experiments are carried out for both the proposed configuration and the planar triangle configuration. On the basis of the results of simulations and experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed configuration has higher angular acceleration calculation precision and can be applied to different platforms.

  12. Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton.

    PubMed

    Mooser, A; Ulmer, S; Blaum, K; Franke, K; Kracke, H; Leiteritz, C; Quint, W; Rodegheri, C C; Smorra, C; Walz, J

    2014-05-29

    One of the fundamental properties of the proton is its magnetic moment, µp. So far µp has been measured only indirectly, by analysing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a magnetic radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792847350(9)μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty-year-old indirect measurement, in which significant theoretical bound state corrections were required to obtain µp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons.

  13. Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooser, A.; Ulmer, S.; Blaum, K.; Franke, K.; Kracke, H.; Leiteritz, C.; Quint, W.; Rodegheri, C. C.; Smorra, C.; Walz, J.

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental properties of the proton is its magnetic moment, µp. So far µp has been measured only indirectly, by analysing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a magnetic radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792847350(9)μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty-year-old indirect measurement, in which significant theoretical bound state corrections were required to obtain µp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons.

  14. Segmentation quality evaluation using region-based precision and recall measures for remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Feng, Xuezhi; Xiao, Pengfeng; He, Guangjun; Zhu, Liujun

    2015-04-01

    Segmentation of remote sensing images is a critical step in geographic object-based image analysis. Evaluating the performance of segmentation algorithms is essential to identify effective segmentation methods and optimize their parameters. In this study, we propose region-based precision and recall measures and use them to compare two image partitions for the purpose of evaluating segmentation quality. The two measures are calculated based on region overlapping and presented as a point or a curve in a precision-recall space, which can indicate segmentation quality in both geometric and arithmetic respects. Furthermore, the precision and recall measures are combined by using four different methods. We examine and compare the effectiveness of the combined indicators through geometric illustration, in an effort to reveal segmentation quality clearly and capture the trade-off between the two measures. In the experiments, we adopted the multiresolution segmentation (MRS) method for evaluation. The proposed measures are compared with four existing discrepancy measures to further confirm their capabilities. Finally, we suggest using a combination of the region-based precision-recall curve and the F-measure for supervised segmentation evaluation.

  15. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-05-09

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes.

  16. Navigation Doppler Lidar Sensor for Precision Altitude and Vector Velocity Measurements Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego F.; Lockhard, George; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce; Hines, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    An all fiber Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) system is under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for precision descent and landing applications on planetary bodies. The sensor produces high resolution line of sight range, altitude above ground, ground relative attitude, and high precision velocity vector measurements. Previous helicopter flight test results demonstrated the NDL measurement concepts, including measurement precision, accuracies, and operational range. This paper discusses the results obtained from a recent campaign to test the improved sensor hardware, and various signal processing algorithms applicable to real-time processing. The NDL was mounted in an instrumentation pod aboard an Erickson Air-Crane helicopter and flown over vegetation free terrain. The sensor was one of several sensors tested in this field test by NASA?s Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project.

  17. A precise measurement of the weak mixing angle in neutrino-nucleon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeller, Geralyn P.

    This dissertation reports a precise determination of the weak mixing angle, sin2 thetaW, from measurement of the ratios of neutral current to charged current neutrino deep inelastic cross sections. High statistics samples of separately collected neutrino and antineutrino events, resulting from exposure to the Fermilab neutrino beam during the period from 1996 to 1997, allowed the reduction of systematic errors associated with charm production and other sources. The final value, sin 2 thetaW(on shell) = 0.2277 +/- 0.0013 (stat) +/- 0.0009 (syst), lies three standard deviations above the standard model prediction. The measurement is currently the most precise determination of sin2 theta W in neutrino-nucleon scattering, surpassing its predecessors by a factor of two in precision. A model independent analysis recasts the same data into a measurement of effective left and right handed neutral current quark couplings.

  18. Precision ESR measurements of transverse anisotropy in the single-molecule magnet Ni4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Charles A.; Allão Cassaro, Rafael A.; Friedman, Jonathan R.

    2016-12-01

    We present a method for precisely measuring the tunnel splitting in single-molecule magnets (SMMs) using electron-spin resonance, and use these measurements to precisely and independently determine the underlying transverse anisotropy parameter, given a certain class of transitions. By diluting samples of the SMM Ni4 via cocrystallization in a diamagnetic isostructural analog we obtain markedly narrower resonance peaks than are observed in undiluted samples. Using custom loop-gap resonators we measure the transitions at several frequencies, allowing a precise determination of the tunnel splitting. Because the transition under investigation occurs at zero field, and arises due to a first-order perturbation from the transverse anisotropy, we can determine the magnitude of this anisotropy independent of any other Hamiltonian parameters. This method can be applied to other SMMs with tunnel splittings arising from first-order transverse anisotropy perturbations.

  19. Effectiveness of Spectral Similarity Measures to Develop Precise Crop Spectra for Hyperspectral Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, H.; Krishna Mohan, B.

    2014-11-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective to check effectiveness of spectral similarity measures to develop precise crop spectra from the collected hyperspectral field spectra. In Multispectral and Hyperspectral remote sensing, classification of pixels is obtained by statistical comparison (by means of spectral similarity) of known field or library spectra to unknown image spectra. Though these algorithms are readily used, little emphasis has been placed on use of various spectral similarity measures to select precise crop spectra from the set of field spectra. Conventionally crop spectra are developed after rejecting outliers based only on broad-spectrum analysis. Here a successful attempt has been made to develop precise crop spectra based on spectral similarity. As unevaluated data usage leads to uncertainty in the image classification, it is very crucial to evaluate the data. Hence, notwithstanding the conventional method, the data precision has been performed effectively to serve the purpose of the present research work. The effectiveness of developed precise field spectra was evaluated by spectral discrimination measures and found higher discrimination values compared to spectra developed conventionally. Overall classification accuracy for the image classified by field spectra selected conventionally is 51.89% and 75.47% for the image classified by field spectra selected precisely based on spectral similarity. KHAT values are 0.37, 0.62 and Z values are 2.77, 9.59 for image classified using conventional and precise field spectra respectively. Reasonable higher classification accuracy, KHAT and Z values shows the possibility of a new approach for field spectra selection based on spectral similarity measure.

  20. A precise measurement of the [Formula: see text] meson oscillation frequency.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellán Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Buchanan, E; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Demmer, M; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fohl, K; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; C Forshaw, D; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; K Kuonen, A; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusardi, N; Lusiani, A; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Pappenheimer, C; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; W Ronayne, J; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Todd, J; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2016-01-01

    The oscillation frequency, [Formula: see text], of [Formula: see text] mesons is measured using semileptonic decays with a [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] meson in the final state. The data sample corresponds to 3.0[Formula: see text] of pp collisions, collected by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies [Formula: see text] = 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. A combination of the two decay modes gives [Formula: see text], where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. This is the most precise single measurement of this parameter. It is consistent with the current world average and has similar precision.

  1. Frequency scanning interferometry in ATLAS: remote, multiple, simultaneous and precise distance measurements in a hostile environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, P. A.; Howell, D. F.; Nickerson, R. B.

    2004-11-01

    ATLAS is the largest particle detector under construction at CERN Geneva. Frequency scanning interferometry (FSI), also known as absolute distance interferometry, will be used to monitor shape changes of the SCT (semiconductor tracker), a particle tracker in the inaccessible, high radiation environment at the centre of ATLAS. Geodetic grids with several hundred fibre-coupled interferometers (30 mm to 1.5 m long) will be measured simultaneously. These lengths will be measured by tuning two lasers and comparing the resulting phase shifts in grid line interferometers (GLIs) with phase shifts in a reference interferometer. The novel inexpensive GLI design uses diverging beams to reduce sensitivity to misalignment, albeit with weaker signals. One micrometre precision length measurements of grid lines will allow 10 µm precision tracker shape corrections to be fed into ATLAS particle tracking analysis. The technique was demonstrated by measuring a 400 mm interferometer to better than 400 nm and a 1195 mm interferometer to better than 250 nm. Precise measurements were possible, even with poor quality signals, using numerical analysis of thousands of intensity samples. Errors due to drifts in interferometer length were substantially reduced using two lasers tuned in opposite directions and the precision was further improved by linking measurements made at widely separated laser frequencies.

  2. Non-contact precision profile measurement to rough-surface objects with optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoe, Taro; Takahashi, Satoru; Takamasu, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we developed a new method for the high precision and contactless profile measurement of rough-surfaced objects using optical frequency combs. The uncertainty of the frequency beats of an optical frequency comb is very small (relative uncertainty is 10-10 in our laboratory). In addition, the wavelengths corresponding to these frequency beats are long enough to measure rough-surfaced objects. We can conduct high-precision measurement because several GHz frequency beats can be used if the capability of the detector permits. Moreover, two optical frequency combs with Rb-stabilized repetition frequencies are used for the measurement instead of an RF frequency oscillator; thus, we can avoid the cyclic error caused by the RF frequency oscillator. We measured the profile of a wood cylinder with a rough surface (diameter is approximately 113.2 mm) and compared the result with that of coordinate measuring machine (CMM).

  3. Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    The challenge to measure the properties of the proton with great precision inspires very different branches of physics. The magnetic moment of the proton is a fundamental property of this particle. So far it has only been measured indirectly, by analyzing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792 847 350 (9) μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty year-old indirect measurement by D. Kleppner et al., in which significant theoretical bound-state corrections were required to obtain μp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, grant QU122/3.

  4. Towards 1‰ AMS 14C measurement precision at the Rafter Radiocarbon Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, J. C.; Baisden, T. T.; Zondervan, A.; Kaiser, J.; Brailsford, G.; Moss, R.

    2012-12-01

    The radiocarbon content of atmospheric CO2 (Δ14CO2) is an increasingly important tracer used to quantify the different sources of CO2 in the atmosphere. Due to the absence of 14C in fossil fuels, 14CO2 is perhaps the best way to quantify recently added fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere. The sea-air CO2 flux also has Δ14C different from the atmosphere, so Δ14CO2 observations can be used to examine the one-way gross CO2 flux out of the oceans. Each one part per million (ppm) of fossil fuel CO2 added to the atmosphere decreases Δ14CO2 by about 2.6‰, and fossil fuel CO2 enhancements are typically in the range of a few ppm. The detection capability is therefore strongly influenced by the precision of 14C measurements. The World Meteorological Organization recommends a goal of 1‰ 14C precision, and Δ14CO2 measurements can currently be made to slightly better than 2‰ at several facilities. New Zealand has a long history of atmospheric Δ14CO2 measurements, starting in Wellington in 1955. Rafter lab recently obtained a new accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) and developed a new graphitization system. A major focus emerging from the upgrade is the opportunity to expand the high precision atmospheric Δ14CO2 capability. Results from the first year of measurements indicate 1.3‰ repeatability on modern atmospheric CO2 in samples as small as one liter of whole air, a significant improvement over previously reported AMS 14C repeatability. We use new measurements from the long-term Baring Head Δ14CO2 record demonstrate the utility of this new high precision capability in interpreting atmospheric signals. We will report on development of graphitization procedures and AMS methodology which allow us to achieve this precision. Progress towards 1‰ precision will be discussed.

  5. Super precise measurement system controlled by computer in a servo writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lian X.; Yu, Shengsheng; Yuan, Zhimin

    1993-09-01

    The paper gives a realization of the positioning system in a servo-writer, and discusses the Super Precise Measurement System controlled by a computer in detail. It gives a parallel 16-bit interface circuit with higher data transmission ratio, and analyses the facters which affect the measurement accuracy. The measurement accuracy of the system for the position is O.O2μm.

  6. Measurement of precision oscillator phase noise using the two-oscillator coherent down-conversion technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnanelli, Christopher J.; Cashin, William F.

    1992-01-01

    The characterization of precision frequency standard phase noise and spurious outputs is addressed, using the two-oscillator coherent downconversion technique. Focus is on techniques for making accurate measurements of phase noise and spurious outputs within 100 KHz of a carrier. Significant sources of measurement error related to hardware design problems and inadequate measurement procedures are discussed: measurement errors resulting from system noise sources, phase-locked loop effects, and system bandwidth limitations. In addition, methods and design considerations for minimizing the effects of such errors are presented. Analytic discussions and results are supplemented with actual test data and measurements made using measurement hardware developed at the Ball Corporation, Efratom Division.

  7. Precision of repeated, Doppler-derived indirect blood pressure measurements in conscious psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew S; Davidowski, Leslie A; Rao, Sangeeta; Hill, Ashley E

    2011-06-01

    Although the use of indirect methods for measuring blood pressure has become commonplace in dogs and cats, it is uncertain whether these methods can be extended to avian species with any proven accuracy or precision. To evaluate the precision of indirect blood pressure measurement in conscious psittacine birds by the Doppler flow method, 25 psittacine birds, weighing between 230 and 1263 g and representing 17 commonly kept species, were examined. Birds were manually restrained, and indirect blood pressure measurements were obtained by placing a cuff around the limb proximal to a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector held over either the basilic or cranial tibial artery. Three sets of 3 measurements were obtained from each wing and leg site, with cuff size and site based on pilot study data identifying the selection criteria of cuff placement with the least variance among repeated measurements. A mixed-effects linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the differences among mean blood pressure measurements in the individual bird, obtained from the wing versus leg site as well as from 3 different cuff placements at each site. Results showed variation attributable to the limb was not significant. However, blood pressure measurements varied significantly between cuff placements on the same limb from the same bird and among individual birds. The precision of these indirect blood pressure measurements was poor. From these results, the meaning and value of Doppler-derived indirect blood pressure measurements obtained in psittacine birds remains in question, warranting further research.

  8. Digital PCR modeling for maximal sensitivity, dynamic range and measurement precision.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Nivedita; Wessel, Thomas; Marks, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The great promise of digital PCR is the potential for unparalleled precision enabling accurate measurements for genetic quantification. A challenge associated with digital PCR experiments, when testing unknown samples, is to perform experiments at dilutions allowing the detection of one or more targets of interest at a desired level of precision. While theory states that optimal precision (Po) is achieved by targeting ~1.59 mean copies per partition (λ), and that dynamic range (R) includes the space spanning one positive (λL) to one negative (λU) result from the total number of partitions (n), these results are tempered for the practitioner seeking to construct digital PCR experiments in the laboratory. A mathematical framework is presented elucidating the relationships between precision, dynamic range, number of partitions, interrogated volume, and sensitivity in digital PCR. The impact that false reaction calls and volumetric variation have on sensitivity and precision is next considered. The resultant effects on sensitivity and precision are established via Monte Carlo simulations reflecting the real-world likelihood of encountering such scenarios in the laboratory. The simulations provide insight to the practitioner on how to adapt experimental loading concentrations to counteract any one of these conditions. The framework is augmented with a method of extending the dynamic range of digital PCR, with and without increasing n, via the use of dilutions. An example experiment demonstrating the capabilities of the framework is presented enabling detection across 3.33 logs of starting copy concentration.

  9. An optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system for measuring remote and high precision step height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system including a Fizeau interferometer and a Michelson interferometer is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer which is inserted in the remote sensing field is used for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which is stabilized by a feedback loop works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry to demodulate the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by using the symmetrical peak-searching method to address the peak of the low coherence interferogram precisely and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  10. Remote and high precision step height measurement with an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-03-01

    An optical fiber multiplexing low coherence and high coherence interferometric system, which includes a Fizeau interferometer as the sensing element and a Michelson interferometer as the demodulating element, is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer is placed in the remote field for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry is employed for demodulating the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by searching precisely the peak of the low coherence interferogram symmetrically from two sides of the low coherence interferogram and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  11. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed {beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 26}Si

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Banu, A.; Chen, L.; Golovko, V. V.; Goodwin, J.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.

    2010-09-15

    We measured the half-life of the superallowed 0{sup +{yields}}0{sup +} {beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 26}Si to be 2245.3(7) ms. We used pure sources of {sup 26}Si and employed a high-efficiency gas counter, which was sensitive to positrons from both this nuclide and its daughter {sup 26}Al{sup m}. The data were analyzed as a linked parent-daughter decay. To contribute meaningfully to any test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix, the ft value of a superallowed transition must be determined to a precision of 0.1% or better. With a precision of 0.03%, the present result is more than sufficient to be compatible with that requirement. Only the branching ratio now remains to be measured precisely before a {+-}0.1% ft value can be obtained for the superallowed transition from {sup 26}Si.

  12. High precision measurements of the diamond Hugoniot in and above the melt region

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D; Boehly, T; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Eggert, J; McWilliams, R S; Collins, G

    2008-08-05

    High precision laser-driven shock wave measurements of the diamond principal Hugoniot have been made at pressures between 6 and 19 Mbar. Shock velocities were determined with 0.3-1.1% precision using a velocity interferometer. Impedance matching analysis, incorporating systematic errors in the equation-of-state of the quartz standard, was used to determine the Hugoniot with 1.2-2.7% precision in density. The results are in good agreement with published ab initio calculations which predict a small negative melt slope along the Hugoniot, but disagree with previous laser-driven shock wave experiments which had observed a large density increase in the melt region. In the extensive solid-liquid coexistence regime between 6 and 10 Mbar these measurements indicate that the mixed phase may be slightly more dense than would be expected from a simple interpolation between liquid and solid Hugoniots.

  13. On precise phase difference measurement approach using border stability of detection resolution.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lina; Su, Xin; Zhou, Wei; Ou, Xiaojuan

    2015-01-01

    For the precise phase difference measurement, this paper develops an improved dual phase coincidence detection method. The measurement resolution of the digital phase coincidence detection circuits is always limited, for example, only at the nanosecond level. This paper reveals a new way to improve the phase difference measurement precision by using the border stability of the circuit detection fuzzy areas. When a common oscillator signal is used to detect the phase coincidence with the two comparison signals, there will be two detection fuzzy areas for the reason of finite detection resolution surrounding the strict phase coincidence. Border stability of fuzzy areas and the fluctuation difference of the two fuzzy areas can be even finer than the picoseconds level. It is shown that the system resolution obtained only depends on the stability of the circuit measurement resolution which is much better than the measurement device resolution itself.

  14. Precision Excited State Lifetime Measurements for Atomic Parity Violation and Atomic Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, Jerry; Patterson, Brian; Gearba, Alina; Snell, Jeremy; Knize, Randy

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of excited state atomic lifetimes provide a valuable test of atomic theory, allowing comparisons between experimental and theoretical transition dipole matrix elements. Such tests are important in Rb and Cs, where atomic parity violating experiments have been performed or proposed, and where atomic structure calculations are required to properly interpret the parity violating effect. In optical lattice clocks, precision lifetime measurements can aid in reducing the uncertainty of frequency shifts due to the surrounding blackbody radiation field. We will present our technique for precisely measuring excited state lifetimes which employs mode-locked ultrafast lasers interacting with two counter-propagating atomic beams. This method allows the timing in the experiment to be based on the inherent timing stability of mode-locked lasers, while counter-propagating atomic beams provides cancellation of systematic errors due to atomic motion to first order. Our current progress measuring Rb excited state lifetimes will be presented along with future planned measurements in Yb.

  15. High precision semi-automated vertebral height measurement using computed tomography: A phantom study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Yao, Lawrence; Ward, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of vertebral heights is necessary for the evaluation of many disorders affecting the spine. High precision is particularly important for longitudinal studies where subtle changes are to be detected. Computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice for high precision studies. Radiography and dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) use 2D images to assess 3D structures, which can result in poor visualization due to the superimposition of extraneous anatomical objects on the same 2D space. We present a semi-automated computer algorithm to measure vertebral heights in the 3D space of a CT scan. The algorithm segments the vertebral bodies, extracts their end plates and computes vertebral heights as the mean distance between end plates. We evaluated the precision of our algorithm using repeat scans of an anthropomorphic vertebral phantom. Our method has high precision, with a coefficient of variation of only 0.197% and Bland-Altmann 95% limits of agreement of [-0.11, 0.13] mm. For local heights (anterior, middle, posterior) the algorithm was up to 4.2 times more precise than a manual mid-sagittal plane method.

  16. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 {+-} 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7{sigma} smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these "electronic" determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup -4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  17. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane, Mehdi; Collaboration: PRad Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 ± 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7σ smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these 'electronic' determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup −4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  18. Manganese-56 coincidence-counting facility precisely measures neutron-source strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Volpi, A.; Larsen, R. N.; Porges, K. G. A.

    1969-01-01

    Precise measurement of neutron-source strength is provided by a manganese 56 coincidence-counting facility using the manganese-bath technique. This facility combines nuclear instrumentation with coincidence-counting techniques to handle a wide variety of radioisotope-counting requirements.

  19. Research progress on real-time measurement of soil attributes for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid and accurate measurement of soil organic matter content and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients is the basis for variable rate fertilizer application in precision agriculture, and it is also a difficult problem that scientists have been committed to resolving. On the basis of ...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 136 - Precision and Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Methods for Measuring Metals D Appendix D to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Metals Twenty-eight selected methods from “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,” EPA-600/4... Accuracy Section with the following: Precision and Accuracy An interlaboratory study on metal analyses...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 136 - Precision and Recovery Statements for Methods for Measuring Metals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Methods for Measuring Metals D Appendix D to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Metals Twenty-eight selected methods from “Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes,” EPA-600/4... Accuracy Section with the following: Precision and Accuracy An interlaboratory study on metal analyses...

  2. Evaluation of a high-precision gear measuring machine for helix measurement using helix and wedge artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tetsuya; Kondo, Yohan

    2016-08-01

    High-precision gears are required for advanced motion and power transmission. The reliability of the measured value becomes important as the gear accuracy increases, and the establishment of a traceability system is needed. Therefore, a high-precision gear measuring machine (GMM) with a smaller uncertainty is expected to improve the gear calibration uncertainty. For this purpose, we developed a prototype of a high-precision GMM that adopts a direct drive mechanism and other features. Then, the high measurement capability of the developed GMM was verified using gear artifacts. Recently, some new measurement methods using simple shapes such as spheres and planes have been proposed as standards. We have verified the tooth profile measurement using a sphere artifact and reported the results that the developed GMM had a high capability in tooth profile measurement. Therefore, we attempted to devise a new evaluation method for helix measurement using a wedge artifact (WA) whose plane was treated as the tooth flank, and the high measurement capability of the developed GMM was verified. The results will provide a part of information to fully assess measurement uncertainty as our future work. This paper describes the evaluation results of the developed GMM for helix measurement using both a helix artifact and the WA, and discusses the effectiveness of the WA as a new artifact to evaluate the GMMs.

  3. Development of high precision laser measurement to Space Debris and Applications in SHAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongping; Chen, Juping; Xiong, Yaoheng; Han, Xingwei

    2016-07-01

    Artificial space debris has become the focus during the space exploration because of producing the damage for the future active spacecrafts and high precision measurement for space debris are required for debris surveillance and collision avoidance. Laser ranging technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog of space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) of CAS, has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. According to characteristics of laser echoes from space debris and the experiences of relevant activities, high repetition rate, high power laser system and low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter are applied to laser measurement to space debris in SHAO. With these configurations, great achievements of laser measurement to space debris are made with hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in the distance between 500km and 2500km with Radar Cross Section (RCS) of more than 10 m^{2} to less than 0.5m^{2} at the measuring precision of less than 1m (RMS). For better application of laser ranging technology, Chinese Space Debris Observation network, consisting of Shanghai, Changchun and Kunming station, has been preliminary developed and the coordinated observation has been performed to increase the measuring efficiency for space debris. It is referred from data that laser ranging technology can be as the essential high accuracy measurement technology in the study of space debris.

  4. Mesoscopic atomic entanglement for precision measurements beyond the standard quantum limit.

    PubMed

    Appel, J; Windpassinger, P J; Oblak, D; Hoff, U B; Kjaergaard, N; Polzik, E S

    2009-07-07

    Squeezing of quantum fluctuations by means of entanglement is a well-recognized goal in the field of quantum information science and precision measurements. In particular, squeezing the fluctuations via entanglement between 2-level atoms can improve the precision of sensing, clocks, metrology, and spectroscopy. Here, we demonstrate 3.4 dB of metrologically relevant squeezing and entanglement for greater, similar 10(5) cold caesium atoms via a quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement on the atom clock levels. We show that there is an optimal degree of decoherence induced by the quantum measurement which maximizes the generated entanglement. A 2-color QND scheme used in this paper is shown to have a number of advantages for entanglement generation as compared with a single-color QND measurement.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A PRECISE MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ESCALLIER,J.; GANETIS,G.; JAIN,A.; LOUIE,W.; MARONE,A.; THOMAS,R.

    2003-06-15

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require precise measurement of the time-dependent fields. In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the typical level of accuracy for accelerators, {Delta} B/B better than 0.01%. To meet this need, we have begun development of a system containing 16 stationary pickup windings that will be sampled at a high rate. It is hoped that harmonics through the decapole can be measured with this system. Precise measurement of the time-dependent harmonics requires that both the pickup windings and the voltmeters be nearly identical. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards are being used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADC's for voltmeters. In addition, new software must be developed for the analysis. The paper will present a status report on this work.

  6. Precision measurement system and analysis of low core signal loss in DCF couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, P.; Wang, X. J.; Fu, Ch; Li, D.; Sun, J. Y.; Gong, M. L.; Xiao, Q. R.

    2016-07-01

    In order to achieve higher output power of double cladding fiber lasers, low signal loss has become a focus in researches on optical technology, especially double-clad fiber (DCF) couplers. According to the analysis, DCF couplers with low core signal loss (less than 1%) are produced. To obtain higher precision, we use the first-proposed method for core signal transfer efficiency measurement based on the fiber propagation field image processing. To the best of our knowledge, we report, for the first time, the results of the core signal loss less than 1% in DCF coupler measured by our measurement with high stability and relative precision. The measurement values can assess the quality of DCF couplers and be used as a signal to suggest the improvement on the processing technology of our self-made DCF couplers.

  7. Measurement precision of body composition variables using the lunar DPX-L densitometer.

    PubMed

    Kiebzak, G M; Leamy, L J; Pierson, L M; Nord, R H; Zhang, Z Y

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the precision of total- and regional-body composition measurements from a total-body scan using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). This is critical information necessary to determine the smallest change from baseline that could be detected with statistical significance when conducting longitudinal measurements of body composition variables in an individual. Twenty volunteers were scanned once each day for 4 consecutive days using a Lunar DPX-L densitometer and manufacturer-supplied software (version 1.3z). Coefficients of variation (CV, %) derived from data using the (preferred) extended research mode of analysis were 0.62, 1.89, 0.63, 2.0, 1.11, 1.10, and 1.09% for total-body bone mineral density (BMD), total percentage fat, total body tissue mass, fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and total bone calcium, respectively. Regional measurements (arm, leg, trunk, pelvis, and spine) were less precise than total body measurements, with CVs in the range of 1% to 3% (but fat mass for arms was 4.26%, trunk 3.08%, BMC 3.65%). Small but statistically significant differences in mean values for most body composition variables were found when data were compared between extended and standard modes of analysis. Inconsistent use of analysis mode in a cohort or when following a patient longitudinally may negatively affect precision. We conclude that the measurement precision of total and regional body composition variables was generally comparable to the precision limits typically associated with lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD data.

  8. Towards high precision measurements of nuclear g-factors for the Be isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamine, A.; Wada, M.; Okada, K.; Ito, Y.; Schury, P.; Arai, F.; Katayama, I.; Imamura, K.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ueno, H.; Wollnik, H.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the present status of future high-precision measurements of nuclear g-factors utilizing laser-microwave double and laser-microwave-rf triple resonance methods for online-trapped, laser-cooled radioactive beryllium isotope ions. These methods have applicability to other suitably chosen isotopes and for beryllium show promise in deducing the hyperfine anomaly of 11Be with a sufficiently high precision to study the nuclear magnetization distribution of this one-neutron halo nucleus in a nuclear-model-independent manner.

  9. A precise few-nucleon size difference by isotope shift measurements of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaeian, Nima Hassan

    We perform high precision measurements of an isotope shift between the two stable isotopes of helium. We use laser excitation of the 23 S1 -- 23P0 transition at 1083 .... in a metastable beam of 3He and 4He atoms. A newly developed tunable laser frequency selector along with our previous electro-optic frequency modulation technique provides extremely reliable, adaptable, and precise frequency and intensity control. The intensity control contributes negligibly to overall experimental uncertainty by selecting (t selection < 50 ) and stabilizing the intensity of the required sideband and eliminating (˜10-5) the unwanted frequencies generated during the modulation of 1083 nm laser carrier frequency. The selection technique uses a MEMS based fiber switch (tswitch ≈ 10 ms) and several temperature stabilized narrow band (˜3 GHz) fiber gratings. A fiber based optical circulator and an inline fiber amplifier provide the desired isolation and the net gain for the selected frequency. Also rapid (˜2 sec.) alternating measurements of the 23 S1 -- 23P0 interval for both species of helium is achieved with a custom fiber laser for simultaneous optical pumping. A servo-controlled retro-reflected laser beam eliminates residual Doppler effects during the isotope shift measurement. An improved detection design and software control makes negligible subtle potential biases in the data collection. With these advances, combined with new internal and external consistency checks, we are able to obtain results consistent with the best previous measurements, but with substantially improved precision. Our measurement of the 23S 1 -- 23P0 isotope shift between 3He and 4He is 31 097 535.2 (5)kHz. The most recent theoretic calculation combined with this measuremen. yields a new determination for nuclear size differences between 3He and 4He: Deltarc = 0.292 6 (1)exp (8)th(52)expfm, with a precision of less than a part in 104 coming from the experimental uncertainty (first parenthesis), and a

  10. Precise measurement of cosmic ray fluxes with the AMS-02 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, Manuela

    2015-12-17

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The main goals of the detector are the search for antimatter and dark matter in space, as well as the measurement of cosmic ray composition and flux. In this document we present precise measurements of cosmic ray positrons, electrons and protons, collected during the first 30 months of operations.

  11. Precision Column CO2 Measurement from Space Using Broad Band LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the budget of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere it is necessary to develop a global high precision understanding of the carbon dioxide column. To uncover the missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget as we presently understand it, calculation has indicated that measurement accuracy of 1 ppm is necessary. Because typical column average CO2 has now reached 380 ppm this represents a precision on the order of 0.25% for these column measurements. No species has ever been measured from space at such a precision. In recognition of the importance of understanding the CO2 budget to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council in its decadal survey report to NASA recommended planning for a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. The extreme measurement accuracy requirements on this mission places very strong constraints on the laser system used for the measurement. This work presents an overview of the characteristics necessary in a laser system used to make this measurement. Consideration is given to the temperature dependence, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of the CO2 lines themselves and how these impact the laser system characteristics. We are examining the possibility of making precise measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a broad band source of radiation. This means that many of the difficulties in wavelength control can be treated in the detector portion of the system rather than the laser source. It also greatly reduces the number of individual lasers required to make a measurement. Simplifications such as these are extremely desirable for systems designed to operate from space.

  12. New precision measurements of free neutron beta decay with cold neutrons

    DOE PAGES

    Baeßler, Stefan; Bowman, James David; Penttilä, Seppo I.; ...

    2014-10-14

    Precision measurements in free neutron beta decay serve to determine the coupling constants of beta decay, and offer several stringent tests of the standard model. This study describes the free neutron beta decay program planned for the Fundamental Physics Beamline at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and finally puts it into the context of other recent and planned measurements of neutron beta decay observables.

  13. Multiple projection DEXA scanner for precision bone and muscle loss measurements and analysis during prolonged spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, H. K.; Beck, T. J.; Feldmesser, H. S.; Magee, T. C.; Spisz, T. S.; Pisacane, V. L.

    2000-01-01

    Bone structural information derived from DEXA data is shown to be relevant in explaining BMD loss versus strength-related observations in both aging populations and individuals exposed to microgravity for prolonged periods. Commercial DEXA instruments are limited (and not optimized) to make these critical structural measurements. Progress on the development of a multiple projection DEXA scanner system for making precision bone and muscle loss measurements and their resultant implications on bone strength and fracture risk is described. .

  14. Monte Carlo simulation for the prediction of precision of absorbance measurements with a miniature CCD spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Tsaousoglou, E. P.; Bolis, S. D.

    2003-01-01

    The precision characteristics of the absorbance measurements obtained with a low-cost miniature spectrometer incorporating an array detector were evaluated. Uncertainties in absorbance measurements were due to a combination of non-uniform light intensity and detector response over the wavelength range examined (350-850 nm), in conjunction with the digitization of the intensity indications and the intrinsic noise of the detecting elements. The precision characteristics are presented as contour plots displaying the expected RSD% of absorbances on the absorbance versus wavelength plane. The minimum RSD% for the spectrometer configuration tested was observed within the 0.2-1.5 absorbance units and 500-750 nm wavelength range. Without invoking signal enhancement features of the data-acquisition program (scan average, higher integration times, smoothing based on averaging the signal detected by adjacent pixels), the attainable precision within this range was 0.4-0.8%. A computer program based on Monte Carlo simulations was developed for the prediction of absorbance precision characteristics under various conditions of measurements. PMID:18924714

  15. Precision Measurement of Delbrück Scattering via Laser Compton Scattered γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, J. K.; Hayakawa, T.

    2016-03-01

    Precision measurements such as the muon anomalous magnetic moment have indicated deviations from the standard model and have in turn prompted higher precision theoretical calculations. Delbrück scattering is the scattering of photons off the Coulomb field of nuclei via virtual electron-positron pairs and has been measured using γ-rays from radioactivities and following neutron capture reactions. However, because low flux γ-rays from nuclear transitions have been used in the low photon energy regime fairly large uncertainty exists in the data. In addition, due to the complexity and time consuming nature of the theoretical calculation the scattering cross sections are obtained from tables with interpolation between the tabular values. In recent years high flux γ-ray sources via laser Compton scattering (LCS) using energy-recovery linacs have been proposed. These sources allow measuring the Delbrück scattering with high precision. We will present our own independent calculations for the scattering cross section and show what precision can be obtained using the new LCS γ-ray sources in the low photon energy regime.

  16. High precision measurement of intensity peak shifts in tunable cascaded microring intensity sensors.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Prashanth R; Selvaraja, Shankar K; Varma, Manoj M

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate a method to precisely track intensity peak shifts in tunable cascaded double-microring based refractive index sensors. Without modifications, width of the intensity peak of a tunable cascaded microring device limits the precision of peak-shift measurements and thereby the limit of detection of the sensor. We overcome this limitation by using dual harmonic lock-in detection for precisely determining the position of the intensity maximum. Using this modification, we have demonstrated a reduction in the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the intensity peak by a factor of over 1300. We show that such a reduction in FWHM of the peak curve can significantly improve the detection limit of a tunable cascaded microring-based sensor.

  17. The iLocater cryostat: design and thermal control strategy for precision radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crass, Jonathan; Fantano, Louis G.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Crepp, Justin R.; Nelson, Matthew J.; Wall, Sheila M.; Cavalieri, David A.; Koca, Corina; King, David L.; Reynolds, Robert O.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.

    2016-08-01

    The current generation of precision radial velocity (RV) spectrographs are seeing-limited instruments. In order to achieve high spectral resolution on 8m class telescopes, these spectrographs require large optics and in turn, large instrument volumes. Achieving milli-Kelvin thermal stability for these systems is challenging but is vital in order to obtain a single measurement RV precision of better than 1m/s. This precision is crucial to study Earth-like exoplanets within the habitable zone. iLocater is a next generation RV instrument being developed for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Unlike seeinglimited RV instruments, iLocater uses adaptive optics (AO) to inject a diffraction-limited beam into single-mode fibers. These fibers illuminate the instrument spectrograph, facilitating a diffraction-limited design and a small instrument volume compared to present-day instruments. This enables intrinsic instrument stability and facilitates precision thermal control. We present the current design of the iLocater cryostat which houses the instrument spectrograph and the strategy for its thermal control. The spectrograph is situated within a pair of radiation shields mounted inside an MLI lined vacuum chamber. The outer radiation shield is actively controlled to maintain instrument stability at the sub-mK level and minimize effects of thermal changes from the external environment. An inner shield passively dampens any residual temperature fluctuations and is radiatively coupled to the optical board. To provide intrinsic stability, the optical board and optic mounts will be made from Invar and cooled to 58K to benefit from a zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) value at this temperature. Combined, the small footprint of the instrument spectrograph, the use of Invar, and precision thermal control will allow long-term sub-milliKelvin stability to facilitate precision RV measurements.

  18. Precise Temperature Measurement for Increasing the Survival of Newborn Babies in Incubator Environments

    PubMed Central

    Frischer, Robert; Penhaker, Marek; Krejcar, Ondrej; Kacerovsky, Marian; Selamat, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Precise temperature measurement is essential in a wide range of applications in the medical environment, however the regarding the problem of temperature measurement inside a simple incubator, neither a simple nor a low cost solution have been proposed yet. Given that standard temperature sensors don't satisfy the necessary expectations, the problem is not measuring temperature, but rather achieving the desired sensitivity. In response, this paper introduces a novel hardware design as well as the implementation that increases measurement sensitivity in defined temperature intervals at low cost. PMID:25494352

  19. Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Cross Section at High Q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Longwu; E12-07-108 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of proton electromagnetic form factors (FF) is a powerful way to understand the internal structure of proton and gain insight into the nature of the strong interaction. Current data of FF at high Q2 have large statistical and systematic uncertainties, which translate into large uncertainties in the extracted cross section in this kinematic range. The GMp experiment in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, starting from 2014, performed precision measurements of elastic ep scattering cross section in the Q2 range from 7 to 14 (GeV / c) 2. These measurements will improve the precision on the cross section in the covered Q2 range to about 2 % . They represent a great complement to the world's cross section data set and will be key inputs for future electromagnetic form factor experiments at similar kinematics. In this talk, the instrumentation and techniques used in the experiment will be described, and the current status of the analysis will be presented.

  20. Precise measurements of hyperfine components in the spectrum of molecular iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Sansonetti, C.J.

    1996-05-01

    Absolute wave numbers with a typical uncertainty of 1 MHz (95% confidence) were measured for 102 hyperfine-structure components of {sup 127}I{sub 2}. The data cover the range 560-656 nm, with no gaps over 50 cm{sup -1}. The spectra were observed using Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy with tunable cw laser. The laser was locked to selected iodine components and its wave number measured with a high precision Fabry-Perot wavemeter. Accuracy is confirmed by good agreement of 9 of the lines with previous results from other laboratories. These measurements provide a well-distributed set of precise reference lines for this spectral region.

  1. New precision lifetime measurement of the first excited state of 12Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, C. J.; Morse, C.; Chowdhury, P.; Merchan, E.; Prasher, V. S.; McCutchan, E. A.; Johnson, T. D.; Sonzogni, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Bader, V. M.; Bazin, D.; Beceiro Novo, S.; Gade, A.; Loelius, C.; Lunderberg, E.; Recchia, F.; Weisshaar, D.; Whitmore, K.

    2016-09-01

    12Be presents an important opportunity for nuclear structure studies. It has a canonically magic number of neutrons, N = 8, but on the other hand the beryllium isotopes are well-known for their α-clustering behavior. 12Be is at the limit of computationally feasible GFMC ab initio calculations, and is experimentally accessible for the purposes of making precision measurements. Although recent experiments indicate that 12Be favors the development of clustering over magicity, the electromagnetic decay properties of this system are poorly constrained due to the single measurement (_30% uncertainty) of the B(E2; 2+-0+) value. Here we present a new precise measurement of the 2+ state lifetime using GRETINA at NSCL. We find that the lifetime is about a factor of two shorter than previously reported, so even more collective and clustered then expected. The implications for the structure of 12Be will be discussed.

  2. High-Precision Superallowed Fermi β Decay Measurements at TRIUMF-ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, C. E.

    2016-09-01

    High-precision measurements of the ft -values for superallowed Fermi β decays between nuclear isobaric analogue states provide demanding tests of the electroweak Standard Model, including confirmation of the Conserved Vector Current hypothesis at the level of 1 . 2 ×10-4 , the most stringent limits on weak scalar currents, and the most precise determination of the Vud element of the CKM quark-mixing matrix. The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF produces high-quality beams of several of the superallowed emitters with world-record intensities and hosts a suite of state-of-the-art spectrometers for the measurement of superallowed half-lives, branching ratios, QEC values, and charge-radii. Recent highlights from the superallowed program at ISAC, including high-precision half-life measurements for the light superallowed emitters 10C, 14O, 18Ne, and 26mAl and branching-ratio measurements for the heavy superallowed emitters 62Ga and 74Rb will be presented. The impact of these measurements on tests of the Standard Model, and future developments in the superallowed program at ISAC with the new high-efficiency GRIFFIN γ - ray spectrometer, will be discussed. Research supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, and the Canada Research Chairs Program. TRIUMF receives federal funding via the National Research Council of Canada.

  3. An Inexpensive Field-Widened Monolithic Michelson Interferometer for Precision Radial Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Ge, Jian; Fleming, Scott W.; Wan, Xiaoke; DeWitt, Curtis; van Eyken, Julian C.; McDavitt, Dan

    2008-09-01

    We have constructed a thermally compensated field-widened monolithic Michelson interferometer that can be used with a medium-resolution spectrograph to measure precise Doppler radial velocities of stars. Our prototype monolithic fixed-delay interferometer is constructed with off-the-shelf components and assembled using a hydrolysis bonding technique. We installed and tested this interferometer in the Exoplanet Tracker (ET) instrument at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope, an instrument built to demonstrate the principles of dispersed fixed-delay interferometry. An iodine cell allows the interferometer drift to be accurately calibrated, relaxing the stability requirements on the interferometer itself. When using our monolithic interferometer, the ET instrument has no moving parts (except the iodine cell), greatly simplifying its operation. We demonstrate differential radial velocity precision of a few m s-1 on well known radial velocity standards and planet bearing stars when using this interferometer. Such monolithic interferometers will make it possible to build relatively inexpensive instruments that are easy to operate and capable of precision radial velocity measurements. A larger multiobject version of the Exoplanet Tracker will be used to conduct a large scale survey for planetary systems as part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III). Variants of the techniques and principles discussed in this paper can be directly applied to build large monolithic interferometers for such applications, enabling the construction of instruments capable of efficiently observing many stars simultaneously at high velocity precision.

  4. High-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed {beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 62}Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Finlay, P.; Svensson, C. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Wong, J.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Savajols, H.; Leslie, J. R.; Towner, I. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Chaffey, A.

    2008-08-15

    A high-precision branching ratio measurement for the superallowed {beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 62}Ga was performed at the Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion beam facility. The 8{pi} spectrometer, an array of 20 high-purity germanium detectors, was employed to detect the {gamma} rays emitted following Gamow-Teller and nonanalog Fermi {beta}{sup +} decays of {sup 62}Ga, and the SCEPTAR plastic scintillator array was used to detect the emitted {beta} particles. Thirty {gamma} rays were identified following {sup 62}Ga decay, establishing the superallowed branching ratio to be 99.858(8)%. Combined with the world-average half-life and a recent high-precision Q-value measurement for {sup 62}Ga, this branching ratio yields an ft value of 3074.3{+-}1.1 s, making {sup 62}Ga among the most precisely determined superallowed ft values. Comparison between the superallowed ft value determined in this work and the world-average corrected Ft value allows the large nuclear-structure-dependent correction for {sup 62}Ga decay to be experimentally determined from the CVC hypothesis to better than 7% of its own value, the most precise experimental determination for any superallowed emitter. These results provide a benchmark for the refinement of the theoretical description of isospin-symmetry breaking in A{>=}62 superallowed decays.

  5. Precision and Resolution on Tore-Supra Ece Electron Temperature Profile Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ségui, J. L.; Molina, D.; Goniche, M.

    2003-02-01

    A 16-channel heterodyne radiometer, 2 GHz spaced, is used on Tore-Supra to measure the electron cyclotron emission in the frequency range 78-110 GHz for the O mode and 94 -126 GHz for the Xmode. In the equatorial plane, a dual polarisation gaussian optics lens antenna, with a perpendicular line of sight (with respect to the magnetic field), gives ECE measurements with very low refraction and Doppler effects. A separate O/X mode RF front-end allows the use of an IF electronic mode selector. This improves time stability calibration and gives the potentiality of simultaneous O/X mode measurements in the 94 -110 Ghz RF band for polarisation studies. RF and IF filters reject the gyrotron frequency (118 Ghz) in order to perform temperature measurements during ECRH plasmas. A precise absolute spectral calibration is performed outside the vacuum vessel by using a 600°C black body, a digital signal averaging on the waveform generated by a mechanical chopper placed directly in front of it, and a simulation window without Fabry-Pérot effects. The calibration precision leads to ECE temperature profiles which are very consistent with Thomson scattering measurements and guarantees a good stability of the ECE profiles for small changes on the magnetic field (absolute precision +/-6%, relative precision between channels +/-3%). Post-pulse data processing takes routinely into account the total magnetic field (Bvacuum with ripple, Bpara, Bdia, Bpol, all with analytical formulations), the radial relativistic shift (analytical formulation is used), the refraction (cut-offs detection with safety margin to avoid strong refraction), the nonthermal ECE spectra during LHCD (using an electron density threshold criterion). These previous analytical formulations are compatible with real time processing. Relativistic radial broadening simulations show that it is useful to fulfil 32 channels (1GHz

  6. The interferometric method for measuring the generatrix straightness of high precision cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yanhui; Li, Huailu; Diao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Heng

    2015-10-01

    Cone parts are widely used in advanced manufacturing and precision mechanics, providing air proof, torque transmission and so on. The straightness of generatrix is one of the important parameters, and the required accuracy can be up to submicrometers. In order to realize the rapid and high precision generatrix measurement of smooth surface cone, a laser interferometric method is proposed based on the structure of typical Fizeau interferometer. The high precision optical flat is used for reference standard, and the surface of cone is the measured object. Two cylindrical lenses with different focal lengths realize unidirectional expansion of parallel beam, solving the problem of CCD camera fringe resolution. The interference fringes are curved because of the cone angle, and the peak is the basis for accurate determination of the generatrix. Two fringe processing techniques are described in detail, which are single-frame and phase-shifting methods. Single-frame method includes two steps, i.e. the calculation of integral part and decimal part. The advantage of this method is the simple measurement structure. Phase-shifting method needs piezoelectric transducer (PZT) to generate several steps for phase calculation, with the advantage of high accuracy. The experimental results show that the straightness measurement accuracy can be better than 0.2 μm.

  7. Precision measurement of the photon detection efficiency of silicon photomultipliers using two integrating spheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seul Ki; Lee, J; Kim, Sug-Whan; Lee, Hye-Young; Jeon, Jin-A; Park, I H; Yoon, Jae-Ryong; Baek, Yang-Sik

    2014-01-13

    We report a new and improved photon counting method for the precision PDE measurement of SiPM detectors, utilizing two integrating spheres connected serially and calibrated reference detectors. First, using a ray tracing simulation and irradiance measurement results with a reference photodiode, we investigated irradiance characteristics of the measurement instrument, and analyzed dominating systematic uncertainties in PDE measurement. Two SiPM detectors were then used for PDE measurements between wavelengths of 368 and 850 nm and for bias voltages varying from around 70V. The resulting PDEs of the SiPMs show good agreement with those from other studies, yet with an improved accuracy of 1.57% (1σ). This was achieved by the simultaneous measurement with the NIST calibrated reference detectors, which suppressed the time dependent variation of source light. The technical details of the instrumentation, measurement results and uncertainty analysis are reported together with their implications.

  8. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon; Alpha Gamma; BL2 Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n , t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  9. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon

    2016-03-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n,t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 Grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  10. MULTI-CENTER PRECISION OF CORTICAL AND TRABECULAR BONE QUALITY MEASURES ASSESSED BY HR-PQCT

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Andrew J.; Pialat, Jean-Baptiste; Kazakia, Galateia J.; Boutroy, Stephanie; Engelke, Klaus; Patsch, Janina M.; Valentinitsch, Alexander; Liu, Danmei; Szabo, Eva; Bogado, Cesar E.; Zanchetta, Maria Belen; McKay, Heather A.; Shane, Elizabeth; Boyd, Steven K.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Chapurlat, Roland; Khosla, Sundeep; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has recently been introduced as a clinical research tool for in vivo assessment of bone quality. The utility of this technique to address important skeletal health questions requires translation to standardized multi-center data pools. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility of pooling data in multi-center HR-pQCT imaging trials. Reproducibility imaging experiments were performed using structure and composition-realistic phantoms constructed from cadaveric radii. Single-center precision was determined by repeat scanning over short (<72hrs), intermediate (3–5mo), and long-term intervals (28mo). Multi-center precision was determined by imaging the phantoms at nine different HR-pQCT centers. Least significant change (LSC) and root mean squared coefficient of variation (RMSCV) for each interval and across centers was calculated for bone density, geometry, microstructure, and biomechanical parameters. Single-center short-term RMSCVs were <1% for all parameters except Ct.Th (1.1%), Ct.Th.SD (2.6%), Tb.Sp.SD (1.8%), and porosity measures (6–8%). Intermediate-term RMSCVs were generally not statistically different from short-term values. Long-term variability was significantly greater for all density measures (0.7–2.0%; p < 0.05 vs. short-term) and several structure measures: Ct.Th (3.4%; p < 0.01 vs. short-term), Ct.Po (15.4%; p < 0.01 vs. short-term), and Tb.Th (2.2%; p < 0.01 vs. short-term). Multi-center RMSCVs were also significantly higher than short-term values: 2–4% for density and µFE measures (p < 0.0001), 2.6–5.3% for morphometric measures (p < 0.001), while Ct.Po was 16.2% (p < 0.001). In the absence of subject motion, multi-center precision errors for HR-pQCT parameters were generally less than 5%. Phantom-based multi-center precision was comparable to previously reported in vivo single-center precision errors, although this was approximately 2–5 times worse than ex vivo short

  11. Report of the working group on precision measurements - measurements of the W boson mass and width.

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, R.; Erler, J.; Kim, Y.-K.; Marciano, W.; Ashmanskas, W.; Baur, U.; Ellison, J.; Lancaster, M.; Nodulman, L.; Rha, J.; Waters, D.; Womersley, J.

    2000-11-29

    We discuss the prospects for measuring the W mass and width in Run II. The basic techniques used to measure M{sub W} are described and the statistical, theoretical and detector-related uncertainties are discussed in detail. Alternative methods of measuring the W mass at the Tevatron and the prospects for M{sub W} measurements at other colliders are also described.

  12. Optimized spectroscopic scheme for enhanced precision CO measurements with applications to urban source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottrott, A.; Hoffnagle, J.; Farinas, A.; Rella, C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an urban pollutant generated by internal combustion engines which contributes to the formation of ground level ozone (smog). CO is also an excellent tracer for emissions from mobile combustion sources. In this work we present an optimized spectroscopic sampling scheme that enables enhanced precision CO measurements. The scheme was implemented on the Picarro G2401 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer which measures CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O at 0.2 Hz. The optimized scheme improved the raw precision of CO measurements by 40% from 5 ppb to 3 ppb. Correlations of measured CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O from an urban tower were partitioned by wind direction and combined with a concentration footprint model for source attribution. The application of a concentration footprint for source attribution has several advantages. The upwind extent of the concentration footprint for a given sensor is much larger than the flux footprint. Measurements of mean concentration at the sensor location can be used to estimate source strength from a concentration footprint, while measurements of the vertical concentration flux are necessary to determine source strength from the flux footprint. Direct measurement of vertical concentration flux requires high frequency temporal sampling and increases the cost and complexity of the measurement system.

  13. Precision measurements of the top quark mass from the Tevatron in the pre-LHC era.

    PubMed

    Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Volobouev, Igor

    2012-05-01

    The top quark is the heaviest of the six quarks of the standard model (SM). Precise knowledge of its mass is important for imposing constraints on a number of physics processes, including interactions of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is the only missing particle of the SM, central to the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism and generation of particle masses. In this review, experimental measurements of the top quark mass accomplished at the Tevatron, a proton-antiproton collider located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, are described. Topologies of top quark events and the methods used to separate signal events from background sources are discussed. Data analysis techniques used to extract information about the top mass value are reviewed. The combination of several of the most precise measurements performed with the two Tevatron particle detectors, CDF and DØ, yields a value of M(t) = 173.2 ± 0.9 GeV/c(2).

  14. Performance of Planar-Waveguide External Cavity Laser for Precision Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan; Krainak, Michael A.; Stolpner, Lew

    2010-01-01

    A 1542-nm planar-waveguide external cavity laser (PW-ECL) is shown to have a sufficiently low level of frequency and intensity noise to be suitable for precision measurement applications. The frequency noise and intensity noise of the PW-ECL was comparable or better than the nonplanar ring oscillator (NPRO) and fiber laser between 0.1 mHz to 100 kHz. Controllability of the PW-ECL was demonstrated by stabilizing its frequency to acetylene (13C2H2) at 10(exp -13) level of Allan deviation. The PW-ECL also has the advantage of the compactness of a standard butterfly package, low cost, and a simple design consisting of a semiconductor gain media coupled to a planar-waveguide Bragg reflector. These features would make the PW-ECL suitable for precision measurements, including compact optical frequency standards, space lidar, and space interferometry

  15. Method to improve precision of rotating inertia and friction measurements in turbomachinery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, Thomas; Paniagua, Guillermo

    2012-07-01

    This short communication presents a method to determine the rotating inertia with superior measurement precision. The performance of free wheel devices requires an accurate evaluation of both friction and rotating inertia. The present methodology consists on spinning the rotor with a mass attached, then separating the mass from the rotor and allowing the rotor to spin down. The technique allows precise measurements without disassembling the rotor housing. The new approach models frictional torque as a linear function in speed, using optimization data reduction techniques to fit the experimental data to a multidimensional system of non-linear equations. Theoretical and experimental results are used to demonstrate the applicability of the technique with high accuracy.

  16. Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond pulses for high precision ranging lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Kim, S.-W.

    2010-10-01

    The time-of-flight of light pulses has long been used as a direct measure of distance, but the state-of-the-art measurement precision using conventional light pulses or microwaves reaches only several hundreds of micromeres. This is due to the bandwidth limit of the photodetectors available today, which is in the picosecond range at best. Here, we improve the time-of-flight precision to the nanometer regime by timing femtosecond pulses through phase-locking control of the pulse repetition rate using the optical cross-correlation technique that exploits a second-harmonic birefringence crystal and a balance photodetector. The enhanced capability is maintained at long range without periodic ambiguity, being well suited to terrestrial lidar applications such as geodetic surveying, range finders and absolute altimeters. This method could also be applied to future space missions of formation-flying satellites for synthetic aperture imaging and remote experiments related to the general relativity theory.

  17. Precise Lifetime Measurements in Light Nuclei for Benchmarking Modern Ab-initio Nuclear Structure Models

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; McCutchan, E.A.

    2014-06-15

    A new generation of ab-initio calculations, based on realistic two- and three-body forces, is having a profound impact on our view of how nuclei work. To improve the numerical methods, and the parameterization of 3-body forces, new precise data are needed. Electromagnetic transitions are very sensitive to the dynamics which drive mixing between configurations. We have made a series of precise (< 3%) measurements of electromagnetic transitions in the A=10 nuclei {sup 10}C and {sup 10}Be by using the Doppler Shift Attenuation method carefully. Many interesting features can be reproduced including the strong α clustering. New measurements on {sup 8}Be and {sup 12}Be highlight the interplay between the alpha clusters and their valence neutrons.

  18. A high-precision method for measurement of paleoatmospheric CO2 in small polar ice samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jinho; Brook, Edward J.; Howell, Kate

    We describe a high-precision method, now in use in our laboratory, for measuring the CO2 mixing ratio of ancient air trapped in polar ice cores. Occluded air in ice samples weighing ˜8-15 g is liberated by crushing with steel pins at -35°C and trapped at -263°C in a cryogenic cold trap. CO2 in the extracted air is analyzed using gas chromatography. Replicate measurements for several samples of high-quality ice from the Siple Dome and Taylor Dome Antarctic ice cores have pooled standard deviations of <0.9 ppm. This high-precision technique is directly applicable to high-temporal-resolution studies for detection of small CO2 variations, for example CO2 variations of a few parts per million on millennial to decadal scales.

  19. Measure and Control Technology Based on DSP for HighPrecision Scanning Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, N.; Yang, X. Y.; Wu, B.; Ye, S. H.

    2006-10-01

    A welding seam tracking visual sensor based on laser scanning is designed to solve the problems, such as indistinct image, difficulty in processing image etc., caused by serious arc light interference during welding. This visual sensor is mainly composed of a scanning motor, a linear-array CCD, a scanning rotating mirror and a semiconductor laser. Because the sensor measurement precision relies dramatically on the rotate speed stability of the scanning motor, the crux in the sensor design is to control the rotate speed of the scanning motor. Selecting a brushless direct current motor as the scanning motor and using TMS320F2812 DSP to drive it, we adopted fuzzy algorithm to control the motor rotate speed and made the steadiness error of the rotate speed less than 0.5%, which guarantees the sensor measurement precision and is of great importance for enhancing the welding quality of the industry welding robot.

  20. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  1. Engineering Stark Potentials for Precision Measurements: Optical Lattice Clock and Electrodynamic Surface Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Hidetoshi; Takamoto, Masao; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Fujiki, Jun; Higashi, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Masami; Kishimoto, Tetsuo

    2005-05-05

    Employing the engineered electric fields, we demonstrate novel platforms for precision measurements with neutral atoms. (1) Applying the light shift cancellation technique, atoms trapped in an optical lattice reveal 50-Hz-narrow optical spectrum, yielding nearly an order of magnitude improvement over existing neutral-atom-based clocks. (2) Surface Stark trap has been developed to manipulate scalar atoms that are intrinsically robust to decoherence.

  2. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed {beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 10}C

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Golovko, V.; Goodwin, J.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.

    2008-04-15

    The half-life of {sup 10}C has been measured to be 19.310(4) s, a result with 0.02% precision, which is a factor of three improvement over the best previous result. Since {sup 10}C is the lightest superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} {beta}{sup +} emitter, its ft value has the greatest weight in setting an upper limit on the possible presence of scalar currents.

  3. Evaluation of cost-precision rations of different strategies for ELISA measurement of serum antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Katarzyna; Wang, Xiaohong; Jacobsson, Anders; Dillner, Joakim

    2002-12-20

    Standardization and design of optimally reproducible strategies for the measurement of serum antibody levels by ELISA can present significant problems. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis of two common calculation methods in ELISA analysis (parallel line and reference line models), together with a new model, termed wPLL (a least squares-weighted modification of the parallel line model). The subject of required precision in relation to the marginal costs of increased precision has not been well explored. We compared the three different calculation methods of expressing ELISA results based on the relationship between the dose response curves obtained from the reference serum and the test samples in two viral antibody determination systems (human papillomavirus and measles). The three methods were evaluated for inter- and intraassay precision using the coefficient of variation in experiments with different numbers of dilutions and different numbers of replicates. Strategies with optimal cost-precision ratios were designed. The novel calculation method termed wPLL was preferable.

  4. A comparison of technical replicate (cuts) effect on lamb Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement precision.

    PubMed

    Holman, B W B; Alvarenga, T I R C; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2015-07-01

    The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of 335 lamb m. longissimus lumborum (LL) caudal and cranial ends was measured to examine and simulate the effect of replicate number (r: 1-8) on the precision of mean WBSF estimates and to compare LL caudal and cranial end WBSF means. All LL were sourced from two experimental flocks as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) and analysed using a Lloyd Texture analyser with a Warner-Bratzler blade attachment. WBSF data were natural logarithm (ln) transformed before statistical analysis. Mean ln(WBSF) precision improved as r increased; however the practical implications support an r equal to 6, as precision improves only marginally with additional replicates. Increasing LL sample replication results in better ln(WBSF) precision compared with increasing r, provided that sample replicates are removed from the same LL end. Cranial end mean WBSF was 11.2 ± 1.3% higher than the caudal end.

  5. High-precision measurement of magnetic penetration depth in superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Gozar, A.; Sundling, R.; Božović, I.

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy. In this way, we also eliminate secondary-phase precipitates, grain boundaries, and pinholes that are common with other deposition methods and that artificially increase the field transmission and thus the apparent λ. For better reproducibility, the thermal stability of our closed-cycle cryocooler used to control the temperature of the mutual inductance measurement has been significantly improved by inserting a custom-built thermal conductivity damper. Next, to minimize the uncertainties in the geometry, we fused a pair of small yet precisely wound coils into a single sapphire block machined to a high precision. The sample is spring-loaded to exactly the same position with respect to the solenoids. Altogether, we can measure the absolute value of λ with the accuracy better than ±1%.

  6. A method for the precision mass measurement of the stop quark at the International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Ayres; Milsténe, Caroline; Schmitt, Michael; Sopczak, Andre

    2008-09-01

    Many supersymmetric models predict new particles within the reach of the next generation of colliders. For an understanding of the model structure and the mechanism(s) of symmetry breaking, it is important to know the masses of the new particles precisely. In this article the measurement of the mass of the scalar partner of the top quark (stop) at an e+e- collider is studied. A relatively light stop is motivated by attempts to explain electroweak baryogenesis and can play an important role in dark matter relic density. A method is presented which makes use of cross-section measurements near the pair-production threshold as well as at higher center-of-mass energies. It is shown that this method not only increases the statistical precision, but also greatly reduces the systematic uncertainties, which can be important. Numerical results are presented, based on a realistic event simulation, for two signal selection strategies: using conventional selection cuts, and using an Iterative Discriminant Analysis (IDA). Our studies indicate that a precision of Δmtilde t1 = 0.42 GeV can be achieved, representing a major improvement over previous studies. While the analysis of stops is particularly challenging due to the possibility of stop hadronization, the general procedure could be applied to the mass measurement of other particles as well. We also comment on the potential of the IDA to discover a stop quark in this scenario, and we revisit the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the neutralino relic density.

  7. Precision measurements on kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium: DEAR and SIDDHARTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliescu, M.

    2005-06-01

    The SIDDHARTA ( SIlicon Drift Detector for Hadronic Atom Research by Timing Application) experiment [J. Zmeskal, SIDDHARTA Technical Note IR-2 (2003); C. Curceanu (Petrascu), SID-DHARTA Technical Note IR-3 (2003)] represents the scientific and technical development of DEAR ( DAΦNE Exotic Atom Research) [S. Bianco et al., Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 22 (11) (1999) 1], as part of the program dedicated to exotic atoms at DAΦNE [G. Vignola, Proc. of the "5th European Particle Accelerator Conference", Sitges, Eds. S. Myres et al., Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia (1996) 22]. The objective consists in an eV precision measurement of the kaonic hydrogen K line shift and width induced by the strong interaction, and the first measurement of kaonic deuterium. These values will allow a precise determination of antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths and a better understanding of the chiral symmetry breaking scenario in the strangeness sector. DEAR performed the most precise measurement up to now on kaonic hydrogen, at the end of 2002. The SIDDHARTA collaboration is developing a new set of large area, triggerable X-ray Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD), which will improve by 2 orders of magnitude the background rejection, allowing to reach the proposed objectives. The results of DEAR, as well as the state of the art of the new setup are presented.

  8. Flying spot laser triangulation scanner using lateral synchronization for surface profile precision measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanlin; Ren, Yongjie; Liu, Changjie; Zhu, Jigui

    2014-07-10

    High-speed surface profile measurement with high precision is crucial for target inspection and quality control. In this study, a laser scanner based on a single point laser triangulation displacement sensor and a high-speed rotating polygon mirror is proposed. The autosynchronized scanning scheme is introduced to alleviate the trade-off between the field of view and the range precision, which is the inherent deficiency of the conventional triangulation. The lateral synchronized flying spot technology has excellent characteristics, such as programmable and larger field of view, high immunity to ambient light or secondary reflections, high optical signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum shadow effect. Owing to automatic point-to-point laser power control, high accuracy and superior data quality are possible when measuring objects featuring varying surface characteristics even in demanding applications. The proposed laser triangulation scanner is validated using a laboratory-built prototype and practical considerations for design and implementation of the system are described, including speckle noise reduction method and real-time signal processing. A method for rapid and accurate calibration of the laser triangulation scanner using lookup tables is also devised, and the system calibration accuracy is generally smaller than ±0.025  mm. Experimental results are presented and show a broad application prospect for fast surface profile precision measurement.

  9. High-precision measurement of magnetic penetration depth in superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Gozar, A.; Sundling, R.; Božović, I.

    2016-11-01

    We report that the magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy. In this way, we also eliminate secondary-phase precipitates, grain boundaries, and pinholes that are common with other deposition methods and that artificially increase the field transmission and thus the apparent λ. For better reproducibility, the thermal stability of our closed-cycle cryocooler used to control the temperature of the mutual inductance measurement has been significantly improved by inserting a custom-built thermal conductivity damper. Next, to minimize the uncertainties in the geometry, we fused a pair of small yet precisely wound coils into a single sapphire block machined to a high precision. Lastly, the sample is spring-loaded to exactly the same position with respect to the solenoids. Altogether, we can measure the absolute value of λ with the accuracy better than ±1%.

  10. High-precision measurement of magnetic penetration depth in superconducting films

    DOE PAGES

    He, X.; Gozar, A.; Sundling, R.; ...

    2016-11-01

    We report that the magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy. In this way, we also eliminate secondary-phase precipitates, grain boundaries, and pinholes that are common with other depositionmore » methods and that artificially increase the field transmission and thus the apparent λ. For better reproducibility, the thermal stability of our closed-cycle cryocooler used to control the temperature of the mutual inductance measurement has been significantly improved by inserting a custom-built thermal conductivity damper. Next, to minimize the uncertainties in the geometry, we fused a pair of small yet precisely wound coils into a single sapphire block machined to a high precision. Lastly, the sample is spring-loaded to exactly the same position with respect to the solenoids. Altogether, we can measure the absolute value of λ with the accuracy better than ±1%.« less

  11. Development of ultra-precision micro-cavity measurement technique in HIT-UOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jiwen; Li, Lei; Tan, Jiubin

    2010-08-01

    Micro cavities with high aspect ratio are widely used in different fields including aerospace and defense industries with the development of manufacturing technology. So how to measure the dimension of these cavities has become one of the major research subjects in the field of measurement and instrument. This paper describes some activities of the precision micro cavity measurement technique in Center of Ultra-precision Optoelectronic Instrument (UOI), Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT). The key issue of micro cavity measurement in UOI is called touch-trigger measurement method. The first scheme is double optical fiber coupling, in which light coming from the incident optical fiber is transmitted in the reversal direction via the optical fiber coupling into the effluent optical fiber, the lateral displacement of the touch-trigger sensor is transformed into the deflexion of light coming out from the effluent optical fiber, and the deflexion is transformed into an image signal by the object lens and CCD capturing system. And the second scheme is micro focal-length collimation, in which a fiber stem with a ball mounted on its end is used as a probe and a small segment of it is used as a cylindrical lens to collimate a point light source and image it to a camera, the deflection of the fiber stem can be inferred from the change in image acquired by the camera with ultrahigh displacement sensitivity. Experiments for these activities will be given with a focus on the measurement results and repeatability uncertainty.

  12. The vector modulation method to make precise measurements with directional sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. S.; Lin, Y. R.; Deng, Z. L.

    2007-01-01

    The best plan to curtail measurement errors is to modulate the input signal before it enters a sensor. As far as linear directional sensors are concerned, VMM (the vector modulation method) can make the earliest modulation and appropriate demodulation to curtail measurement errors and then improve the precision of measurement. According to the modulation-demodulation principle and the linear system theory, especially the frequency-remaining character and the superposition theorem of linear systems, a precise response to the input signal will be resolved by means of demodulation. VMM curtails the main elements of errors, including quantization error and bias of a measurement system, along with bias, drift, noise and disturbance of sensors. Experiments measuring ERR (the Earth's rate of rotation) are presented, and a design for an experiment measuring gravitational acceleration with VMM is presented. The preliminary experiments have given positive support. VMM, which can remarkably get rid of errors, is much clearer in theory and easier to implement in engineering practice.

  13. Reliability of Pressure Ulcer Rates: How Precisely Can We Differentiate Among Hospital Units, and Does the Standard Signal-Noise Reliability Measure Reflect This Precision?

    PubMed

    Staggs, Vincent S; Cramer, Emily

    2016-08-01

    Hospital performance reports often include rankings of unit pressure ulcer rates. Differentiating among units on the basis of quality requires reliable measurement. Our objectives were to describe and apply methods for assessing reliability of hospital-acquired pressure ulcer rates and evaluate a standard signal-noise reliability measure as an indicator of precision of differentiation among units. Quarterly pressure ulcer data from 8,199 critical care, step-down, medical, surgical, and medical-surgical nursing units from 1,299 US hospitals were analyzed. Using beta-binomial models, we estimated between-unit variability (signal) and within-unit variability (noise) in annual unit pressure ulcer rates. Signal-noise reliability was computed as the ratio of between-unit variability to the total of between- and within-unit variability. To assess precision of differentiation among units based on ranked pressure ulcer rates, we simulated data to estimate the probabilities of a unit's observed pressure ulcer rate rank in a given sample falling within five and ten percentiles of its true rank, and the probabilities of units with ulcer rates in the highest quartile and highest decile being identified as such. We assessed the signal-noise measure as an indicator of differentiation precision by computing its correlations with these probabilities. Pressure ulcer rates based on a single year of quarterly or weekly prevalence surveys were too susceptible to noise to allow for precise differentiation among units, and signal-noise reliability was a poor indicator of precision of differentiation. To ensure precise differentiation on the basis of true differences, alternative methods of assessing reliability should be applied to measures purported to differentiate among providers or units based on quality. © 2016 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Reliability of Pressure Ulcer Rates: How Precisely Can We Differentiate Among Hospital Units, and Does the Standard Signal‐Noise Reliability Measure Reflect This Precision?

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hospital performance reports often include rankings of unit pressure ulcer rates. Differentiating among units on the basis of quality requires reliable measurement. Our objectives were to describe and apply methods for assessing reliability of hospital‐acquired pressure ulcer rates and evaluate a standard signal‐noise reliability measure as an indicator of precision of differentiation among units. Quarterly pressure ulcer data from 8,199 critical care, step‐down, medical, surgical, and medical‐surgical nursing units from 1,299 US hospitals were analyzed. Using beta‐binomial models, we estimated between‐unit variability (signal) and within‐unit variability (noise) in annual unit pressure ulcer rates. Signal‐noise reliability was computed as the ratio of between‐unit variability to the total of between‐ and within‐unit variability. To assess precision of differentiation among units based on ranked pressure ulcer rates, we simulated data to estimate the probabilities of a unit's observed pressure ulcer rate rank in a given sample falling within five and ten percentiles of its true rank, and the probabilities of units with ulcer rates in the highest quartile and highest decile being identified as such. We assessed the signal‐noise measure as an indicator of differentiation precision by computing its correlations with these probabilities. Pressure ulcer rates based on a single year of quarterly or weekly prevalence surveys were too susceptible to noise to allow for precise differentiation among units, and signal‐noise reliability was a poor indicator of precision of differentiation. To ensure precise differentiation on the basis of true differences, alternative methods of assessing reliability should be applied to measures purported to differentiate among providers or units based on quality. © 2016 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223598

  15. CONFERENCE NOTE: Conference on Precision Electromagetic Measurements, Boulder, Colorado, USA, 27 June 1 July 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements will be held Monday 27 June to Friday 1 July 1994 in Boulder, Colorado, USA. The purpose of the bienennial meetings of the CPEM is to exchange information on a wide range of topics on precise electromagnetic measurements. These topics include: Advanced instrumentation including new sensors and measurement methods Automated measurement methods Dielectric and antenna measurements Direct current and low-frequency measurements Fundamental constants and special standards Laser, optical fibre and optical electronic measurements RF, microwave and millimetre-wave measurements Superconducting and other low-temperature measurements Time and frequency measurements CPEM'94 will be extended to five days to provide for added special sessions on the fundamental physical constants. The CODATA Task Group on Fundamental Constants plans to carry out the next least-squares adjustment of the fundamental constants in 1995 with a cutoff date for input data that is shortly after CPEM'94. Thus, CPEM'94 provides a particularly timely forum for discussion of results important to the 1995 adjustment. The conference language will be English. Authors are requested to submit an abstract and summary by 18 January 1994. If the paper is accepted, the author will be notified and encouraged to prepare a full paper for IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. Conference Chairman Donald B Sullivan, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80303, USA Technical Programme Committee Chairman Allen C Newell, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80303, USA For further information, please contact Gwen E Bennett, Conference Secretary, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80303, USA Tel: (01) 303-497-3295, Fax: (01) 303-497-6461, Telex: 910 940 5906.

  16. Precision measurement of the half-life and the decay branches of 62Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canchel, G.; Blank, B.; Chartier, M.; Delalee, F.; Dendooven, P.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Huikari, J.; Lalleman, A. S.; Lopez Jiménez, M. J.; Madec, V.; Pedroza, J. L.; Penttilä, H.; Thomas, J. C.

    2005-03-01

    In an experiment performed at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, the β-decay half-life of 62Ga has been studied with high precision using the IGISOL technique. A half-life of T1/2 = 116.09(17) ms was measured. Using β-γ coincidences, the γ intensity of the 954 keV transition and an upper limit of the β-decay feeding of the 0+2 state have been extracted. The present experimental results are compared to previous measurements and their impact on our understanding of the weak interaction is discussed.

  17. Testing the Standard Model by precision measurement of the weak charges of quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Ross Young; Roger Carlini; Anthony Thomas; Julie Roche

    2007-05-01

    In a global analysis of the latest parity-violating electron scattering measurements on nuclear targets, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the experimental knowledge of the weak neutral-current lepton-quark interactions at low-energy. The precision of this new result, combined with earlier atomic parity-violation measurements, limits the magnitude of possible contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model - setting a model-independent, lower-bound on the scale of new physics at ~1 TeV.

  18. Precision measurement of CP violation in D0-->pipi at CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Canto, A.

    We report a preliminary measurement of the CP violating asymmetry in D0->pi+pi- using approximately 215,000 decays reconstructed in about 5.94/fb of CDF data. We use the strong D*+->D0pi+ decay ("D* tag") to identify the flavor of the charmed meson at production time and exploit CP-conserving strong c-cbar pair-production in p-pbar collisions. Higher statistic samples of Cabibbo-favored D0->K-pi+ decays with and without D* tag are used to highly suppress systematic uncertainties due to detector effects. The result is the world's most precise measurement to date.

  19. Study of Fricke-gel dosimeter calibration for attaining precise measurements of the absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect

    Liosi, Giulia Maria; Benedini, Sara; Giacobbo, Francesca; Mariani, Mario; Gambarini, Grazia; Artuso, Emanuele; Gargano, Marco; Ludwig, Nicola; Carrara, Mauro; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2015-07-01

    A method has been studied for attaining, with good precision, absolute measurements of the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose by means of the Fricke gelatin Xylenol Orange dosimetric system. With this aim, the dose response to subsequent irradiations was analyzed. In fact, the proposed modality is based on a pre-irradiation of each single dosimeter in a uniform field with a known dose, in order to extrapolate a calibration image for a subsequent non-uniform irradiation with an un-known dose to be measured. (authors)

  20. A proposed experimental method for interpreting Doppler effect measurements and determining their precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    The principal problem in the measurement of the Doppler reactivity effect is separating it from the thermal reactivity effects of the expansion of the heated sample. It is shown in this proposal that the thermal effects of sample expansion can be experimentally determined by making additional measurements with porous samples having the same mass and/or volume as the primary sample. By combining these results with independent measurements of the linear temperature coefficient and the computed temperature dependence of the Doppler coefficient the magnitude of the Doppler coefficient may be extracted from the data. These addiational measurements are also useful to experimentally determine the precision of the reactivity oscillator technique used to measure the reactivity effects of the heated sample.

  1. Practical resolution requirements of measurement instruments for precise characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Bignon, Thibault

    2014-03-01

    Different ways to evaluate the optical performances of auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the crosstalk measurements that can be performed by measuring, either the precise angular emission at one or few locations on the display surface, or the full display surface emission from very specific locations in front of the display. Using measurements made in the two ways with different instruments on different auto-stereoscopic displays, we show that measurement instruments need to match the resolution of the human eye to obtain reliable results in both cases. Practical requirements in terms of angular resolution for viewing angle measurement instruments and in terms of spatial resolution for imaging instruments are derived and verified on practical examples.

  2. High stability interleaved fiber Michelson interferometer for on-line precision displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fang; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Lin

    2009-11-01

    A self-reference fiber Michelson interferometer measurement system, which employs fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) as in-fiber reflective mirrors and interleaves together two fiber Michelson interferometers that share the common-interferometric-optical path, is presented. One of the fiber interferometers is used to stabilise the system by the use of an electronic feedback loop to compensate the influences resulting from the environmental disturbances, while the other one is used to perform the measurement task. The influences resulting from the environmental disturbances have been eliminated by the compensating action of the electronic feedback loop, this makes the system suitable for on-line precision measurement. By means of the homodyne phase-tracking technique, the linearity of the measurement results of displacement measurements has been very high.

  3. Study of magnetic hysteresis effects in a storage ring using precision tune measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Hao, Hao; Mikhailov, Stepan F.; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying. K.

    2016-12-01

    With the advances in accelerator science and technology in recent decades, the accelerator community has focused on the development of next-generation light sources, for example diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), which require precision control of the electron beam energy and betatron tunes. This work is aimed at understanding magnet hysteresis effects on the electron beam energy and lattice focusing in circular accelerators, and developing new methods to gain better control of these effects. In this paper, we will report our recent experimental study of the magnetic hysteresis effects and their impacts on the Duke storage ring lattice using the transverse feedback based precision tune measurement system. The major magnet hysteresis effects associated with magnet normalization and lattice ramping are carefully studied to determine an effective procedure for lattice preparation while maintaining a high degree of reproducibility of lattice focusing. The local hysteresis effects are also studied by measuring the betatron tune shifts which result from adjusting the setting of a quadrupole. A new technique has been developed to precisely recover the focusing strength of the quadrupole by returning it to a proper setting to overcome the local hysteresis effect. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175180, 11475167) and US DOE (DE-FG02-97ER41033)

  4. High Precision Density Measurements of Single Particles: The Density of Metastable Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Cai, Yong; Chieffo, Logan; Imre, Dan G.

    2005-10-01

    We describe a system designed to measure the size, composition and density of individual particles in real-time. It uses a DMA to select a monodisperse particle population and the single particle mass spectrometer to measure individual particle mass spectrometer to measure individual particle aerodynamic diameter and composition. Mobility and aerodynamic diameters are used to extract particle density. The addition of individual particle density to the mass spectrum is intended to improve the data classification process. In the present paper we demonstrate that the system has the requisite accuracy and resolution to make this approach practicable. We also present a high precision variant that uses an internal calibrant to remove any of the systematic errors and significantly improves the measurement quality. The high precision scheme is most suitable for laboratory studies making it possible to follow slight changes in particle density. An application of the system to measure the density of hygroscopic particles of atmospheric importance in metastable phases near zero relative humidity is presented. The density data are consistent with conclusions reached in a number of other studies that some particle systems of atmospheric significance once deliquesced persist as droplets down to near zero relative humidity.

  5. Progress on Passive Sensor for Ultra-Precise Measurement of Carbon Dioxide from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Kawa, S. Randolph

    2002-01-01

    Global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxides (CO2) are needed to resolve significant discrepancies that exist in our understanding of the global carbon budget and, therefore, man's role in global climate change. The science measurement requirements for CO2 are extremely demanding (precision c .3%) No atmospheric chemical species has ever been measured from space with this precision. We are developing a novel application of a Fabry-Perot interferometer to detect spectral absorption of reflected sunlight by CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. Preliminary design studies indicate that the method will be able to achieve the sensitivity and signal-to-noise required to measure column CO2 at the target specification. We are presently engaged in the construction of a prototype instrument for deployment on an aircraft to test the instrument performance and our ability to retrieve the data in the real atmosphere. In the first 6 months we have assembled a laboratory bench system to begin testing the optical and electronic components. We are also undertaking some measurements of signal and noise levels for actual sunlight reflecting from the ground. We shall present results from some of these ground based studies and discuss their implications for a space based system.

  6. Ultrasonic scattering from a hemispherical pit theory and experimental measurement precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Thomas J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Lozev, Mark G.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy and precision of pulse-echo ultrasonic thickness measurement systems are influenced by systematic and environmental factors including the topographic profile of the back-wall surface. For the case of thickness measurement from the outside surface of a pipe, the back-wall surface can vary in roughness as a result of internal corrosion. A single corrosive pit can be geometrically represented by a hemisphere in a half-space to model the initiation point of rough surface corrosion, or to model isolated pitting degradation as is possible with naphthenic acid corrosion in oil refineries. The elastic wave scattering from a single hemispherical pit has been studied in the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) community, as well as scattering from a hemispherical canyon in the seismology community for various incident and reflected wave angles, modes, and frequency ranges with both analytical and discretized numerical methods. This paper looks to first review recent scattering theory (developed in the seismology community) on a full frequency range analytical solution for a normal incident longitudinal wave at a normal reflection angle from a hemispherical canyon, and then extend this theory to NDE applications with the introduction of a new far-field scattering amplitude term. Next, a selection of new theoretical scattering amplitude solutions are presented along with semi-analytical simulation and experimental measurement results. Finally, a statistical methodology to determine thickness measurement accuracy and precision taking into consideration asymmetric measurement uncertainty is referenced.

  7. Low-cost precise measurement of oscillator frequency instability based on GNSS carrier observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Yanhong; Jiao, Yue; Xu, Dongyang; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Ya; Li, Xiaohui

    2013-03-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers can be used in time and frequency metrology by exploiting stable GNSS time scales. This paper proposes a low-cost method for precise measurement of oscillator frequency instability using a single-frequency software GNSS receiver. The only required hardware is a common radio frequency (RF) data collection device driven by the oscillator under test (OUT). The receiver solves the oscillator frequency error in high time resolution using the carrier Doppler observation and the broadcast ephemeris from one of the available satellites employing the onboard reference atomic frequency standard that is more stable than the OUT. Considering the non-stable and non-Gaussian properties of the frequency error measurement, an unbiased finite impulse response (FIR) filter is employed to obtain robust estimation and filter out measurement noise. The effects of different filter orders and convolution lengths are further discussed. The frequency error of an oven controlled oscillator (OCXO) is measured using live Beidou-2/Compass signals. The results are compared with the synchronous measurement using a specialized phase comparator with the standard coordinated universal time (UTC) signal from the master clock H226 in the national time service center (NTSC) of China as its reference. The Allan deviation (ADEV) estimates using the two methods have a 99.9% correlation coefficient and a 0.6% mean relative difference over 1-1000 s intervals. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness and high precision of the software receiver method.

  8. Training to Improve Precision and Accuracy in the Measurement of Fiber Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jun; Wade, Mary Beth; Luong, Derek; Palmer, Xavier-Lewis; Bharti, Kapil; Simon, Carl G.

    2016-01-01

    An estimated $7.1 billion dollars a year is spent due to irreproducibility in pre-clinical data from errors in data analysis and reporting. Therefore, developing tools to improve measurement comparability is paramount. Recently, an open source tool, DiameterJ, has been deployed for the automated analysis of scanning electron micrographs of fibrous scaffolds designed for tissue engineering applications. DiameterJ performs hundreds to thousands of scaffold fiber diameter measurements from a single micrograph within a few seconds, along with a variety of other scaffold morphological features, which enables a more rigorous and thorough assessment of scaffold properties. Herein, an online, publicly available training module is introduced for educating DiameterJ users on how to effectively analyze scanning electron micrographs of fibers and the large volume of data that a DiameterJ analysis yields. The end goal of this training was to improve user data analysis and reporting to enhance reproducibility of analysis of nanofiber scaffolds. User performance was assessed before and after training to evaluate the effectiveness of the training modules. Users were asked to use DiameterJ to analyze reference micrographs of fibers that had known diameters. The results showed that training improved the accuracy and precision of measurements of fiber diameter in scanning electron micrographs. Training also improved the precision of measurements of pore area, porosity, intersection density, and characteristic fiber length between fiber intersections. These results demonstrate that the DiameterJ training module improves precision and accuracy in fiber morphology measurements, which will lead to enhanced data comparability. PMID:27907145

  9. Precision of dosimetry-related measurements obtained on current multidetector computed tomography scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Kelsey B.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Zhang, Di; Kim, Hyun J.; Cody, Dianna D.

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) intrascanner and interscanner variability has not been well characterized. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the within-run, between-run, and between-scanner precision of physical dosimetry-related measurements collected over the course of 1 yr on three different makes and models of multidetector row CT (MDCT) scanners. Methods: Physical measurements were collected using nine CT scanners (three scanners each of GE VCT, GE LightSpeed 16, and Siemens Sensation 64 CT). Measurements were made using various combinations of technical factors, including kVp, type of bowtie filter, and x-ray beam collimation, for several dosimetry-related quantities, including (a) free-in-air CT dose index (CTDI{sub 100,air}); (b) calculated half-value layers and quarter-value layers; and (c) weighted CT dose index (CTDI{sub w}) calculated from exposure measurements collected in both a 16 and 32 cm diameter CTDI phantom. Data collection was repeated at several different time intervals, ranging from seconds (for CTDI{sub 100,air} values) to weekly for 3 weeks and then quarterly or triannually for 1 yr. Precision of the data was quantified by the percent coefficient of variation (%CV). Results: The maximum relative precision error (maximum %CV value) across all dosimetry metrics, time periods, and scanners included in this study was 4.33%. The median observed %CV values for CTDI{sub 100,air} ranged from 0.05% to 0.19% over several seconds, 0.12%-0.52% over 1 week, and 0.58%-2.31% over 3-4 months. For CTDI{sub w} for a 16 and 32 cm CTDI phantom, respectively, the range of median %CVs was 0.38%-1.14% and 0.62%-1.23% in data gathered weekly for 3 weeks and 1.32%-2.79% and 0.84%-2.47% in data gathered quarterly or triannually for 1 yr. Conclusions: From a dosimetry perspective, the MDCT scanners tested in this study demonstrated a high degree of within-run, between-run, and between-scanner precision (with relative precision errors typically well

  10. Formulas for precisely and efficiently estimating the bias and variance of the length measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shuqiang; Yang, Yuanxi; Dang, Yamin

    2016-10-01

    Error analysis in length measurements is an important problem in geographic information system and cartographic operations. The distance between two random points—i.e., the length of a random line segment—may be viewed as a nonlinear mapping of the coordinates of the two points. In real-world applications, an unbiased length statistic may be expected in high-precision contexts, but the variance of the unbiased statistic is of concern in assessing the quality. This paper suggesting the use of a k-order bias correction formula and a nonlinear error propagation approach to the distance equation provides a useful way to describe the length of a line. The study shows that the bias is determined by the relative precision of the random line segment, and that the use of the higher-order bias correction is only needed for short-distance applications.

  11. Precise SAR measurements in the near-field of RF antenna systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, Bandar M.

    Wireless devices must meet specific safety radiation limits, and in order to assess the health affects of such devices, standard procedures are used in which standard phantoms, tissue-equivalent liquids, and miniature electric field probes are used. The accuracy of such measurements depend on the precision in measuring the dielectric properties of the tissue-equivalent liquids and the associated calibrations of the electric-field probes. This thesis describes work on the theoretical modeling and experimental measurement of the complex permittivity of tissue-equivalent liquids, and associated calibration of miniature electric-field probes. The measurement method is based on measurements of the field attenuation factor and power reflection coefficient of a tissue-equivalent sample. A novel method, to the best of the authors knowledge, for determining the dielectric properties and probe calibration factors is described and validated. The measurement system is validated using saline at different concentrations, and measurements of complex permittivity and calibration factors have been made on tissue-equivalent liquids at 900MHz and 1800MHz. Uncertainty analysis have been conducted to study the measurement system sensitivity. Using the same waveguide to measure tissue-equivalent permittivity and calibrate e-field probes eliminates a source of uncertainty associated with using two different measurement systems. The measurement system is used to test GSM cell-phones at 900MHz and 1800MHz for Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) compliance using a Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin phantom (SAM).

  12. Relative optical wavefront measurement in displacement measuring interferometer systems with sub-nm precision.

    PubMed

    Meskers, Arjan J H; Voigt, Dirk; Spronck, Jo W

    2013-07-29

    Many error sources can affect the accuracy of displacement measuring interferometer systems. In heterodyne interferometry two laser source frequencies constitute the finally detected wavefront. When the wavefronts of these source frequencies are non-ideal and one of them walks off the detector, the shape of the detected wavefront will vary. This leads to a change in measured phase at the detector resulting in increased measurement uncertainty. A new wavefront measurement tool described in this publication measures the relative phase difference between the two wavefronts of the two source frequencies of a coaxial heterodyne laser source as used in commercial heterodyne interferometer systems. The proposed measurement method uses standard commercial optics and operates with the same phase measurement equipment that is normally used for heterodyne displacement interferometry. In the presented method a bare tip of a multimode fiber represents the receiving detection aperture and is used for locally sampling the wavefront during a line scan. The difference in phase between the beating frequency of the scanning fiber and a reference beating frequency that results from integration over the entire beam, is used for the reconstruction of the wavefront. The method shows to have a phase resolution in the order of ~25 pm or ~λ/25000 for λ 632.8 nm, and a spatial resolution of ~60 µm at a repeatability better than 1 nm over one week.

  13. Precision measurements of the RSA method using a phantom model of hip prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Tatu J; Koort, Jyri K; Mattila, Kimmo T; Aro, Hannu T

    2004-04-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) has become one of the recommended techniques for pre-market evaluation of new joint implant designs. In this study we evaluated the effect of repositioning of X-ray tubes and phantom model on the precision of the RSA method. In precision measurements, we utilized mean error of rigid body fitting (ME) values as an internal control for examinations. ME value characterizes relative motion among the markers within each rigid body and is conventionally used to detect loosening of a bone marker. Three experiments, each consisting of 10 double examinations, were performed. In the first experiment, the X-ray tubes and the phantom model were not repositioned between one double examination. In experiments two and three, the X-ray tubes were repositioned between one double examination. In addition, the position of the phantom model was changed in experiment three. Results showed that significant differences could be found in 2 of 12 comparisons when evaluating the translation and rotation of the prosthetic components. Repositioning procedures increased ME values mimicking deformation of rigid body segments. Thus, ME value seemed to be a more sensitive parameter than migration values in this study design. These results confirmed the importance of standardized radiographic technique and accurate patient positioning for RSA measurements. Standardization and calibration procedures should be performed with phantom models in order to avoid unnecessary radiation dose of the patients. The present model gives the means to establish and to follow the intra-laboratory precision of the RSA method. The model is easily applicable in any research unit and allows the comparison of the precision values in different laboratories of multi-center trials.

  14. Electron reconstruction and electroweak processes as tools to achieve precision measurements at a hadron collider: From CDF to CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    Precision measurements are an important aspect of hadron colliders physics program. This thesis describes a method, together with a first application, of how to achieve and use precision measurements at the LHC. The idea is to use refernce processes to control the detector systematics and to constrain the theoretical predictions.

  15. Examination about Influence for Precision of 3d Image Measurement from the Ground Control Point Measurement and Surface Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anai, T.; Kochi, N.; Yamada, M.; Sasaki, T.; Otani, H.; Sasaki, D.; Nishimura, S.; Kimoto, K.; Yasui, N.

    2015-05-01

    As the 3D image measurement software is now widely used with the recent development of computer-vision technology, the 3D measurement from the image is now has acquired the application field from desktop objects as wide as the topography survey in large geographical areas. Especially, the orientation, which used to be a complicated process in the heretofore image measurement, can be now performed automatically by simply taking many pictures around the object. And in the case of fully textured object, the 3D measurement of surface features is now done all automatically from the orientated images, and greatly facilitated the acquisition of the dense 3D point cloud from images with high precision. With all this development in the background, in the case of small and the middle size objects, we are now furnishing the all-around 3D measurement by a single digital camera sold on the market. And we have also developed the technology of the topographical measurement with the air-borne images taken by a small UAV [1~5]. In this present study, in the case of the small size objects, we examine the accuracy of surface measurement (Matching) by the data of the experiments. And as to the topographic measurement, we examine the influence of GCP distribution on the accuracy by the data of the experiments. Besides, we examined the difference of the analytical results in each of the 3D image measurement software. This document reviews the processing flow of orientation and the 3D measurement of each software and explains the feature of the each software. And as to the verification of the precision of stereo-matching, we measured the test plane and the test sphere of the known form and assessed the result. As to the topography measurement, we used the air-borne image data photographed at the test field in Yadorigi of Matsuda City, Kanagawa Prefecture JAPAN. We have constructed Ground Control Point which measured by RTK-GPS and Total Station. And we show the results of analysis made

  16. Non-contact high precision measurement of surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Ying

    2010-10-01

    The traditional contact measuring methods could not satisfy the current optical elements measuring requirements. Noncontact high precision measuring theory, principle and instrument of the surface form tolerances and central thickness for optical elements were studied in the paper. In comparison with other types of interferometers, such as Twyman-Green and Mach-Zehnder, a Fizeau interferometer has the advantages of having fewer optical components, greater accuracy, and is easier to use. Some relations among the 3/A(B/C), POWER/PV and N/ΔN were studied. The PV with POWER removed can be the reference number of ΔN. The chromatic longitudinal aberration of a special optical probe can be used for non-contanct central thickness measurement.

  17. Determination of Personalized IOL-Constants for the Haigis Formula under Consideration of Measurement Precision

    PubMed Central

    Leydolt, Christina; Menapace, Rupert; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2016-01-01

    The capabilities of a weighted least squares approach for the optimization of the intraocular lens (IOL) constants for the Haigis formula are studied in comparison to an ordinary least squares approach. The weights are set to the inverse variances of the effective optical anterior chamber depth. The effect of random measurement noise is simulated 100000 times using data from N = 69 cataract patients and the measurement uncertainty of two different biometers. A second, independent data set (N = 33) is used to show the differences that can be expected between both methods. The weighted least squares formalism reduces the effect of measurement error on the final constants. In more than 64% it will result in a better approximation, if the measurement errors are estimated correctly. The IOL constants can be calculated with higher precision using the weighted least squares method. PMID:27391100

  18. Femtosecond precision measurement of laser-rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Libing; Zhao, Lingrong; Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao

    2017-03-01

    We report on the measurement of the laser-rf phase jitter in a photocathode rf gun with femtosecond precision. In this experiment four laser pulses with equal separation are used to produce electron bunch trains; then the laser-rf phase jitter is obtained by measuring the variations of the electron bunch spacing with an rf deflector. Furthermore, we show that when the gun and the deflector are powered by the same rf source, it is possible to obtain the laser-rf phase jitter in the gun through measurement of the beam-rf phase jitter in the deflector. Based on these measurements, we propose an effective time-stamping method that may be applied in MeV ultrafast electron diffraction facilities to enhance the temporal resolution.

  19. Precision frequency measurements of He,43 2 3P→3 3D transitions at 588 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Peng, Jin-Long; Hu, Jinmeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2016-12-01

    We report the frequency measurements of the 2 3P→3 3D transitions in He,43 at 588 nm using an optical frequency comb stabilized laser system. The Doppler-free spectra of the 2 3P→3 3D transitions are demonstrated in an rf discharged sealed-off helium cell using intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy. The measured absolute frequency of the 4He2 3P0→3 3D1 transition is 510 059 755.352(28) MHz, which is more precise than the previous measurement by two orders of magnitude. The ionization energies of the 4He2 3P0 and 2 3S1 states can be derived from our result and agree very well with the previous experimental values. More importantly, the Lamb shift of the 2 3S1 state can be deduced to be 4057.086(34) MHz, which is two times more precise than the previous result. In addition, the absolute frequencies of the 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D1,3 /2 , 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D1,1 /2 , and 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D2,3 /2 transitions in 3He are measured. Our precision surpasses the theoretical calculations by more than one to two orders of magnitude. The hyperfine separations of the 3 3D states in 3He and the frequency differences between 4He and 3He transitions are also presented.

  20. Positional and orientational referencing of multiple light sectioning systems for precision profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratnig, Mark; Hlobil, Helmut; Reisinger, Johann; O'Leary, Paul L.

    2005-02-01

    Precision rolled strips are often intermediate products in the manufacturing of blades. In such cases the shape and size of these strips are essential to the functionality and quality of the blade and cutting workpiece. Although precision strips are normally produced in heavily automated rolling mills, their size and shape are still inspected manually with profile gauges and microscopes. In this paper we present a measurement setup with multiple light-sectioning systems, which is suitable for the inspection of all sides of a profiled strip. It consists of three measurement heads, which are used to inspect the upper side, the lower side and the back of the blade. The heads are calibrated individually; the focus of the work here is to determine the relative position and orientation of the heads with respect to each other. The first approach has been developed to reference two or more measurement heads. The calculation of the required transformations is based on the rotation of a suitable target. Due to the small depth of field, the location of the rotation axis must be pre-adjusted very precisely. To improve the accuracy and to simplify the process, a second referencing method was developed. The required target was manufactured by means of a 5-axis high speed milling machine and features a thickness tolerance of less than 1 micron. Both the referencing method and target are presented. Additionally, we demonstrate the all-side inspection of a blade. It will be shown that the approaches allow a robust and flexible referencing of multiple measurement heads to each other.

  1. 3D precision measurements of meter sized surfaces using low cost illumination and camera techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, Peter; Daemi, Bita; Mattsson, Lars

    2017-04-01

    Using dedicated stereo camera systems and structured light is a well-known method for measuring the 3D shape of large surfaces. However the problem is not trivial when high accuracy, in the range of few tens of microns, is needed. Many error sources need to be handled carefully in order to obtain high quality results. In this study, we present a measurement method based on low-cost camera and illumination solutions combined with high-precision image analysis and a new approach in camera calibration and 3D reconstruction. The setup consists of two ordinary digital cameras and a Gobo projector as a structured light source. A matrix of dots is projected onto the target area. The two cameras capture the images of the projected pattern on the object. The images are processed by advanced subpixel resolution algorithms prior to the application of the 3D reconstruction technique. The strength of the method lays in a different approach for calibration, 3D reconstruction, and high-precision image analysis algorithms. Using a 10 mm pitch pattern of the light dots, the method is capable of reconstructing the 3D shape of surfaces. The precision (1σ repeatability) in the measurements is  <10 µm over a volume of 60  ×  50  ×  10 cm3 at a hardware cost of ~2% of available advanced measurement techniques. The expanded uncertainty (95% confidence level) is estimated to be 83 µm, with the largest uncertainty contribution coming from the absolute length of the metal ruler used as reference.

  2. Taking the Measure of the Universe : Precision Astrometry with SIM PlanetQuest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.; Shao, Michael; Tanner, Angelle M.; Allen, Ronald J.; Beichman, Charles A.; Boboltz, David; Catanzarite, Joseph H.; Chaboyer, Brian C.; Ciardi, David R.; Edberg, Stephen J.; Fey, Alan L.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Gould, Andrew P.; Grillmair, Carl; Henry, Todd J.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Law, Nicholas M.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makarov, Valeri V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Meier, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Precision astrometry at microarcsecond accuracy has application to a wide range of astrophysical problems. This paper is a study of the science questions that can be addressed using an instrument with flexible scheduling that delivers parallaxes at about 4 microarcsec (microns)as) on targets as faint as V = 20, and differential accuracy of 0.6 (microns)as on bright targets. The science topics are drawn primarily from the Team Key Projects, selected in 2000, for the Space Interferometry Mission PlanetQuest (SIM PlanetQuest). We use the capabilities of this mission to illustrate the importance of the next level of astrometric precision in modern astrophysics. SIM PlanetQuest is currently in the detailed design phase, having completed in 2005 all of the enabling technologies needed for the flight instrument. It will be the first space-based long baseline Michelson interferometer designed for precision astrometry. SIM will contribute strongly to many astronomical fields including stellar and galactic astrophysics, planetary systems around nearby stars, and the study of quasar and AGN nuclei. Using differential astrometry SIM will search for planets with masses as small as an Earth orbiting in the 'habitable zone' around the nearest stars, and could discover many dozen if Earth-like planets are common. It will characterize the multiple-planet systems that are now known to exist, and it will be able to search for terrestrial planets around all of the candidate target stars in the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin mission lists. It will be capable of detecting planets around young stars, thereby providing insights into how planetary systems are born and how they evolve with time. Precision astrometry allows the measurement of accurate dynamical masses for stars in binary systems. SIM will observe significant numbers of very high- and low-mass stars, providing stellar masses to 1%, the accuracy needed to challenge physical models. Using precision proper motion

  3. Measuring Constructs in Family Science: How Can Item Response Theory Improve Precision and Validity?

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides family scientists with an understanding of contemporary measurement perspectives and the ways in which item response theory (IRT) can be used to develop measures with desired evidence of precision and validity for research uses. The article offers a nontechnical introduction to some key features of IRT, including its orientation toward locating items along an underlying dimension and toward estimating precision of measurement for persons with different levels of that same construct. It also offers a didactic example of how the approach can be used to refine conceptualization and operationalization of constructs in the family sciences, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (n = 2,732). Three basic models are considered: (a) the Rasch and (b) two-parameter logistic models for dichotomous items and (c) the Rating Scale Model for multicategory items. Throughout, the author highlights the potential for researchers to elevate measurement to a level on par with theorizing and testing about relationships among constructs. PMID:25663714

  4. Current Work to Improve Precision in Measurements of Helium Fine Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Rezaeian, Nima; Shiner, Davis

    2013-05-01

    With the recent improvement on the 23P Helium fine structure calculation by Pachucki and the quest for finding the most precise value for α, spectroscopic measurement of the helium atom has a great advantage to find this primary constant. Distinctively, the 32 GHz atomic fine structure of 23P J2 to J0 interval with uncertainty of 100Hz leads a factor of three better than the best current value of α and an impulsion to the theory to evaluate the largest term of order mα8 is our ambition. This measurement not only tests the quantum electrodynamics, but also establishes the fine structure constant α with uncertainty of 1.6 ppb. The electron g-factor measurement of α, even though, is by far more accurate at 0.37 ppb, our end result would be a examination to the best alternative atom recoil measurements with different approach. To reach on this level of accuracy, we implement our frequency selector with precision better than 1 to 100 along with laser cooling mechanism to enhance the signal to noise ratio by increasing the signal strength. This work is supported by NSF grant.

  5. Current Work to Improve Precision in Measurements of Helium Fine Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Rezaeian, Nima; Shiner, David

    2013-06-01

    With the recent improvement on the 23P Helium fine structure calculation by Pachucki and the quest for finding the most precise value for α, spectroscopic measurement of the helium atom has a great advantage to find this primary constant. Distinctively, the 32 GHz atomic fine structure of 23P J2 to J0 interval with uncertainty of 100Hz leads a factor of three better than the best current value of α and an impulsion to the theory to evaluate the largest term of order mα8 is our ambition. This measurement not only tests the quantum electrodynamics, but also establishes the fine structure constant α with uncertainty of 1.6 ppb. The electron g-factor measurement of α, even though, is by far more accurate at 0.37 ppb, our end result would be a examination to the best alternative atom recoil measurements with different approach. To reach on this level of accuracy, we implement our frequency selector with precision better than 1 to 100 along with laser cooling mechanism to enhance the signal to noise ratio by increasing the signal strength. This work is supported by NSF grant.

  6. A Precise Measurement of the Deuteron Elastic Structure Function A(Q2)

    SciTech Connect

    Honegger, Andrian

    1999-12-07

    During summer 1997 experiment 394-018 measured the deuteron tensor polarization in D(e,e'$vec\\{d}$) scattering in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. In a momentum transfer range between 0.66 and 1.8 (GeV=c)2, with slight changes in the experimental setup, the collaboration performed six precision measurements of the deuteron structure function A(Q2) in elastic D(e,e'd) scattering . Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence in the High Momentum Spectrometer and the recoil polarimeter POLDER, respectively. At every kinematics H(e,e') data were taken to study systematic effects of the measurement. These new precise measurements resolve discrepancies between older data sets and put significant constraints on existing models of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Commissariat 'a l'Energie Atomique, the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation and the K.C. Wong Foundation.

  7. Iterative precision measurement of branching ratios applied to 5P states in 88Sr+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Helena; Gutierrez, Michael; Hao Low, Guang; Rines, Richard; Stuart, Jules; Wu, Tailin; Chuang, Isaac

    2016-12-01

    We report and demonstrate a method for measuring the branching ratios of dipole transitions of trapped atomic ions by performing nested sequences of population inversions. This scheme is broadly applicable to species with metastable lambda systems and can be generalized to find the branching of any state to lowest states. It does not use ultrafast pulsed or narrow linewidth lasers and is insensitive to experimental variables such as laser and magnetic field noise as well as ion heating. To demonstrate its effectiveness, we make the most accurate measurements thus far of the branching ratios of both 5{P}1/2 and 5{P}3/2 states in 88Sr+ with sub-1% uncertainties. We measure 17.175(27) for the 5{P}1/2-5{S}1/2 branching ratio, 15.845(71) for 5{P}3/2-5{S}1/2, and 0.056 09(21) for 5{P}3/2-4{D}5/2. These values represent the first precision measurement for 5{P}3/2-4{D}5/2, as well as ten- and thirty-fold improvements in precision respectively for 5{P}1/2-5{S}1/2 and 5{P}3/2-5{S}1/2 over the best previous experimental values.

  8. Calorimeters for precision power dissipation measurements on controlled-temperature superconducting radiofrequency samples.

    PubMed

    Xiao, B P; Reece, C E; Phillips, H L; Kelley, M J

    2012-12-01

    Two calorimeters, with stainless steel and Cu as the thermal path material for high precision and high power versions, respectively, have been designed and commissioned for the 7.5 GHz surface impedance characterization system at Jefferson Lab to provide low temperature control and measurement for CW power up to 22 W on a 5 cm diameter disk sample which is thermally isolated from the radiofrequency (RF) portion of the system. A power compensation method has been developed to measure the RF induced power on the sample. Simulation and experimental results show that with these two calorimeters, the whole thermal range of interest for superconducting radiofrequency materials has been covered. The power measurement error in the interested power range is within 1.2% and 2.7% for the high precision and high power versions, respectively. Temperature distributions on the sample surface for both versions have been simulated and the accuracy of sample temperature measurements have been analyzed. Both versions have the ability to accept bulk superconductors and thin film superconducting samples with a variety of substrate materials such as Al, Al(2)O(3), Cu, MgO, Nb, and Si.

  9. A new, high-precision measurement of the X-ray Cu K α spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Cline, James P.; Henins, Albert; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Windover, Donald

    2016-03-01

    One of the primary measurement issues addressed with NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for powder diffraction is that of line position. SRMs for this purpose are certified with respect to lattice parameter, traceable to the SI through precise measurement of the emission spectrum of the X-ray source. Therefore, accurate characterization of the emission spectrum is critical to a minimization of the error bounds on the certified parameters. The presently accepted sources for the SI traceable characterization of the Cu K α emission spectrum are those of Härtwig, Hölzer et al., published in the 1990s. The structure of the X-ray emission lines of the Cu K α complex has been remeasured on a newly commissioned double-crystal instrument, with six-bounce Si (440) optics, in a manner directly traceable to the SI definition of the meter. In this measurement, the entire region from 8020 eV to 8100 eV has been covered with a highly precise angular scale and well-defined system efficiency, providing accurate wavelengths and relative intensities. This measurement is in modest disagreement with reference values for the wavelength of the Kα1 line, and strong disagreement for the wavelength of the Kα2 line.

  10. High-precision magnetic field measurements of Ap and Bp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G. A.; Donati, J.-F.; Landstreet, J. D.; Shorlin, S. L. S.

    2000-04-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach for measuring the mean longitudinal magnetic field and net linear polarization of Ap and Bp stars. As was demonstrated by Wade et al., least-squares deconvolution (LSD; Donati et al.) provides a powerful technique for detecting weak Stokes V, Q and U Zeeman signatures in stellar spectral lines. These signatures have the potential to apply strong new constraints to models of stellar magnetic field structure. Here we point out two important uses of LSD Stokes profiles. First, they can provide very precise determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field. In particular, this method allows one frequently to obtain 1σ error bars better than 50G, and smaller than 20G in some cases. This method is applicable to both broad- and sharp-lined stars, with both weak and strong magnetic fields, and effectively redefines the quality standard of longitudinal field determinations. Secondly, LSD profiles can in some cases provide a measure of the net linear polarization, a quantity analogous to the broad-band linear polarization recently used to derive detailed magnetic field models for a few stars (e.g. Leroy et al.). In this paper we report new high-precision measurements of the longitudinal fields of 14 magnetic Ap/Bp stars, as well as net linear polarization measurements for four of these stars, derived from LSD profiles.

  11. The stabilization of a multiplexed optical fiber interferometer system for on-line precision measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xie; Chen, Zhi Min

    2008-12-01

    The stabilization of a multiplexed optical fiber interferometer system for on-line displacement precision measurement with a simple electric feedback loop is presented. Based on the characteristics of fiber Bragg gratings, the multiplexed optical fiber interferometer system includes two independent optical fiber Michelson interferometers of which the optical path is almost overlapped. One interferometer is used for the stabilization while the other interferometer is used for the measurement. A feed back signal from the feedback loop is driving a tube PZT on which one arm of the fiber interferometer is wounded. The phase-shift in the two arms of the interferometer resulting from the temperature fluctuations and other types of environmental disturbances is compensated. The bandwidth of the feedback loop is 5kHz. This makes the multiplexed fiber interferometer system stable enough for the on-line precision measurement. An active phase tracking technique is applied for signal processing to achieve high resolution. The measurement resolution of the system is less than 2nm.

  12. High Precision Measurement of Isotope Effects on Noncovalent Host-Guest Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mugridge, Jeffrey S.; Bergman, Robert G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-06-23

    Isotope effects (IEs) are a powerful tool for examining the reactivity of, and interactions between, molecules. Recently, secondary IEs have been used to probe the nature of noncovalent interactions between guest and host molecules in supramolecular systems. While these studies can provide valuable insight into the specific interactions governing guest recognition and binding properties, IEs on noncovalent interactions are often very small and difficult to measure precisely. The Perrin group has developed an NMR titration method capable of determining ratios of equilibrium constants with remarkable precision. They have used this technique to study small, secondary equilibrium isotope effects (EIEs) on the acidity of carboxylic acids and phenols and on the basicity of amines, measuring differences down to thousandths of a pK{sub a} unit. It occurred to us that this titration method can in principle measure relative equilibrium constants for any process which is fast on the NMR timescale and for which the species under comparison are distinguishable by NMR. Here we report the application of this method to measure very small EIEs on noncovalent host-guest interactions in a supramolecular system.

  13. Lipid Droplets Purified from Drosophila Embryos as an Endogenous Handle for Precise Motor Transport Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Tobias F.; Longoria, Rafael A.; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig; Shubeita, George T.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins are responsible for long-range transport of vesicles and organelles. Recent works have elucidated the richness of the transport complex, with multiple teams of similar and dissimilar motors and their cofactors attached to individual cargoes. The interaction among these different proteins, and with the microtubules along which they translocate, results in the intricate patterns of cargo transport observed in cells. High-precision and high-bandwidth measurements are required to capture the dynamics of these interactions, yet the crowdedness in the cell necessitates performing such measurements in vitro. Here, we show that endogenous cargoes, lipid droplets purified from Drosophila embryos, can be used to perform high-precision and high-bandwidth optical trapping experiments to study motor regulation in vitro. Purified droplets have constituents of the endogenous transport complex attached to them and exhibit long-range motility. A novel method to determine the quality of the droplets for high-resolution measurements in an optical trap showed that they compare well with plastic beads in terms of roundness, homogeneity, position sensitivity, and trapping stiffness. Using high-resolution and high-bandwidth position measurements, we demonstrate that we can follow the series of binding and unbinding events that lead to the onset of active transport. PMID:24010661

  14. Precision Measurement of {eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} Decay Width via the Primakoff Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Liping Gin

    2013-08-01

    A precision measurement of the {eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} decay width via the Primakoff effect is underway in Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The decay width will be extracted from measured differential cross sections at forward angles on two light targets, liquid hydrogen and 4He, using a 11.5 GeV tagged photon beam. Results of this experiment will not only potentially resolve a long standing discrepancy between the Primakoff and the collider measurements, but will also reduce the experimental uncertainty by a factor of two on the average value of previous experimental results listed by the Particle Data Group(PDG). It will directly improve all other eta partial decay widths which rely on the accuracy of the eta radiative decay width. The projected 3% precision on the {Gamma}({eta} --> {gamma} {gamma} ) measurement will have a significant impact on the experimental determination of the fundamental parameters in QCD, such as the ratio of light quark masses (m{sub u},m{sub d},m{sub s}) and the {eta} - {eta}' mixing angle. It will be a sensitive probe for understanding QCD symmetries and the origin and the dynamics of QCD symmetry breaking.

  15. Precision measurement of the mass difference between light nuclei and anti-nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alice Collaboration; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. Mohisin; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, Mimae.; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-10-01

    The measurement of the mass differences for systems bound by the strong force has reached a very high precision with protons and anti-protons. The extension of such measurement from (anti-)baryons to (anti-)nuclei allows one to probe any difference in the interactions between nucleons and anti-nucleons encoded in the (anti-)nuclei masses. This force is a remnant of the underlying strong interaction among quarks and gluons and can be described by effective theories, but cannot yet be directly derived from quantum chromodynamics. Here we report a measurement of the difference between the ratios of the mass and charge of deuterons (d) and anti-deuterons (), and 3He and nuclei carried out with the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. Our direct measurement of the mass-over-charge differences confirms CPT invariance to an unprecedented precision in the sector of light nuclei. This fundamental symmetry of nature, which exchanges particles with anti-particles, implies that all physics laws are the same under the simultaneous reversal of charge(s) (charge conjugation C), reflection of spatial coordinates (parity transformation P) and time inversion (T).

  16. High precision optical fiber fluorescent temperature measurement system and data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yutian; Bo, Xiaoxu; Gui, Feifei

    2010-08-01

    Generally, the theoretical analysis of the fluorescent life time temperature measurement is based on the assumption of the exponential life time characteristic, but in practice, the actual curve of the fluorescence are different from exponential. This is the key-influence on the stability of the high precision fluorescent measurement system. The differences are analyzed base on the theoretical mechanism of fluorescent, and a cutting and normalized method is given to describe the degree of the non-exponent of the actual fluorescent curve defer from the exponential curve. Several kinds of typical fluorescence materials spectrum and its cutting and normalized experiment results verify this theoretical analysis. Some effective measures to improve the non-exponent of the system are taken and are applied to a temperature measurement system based on actual fluorescent curve analysis with resolution 0.1°C, precisions +/-0.2°C, and real-time calibration is carried on. Based the theory base and the actuality of fluorescence optical fiber temperature sensor, two methods about fluorescence decay time constant are proposed. In the mean time, the mathematic model has been formed and analysis, so that the different schemes are selected in different situation.

  17. Calorimeters for Precision Power Dissipation Measurements on Controlled-Temperature Superconducting Radiofrequency Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Binping P.; Kelley, Michael J.; Reece, Charles E.; Phillips, H. L.

    2012-12-01

    Two calorimeters, with stainless steel and Cu as the thermal path material for high precision and high power versions, respectively, have been designed and commissioned for the surface impedance characterization (SIC) system at Jefferson Lab to provide low temperature control and measurement for CW power up to 22 W on a 5 cm dia. disk sample which is thermally isolated from the RF portion of the system. A power compensation method has been developed to measure the RF induced power on the sample. Simulation and experimental results show that with these two calorimeters, the whole thermal range of interest for superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) materials has been covered. The power measurement error in the interested power range is within 1.2% and 2.7% for the high precision and high power versions, respectively. Temperature distributions on the sample surface for both versions have been simulated and the accuracy of sample temperature measurements have been analysed. Both versions have the ability to accept bulk superconductors and thin film superconducting samples with a variety of substrate materials such as Al, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cu, MgO, Nb and Si.

  18. Precision measurement of the mass difference between light nuclei and anti-nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, J.

    2015-08-17

    The measurement of the mass differences for systems bound by the strong force has reached a very high precision with protons and anti-protons. The extension of such measurement from (anti-)baryons to (anti-)nuclei allows one to probe any difference in the interactions between nucleons and anti-nucleons encoded in the (anti-)nuclei masses. Also, this force is a remnant of the underlying strong interaction among quarks and gluons and can be described by effective theories, but cannot yet be directly derived from quantum chromodynamics. Here we report a measurement of the difference between the ratios of the mass and charge of deuterons (d) and anti-deuterons (more » $$-\\atop{d}$$), and 3He and 3$$-\\atop{He}$$nuclei carried out with the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector in Pb–Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. Our direct measurement of the mass-over-charge differences confirms CPT invariance to an unprecedented precision in the sector of light nuclei. This fundamental symmetry of nature, which exchanges particles with anti-particles, implies that all physics laws are the same under the simultaneous reversal of charge(s) (charge conjugation C), reflection of spatial coordinates (parity transformation P) and time inversion (T).« less

  19. Precision measurement of the mass difference between light nuclei and anti-nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, J.

    2015-08-17

    The measurement of the mass differences for systems bound by the strong force has reached a very high precision with protons and anti-protons. The extension of such measurement from (anti-)baryons to (anti-)nuclei allows one to probe any difference in the interactions between nucleons and anti-nucleons encoded in the (anti-)nuclei masses. Also, this force is a remnant of the underlying strong interaction among quarks and gluons and can be described by effective theories, but cannot yet be directly derived from quantum chromodynamics. Here we report a measurement of the difference between the ratios of the mass and charge of deuterons (d) and anti-deuterons ($-\\atop{d}$), and 3He and 3$-\\atop{He}$nuclei carried out with the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector in Pb–Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 2.76 TeV. Our direct measurement of the mass-over-charge differences confirms CPT invariance to an unprecedented precision in the sector of light nuclei. This fundamental symmetry of nature, which exchanges particles with anti-particles, implies that all physics laws are the same under the simultaneous reversal of charge(s) (charge conjugation C), reflection of spatial coordinates (parity transformation P) and time inversion (T).

  20. Radiographic total disc replacement angle measurement accuracy using the Oxford Cobbometer: precision and bias

    PubMed Central

    Stafylas, Kosmas; McManus, John; Schizas, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) clinical success has been reported to be related to the residual motion of the operated level. Thus, accurate measurement of TDR range of motion (ROM) is of utmost importance. One commonly used tool in measuring ROM is the Oxford Cobbometer. Little is known however on its accuracy (precision and bias) in measuring TDR angles. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the Cobbometer to accurately measure radiographic TDR angles. An anatomically accurate synthetic L4–L5 motion segment was instrumented with a CHARITE artificial disc. The TDR angle and anatomical position between L4 and L5 was fixed to prohibit motion while the motion segment was radiographically imaged in various degrees of rotation and elevation, representing a sample of possible patient placement positions. An experienced observer made ten readings of the TDR angle using the Cobbometer at each different position. The Cobbometer readings were analyzed to determine measurement accuracy at each position. Furthermore, analysis of variance was used to study rotation and elevation of the motion segment as treatment factors. Cobbometer TDR angle measurements were most accurate (highest precision and lowest bias) at the centered position (95.5%), which placed the TDR directly inline with the x-ray beam source without any rotation. In contrast, the lowest accuracy (75.2%) was observed in the most rotated and off-centered view. A difference as high as 4° between readings at any individual position, and as high as 6° between all the positions was observed. Furthermore, the Cobbometer was unable to detect the expected trend in TDR angle projection with changing position. Although the Cobbometer has been reported to be reliable in different clinical applications, it lacks the needed accuracy to measure TDR angles and ROM. More accurate ROM measurement methods need to be developed to help surgeons and researchers assess radiological success of TDRs. PMID:18496719

  1. High Precision Osmium Isotope Measurements Using New Generation Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A.

    2006-12-01

    The technique for measuring Os isotopes to high precision (e.g. +/-30-50 ppm on the 186/188 ratio, 2 sigma) via negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) was established a decade ago at the University of Maryland. Recent technical advances have resulted in the production of a new generation of TIMS that allows isotopic measurements with substantial improvement in accuracy and precision. Because of the improved capability, the new generation TIMS holds great potential to examine a variety of problems in geochemistry and cosmochemistry. Over the past 5 years, I have refined the technique for higher precision measurements of Os isotopes using the Triton TIMS from Thermo Electron. The measurements are made in static mode using 7 Faraday collectors. 70 or more nanograms of Os is loaded onto a Pt filament with barium hydroxide, the latter is an electron emitter that promotes efficient production of Os trioxide. Oxygen is bled into the source at constant pressures. Signal intensities of 120-180 mV 186Os trioxide are generated and measured as negative ions. Oxygen corrections to the raw data are made using the oxygen isotopic composition obtained for 2 ng loads of Re tetroxide measured on the Faraday cups. Multiple runs over the course of 3 years for the same lecture bottle used to bleed in oxygen to the source showed no change in the oxygen isotopic composition. Oxygen corrections are followed by instrumental mass fractionation corrections using 189/188, 192/189, or 192/188 using the exponential law. Both the internal and external precision for standard and unknown data are best when using 192/188, by a factor of 1.4 over 189/188, and 1.8 over 192/189. Replicate runs on 100 ng standard loads of a single filament shows no change in corrected values within external precision for all Os isotopic ratios over a wide range of fractionation, confirming adherence to the exponential law during emission. 39 runs for a standard solution gave +/-14 ppm (2 sigma) on the

  2. Precision measurement of the decay rate of the negative positronium ion Ps{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Ceeh, Hubert; Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Schreckenbach, Klaus; Gaertner, Stefan A.; Thirolf, Peter G.; Fleischer, Frank; Schwalm, Dirk

    2011-12-15

    The negative positronium ion Ps{sup -} is a bound system consisting of two electrons and a positron. Its three constituents are pointlike leptonic particles of equal mass, which are subject only to the electroweak and gravitational force. Hence, Ps{sup -} is an ideal object in which to study the quantum mechanics of a three-body system. The ground state of Ps{sup -} is stable against dissociation but unstable against annihilation into photons. We report here on a precise measurement of the Ps{sup -} ground-state decay rate {Gamma}, which was carried out at the high-intensity NEutron induced POsitron source MUniCh (NEPOMUC) at the research reactor FRM II in Garching. A value of {Gamma}=2.0875(50) ns{sup -1} was obtained, which is three times more precise than previous experiments and in agreement with most recent theoretical predictions. The achieved experimental precision is at the level of the leading corrections in the theoretical predictions.

  3. Measuring changes in Plasmodium falciparum transmission: Precision, accuracy and costs of metrics

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S.; Bousema, Teun; Smith, David L.; Drakeley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    As malaria declines in parts of Africa and elsewhere, and as more countries move towards elimination, it is necessary to robustly evaluate the effect of interventions and control programmes on malaria transmission. To help guide the appropriate design of trials to evaluate transmission-reducing interventions, we review eleven metrics of malaria transmission, discussing their accuracy, precision, collection methods and costs, and presenting an overall critique. We also review the non-linear scaling relationships between five metrics of malaria transmission; the entomological inoculation rate, force of infection, sporozoite rate, parasite rate and the basic reproductive number, R0. Our review highlights that while the entomological inoculation rate is widely considered the gold standard metric of malaria transmission and may be necessary for measuring changes in transmission in highly endemic areas, it has limited precision and accuracy and more standardised methods for its collection are required. In areas of low transmission, parasite rate, sero-conversion rates and molecular metrics including MOI and mFOI may be most appropriate. When assessing a specific intervention, the most relevant effects will be detected by examining the metrics most directly affected by that intervention. Future work should aim to better quantify the precision and accuracy of malaria metrics and to improve methods for their collection. PMID:24480314

  4. Mass spectrometry in Earth sciences: the precise and accurate measurement of time.

    PubMed

    Schaltegger, Urs; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; Ovtcharova, Maria; Chiaradia, Massimo; Spikings, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Precise determinations of the isotopic compositions of a variety of elements is a widely applied tool in Earth sciences. Isotope ratios are used to quantify rates of geological processes that occurred during the previous 4.5 billion years, and also at the present time. An outstanding application is geochronology, which utilizes the production of radiogenic daughter isotopes by the radioactive decay of parent isotopes. Geochronological tools, involving isotopic analysis of selected elements from smallest volumes of minerals by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, provide precise and accurate measurements of time throughout the geological history of our planet over nine orders of magnitude, from the accretion of the proto-planetary disk, to the timing of the last glaciation. This article summarizes the recent efforts of the Isotope Geochemistry, Geochronology and Thermochronology research group at the University of Geneva to advance the U-Pb geochronological tool to achieve unprecedented precision and accuracy, and presents two examples of its application to two significant open questions in Earth sciences: what are the triggers and timescales of volcanic supereruptions, and what were the causes of mass extinctions in the geological past, driven by global climatic and environmental deterioration?

  5. A Test of GEMS Astrometric Precision for Exoplanet Detection and Mass Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, S. Mark; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn; Neichel, Benoit; Galicher, Raphael; Bendek, Eduardo; Guyon, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    Precision astrometry is so far the only mainstream exoplanet detection technique that has yet to find a new planet. The unique capabilities of GeMS and GSAOI may finally be what we have been waiting for: the combination of a large aperture and wide-field AO correction for stable high-resolution wide-field diffraction-limited imaging. As part of this program, we have observed the astrometric calibrator star TYC 7122-00041-1 to demonstrate GeMS' long-term astrometric precision of < 0.4 mas in sparse fields (Ammons et al. 2013). Here, we propose two more epochs on the closest brown dwarf pair at 2 pc, WISE J1049-53 (Luhman 2013), newly discovered with Gemini in 2013 to be the third closest system known. GEMS will in one year obtain the best available projected relative orbits and a < 1% trigonometric distance, enabling precision masses and luminosity measurements for both L/T transition components of WISE 1049-53.

  6. High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

    2011-11-01

    We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement.

  7. A precise measurement of lunar spectral irradiance from 450 nm to 1000 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, C. E.; Lykke, K.; Woodward, J. T.; Smith, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Although the Moon is our nearest celestial neighbor, our knowledge of its absolute spectral irradiance is an order of magnitude less precise than our knowledge of the best-calibrated stars, including the Sun. A precise determination of the Moon's absolute spectral irradiance has the potential to improve on-orbit calibrations of Earth-observing instruments and extend atmospheric monitoring techniques based on Sun photometry to nighttime measurements based on lunar spectrophotometry. Observations of the Moon have already been used to track changes in satellite sensor response at the sub-percent level, relying on a model of lunar irradiance developed by the United States Geological Survey to predict time-dependent changes in lunar irradiance. The absolute scale of this model, however, is not known accurately enough to allow the Moon to specify an absolute scale for instrument response on orbit or to bridge gaps in various climate data records. We report initial measurements of lunar spectral irradiance with an uncertainty below 1 % from 420 nm to 1000 nm and compare them with the USGS model. Our measurement uncertainty meets the radiometric calibration requirement for many climate data records derived from satellite images, including those for vegetation, aerosols, and snow and ice albedo. It therefore opens the possibility of using the Moon as a calibration standard to bridge gaps in satellite coverage and validate atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Our measurement technique also yields detailed information about the atmosphere at the measurement site, suggesting that lunar observations are a possible solution for aerosol monitoring during the polar winter and can provide nighttime measurements to complement aerosol data collected with Sun photometers. Our measurement, made with a novel apparatus, is an order of magnitude more accurate than the previous state-of-the-art and has continuous spectral coverage, removing the need to interpolate between filter passbands.

  8. A Method for the Precision Mass Measurement of the Stop Quark at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, Ayres; Milstene, Caroline; Schmitt, Michael; Sopczak, Andre; /Lancaster U.

    2007-12-01

    Many supersymmetric models predict new particles within the reach of the next generation of colliders. For an understanding of the model structure and the mechanism(s) of symmetry breaking, it is important to know the masses of the new particles precisely. In this article the measurement of the mass of the scalar partner of the top quark (stop) at an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is studied. A relatively light stop is motivated by attempts to explain electroweak baryogenesis and can play an important role in dark matter relic density. A method is presented which makes use of cross-section measurements near the pair-production threshold as well as at higher center-of-mass energies. It is shown that this method not only increases the statistical precision, but also greatly reduces the systematic uncertainties, which can be important. numerical results are presented, based on a realistic event simulation, for two signal selection strategies: using conventional selection cuts, and using an Iterative Discriminant Analysis (IDA). The studies indicate that a precision of {Delta}m{sub {bar t}{sub 1}} = 0.42 GeV can be achieved, representing a major improvement over previous studies. While the analysis of stops is particularly challenging due to the possibility of stop hadronization, the general procedure could be applied to the mass measurement of other particles as well. They also comment on the potential of the IDA to discover a stop quark in this scenario, and they revisit the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the neutralino relic density.

  9. Precise measurement of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose a method for extraction of the target eccrine sweat gland by use of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en-face OCT images are constructed by the SS-OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate precise measurement of instantaneous volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus. The dynamic change of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating is performed by this method during the period of 300 sec with the frame intervals of 3.23 sec.

  10. Precise Measurements of Beam Spin Asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive π0 production

    DOE PAGES

    Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; Rossi, P.; ...

    2011-10-01

    We present studies of single-spin asymmetries for neutral pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of 5.776 GeV polarized electrons from an unpolarized hydrogen target, using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A substantial sin Φh amplitude has been measured in the distribution of the cross section asymmetry as a function of the azimuthal angle Φh of the produced neutral pion. The dependence of this amplitude on Bjorken x and on the pion transverse momentum is extracted with significantly higher precision than previous data and is compared to model calculations.

  11. Discussion on upper limit of the precision for τ mass measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, X. H.

    2016-10-01

    τ lepton is one of three charged leptons in nature, the measurements of its mass have been performed since its discovery. The present relative accuracy is already at the level of 10-4; more factors are still being studied in order to increase the accuracy. However, the available techniques for analysis and expectable luminosity from e+e- collider indicate that the precision upper limit of τ mass is almost reached, which means that brand new approaches should be considered if a great improvement is yearned for.

  12. Precision bone and muscle loss measurements by advanced, multiple projection DEXA (AMPDXA) techniques for spaceflight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, H. K. Jr; Beck, T. J.; Feldmesser, H. S.; Magee, T. C.; Spisz, T. S.; Pisacane, V. L.

    2001-01-01

    An advanced, multiple projection, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (AMPDXA) scanner system is under development. The AMPDXA is designed to make precision bone and muscle loss measurements necessary to determine the deleterious effects of microgravity on astronauts as well as develop countermeasures to stem their bone and muscle loss. To date, a full size test system has been developed to verify principles and the results of computer simulations. Results indicate that accurate predictions of bone mechanical properties can be determined from as few as three projections, while more projections are needed for a complete, three-dimensional reconstruction. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of length vernier in phase coincidence detection and precision frequency measurement.

    PubMed

    Miao, Miao; Wei, Zhou; Bin, Wang

    2012-02-01

    For comparison of arbitrary frequency signals, the paper proposed two levels of length vernier based on the time-space relationship are used in three levels of phase coincidence detecting circuits to extract the phase coincidence information by proper logic calculation. The length∕phase of each vernier is respectively corresponding to the accuracy and the resolution of detecting circuit. The time-space relationship is based on high-stability, high-accuracy, and high-speed of signal transmission. The method is effective to reduce the fuzzy region in the phase coincidence information and reach a higher measuring precision.

  14. High precision deflection measurement of microcantilever in an optical pickup head based atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the methodology to measure the precise deflection of microcantilever in an optical pickup head based atomic force microscopy. In this paper, three types of calibration methods have been proposed: full linearization, sectioned linearization, and the method based on astigmatism. In addition, the probe heads for easy calibration of optical pickup head and fast replacement of optical pickup head have been developed. The performances of each method have been compared through a set of experiments and constant height mode operation which was not possible in the optical pickup head based atomic force microscopy has been carried out successfully.

  15. Gamma ray bursts: A review of recent high-precision measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent measurements and discoveries in gamma ray bursts and transients are reviewed including observations of the red shifted annihilation line in two kinds of slow transients (in 'classical' gamma ray bursts and in the unique 1979 March 5th event); of red shifted nuclear lines in a slow transient and in one gamma ray burst; and of the positions of precise source locations of gamma ray bursts and of the March 5th event, within the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  16. Precision measurement of the ratio of the charged kaon leptonic decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NA62 Collaboration; Lazzeroni, C.; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Popov, I.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retière, F.

    2013-02-01

    A precision measurement of the ratio RK of the rates of kaon leptonic decays K±→e±ν and K±→μ±ν with the full data sample collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007-2008 is reported. The result, obtained by analysing ˜150000 reconstructed K±→e±ν candidates with 11% background contamination, is RK=(2.488±0.010)×10-5, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  17. Precision measurement of the ratio of the charged kaon leptonic decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeroni, C.; Romano, A.; Ceccucci, A.; Danielsson, H.; Falaleev, V.; Gatignon, L.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hallgren, B.; Maier, A.; Peters, A.; Piccini, M.; Riedler, P.; Frabetti, P. L.; Gersabeck, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Misheva, M.; Molokanova, N.; Movchan, S.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Rubin, P.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, F.; Savrié, M.; Bizzeti, A.; Bucci, F.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Veltri, M.; Antonelli, A.; Moulson, M.; Raggi, M.; Spadaro, T.; Eppard, K.; Hita-Hochgesand, M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Winston, R.; Bolotov, V.; Duk, V.; Gushchin, E.; Ambrosino, F.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Anzivino, G.; Imbergamo, E.; Piandani, R.; Sergi, A.; Cenci, P.; Pepe, M.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Balev, S.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Gallorini, S.; Goudzovski, E.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Ruggiero, G.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Kurshetsov, V.; Obraztsov, V.; Popov, I.; Semenov, V.; Yushchenko, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Leonardi, E.; Serra, M.; Valente, P.; Fucci, A.; Salamon, A.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Peyaud, B.; Engelfried, J.; Coward, D.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Dellacasa, G.; Marchetto, F.; Numao, T.; Retière, F.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    A precision measurement of the ratio RK of the rates of kaon leptonic decays K± →e± ν and K± →μ± ν with the full data sample collected by the NA62 experiment at CERN in 2007-2008 is reported. The result, obtained by analysing ∼ 150 000 reconstructed K± →e± ν candidates with 11% background contamination, is RK = (2.488 ± 0.010) ×10-5, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation.

  18. Precise Nuclear Data Measurements Possible with the NIFFTE fissionTPC for Advanced Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towell, Rusty; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) Collaboration has applied the proven technology of Time Projection Chambers (TPC) to the task of precisely measuring fission cross sections. With the NIFFTE fission TPC, precise measurements have been made during the last year at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center from both U-235 and Pu-239 targets. The exquisite tracking capabilities of this device allow the full reconstruction of charged particles produced by neutron beam induced fissions from a thin central target. The wealth of information gained from this approach will allow systematics to be controlled at the level of 1%. The fissionTPC performance will be presented. These results are critical to the development of advanced uranium-fueled reactors. However, there are clear advantages to developing thorium-fueled reactors such as Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors over uranium-fueled reactors. These advantages include improved reactor safety, minimizing radioactive waste, improved reactor efficiency, and enhanced proliferation resistance. The potential for using the fissionTPC to measure needed cross sections important to the development of thorium-fueled reactors will also be discussed.

  19. A Broad Bank Lidar for Precise Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption Measurement from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Huang, W.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate global measurement of carbon dioxide column with the aim of discovering and quantifying unknown sources and sinks has been a high priority for the last decade. In order to uncover the "missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget the critical precision for a measurement from space needs to be on the order of 1 ppm. To better understand the CO2 budget and to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council (NRC) in its recent decadal survey report (NACP) to NASA recommended a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. That's the goal of Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission - to significantly enhance the understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Our current goal is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive new lidar system for column measurements of CO2 changes in the lower atmosphere that uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer based system as the detector portion of the instrument and replaces the narrow band laser commonly used in lidars with a high power broadband source. This approach reduces the number of individual lasers used in the system and considerably reduces the risk of failure. It also tremendously reduces the requirement for wavelength stability in the source putting this responsibility instead on the Fabry- Perot subsystem.

  20. Accuracy and Precision in Measurements of Biomass Oxidative Ratio and Carbon Oxidation State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Masiello, C. A.; Randerson, J. T.; Chadwick, O. A.; Robertson, G. P.

    2007-12-01

    Ecosystem oxidative ratio (OR) is a critical parameter in the apportionment of anthropogenic CO2 between the terrestrial biosphere and ocean carbon reservoirs. OR is the ratio of O2 to CO2 in gas exchange fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere. Ecosystem OR is linearly related to biomass carbon oxidation state (Cox), a fundamental property of the earth system describing the bonding environment of carbon in molecules. Cox can range from -4 to +4 (CH4 to CO2). Variations in both Cox and OR are driven by photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition. We are developing several techniques to accurately measure variations in ecosystem Cox and OR; these include elemental analysis, bomb calorimetry, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A previous study, comparing the accuracy and precision of elemental analysis versus bomb calorimetry for pure chemicals, showed that elemental analysis-based measurements are more accurate, while calorimetry- based measurements yield more precise data. However, the limited biochemical range of natural samples makes it possible that calorimetry may ultimately prove most accurate, as well as most cost-effective. Here we examine more closely the accuracy of Cox and OR values generated by calorimetry on a large set of natural biomass samples collected from the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research (KBS-LTER) site in Michigan.

  1. The Current Status of Precision Superallowed Fermi β-Decay Measurements at TRIUMF-ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, K. G.

    2011-06-01

    Recent experimental work at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion-beam facility in Vancouver Canada, has produced several new results related to precise experimental tests of fundamental symmetries. The nature of these programs range from campaigns using existing setups, to the development of new apparati to further the experimental reach. One of the primary goals has been the investigation of superallowed Fermi β-decay, and its relation to Standard Model tests of CVC and CKM unitarity The extraction of experimental β-decay ft values requires the measurement of three quantities: the half-life, the superallowed branching ratio, and the parent-daughter mass difference. TRIUMF-ISAC has the ability to measure each of these values with very high precision, using a gas-proportional-counter, the 8π γ-ray spectrometer, and TITAN, respectively. This report focuses on the recent experimental progress of the superallowed program, as well as highlighting some results from the successful halo-nucleus mass-measurement program at TITAN.

  2. The Current Status of Precision Superallowed Fermi {beta}-Decay Measurements at TRIUMF-ISAC

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, K. G.

    2011-06-28

    Recent experimental work at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive ion-beam facility in Vancouver Canada, has produced several new results related to precise experimental tests of fundamental symmetries. The nature of these programs range from campaigns using existing setups, to the development of new apparats to further the experimental reach. One of the primary goals has been the investigation of superallowed Fermi {beta}-decay, and its relation to Standard Model tests of CVC and CKM unitarity The extraction of experimental {beta}-decay ft values requires the measurement of three quantities: the half-life, the superallowed branching ratio, and the parent-daughter mass difference. TRIUMF-ISAC has the ability to measure each of these values with very high precision, using a gas-proportional-counter, the 8{pi}{gamma}-ray spectrometer, and TITAN, respectively. This report focuses on the recent experimental progress of the superallowed program, as well as highlighting some results from the successful halo-nucleus mass-measurement program at TITAN.

  3. Search for new physics in a precise 20F beta spectrum shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Elizabeth; Voytas, Paul; Chuna, Thomas; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Gade, Alexandra; Hughes, Max; Huyan, Xueying; Liddick, Sean; Minamisono, Kei; Paulauskas, Stanley; Weisshaar, Dirk; Ban, Gilles; Flechard, Xavier; Lienard, Etienne

    2015-10-01

    We are carrying out a measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of β particles from 20F decay. We aim to achieve a relative precision below 3%, representing an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous experiments. This level of precision will enable a test of the so-called strong form of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis, and should also enable us to place competitive limits on the contributions of exotic tensor couplings in beta decay. In order to control systematic effects, we are using a technique that takes advantage of high energy radioactive beams at the NSCL to implant the decaying nuclei in a scintillation detector deep enough that the emitted beta particles cannot escape. The β-particle energy is measured with the implantation detector after switching off the beam implantation. Ancillary detectors are used to tag the 1.633-MeV γ-rays following the β decay for coincidence measurements in order to reduce backgrounds. We will give an overview and report on the status of the experiment.

  4. A Test of GEMS Astrometric Precision for Exoplanet Detection and Mass Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammons, S. Mark; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn; Neichel, Benoit; Galicher, Raphael; Bendek, Eduardo; Guyon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Precision astrometry is so far the only mainstream exoplanet detection technique that has yet to find a new planet. The unique capabilities of GeMS and GSAOI may finally be what we have been waiting for: the combination of a large aperture and wide-field AO correction for stable high-resolution wide-field diffraction-limited imaging. As part of a multi-year program starting in 2013A, we are observing SCR 1845 and Mu Arae in 2013A to (1) astrometrically verify the presence and measure the dynamical mass of the nearby brown dwarf companion orbiting SCR 1845 (Biller et al. 2006) and (2) measure the dynamical mass of mu Arae e, an RV discovery of 1.9 MJUP with a signal of approximately 0.5 mas (Pepe et al. 2008). Here, due to visibility constraints on SCR 1845 and Mu Arae, we propose four new epochs on the closest brown dwarf pair at 2 pc, WISE J1049-53 (Luhman 2013), newly discovered with Gemini in 2013 to be the third closest system known. GEMS will in one year obtain the best available projected relative orbits and a < 1% trigonometric distance, enabling precision masses and luminosity measurements for both L/T transition components.

  5. Precise Measurement of the Positron Asymmetry in the Decay of Spin-polarized 37K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenker, Benjamin; Melconian, Dan; Behling, Spencer; Mehlman, Michael; Behr, John; Craiciu, Ioana; Gorelov, Alexandre; McNeil, James; Smale, Scott; Warner, Claire; Anholm, Melissa; Gwinner, Gerald; Ashery, Daniel; Cohen, Iuliana

    2016-09-01

    Precise low-energy measurements in nuclear β-decay provide constraints on possible physics beyond the standard model complementary to high-energy collider experiments. We report the most precise measurement of the positron asymmetry from a polarized nucleus to-date. At the TRIUMF Neutral Atom Trap, atoms of the positron emitter 37K are confined in an alternating-current magneto-optical trap and spin-polarized to 99 . 13 +/- 0 . 09 % via optical pumping. The use of atom-trapping techniques allows for an exceptionally open geometry with the decay products escaping the trapping region unperturbed by the trapping potential. We detect the emitted positrons in a pair of symmetric detectors placed along the polarization axis to measure the asymmetry in situ. The analysis was performed blind and considers β-scattering and other systematic effects. The results place limits on the mass of a hypothetical W boson coupling to right-handed neutrinos as well as contribute to an independent determination of the Vud element of the CKM matrix. U.S. DOE, the Israel Science Foundation, and NSERC . TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.

  6. Precision measurement of the top quark mass in lepton + jets final States.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agnew, J P; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Augsten, K; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Borysova, M; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Buszello, C P; Camacho-Pérez, E; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Caughron, S; Chakrabarti, S; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, V N; Fauré, A; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garbincius, P H; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; Gavrilov, V; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Gogota, O; Golovanov, G; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hogan, J; Hohlfeld, M; Holzbauer, J L; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jayasinghe, A; Jeong, M S; Jesik, R; Jiang, P; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kiselevich, I; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Lammers, S; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lei, X; Lellouch, J; Li, D; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mansour, J; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nguyen, H T; Nunnemann, T; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Pleier, M-A; Podstavkov, V M; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Savitskyi, M; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Simak, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verkheev, A Y; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, S; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J M; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2014-07-18

    We measure the mass of the top quark in lepton+jets final states using the full sample of pp collision data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at sqrt[s] = 1.96 TeV, corresponding to 9.7 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity. We use a matrix element technique that calculates the probabilities for each event to result from tt production or background. The overall jet energy scale is constrained in situ by the mass of the W boson. We measure m(t) = 174.98 ± 0.76 GeV. This constitutes the most precise single measurement of the top-quark mass.

  7. Development of a Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Ultra-Precise Measurements of Column CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Emily L.; Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps, William S.

    2005-01-01

    A passive Fabry-Perot based instrument is described for detecting column CO2 through absorption measurements at 1.58 microns . In this design, solar flux reaches the instrument platform and is directed through two channels. In the first channel, transmittance fi5nges from a Fabry-Perot interferometer are aligned with CO2 absorption lines so that absorption due to CO2 is primarily detected. The second channel encompasses the same frequency region as the first, but is comparatively more sensitive to changes in the solar flux than absorption due to CO2. The ratio of these channels is sensitive to changes in the total CO2 column, but not to changes in solar flux. This inexpensive instrument will offer high precision measurements (error 4%) in a compact package. Design of this instrument and preliminary ground-based measurements of column CO2 are presented here as well as strategies for deployment on aircraft and satellite platforms.

  8. Precision measurement of transverse velocity distribution of a strontium atomic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Liu, H.; Xu, P.; Tian, X.; Wang, Y.; Ren, J.; Wu, Haibin; Chang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    We measure the transverse velocity distribution in a thermal Sr atomic beam precisely by velocity-selective saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of an ultrastable laser system and the narrow intercombination transition line of Sr atoms mean that the resolution of the measured velocity can reach 0.13 m/s, corresponding to 90 μK in energy units. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the results of theoretical calculations. Based on the spectroscopic techniques used here, the absolute frequency of the intercombination transition of 88Sr is measured using an optical-frequency comb generator referenced to the SI second through an H maser, and is given as 434 829 121 318(10) kHz.

  9. Fundamental measurement by in-line typed high-precision polarization lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Masakazu; Umaki, Dai; Noguchi, Kazuo; Fukuchi, Tetsuo

    2008-12-01

    An in-line typed new concept lidar system for high precision polarization measurement was developed. A specially designed polarization-independent optical circulator, which was composed by Gran laser prisms and highly transparent Faraday rotators, was developed. Its isolation between the orthogonal polarizations was improved up to more than 30 dB. It is sufficient to detect small rotation of the polarization plane of the propagating beam caused by lightning discharges due to the Faraday effect. The rotation angle of the polarization plane is estimated by the differential detection between the orthogonal polarization components of the lidar echoes. The in-line optics enables near range measurement from the near range of >30 m with the narrow field of view of 0.17 mrad. The fundamental measurements of lidar echoes in near and far fields, and low cloud activities were examined.

  10. Precision measurement of the top-quark mass in lepton+jets final states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.; D0 Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We measure the mass of the top quark in lepton+jets final states using the full sample of p p ¯ collision data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at √{s }=1.96 TeV , corresponding to 9.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. We use a matrix element technique that calculates the probabilities for each event to result from t t ¯ production or background. The overall jet energy scale is constrained in situ by the mass of the W boson. We measure mt=174.98 ±0.76 GeV . This constitutes the most precise single measurement of the top-quark mass.

  11. Precision measurement of the top-quark mass in lepton$+$jets final states

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2015-06-04

    We measure the mass of the top quark in lepton þ jets final states using the full sample of pp¯ collision data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at √s = 1.96 TeV, corresponding to 9.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. We also use a matrix element technique that calculates the probabilities for each event to result from tt¯ production or background. Furthermore, the overall jet energy scale is constrained in situ by the mass of the W boson. We measure mt = 174.98 ± 0.76 GeV. As a result, this constitutes the most precise single measurement of the top-quark mass.

  12. Precision measurement of the top-quark mass in lepton$+$jets final states

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2015-06-04

    We measure the mass of the top quark in lepton þ jets final states using the full sample of pp¯ collision data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at √s = 1.96 TeV, corresponding to 9.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. We also use a matrix element technique that calculates the probabilities for each event to result from tt¯ production or background. Furthermore, the overall jet energy scale is constrained in situ by the mass of the W boson. We measure mt = 174.98 ± 0.76 GeV. As a result, this constitutes the mostmore » precise single measurement of the top-quark mass.« less

  13. High precision tune and coupling measurements and tune/coupling feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schulthiess, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-08-01

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in RHIC are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  14. New Precision Measurements of Deuteron Structure Function A(Q) at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byungwuek

    2009-08-01

    Differences between previous measurements of low momentum transfer electron-deuteron elastic scattering prevent a clean determination of even the sign of the leading low momentum transfer relativistic corrections, or of the convergence of chiral perturbation theory. We have attempted to resolve this issue with a new high-precision measurement in Jefferson Lab Hall A. Elastic electron scattering was measured on targets of tantalum, carbon, hydrogen, and deuterium at beam energy of 685 MeV. The four-momentum transfer covered the range of 0.15 - 0.7 GeV. The experiment included a new beam calorimeter, to better calibrate the low beam currents used in the experiment, and new collimators to better define the spectrometer solid angles. We obtained cross sections of deuteron as ratios to hydrogen cross sections. A fit function of B(Q) world data is newly made and subtracted from cross sections to find values of A(Q).

  15. Precision measurement of the top-quark mass in lepton+jets final states

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2014-07-17

    We measure the mass of the top quark in leptonmore » $+$jets final states using the full sample of $$p\\bar{p}$$ collision data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at $$\\sqrt s=1.96 $$TeV, corresponding to $$9.7 {\\rm fb}^{-1}$$ of integrated luminosity. We use a matrix element technique that calculates the probabilities for each event to result from $$t\\bar t$$ production or background. The overall jet energy scale is constrained in situ by the mass of the $W$ boson. We measure $$m_t=174.98\\pm0.76$$ GeV. In conclusion, this constitutes the most precise single measurement of the top-quark mass.« less

  16. Precision measurements of nuclear CR energy spectra and composition with the AMS-02 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandrini, E.

    2016-05-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 02 (AMS-02) is a large acceptance high-energy physics experiment operating since May 2011 on board the International Space Station. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument in the first four years of operation. AMS-02 offers a unique opportunity to study the Cosmic Rays (CRs) since it measures the spectra of all the species simultaneously. We report on the precision measurements of primary and secondary nuclear spectra, in the GeV-TeV energy interval. These measurements allow for the first time a detailed study of the spectral index variation with rigidity providing a new insight on the origin and propagation of CR.

  17. High Precision Tune and Coupling Feedback and Beam Transfer Function Measurements in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Curcio, A.; Dawson, C.; Degen, C.; Luo, Y.; Marr, G.; Martin, B.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Oddo, P.; Russo, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schroeder, R.; Schultheiss, C.; Wilinski, M.

    2010-05-23

    Precision measurement and control of the betatron tunes and betatron coupling in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are required for establishing and maintaining both good operating conditions and, particularly during the ramp to high beam energies, high proton beam polarization. While the proof-of-principle for simultaneous tune and coupling feedback was successfully demonstrated earlier, routine application of these systems has only become possible recently. Following numerous modifications for improved measurement resolution and feedback control, the time required to establish full-energy beams with the betatron tunes and coupling regulated by feedback was reduced from several weeks to a few hours. A summary of these improvements, select measurements benefitting from the improved resolution and a review of system performance are the subject of this report.

  18. Precision measurement of transverse velocity distribution of a strontium atomic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Liu, H.; Tian, X.; Xu, P.; Wang, Y.; Ren, J.; Wu, Haibin; Chang, Hong

    2014-02-15

    We measure the transverse velocity distribution in a thermal Sr atomic beam precisely by velocity-selective saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of an ultrastable laser system and the narrow intercombination transition line of Sr atoms mean that the resolution of the measured velocity can reach 0.13 m/s, corresponding to 90 μK in energy units. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the results of theoretical calculations. Based on the spectroscopic techniques used here, the absolute frequency of the intercombination transition of {sup 88}Sr is measured using an optical-frequency comb generator referenced to the SI second through an H maser, and is given as 434 829 121 318(10) kHz.

  19. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2009-12-01

    A high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio µpGEp/GMp in the range Q2 = 0.3–0.7 GeV2/c2 was performed using recoil polarimetry in Jefferson Lab Hall A. In this low Q2 range, previous data from LEDEX [5] along with many fits and calculations [2, 3, 4] indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. In this new measurement, with 80% polarized electron beam for 24 days, we are able to achieve <1% statistical uncertainty. Preliminary results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, indicating a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the improved form factor measurements also have implications for DVCS, determinations of the proton Zemach radius and strangeness form factors through parity violation experiments.

  20. Note: Laser wavelength precision measurement based on a laser synthetic wavelength interferometer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong; Zhang, Shihua; Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Enzheng

    2016-08-01

    A laser wavelength precision measurement method is presented based on the laser synthetic wavelength interferometer (LSWI). According to the linear relation between the displacements of measurement and reference arms in the interferometer, the synthetic wavelength produced by an unknown wavelength and a reference wavelength can be measured by detecting the phase coincidences of two interference signals. The advantage of the method is that a larger synthetic wavelength resulting from an unknown wavelength very close to the reference wavelength can be easily determined according to the linear relation in the interferometer. Then the unknown wavelength is derived according to the one-to-one corresponding relationship between single wavelength and synthetic wavelength. Wavelengths of an external cavity diode laser and two He-Ne lasers were determined experimentally. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to realize a relative uncertainty on the order of 10(-8).

  1. Precision measurement of the top-quark mass in lepton+jets final states

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2014-07-17

    We measure the mass of the top quark in lepton$+$jets final states using the full sample of $p\\bar{p}$ collision data collected by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at $\\sqrt s=1.96 $TeV, corresponding to $9.7 {\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. We use a matrix element technique that calculates the probabilities for each event to result from $t\\bar t$ production or background. The overall jet energy scale is constrained in situ by the mass of the $W$ boson. We measure $m_t=174.98\\pm0.76$ GeV. In conclusion, this constitutes the most precise single measurement of the top-quark mass.

  2. Precision Measurements of the Cluster Red Sequence using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; Koester, Benjamin P.; Mckay, Timothy A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Evrard, August; Annis, James; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; Gerdes, David; Johnston, David E.; /Northwestern U. /Brookhaven

    2009-07-01

    The red sequence is an important feature of galaxy clusters and plays a crucial role in optical cluster detection. Measurement of the slope and scatter of the red sequence are affected both by selection of red sequence galaxies and measurement errors. In this paper, we describe a new error corrected Gaussian Mixture Model for red sequence galaxy identification. Using this technique, we can remove the effects of measurement error and extract unbiased information about the intrinsic properties of the red sequence. We use this method to select red sequence galaxies in each of the 13,823 clusters in the maxBCG catalog, and measure the red sequence ridgeline location and scatter of each. These measurements provide precise constraints on the variation of the average red galaxy populations in the observed frame with redshift. We find that the scatter of the red sequence ridgeline increases mildly with redshift, and that the slope decreases with redshift. We also observe that the slope does not strongly depend on cluster richness. Using similar methods, we show that this behavior is mirrored in a spectroscopic sample of field galaxies, further emphasizing that ridgeline properties are independent of environment. These precise measurements serve as an important observational check on simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The observed trends in the slope and scatter of the red sequence ridgeline with redshift are clues to possible intrinsic evolution of the cluster red-sequence itself. Most importantly, the methods presented in this work lay the groundwork for further improvements in optically-based cluster cosmology.

  3. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    SciTech Connect

    d'Enterria, David; Skands, Peter Z.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  4. Inferring the gravitational potential of the Milky Way with a few precisely measured stars

    SciTech Connect

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Hendel, David; Hogg, David W.

    2014-10-10

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is expected to be triaxial and filled with substructure. It is hoped that streams or shells of stars produced by tidal disruption of stellar systems will provide precise measures of the gravitational potential to test these predictions. We develop a method for inferring the Galactic potential with tidal streams based on the idea that the stream stars were once close in phase space. Our method can flexibly adapt to any form for the Galactic potential: it works in phase-space rather than action-space and hence relies neither on our ability to derive actions nor on the integrability of the potential. Our model is probabilistic, with a likelihood function and priors on the parameters. The method can properly account for finite observational uncertainties and missing data dimensions. We test our method on synthetic data sets generated from N-body simulations of satellite disruption in a static, multi-component Milky Way, including a triaxial dark matter halo with observational uncertainties chosen to mimic current and near-future surveys of various stars. We find that with just eight well-measured stream stars, we can infer properties of a triaxial potential with precisions of the order of 5%-7%. Without proper motions, we obtain 10% constraints on most potential parameters and precisions around 5%-10% for recovering missing phase-space coordinates. These results are encouraging for the goal of using flexible, time-dependent potential models combined with larger data sets to unravel the detailed shape of the dark matter distribution around the Milky Way.

  5. A comparison of protocols and observer precision for measuring physical stream attributes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitacre, H.W.; Roper, B.B.; Kershner, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Stream monitoring programs commonly measure physical attributes to assess the effect of land management on stream habitat. Variability associated with the measurement of these attributes has been linked to a number of factors, but few studies have evaluated variability due to differences in protocols. We compared six protocols, five used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and one by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on six streams in Oregon and Idaho to determine whether differences in protocol affect values for 10 physical stream attributes. Results from Oregon and Idaho were combined for groups participating in both states, with significant differences in attribute means for 9 out of the 10 stream attributes. Significant differences occurred in 5 of 10 in Idaho, and 10 of 10 in Oregon. Coefficients of variation, signal-to-noise ratio, and root mean square error were used to evaluate measurement precision. There were differences among protocols for all attributes when states were analyzed separately and as a combined dataset. Measurement differences were influenced by choice of instruments, measurement method, measurement location, attribute definitions, and training approach. Comparison of data gathered by observers using different protocols will be difficult unless a core set of protocols for commonly measured stream attributes can be standardized among monitoring programs.

  6. Linear FMCW Laser Radar for Precision Range and Vector Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockhard, George; Rubio, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An all fiber linear frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) coherent laser radar system is under development with a goal to aide NASA s new Space Exploration initiative for manned and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. By employing a combination of optical heterodyne and linear frequency modulation techniques and utilizing state-of-the-art fiber optic technologies, highly efficient, compact and reliable laser radar suitable for operation in a space environment is being developed. Linear FMCW lidar has the capability of high-resolution range measurements, and when configured into a multi-channel receiver system it has the capability of obtaining high precision horizontal and vertical velocity measurements. Precision range and vector velocity data are beneficial to navigating planetary landing pods to the preselected site and achieving autonomous, safe soft-landing. The all-fiber coherent laser radar has several important advantages over more conventional pulsed laser altimeters or range finders. One of the advantages of the coherent laser radar is its ability to measure directly the platform velocity by extracting the Doppler shift generated from the motion, as opposed to time of flight range finders where terrain features such as hills, cliffs, or slopes add error to the velocity measurement. Doppler measurements are about two orders of magnitude more accurate than the velocity estimates obtained by pulsed laser altimeters. In addition, most of the components of the device are efficient and reliable commercial off-the-shelf fiber optic telecommunication components. This paper discusses the design and performance of a second-generation brassboard system under development at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project.

  7. Precision frequency measurement of 1S0-3P1 intercombination lines of Sr isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Gao, Feng; Ye-Bing, Wang; Xiao, Tian; Jie, Ren; Ben-Quan, Lu; Qin-Fang, Xu; Yu-Lin, Xie; Hong, Chang

    2015-01-01

    We report on frequency measurement of the intercombination (5s2)1S0-(5s5p)3P1 transition of the four natural isotopes of strontium, including 88Sr (82.58%), 87Sr (7.0%), 86Sr (9.86%), and 84Sr (0.56%). A narrow-linewidth laser that is locked to an ultra-low expansion (ULE) optical cavity with a finesse of 12000 is evaluated at a linewidth of 200 Hz with a fractional frequency drift of 2.8×10-13 at an integration time of 1 s. The fluorescence collector and detector are specially designed, based on a thermal atomic beam. Using a double-pass acousto-optic modulator (AOM) combined with a fiber and laser power stabilization configuration to detune the laser frequency enables high signal-to-noise ratios and precision saturated spectra to be obtained for the six transition lines, which allows us to determine the transition frequency precisely. The optical frequency is measured using an optical frequency synthesizer referenced to an H maser. Both the statistical values and the final values, including the corrections and uncertainties, are derived for a comparison with the values given in other works. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61127901) and the Key Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KJZD-EW-W02).

  8. Dipole moments and orientation polarizabilities of diatomic molecular ions for precision atomic mass measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Michelle; Brown, John M.; Rosmus, Pavel; Linguerri, Roberto; Komiha, Najia; Myers, Edmund G.

    2007-01-01

    In high precision Penning trap mass spectrometry the cyclotron frequency of a polarizable ion is perturbed due to the Stark interaction with the motional electric field. For polar diatomic molecular ions, which have adjacent rotational levels of opposite parity, these shifts can be particularly large—especially for the lowest rotational levels, which are those occupied by ions stored for many hours in cryogenic Penning traps. In order to provide corrections to precision atomic mass measurements, we consider the calculation of orientation polarizabilities of CO+ and the positive ions of the first and second row diatomic hydrides, LiH+ to ArH+ . Dipole moments for these ions have been calculated using the restricted coupled cluster method with perturbative triples and large basis sets. Using these dipoles and an effective Hamiltonian, we have obtained rotational-state dependent polarizabilities of the open-shell diatomic ions CO+ , NH+ , OH+ , FH+ , PH+ , SH+ , and ClH+ . Results are given for those rotational levels that are significantly populated at 4.2K , for magnetic fields up to 10T . For the remaining first and second row hydride cations, polarizabilities at the magnetic fields of interest can be obtained from a simple formula valid for closed-shell molecules. Conversely, in cases where the polarizability shifts can be measured, our results enable experimental determination of dipole moments.

  9. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yang; Yang Jiamin; Zhang Jiyan; Liu Jinsong; Yuan Xiao; Jin Fengtao

    2009-04-15

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  10. MEASURING HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRY WITH THE INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA ON THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2016-01-15

    The Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope currently offers the greatest potential for high-precision astrometry of faint mid-IR sources across arcminute-scale fields, which would be especially valuable for measuring parallaxes of cold brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood and proper motions of obscured members of nearby star-forming regions. To more fully realize IRAC's astrometric capabilities, we have sought to minimize the largest sources of uncertainty in astrometry with its 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. By comparing different routines that estimate stellar positions, we have found that Point Response Function (PRF) fitting with the Spitzer Science Center's Astronomical Point Source Extractor produces both the smallest systematic errors from varying intra-pixel sensitivity and the greatest precision in measurements of positions. In addition, self-calibration has been used to derive new 7th and 8th order distortion corrections for the 3.6 and 4.5 μm arrays of IRAC, respectively. These corrections are suitable for data throughout the mission of Spitzer when a time-dependent scale factor is applied to the corrections. To illustrate the astrometric accuracy that can be achieved by combining PRF fitting with our new distortion corrections, we have applied them to archival data for a nearby star-forming region, arriving at total astrometric errors of ∼20 and 70 mas at signal to noise ratios of 100 and 10, respectively.

  11. Ion-beam sputtered amorphous silicon films for cryogenic precision measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Peter G.; Martin, Iain W.; Craig, Kieran; Hough, James; Robie, Raymond; Rowan, Sheila; Abernathy, Matt R.; Pershing, Teal; Penn, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Thermal noise resulting from the mechanical loss of multilayer dielectric coatings is expected to impose a limit to the sensitivities of precision measurement systems used in fundamental and applied science. In the case of gravitational wave astronomy, future interferometric gravitational wave detectors are likely to operate at cryogenic temperatures to reduce such thermal noise and ameliorate thermal loading effects, with the desirable thermomechanical properties of silicon making it an attractive mirror substrate choice for this purpose. For use in such a precision instrument, appropriate coatings of low thermal noise are essential. Amorphous silicon (a -Si ) deposited by e-beam and other techniques has been shown to have low mechanical loss. However, to date, the levels of mechanical and optical loss for a -Si when deposited by ion-beam sputtering (the technique required to produce amorphous mirrors of the specification for gravitational wave detector mirrors) are unknown. In this paper results from measurements of the mechanical loss of a series of IBS a -Si films are presented which show that reductions are possible in coating thermal noise of a factor of 1.5 at 120 K and 2.1 at 20 K over the current best IBS coatings (alternating stacks of silica and titania-doped tantala), with further reductions feasible under appropriate heat treatments.

  12. Complementarity between nonstandard Higgs boson searches and precision Higgs boson measurements in the MSSM

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; ...

    2015-02-03

    Precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties at the LHC provide relevant constraints on possible weak-scale extensions of the Standard Model (SM). In the context of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) these constraints seem to suggest that all the additional, non-SM-like Higgs bosons should be heavy, with masses larger than about 400 GeV. This article shows that such results do not hold when the theory approaches the conditions for “alignment independent of decoupling,” where the lightest CP-even Higgs boson has SM-like tree-level couplings to fermions and gauge bosons, independently of the nonstandard Higgs boson masses. In addition, the combinationmore » of current bounds from direct Higgs boson searches at the LHC, along with the alignment conditions, have a significant impact on the allowed MSSM parameter space yielding light additional Higgs bosons. In particular, after ensuring the correct mass for the lightest CP-even Higgs boson, we find that precision measurements and direct searches are complementary and may soon be able to probe the region of non-SM-like Higgs boson with masses below the top quark pair mass threshold of 350 GeV and low to moderate values of tanβ.« less

  13. New method for improving angle measurement precision of laser collimation system under complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, He; Tan, Lilong; Zhang, Zhili; Cai, Wei

    2014-09-01

    We have proposed a new method for improving angle measurement precision based on the principle of CCD laser collimation in this paper. First, through the control of the laser's state, on or off, by the Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the collimation light and the background light can be sampled, individually. Second, with the comparison between the sampled value of the background light intensity and the threshold value which has been set in the DSP previously, the DSP can automatically control Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) to adjust the light integral time of CCD to adapt to different environment background and the changeable scanning driver of CCD is realized. Last, by the digital wave filtering the impact of the background light on the collimation light can be removed. With the comprehensive application of the controlling technology of automatically changeable scanning driving, collimation light on or off, A/D conversion and adaptive filtering, the integration time of the collimation system can automatically adjust to the proper value according to the change of the environment and the impact of the background light on the collimation system can be well removed. The simulation results show that the new method can achieve the self-adaptable control with the change of the environment and can improve the measurement precision of the laser collimation system under the complex environment.

  14. Complementarity between nonstandard Higgs boson searches and precision Higgs boson measurements in the MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2015-02-03

    Precision measurements of the Higgs boson properties at the LHC provide relevant constraints on possible weak-scale extensions of the Standard Model (SM). In the context of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) these constraints seem to suggest that all the additional, non-SM-like Higgs bosons should be heavy, with masses larger than about 400 GeV. This article shows that such results do not hold when the theory approaches the conditions for “alignment independent of decoupling,” where the lightest CP-even Higgs boson has SM-like tree-level couplings to fermions and gauge bosons, independently of the nonstandard Higgs boson masses. In addition, the combination of current bounds from direct Higgs boson searches at the LHC, along with the alignment conditions, have a significant impact on the allowed MSSM parameter space yielding light additional Higgs bosons. In particular, after ensuring the correct mass for the lightest CP-even Higgs boson, we find that precision measurements and direct searches are complementary and may soon be able to probe the region of non-SM-like Higgs boson with masses below the top quark pair mass threshold of 350 GeV and low to moderate values of tanβ.

  15. Precision Measurement of the Neutron Twist-3 Matrix Element dn2: Probing Color Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Posik, Matthew; Flay, David; Parno, Diana; Allada, Kalyan; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; Deconinck, Wouter; De Jager, Cornelis; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Chiranjib; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Franklin, Gregg; Friend, Megan; Gao, Haiyan; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Golge, Serkan; Gomez, Javier; Guo, Lei; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, J; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim Abdalla, Hassan; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jin, Ge; Katich, Joseph; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Long, Elena; Lukhanin, Oleksandr; Mamyan, Vahe; McNulty, Dustin; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mihovilovic, Miha; Moffit, Bryan; Muangma, Navaphon; Nanda, Sirish; Narayan, Amrendra; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Oh, Yongseok; Peng, Jen-chieh; Qian, Xin; Qiang, Yi; Rakhman, Abdurahim; Riordan, Seamus; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Hashemi Shabestari, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vincent; Tobias, William; Troth, Wolfgang; Wang, Diancheng; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Zhihong; Yuan, Lulin; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y -W; Zhao, Bo; Zheng, Xiaochao

    2014-07-01

    Double-spin asymmetries and absolute cross sections were measured at large Bjorken x (0.25 lte x lte 0.90), in both the deep-inelastic and resonance regions, by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at beam energies of 4.7 and 5.9 GeV from a transversely and longitudinally polarized 3He target. In this dedicated experiment, the spin structure function g2 on 3He was determined with precision at large x, and the neutron twist-three matrix element dn2 was measured at ?Q2? of 3.21 and 4.32 GeV2/c2, with an absolute precision of about 10?5. Our results are found to be in agreement with lattice QCD calculations and resolve the disagreement found with previous data at ?Q2?= 5 GeV2/c2. Combining dn2 and a newly extracted twist-four matrix element, fn2, the average neutron color electric and magnetic forces were extracted and found to be of opposite sign and about 60 MeV/fm in magnitude.

  16. Precision excited-state lifetime measurements of neutron-rich Li isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, C.; Lister, C. J.; Wilson, G. L.; McCutchan, E. A.; Hackman, G.; Bowry, M.; Caballero-Folch, R.; Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Henderson, J.; Kurkjian, A.; Measures, J. P.; Moukaddam, M.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Smallcombe, J.; Smith, J. K.; Southall, D.; Williams, M.; Mitchell, A. J.; Wu, C. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Recent successes with ab initio calculations are allowing increasingly subtle nuclear phenomena to be investigated, such as Δ-isobar and meson exchange effects which are necessary to reproduce M 1 properties of nuclei. In order to guide such explorations, precise experimental data are required to discriminate between various theoretical descriptions. The lithium isotopes, which are dominated by M 1 spin-flip transitions, provide an ideal testing ground for such studies. We have performed lifetime measurements of the excited states of 7,8Li, as well as explored the feasibility of such an experiment on 9Li, to provide precise data on the M 1 transition matrix elements in these nuclei. The experiment used the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method to measure the lifetimes at TRIUMF with TIGRESS, with the excited states populated by inverse (d , p) reactions. Preliminary results from the analysis will be presented. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Grants DE-FG02-94ER40848.

  17. Development of Techniques for a Precision Neutron EDM Measurement at RCNP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumiya, Ryohei; Masuda, Yasuhiro; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Watanabe, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Pierre, Edgard; Shin, Yunchang; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu

    2014-09-01

    A non-zero neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) breaks the time-reversal symmetry. A precision measurement of the nEDM is expected to be a good probe to search for theories beyond the standard model. We have been developing techniques for a nEDM measurement, using a high intensity ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source developed by the collaboration between KEK and RCNP. We have succeeded to polarize UCNs by a super conducting polarizer, and stored them in a cell. This cell will be installed in static magnetic and electric fields for a nEDM observation by the Ramsey separated-oscillatory-field magnetic resonance method. The homogeneity of the magnetic field is being improved aiming to increase the transverse relaxation time T2. A multilayered magnetic shielding and a compensation coil system was developed to cancel the geomagnetic field. Some materials around the cell which were not completely non-magnetic were replaced. We are developing a 129Xe co-magnetometer for the high precision field monitoring, and a high voltage system including electrodes with minimum UCN losses. In this talk, the present status of these apparatuses will be discussed.

  18. Precision measurement of the n-4He scattering length using neutron interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M. G.; Arif, M.; Jacobson, D. L.; Pushin, D. A.; Abutaleb, M. O.; Black, T. C.; Shahi, C. B.; Wietfeldt, F. E.

    2010-11-01

    The NIST neutron interferometer and optics facility (NIOF) is currently performing a precision measurement of the n-4He scattering length to less than 0.3% relative uncertainty. A neutron interferometer consists of a perfect silicon crystal machined such that there are three separate blades on a common base. Neutrons entering the interferometer are Bragg diffracted in the blades to produce two spatially separate yet coherent beam paths much like an optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A sample placed in one of the beam paths of the interferometer causes a phase difference between the two paths. This phase difference is directly related to the sample's scattering length. Neutron scattering lengths are one parameter that can be predicted using advanced theoretical models describing two and three nucleon interactions. In an effort to provide tests and/or benchmarks of these theoretical models, the NIOF has already performed precision measurements of neutron scattering lengths to less than 1% relative uncertainty in several low Z gases: H, D, 3He, and polarized 3He. A preliminary result of this work will be given.

  19. Precision Analysis of Point-And Photogrammetric Measurements for Corridor Mapping: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P.; Blázquez, M.; Sastre, J.; Colomina, I.

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses the key aspects of the sensor orientation and calibration approach within the mapKITE concept for corridor mapping, focusing on the contribution analysis of point-and-scale measurements of kinematic ground control points. MapKITE is a new mobile, simultaneous terrestrial and aerial, geodata acquisition and post-processing method. On one hand, the acquisition system is a tandem composed of a terrestrial mobile mapping system and an unmanned aerial system, the latter equipped with a remote sensing payload, and linked through a 'virtual tether', that is, a real-time waypoint supply from the terrestrial vehicle to the unmanned aircraft. On the other hand, mapKITE entails a method for geodata post-processing (specifically, sensor orientation and calibration) based on the described acquisition paradigm, focusing on few key aspects: the particular geometric relationship of a mapKITE network - the aerial vehicle always observes the terrestrial one as they both move -, precise air and ground trajectory determination - the terrestrial vehicle is regarded as a kinematic ground control point - and new photogrammetric measurements - pointing on and measuring the scale of an optical target on the roof of the terrestrial vehicle - are exploited. In this paper, we analyze the performance of aerial image orientation and calibration in mapKITE for corridor mapping, which is the natural application niche of mapKITE, based on the principles and procedures of integrated sensor orientation with the addition of point-and-scale photogrammetric measurements of the kinematic ground control points. To do so, traditional (static ground control points, photogrammetric tie points, aerial control) and new (pointing-and-scaling of kinematic ground control points) measurements have been simulated for mapKITE corridor mapping missions, consisting on takeoff and calibration pattern, single-pass corridor operation potentially performing calibration patterns, and landing and

  20. A time projection chamber for high accuracy and precision fission cross-section measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Heffner, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; ...

    2014-05-22

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4π acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This study provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance ofmore » the fissionTPC.« less

  1. A time projection chamber for high accuracy and precision fission cross-section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Baker, J.; Barrett, S.; Brune, C.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Carter, D.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Hager, U.; Hertel, N.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Jewell, K.; King, J.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Kudo, R.; Laptev, A. B.; Leonard, M.; Loveland, W.; Massey, T. N.; McGrath, C.; Meharchand, R.; Montoya, L.; Pickle, N.; Qu, H.; Riot, V.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Sharma, S.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.; Yao, L.

    2014-05-22

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4π acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This study provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  2. Optical vortex beam based optical fan for high-precision optical measurements and optical switching.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Shuai; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2014-09-01

    The polarization and orbital angular momentum properties of light are of great importance in optical science and technology in the fields of high-precision optical measurements and high-capacity and high-speed optical communications. Here we show a method for the construction of a simple and robust scheme to rotate a light beam such as a fan, which is based on a combination of these two properties and using the thermal-dispersion and electro-optical effect of birefringent crystals. Using a computer-based digital image-processing technique, we determine the temperature and thermal-dispersion difference of the crystal with high resolution. We also use the rotation phenomenon to realize thermo-optic and electro-optic switches. The basic operating principles for measurement and switching processes are presented in detail. The methods developed here will have wide practical applicability in various fields, including remote sensing, materials science, and optical communication networks.

  3. A time projection chamber for high accuracy and precision fission cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Baker, J.; Barrett, S.; Brune, C.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Carter, D.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Hager, U.; Hertel, N.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Jewell, K.; King, J.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Kudo, R.; Laptev, A. B.; Leonard, M.; Loveland, W.; Massey, T. N.; McGrath, C.; Meharchand, R.; Montoya, L.; Pickle, N.; Qu, H.; Riot, V.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Sharma, S.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.; Yao, L.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4π acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  4. Note: Compact and light displacement sensor for a precision measurement system in large motion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2015-08-15

    We developed a compact and light displacement sensor applicable to systems that require wide range motions of its sensing device. The proposed sensor utilized the optical pickup unit of the optical disk drive, which has been used applied to atomic force microscopy (AFM) because of its compactness and lightness as well as its high performance. We modified the structure of optical pickup unit and made the compact sensor driver attachable to a probe head of AFM to make large rotation. The feasibilities of the developed sensor for a general probe-moving measurement device and for probe-rotating AFM were verified. Moreover, a simple and precise measurement of alignment between centers of rotator and probe tip in probe-rotation AFM was experimentally demonstrated using the developed sensor.

  5. Precision Measurement of CP Violation in $D^0\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-$ at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Di Canto, Angelo

    2010-11-01

    We report a preliminary measurement of the CP violating asymmetry in D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} using approximately 215,000 decays reconstructed in about 5.94/fb of CDF data. We use the strong D* {+-} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} decay (D* tag) to identify the flavor of the charmed meson at production time and exploit CP-conserving strong c-{bar c} pair-production in p-{bar p} collisions. Higher statistic samples of Cabibbo-favored D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays with and without D* tag are used to highly suppress systematic uncertainties due to detector effects. The result is the world's most precise measurement to date.

  6. A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  7. Precise measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel at D0.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Guo, F; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jamin, D; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lopes de Sa, R; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y-T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2011-08-19

    We measure the top quark mass (m(t)) in p ̄p collisions at a center of mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV using dilepton t ̄t→W(+)bW(-) ̄b→ℓ(+)ν(ℓ)bℓ(-) ̄ν(ℓ) ̄b events, where ℓ denotes an electron, a muon, or a tau that decays leptonically. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb(-1) collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We obtain m(t)=174.0±1.8(stat)±2.4(syst) GeV, which is in agreement with the current world average m(t)=173.3±1.1 GeV. This is currently the most precise measurement of m(t) in the dilepton channel.

  8. High precision laser ranging by time-of-flight measurement of femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohyung; Lee, Keunwoo; Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Seung-Woo; Kim, Young-Jin

    2012-06-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement of femtosecond light pulses was investigated for laser ranging of long distances with sub-micrometer precision in the air. The bandwidth limitation of the photo-detection electronics used in timing femtosecond pulses was overcome by adopting a type-II nonlinear second-harmonic crystal that permits the production of a balanced optical cross-correlation signal between two overlapping light pulses. This method offered a sub-femtosecond timing resolution in determining the temporal offset between two pulses through lock-in control of the pulse repetition rate with reference to the atomic clock. The exceptional ranging capability was verified by measuring various distances of 1.5, 60 and 700 m. This method is found well suited for future space missions based on formation-flying satellites as well as large-scale industrial applications for land surveying, aircraft manufacturing and shipbuilding.

  9. Precise measurement of the top quark mass in the lepton+jets topology at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; /Comenius U. /Tsukuba U.

    2007-03-01

    The authors present a measurement of the mass of the top quark from proton-antiproton collisions recorded at the CDF experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. They analyze events from the single lepton plus jets final state (t{bar t} {yields} W{sup +}bW{sup -}{bar b} {yields} lvbq{bar q}{bar b}). The top quark mass is extracted using a direct calculation of the probability density that each event corresponds to the t{bar t} final state. The probability is a function of both the mass of the top quark and the energy scale of the calorimeter jets, which is constrained in situ by the hadronic W boson mass. Using 167 events observed in 955 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity, they achieve the single most precise measurement of the top quark mass, 170.8 {+-} 2.2(stat.) {+-} 1.4(syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}.

  10. Project 8: Precision Electron Specroscopy to Measure the Mass of the Neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    VanDevender, Brent A.; Asner, David M.; Bahr, Matthew; Bradley, Rich; Doeleman, Sheperd; Jones, Anthony M.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel; Kelly, James F.; Kofron, J.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah; Patterson, Ryan B.; Rogers, Alan E.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Thummler, Thomas

    2013-10-21

    The Project 8 Collaboration is exploring a new technique for the spectroscopy of medium-energy electrons (* 1 – 100 keV) with the ultimate goal of measuring the effective mass of the electron antineutrino by the tritium endpoint method. Our method is based on the detection of microwave-frequency cyclotron radiation emitted by magnetically trapped electrons. The immediate goal of Project 8 is to demonstrate the utility of this technique for a tritium endpoint experiment through a high-precision measurement of the conversion electron spectrum of 83mKr. We present concepts for detecting this cyclotron radiation, focusing on a guided wave design currently being implemented in a prototype apparatus at the University of Washington.

  11. Ultrahigh Energy Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometers for Precision Measurements of Uranium Enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S; Hau, I D; Niedermayr, T R; Friedrich, S

    2006-06-09

    Superconducting Gamma-ray detectors offer an order of magnitude higher energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium detectors. This can significantly increase the precision of non-destructive isotope analysis for nuclear samples where line overlap affects the errors of the measurement. We have developed Gamma-detectors based on superconducting molybdenum-copper sensors and bulk tin absorbers for nuclear science and national security applications. They have, depending on design, an energy resolution between {approx}50 and {approx}150 eV FWHM at {approx}100 keV. Here we apply this detector technology to the measurement of uranium isotope ratios, and discuss the trade-offs between energy resolution and quantum efficiency involved in detector design.

  12. Precision of health-related quality-of-life data compared with other clinical measures.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Elizabeth A; Cella, David; Chassany, Olivier; Fairclough, Diane L; Wong, Gilbert Y; Hays, Ron D

    2007-10-01

    To many clinicians, the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) seems more art than science. This belief is due in part to the lack of formal training available to clinicians regarding HRQL measurement and interpretation. When HRQL is used systematically, it has been shown to improve patient-physician communication, clinical decision making, and satisfaction with care. Nevertheless, clinicians rarely use formal HRQL data in their practices. One major reason is unfamiliarity with the interpretation and potential utility of the data. This unfamiliarity causes a lack of appreciation for the reliability of data generated by formal HRQL assessment and a tendency to regard HRQL data as having insufficient precision for individual use. This article discusses HRQL in the larger context of health indicators and health outcome measurement and is targeted to the practicing clinician who has not had the opportunity to understand and use HRQL data. The concept and measurement of reliability are explained and applied to HRQL and common clinical measures simultaneously, and these results are compared with one another. By offering a juxtaposition of common medical measurements and their associated error with HRQL measurement error, we note that HRQL instruments are comparable with commonly used clinical data. We further discuss the necessary requirements for clinicians to adopt formal, routine HRQL assessment into their practices.

  13. Precision mass measurements of neutron-rich nuclei, and limitations on the r-process environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Schelt, Jonathon A.

    2012-05-01

    The masses of 65 neutron-rich nuclides and 6 metastable states from Z = 49 to 64 were measured at a typical precision of δm/m= 10-7 using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer at Argonne National Laboratory. The measurements are on fission fragments from 252Cf spontaneous fission sources, including those measurements made at the new Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade facility (CARIBU) and an earlier source. The measured nuclides lie on or approach the predicted path of the astrophysical r process. Where overlap exists, this data set is largely consistent with previous measurements from Penning traps, storage rings, and reaction energetics, but large systematic deviations are apparent in β-endpoint measurements. Simulations of the r process were undertaken to determine how quickly material can pass through the studied elements for a variety of conditions, placing limits on what temperatures densities allow passage on a desired timescale. The new masses produce manifold differences in effective lifetime compared to simulations performed with some model masses.

  14. Precise measurements of radial temperature gradients in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell.

    PubMed

    Kavner, A; Nugent, C

    2008-02-01

    A new spectroradiometry system specialized for measuring two-dimensional temperature gradients for samples at high pressure in the laser heated diamond anvil cell has been designed and constructed at UCLA. Emitted light intensity from sample hotspots is imaged by a videocamera for real time monitoring, an imaging spectroradiometer for temperature measurement, and a high-dynamic-range camera that examines a magnified image of the two-dimensional intensity distribution of the heated spot, yielding precise measurements of temperature gradients. With this new system, most systematic errors in temperature measurement due to chromatic aberration are bypassed. We use this system to compare several different geometries of temperature measurement found in the literature, including scanning a pinhole aperture, and narrow-slit and wide-slit entrance apertures placed before the imaging spectrometer. We find that the most accurate way of measuring a temperature is to use the spectrometer to measure an average hotspot temperature and to use information from the imaging charge coupled device to calculate the temperature distribution to the hotspot. We investigate the effects of possible wavelength- and temperature-dependent emissivity, and evaluate their errors. We apply this technique to measure the anisotropy in temperature distribution of highly oriented graphite at room temperature and also at high pressures. A comparison between model and experiment demonstrates that this system is capable of measuring thermal diffusivity in anisotropic single crystals and is also capable of measuring relative thermal diffusivity at high pressures and temperatures among different materials. This shows the possibility of using this system to provide information about thermal diffusivity of materials at high pressure and temperature.

  15. Influence of sulfur-bearing polyatomic species on high precision measurements of Cu isotopic composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pribil, M.J.; Wanty, R.B.; Ridley, W.I.; Borrok, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    An increased interest in high precision Cu isotope ratio measurements using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) has developed recently for various natural geologic systems and environmental applications, these typically contain high concentrations of sulfur, particularly in the form of sulfate (SO42-) and sulfide (S). For example, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) can range from 100??g/L to greater than 50mg/L with sulfur species concentrations reaching greater than 1000mg/L. Routine separation of Cu, Fe and Zn from AMD, Cu-sulfide minerals and other geological matrices usually incorporates single anion exchange resin column chromatography for metal separation. During chromatographic separation, variable breakthrough of SO42- during anion exchange resin column chromatography into the Cu fractions was observed as a function of the initial sulfur to Cu ratio, column properties, and the sample matrix. SO42- present in the Cu fraction can form a polyatomic 32S-14N-16O-1H species causing a direct mass interference with 63Cu and producing artificially light ??65Cu values. Here we report the extent of the mass interference caused by SO42- breakthrough when measuring ??65Cu on natural samples and NIST SRM 976 Cu isotope spiked with SO42- after both single anion column chromatography and double anion column chromatography. A set of five 100??g/L Cu SRM 976 samples spiked with 500mg/L SO42- resulted in an average ??65Cu of -3.50?????5.42??? following single anion column separation with variable SO42- breakthrough but an average concentration of 770??g/L. Following double anion column separation, the average SO42-concentration of 13??g/L resulted in better precision and accuracy for the measured ??65Cu value of 0.01?????0.02??? relative to the expected 0??? for SRM 976. We conclude that attention to SO42- breakthrough on sulfur-rich samples is necessary for accurate and precise measurements of ??65Cu and may require

  16. A Portable Ultra-Stable Calibration Source for Precision RV Measurements in NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Ge, J.; Wan, X.; Delgado, A.; Jakeman, H.

    2011-09-01

    In the next decade, astronomers are aiming at reaching 0.1 m/s RV precision, which will enable discoveries of Earth-like planets around solar-type stars. However, the RV precision is currently limited by stellar activity, the stability and bandwidth of RV calibration sources. We proposed to use an ultra-stable monolithic Michelson interferometer as an RV calibration source. This monolithic interferometer source has several advantages over the conventional RV calibration sources: (1), it produces sinusoidal spectral features which can be easily processed, unlike gas absorption cells or emission lamps, which spectral line distributions are extremely nonuniform; (2), it has a wide spectral coverage from visible to near infrared (NIR); (3), it is designed to be thermal-stable (thermally compensated) so that the thermal induced RV drift is very small; (4), it is also field compensated to ensure a high optical efficiency so that a spatially incoherent continuum light source is suitable for producing bright calibration light (unlike the faint ThAr emission lamp); (5). it is extremely compact ( 10x10x10 cm3) and low cost compared to the bulky (more than 1x1x1 m3) and extremely high cost laser frequency combs. With the help of the proposed RV calibration source, the search of exoplanets around M dwarfs or even L, T dwarfs can be extended to the NIR band. The predicted sub m/s RV calibration precision will enable the discovery of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around M dwarfs. The proposed calibration source may be quite useful for calibrating future space instruments for possible space RV exoplanet searches in the IR region where RV measurements are free of contamination of the Earth's telluric lines, which is a serious issue for ground-based IR RV observations. We will present our latest results of the calibration source on its application for both Echelle spectrograph and the instrument adopting DFDI method.

  17. Interlaboratory assessment of measurement precision and bias in the coulometric Karl Fischer determination of water.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Angelo, Jacob B

    2002-10-01

    The precision and bias of the coulometric Karl Fischer ASTM method D1533-00 have been assessed in a collaborative ASTM round robin program for a group of 34 laboratories. The test materials used in this study included water saturated 1-octanol (WSO), water saturated 1-butanol (WSB), and a series of new and used transformer oil samples. Fundamental systematic biases have been demonstrated in the accuracy of the measurement of water in the WSO, WSB, and transformer oil samples. The systematic bias in the measurement of the WSO and WSB standards indicates that for some laboratories either the instruments were not accurate or the quantity of the standard was not measured accurately. A second type of systematic bias consisted of measurement errors associated with the selection of the Karl Fischer solvent that was used with each instrument, and this was superimposed upon the error in the measurement of the water in the standards. Using the statistical calculation method ASTM D 6300 the repeatability and reproducibility for water in transformer oil were found to be 7 mg/kg and 14 mg/kg respectively. The method detection limit of water was 8 mg/kg oil. The method bias was estimated based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2890, WSO, since no suitable reference material for water in transformer oil was available for this study.

  18. A compact wideband precision impedance measurement system based on digital auto-balancing bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Binxin; Wang, Jinyu; Song, Guangdong; Zhang, Faxiang

    2016-05-01

    The ac impedance spectroscopy measurements are predominantly taken by using impedance analyzers based on analog auto-balancing bridge. However, those bench-top analyzers are generally complicated, bulky and expensive, thus limiting their usage in industrial field applications. This paper presents the development of a compact wideband precision measurement system based on digital auto-balancing bridge. The methods of digital auto-balancing bridge and digital lock-in amplifier are analyzed theoretically. The overall design and several key sections including null detector, direct digital synthesizer-based sampling clock, and digital control unit are introduced in detail. The results show that the system achieves a basic measurement accuracy of 0.05% with a frequency range of 20 Hz-2 MHz. The advantages of versatile measurement capacity, fast measurement speed, small size and low cost make it quite suitable for industrial field applications. It is demonstrated that this system is practical and effective by applying in determining the impedance-temperature characteristic of a motor starter PTC thermistor.

  19. The Qweak experiment: a precision measurement of the proton's weak charge

    SciTech Connect

    Roger Carlini

    2010-07-01

    The Qweak experiment [1] will conduct the first precision measurement of the weak charge of the proton, QWp, at Jefferson Laboratory, building on the technical advances that have been made in the laboratory's parity-violation program and using the results of earlier measurements to constrain hadronic corrections. When the results from this measurement are combined with atomic-parity violation and other PVES measurements the weak charges of the `up' and `down' quarks can be extracted. The experiment is basically a measurement of the parity-violating longitudinal analyzing power in e-p elastic scattering at Q2 = 0.026 (GeV/c)2 employing 150 µA's of 85% polarized electrons on a 0.35 m long liquid hydrogen target. The experiment will determine the weak charge of the proton with about 4.1% combined statistical and systematic errors. This corresponds to constraints on parity violating new physics at a mass scale of 2.3 TeV at the 95% confidence level.

  20. Analytical developments for high-precision measurements of W isotopes in iron meteorites.

    PubMed

    Qin, Liping; Dauphas, Nicolas; Janney, Philip E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2007-04-15

    A procedure was developed to accurately measure the W isotopic compositions of iron meteorites with a precision of better than +/-0.1 epsilon on epsilon182W and epsilon184W (normalized to 186W/183W). Purification of W was achieved through a two-step, ion-exchange procedure. In most cases, the yield is better than 80%, and purified W solutions are clear of matrix elements and direct isobars of W. The final W solutions were analyzed using a Micromass Isoprobe multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). Tests performed on mixtures of terrestrial standards and meteorite samples demonstrate that the method is accurate and that epsilon182W variations as small as approximately 0.1 epsilon can be detected. Analyses of three different aliquots of the Gibeon (IVA) iron meteorite obtained over a period of 6 months show identical epsilon182W values with a weighted mean of 3.38 +/- 0.05, consistent with literature data for IVA iron meteorites, and indicating that the metal-silicate differentiation event in its parent body was either contemporaneous with or slightly postdated (by up to approximately 2.5 My) the formation of refractory inclusions. We demonstrate our ability to measure epsilon184W accurately and precisely (within +/-0.1 epsilon), which is useful for characterizing cosmogenic and nucleosynthetic effects that may be present in iron meteorites. We also report for the first time measurements of epsilon180W, albeit with large error bars (<+/-4 epsilon, in most cases).

  1. Dynamic assessment of center of pressure measurements from an instrumented AMTI treadmill with controlled precision.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Emma; Crenshaw, Jeremy; Lugade, Vipul; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2017-04-01

    With the increasing use of instrumented force treadmills in biomechanical research, it is imperative that the validity of center of pressure (COP) measurements is established. The study aims were to compare an instrumented treadmill's static-belt COP accuracy to that of a floor-embedded platform, develop a novel method to quantify dynamic-belt COP accuracy with controlled precision and perform an initial investigation of how dynamic COP accuracy changes with weight and velocity. Static COP accuracy was assessed by applying a force while moving a rigid rod in a circular clockwise motion at nine positions of interest on the two treadmill and two ground-embedded force plates. Dynamic COP accuracy was assessed for weights (68.0, 102.1, and 136.1kg), applied through a ball bearing of 2.54cm circumference, with peak treadmill belt speeds of 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0m/s. COP accuracy was assessed relative to motion capture marker trajectories. Statically, treadmill COP error was similar to that of the ground-embedded force plates and that reported for other treadmills. Dynamically, COP error appeared to vary systematically with weight and velocity and in the case of anteroposterior COP error, shear force, although testing with a larger number of weights and velocities is needed to fully define the relationship. This novel method can be used to assess any instrumented treadmill's dynamic COP accuracy with controlled precision.

  2. Active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system for precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kang; Li, Gang; Hu, Hua; Wang, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise. Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed. However, few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility. An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument, the Super Spring, is designed and implemented. The system, which is simple and compact, consists of two stages: a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion, and a simple spring-mass system. The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented, including terms erroneously ignored before. By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control, the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz, a reduction by a factor of more than 75. The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter, where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5. The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system, making it particularly suitable for precision experiments. The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems. An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed, providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  3. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, M. J.; Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of 22Na, 36Cl, 54Mn, 60Co, 90Sr, 133Ba, 137Cs, 152Eu, and 154Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  4. Precision measurement of the decay rate of {sup 7}Be in host materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nir-El, Y.; Haquin, G.; Yungreiss, Z.; Hass, M.; Goldring, G.; Chamoli, S. K.; Singh, B. S. Nara; Lakshmi, S.; Koester, U.; Champault, N.; Dorsival, A.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Georgiev, G.; Schumann, D.; Heidenreich, G.; Teichmann, S.

    2007-01-15

    A controlled and precise determination of the cross sections of the fusion reactions {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B and {sup 3}He({sup 4}He,{gamma}){sup 7}Be, which play an important role in determining the solar neutrino flux, necessitates the knowledge of a precise value of the electron-capture half-life of {sup 7}Be. This half-life may depend on the material hosting the {sup 7}Be atoms via small modifications of the electron density around the {sup 7}Be nucleus. In this brief communication we report on the measurement of {sup 7}Be implanted in four materials: copper, aluminum, sapphire, and PVC. The four results are consistent with a null host dependence within two standard deviations and their weighted average of 53.236(39) d agrees very well with the adopted value in the literature, 53.22(6) d. The present results may exhibit a slight (0.22%) increase of the half-life at room temperature for metals compared to insulators that requires further studies.

  5. Precise Measurements of Oscillation Parameters and Search for a Light Sterile Neutrino at Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Hin Lok Henoch; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment is designed to precisely measure the neutrino oscillation parameter θ13, via the relative comparison of antineutrino rates and energy spectra at different baselines. The experiment's unique configuration of multiple baselines from six 2.9 GWth nuclear reactors serving as intense νe sources to eight functionally identical detectors deployed in two near (effective baselines 500 m and 600 m) and one far ( 1600 m) underground experimental halls also makes it possible to look for oscillations with a fourth (sterile) neutrino in the 10-3 eV2 < | Δm412 | < 0 . 3 eV2 range. In this talk, I will present Daya Bay's latest results. A three-flavor oscillation model analysis based on 1230 days of data has yielded the most precise determination of the flavour-mixing angle sin2 2θ13 and the neutrino mass-squared difference Δm322 . In addition, the search for a light sterile neutrino using 621 days of data did not show a significant preference towards a four-flavor oscillation model. The resulting limits on sin2 2θ14 constitute the world's best in most of the sub-eV mass region.

  6. Precise Lamb Shift Measurements in Hydrogen-Like Heavy Ions--Status and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, V.; Beckert, K.; Chatterjee, Ch.; Gumberidze, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Reuschl, R.; Stoehlker, T.; Trassinelli, M.; Bleile, A.; Echler, A.; Egelhof, P.; Ilieva, S.; Kiselev, O.; Kraft-Bermuth, S.; Meier, J. P.; Kilbourne, C.

    2009-12-16

    The precise determination of the energy of the Lyman {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 lines in hydrogen-like heavy ions provides a sensitive test of quantum electrodynamics in very strong Coulomb fields. For the first time, a calorimetric low-temperature detector was applied in an experiment to precisely determine the transition energy of the Lyman lines of lead ions {sup 207}pb{sup 81+} at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI. The detectors consist of silicon thermistors, provided by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and Pb or Sn absorbers to obtain high quantum efficiency in the energy range of 40-80 keV, where the Doppler-shifted Lyman lines are located. The measured energy of the Lyman {alpha}1 line, E(Ly-{alpha}1, {sup 207}Pb{sup 81+}) = (77937{+-}12{sub stat}{+-}23{sub syst}) eV, agrees within errors with theoretical predictions. The systematic error is mainly due to uncertainties in the non-linear energy calibration of the detectors as well as the relative position of detector and gas-jet target.

  7. High precision measurements of atom column positions using model-based exit wave reconstruction.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; Van Aert, S; Van Dyck, D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, it has been investigated how to measure atom column positions as accurately and precisely as possible using a focal series of images. In theory, it is expected that the precision would considerably improve using a maximum likelihood estimator based on the full series of focal images. As such, the theoretical lower bound on the variances of the unknown atom column positions can be attained. However, this approach is numerically demanding. Therefore, maximum likelihood estimation has been compared with the results obtained by fitting a model to a reconstructed exit wave rather than to the full series of focal images. Hence, a real space model-based exit wave reconstruction technique based on the channelling theory is introduced. Simulations show that the reconstructed complex exit wave contains the same amount of information concerning the atom column positions as the full series of focal images. Only for thin samples, which act as weak phase objects, this information can be retrieved from the phase of the reconstructed complex exit wave.

  8. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, M. J. Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-15

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of {sup 22}Na, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  9. Precision measurement of the mass and lifetime of the Ξb⁻ baryon.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R F; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skillicorn, I; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Todd, J; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilschut, H W; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L

    2014-12-12

    We report on measurements of the mass and lifetime of the Ξ(b)⁻ baryon using about 1800 Ξ(b)⁻ decays reconstructed in a proton-proton collision data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0  fb⁻¹ collected by the LHCb experiment. The decays are reconstructed in the Ξ(b)⁻→Ξ(c)⁰π⁻, Ξ(c)⁰→pK⁻K⁻π⁺ channel and the mass and lifetime are measured using the Λ(b)⁰→Λ(c)⁺π⁻ mode as a reference. We measure M(Ξ(b)⁻)-M(Λ(b)⁰)=178.36±0.46±0.16  MeV/c², (τ(Ξ(b)⁻)/τ(Λ(b)⁰)=1.089±0.026±0.011, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. These results lead to a factor of 2 better precision on the Ξ(b)⁻ mass and lifetime compared to previous best measurements, and are consistent with theoretical expectations.

  10. An experiment for the precision measurement of the radiative decay mode of the neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. L.; Bass, C. D.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Byrne, J.; Chupp, T. E.; Coakley, K. J.; Dewey, M. S.; Fisher, B. M.; Fu, C.; Gentile, T. R.; McGonagle, M.; Mumm, H. P.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Wietfeldt, F. E.

    2009-12-01

    The familiar neutron decay into a proton, electron, and antineutrino can be accompanied by photons with sufficient energy to be detected. We recently reported the first observation of the radiative beta decay branch for the free neutron with photons of energy 15-340 keV. We performed the experiment in the bore of a superconducting magnet where electron, proton, and photon signals were measured. A bar of bismuth germanate scintillating crystal coupled to an avalanche photodiode served as the photon detector that operated in the cryogenic, high magnetic field environment. The branching ratio for this energy region was measured and is consistent with the theoretical calculation. An experiment is under way to measure the branching ratio with an improved precision of 1% relative standard uncertainty and to measure the photon energy spectrum. In this paper, the apparatus modifications to reduce the systematic uncertainties will be described. Central to these improvements is the development of a 12-element detector based on the original photon detector design that will improve the statistical sensitivity. During data acquisition, a detailed calibration program will be performed to improve the systematic uncertainties. The development of these modifications is currently under way, and the second run of the experiment commenced in July 2008.

  11. Muon Beam Tracking and Spin-Orbit Correlations for Precision g-2 Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tarazona, David; Berz, Martin; Hipple, Robert; Makino, Kyoko; Syphers, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The main goal of the Muon g-2 Experiment (g-2) at Fermilab is to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment to unprecedented precision. This new measurement will allow to test the completeness of the Standard Model (SM) and to validate other theoretical models beyond the SM. The close interplay of the understanding of particle beam dynamics and the preparation of the beam properties with the experimental measurement is tantamount to the reduction of systematic errors in the determination of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We describe progress in developing detailed calculations and modeling of the muon beam delivery system in order to obtain a better understanding of spin-orbit correlations, nonlinearities, and more realistic aspects that contribute to the systematic errors of the g-2 measurement. Our simulation is meant to provide statistical studies of error effects and quick analyses of running conditions for when g-2 is taking beam, among others. We are using COSY, a differential algebra solver developed at Michigan State University that will also serve as an alternative to compare results obtained by other simulation teams of the g-2 Collaboration.

  12. Precision half-life measurement of 140La with Ge-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Belov, A. G.; Brandt, R.; Chaloun, P.; Honusek, M.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kulakov, B. A.; Langrock, E.-J.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Sosnin, A. N.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Wan, J.-S.; Westmeier, W.

    2002-03-01

    Half-life is one of the fundamental properties of radioactive nuclei, and the precision required for its numerous applications in modern physics sometimes approaches the level of 10 -4-10 -5. Most part of the T1/2 measurements performed up to now was made with proportional chambers, and the results were sometimes hardly reproducible within the error limits. Using Ge-detectors for that purpose brought some significant advantages but electronic unit related effects and spectra analysis procedures still remain the sources of the errors influencing the accuracy of the T1/2 attained. In this work, 140La samples were obtained in the 139La( n, γ) 140La reaction, employing a microtron as a neutron source and the half-life measurements were performed with a HPGe-detector. Influencing factors such as photopeak and background shape, electronic circuitry dead time and deadtime variations during the measurements, as well as pulse pileup are studied altogether. Values of the 140La T1/2=1.6808(18) d, λ=0.47749(20)×10 -5, agreeing within the uncertainities with the most accurate evaluated ones ( T1/2=1.6781(3) d, λ=0.47807(9)×10 -5) [2] were obtained in two series of measurements.

  13. Precision analog signal processor for beam position measurements in electron storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.A.; Unser, K.B.

    1995-05-01

    Beam position monitors (BPM) in electron and positron storage rings have evolved from simple systems composed of beam pickups, coaxial cables, multiplexing relays, and a single receiver (usually a analyzer) into very complex and costly systems of multiple receivers and processors. The older may have taken minutes to measure the circulating beam closed orbit. Today instrumentation designers are required to provide high-speed measurements of the beam orbit, often at the ring revolution frequency. In addition the instruments must have very high accuracy and resolution. A BPM has been developed for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley which features high resolution and relatively low cost. The instrument has a single purpose; to measure position of a stable stored beam. Because the pickup signals are multiplexed into a single receiver, and due to its narrow bandwidth, the receiver is not intended for single-turn studies. The receiver delivers normalized measurements of X and Y posit ion entirely by analog means at nominally 1 V/mm. No computers are involved. No software is required. Bergoz, a French company specializing in precision beam instrumentation, integrated the ALS design m their new BPM analog signal processor module. Performance comparisons were made on the ALS. In this paper we report on the architecture and performance of the ALS prototype BPM.

  14. A new direct absorption measurement for high precision and accurate measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Anderson, J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly accurate and precise water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are critical to understanding the climate feedbacks of water vapor and clouds in that region. However, the continued disagreement among water vapor measurements (~1 - 2 ppmv) are too large to constrain the role of different hydration and dehydration mechanisms operating in the UT/LS, with model validation dependent upon which dataset is chosen. In response to these issues, we present a new instrument for measurement of water vapor in the UT/LS that was flown during the April 2011 MACPEX mission out of Houston, TX. The dual axis instrument combines the heritage and validated accuracy of the Harvard Lyman-alpha instrument with a newly designed direct IR absorption instrument, the Harvard Herriott Hygrometer (HHH). The Lyman-alpha detection axis has flown aboard NASA's WB-57 and ER2 aircraft since 1994, and provides a requisite link between the new HHH instrument and the long history of Harvard water vapor measurements. The instrument utilizes the highly sensitive Lyman-alpha photo-fragment fluorescence detection method; its accuracy has been demonstrated though rigorous laboratory calibrations and in situ diagnostic procedures. The Harvard Herriott Hygrometer employs a fiber coupled near-IR laser with state-of-the-art electronics to measure water vapor via direct absorption in a spherical Herriott cell of 10 cm length. The instrument demonstrated in-flight precision of 0.1 ppmv (1-sec, 1-sigma) at mixing ratios as low as 5 ppmv with accuracies of 10% based on careful laboratory calibrations and in-flight performance. We present a description of the measurement technique along with our methodology for calibration and details of the measurement uncertainties. The simultaneous utilization of radically different measurement techniques in a single duct in the new Harvard Water Vapor (HWV) instrument allows for the constraint of systematic errors inherent in each technique

  15. Improved InGaN epitaxy yield by precise temperature measurement :yearly report 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koleske, Daniel David; Creighton, James Randall; Russell, Michael J.; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2006-08-01

    This Report summarizes the first year progress (October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005) made under a NETL funded project entitled ''Improved InGaN Epitaxy Yield by Precise Temperature Measurement''. This Project addresses the production of efficient green LEDs, which are currently the least efficient of the primary colors. The Project Goals are to advance IR and UV-violet pyrometry to include real time corrections for surface emissivity on multiwafer MOCVD reactors. Increasing wafer yield would dramatically reduce high brightness LED costs and accelerate the commercial manufacture of inexpensive white light LEDs with very high color quality. This work draws upon and extends our previous research (funded by DOE) that developed emissivity correcting pyrometers (ECP) based on the high-temperature GaN opacity near 400 nm (the ultraviolet-violet range, or UVV), and the sapphire opacity in the mid-IR (MIR) near 7.5 microns.

  16. Range difference multilateration for obtaining precision geodetic and trajectory measurements. [by radio interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobal, P. R.; Ong, K. M.; Von Roos, O. H.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of a new multilateration technique suitable for precision geodesy and orbit determination applications are examined. The multilateration technique considered herein makes use of the differential time of arrival of signals at an ensemble of ground stations from a spacecraft or aircraft as the fundamental data type. It is demonstrated that simultaneous measurements give rise to a system of equations which upon solution permits the determination of the three-dimensional vehicle coordinates plus the three-dimensional coordinates of the station net relative to an arbitrarily adopted origin (which may be taken to be one of the stations). A solution to these equations can be obtained without any a priori knowledge of the locations of the stations and vehicle. The necessary conditions for obtaining all of these coordinates in the same solution are discussed, and it is indicated that at least five stations are required in the station ensemble.

  17. Laser controlled coupled cantilevers for precise measurements and energy transfer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gengyu

    2016-09-01

    Coupled cantilevers are trapped by laser in a 3-mirror configuration. We studied the signal transduction between the cantilevers by laser control. A force or displacement sensor with such laser trapping technique could achieve much higher sensitivity, as high as 3-4 orders as compared to a single cantilever. We also studied the energy transfer processes by laser trapping and manipulation. Rabi oscillations are observed. Quantum analog Landau-Zener Tunneling and Landau-Zener-Stuckelburg interferometry are realized in the classical regime. We have proved that the energy or signals could be transferred from one cantilever to the other in the real-space by laser manipulation. Laser manipulated coupled cantilvers have great potentials in precision measurements and in quantum information processing.

  18. Precise Measurements of Beam Spin Asymmetries in Semi-Inclusive π0 production

    SciTech Connect

    Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; Rossi, P.; De Sanctis, E.; Hasch, D.; Mirazita, M.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; DʼAngelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Micherdzinska, A. M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Phelps, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.

    2011-10-01

    We present studies of single-spin asymmetries for neutral pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of 5.776 GeV polarized electrons from an unpolarized hydrogen target, using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A substantial sin Φh amplitude has been measured in the distribution of the cross section asymmetry as a function of the azimuthal angle Φh of the produced neutral pion. The dependence of this amplitude on Bjorken x and on the pion transverse momentum is extracted with significantly higher precision than previous data and is compared to model calculations.

  19. Quantifying precision of in situ length and weight measurements of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Krzoska, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    We estimated and compared errors in field-made (in situ) measurements of lengths and weights of fish. We made three measurements of length and weight on each of 33 common carp Cyprinus carpio, and on each of a total of 34 bluegills Lepomis macrochirus and black crappies Pomoxis nigromaculatus. Maximum total lengths of all fish were measured to the nearest 1 mm on a conventional measuring board. The bluegills and black crappies (85–282 mm maximum total length) were weighed to the nearest 1 g on a 1,000-g spring-loaded scale. The common carp (415–600 mm maximum total length) were weighed to the nearest 0.05 kg on a 20-kg spring-loaded scale. We present a statistical model for comparison of coefficients of variation of length (Cl ) and weight (Cw ). Expected Cl was near zero and constant across mean length, indicating that length can be measured with good precision in the field. Expected Cw decreased with increasing mean length, and was larger than expected Cl by 5.8 to over 100 times for the bluegills and black crappies, and by 3 to over 20 times for the common carp. Unrecognized in situ weighing errors bias the apparent content of unique information in weight, which is the information not explained by either length or measurement error. We recommend procedures to circumvent effects of weighing errors, including elimination of unnecessary weighing from routine monitoring programs. In situ weighing must be conducted with greater care than is common if the content of unique and nontrivial information in weight is to be correctly identified.

  20. High precision measurement of silicon in naphthas by ICP-OES using isooctane as diluent.

    PubMed

    Gazulla, M F; Rodrigo, M; Orduña, M; Ventura, M J; Andreu, C

    2017-03-01

    An analytical protocol for the accurate and precise determination of Si in naphthas is presented by using ICP-OES, optimizing from the sample preparation to the measurement conditions, in order to be able to analyze for the first time silicon contents below 100µgkg(-1) in a relatively short time thus being used as a control method. In the petrochemical industry, silicon can be present as a contaminant in different petroleum products such as gasoline, ethanol, or naphthas, forming different silicon compounds during the treatment of these products that are irreversibly adsorbed onto catalyst surfaces decreasing its time life. The complex nature of the organic naphtha sample together with the low detection limits needed make the analysis of silicon quite difficult. The aim of this work is to optimize the measurement of silicon in naphthas by ICP-OES introducing as an improvement the use of isooctane as diluent. The set up was carried out by optimizing the measurement conditions (power, nebulizer flow, pump rate, read time, and viewing mode) and the sample preparation (type of diluent, cleaning process, blanks, and studying various dilution ratios depending on the sample characteristics).

  1. High-precision measurements of wetland sediment elevation. II The rod surface elevation table

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Lynch, J.C.; Perez, B.C.; Segura, B.; Holland, R.D.; Stelly, C.; Stephenson, G.; Hensel, P.

    2002-01-01

    A new high-precision device for measuring sediment elevation in emergent and shallow water wetland systems is described. The rod surface-elevation table (RSET) is a balanced, lightweight mechanical leveling device that attaches to both shallow ( 1 m in order to be stable. The pipe is driven to refusal but typically to a depth shallower than the rod bench mark because of greater surface resistance of the pipe. Thus, the RSET makes it possible to partition change in sediment elevation over shallower (e.g., the root zone) and deeper depths of the sediment profile than is possible with the SET. The confidence intervals for the height of an individual pin measured by two different operators with the RSET under laboratory conditions were A? 1.0 and A? 1.5 mm. Under field conditions, confidence intervals for the measured height of an individual pin ranged from A? 1.3 mm in a mangrove forest up to A? 4.3 mm in a salt marsh.

  2. Measuring precise diffusion coefficients with two-focus fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dertinger, Thomas; Gregor, Ingo; von der Hocht, Iris; Erdmann, Rainer; Krämer, Benedikt; Koberling, Felix; Hartmann, Rudolf; Enderlein, Jörg

    2006-02-01

    We present a new method for precisely measuring diffusion coefficients of fluorescent molecules at nanomolar concentrations. The method is based on a modified Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS)-setup which is robust against many artifacts that are inherent to standard FCS 1, 2. The core idea of the new method is the introduction of an external ruler by generating two laterally shifted and overlapping laser foci at a fixed and known distance. Data fitting is facilitated by ab initio calculations of resulting correlation curves and subsequent affine transformation of these curves to match the measured auto- and cross-correlation functions. The affine transformation coefficient along the time axis then directly yields the correct diffusion coefficient. This method is not relying on the rather inexact assumption of a 3D Gaussian shaped detection volume. We measured the diffusion coefficient of the red fluorescent dye Atto-655 (Atto-Tec GmbH) in water and compared the obtained value with results from Gradient Pulsed Field NMR (GPF-NMR).

  3. Recent developments for high-precision mass measurements of the heaviest elements at SHIPTRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Ackermann, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Droese, C.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Haettner, E.; Herfurth, F.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Marx, G.; Nesterenko, D.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Plaß, W. R.; Rodríguez, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schweikhard, L.; Thirolf, P. G.; Weber, C.

    2013-12-01

    Atomic nuclei far from stability continue to challenge our understanding. For example, theoretical models have predicted an “island of stability” in the region of the superheavy elements due to the closure of spherical proton and neutron shells. Depending on the model, these are expected at Z = 114, 120 or even 126 and N = 172 or 184. Valuable information on the road to the island of stability is derived from high-precision mass measurements, which give direct access to binding energies of short-lived trans-uranium nuclei. Recently, direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP have been extended to nobelium and lawrencium isotopes around the deformed shell gap N = 152. In order to further extend mass measurements to the region of superheavy elements, new technical developments are required to increase the performance of our setup. The sensitivity will increase through the implementation of a new detection method, where observation of one single ion is sufficient. Together with the use of a more efficient gas stopping cell, this will us allow to significantly enhance the overall efficiency of SHIPTRAP.

  4. Composite tube and plate manufacturing repeatability as determined by precision measurements of thermal strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, Lenn A.; Tucker, James R.; Bluth, A. Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Composite materials often carry the reputation of demonstrating high variability in critical material properties. The JWST telescope metering structure is fabricated of several thousand separate composite piece parts. The stringent dimensional stability requirements on the metering structure require the critical thermal strain response of every composite piece be verified either at the billet or piece part level. JWST is a unique composite space structure in that it has required the manufacturing of several hundred composite billets that cover many lots of prepreg and many years of fabrication. The flight billet thermal expansion acceptance criteria limits the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to a tolerance ranging between +/-0.014 ppm/K to +/-0.04 ppm/K around a prescribed nominal when measured from 293 K down to 40 K. The different tolerance values represent different material forms including flat plates and different tube cross-section dimensions. A precision measurement facility was developed that could measure at the required accuracy and at a pace that supported the composite part fabrication rate. The test method and facility is discussed and the results of a statistical process analysis of the flight composite billets are surveyed.

  5. Baseline suppression problems for high precision measurements using optical beam profile monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger, P.; Gassner, D.; Glenn, J.; Minty, M.; Zimmer, C.

    2011-03-28

    The use of fluorescent screens (e.g. YAG screens) and Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) screens for beam profile monitors provides a simple and widely used way to obtain detailed two dimensional intensity maps. What makes this possible is the availability of relatively inexpensive CCD cameras. For high precision measurements many possible error contributions need to be considered that have to do with properties of the fluorescent screens and of the CCDs. Saturation effects, reflections within and outside the screen, non-linearities, radiation damage, etc are often mentioned. Here we concentrate on an error source less commonly described, namely erroneous baseline subtraction, which is particularly important when fitting projected images. We show computer simulations as well as measurement results having remarkable sensitivity of the fitted profile widths to even partial suppression of the profile baseline data, which often arises from large pixel-to-pixel variations at low intensity levels. Such inadvertent baseline data suppression is very easy to miss as it is usually not obvious when inspecting projected profiles. In this report we illustrate this effect and discuss possible algorithms to automate the detection of this problem as well as some possible corrective measures.

  6. Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Delft, Netherlands, August 20-24, 1984, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The 1984 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 84) was held in Delft, The Netherlands, from August 20-24, 1984. Some changes in the SI are considered along with the accuracy of international time and frequency comparisons via global positioning systems satellites in common-view, a comparison of time and frequency measurements via OTS-2 with results obtained by Navstar/GPS and Loran-C, experimental results on a Mg atomic beam, recent progress in Cs beam frequency standards, and measurement of the frequency-shift due to distributed cavity phase difference in an atomic clock. Attention is also given to microwave Ramsey resonances from a laser diode optically pumped cesium beam resonator, the characterization of frequency stability, electrical units and the 1983 least squares adjustment, the new NBS determination of the proton gyromagnetic ratio, and a multistate reflectometer. Other topics explored are related to a homodyne network analysis by a digital triple phase modulation and baseband sampling technique, and ion traps as frequency standards.

  7. A Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Lifetime via the Primakoff Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, Eric

    2007-09-01

    The neutral pion radiative width has been measured to 8.411 eV ± 1.8% + 1.13% - 1.70% (lifetime = 7.826 ± 0.14 + 0.088 - 0.133 x 10-17 s) utilizing the Primakoff effect and roughly 4.9 to 5.5 GeV photons at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA. The Hall B Photon Tagger, the Hall B Pair Spectrometer, a state of the art Hybrid Calorimter enabled precision incident photon energy measurement, photon flux measurement, and neutral pion identification, respectively. With these and other hardware and software tools, elastic neutral pion yields were extracted from the data. A well developed and understood simulation calculated geometric and software cut efficiency curves. The simulation also provided photo-pion production response functions to fit the experimental cross sections and extract the Primakoff cross section and thus the neutral pion radiative width and lifetime. Future work includes improving understanding of the nuclear incoherent process and any other background sources of elastic neutral pions in this data.

  8. Development of a Tonometric Sensor with a Decoupled Circular Array for Precisely Measuring Radial Artery Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Min; Bae, Jang-Han; Jung, Chang Jin; Cho, Jung-Hee; Jeon, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    The radial artery pulse is one of the major diagnostic indices used clinically in both Eastern and Western medicine. One of the prominent methods for measuring the radial artery pulse is the piezoresistive sensor array. Independence among channels and an appropriate sensor arrangement are important for effectively assessing the spatial-temporal information of the pulse. This study developed a circular-type seven-channel piezoresistive sensor array using face-down bonding (FDB) as one of the sensor combination methods. The three-layered housing structure that included independent pressure sensor units using the FDB method not only enabled elimination of the crosstalk among channels, but also allowed various array patterns to be created for effective pulse measurement. The sensors were arranged in a circular-type arrangement such that they could estimate the direction of the radial artery and precisely measure the pulse wave. The performance of the fabricated sensor array was validated by evaluating the sensor sensitivity per channel, and the possibility of estimating the blood vessel direction was demonstrated through a radial artery pulse simulator. We expect the proposed sensor to allow accurate extraction of the pulse indices for pulse diagnosis. PMID:27240363

  9. Precise measurement of ultra-narrow laser linewidths using the strong coherent envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shihong; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Min; Huang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Laser linewidth narrowing down to kHz or even Hz is an important topic in areas like clock synchronization technology, laser radars, quantum optics, and high-precision detection. Conventional decoherence measurement methods like delayed self-heterodyne/homodyne interferometry cannot measure such narrow linewidths accurately. This is because a broadening of the Gaussian spectrum, which hides the laser’s intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth, cannot be avoided. Here, we introduce a new method using the strong coherent envelope to characterize the laser’s intrinsic linewidth through self-coherent detection. This method can eliminate the effect of the broadened Gaussian spectrum induced by the 1/f frequency noise. We analyze, in detail, the relationship between intrinsic laser linewidth, contrast difference with the second peak and the second trough (CDSPST) of the strong coherent envelope, and the length of the delaying fiber. The correct length for the delaying fiber can be chosen by combining the estimated laser linewidth (Δfest) with a specific CDSPST (ΔS) to obtain the accurate laser linewidth (Δf). Our results indicate that this method can be used as an accurate detection tool for measurements of narrow or super-narrow linewidths.

  10. Storing Data from Qweak--A Precision Measurement of the Proton's Weak Charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pote, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    The Qweak experiment will perform a precision measurement of the proton's parity violating weak charge at low Q-squared. The experiment will do so by measuring the asymmetry in parity-violating electron scattering. The proton's weak charge is directly related to the value of the weak mixing angle--a fundamental quantity in the Standard Model. The Standard Model makes a firm prediction for the value of the weak mixing angle and thus Qweak may provide insight into shortcomings in the SM. The Qweak experiment will run at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA. A database was designed to hold data directly related to the measurement of the proton's weak charge such as detector and beam monitor yield, asymmetry, and error as well as control structures such as the voltage across photomultiplier tubes and the temperature of the liquid hydrogen target. In order to test the database for speed and stability, it was filled with fake data that mimicked the data that Qweak is expected to collect. I will give a brief overview of the Qweak experiment and database design, and present data collected during these tests.

  11. Precise measurement of ultra-narrow laser linewidths using the strong coherent envelope

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shihong; Zhu, Tao; Liu, Min; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Laser linewidth narrowing down to kHz or even Hz is an important topic in areas like clock synchronization technology, laser radars, quantum optics, and high-precision detection. Conventional decoherence measurement methods like delayed self-heterodyne/homodyne interferometry cannot measure such narrow linewidths accurately. This is because a broadening of the Gaussian spectrum, which hides the laser’s intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth, cannot be avoided. Here, we introduce a new method using the strong coherent envelope to characterize the laser’s intrinsic linewidth through self-coherent detection. This method can eliminate the effect of the broadened Gaussian spectrum induced by the 1/f frequency noise. We analyze, in detail, the relationship between intrinsic laser linewidth, contrast difference with the second peak and the second trough (CDSPST) of the strong coherent envelope, and the length of the delaying fiber. The correct length for the delaying fiber can be chosen by combining the estimated laser linewidth (Δfest) with a specific CDSPST (ΔS) to obtain the accurate laser linewidth (Δf). Our results indicate that this method can be used as an accurate detection tool for measurements of narrow or super-narrow linewidths. PMID:28181506

  12. Development of a Tonometric Sensor with a Decoupled Circular Array for Precisely Measuring Radial Artery Pulse.

    PubMed

    Jun, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Min; Bae, Jang-Han; Jung, Chang Jin; Cho, Jung-Hee; Jeon, Young Ju

    2016-05-26

    The radial artery pulse is one of the major diagnostic indices used clinically in both Eastern and Western medicine. One of the prominent methods for measuring the radial artery pulse is the piezoresistive sensor array. Independence among channels and an appropriate sensor arrangement are important for effectively assessing the spatial-temporal information of the pulse. This study developed a circular-type seven-channel piezoresistive sensor array using face-down bonding (FDB) as one of the sensor combination methods. The three-layered housing structure that included independent pressure sensor units using the FDB method not only enabled elimination of the crosstalk among channels, but also allowed various array patterns to be created for effective pulse measurement. The sensors were arranged in a circular-type arrangement such that they could estimate the direction of the radial artery and precisely measure the pulse wave. The performance of the fabricated sensor array was validated by evaluating the sensor sensitivity per channel, and the possibility of estimating the blood vessel direction was demonstrated through a radial artery pulse simulator. We expect the proposed sensor to allow accurate extraction of the pulse indices for pulse diagnosis.

  13. Precise measurement of the nuclear dependence of the EMC effect at large x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Aji

    Experiment E03-103, carried out in Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, measuring inclusive electron scattering cross sections from nuclear targets over a broad range of x (0.3 < x < 1) up to Q2 ≈ 8 GeV 2. The bulk of the data were taken at a beam energy of 5.8 GeV, with beam currents ranging from 30 to 80 muA. This dissertation describes the experiment in detail, and presents the extracted EMC ratios for the cryogenic targets 3He, 4He and solid targets Be, C, Cu, and Au. Our data provide the first measurement of the EMC effect in 3He at x > 0.4, and improve the known precision of the existing measurements of the effect in 4He and other nuclear targets at large x. The data have also been analyzed in terms of the structure function FA2 to examine the scaling of the inelastic scattering in x and xi.

  14. Test Fundamental Symmetries via Precision Measurements of π 0, η , and η ' Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Liping

    Light neutral meson decays provide a unique laboratory to test fundamental symmetries in physics. A comprehensive Primakoff experimental program at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) is aimed at gathering high precision measurements on the two-photon decay widths and the transition form factors at low four-momentum transfer squares for π 0, η , and η ' via the Primakoff effect. The results of these measurements will offer stringent tests on the chiral anomaly and provide sensitive probe for the origin and dynamics of chiral symmetry breaking in the confinement QCD. In addition, the JLab Eta Factory (JEF) experiment has been recently developed to measure various η decays with emphasis on rare neutral modes. It will have a factor of two orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to all other existing or planned experiments in the world. Such low background data will serve as important hadronic probes for weakly-coupled new forces, such as a dark force via a leptophobic dark VB-boson or a new C-violating, P-conserving force. The status of these experimental activities and their physics impacts will be discussed.

  15. A precision measurement of the neutron2. Probing the color force

    SciTech Connect

    Posik, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The g2 nucleon spin-dependent structure function measured in electron deep inelastic scattering contains information beyond the simple parton model description of the nucleon. It provides insight into quark-gluon correlations and a path to access the confining local color force a struck quark experiences just as it is hit by the virtual photon due to the remnant di-quark. The quantity d2, a measure of this local color force, has its information encoded in an x2 weighted integral of a linear combination of spin structure functions g1 and g2 and thus is dominated by the valence-quark region at large momentum fraction x. To date, theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the neutron d2 differ by about two standard deviations. Therefore, JLab experiment E06-014, performed in Hall A, made a precision measurement of this quantity at two mean four momentum transfers values of 3.21 and 4.32 GeV2. Double spin asymmetries and absolute cross-sections were measured in both DIS and resonance regions by scattering longitudinally polarized electrons at beam energies of 4.74 and 5.89 GeV from a longitudinally and transversely polarized 3He target. Results for the absolute cross-sections and spin structure functions on 3He will be presented in the dissertation, as well as results for the neutron d2 and extracted color forces.

  16. The Accuracy and Precision of Flow Measurements Using Phase Contrast Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chao

    Quantitative volume flow rate measurements using the magnetic resonance imaging technique are studied in this dissertation because the volume flow rates have a special interest in the blood supply of the human body. The method of quantitative volume flow rate measurements is based on the phase contrast technique, which assumes a linear relationship between the phase and flow velocity of spins. By measuring the phase shift of nuclear spins and integrating velocity across the lumen of the vessel, we can determine the volume flow rate. The accuracy and precision of volume flow rate measurements obtained using the phase contrast technique are studied by computer simulations and experiments. The various factors studied include (1) the partial volume effect due to voxel dimensions and slice thickness relative to the vessel dimensions; (2) vessel angulation relative to the imaging plane; (3) intravoxel phase dispersion; (4) flow velocity relative to the magnitude of the flow encoding gradient. The partial volume effect is demonstrated to be the major obstacle to obtaining accurate flow measurements for both laminar and plug flow. Laminar flow can be measured more accurately than plug flow in the same condition. Both the experiment and simulation results for laminar flow show that, to obtain the accuracy of volume flow rate measurements to within 10%, at least 16 voxels are needed to cover the vessel lumen. The accuracy of flow measurements depends strongly on the relative intensity of signal from stationary tissues. A correction method is proposed to compensate for the partial volume effect. The correction method is based on a small phase shift approximation. After the correction, the errors due to the partial volume effect are compensated, allowing more accurate results to be obtained. An automatic program based on the correction method is developed and implemented on a Sun workstation. The correction method is applied to the simulation and experiment results. The

  17. Using statistics and software to maximize precision and accuracy in U-Pb geochronological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, N.; Bowring, J. F.; Bowring, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Uncertainty in U-Pb geochronology results from a wide variety of factors, including isotope ratio determinations, common Pb corrections, initial daughter product disequilibria, instrumental mass fractionation, isotopic tracer calibration, and U decay constants and isotopic composition. The relative contribution of each depends on the proportion of radiogenic to common Pb, the measurement technique, and the quality of systematic error determinations. Random and systematic uncertainty contributions may be propagated into individual analyses or for an entire population, and must be propagated correctly to accurately interpret data. Tripoli and U-Pb_Redux comprise a new data reduction and error propagation software package that combines robust cycle measurement statistics with rigorous multivariate data analysis and presents the results graphically and interactively. Maximizing the precision and accuracy of a measurement begins with correct appraisal and codification of the systematic and random errors for each analysis. For instance, a large dataset of total procedural Pb blank analyses defines a multivariate normal distribution, describing the mean of and variation in isotopic composition (IC) that must be subtracted from each analysis. Uncertainty in the size and IC of each Pb blank is related to the (random) uncertainty in ratio measurements and the (systematic) uncertainty involved in tracer subtraction. Other sample and measurement parameters can be quantified in the same way, represented as statistical distributions that describe their uncertainty or variation, and are input into U-Pb_Redux as such before the raw sample isotope ratios are measured. During sample measurement, U-Pb_Redux and Tripoli can relay cycle data in real time, calculating a date and uncertainty for each new cycle or block. The results are presented in U-Pb_Redux as an interactive user interface with multiple visualization tools. One- and two-dimensional plots of each calculated date and

  18. Lithographic overlay measurement precision and calibration and their effect on pattern registration optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavecz, Terrence E.

    1992-06-01

    Overlay of pattern registration is considered by some to be the most yield critical metrology element monitored in the semiconductor manufacturing process. Over the years, the aggressive demands of competitive chip design have constantly maintained these specifications at the process capability limit. This has driven the lithographer from somewhat simple process control techniques like optically read verniers, to computer automated overlay measurement systems whose outputs are applied to the estimation and correction of full field systematic error sources primarily as modeled wafer and lens pattern distortions. When modeled pattern distortions are used to optimize the lithographic overlay process, the point measurement of registration error is no longer the parameter of interest. Instead the lithographer wishes to measure and minimize the surface modeled pattern distortions such as translation, rotation, and magnification. Yet, often neglected is the fact that estimates of these parameters are influenced by measurement system errors resulting in a loss of precision in the estimate of the distortions and the false introduction of otherwise nonexistent distortions leading to improper determination of the true values for the lens. This paper describes the results of a screening simulation designed to determine the relative effects of measurement system errors on the distortion coefficient estimates produced by a pattern distortion model. The simulation confirms the somewhat obvious result that tool induced shift (TIS) translates directly into the estimate of the offset term of the model. In addition, the simulation indicates that errors in the measurement system pixel scale calibration directly scale all distortion estimates by the same factor. The variance of the measurement system sums with the variance of the stepper and inflates the standard error of the regression as well as the uncertainty of each lens parameter's estimate. Higher order nonlinearities or

  19. Progress on precision measurements of inner shell transitions in highly charged ions at an ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Csilla I.; Indelicato, Paul; LeBigot, Eric-Olivier; Vallette, Alexandre; Amaro, Pedro; Guerra, Mauro; Gumberidze, Alex

    2012-05-25

    Inner shell transitions of highly charged ions produced in the plasma of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) were observed the first time by a Double Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). The DCS is a well-used tool in precision x-ray spectroscopy due to its ability of precision wavelength measurement traced back to a relative angle measurement. Because of its requirement for a bright x-ray source the DCS has not been used before in direct measurements of highly charged ions (HCI). Our new precision measurement of inner shell transitions in HCI is not just going to provide new x-ray standards for quantum metrology but can also give information about the plasma in which the ions reside. Ionic temperatures and with that the electron density can be determined by thorough examination of line widths measured with great accuracy.

  20. Precision measurement of the mass of the hc(1P1) state of charmonium.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Ramirez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P

    2008-10-31

    A precision measurement of the mass of the h_{c}(1P1) state of charmonium has been made using a sample of 24.5x10;{6} psi(2S) events produced in e;{+}e;{-} annihilation at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). The reaction used was psi(2S)-->pi;{0}h_{c}, pi;{0}-->gammagamma, h_{c}-->gammaeta_{c}, and the reaction products were detected in the CLEO-c detector. Data have been analyzed both for the inclusive reaction and for the exclusive reactions in which eta_{c} decays are reconstructed in 15 hadronic decay channels. Consistent results are obtained in the two analyses. The averaged results of the present measurements are M(h_{c})=3525.28+/-0.19(stat.)+/-0.12(syst.) MeV, and B(psi(2S)-->pi;{0}h_{c})xB(h_{c}-->gammaeta_{c})=(4.19+/-0.32+/-0.45)x10;{-4}. Using the ;{3}P_{J} centroid mass, DeltaM_{hf}(1P) identical withM(chi_{cJ})-M(h_{c})=+0.02+/-0.19+/-0.13 MeV.