Science.gov

Sample records for 99-percent duration discharges

  1. Development and application of generalized-least-squares regression models to estimate low-flow duration discharges in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G., III

    1994-01-01

    Physically based mathematical models were developed by use of generalized-least-squares regression analyses to estimate long-term 95-, 98-, and 99-percent duration discharges for ungaged streams in Massachusetts. Duration discharges for 61 sites were used in the recession analyses; 37 sites were streamflow-gaging stations and 24 sites were low-flow partial-record stations. The duration discharges were related to basin chacteristics measured from digital data bases, by use of geographic information systems computer software. Significant chacterisfics used in the models were drainage area, area underlain by stratified-drift deposits per unit of stream length in the basin, and a surrogate for the effective head on the aquifer in the stratified-drift deposits, computed by subtracting the minimum basin elevation from the mean basin elevation. Standard errors of prediction were 57.5, 85.6, and 98.5 percent for models for the 95-, 98-, and 99-percent duration discharges, respectively. Model error variances were about 10 times the sampling error variances, indicating that the precision of future models are likely to be improved more by obtaining better measurements of basin characteristics or by adding new sites to the analyses than by collecting more streamflow data at the sites presently used in the analyses. The models were used to predict duration discharges for 35 selected sites in the Concord River, Noah Coastal, South Coastal, Narragansett and Tenmile River Basins. Ninety-perrcent prediction intervals were computed for the estimates at each of the sites, except at sites where values of the independent variables were outside the ranges of those for the sites used in the regression analyses.

  2. Vocal Corollary Discharge Communicates Call Duration to Vertebrate Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Corollary discharge is essential to an animal's ability to filter self-generated from external stimuli. This includes acoustic communication, although direct demonstration of a corollary discharge that both conveys a vocal motor signal and informs the auditory system about the physical attributes of a self-generated vocalization has remained elusive for vertebrates. Here, we show the underlying synaptic activity of a neuronal vocal corollary discharge pathway in the hindbrain of a highly vocal species of fish. Neurons carrying the vocal corollary discharge are specifically adapted for the transmission of duration information, a predominant acoustic cue. The results reveal that vertebrates, like some insects, have a robust corollary discharge conveying call duration. Along with evidence for the influence of vocal duration on auditory encoding in mammals, these new findings suggest that linking vocal motor and corollary discharge pathways with pattern generating, call duration neurons is a shared network character across the animal kingdom. PMID:24285884

  3. Discharge-Duration-Frequency Surfaces: An Intergrating Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bâ, Khalidou; Díaz-Delgado, Carlos; Carsteanu, Alin

    2014-05-01

    Discharge-Duration-Frequency curves are a concise form of capturing the information of hydrological-engineering interest from marginal and joint probability distribution functions of a river-discharge stochastic process. They are nomograms, obtained from constant-T sections of Q(T,D) surfaces. In the present work, we propose the direct construction and use of Q(D,P) surfaces that allow for an easy swap between maxima and minima of discharges of different durations. They are hereby comprehensive in scope and appropriate for engineering use, which we illustrate by an example from the Villa de Fuentes (Mexico) hydrological gauging station.

  4. Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the "other 99 percent".

    PubMed

    Autor, David H

    2014-05-23

    The singular focus of public debate on the "top 1 percent" of households overlooks the component of earnings inequality that is arguably most consequential for the "other 99 percent" of citizens: the dramatic growth in the wage premium associated with higher education and cognitive ability. This Review documents the central role of both the supply and demand for skills in shaping inequality, discusses why skill demands have persistently risen in industrialized countries, and considers the economic value of inequality alongside its potential social costs. I conclude by highlighting the constructive role for public policy in fostering skills formation and preserving economic mobility. PMID:24855259

  5. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  6. Duration and rates of discharge: Maja Valles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.; Pani, E. A.

    1992-01-01

    The 1600 km-long Maja Valles outflow system of Mars consists of three major divisions including the upper valley on Lunae Planum, the canyon section across Xanthe Terra, and the lower valley across western Chryse Planitia. Although water released from the source in Juventae Chasma could reach the terminus of the present day valley system in central Chryse Planitia within 44 hours, the original outflow did not traverse the Martian surface in a direct path. It ponded along its course on northern Lunae Planum and near the western edge of Chryse Planitia significantly prolonging the lifetime of surface flow. Calculation of pond volumes and discharge rates through various parts of the channel system indicates that water flowed through this system for nearly a (terrestrial) year. Discharge rates from the various basins along the Maja channels and the maximum flow rates within the various channels are calculated. With this data, it is possible to place reasonable estimates of the minimum length of time required to drain the various impoundments and the duration of flow in various parts of the channel system. The results of these calculations are discussed.

  7. Duration and rates of discharge - Maja Valles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Hon, R. A.; Pani, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1600 km-long Maja Valles outflow system of Mars consists of three major divisions including the upper valley on Lunae Planum, the canyon section across Xanthe Terra, and the lower valley across western Chryse Planitia. Although water released from the source in Juventae Chasma could reach the terminus of the present day valley system in central Chryse Planitia within 44 hours, the original outflow did not traverse the Martian surface in a direct path. It ponded along its course on northern Lunae Planum and near the western edge of Chryse Planitia significantly prolonging the lifetime of surface flow. Calculation of pond volumes and discharge rates through various parts of the channel system indicates that water flowed through this system for nearly a (terrestrial) year. Discharge rates from the various basins along the Maja channels and the maximum flow rates within the various channels are calculated. With this data, it is possible to place reasonable estimates of the minimum length of time required to drain the various impoundments and the duration of flow in various parts of the channel system. The results of these calculations are discussed.

  8. Estimates of Flow Duration, Mean Flow, and Peak-Discharge Frequency Values for Kansas Stream Locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2004-01-01

    Streamflow statistics of flow duration and peak-discharge frequency were estimated for 4,771 individual locations on streams listed on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. These statistics included the flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent, as well as the mean flow value. Peak-discharge frequency values were estimated for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent and the mean flow for uncontrolled flow stream locations. The contributing-drainage areas of 149 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Kansas and parts of surrounding States that had flow uncontrolled by Federal reservoirs and used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. Logarithmic transformations of climatic and basin data were performed to yield the best linear relation for developing equations to compute flow durations and mean flow. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were contributing-drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. The analyses yielded a model standard error of prediction range of 0.43 logarithmic units for the 90-percent duration analysis to 0.15 logarithmic units for the 10-percent duration analysis. The model standard error of prediction was 0.14 logarithmic units for the mean flow. Regression equations used to estimate peak-discharge frequency values were obtained from a previous report, and estimates for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods were determined for this report. The regression equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute flow durations, mean flow, and estimates of peak-discharge frequency for locations along uncontrolled flow streams on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. Flow durations, mean

  9. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of discharge in anesthetized swine model.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Sang-Cheon; Ahn, Jung-Hwan; Min, Young-Gi

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to investigate the dose-response relationship of the TASER X26 discharge duration in an anesthetized swine model. Fourteen swines were anesthetized and then exposed to TASER X26 discharge for 5 sec (n = 5) or for 10 sec (n = 6). The sham control group (n = 3) was anesthetized and studied using the same protocol except TASER X26 discharges during the experiments. Hemodynamic parameters were obtained. Blood pressure and total peripheral resistance decreased significantly after TASER discharge and returned to baseline value at 15 min after 5 sec of TASER discharge but did not return to baseline values during the 30-min observation period after 10 sec of TASER discharge. Repetitive TASER X26 discharge resulted in adverse physiologic events with a dose-response relationship related to the duration of TASER X26 discharge in an anesthetized swine model. PMID:23066880

  10. Nitriding molybdenum: Effects of duration and fill gas pressure when using 100-Hz pulse DC discharge technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlaq, U.; R., Ahmad; Shafiq, M.; Saleem, S.; S. Shah, M.; Hussain, T.; A. Khan, I.; K., Abbas; S. Abbas, M.

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum is nitrided by a 100-Hz pulsed DC glow discharge technique for various time durations and fill gas pressures to study the effects on the surface properties of molybdenum. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used for the structural and morphological analysis of the nitrided layers. Vickers' microhardness tester is utilized to investigate surface microhardness. Phase analysis shows the formation of more molybdenum nitride molecules for longer nitriding durations at fill gas pressures of 2 mbar and 3 mbar (1 bar = 105 Pa). A considerable increase in surface microhardness (approximately by a factor of 2) is observed for longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar pressure. Longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar fill gas pressure favors the formation of homogeneous, smooth, hard layers by the incorporation of more nitrogen.

  11. Streamflow, ground-water recharge and discharge, and characteristics of surficial deposits in Buzzards Bay basin, southeastern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bent, Gardner C.

    1995-01-01

    Streamflows exceeded between 50 and 99 percent of the time during water years 1967-91 were estimated for 14 low-flow partial-record stations and two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations in Buzzards Bay Basin, Massachusetts. At low flows, stream discharge per unit area for subbasins underlain primarily by stratified-drift deposits was several times greater than for subbasins underlain primarily by till and bedrock deposits. Streamflow measured three times at the Paskamanset River showed that streamflows downstream of municipal pumping wells were affected by ground-water pumpage near the river. Mean ground-water recharge rates were estimated to be 19.7 to 22.6 and 23.8 to 25.2 inches per year for basins underlain primarily by till and bedrock deposits and stratified drift deposits, respectively. Annual ground-water recharge during drought years can be less than one-half of the mean ground-water recharge rate for water years 1967-91. Ground-water discharge rates generally were estimated to be 1 to 4 inches per year less than ground-water recharge rates. Thus, ground-water discharge rates could be used as a low estimate of ground-water recharge rates. From the 50 to 99 percent flow duration, ground-water discharges averaged 85.7 percent of the total streamflow at six nearby streamflow-gaging stations. Ground-water discharges were estimated at the 16 stations in the basin by multiplying estimated streamflows at the selected flow durations from 50- to 99-percent for water years 1967-91 by 85.7 percent. Based on new well-log and seismic-refraction survey data, a few minor corrections were determined in existing saturated thickness maps for stratified-drift deposits in basin.

  12. Fundamental Study on a Long-Duration Flash X-Ray Generator with a Surface-Discharge Triode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Oizumi, Teiji; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1994-07-01

    Fundamental studies on a long-duration flash X-ray generator are described. This generator consisted of the following components: a high-voltage power supply with a maximum voltage of 100 kV, an energy-storage condenser of 500 nF, a main discharge condenser of 10 nF, a turbo molecular pump, a thyratron pulser as a trigger device, and a surface-discharge triode. The effective pulse width was less than 30 µs, and the X-ray intensity approximately had a value of 0.6 µC/kg at 1.0 m per pulse with a charged voltage of 60 kV. The maximum tube voltage was equivalent to the initial charged voltage of the condenser, and the peak tube current was less than 40 A. With this generator, we could obtain stable X-ray intensity maximized by preventing damped oscillations of the tube voltage and current.

  13. Convulsive status epilepticus duration as determinant for epileptogenesis and interictal discharge generation in the rat limbic system

    PubMed Central

    Bortel, Aleksandra; Lévesque, Maxime; Biagini, Giuseppe; Gotman, Jean; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed with EEG-video monitoring the epileptic activity recorded during the latent and chronic periods in rats undergoing 30 or 120 min pilocarpine-induced convulsive status epilepticus (SE). Interictal discharges frequency in the entorhinal cortex (EC) of animals exposed to 120 min SE was significantly higher in the chronic than in the latent period. Following seizure appearance, interictal spikes diminished in duration in the CA3 of the 120 min SE group, and occurred at higher rates in the amygdala in all animals. Rats exposed to 120 min SE generated shorter seizures but presented twice as many non-convulsive seizures per day as the 30 min group. Finally, seizures most frequently initiated in CA3 in the 120 min SE group but had similar onset in CA3 and EC in the 30 min group. These findings indicate that convulsive SE duration influences the development of interictal and ictal activity, and that interictal discharges undergo structure-specific changes after seizure appearance. PMID:20682341

  14. Constraints on the rate of discharge and duration of the Mangala Valles flood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Gorsline, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Interest in Mangala Valles remains high within the planetary science community. This is justified because the survey mission images provide us with nearly complete coverage of the system at high resolution. Upcoming high resolution topography from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter will enable the application of flood discharge models with an unprecedented level of detail. Previous work on the Mangala Valles problem has relied on the available low resolution topography. This has limited the ability of workers to constrain discharge calculations to only within several-order-of-magnitude estimates. Local determinations of channel depths via shadow length measurements and photoclinometric profiling are much more accurate, but can only be applied to steep slopes (and/or low sun elevations) in the case of shadow measurements, or across relatively short distances (to avoid changes in albedo along asymmetric photoclinometric profiles). We are taking stereo parallax measurements from medium resolution Viking Orbiter images, which provide a valuable intermediate check of the topography between those measurements made thus far and the upcoming Mars Observer data. The images used are from orbits 034A and 637A, and cover Mangala Valles from the source graben in Memnonia Fossae to the beginning of the bifurcated reach (at 9.5 deg lat., 151.5 deg lon.). These images are about 300 m/pixel and 250 m/pixel, respectively. Both sets of images were orthographically projected to 250 m/pixel. The separation angle between left-right pairs is approximately 52 degrees. This results in a vertical accuracy on the order of plus or minus 260 m. Though this is still somewhat coarse, the channel relief is clearly resolved. Preliminary profiles across Mangala Valles and the large topographic ridge to the east are shown on the following page. An east-west regional tilt that resulted from slight scaling differences in the digital data has been 'removed' by visually estimating a regional datum on the

  15. Statistical summaries of streamflow records, Oklahoma through 1974: compilations of flow-duration, low-flow, high-flow, monthly duration tables and statistics of annual discharge through 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, Lionel D.

    1975-01-01

    Tables summarizing daily streamflow data by year are presented for gaging stations in Oklahoma that have at least 5 years of either unregulated or regulated stream-gaging record through September 30, 1974. Separate tables are presented for unregulated and regulated periods of record. These summary tables include: (1) the number of days in each year that the daily discharge was between selected limits (duration tables), (2) the lowest mean daily discharge (frequency tables), (3) the highest mean daily discharge (frequency tables), (4) a monthly duration table for each station with 29 years or more of essentially unregulated record, and (5) statistics of annual discharge. These summaries provide useful information about the quantity, distribution, and variability of streamflow and provide basic data for developing relations for estimating streamflow at sites other than regular stream-gaging sites. This information is also useful in designing bridges, culverts, and other hydraulic structures as well as reservoirs for water supply, flood control, and low-flow regulation.

  16. A 99 percent purity molecular sieve oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular sieve oxygen generating systems (MSOGS) have become the accepted method for the production of breathable oxygen on military aircraft. These systems separate oxygen for aircraft engine bleed air by application of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. Oxygen is concentrated by preferential adsorption in nitrogen in a zeolite molecular sieve. However, the inability of current zeolite molecular sieves to discriminate between oxygen and argon results in an oxygen purity limitations of 93-95 percent (both oxygen and argon concentrate). The goal was to develop a new PSA process capable of exceeding the present oxygen purity limitations. A novel molecular sieve oxygen concentrator was developed which is capable of generating oxygen concentrations of up to 99.7 percent directly from air. The process is comprised of four absorbent beds, two containing a zeolite molecular sieve and two containing a carbon molecular sieve. This new process may find use in aircraft and medical breathing systems, and industrial air separation systems. The commercial potential of the process is currently being evaluated.

  17. Flow-duration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James Kincheon

    1959-01-01

    The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

  18. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although

  19. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge

  20. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Shock wave lithotripsy - discharge; Laser lithotripsy - discharge; Percutaneous lithotripsy - discharge; Endoscopic lithotripsy - discharge; ESWL - discharge

  1. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  2. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  3. Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Supracervical hysterectomy - discharge; Removal of the uterus - discharge; Laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; Total laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; TLH - discharge; Laparoscopic supracervical ...

  4. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; ...

  5. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - ...

  6. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

  7. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

  8. Hip fracture - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge

  9. Angina - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... bypass surgery - minimally invasive - discharge Heart disease - risk factors High ... of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed ...

  10. Safety Is 99 Percent Attitude: Strategies to Contain Workers' Compensation Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Janet

    1993-01-01

    The University of Denver (Colorado) reduced workers' compensation losses 97 percent in 1990-91 by developing a master safety plan, sponsoring safety training, managing medical costs, providing modified duty for injured employees, screening applicants, orienting new employees, investigating claims thoroughly, performing life-safety audits, and…

  11. Icon Duration and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerman, Kent; And Others

    In this study, developmental changes in duration of the icon (visual sensory store) were investigated with three converging tachistoscopic tasks. (1) Stimulus interuption detection (SID), a variation of the two-flash threshold method, was performed by 29 first- and 32 fifth-graders, and 32 undergraduates. Icon duration was estimated by stimulus…

  12. Discharging patients.

    PubMed

    Causey, Amy

    2016-06-22

    What was the nature of the CPD activity and/or practice-related feedback and/or event or experience in your practice? The CPD article discussed the importance of effective planning when discharging patients from acute care hospitals. It emphasised the benefit of early assessment and planning, and outlined the essential principles that should be followed when discharging a patient. PMID:27332612

  13. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  14. [Nipple discharge].

    PubMed

    Deodato, G; Consoli, A; Riggi, M; Longo, G; Finocchiaro, G B

    1981-02-01

    The Authors examine the various types of breast discharge concentrating in particular on the secretions due to inherent pathology. After having studied origin, they concentrate on the diagnostic significance and the limits of exfoliative cytology and contrast mammography. The Authors conclude by presenting an original protocol of treatment of the afflicted breast illustrating in addition, the various surgical techniques proposed for the cure of the sicknesses of intramammary origin that cause abnormal discharge. PMID:7261200

  15. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  16. Pulsed discharge production Ar* metastables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiande; Heaven, Michael C.; Emmons, Daniel; Perram, Glen P.; Weeks, David E.; Bailey, William F.

    2016-03-01

    The production of relatively high densities of Ar* metastables (>1012 cm-3) in Ar/He mixtures, at total pressures close to 1 atm, is essential for the efficient operation of an optically pumped Ar* laser. We have used emission spectroscopy and diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements to observe the production and decay of Ar* in a parallel plate pulsed discharge. With discharge pulses of 1 μs duration we find that metastable production is dominated by processes occurring within the first 100 ns of the gas break-down. Application of multiple, closely spaced discharge pulses yields insights concerning conditions that favor metastable production. This information has been combined with time-resolved measurements of voltage and current. The experimental results and preliminary modeling of the discharge kinetics are presented.

  17. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    SLAP repair - discharge; Acromioplasty - discharge; Bankart - discharge; Shoulder repair - discharge; Shoulder arthroscopy - discharge ... You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your shoulder joint. The surgeon may have used a tiny ...

  18. Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... colectomy or proctolectomy -discharge; Restorative proctocolectomy - discharge; Ileal-anal resection - discharge; Ileal-anal pouch - discharge; J-pouch - discharge; S-pouch - discharge; Pelvic ...

  19. Delayed discharge.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Essential facts Delays in discharging older peo ple from hospital cost the NHS £820 million a year, according to a report from the National Audit Office (NAO). Last year in acute hospitals, 1.15 million bed days were lost to delayed transfers of care, an increase of 31% since 2013. The NAO says rising demand for NHS services is compounded by reduced local authority spending on adult social care - down by 10% since 2009-10. PMID:27380673

  20. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  1. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your vagina. ...

  2. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Keane JF, Lock JE, Fyler DC, eds. Nadas' Pediatric Cardiology . 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO; WB Saunders; ...

  3. Heart attack - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Myocardial infarction - discharge; MI - discharge; Coronary event - discharge; Infarct - discharge ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ ...

  4. Gastroesophageal reflux - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Peptic esophagitis - discharge; Reflux esophagitis - discharge; GERD - discharge; Heartburn - chronic - discharge ... You have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a condition in which food or liquid travels backwards from the stomach to the ...

  5. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects ...

  6. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge ... You had tubal ligation (or tying the tubes) surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. ...

  7. Long Duration Sorbent Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Knox, James C.; Long, David A.; Miller, Lee; Cmaric, Gregory; Thomas, John

    2016-01-01

    The Long Duration Sorbent Testbed (LDST) is a flight experiment demonstration designed to expose current and future candidate carbon dioxide removal system sorbents to an actual crewed space cabin environment to assess and compare sorption working capacity degradation resulting from long term operation. An analysis of sorbent materials returned to Earth after approximately one year of operation in the International Space Station's (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) indicated as much as a 70% loss of working capacity of the silica gel desiccant material at the extreme system inlet location, with a gradient of capacity loss down the bed. The primary science objective is to assess the degradation of potential sorbents for exploration class missions and ISS upgrades when operated in a true crewed space cabin environment. A secondary objective is to compare degradation of flight test to a ground test unit with contaminant dosing to determine applicability of ground testing.

  8. TSC simulation of ohmic discharges in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.; Bell, M.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1992-04-01

    The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to model the time dependence of several ohmic discharges in the TFTR experiment. We have refined the semi-empirical thermal conductivity model and the sawtooth model in TSC so that good agreement is obtained between the simulation and the experiment in electron and ion temperature profiles, and in the current profiles for the entire duration of the discharges. Neoclassical resistivity gives good agreement with the measured surface voltages and rate of poloidal flux consumption.

  9. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  10. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  11. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11386.001 PMID:26641377

  12. Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) materials were useful for testing technical concepts that needed to be validated for the Cosmic Dust Collector Facility (CDCF) - a large instrument that was under study for inclusion on the upcoming Space Station. As it turned out, CDCF, which was approved at one point as an external payload, was ultimately canceled due to the scaling back of the Space Station capabilities. However, the study of cosmic dust is still a field of great interest for NASA, being the crucial part of at least one experiment that is still being considered for a Discovery mission. The optimum analysis of hypervelocity impacts is thus a continuing NASA concern. Two experiments, AO187-1 and AO187-2 were explicitly designed to measure the flux and composition of dust particles impacting LDEF. The former consisted of flat targets of Au and Al while the second comprised a set of 237 "capture cells" using Ge target plates covered by thin (2.5 microns) metallized plastic foils. The spacecraft maintained a constant orientation with respect to its velocity vector thereby defining leading and trailing edges that faced respectively into and away from the direction of motion. Both AO187-1 and AO187-2 had detectors on both the leading and trailing edges of LDEF. It was expected that interplanetary dust particles would dominate impacts on the trailing edge while the leading edge would be exposed to both cosmic dust and particles of orbital manmade debris. In AO187-1, the compositions of the impactors was determined by SEM-EDS techniques; in AO187-2 a sensitive surface analysis technique - SIMS - was used to determine both elemental and (some) isotopic compositions. In the initial analysis of AO187-2, it was found that SIMS was more sensitive for the analysis of thin impact debris layers than SEM-EDS. The present grant was made to determine if SIMS analysis could also be applied to impacts recorded in the Au surfaces of AO187-1. Success would extend the analysis

  13. Low-flow and flow-duration characteristics of Alabama streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkins, J.B.; Pearman, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of minimum 7-day average discharges with recurrence intervals of 2 and 10 years for 228 continuous-record gaging stations are presented in this report. Low-flow frequency discharge estimates for 447 partial-record stations are also presented. These discharge estimates were computed by relating base-flow discharge measurements at the partial- record stations to daily-mean discharge values at selected continuous-record gaging stations. Flow- duration characteristics for 207 continuous-record gaging stations are also provided.

  14. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  15. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - discharge; Prostate cancer - prostatectomy ... some lymph nodes. This was done to treat prostate cancer. Your surgeon may have made an incision (cut) ...

  16. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed ...

  17. Experimental study of micro electrical discharge machining discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Braganca, I. M. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Martins, P. A. F.; Dias, F. M.; Alves, L. L.

    2013-06-21

    Micro electrical discharge machining ({mu}EDM) is an atmospheric-pressure plasma-assisted technology that uses point-to-plane discharges in liquid dielectrics to remove microscopic quantities of electrically conductive materials. In this work, an innovative {mu}EDM prototype machine was specifically designed and fabricated to produce and control single spark discharges, thus, resolving the typical limitations of (multi-discharge) commercial machines. The work analyses the type of discharge and the micro-plasma electron-density values obtained for 0.5-38 {mu}m gap sizes, 3-10 000 {mu}s pulse durations, 75-250 V low breakdown voltages, and 1-20 A discharge currents, using different combinations of metallic electrodes in oil and in water. Results allow fitting, for micro-scale and low voltages, an empirical law between the maximum gap-size for breakdown, the breakdown voltage, and the effective stress-time. The electron density n{sub e} is obtained by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of the H{sub {alpha}}-line Stark broadening (yielding n{sub e}{approx}10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, i.e., ionization degrees of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4}) and by a semi-empirical resistive plasma model. The model uses the experimental values of several electrical and geometrical quantities, and of the gas pressure estimated as {approx}60 bar-2 kbar from measurements of the plasma mechanical action, obtained using a force sensor. The quantitative information of this phenomenological study can assist the optimization of this micro-fabrication technique.

  18. Experimental study of micro electrical discharge machining discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragança, I. M. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Dias, F. M.; Martins, P. A. F.; Alves, L. L.

    2013-06-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (μEDM) is an atmospheric-pressure plasma-assisted technology that uses point-to-plane discharges in liquid dielectrics to remove microscopic quantities of electrically conductive materials. In this work, an innovative μEDM prototype machine was specifically designed and fabricated to produce and control single spark discharges, thus, resolving the typical limitations of (multi-discharge) commercial machines. The work analyses the type of discharge and the micro-plasma electron-density values obtained for 0.5-38 μm gap sizes, 3-10 000 μs pulse durations, 75-250 V low breakdown voltages, and 1-20 A discharge currents, using different combinations of metallic electrodes in oil and in water. Results allow fitting, for micro-scale and low voltages, an empirical law between the maximum gap-size for breakdown, the breakdown voltage, and the effective stress-time. The electron density ne is obtained by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of the Hα-line Stark broadening (yielding ne˜1016-1017 cm-3, i.e., ionization degrees of ˜2×10-5-10-4) and by a semi-empirical resistive plasma model. The model uses the experimental values of several electrical and geometrical quantities, and of the gas pressure estimated as ˜60 bar-2 kbar from measurements of the plasma mechanical action, obtained using a force sensor. The quantitative information of this phenomenological study can assist the optimization of this micro-fabrication technique.

  19. Vocalization frequency and duration are coded in separate hindbrain nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Chagnaud, Boris P.; Baker, Robert; Bass, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal patterning is an essential feature of neural networks producing precisely timed behaviours such as vocalizations that are widely used in vertebrate social communication. Here we show that intrinsic and network properties of separate hindbrain neuronal populations encode the natural call attributes of frequency and duration in vocal fish. Intracellular structure/function analyses indicate that call duration is encoded by a sustained membrane depolarization in vocal prepacemaker neurons that innervate downstream pacemaker neurons. Pacemaker neurons, in turn, encode call frequency by rhythmic, ultrafast oscillations in their membrane potential. Pharmacological manipulations show prepacemaker activity to be independent of pacemaker function, thus accounting for natural variation in duration which is the predominant feature distinguishing call types. Prepacemaker neurons also innervate key hindbrain auditory nuclei thereby effectively serving as a call-duration corollary discharge. We propose that premotor compartmentalization of neurons coding distinct acoustic attributes is a fundamental trait of hindbrain vocal pattern generators among vertebrates. PMID:21673667

  20. Floods in Iowa: Stage and discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, O.G.; Eash, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents stations descriptions and tables of peak stages and discharges for 280 continuous- and partial-record gaging stations in Iowa. Data for the annual flood series for each gaging station and partial-duration series, at stations where available, are contained in the report.

  1. [Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges in air at atmospheric pressure].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zeng-qian; Dong, Li-fang; Han, Li; Li, Xue-chen; Chai, Zhi-fang

    2002-12-01

    The experimental setup of dielectric barrier discharge was designed which is propitious to optical measurement. Temporal behavior of light emission of dielectric barrier discharges (filamentary model) in air at atmospheric pressure was measured by using optical method. Temporal behavior of dielectric barrier discharges was obtained. The experimental results show that the discharge burst in each half cycle of applied voltage consists of a series of discharge pulses, the duration of each discharge pulse is about 30-50 ns, and the interval of the neighboring discharge pulses is about a few hundred ns. The result is of great importance to the application of dielectric barrier discharges. PMID:12914154

  2. A prolonged rhythmic midtemporal discharge in a child without seizures.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Ahmad; Nasreddine, Wassim; Bustros, Stephanie; Kayed, Deeb Maxwell; Beydoun, Ahmad

    2015-04-01

    Rhythmic midtemporal discharge (RMTD) is one of the benign epileptiform variants, typically consisting of runs of 4-Hz to 7-Hz activity, lasting up to 10 seconds and maximal over the midtemporal area. We report a child who, during an admission for diagnostic closed-circuit television (CCTV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, was found to have prolonged rhythmic monomorphic discharges, alternating over both midtemporal areas, with one of the discharges lasting up to 82 minutes. An analysis of the dominant frequency, during the longest discharge, showed that it was monomorphic throughout. On the basis of various features of these discharges, we concluded that they represented RMTD of unusual duration. PMID:24864322

  3. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  4. 42 CFR 418.26 - Discharge from hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.26 Discharge... stabilize or otherwise change such that the patient cannot continue to be certified as terminally ill. (2... education, or other services before the patient is discharged because he or she is no longer terminally ill....

  5. Chondrule formation in lightning discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horanyi, M.

    1994-01-01

    Chondrules represent a significant mass fraction of primitive meteorites. These millimeter-sized glassy droplets appear to be the products of intensive transient heating events. Their size distribution, chemical and mineral composition, texture, isotope composition suggest that chondrules were produced as a result of short-duration melting followed by rapid cooling of solid precursor particles. Gas-dynamics heating, magnetic reconnection, and electrostatic discharges are thought to be the leading candidates to explain chondrule formation. In this paper we summarize our recent theoretical progress on the effects of 'lightning' in the early solar system and also report on preliminary results from our laboratory experiments. Differential settling of various sized dust particles toward the midplane of the nebula is suspected to build large-scale charge separations that episodically relax via the electric breakdown of the nebular gas. The electrostatic discharge os analogous to lightning in the Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Duration of an elastic collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-07-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.

  7. Lightning Mapping Observations of Volume-Filling Small Discharges in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning is usually considered to be a large-scale electrical discharge in the atmosphere. For example, the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology defines lightning as "a transient, high-current electric discharge with pathlengths measured in kilometers" (http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Lightning). There have been several reported examples of short-duration discharges in thunderstorms, which have a duration of a few microseconds to less than a millisecond, and have a small spatial extent These short-duration discharges were located at high altitudes (> 14 km), altitudes consistent with being located between the upper positive charge and the negative screening layer. At these altitudes, the electric field needed to initiate an electrical discharge is much lower than it is at the altitudes of initiation for IC (~8 km) or CG (~5 km) flashes. We have recently reported on short-duration "precursor" discharges with durations of a few microseconds to a few milliseconds, which occur in the high-fields between the mid-level negative and upper positive charge regions. These "precursor" discharges are discrete in both time and space, being separated in time by hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds, and localized in space, usually very close to the initiation location of a subsequent IC discharge. We have recently observed nearly continuous, volume filling short-duration discharges in several thunderstorms. These discharges have durations of much less than a millisecond, spatial extents of less than a few hundred meters, and occur randomly in the volume between the mid-level negative and upper positive charge regions. During an active period, these discharges occur every few milliseconds. The rates of these discharges decreases dramatically to a few per second following an IC discharge, then increases to several hundred per second until the next discharge. In a storm just off the Florida coast, one cell was producing a large number of these small

  8. Particle balance in long duration RF driven plasmas on QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Yoshida, N.; Yugami, N.; Honda, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Mishra, K.; Kuzmin, A.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Watanabe, O.; Onchi, T.; Watanabe, H.; Tokunaga, K.; Higashijima, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Takase, Y.; Fukuyama, A.; Mitarai, O.; Peng, Y. K. M.

    2015-08-01

    Global particle balance in non-inductive long-duration plasma on QUEST has been investigated. Approximately 70% of the fuel hydrogen (H) was retained in the wall and then was almost exhausted just after the discharge. The global recycling ratio (Rg), defined as the ratio of the evacuated H2 flux to that injected, was found to gradually increase during discharges and subsequently rose rapidly. To study the growth of Rg, the thermal desorption spectra after deuterium implantation in a specimen exposed to QUEST plasma was analyzed with a model which includes reflection, diffusion, solution, recombination, trapping, and plasma-induced desorption in the re-deposition layer. The model reconstructs the growth of Rg during a long-duration plasma and indicates solution plays a dominant role in the growth.

  9. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Arrol, W.J.; Jefferson, S.

    1957-08-27

    The construction of gas discharge devices where the object is to provide a gas discharge device having a high dark current and stabilized striking voltage is described. The inventors have discovered that the introduction of tritium gas into a discharge device with a subsequent electrical discharge in the device will deposit tritium on the inside of the chamber. The tritium acts to emit beta rays amd is an effective and non-hazardous way of improving the abovementioned discharge tube characteristics

  10. Task duration in contextual interference.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter J K

    2002-12-01

    Duration of practice trial on a pursuit rotor task in contextual interference was investigated. Participants practiced at each of 4 angular velocities, with 24 participants completing 28 trials lasting 20 sec., and 24 participants completing 112 trials of 5 sec. Half of the participants in each trial-duration condition practiced in a blocked format and half practiced in a random format. After random practice posttest performance was better than blocked practice when practice-trial duration was 20 sec., but worse when practice-trial duration was 5 sec. This result is not consistent with theoretical explanations of the contextual interference effect and is discussed with reference to the task characteristics and demands of the pursuit rotor. PMID:12578255

  11. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000236.htm Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. AAA repair - endovascular - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular - discharge; EVAR - discharge; Endovascular aneurysm repair - discharge ...

  12. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2013-08-15

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 μs), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (≃10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  13. Duration of delirium in the acute stage of stroke.

    PubMed

    Dostović, Zikrija; Smajlović, Dzevdet; Sinanović, Osman; Vidović, Mirjana

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine duration of delirium in patients with acute stroke according to sex, age, type and localization of lesion. We assessed delirium prospectively in a sample of 233 consecutive patients with an acute (< or =4 days) stroke using the Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R-98) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). The average duration of delirium was 4 days in patients with ischemic stroke and 3 days in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. There was no statistically significant difference in delirium duration between these two patient groups. A longer duration of delirium was recorded in women and in patients older than 65. The period of delirium was longer in patients with right hemispheric lesions. Patients did not differ according to delirium duration, sex, age, type and localization of stroke. In two thirds of patients, the symptoms of delirium completely disappeared on medicamentous treatment, while in the remaining one third of patients certain symptoms of delirium persisted at discharge (p=0.003). Mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with delirium in the acute phase of stroke than in those without delirium (p=0.009). In conclusion, delirium is a temporary manifestation in two thirds of patients in the acute phase of stroke. Patient sex and age, and type and stroke localization have no influence on delirium duration. PMID:19623866

  14. Corona Discharge in Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin'kevich, A. A.; Dovgalyuk, Yu. A.

    2014-04-01

    We present a review of the results of theoretical studies and laboratory modeling of corona discharge initiation in clouds. The influence of corona discharges on the evolution of the cloud microstructure and electrification is analyzed. It is shown that corona discharges are initiated when large-size hydrometeors approach each other, whereas in some cases, corona discharges from crystals, ice pellets, and hailstones can appear. The corona discharges lead to significant air ionization, charging of cloud particles, and separation of charges in clouds and initiate streamers and lightnings. The influence of corona discharges on changes in the phase composition of clouds is analyzed.

  15. Estimated flow-duration curves for selected ungaged sites in the Cimarron and lower Arkansas River basins in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Studley, Seth E.

    2000-01-01

    Flow-duration curves for 1968-98 were estimated for 16 ungaged sites in the Cimarron and lower Arkansas River Basins in south-central Kansas. The method of estimation used six unique factors of flow duration: (1) mean streamflow and percentage duration of mean streamflow, (2) ratio of 1-percent-duration streamflow to mean streamflow, (3) ratio of 0.1-percent-duration streamflow to 1-percent-duration streamflow, (4) ratio of 50-percent-duration streamflow to mean streamflow, (5) percentage duration of appreciable streamflow (0.10 cubic foot per second), and (6) average slope of the flow-duration curve. These factors were previously developed from a regionalized study of flow-duration curves using streamflow data for 1921-76. The method was tested on a currently measured, continuous-record streamflow-gaging station on the Little Arkansas River at Valley Center, Kansas, and was found to adequately estimate the computed flow-duration curve for the station. The low-flow parts of the estimated flow-duration curves were improved substantially using low- to medium-flow discharge measurements made concurrently with discharge measurements and flow-duration analyses performed at nearby, long-term, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations. The estimated flow-duration curves at the ungaged sites can be used for projecting future flow frequencies for assessment of total maximum daily loads (TMDL's) or other water-quality constituents and for water-availability studies.

  16. Surface micro-discharges on spacecraft dielectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmain, K. G.; Cuchanski, M.; Kremer, P. C.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive measurements on Teflon and Kapton in a scanning electron microscope indicate the existence of a well-defined family of surface micro-discharges characteristic of the dielectric material. For a given small region exposed to the 16-20 kV electron beam, the strongest discharge pulses are similar in shape and amplitude. For Teflon, typical pulse durations are 2-3 ns, rise and fall times are sometimes as low as 0.2 ns, current amplitudes are approximately 100 mA flowing down to the pedestal and the pulses are unidirectional with no ringing. The use of a rapid-scan electron microscope with a secondary-electron imaging system reveals complex charge distributions resembling Lichtenberg figures on a supposedly flat homogeneous dielectric surface. These patterns undergo extensive alteration at each micro-discharge pulse and indicate that both the charging and discharging processes are highly nonuniform over the dielectric surface. The use of floodbeam causes the occurrence of a large-scale macro-discharges, in which a typical peak current is 40 A with a duration of 120 ns.

  17. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduced appetite Alternate Names Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - ... of the aorta Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery Patent ductus arteriosus Pediatric heart surgery Tetralogy of Fallot ...

  18. Elbow replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total elbow arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic elbow replacement - discharge ... You had surgery to replace your elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics). The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the back of your upper or lower arm and ...

  19. Hysterectomy - abdominal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... fibroids Patient Instructions Getting out of bed after surgery Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Update Date 1/16/2015 Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Group Health Cooperative, Bellevue, WA. ...

  20. Foot amputation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  1. Nurse-led discharge.

    PubMed

    Page, Carole

    2010-12-01

    Delayed discharges have financial implications for hospital trusts and cause dissatisfaction for patients and their families. This article looks at nurse-led discharge pathways at Milton Keynes Hospital's ambulatory care unit. It explains how giving nurses the responsibility to discharge has improved the patient experience, made nurses more accountable and saved money for the trust. PMID:21229868

  2. Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...

  3. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J. ); Dake, S.; Oda, H. ); Miyamura, O. ); Fuki, M. ); Jones, W.V. ); Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U. ); Tominaga,

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  5. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  6. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.; Van Lanen, H. A.-J.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-04-01

    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271 virtual catchments that differ only in climate type. For these virtual catchments we studied the bivariate distribution of drought duration and standardized deficit for the variables precipitation, soil moisture, and discharge. We found that for meteorological drought (below-normal precipitation), the bivariate distributions of drought characteristics have a linear shape in all climates and are thus not affected by seasonality in climate. Despite the linear shape of meteorological drought, soil moisture drought (below-normal storage in the unsaturated zone) and hydrological drought (below-normal water availability in aquifers, lakes, and/or streams) show strongly nonlinear shapes in drought characteristics in climates with a pronounced seasonal cycle in precipitation and/or temperature. These seasonality effects on drought propagation are found in monsoonal, savannah, and Mediterranean climate zones. In these regions, both soil moisture and discharge show deviating shapes in drought characteristics. The effect of seasonality on drought propagation is even stronger in cold seasonal climates (i.e., at high latitudes and altitudes), where snow accumulation during winter prevents recovery from summer hydrological drought, and deficit increases strongly with duration. This has important implications for water resources management in seasonal climates, which cannot solely rely on meteorology-based indices as proxies for hydrological drought duration and deficit and need to include seasonal variation in both precipitation and temperature in hydrological drought forecasting.

  7. Carburetor fuel discharge assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, R.M.

    1993-06-29

    An improved carburetor for use on an internal combustion engine is described, the carburetor having an airflow passage and fuel discharge means for admitting fuel into the airflow passage for mixing the fuel with air flowing in the airflow passage to form a fuel/air mixture to be supplied to the combustion chamber(s) of the engine, the fuel discharge means including a fuel discharge assembly which comprises a hollow discharge tube and fuel supplying means connected to the discharge tube for admitting fuel into the interior of the discharge tube, wherein the discharge tube has a longitudinal internal bore in fluid communication with the fuel supplying means, wherein the internal bore extends between an inlet that is closest to the fuel supplying means and an outlet that is furthest from the fuel supplying means with the outlet of the bore being located within the airflow passage of the carburetor to supply fuel into this passage after the fuel passes from the fuel supplying means through the internal bore of the discharge tube, wherein the improvement relates to the fuel discharge assembly and comprises: a hollow fuel flow guide tube telescopically received inside the internal bore of the discharge tube, wherein the fuel flow guide tube extends from approximately the location of the inlet of the bore up at least a portion of the length of the bore towards the outlet of the bore to conduct fuel from the fuel supplying means into the bore of the discharge tube.

  8. Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

  9. High Power ECR Ion Thruster Discharge Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Carpenter, Christian; Williams, George W.

    2006-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) based ion thrusters with carbon based ion optics can potentially satisfy lifetime requirements for long duration missions (approximately 10 years) because grid erosion and cathode insert depletion issues are virtually eliminated. Though the ECR plasma discharge has been found to typically operate at slightly higher discharge losses than conventional DC ion thrusters (for high total thruster power applications), the discharge power fraction is small (less than 1 percent at 25 kW). In this regard, the benefits of increased life, low discharge plasma potentials, and reduced complexity are welcome tradeoffs for the associated discharge efficiency decrease. Presented here are results from discharge characterization of a large area ECR plasma source for gridded ion thruster applications. These measurements included load matching efficacy, bulk plasma properties via Langmuir probe, and plasma uniformity as measured using current probes distributed at the exit plane. A high degree of plasma uniformity was observed (flatness greater than 0.9). Additionally, charge state composition was qualitatively evaluated using emission spectroscopy. Plasma induced emission was dominated by xenon ion lines. No doubly charged xenon ions were detected.

  10. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; PTCA - discharge; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty - discharge; Heart artery dilatation - discharge ... the blood vessels that supply blood to your heart. You may have had a heart attack or ...

  11. FLUOROSCOPY DURATION IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Salvia, Joao Caron La; de Moraes, Pablo Reis; Ammar, Tiago Yossef; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the mean length of radiation emission from fluoroscopic devices during several types of orthopedic surgery and which of these required greater use of radiation. Methods: The times taken to perform sixteen different types of surgery (total of 80 procedures) were measured. At the end of each procedure, the length of time for which fluoroscopy was used directly from the image intensifier was ascertained. Results: The mean time required for fluoroscopy per operation was 61 seconds. The procedures that demanded greatest mean duration of radiation use were bilateral proximal femoral epiphysiodesis (5.1 minutes) and femoral shaft osteosynthesis using a locked intramedullary nail (3.33 min). Conclusion: The mean duration of fluoroscopy use in orthopedic operations was 61 seconds. The procedures using an intramedullary device were the ones that required greatest radiation emission. PMID:27027000

  12. Fixed duration MDT in paucibacillary leprosy.

    PubMed

    Mathai, R; George, S; Jacob, M

    1991-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a fixed duration of multidrug therapy (MDT) for paucibacillary leprosy which is currently widely implemented in India. A clinico-pathological study was initiated in 1984 to assess the efficacy of this regimen. The clinical and histological responses of the patients to MDT were assessed at the end of 6 months, when their treatment was stopped, and at 2 1/2 years, when they were released from surveillance, and compared with the responses of a matched patient group to conventional dapsone (DDS) monotherapy during the same period. Of 28 patients who completed the MDT schedule, there was less than 60% improvement in 33% of them when treatment was stopped at the end of 6 months and in 20% of them at the end of 2 1/2 years. Of 26 patients receiving DDS monotherapy, 37% showed less than 60% improvement at the end of 6 months but only 8.8% had less than 60% improvement at 2 1/2 years. It is concluded that MDT for paucibacillary leprosy as recommended by WHO may not have a major advantage over DDS monotherapy, since about 20% of those patients on MDT continue to have evidence of active disease when discharged from surveillance. PMID:2071980

  13. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  14. The Optical Diagnosis of Underwater Positive Sparks and Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Zeng, Xinwu; Wang, Yibo

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, two types of underwater discharges, spark discharge and corona discharge, are investigated by optical diagnosis using a high speed framing camera (HSFC) with the framing time within nanoseconds under the same experimental conditions. In order to capture the photographs of streamer propagation, the influence of the randomicity of the pre-breakdown duration is taken into consideration. By increasing the conductivity of water, the randomicity reduces effectively. Experimental results show that, for a spark discharge, the process can be separated into three stages: the generation and propagation of a streamer, the generation and expansion of the discharge channel, and the development and annihilation of the plasma. The streamers do not directly move to the opposite electrode, but form a bush-like figure. With the increase of the number of branches, the velocity of streamer propagation slows down. The trajectory of the initial channel between electrodes is not straight. However, with the channel expanding, its shape transforms into a straight column. For a corona discharge, there are two stages: the generation and propagation of a streamer, and the stagnation and annihilation of the streamer. The initial streamer in a corona discharge is generated later than in a spark discharge. The forms of streamers for both kinds of discharge are similar; however, streamers generated by a corona discharge propagate with a slower velocity and the number of branches is less compared with a spark discharge. When the energy injection stops, the luminescence of plasma inside the discharge channel (spark discharge) or streamers (corona discharge) becomes weaker and weaker, and finally disappears.

  15. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  16. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  17. Lithium battery discharge tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  18. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, S.

    1958-11-11

    An apparatus utilized in introducing tritium gas into envelope of a gas discharge device for the purpose f maintaining the discharge path in ionized condition is described. ln addition to the cathode and anode, the ischarge device contains a zirconium or tantalum ilament arranged for external excitation and a metallic seed containing tritium, and also arranged to have a current passed through it. Initially, the zirconium or tantalum filament is vaporized to deposit its material adjacent the main discharge region. Then the tritium gas is released and, due to its affinity for the first released material, it deposits in the region of the main discharge where it is most effective in maintaining the discharge path in an ionized condition.

  19. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  20. Co-axial discharges

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J. S.; Smith, L. P.

    1960-11-22

    An apparatus is described for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantuge that ions that return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. These discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering the plasma area because of the arc barrier set up by the cylindrical outer arc. (auth)

  1. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  2. Silane discharge ion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Chatham, R.H. III

    1984-01-01

    Silane dc, rf, and dc proximity discharges have been studied using mass spectroscopic measurements of the positive ions as a detailed diagnostic for the type of discharge used to produce hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar photovoltaic cells. The properties and quality of these films depends in a very complex way upon the interactions of the many reactive neutral and ion species in the discharge. Qualitative models of the ion chemical processes in these discharges have been developed from experimental measurements. Knowledge of the ion-molecule and electron-molecule collision cross sections is important to any attempt at understanding silane discharge chemistry. Consequently, the electron impact ionization cross sections for silane and disilane have been measured and for comparison purposes also for methane and ethane. In addition, the rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of He , Ne , and Ar with silane, disilane, methane, and ethane have been measured as these are important to understanding discharges in inert gas-silane mixtures. A detailed quantitative model of the cathode sheath region of a silane dc discharge has been developed by extending the best recent calculation of the electron motion in the sheath to a self-consistent form which includes the ion motion. This model is used with comparison of silane dc discharge data to diagnose the ion chemistry occurring in the sheath region of silane dc discharge. The understanding of the discharge ion chemical processes that have been gained in this study represent an important step toward understanding the chemical and physical processes leading to film growth.

  3. Normal labor: mechanism and duration.

    PubMed

    Liao, John B; Buhimschi, Catalin S; Norwitz, Errol R

    2005-06-01

    Labor is refers to the chain of physiologic events that allows a fetus to undertake its journey from the uterus to the outside world. The mean duration of a singleton preganancy is 40.0 weeks (280 days), which is dated from the first day of the last normal menstrual period. The period from 37.0 weeks (259 days) to 42.0 weeks (294 days) of gestation is regarded as "term". This article focuses on the onset progress, and mechanics of normal labor term. Topics such as preterm labor (labor before 37 weeks), postterm labor (labor after 42 weeks), and abnormal labor and delivery have not been addressed and are discussed in detail elsewhere in this issue. PMID:15899352

  4. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  5. Discharge lamp technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  6. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  7. SPEECH DURATIONS OF ASTRONAUT AND GROUND COMMUNICATOR.

    PubMed

    MATARAZZO, J D; WIENS, A N; SASLOW, G; DUNHAM, R M; VOAS, R B

    1964-01-10

    Laboratory studies suggest that an interviewer can influence the speech duration of an interviewee by modifications in his own speech duration. What appears to be a related association between the speech duration of communicators on the ground and an astronaut in orbital flight was found. PMID:14075727

  8. Estimated monthly percentile discharges at ungaged sites in the Upper Yellowstone River Basin in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Once-monthly streamflow measurements were used to estimate selected percentile discharges on flow-duration curves of monthly mean discharge for 40 ungaged stream sites in the upper Yellowstone River basin in Montana. The estimation technique was a modification of the concurrent-discharge method previously described and used by H.C. Riggs to estimate annual mean discharge. The modified technique is based on the relationship of various mean seasonal discharges to the required discharges on the flow-duration curves. The mean seasonal discharges are estimated from the monthly streamflow measurements, and the percentile discharges are calculated from regression equations. The regression equations, developed from streamflow record at nine gaging stations, indicated a significant log-linear relationship between mean seasonal discharge and various percentile discharges. The technique was tested at two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations; the differences between estimated monthly discharges and those determined from the discharge record ranged from -31 to +27 percent at one site and from -14 to +85 percent at the other. The estimates at one site were unbiased, and the estimates at the other site were consistently larger than the recorded values. Based on the test results, the probable average error of the technique was + or - 30 percent for the 21 sites measured during the first year of the program and + or - 50 percent for the 19 sites measured during the second year. (USGS)

  9. Stochastic Index estimation of flow duration curves on ephemeral basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rianna, Maura; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2010-05-01

    Flow duration curves (FDC) and annual flow duration curves can be used for describe the flow river regime. FDCs represents frequency distribution of discharges, and can be derived from gauged data, AFDCs allow to introduce confidence intervals for the median AFDC, and to assign return periods to individual AFDCs. But in semiarid environments with ephemeral flows or little basins, where there are environmental problems caused by pollutant discharges, the presence of zeros in a registration creates a discontinuity that makes difficult to model this curves using common distributions. Therefore this work combines the stochastic index model, that relates FDC and AFDC of daily flow series, and that permits to reproduce the mean, the median and variance of AFDC without regard persistency and seasonality of the series for recreate the curve of the non-zero period, with the theory of total probability, that allows to evaluate the percentage of time the river is dry. Next regionalization of information is necessary to apply this model to ungauged stations and a cross-validation procedure for evaluate robustness of results is need. This procedure is applied to a nested catchment in the Lazio region. Here heterogeneity of basins processes appears over a range of space and time scales. Then understanding of statistical and physical relationships that connect the components of the hydrological cycle across these scales is a basic requirement.

  10. XeCl excimer laser excited by longitudinal discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Qiu, M.

    1983-08-15

    XeCl excimer laser excited by longitudinal gas discharge is reported. The main characteristics of the laser output and the laser energy in dependence of the operating parameters were measured. The laser pulse duration was 35 ns and the maximum laser energy 317 ..mu..J with improvement by preionization.

  11. Lasik eye surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000525.htm Lasik eye surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lasik eye surgery permanently changes the shape of the cornea ( ...

  12. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold. PMID:25880721

  13. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000149.htm Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... JavaScript. Your child has hydrocephalus and needed a shunt placed to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure ...

  14. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  15. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  16. Carotid artery surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000238.htm Carotid artery surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had carotid artery surgery to restore proper blood flow to your ...

  17. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  18. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  19. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  20. Neck dissection - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000659.htm Neck dissection - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neck dissection is surgery to remove the lymph nodes in ...

  1. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  2. Electrical discharges in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antanasijević, R.; Banjanac, R.; Dragić, A.; Joković, D.; Joksimović, D.; Marić, Z.; Panić, B.; Udovičić, V.; Vigier, J. P.

    2002-12-01

    An experiment on electrical discharges in air under normal atmospheric conditions has been performed. The ratio between output and input energy is greater than 1, which confirms the results already reported by Graneau et al.

  3. Discharges for lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, W. W.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A. J.; Mulders, H. C. J.

    2007-12-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps.

  4. Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

  5. Sentence durations and accentedness judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace

    2003-04-01

    Talkers in a second language can frequently be identified as speaking with a foreign accent. It is not clear to what degree a foreign accent represents specific deviations from a target language versus more general characteristics. We examined the identifications of native and non-native talkers by listeners with various amount of knowledge of the target language. Native and non-native speakers of Latvian provided materials. All the non-native talkers spoke Russian as their first language and were long-term residents of Latvia. A listening test, containing sentences excerpted from a short recorded passage, was presented to three groups of listeners: native speakers of Latvian, Russians for whom Latvian was a second language, and Americans with no knowledge of either of the two languages. The listeners were asked to judge whether each utterance was produced by a native or non-native talker. The Latvians identified the non-native talkers very accurately, 88%. The Russians were somewhat less accurate, 83%. The American listeners were least accurate, but still identified the non-native talkers at above chance levels, 62%. Sentence durations correlated with the judgments provided by the American listeners but not with the judgments provided by native or L2 listeners.

  6. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  7. Icing Encounter Duration Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate how aerodynamic performance degradation progresses with time throughout an exposure to icing conditions. It is one of the first documented studies of the effects of ice contamination on aerodynamic performance at various points in time throughout an icing encounter. Both a 1.5 and 6 ft chord, two-dimensional, NACA-23012 airfoils were subjected to icing conditions in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for varying lengths of time. At the end of each run, lift, drag, and pitching moment measurements were made. Measurements with the 1.5 ft chord model showed that maximum lift and pitching moment degraded more rapidly early in the exposure and degraded more slowly as time progressed. Drag for the 1.5 ft chord model degraded more linearly with time, although drag for very short exposure durations was slightly higher than expected. Only drag measurements were made with the 6 ft chord airfoil. Here, drag for the long exposures was higher than expected. Novel comparison of drag measurements versus an icing scaling parameter, accumulation parameter times collection efficiency was used to compare the data from the two different size model. The comparisons provided a means of assessing the level of fidelity needed for accurate icing simulation.

  8. Visual duration aftereffect is position invariant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baolin; Yuan, Xiangyong; Chen, Youguo; Liu, Peiduo; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to relatively long or short sensory events leads to a negative aftereffect, such that the durations of the subsequent events within a certain range appear to be contracted or expanded. The distortion in perceived duration is presumed to arise from the adaptation of duration detectors. Here, we focus on the positional sensitivity of those visual duration detectors by exploring whether the duration aftereffect may be constrained by the visual location of stimuli. We adopted two different paradigms, one that tests for transfer across visual hemifields, and the other that tests for simultaneous selectivity between visual hemifields. By employing these experimental designs, we show that the duration aftereffect strongly transfers across visual hemifields and is not contingent on them. The lack of position specificity suggests that duration detectors in the visual system may operate at a relatively later stage of sensory processing. PMID:26500591

  9. Formation of chondrules by electrical discharge heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, S. G.; Keil, K.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1994-01-01

    A possible mechanism for making chondrules in the solar nebula is electrical discharge ('lightning') heating, which can create high-temperature (greater than 1600 K), short-duration (approximately 10 s) thermal events as indicated by the chondritic record. Lightning occurs in many diverse terrestrial and planetary settings, and may have occurred in the solar nebula; it is thus worthwhile to investigate its implications for chondrule formation. Nebular discharges do not appear a viable source of heat for melting chondrule precursors, regardless of the uncertainty in the details of the mode. Nonetheless, we believe nebular lightning worthy of further investigation than what is presented here. Experiments analogous to those currently underway to investigate terrestrial thunderstorm lightning could be fruitful in refining nebular lightning models, and would be double interesting in application to nonthunderstorm and planetary lightnings.

  10. EUV radiation from nitrogen capillary discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav

    2014-08-01

    In the last decade EUV sources attract interest from researchers over the world. One of the main motivations is EUV lithography, which could lead to further miniaturization in electronics. Nitrogen recombination laser at wavelength of 13.4 nm based on capillary discharge Z-pinch configuration could be used in experiments with testing of resolution of photoresist for EUV lithography (close to wavelength of 13.5 nm Si/Mo multilayer mirrors have a high reflectivity at normal incidence angles). In this work, pinching of nitrogen-filled capillary discharge is studied for the development of EUV laser, which is based on recombination pumping scheme. The goal of this study is achieving the required plasma conditions using a capillary discharge Z-pinch apparatus. In experiments with nitrogen, the capillary length was shortened from 232 mm to 90 mm and current quarter-period was changed from 60 ns to 50 ns in contrast with early experiments with Ne-like argon laser. EUV radiation from capillary discharge was registered by X-ray vacuum diode for different pressure, amplitude and duration of pre-pulse and charging voltage of the Marx generator.

  11. Duration perception in crossmodally-defined intervals.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Katja M; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-03-01

    How humans perform duration judgments with multisensory stimuli is an ongoing debate. Here, we investigated how sub-second duration judgments are achieved by asking participants to compare the duration of a continuous sound to the duration of an empty interval in which onset and offset were marked by signals of different modalities using all combinations of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. The pattern of perceived durations across five stimulus durations (ranging from 100 ms to 900 ms) follows the Vierordt Law. Furthermore, intervals with a sound as onset (audio-visual, audio-tactile) are perceived longer than intervals with a sound as offset. No modality ordering effect is found for visualtactile intervals. To infer whether a single modality-independent or multiple modality-dependent time-keeping mechanisms exist we tested whether perceived duration follows a summative or a multiplicative distortion pattern by fitting a model to all modality combinations and durations. The results confirm that perceived duration depends on sensory latency (summative distortion). Instead, we did not find evidence for multiplicative distortions. The results of the model and the behavioural data support the concept of a single time-keeping mechanism that allows for judgments of durations marked by multisensory stimuli. PMID:23953664

  12. (Gas discharges and applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, I.

    1988-10-04

    The traveler attended the Ninth International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications, which was held in Venice, Italy, on September 19--23, 1988; presented two papers, (1) Ion Chemistry in SF{sub 6} Corona'' and (2) Production of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} by SF{sub 6} Spark Discharge''; and participated in numerous discussions with conference participants on gas discharges related to his work on SF{sub 6}. The traveler visited the Centre de Physique Atomique at the University Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, France, to discuss with Dr. J. Casanovas his work on SF{sub 6} decomposition. Following that visit, the traveler visited the Laboratoire de Photoelectricite at the University of Dijon to discuss with Dr. J.-P. Goudonnet his work on surface studies and on the use of tunneling electron spectroscopy for the chemical analysis of surfaces.

  13. An optimization principle for determining movement duration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Krakauer, John W; Qian, Ning

    2006-06-01

    Movement duration is an integral component of motor control, but nearly all extant optimization models of motor planning prefix duration instead of explaining it. Here we propose a new optimization principle that predicts movement duration. The model assumes that the brain attempts to minimize movement duration under the constraint of meeting an accuracy criterion. The criterion is task and context dependent but is fixed for a given task and context. The model determines a unique duration as a trade-off between speed (time optimality) and accuracy (acceptable endpoint scatter). We analyzed the model for a linear motor plant, and obtained a closed-form equation for determining movement duration. By solving the equation numerically with specific plant parameters for the eye and arm, we found that the model can reproduce saccade duration as a function of amplitude (the main sequence), and arm-movement duration as a function of the ratio of target distance to size (Fitts's law). In addition, it explains the dependency of peak saccadic speed on amplitude and the dependency of saccadic duration on initial eye position. Furthermore, for arm movements, the model predicts a scaling relationship between peak velocity and distance and a reduction in movement duration with a moderate increase in viscosity. Finally, for a linear plant, our model predicts a neural control signal identical to that of the minimum-variance model set to the same movement duration. This control signal is a smooth function of time (except at the endpoint), in contrast to the discontinuous bang-bang control found in the time-optimal control literature. We suggest that one aspect of movement planning, as revealed by movement duration, may be to assign an endpoint accuracy criterion for a given task and context. PMID:16571740

  14. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  15. Characteristics of strong motion duration in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Wang, Y.; Ma, K.

    2012-12-01

    The duration of strong shaking plays an important role to affect the yield damage caused by an earthquake. In this study, we analyzed the acceleration seismograms of Taiwan Strong Motion Network to characterize the strong shacking duration with function of the earthquake magnitude. We defined the duration to be the time interval between the first and the last amplitude, which is equal to or greater than a level of 5gal. We estimated the duration for 70138 events with magnitude ranged from Mw=4.0 to 7.0 during 1994 to 2010. We, thus, obtained the empirical equation for the strong ground motion duration, magnitude and distance. Base on the two relations: the positive relation between duration and magnitude, and the negative relation between duration and distance. The empirical equation can be shown as: ME(τ) =2.45log(τ)+0.01225Δ+2.115, where Δ is distance (km), and τ is duration time (sec) The comparison between ME(τ) and Mw is satisfactory for the events Mw>5.5. For Mw 7.3 as 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the estimated duration according to the empirical equation at Δ=50km will be about 74 sec, which is comparable to the observations. The empirical equation would provide the characteristics of source during for large earthquakes.

  16. Investigation on collisions of filament pairs in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ben; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Yafeng; Li, Xuechen

    2013-12-15

    Collisions of filament pairs in a hexagonal superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge are investigated on different timescales. In the evolution of the pattern, the space scale of each hexagon cell decreases with the increasing voltage. The duration of one collision is seven half voltage cycles at least. Two stable orientations of a pair are approximately perpendicular to each other and the orientational changes occurring during the entire colliding process should be a multiple of 30°. The time interval between two consecutive collisions decreases with the increasing voltage. The distance between the paired spots decreases nonmonotonically. Based on the discharge order of the pattern, it is inferred that the collision should be the interaction between a discharging filament and the surface charges deposited by another discharged filament, and the nonmonotonic decrease of distance D is explained.

  17. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... apply pressure An arm or leg that changes color, becomes cool to touch, or becomes numb Redness, pain, or yellow or green discharge in or around the incision site A fever higher than 101°F (38.3°C) or chills

  18. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  19. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  20. Discharging older patients.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Significant numbers of older people with dementia use general hospital services, and ensuring the safe and appropriate discharge home of patients with poor cognition, impaired judgement, misperception or reduced risk awareness is complex and challenging for many healthcare professionals. PMID:27615354

  1. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  2. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  3. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  4. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a) This part has not been...

  5. Enhancing duration processing with parietal brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dormal, Valérie; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Pesenti, Mauro; Walsh, Vincent; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2016-05-01

    Numerosity and duration are thought to share common magnitude-based mechanisms in brain regions including the right parietal and frontal cortices like the supplementary motor area, SMA. Numerosity and duration are, however, also different in several intrinsic features. For instance, in a quantification context, numerosity is known for being more automatically accessed than temporal events, and durations are by definition sequential whereas numerosity can be both sequential and simultaneous. Moreover, numerosity and duration processing diverge in terms of their neuronal correlates. Whether these observed neuronal specificities can be accounted for by differences in automaticity or presentation-mode is however not clear. To address this issue, we used brain stimulation (transcranial random noise stimulation, tRNS) to the right parietal cortex or the SMA combined with experimental stimuli differing in their level of automaticity (numerosity and duration) and presentation mode (sequential or simultaneous). Compared to a no stimulation group, performance changed in duration but not in numerosity categorisation following right parietal but not SMA stimulation. These results indicate that the right parietal cortex is critical for duration processing, and suggest that tRNS has a stronger effect on less automatic processes such as duration. PMID:27037043

  6. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 890.1302 Section 890.1302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Demonstration Project § 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  7. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Gas-dynamic effects in the interaction of a motionless optical pulsating discharge with gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tishchenko, V. N.; Grachev, G. N.; Pavlov, A. A.; Smirnov, A. L.; Pavlov, A. A.; Golubev, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of energy removal from the combustion zone of a motionless optical pulsating discharge in the horizontal direction along the axis of a repetitively pulsed laser beam producing the discharge is discovered. The directivity diagram of a hot gas flow is formed during the action of hundreds of pulses. The effect is observed for short pulse durations, when the discharge efficiently generates shock waves. For long pulse durations, the heated gas propagates upward, as in a thermal source.

  8. FTIR Analysis of Flowing Afterglow from a High-Frequency Spark Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen; Hieftje, Gary M.; Ray, Steve; Pfeuffer, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Plasmas are often used as ionization sources for ambient mass spectrometry (AMS). Here, the flowing afterglow of a novel high-energy spark discharge system, operated in nitrogen at high repetition rates, is investigated as a source for AMS. The spark discharge here is the same as that of an automobile ignition circuit.Combustion in automobile engines is initiated by a spark ignition system that is designed to deliver short-duration,high-voltage sparks to multiple engine cylinders. The arrangement utilized in this study is a modified discharge configuration designed to produce similarly short-duration, high-voltage discharges. It consists of an automotive ignition coil that is activated by a spark initiation circuit that discharges in turn into a cell with neutral gas input flow and ultimately into the collection orifice of a mass spectrometer. The discharge voltage is approximately 40kV at 800 Hz. High-frequency spark discharges in a nitrogen flow produce reagent ions such as NO+. In order to better evaluate the effectiveness of the discharge in producing reagent ions, an FTIR is utilized to measure IR active species such as nitric oxide, hydroxide, ozone, and water in the afterglow of the spark discharge during variation of discharge parameters. Time-resolved IR emission spectra provide additional insight into the reagent ion production mechanisms.

  9. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  10. What can we learn about low flow storage properties from flow duration curves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floriancic, Marius; Margreth, Michael; Naef, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Flow duration curves are widely used for quantifying recurrence magnitude of streamflow and are of major importance for predicting low flows (Q95) in gauged catchments. But which physical hillslope properties describe the course of duration curves? And how can we derive duration curves for ungauged catchments? We show the influence of dominant runoff processes - the storage and drainage capacity of soils - and short term storage of the upper layer on flow duration curves. Catchments inhabiting large storage have different duration curves than catchments with small storage. But dominant runoff process maps cannot fully capture the influence of those storage features. For low flow prediction, other mechanisms are prevalent. We found two main gradients in duration curves from numerous catchments in the Swiss midlands and Alps: a steeper part from Q1 to approximately Q65 and a flatter part from Q65 to Q100. We propose that duration curves can be reconstructed by comparing the storage settings of gauged reference areas to ungauged catchments. The steeper part until Q65 can be reconstructed by gathered knowledge on dominant runoff processes, gradient of the flatter part by two discharge measurements at a defined time between Q65 to Q100. This simple approach can help improving low flow estimations in ungauged areas, based on physical assumptions on storage properties in reference areas.

  11. Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Razin, S. V.; Litvak, A. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.

    2013-12-15

    Investigations of the low pressure (1–100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 μs). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

  12. Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Litvak, A. G.; Razin, S. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    Investigations of the low pressure (1-100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 μs). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

  13. Prognostic significance of QRS duration and morphology.

    PubMed

    Brenyo, Andrew; Zaręba, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    QRS duration and morphology, evaluated via a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), represent an opportunity to derive useful prognostic information regarding the risk of subsequent cardiac events or therapeutic outcomes. Prolonged QRS duration, and the presence of intraventricular conduction abnormalities, usually indicate the presence of changes in the myocardium due to underlying heart disease. Prolonged QRS duration is often associated with depressed ejection fraction or enlarged left ventricular volumes, but several studies have demonstrated that this simple ECG measure provides independent prognostic value, after adjusting for relevant clinical covariates. Post-infarction patients with prolonged QRS duration have a significantly increased risk of mortality, although data associating QRS prolongation specifically with sudden death is less supportive. In non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, there is no evidence that QRS duration has prognostic significance in predicting mortality or sudden death. Prolonged QRS duration, and especially presence of left bundle branch block, seems to predict a benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients. Therefore, QRS duration and morphology should not only be considered a predictor of death or sudden death in patients after myocardial infarction, and in those suspected of coronary artery disease, but also as a predictor of benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure, whether of an ischemic or non-ischemic origin. PMID:21305480

  14. Attentional entrainment and perceived event duration

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, J. Devin; Fromboluti, Elisa Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the contribution of dynamic attending theory (DAT) and attentional entrainment to systematic distortions in perceived event duration. Three experiments were conducted using an auditory oddball paradigm, in which listeners judged the duration of a deviant (oddball) stimulus embedded within a series of identical (standard) stimuli. To test for a role of attentional entrainment in perceived oddball duration, oddballs were presented at either temporally expected (on time) or unexpectedly early or late time points relative to extrapolation of the context rhythm. Consistent with involvement of attentional entrainment in perceived duration, duration judgements about the oddball were least distorted when the oddball occurred on time with respect to the entrained rhythm, whereas durations of early and late oddballs were perceived to be shorter and longer, respectively. This pattern of results was independent of the absolute time interval preceding the oddball. Moreover, as expected, an irregularly timed sequence context weakened observed differences between oddballs with on-time and late onsets. Combined with other recent work on the role of temporal preparation in duration distortions, the present findings allot at least a portion of the oddball effect to increased attention to events that are more expected, rather than on their unexpected nature per se. PMID:25385779

  15. The effect of electrode tilt angle on the characteristics of coplanar dielectric barrier discharges with Xe-Ne mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Seung Bo; Song, In Cheol; Lee, Ho-Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2011-07-01

    The results of a two-dimensional fluid simulation of a plasma display panel (PDP) cell show that the discharge characteristics of a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge can be controlled by the electrode tilt angle rather than by the gas mixture ratio or gap distance. The change in the tilt angle results in a significant change in the wall charge distribution and the discharge duration for each pulse. Therefore, the breakdown voltage, plasma density, light brightness, and luminous efficacy can be controlled by the tilt angle. A concave electrode structure allows large wall charge accumulation near the outer edge of two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a long-duration discharge, high luminance, and high luminous efficacy. On the other hand, a convex electrode structure allows high wall charge accumulation near the gap between two coplanar electrodes, and it results in a short-duration discharge with a decreased breakdown voltage.

  16. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  17. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  18. Electrostatic discharge test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Conrad (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge properties of materials are quantitatively measured and ranked. Samples are rotated on a turntable beneath selectable, co-available electrostatic chargers, one being a corona charging element and the other a sample-engaging triboelectric charging element. Samples then pass under a voltage meter to measure the amount of residual charge on the samples. After charging is discontinued, measurements are continued to record the charge decay history over time.

  19. Discharge borders wars

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, N.J. )

    1991-05-01

    This article discusses the impact of a downstream state's standards on the application for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit by a downstream state as recently explained in a federal court of appeals decision. The litigation discussed included the EPA and the states of Oklahoma and Arkansas. Topics covered include a description of the situation that brought about the litigation, the initial ruling by the EPA and the federal court's reasoning for the final outcome.

  20. Electrostatic discharge test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge properties of materials are quantitatively measured and ranked. Samples (20) are rotated on a turntable (15) beneath selectable, co-available electrostatic chargers (30/40), one being a corona charging element (30) and the other a sample-engaging triboelectric charging element (40). They then pass under a voltage meter (25) to measure the amount of residual charge on the samples (20). After charging is discontinued, measurements are continued to record the charge decay history over time.

  1. Vowel Duration in Three American English Dialects

    PubMed Central

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A.; Salmons, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The article reports on an acoustic investigation into the duration of five American English vowels, those found in hid, head, had, hayed, and hide. We compare duration across three major dialect areas: the Inland North, Midlands, and South. The results show systematic differences across all vowels studied, with the longest durations in the South and the shortest in the Inland North, with the Midlands in an intermediate but distinct position. More generally, the sample differs from and complements other work on this question by including detailed evidence from relatively small, cohesive areas, each within a different established dialect region. PMID:20198113

  2. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOEpatents

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  3. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  4. Physics of helicon discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.F.

    1996-05-01

    Because of their high density, low-pressure discharges ionized by helicon waves are being studied for their possible use in cluster tools for the fabrication of next-generation computer chips. How helicon waves are related to whistler waves and waves in a plasma-filled waveguide is explained, and the mystery of the high ionization efficiency is outlined. Experimental data on the waves and the equilibrium properties of the discharge are shown, and the status of our current understanding of the physical processes therein is summarized. The importance of kinetic effects and of a short-wavelength mode arising at low magnetic fields is evaluated. Applications of helicon discharges to such diverse fields as plasma accelerators, microwave generators, and tokamak physics are illustrated. Low-temperature plasma physics is often considered a discipline so different from high-temperature plasma physics that there is little overlap, but these studies show that the techniques developed in fusion and space plasma physics can be applied to technological plasmas as well. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Comments on "Evaluation of interactions of electric fields due to electrostatic discharge with human tissue".

    PubMed

    Seaman, Ronald L; Comeaux, James A

    2006-06-01

    Attention is drawn to recent paper by Rogers et al. (Aug., 2004) in which ultra-wideband pulses are applied to an isolated muscle as part of deriving a strength-duration curve for threshold stimulation. The paper extends the strength-duration threshold curve for unipolar pulses down to a pulse duration of about 1 ns, on the order of 1000 times shorter than previously studied. Results of the work justify use of traditional mathematical models of the strength-duration curve for nanosecond pulses, as done recently for the electric field resulting from electrostatic discharge through the body (Dawson, et al., 2004). PMID:16761853

  6. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  7. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and the...

  8. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  9. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  10. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  11. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  12. Long duration gamma-ray emission from thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Nicole A.

    Gamma-ray glows are long duration emission coming from thunderclouds. They are one example of high-energy atmospheric physics, a relatively new field studying high-energy phenomena from thunderstorms and lightning. Glows arise from sustained relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA). Gamma-ray instruments on the ground, balloons and airplanes have detected glows. The Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) is an array of gamma-ray detectors, built at the University of California, Santa Cruz. ADELE detected 12 gamma-ray glows during its summer 2009 campaign. ADELE was designed to study another type of high-energy atmospheric physics, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). TGFs are incredibly bright, sub-millisecond bursts of gamma-rays coming from thunderstorms. ADELE was installed on NCAR's Gulfstream V for the summer of 2009. While many glows were detected, only one TGF was observed. In this thesis I present a detailed explanation of the 2009 version of ADELE along with the results of the 2009 campaign. ADELE was modified to become a smaller, autonomous instrument to fly on the NASA drone, a Global Hawk. This was a piggyback to NASA's Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel mission. These flights took place during the summer of 2013. The following summer, ADELE flew on an Orion P3 as a piggyback of NOAA's Hurricane Hunters. This newer, modified instrument is discussed in detail in this thesis. The 12 gamma-ray glows from the 2009 campaign are presented, with information about nearby lightning activity. I show that lightning activity is suppressed after a glow. This could be from the glow causing the cloud to discharge and therefore reduce the lightning activity. It is also possible that glows can only occur once lightning activity has diminished. Lightning is also used to find a distance to the glow. Using this distance, it is found that the brightness of glow cannot be explained as a function of distance while the duration of the glow is

  13. Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formulas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A new general rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formula is presented, utilizing a method similar to, but more accurate than one previously developed. The previously developed formula was based on the average depth-duration ratio of about 40% and the mean depth-frequency ratio of 1.48. It is shown that this formula is only a particular form of the writer's more general formulation. -from Author

  14. Prolonged contraction duration in aged myocardium.

    PubMed

    Lakatta, E G; Gerstenblith, G; Angell, C S; Shock, N W; Weisfeldt, M L

    1975-01-01

    Isometric performance at 29degreesC was measured in left ventricular trabeculae carneae from young adult (6-mo) and aged (25-mo) rats (n equals 18 in each group). Active tension and maximal rate of tension development did not differ with age, but contraction duration was 255plus or minus6 ms in the young adult and 283plus or minus6 ms in the aged group (P less than0.001). Although catecholamine content per gram heart weight was less in the aged myocardium, additional experiments showed that neither 1 times 10-6 M propranolol nor pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine eliminated the age difference in contraction duration. To determine if this age difference resulted from a prolonged active state, electromechanical dissociation and the overshoot of contraction duration during recovery from hypoxia were measured. During paired stimulation greater mechanical refractoriness was found in aged muscles (P less than0.01), but intracellular action potential recordings showed no age difference in the electrical refractory period. On recovery from hypoxia, contraction duration overshoot was 117plus or minus 4percent of control in the young and 138plus or minus 4percent of control in the aged muscles (P less than0.01). The greater electromechanical dissociation and greater overshoot in contraction duration following hypoxia in aged myocardium suggests that prolonged contraction duration in aged myocardium results from a prolonged active state rather than changes in passive properties or myocardial catecholamine content. PMID:1109181

  15. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  16. Charge transferred in brush discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talarek, M.; Kacprzyk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatic discharges from surfaces of plastic materials can be a source of ignition, when appear in explosive atmospheres. Incendivity of electrostatic discharges can be estimated using the transferred charge test. In the case of brush discharges not all the energy stored at the tested sample is released and the effective surface charge density (or surface potential) crater is observed after the discharge. Simplified model, enabling calculation of a charge transferred during electrostatic brush discharge, was presented. Comparison of the results obtained from the simplified model and from direct measurements of transferred charge are presented in the paper.

  17. START High Performance Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. A.

    1997-11-01

    Improvements to START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak), the first spherical tokamak in the world to achieve high plasma temperature with both a significant pulse length and confinement time, have been ongoing since 1991. Recent modifications include: expansion of the existing capacitor banks allowing plasma currents as high as 300kA, an increase in the available neutral beam heating power ( ~ 500kW), and improvements to the vacuum system. These improvements have led to the achievement of the world record plasma β (≡ 2μ_0 /B^2) of ~ 30% in a tokamak. The normalised β ( βN ≡ β aB/I_p) reached 4.5 with q_95 = 2.3. Properties of the reconstructed equilibrium will be discussed in detail. The theoretical limit to β is higher in a spherical tokamak than in a conventional machine, due to the higher values of normalised current (IN ≡ I_p/aB) achievable at low aspect ratio. The record β was achieved with IN ~ 8 while conventional tokamaks are limited to IN ~ 3, or less. Calculations of the ideal MHD stability of the record discharge indicate high β low-n kink modes are stable, but that the entire profile is at or near marginal stability for high-n ballooning modes. The phenomenology of the events leading up to the plasma termination is discussed. An important aspect of the START program is to explore the physics of neutral beam absorption at low aspect ratio. A passive neutral particle analyser has been used to study the temporal and spatial dependence of the fast hydrogen beam ions. These measurements have been used in conjunction with a single particle orbit code to estimate the fast ion losses due to collisions with slow neutrals from the plasma edge. Numerical analysis of neutral beam power deposition profiles are compared with the data from an instrumented beam stop. The global energy confinement time τE in beam heated discharges on START is similar to that obtained in Ohmic discharges, even though the input power has roughly doubled over the Ohmic case

  18. Continuous pile discharging machine

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  19. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  20. Flood duration and chute cutoff formation in a wandering gravel-bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, A.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Chute cutoffs occur when a bypass or "chute" channel incises across a bar or low floodplain area, re-distributing water and sediment. Cutoffs result from a setup and a triggering event, typically during overbank flow, but the combined effect of magnitude and duration on potential erosion in in-channel and overbank areas is still poorly constrained. Here we investigated how overbank flow duration impacts cutoff formation and spatiotemporal shear stress patterns in a wandering gravel-bed river. We applied a two-dimensional hydraulic model to a recently reconstructed reach of the Clark Fork River in western Montana that experienced chute cutoffs during a long-duration flood in 2011. Hydrographs with increasing durations exceeding overbank were simulated; for each magnitude-duration combination, various metrics were quantified for in-channel and overbank areas separately. We confirm the hypothesized importance of floodplain elevation, vegetation presence, chute-channel inlet entrance location, and high overbank shear stress zones at bend apexes on cutoff occurrence. Floodplain width plays an important role in controlling unit discharge such that overbank areas are more competent in a narrower floodplain conveyance corridor. Duration controls cumulative flow exceeding sediment mobility thresholds, having the largest effect in overbank areas. Side channels at the reconstructed study site act like naturally formed incipient chutes. This work describes a complex floodplain system characteristic of wandering gravel-bed rivers with implications for understanding morphodynamic evolution, river restoration, and flow management in regulated rivers.

  1. Physical processes in grid control gas discharge device Tacitron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, Alexander; Vereschagin, Nicolay; Kruglov, Sergey

    2003-10-01

    Physical processes in grid control gas discharge device Tacitron Arefjev A.S., Vereschagin N.M., Kruglov S. A. Radioengineering Academy, Ryazan, Russia Nowdays pulsed power units is getting widely used for cleaning biogas and water. Their parameters and dimension defines by the current commutator, which is used as a switch for interrupting the current in the circuit. Experimental investigations have been carried out to find out the propeties of the one type of the current commutator - the so-called tacitron. It has specific construction of the control grid ,which enables to control the moment of the discharge plasma distinguish and consequently a tacitron has ability to distinguish the discharge, e.i. to interrupt the current, flowing through the device. The grid of a tacitron is constructed of small-mesh metal. The dimension of the small-mesh cell must be compare with Debay radius at the proper discharge conditions. It is stipulated by the fact that if the dimensions of the grid cell are compare with Debay radius then ionic sheaths on the negative electrode as if 'overlap' each other. Then if to supply the controlling impulse to the grid of the tacitron one can ensure interrupting the current through the tacitron. Thus a tacitron is full controlling discharge current commutator. There has been performed experimental investigation of the process of the current interruption.(distinguishing of the gas discharge), taking place in the discharge space between the anode and the cathode of the tacitron. The outcomes of experiments show that the process of the distinguishing may be divided on 4 stages, which differ one from another by elementary processes, going on there : - delay of the distinguishing of the discharge; - so-called 'slow ' stage; - decay of plasma inside the anode - grid gap; - decay of plasma inside the cathode - grid gap. The whole duration of the process of the discharge distinguishing equals mostly the second and the third stages together. The duration

  2. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (<1ms) too short for being detected by the catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  3. The freely localized microwave discharge in air in the focused beam of the electromagnetic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, A.F.; Kuzovnikov, A.A.; Shibkov, V.M.

    1995-12-31

    The successfull use of the microwave discharge in many applications make it necessary to research the physics of a new kind of discharge - the electrodeless microwave discharge in the focused beam, in the free space and to search for ways to optimize this discharge parameters. The breakdown was performed in a discharge chamber at approximately free space conditions: R/{lambda}{much_gt}1, where R = 1 m is the discharge chamber`s dimension, {lambda} = 2 {divided_by} 10 cm is the wavelength of the microwave radiation. The focused electromagnetic beam was formed by a trumped-lens antenna. The electric field E{le}6 kV/cm, the density of energy flow S{le}10{sup 5} W/cm{sup 2}, the wave is linearity polarized. The microwave pulse duration could be changed from 1 {mu}s to 1 ms. The gas pressure (nitrogen, air) is varied from 1 to 760 torr.

  4. Large discharge-volume, silent discharge spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A large discharge-volume spark plug for providing self-limiting microdischarges. The apparatus includes a generally spark plug-shaped arrangement of a pair of electrodes, where either of the two coaxial electrodes is substantially shielded by a dielectric barrier from a direct discharge from the other electrode, the unshielded electrode and the dielectric barrier forming an annular volume in which self-terminating microdischarges occur when alternating high voltage is applied to the center electrode. The large area over which the discharges occur, and the large number of possible discharges within the period of an engine cycle, make the present silent discharge plasma spark plug suitable for use as an ignition source for engines. In the situation, where a single discharge is effective in causing ignition of the combustible gases, a conventional single-polarity, single-pulse, spark plug voltage supply may be used.

  5. Long-pulse plasma discharge on the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Narihara, K.; Shoji, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Ogawa, H.; Goto, M.; Morisaki, T.; Peterson, B. J.; Sato, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ashikawa, N.; Nishimura, K.; Funaba, H.; Chikaraishi, H.; Watari, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, M.; Ichimura, M.; Takase, Y.; Notake, T.; Takeuchi, N.; Torii, Y.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Takahashi, C.; Yokota, M.; Kato, A.; Zhao, Y.; Kwak, J. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Yamada, H.; Kawahata, K.; Ohyabu, N.; Ida, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Noda, N.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.; LHD experiment Group

    2006-03-01

    A long-pulse plasma discharge of more than 30 min duration was achieved on the Large Helical Device (LHD). A plasma of ne = 0.8 × 1019 m-3 and Ti0 = 2.0 keV was sustained with PICH = 0.52 MW, PECH = 0.1 MW and averaged PNBI = 0.067 MW. The total injected heating energy was 1.3 GJ. One of the keys to the success of the experiment was a dispersion of the local plasma heat load to divertors, accomplished by sweeping the magnetic axis inward and outward. Causes limiting the long pulse plasma discharge are discussed. An ion impurity penetration limited further long-pulse discharge in the 8th experimental campaign (2004).

  6. Pulse discharge cleaning for open-ended systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, H.R.; Aoki, T.

    1986-05-01

    A significant improvement in plasma parameters (ion temperature and electron temperature) has been achieved through the use of pulse discharge cleaning in the mirror machine, RFC-XX-M, in Nagoya, Japan. The essence of this technique is to use pulsed-off-resonance ion cyclotron heating (10-ms duration every 10 s), gas puffing, and electron cyclotron heating preionization in conjunction with baking (to 100 to 150/sup 0/C) in order to prepare the machine surfaces for full-power normal experimental shots. It was also found that RFC-XX-M could operate at nearly full parameters without titanium gettering after discharge cleaning, whereas without discharge cleaning and titanium gettering it is difficult to sustain a plasma.

  7. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  8. Evidence that gestation duration and lactation duration are coupled traits in primates.

    PubMed

    Dubman, Evgenia; Collard, Mark; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2012-12-23

    Gestation duration and lactation duration are usually treated as independently evolving traits in primates, but the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) suggests both durations should be determined by metabolic rate. We used phylogenetic generalized least-squares linear regression to test these different perspectives. We found that the allometries of the durations are divergent from each other and different from the scaling exponent predicted by the MTE (0.25). Gestation duration increases much more slowly (0.06 < m < 0.12), and lactation duration much more quickly (0.36 < m < 0.52) with body mass than the MTE predicts. By contrast, we found that the combined duration of gestation and lactation is consistent with the MTE's predictions (0.22 < m < 0.35). These results suggest that gestation duration and lactation duration might best be viewed as distinct but coupled adaptations. When transferring energy to their offspring, primate mothers must meet metabolically dictated physiological requirements while optimizing the timing of the switch from gestation to lactation in relation to some as-yet-unidentified body-size-related factor. PMID:22915631

  9. Cable Discharge System for fundamental detonator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peevy, Gregg R.; Barnhart, Steven G.; Brigham, William P.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed the modification and installation of a cable discharge system (CDS) which will be used to study the physics of exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonators and exploding foil initiators (EFI or slapper). Of primary interest are the burst characteristics of these devices when subjected to the constant current pulse delivered by this system. The burst process involves the heating of the bridge material to a conductive plasma and is essential in describing the electrical properties of the bridgewire foil for use in diagnostics or computer models. The CDS described herein is capable of delivering up to an 8000 A pulse of 3 micron duration. Experiments conducted with the CDS to characterize the EBW and EFI burst behavior are also described. In addition, the CDS simultaneous VISAR capability permits updating the EFI electrical Gurney analysis parameters used in our computer simulation codes. Examples of CDS generated data for a typical EFI and EBW detonator are provided.

  10. Regression models of discharge and mean velocity associated with near-median streamflow conditions in Texas: utility of the U.S. Geological Survey discharge measurement database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A database containing more than 16,300 discharge values and ancillary hydraulic attributes was assembled from summaries of discharge measurement records for 391 USGS streamflow-gauging stations (streamgauges) in Texas. Each discharge is between the 40th- and 60th-percentile daily mean streamflow as determined by period-of-record, streamgauge-specific, flow-duration curves. Each discharge therefore is assumed to represent a discharge measurement made for near-median streamflow conditions, and such conditions are conceptualized as representative of midrange to baseflow conditions in much of the state. The hydraulic attributes of each discharge measurement included concomitant cross-section flow area, water-surface top width, and reported mean velocity. Two regression equations are presented: (1) an expression for discharge and (2) an expression for mean velocity, both as functions of selected hydraulic attributes and watershed characteristics. Specifically, the discharge equation uses cross-sectional area, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area of the watershed, and mean annual precipitation of the location; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.95 and residual standard error of approximately 0.23 base-10 logarithm (cubic meters per second). The mean velocity equation uses discharge, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area, and mean annual precipitation; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.50 and residual standard error of approximately 0.087 third root (meters per second). Residual plots from both equations indicate that reliable estimates of discharge and mean velocity at ungauged stream sites are possible. Further, the relation between contributing drainage area and main-channel slope (a measure of whole-watershed slope) is depicted to aid analyst judgment of equation applicability for ungauged sites. Example applications and computations are provided and discussed within a real-world, discharge

  11. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  12. STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.

  13. Pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Sophia

    A phenomenological picture of pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water is produced by combining electrical, spectroscopic, and imaging methods. The discharge is generated by applying one microsecond long 5 to 20 kilovolt pulses between the needle and disk electrodes submerged in water. A gas bubble is generated at the tip of the needle electrode. The study includes detailed experimental investigation of the discharge in argon bubbles and a brief look at the discharge in oxygen bubbles. Imaging, electrical characteristics, and time-resolved optical emission data point to a fast streamer propagation mechanism and formation of a plasma channel in the bubble. Spectroscopic methods based on line intensity ratios and Boltzmann plots of line intensities of argon, atomic hydrogen, and argon ions and the examination of molecular emission bands from molecular nitrogen and hydroxyl radicals provide evidence of both fast beam-like electrons and slow thermalized ones with temperatures of 0.6 -- 0.8 electron-volts. The collisional nature of plasma at atmospheric pressure affects the decay rates of optical emission. Spectroscopic study of rotational-vibrational bands of hydroxyl radical and molecular nitrogen gives vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures of the discharge of about 0.9 and 0.1 electron-volt, respectively. Imaging and electrical evidence show that discharge charge is deposited on the bubble wall and water serves as a dielectric barrier for the field strength and time scales of this experiment. Comparing the electrical and imaging information for consecutive pulses applied at a frequency of 1 Hz indicates that each discharge proceeds as an entirely new process with no memory of the previous discharge aside from long-lived chemical species, such as ozone and oxygen. Intermediate values for the discharge gap and pulse duration, low repetition rate, and unidirectional character of the applied voltage pulses make the discharge process here unique

  14. Discharge formation in a XеCl laser pumped by high specific power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.

    2013-02-01

    Stable glow of the discharge of various types in the gas mixture of a XeCl laser is investigated for specific pumping power in the range 1.2-4.6 MW/cm3 and pulse duration of 40 ns. It is demonstrated that formation of partially homogeneous plasma with many intensive cathode spots on the electrode allows the maximum energy and duration of the lasing pulse to be obtained with laser efficiency of 2.4%. It is revealed that for the specific pumping powers up to 1.5 MW/cm3, a very homogeneous volume discharge with a small number of lowintensive cathode spots is formed in the discharge gap. With further increase in the specific pumping power exceeding 4.5 MW/cm3, current microinhomogeneities are formed in the volume discharge of this type leading to lasing breakdown.

  15. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  16. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  17. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  18. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  19. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3... INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness benefits. The duration of normal sickness benefits is the same as the duration of normal...

  20. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  1. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Arias, D.; Leveton, L.

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature on slow wave sleep (SWS) in long duration space flight, and place this within the context of the broader literature on SWS particularly with respect to analogous environments such as the Antarctic. Explore how SWS could be measured within the International Space Station (ISS) context with the aim to utilize the ISS as an analog for future extra-orbital long duration missions. Discuss the potential use of emergent minimally intrusive wireless technologies like ZEO for integrated prelaunch, flight, and return to Earth analysis and optimization of SWS (and general quality of sleep).

  2. Migration and unemployment duration among young adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A J

    1994-07-01

    "The relationship between migration and unemployment duration is examined. Standard job search predictors of spell length (replacement income, labor force experience, personal characteristics and economic conditions) are included as control variables alongside measures of migration in a Weibull hazard model. The model is estimated using data from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Young adults who migrated while unemployed had longer durations of unemployment than those who did not migrate. The rate at which they found jobs was also linked to how long they had been unemployed, to being laid off, being African American, to going to college, having a mortgage and to national unemployment conditions." PMID:12292534

  3. Stream Discharge Measurements From Cableways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, K. Michael; Sultz, Lucky

    2000-01-01

    Cableways have been used for decades as a platform for making stream discharge measurements. Use of cableways eliminates the need to expose personnel to hazards associated with working from highway bridges. In addition, cableways allow sites to be selected that offer the best possible hydraulic characteristics for measuring stream discharge. This training presentation describes methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey to make stream discharge measurements from cableways.

  4. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-08-31

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology.

  5. Discharges Against Medical Advice

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter; Meldrum, Sean; Fiscella, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prior literature suggests that blacks are more likely to be discharged against medical advice (DAMA). OBJECTIVE We examined whether DAMA from general hospitals varies by race/ethnicity and whether this variation is explained by individual and hospital factors. DESIGN, SUBJECTS, AND MEASUREMENTS We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 1998 to 2000 hospital discharge data, linked to the American Hospital Association data, on adults admitted for acute general hospital care in California, Florida, and New York. A series of hierarchical logistic regression analyses explored factors associated with DAMA, initially adjusting for age and gender, then sequentially adding adjustment for comorbidities, individual socio-economic factors, and finally hospital characteristics. RESULTS Compared with whites, blacks had a 2-fold higher age-gender adjusted odds of DAMA, a risk that progressively diminished with increasing adjustment (final adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.91, 1.00). While Hispanics had an increased risk of DAMA in age-gender-adjusted analyses, the final model revealed a protective effect (adjusted OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.62, 0.70), similar to that observed for Asians. CONCLUSIONS Disparities in DAMA affecting minority patients in general hospitals are largely accounted for by individual and hospital socio-economic factors. The absence of any adjusted disparity affecting blacks, and the protective effect observed for Hispanics and other minorities suggest that individual discrimination and poor communication are not primary determinants of DAMA, but where patients are admitted does contribute to disparities in DAMA. PMID:16918741

  6. A comprehensive inpatient discharge system.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, E. M.; Teich, J. M.; Pedraza, L. A.; Thomas, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our group has developed a computer system that supports all phases of the inpatient discharge process. The system fills in most of the physician's discharge order form and the nurse's discharge abstract, using information available from sign-out, order entry, scheduling, and other databases. It supplies information for referrals to outside institutions, and provides a variety of instruction materials for patients. Discharge forms can be completed in advance, so that the patient is not waiting for final paperwork. Physicians and nurses can work on their components independently, rather than in series. Response to the system has been very favorable. PMID:8947755

  7. Implementation of Discharge Plans for Chronically Ill Elders Discharged Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Enola K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the extent to which discharge plans for elderly patients with congestive heart failure were implemented as planned, tested the consequences of implementation problems, and identified factors associated with implementation problems. Implications for hospital discharge planners and home health care are discussed. (KW)

  8. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Educational Service Agreements...

  9. Duration and Intensity as Correlates of Fo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Eric

    1978-01-01

    The speech of two male Taiwanese speakers was analyzed to determine whether fundamental frequency (Fo) is correlated with both duration and intensity; five conclusions are drawn. The results are discussed in terms of theories of pitch production and speed of pitch change. (EJS)

  10. Short-Duration Simulations from Measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Enghauser, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A method is presented that ascribes proper statistical variability to simulations that are derived from longer-duration measurements. This method is applicable to simulations of either real-value or integer-value data. An example is presented that demonstrates the applicability of this technique to the synthesis of gamma-ray spectra.

  11. Developmental Aspects of English Segment Duration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.

    The experiment reported here attempted to investigate the nature of both intrinsic, unlearned temporal parameters as well as learned, language-specific durational properties in the speech of young children. Developmental aspects of several temporal parameters were investigated in the speech of ten 2 1/2 to 3-year-old and ten 4 to 4 1/2-year-old…

  12. Effects of Duration of Electronic Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Alayna P.; Grant, DeMond M.; Tahirkheli, Noor N.; Driskill, Leslie M.; Wagener, Theodore L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the effect of duration electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on e-cigarette dependence, frequency of use, and strength of nicotine solution as well as number of cigarettes smoked per day. Methods: Individuals were recruited at e-cigarette retail locations in a large Midwestern metropolitan city of the United States in July 2013. A total of 159 participants completed a brief 29-item self-report measure that assessed behaviors and perceptions of use. The mean age of the participants was 35.8 years; 84.4% were White, and 53.7% were male. Results: Increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with fewer cigarettes smoked per day and differing patterns of dependence to e-cigarettes contingent upon smoking history. Additionally, increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with increased frequency of use; however, this finding became nonsignificant when current tobacco cigarette use was accounted for, suggesting that individuals may increase e-cigarette use frequency as they decrease cigarette use. Overall, e-cigarette users tended to decrease the strength of nicotine in their e-cigarette products regardless of duration of use. Conclusions: Although preliminary in nature, this study identifies several factors that are important to consider when examining the effects of prolonged e-cigarette use. The implications of the current results should be informative to future studies that examine these variables in longitudinal designs. PMID:24827788

  13. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  14. A Short-Duration Gel Diffusion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a gel diffusion experiment that permits the completion of duplicate diffusion runs within a three-hour laboratory session. Information included for the short-duration gel diffusion experiment is the diffusion cell, the experiment, data treatment, and the expected results of the experiment. (Author/DS)

  15. Prediction and validation of hemodialysis duration in acute methanol poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Philippe; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Ghannoum, Marc; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) in methanol poisoning (MP) is dependent on the methanol concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. However, methanol assays are not easily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of treatment. Here we provide a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD in MP. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 71 episodes of MP in 55 individuals who were treated with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition and HD. Four patients had residual visual abnormality at discharge and only one patient died. In 46 unique episodes of MP with high-efficiency HD the mean methanol elimination half-life (T1/2) during HD was 108 min in women, significantly different from the 129 min in men. In a training set of 28 patients with MP, using the 90th percentile of gender-specific elimination T1/2 (147 min in men and 141 min in women) and a target methanol concentration of 4 mmol/l allowed all cases to reach a safe methanol of under 6 mmol/l. The prediction model was confirmed in a validation set of 18 patients with MP. High-efficiency HD time in hours can be estimated using 3.390 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for women and 3.534 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for men, where MCi is the initial methanol concentration in mmol/l, provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected. PMID:26244924

  16. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  17. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  18. Estimated flow-duration curves for selected ungaged sites in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Studley, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    Flow-duration curves for 1968-98 were estimated for 32 ungaged sites in the Missouri, Smoky Hill-Saline, Solomon, Marais des Cygnes, Walnut, Verdigris, and Neosho River Basins in Kansas. Also included from a previous report are estimated flow-duration curves for 16 ungaged sites in the Cimarron and lower Arkansas River Basins in Kansas. The method of estimation used six unique factors of flow duration: (1) mean streamflow and percentage duration of mean streamflow, (2) ratio of 1-percent-duration streamflow to mean streamflow, (3) ratio of 0.1-percent-duration streamflow to 1-percent-duration streamflow, (4) ratio of 50-percent-duration streamflow to mean streamflow, (5) percentage duration of appreciable streamflow (0.10 cubic foot per second), and (6) average slope of the flow-duration curve. These factors were previously developed from a regionalized study of flow-duration curves using streamflow data for 1921-76 from streamflow-gaging stations with drainage areas of 100 to 3,000 square miles. The method was tested on a currently (2001) measured, continuous-record streamflow-gaging station on Salt Creek near Lyndon, Kansas, with a drainage area of 111 square miles and was found to adequately estimate the computed flow-duration curve for the station. The method also was tested on a currently (2001) measured, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging station on Soldier Creek near Circleville, Kansas, with a drainage area of 49.3 square miles. The results of the test on Soldier Creek near Circleville indicated that the method could adequately estimate flow-duration curves for sites with drainage areas of less than 100 square miles. The low-flow parts of the estimated flow-duration curves were verified or revised using 137 base-flow discharge measurements made during 1999-2000 at the 32 ungaged sites that were correlated with base-flow measurements and flow-duration analyses performed at nearby, long-term, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations (index stations

  19. Interactions between surface discharges induced by volume discharges in a dielectric barrier discharge system

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yenan; Dong, Lifang Zhao, Longhu; Wang, Yongjie; Pan, Yuyang; Li, Ben

    2014-10-15

    The interaction between micro-discharges involved in surface discharges (SDs) is studied in dielectric barrier discharge system. Instantaneous images taken by high speed cameras show that the SDs are induced by volume discharges (VDs). They cannot cross the midperpendicular of two neighbouring volume charges at low voltage while they stretch along it at high voltage, indicating that there is interaction between SDs. The differences of plasma parameters between SD and VD are studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The simulation of the electric fields of the wall charges accumulated by VD further confirms the existence of the interaction.

  20. Triggering regime of oil-filled trigatron dischargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapishnikov, N. K.; Muratov, V. M.

    1986-11-01

    A comparative analysis made in [1, 2] of different types of regulable high-voltage dischargers with liquid insulation showed that trigatrons are currently the most promising for use in high-voltage pulse-operated devices due to their simplicity and reliability. Two basic mechanisms of discharge initiation can be realized in trigatrons — initiation by intensification of the field in the region of the control electrode [2, 3], and triggering by a spark in the ignition gap [4, 5]. The first type of trigatron has been studied sufficiently only for short voltage periods [3, 6, 7], so it is used mainly in switching the pulse-shaping lines of powerful nanosecond pulse generators with “rapid” (0.5 1.5 μsec) charging [8, 9]. Almost no use is now made of the second type of trigatron switch in high-voltage pulse technology due to its unsatisfactory time characteristics. Here we report results of a study of the time characteristics of both types of oil-filled trigatrons operating in a regime whereby they form the leading edge of rectangular voltage pulses with amplitudes up to 800 kV and durations of 1 100 μsec. The goal is to find the optimum conditions for triggering of trigatron dischargers with liquid insulation in the region of microsecond voltage discharges. Experiments were conducted on the unit in [10]. The test discharger was placed in a cylindrical chamber 45 cm in diameter and 27 cm in length. The high-voltage electrode of the discharger was in the form of a cylinder 20 cm in diameter positioned coaxially inside the chamber. The 10-mm-diameter ground electrode was positioned radially in a branch pipe 8 cm long. The control electrode was placed in a 2-cm-diameter hole in the center of the ground electrode. The chamber with the test discharge was filled with transformer oil with a breakdown voltage of about 50 kV. The oil was not replaced or cleaned during the experiment. We did not find that contamination of the oil by discharge products had any effect on the

  1. Rotational CARS Temperature Measurements in Nanosecond Pulse Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzeek, Yvette; Takashima, Keisuke; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter

    2009-10-01

    Time-resolved and spatially resolved temperatures in repetitively pulsed nanosecond discharges in air and ethylene-air mixtures have been measured by purely rotational Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Specroscopy (CARS). The experiments have been done in a capacitively coupled plane-to-plane discharge and in an atmospheric pressure near-surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD), both powered by repetitive nanosecond duration voltage pulses. Gated ICCD camera images demonstrated that the capacitively coupled discharge plasma remains diffuse and stable, with no sign of arc filaments. Comparison of the experimental results with plasma chemical kinetic modeling calculations shows good agreement. The results demonstrate that the rate of heating in the fuel-air plasma is significantly more rapid compared to the one in the air plasma. Kinetic model analysis shows that this occurs due to exothermic reactions of fuel with radical species generated in the plasma, such as O atoms. The present results provide additional insight into kinetics of hydrocarbon fuel oxidation in low-temperature plasmas and into the mechanism of localized heating of air flows by nanosecond DBD discharges.

  2. Possible Influences of Spark Discharges on Cardiac Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Kuisti, Harri; Tarao, Hiroo; Virtanen, Vesa; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Dovan, Thanh; Kavet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to spark discharges may occur beneath high voltage transmission lines when contact is initiated with a conductive object (such as a motor vehicle) with the spark discharge mediated by the ambient electric field from the line. The objective of this study was to assess whether such exposures could interfere with the normal functioning of implanted cardiac pacemakers (PMs). The experiment consisted of PMs implanted in a human-sized phantom and then exposed to spark discharge through an upper extremity. A circuit was designed that produced spark discharges between two spherical electrodes fed to the phantom's left hand. The circuit was set to deliver a single discharge per half cycle (every 10 ms) about 10 μs in duration with a peak current of 1.2-1.3 A, thus simulating conditions under a 400-kV power line operating at 50 Hz. Of 29 PMs acquired, all were tested in unipolar configuration and 20 in bipolar configuration with exposure consisting of 2 min of continuous exposure (one unit was exposed for 1 min). No interference was observed in bipolar configuration. One unit in unipolar configuration incorrectly identified ventricular extra systoles (more than 400 beats min(-1)) for 2 s. The use of unipolar configuration in new implants is extremely rare, thus further minimizing the risk of interference with the passage of time. Replication of this study and, if safety for human subjects can be assured, future testing of human subjects is also advisable. PMID:26606060

  3. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  4. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  5. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  6. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  7. Intravenous Therapy Duration and Outcomes in Melioidosis: A New Treatment Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Matthew C.; Luck, Tara; Marshall, Catherine S.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Ward, Linda; Currie, Bart J.

    2015-01-01

    Background International melioidosis treatment guidelines recommend a minimum 10 to 14 days’ intravenous antibiotic therapy (intensive phase), followed by 3 to 6 months’ oral therapy (eradication phase). This approach is associated with rates of relapse, defined as recurrence following the eradication phase, that can exceed 5%. Rates of recrudescence, defined as recurrence during the eradication phase, have not previously been reported. In response to low eradication phase completion rates in Australia, a local guideline has evolved over the last ten years recommending a longer minimum intensive phase duration for many cases of melioidosis. Methodology/ Principal Findings This retrospective cohort study reviews antibiotic duration for the first episode of care for all patients diagnosed with melioidosis and surviving the intensive phase during a recent three year period in the tropical north of Australia’s Northern Territory; we also review adherence to the current local guideline and treatment outcomes. Of 215 first episodes of melioidosis surviving the intensive phase, the median (interquartile range) intensive phase duration was 26 (14-34) days. One hundred and eight (50.2%) patients completed eradication therapy; 58 (27.0%) patients took no eradication therapy. At 28 months’ follow-up, one (0.5%) relapse and eleven (5.1%) recrudescences had occurred. On exact logistic regression analysis, the only independent risk factors for recrudescence were self-discharge during the intensive phase (odds ratio 6.2 [95% confidence interval 1.2-30.0]) and septic shock (odds ratio 5.3 [95% confidence interval 1.1-25.7]). Conclusions/ Significance Relapsed melioidosis is rare in patients who receive a minimum intensive phase duration specified by our guideline and extended according to clinical progress. Recrudescence rates may improve with reductions in rates of self-discharge. Given the low relapse rate despite a high rate of eradication therapy non-adherence, the

  8. Removing the impact of water abstractions on flow duration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoero, Alessandro; Ganora, Daniele; Galeati, Giorgio; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    on few easy-access parameters, of correction of the water abstraction impact. The model, based on an exponential form of the river Flow Duration Curve (FDC), allows completely analytical solutions. Hence the method can be applied extensively. This is particularly relevant when working on a general outlook on water resources (regional or basin scale), given the high number of water abstractions that should be considered. The correction method developed is based on only two hard data that can be easily found: i) the design maximum discharge of the water intake and ii) the days of exercise, between a year. Following the same correction hypothesis also the abstracted discharge statistics have been reconstructed analytically and combined with the statistics of the receiving reach, that can be different from the original one. This information can be useful when we are assessing water availability in a river network interconnected by derivation channels. The goodness of the correction method proposed is proven by the application to a case study in North-West Italy, along a second order tributary of the Po River. Flow values recorded at the river gauge station were affected, significantly, by the presence of a 5 MW hydropower plant. Knowing the amount of water abstracted daily by the power plant we are able to reconstruct, empirically, the natural discharge on the river and compare its main statistics with the ones computed analytically using the proposed correction model. An extremely low difference between empirical and analytical reconstructed mean discharge and L-moment of variation was founded. Also, the importance of the day of exercise information was highlighted. The correction proposed in this work is able to give a correct indication of the non-impacted natural streamflows characteristics, especially in alpine regions where water abstraction impact is a main issue.

  9. Impact of Precipitation Organization on River Discharge Across North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickenbach, T. M.; Zarzar, C. M.; Nieto Ferreira, R.

    2014-12-01

    This study builds from an existing four-year NEXRAD radar-based precipitation climatology over the southeastern U.S. to examine the hydrological response of river systems in North Carolina to different modes of precipitation organization in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework. The climatology uses a simple two-category framework of precipitation organization based on instantaneous precipitating feature size: mesoscale precipitation features (MPF) and isolated precipitation. Specifically, the following questions are addressed: First, what are the discharge response characteristics to seasonal changes in precipitation in different watersheds across North Carolina, from the mountains to the coastal plain? Second, how does precipitation organization, whether long-lasting mesoscale systems or short duration isolated convection, affect these watershed characteristics? This analysis defines five watersheds in North Carolina based on five North Carolina river basins using GIS watershed delineation techniques. It was found that lag time between maximum precipitation and maximum discharge increased from 1-2 days in the western mountainous watersheds to 7-8 days in the eastern coastal plain watersheds. The steeper and more impervious western watersheds promoted more rapid discharge of precipitation, while the flat and swampy eastern watersheds drained more slowly. Precipitation originating from MPF events produced stronger precipitation-discharge correlations in the winter and fall than in the summer and spring, while most isolated precipitation-discharge correlations were relatively weak. Overall, it was found that MPF precipitation is the main mode of precipitation organization that drives daily watershed discharge, and differences in watershed precipitation-discharge lag times can be best explained by the watershed characteristics rather than differences in precipitation organization.

  10. Application of Microsecond Voltage Pulses for Water Disinfection by Diaphragm Electric Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaurov, S. V.; Suvorov, I. F.; Yudin, A. S.; Solovyova, T. L.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the dependence of copper and silver ions formation on the duration of voltage pulses of diaphragm electric discharge and on the pH of treated liquid medium. Knowing it allows one to create an automatic control system to control bactericidal agent's parameters obtained in diaphragm electric discharge reactor. The current-voltage characteristic of the reactor with a horizontal to the diaphragm membrane water flow powered from the author's custom pulse voltage source is also presented. The results of studies of the power consumption of diaphragm electric discharge depending on temperature of the treated liquid medium are given.

  11. Antimicrobial action of a discharge with a liquid cathode on the electrode liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Yu. A.; Kuzikova, I. L.; Zinov'eva, S. V.; Shkol'nik, S. M.; Medvedeva, N. G.

    2015-09-01

    The antimicrobial influence of a discharge with a liquid cathode on an electrode liquid at atmospheric pressure was studied. The degree of the antimicrobial action of the discharge was shown to depend on the treatment regime and on the species of investigated microorganism test cultures. Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens show the most prominent sensitivity to the treatment. Yeastlike fungi Candida albicans and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis are more resistant toward the action of the discharge. Increasing the duration of the treatment and raising the current from 60 to 150 mA leads to an increase in the inhibiting action on cells of P. fluorescens and C. albicans.

  12. Detrapping of tungsten nanoparticles in a direct-current argon glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couëdel, L.; Kumar K., Kishor; Arnas, C.

    2014-12-01

    Nanoparticles are grown from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in a direct current argon glow discharge. Laser light scattering of a vertical laser sheet going through the plasma reveals that the dust particle cloud is compressed and pushed towards the anode during the discharge. Scanning electron microscopy images of substrates exposed to the plasma for given durations show that dust particles are continuously falling down on the anode during the discharge. These observations are explained by the fact that the electrostatic force at the negative glow-anode sheath boundary cannot balance the ion drag, gravity, and thermophoresis forces for particles of more than a few tens of nanometres in diameter.

  13. Detrapping of tungsten nanoparticles in a direct-current argon glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Couëdel, L. Kumar, K. Kishor; Arnas, C.

    2014-12-15

    Nanoparticles are grown from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in a direct current argon glow discharge. Laser light scattering of a vertical laser sheet going through the plasma reveals that the dust particle cloud is compressed and pushed towards the anode during the discharge. Scanning electron microscopy images of substrates exposed to the plasma for given durations show that dust particles are continuously falling down on the anode during the discharge. These observations are explained by the fact that the electrostatic force at the negative glow-anode sheath boundary cannot balance the ion drag, gravity, and thermophoresis forces for particles of more than a few tens of nanometres in diameter.

  14. Excimer emission from pulsed microhollow cathode discharges in xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.-J.; Nam, S. H.; Rahaman, H.; Iberler, M.; Jacoby, J.; Frank, K.

    2013-12-15

    Direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is an intense source for excimer radiation in vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 172 nm in a high pressure xenon (Xe) gas. The concentration of precursors for the excimer formation, i.e., excited and ionized gas atoms, increases significantly by applying high voltage pulse onto the dc MHCD over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. The intensity of the excimer emission for the voltage pulse of 20 ns duration exceeds that of the emission intensity obtained from the same MHCD operated only in the dc mode, by one order of magnitude. In addition, the emission intensity increases by one order of magnitude over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. It can be assumed that the emission intensity of the MHCD source increases as long as the duration of the high voltage pulse is shorter than the electron relaxation time. For the high voltage pulse of 100 ns duration, the emission intensity has been found to be further enhanced by a factor of three when the gas pressure is increased from 200 to 800 mbar.

  15. Flood durations and their response to ENSO at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Lall, Upmanu

    2014-05-01

    The economic losses associated with flooding are huge. In 2012 alone, economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion, and these losses are rising rapidly. Hence, in recent years several methods have been developed to assess the influence of climate change, climate variability, and socioeconomic change, on flood hazard and flood loss. To date, most of the studies employ methods that simulate flood hazards based on some measure of instantaneous peak discharge (e.g. peak annual discharge), which is used as a proxy for the severity of an event. However, recent large flood disasters, for example those experienced in Thailand, Pakistan, and Queensland, have shown that for the most disastrous floods, the duration of flooding is also very important. To date, few studies have specifically assessed the impacts of climate change and/or variability on flood durations. In this contribution, we examine relationships between flood durations at the global scale and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). At the globally aggregated scale, we found no statistical difference between the number of floods during El Niño and La Niña years, compared to the number of floods during neutral years. However, we found that the durations of floods during both El Niño and La Niña are longer than during neutral years. At the regional scale, we found that ENSO exerts a very large influence on both the number of flood events and the duration of those floods. Statistically significant differences in the average duration of floods between neutral years and El Niño and/or La Niña years were found in Australia and Oceania, Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Middle and South Africa, North Africa, and Western Europe. We present maps showing the geographical patterns of these influences at the basin scale. We also provide composite analyses of atmospheric conditions during long duration floods for several case study regions (e.g. Queensland, Chao Phraya). Finally, we discuss how

  16. The design and rationale for the Acute Medically Ill Venous Thromboembolism Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kitt, Michael M; Lorenz, Todd J

    2014-03-01

    Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE. PMID:24576517

  17. Extended duration Orbiter life support definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Extending the baseline seven-day Orbiter mission to 30 days or longer and operating with a solar power module as the primary source for electrical power requires changes to the existing environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. The existing ECLS system imposes penalties on longer missions which limit the Orbiter capabilities and changes are required to enhance overall mission objectives. Some of these penalties are: large quantities of expendables, the need to dump or store large quantities of waste material, the need to schedule fuel cell operation, and a high landing weight penalty. This paper presents the study ground rules and examines the limitations of the present ECLS system against Extended Duration Orbiter mission requirements. Alternate methods of accomplishing ECLS functions for the Extended Duration Orbiter are discussed. The overall impact of integrating these options into the Orbiter are evaluated and significant Orbiter weight and volume savings with the recommended approaches are described.

  18. Toxicity of urban highway runoff with respect to storm duration.

    PubMed

    Kayhanian, M; Stransky, C; Bay, S; Lau, S-L; Stenstrom, M K

    2008-01-25

    The toxicity of stormwater runoff during various time-based stages was measured in both grab and composite samples collected from three highly urbanized highway sites in Los Angeles, California between 2002 and 2005. Stormwater runoff samples were tested for toxicity using three freshwater species (the water flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, and the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitatum) and two marine species (the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum using Microtox. Toxicity results varied substantially throughout the storm events for both freshwater and marine species toxicity tests. In general, however, the first few samples were found to be more toxic compared with those collected during later stages of each storm event. In most cases, more than 40% of the toxicity was associated with the first 20% of discharged runoff volume. Furthermore, on average, 90% of the toxicity was observed during the first 30% of storm duration. Toxicity identification evaluation results found copper and zinc to be the primary cause of toxicity in about 90% of the samples evaluated with these procedures. Surfactants were also found to be the cause of toxicity in less than 10% of the samples. PMID:17920106

  19. Extended Duration Orbiter - Meeting the challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucier, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper overviews the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program designed to provide an on-orbit stay capability of 16 days using the Orbiter Vehicle OV-102. Special attention is given to the EDO's subsystems and substructures, including the cryogenic pallet, the cryogenic storage tanks, the cryogenic solenoid valves, the regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, and the waste collection system. The EDO program will start with the STS-50 U.S. Microgravity Lab mission planned for June 1992.

  20. Magnitude and Duration of the Baltic Ice Lake Drainage Based on Modeling and Sediment Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. D.; Bjork, G.; Elam, J.; Öhrling, C.

    2015-12-01

    At the time of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, the Baltic Ice Lake catastrophically drained to the Atlantic Ocean over two narrow subaerial highlands (Mt. Billingen and Klyftamon) in south-central Sweden. The amount of water drained is known (7000 km3 resulting in a lowering of the water level 25 m), but the duration of the drainage and thus the magnitude of the discharge is not securely known. Here we present geomorphic and sedimentologic observations and modeling results that allow estimates of the peak velocity, peak discharge and overall drainage duration for the event. Newly available LiDAR based digital elevation models of the highlands has allowed identification of the boulder bars and fields formed during the drainage. D­90 measurements on sediment in these deposits were used in velocity equations available in the literature, and they predict velocities ranging from 8 to 18 m/sec. Grain-size in these boulder deposits decreases downflow. The morphology of the boulder deposits varies with paleo-water depth. We also modeled the drainage duration assuming a simple ice-breach model. This model produced a peak velocity of 12 m/sec, agreeing well with the sediment data. This peak occurred about 5 months after the initial breach. The entire drainage took less than two years, although 75% of the drainage occurred within the first year.

  1. Evaluation of Long Duration Flight on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of utilizing either an airship or aircraft as a flight platform for long duration flight within the atmosphere of Venus. In order to achieve long-duration flight, the power system for the vehicle had to be capable of operating for extended periods of time. To accomplish these, two types of power systems were considered, a solar energy-based power system utilizing a photovoltaic array as the main power source and a radioisotope heat source power system utilizing a Stirling engine as the heat conversion device. Both types of vehicles and power systems were analyzed to determine their flight altitude range. This analysis was performed for a station-keeping mission where the vehicle had to maintain a flight over a location on the ground. This requires the vehicle to be capable of flying faster than the wind speed at a particular altitude. An analysis was also performed to evaluate the altitude range and maximum duration for a vehicle that was not required to maintain station over a specified location. The results of the analysis show that each type of flight vehicle and power system was capable of flight within certain portions of Venus s atmosphere. The aircraft, both solar and radioisotope power proved to be the most versatile and provided the greatest range of coverage both for station-keeping and non-station-keeping missions.

  2. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  3. Underwater loudness for pure tones: Duration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudahy, Edward A.; Schwaller, Derek; Fothergill, David; Wolgemuth, Keith

    2003-04-01

    The loudness of underwater pure tones was measured by loudness matching for pure tones from 100 to 16,000 Hz. The standard was a one second tone at 1000 Hz. The signal duration was varied from 20 milliseconds to 5 seconds. Subjects were instructed to match the loudness of the comparison tone at one of the test frequencies to the loudness of the standard tone. Loudness was measured at the threshold, the most comfortable loudness, and the maximum tolerable loudness. The intensity of the standard was varied randomly across the test series. The subjects were bareheaded U.S. Navy divers tested at a depth of 3 meters. All subjects had normal in-air hearing. Tones were presented to the right side of the subject from an array of underwater sound projectors. The sound pressure level was calibrated at the location of the subject's head with the subject absent. Loudness increased and threshold decreased as duration increased. The effect was greatest at the lowest and highest frequencies. The shape of the loudness contours across frequency and duration derived from these measurements are different from in-air measurements. [Research supported by ONR.

  4. Efficient gas lasers pumped by double-discharge circuits with semiconductor opening switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Alexei N.; Tarasenko, Victor F.

    2012-01-01

    A review of applications of double-discharge circuits based on generators with inductive energy storage (IES) and semiconductor opening switches (SOS) for efficient excitation of different gas lasers is presented. Using a pre-pulse-sustainer circuit technique based on inductive energy storage and semiconductor opening switch generators allows the formation of a pre-pulse with high amplitude and short rise-time and provides a sharp increase of discharge current which significantly improves discharge stability and life-time of the volume discharge in gas mixtures containing halogens. A pre-pulse with high pumping power forms a high-density discharge plasma and an inversion population in gas mixtures under study within ∼10 ns and provides both early onset of lasing and conditions for efficient excitation of an active medium from the storage capacitor. As a result, pulse duration, output energy and efficiency of the lasers under study were improved.

  5. Nanoparticle formation and dusty plasma effects in DC sputtering discharge with graphite cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michau, A.; Arnas, C.; Lombardi, G.; Bonnin, X.; Hassouni, K.

    2016-02-01

    We developed a model for the nucleation, growth and transport of carbon dust particles in a DC discharge. The carbon source comes from the sputtering of a graphite cathode resulting in the production of primary clusters and then of nanoparticles. We consider the ionic cluster growth as well as the particle growth and charging and the influence of both on the discharge equilibrium. We found that the discharge becomes electronegative for long duration when particle density reaches 109 cm-3 and particle size 45 nm. The corresponding transition modifies the electric field profile in the vicinity of the field reversal region in the negative glow. We then analyze the space and time evolution of the different discharge characteristics and the mechanisms involved in the discharge. We showed that particle density is governed by nucleation, coagulation and transport, while particle size is mainly governed by the deposition of the small neural clusters emitted at the cathode on the particle surface.

  6. Enhanced performance discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with lighium wall conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Holtrop, K.L.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    Lithium wall conditioning has been used in a recent campaign evaluating high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges. During this campaign, the highest values of stored energy (4.4 MJ), neutron rate (2.4 x 10{sup 16}/s), and nT{sub i}{tau} (7 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}-keV-s) achieved to date in DIII-D were obtained. High performance NCS discharges were achieved prior to beginning lithium conditioning, but it is clear that shot reproducibility and performance were improved by lithium conditioning. Central and edge oxygen concentrations were reduced after lithium conditioning, Lithium conditioning, consisting of up to four pellets injected at the end of the preceding discharge, allowed the duration of the usual inter-shot helium glow discharge to be reduced and reproducible high auxiliary power discharges, P{sub NBI} {<=} 22 MW, were obtained with plasma currents up to 2.4 MA.

  7. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  8. Environmentally induced discharges on satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    A discharge process whose trigger conditions are a negative exposed metallic surface surrounded by a less negative dielectric, and a large voltage gradient at a dielectric/metal interface is proposed. Analysis of SCATHA data for a discharge substantiates the postulation. Surface discharges cause a small transient charge transfer to space which results in voltage transients. A method of computing these transients, based on the charge lost through the capacitance to space and a fraction of charge stored in the dielectric at the discharge source was developed. It gives an estimate of the discharge transients at the discharge site, which is used as input for coupling code analysis of structure/system response. The transient computations were applied to a three-axis stabilized, geosynchronous satellite for both sunlight and eclipse charging. The energy of the transient pulses are about 1 mJ for sunlight discharge and 8 mJ for eclipse. Changing of selected coatings on the satellite would relieve the stress.

  9. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  10. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  11. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS § 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  12. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  13. Variability of effective discharge for suspended sediment transport in a large semi-arid river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuanxu; Huang, He Qing; Xu, Jiongxin; Brierley, Gary J.; Yao, Zhijun

    2010-07-01

    SummaryThe variability of effective discharge is analysed for three geomorphological zones (gullied hilly loess, valley-hill loess and eolian sand) in the Wuding River basin, China, based on mean daily flow discharge and mean daily suspended sediment discharge from 1959 to 1969, a period when human disturbance in this catchment was less intensive. A modified approach to the determination of discharge class intervals is developed, framed in terms of equal arithmetic intervals of the standard deviation S for all the discharges, such as S, 0.75 S, 0.5 S, and 0.25 S. The average flow duration of effective discharge in the river basin ranges primarily from 0.026% to 3.16% in the two loess regions (corresponding to large flood events), and from 18.75% to 91.51% in the eolian sand region (corresponding to low or moderate flows). The average flow duration of effective discharge is significantly influenced by the size of class intervals and by characteristics of the flow and sediment regime. Using the most appropriate class interval of 0.25 S, the average flow duration of effective discharge is about 0.026% in the two loess regions (other than 0.104% at Hengshan), but in the eolian sand region it reaches 24.50% at Yulin and 52.66% at Hanjiamao, respectively. Histograms of suspended sediment transport indicate that there is a bimodal dominant discharge for suspended sediment transport, with one peak in the range of low flows and the other in the range of large floods. Drainage density and specific sediment yields are lower in the eolian sand region, where effective discharge events occur more frequently and suspended sediment concentration is much lower than that carried by events of the same discharge in the loess region. In contrast, drainage density is higher in the two loess regions, where infrequent hyperconcentrated flows generate high specific sediment yields. Effective discharge differs significantly from bankfull discharge across the whole Wuding River basin.

  14. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePlus

    Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in ... in girls before puberty is common. If a young girl has a sexually transmitted vaginal infection, however, sexual ...

  15. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  16. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  17. Gram stain of urethral discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Urethral discharge Gram stain ... microscope slide. A series of stains called a Gram stain is applied to the specimen. The stained ... culture ) should be performed in addition to the gram stain. More sophisticated diagnostic tests (such as PCR ...

  18. The effect of mothers’ empowerment program on premature infants’ weight gain and duration of hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Mohammaddoost, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Ziba; Peyrovi, Hamid; Chehrzad, Minoo-Mitra; Mehran, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The readiness of mothers to take care for infants at discharge is a critical issue. Poor readiness of mothers in taking care of premature infants at the time of discharge is associated with potential adverse consequences. This study examined the effect of implementing mothers’ empowerment program on the weight gain and duration of hospitalization in premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental before-after study with a control group, in which 80 mothers with premature infants who were hospitalized in NICU Level II of two hospitals were recruited in the study. Mothers’ empowerment program was implemented as a three-stage training program for the intervention group. Mothers’ readiness questionnaire was completed by the mothers before the intervention and at the discharge time. The changes in mean of mothers’ readiness scores were compared in both the groups. Results: The mean of daily weight gain in infants of the intervention group (3.95 g) was significantly higher than that of the infants in the control group (−0.9 g) (P = 0.003). The average duration of hospitalization for infants in the intervention and control groups was 15.45 days and 20.95 days, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Providing training to the mothers regarding how to care for premature infants can be a useful and effective method in the process of weight gain of premature and low-birth newborns, and may shorten the duration of infants’ hospitalization. PMID:27563317

  19. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Deb, A. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Kishore, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  20. A goal-oriented limited-duration approach for borderline personality disorder during brief inpatient hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Siefert, Caleb J

    2012-12-01

    As part of their overall care, patients with borderline personality disorder may require inpatient hospitalization for containment and stabilization in the context of severe distress, increased risk for self-harm, or after self-harming acts. Though data suggests that such patients are frequently hospitalized, the benefits of brief hospitalizations can sometimes be questionable. In some cases, the hospitalization environment may increase patient distress. Additionally, frequent serial hospitalizations can disrupt or sidetrack longer-term outpatient treatments. The present paper presents a Goal-Oriented Limited-Duration Borderline Personality Disorder Inpatient Treatment approach. The approach integrates elements from many other expert-based approaches for working in brief hospital settings and centers on the creation of a preadmission treatment agreement with a planned discharge date. This agreement involves clear goals for treatment and specifies how staff will be involved. Establishing a discharge date early in treatment allows staff to immediately begin working with feelings of rejection or abandonment. At discharge, recommendations are made and criteria for future admissions are set forth. This paper provides a description of the approach, information to consider in determining appropriateness, discussion of methods for clarifying goals, review of the discharge planning approach, and several examples of clinician-patient exchanges. This paper concludes with a case example in which the approach was used and discussions of future directions and potential benefits and limitations of the approach. PMID:22181025

  1. Long duration human exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

  2. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  3. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  4. Long duration human exposure to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

  5. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  6. Regionalisation of flow duration curves on global scale and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffeldt, A.; Halldin, S.; Rodhe, A.; Xu, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Flow duration curves (FDCs) summarise information of the hydrological characteristics of rivers and the shape of the FDC depends both on climatic and physical factors. FDCs are used for a variety of applications such as water resources estimation, hydropower planning and evaluation of hydrological models. Given the lack of discharge data in many areas in the world, a technique to estimate FDCs in ungauged or poorly gauged basins is desirable. There exist plenty of examples of regionalisation of FDCs within relatively limited areas (e.g. for local sub-basins or at national or regional scale), but to our knowledge it has not been done on global scale. The large variety of shapes of the flow duration curves and uncertainty in data complicates the process of regionalisation on this large scale. In this study, several methodologies are used to construct FDCs in basins assumed to be ungauged and the results are compared and discussed.

  7. The effects of steep-front, short-duration impulses on power distribution components

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.B.; Lux, A.E.; Grzybowski, Stanislaw; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-07-01

    A line type pulser has been developed to test the effects of steep-front, short duration (SFSD) pulses on distribution components. Risetime is 50-100 ns, and pulse duration is on the order of 300 ns. Terminators often shattered or punctured rather than flashing over. Insulator flashover voltage is approximately 1.5 times CFO for standard lightning impulses. Arresters exhibit an inductive character, with SFSD peak voltage at 10 kA approximately 4--5 times the 8 /times/ 20 microsecond 10 kA discharge voltage. Polyethylene insulated cable has a characteristic degradation in which failure voltage decreases with number of SFSD pulses. 7 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Arctic River Discharge and Sediment Loads --- an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Hudson, B.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that river discharge has been increasing (+10%) over the last 30 years (1977-2007) for most arctic rivers. The peak melt month occurs earlier in the season in 66% of the studied rivers. Cold season flow is also increasing. Satellite discharge estimates, daily, based on microwave radiometry, are now possible from 1998 onwards. Daily river discharge hindcasts over the last 60 years using the water balance model WBMsed at a 10km spatial resolution are now available. The WBMsed model can be used in forecast mode assuming valid input climatology. The challenge here has been the accuracy of sub-polar precipitation grids. While each of these three methods (gauging, orbital sensing, modeling) has temporal and spatial coverage limitations, the combination of all three methods provides for a realistic way forward for estimating local discharge across the pan arctic. Flood inundation products are routinely produced for the pan-arctic using automated mapping algorithms developed by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The determination of artic river sediment loads is less than ideal. Some rivers have only been monitored for a short number of years, and many have not been monitored at all. The WBMsed model is perhaps the best method of estimating the daily sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean, at least for rivers where the mean discharge is greater than 30 m3/s. Additionally there is limited-duration field monitoring by national surveys. New methods are being explored, including back calculating the delivery of sediment to the coastal ocean by plume dimensions observed from space (MODIS, LandSat). These methods have had moderate success when applied to plumes extending in the Greenland fjords. Canada maintains an active circa 7-y satellite program (ArcticNet) to track the Mackenzie discharge during the spring-summer runoff period when turbid river water is apt to flow under and over marginal sea ice in the Beaufort Sea.

  9. Modelling the interaction between the plasma and the neutral gas in a pulsed glow discharge in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Guiberteau, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Zoheir, C.

    1995-12-31

    We present here the first results obtained from the modelling of a pulsed glow discharge in nitrogen, taking into account the heat transfer to the neutral gas. The aim of modelling is to optimize the plasma process in a nitriding reactor. The iron sample to be nitrided forms the cathode of the glow discharge at low pressure (100 to 200 Pa). The reactor uses two disks of diameter 50 mm as electrodes with a 40 mm gap. It works in a pulsed regime (cycle period varies from 10 to 100 ms) with a discharge duration which can be varied from 0.5 to 10 ms. Experimental studies have been carried out using emission spectroscopy resolved in space (1 mm) and time (1 {mu}s), under various discharge and post-discharge durations. These studies have shown the important effect of energy transfer from the discharge to the neutral gas. In fact this transfer produces an expansion of the negative glow observed when the post-discharge duration is decreased. A realistic modelling should thus be performed bearing in mind that the neutral gas behaves not as a thermostat. Consequently the thermal and hydrodynamic evolution of the neutral gas must be considered in the whole modelling.

  10. Characteristics of mesospheric optical emissions produced by lighting discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veronis, Georgios; Pasko, Victor P.; Inan, Umran S.

    1999-06-01

    A new two-dimensional cylindrically symmetric electromagnetic model of the lightning-ionosphere interaction includes effects of both the lightning radiated electromagnetic pulses (EMP) and the quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields, thus allowing effective studies of lightning-ionosphere interactions on time scales ranging from several microseconds to tens of milliseconds. The temporal and spatial evolution of the electric field, lower ionospheric electron density, and optical emissions calculated with the new model are used to investigate theoretically the effects of the lightning return stroke current waveform (i.e., the current rise and fall timescales) and of the observational geometry on the optical signals observed with a photometer. For typical lightning discharges of ~100 μs duration the ionospheric response is dominated by the EMP-induced heating leading to the highly transient and laterally expanding optical flashes known as elves. The optical signal characteristics are found to be highly sensitive to both the observational geometry and the current waveform. The onset delay with respect to the lighting discharge, the duration, and the peak magnitude of optical emissions are highly dependent on the elevation and azimuth angles of field of view of individual photometric pixels. The shape of the optical signal clearly reflects the source current waveform. For a waveshape with risetime of ~50 μs or longer a double-pulse shape of the photometric signal is observed. For cloud to ground lightning discharges of ~1 ms duration removing substantial amount of charge (i.e., ~100 C from 10 km altitude), heating and ionization changes induced by the QE field lead to the mesospheric luminous glows with lateral extent <100 km, referred to as sprites.

  11. Scaling laws and edge effects for polymer surface discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmain, K. G.

    1979-01-01

    Specimens of Mylar sheet were exposed to a 20 kV electron beam. The resulting surface discharge arcs were photographed and the discharge current into a metal backing plate measured as a function of time. The area of the Mylar sheet was defined by a round aperture in a close-fitting metal mask, and the current pulse characteristics were plotted against area on log-log paper. The plots appear as straight lines (due to power-law behavior) with slopes of 0.50 for the peak current, 1.00 for the charge released, 1.49 for the energy and 0.55 for the pulse duration. Evidence is presented for the occurrence of banded charge distributions near grounded edges, on both Teflon and Mylar.

  12. Snowmelt and rain in a marginal snowpack watershed: Amount and duration of water input controls runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Rock, N.

    2013-12-01

    Snowmelt predictably delivers a concentrated pulse of water to watersheds, and therefore structures ecosystems and human water management. The deep irrigation from snowmelt also delivers water effectively to the base of the critical zone in water-limited climates, and hence controls the advance of the weathering front. Changes in snowmelt therefore stand as a prominent concern for the impacts of future climate warming. We use a headwater watershed in the Colorado Front Range to explore the impacts of varying delivery of rain and snow on runoff. Gordon Gulch, a 2.7 km2 forested watershed at 2650 m elevation in the Colorado Front Range, is drained by a small first order stream. A snowpack builds on north-facing slopes, while snow comes and goes on south-facing slopes. In water years 2010-2012, total precipitation ranged from 480 to 560 mm. Total runoff, which ranged from 55 to 102 mm, does not correlate with annual precipitation. Over half of the total annual discharge occurs in a period of a few weeks each year; in two of the study years, peak discharge occurred in spring following snowmelt. In one year, peak discharge was entirely rain driven. In 2010 and 2011, discharge peaked during late spring (May) storms after the snow pack melted. The highest annual runoff, and longest duration high discharge period, occurred in water year 2010. In that year, ablation of most of a ~70 cm snowpack (on N-facing slopes; S facing slopes were bare) was followed by a 25 day stormy period in which ~130 mm of mixed rain and snow fell. Two discharge maxima occurred in response to precipitation events during this wet, post-snowpack period. In total, discharge remained high for ~6 weeks. In water year 2011, a smaller snowpack (max. ~30 cm), and drier spring produced a much more compact high runoff season of ~2 weeks. Although water year 2011 had ~10% more total precipitation, it produced 30% less runoff than water year 2010. A greater proportion of the 2011 precipitation fell in summer

  13. Interplay between river discharge and tides in a delta distributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, Nicoletta; Kolker, Alexander S.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    The hydrodynamics of distributary channels has tremendous impact on nutrient and dissolved oxygen circulation, transport of sediments, and delta formation and evolution; yet many processes acting at the river-marine interface of a delta are poorly understood. This paper investigates the combined effect of river hydrograph and micro-tides on the hydrodynamics of a delta distributary. As the ratio between river flow to tidal flow increases, tidal flood duration at the distributary mouth decreases, up to the point when flow reversal is absent. Field measurements in a distributary of the Apalachicola Delta, Florida, USA, reveal that, once the flow becomes unidirectional, high-discharge events magnify tidal velocity amplitudes. On the contrary, while the flow is bidirectional, increasing fluvial discharge decreases tidal velocity amplitudes down to a minimum value, reached at the limit between bidirectional and unidirectional flow. Due to the different response of the system to tides, the transition from a bidirectional to a unidirectional flow triggers a change in phase lag between high water and high water slack. In the presence of high riverine flow, tidal dynamics also promote seaward directed Eulerian residual currents. During discharge peaks, these residual currents almost double mean velocity values. Our results show that, even in micro-tidal environments, tides strongly impact distributary hydrodynamics during both high and low fluvial discharge regimes.

  14. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  15. Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xuechen; Niu Dongying; Yin Zengqian; Fang Tongzhen; Wang Long

    2012-08-15

    The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

  16. Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Niu, Dongying; Yin, Zengqian; Fang, Tongzhen; Wang, Long

    2012-08-01

    The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

  17. Prolongation of the lifetime of guided discharges triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments up to 130 μs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantchouk, L.; Honnorat, B.; Thouin, E.; Point, G.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2016-04-01

    The triggering and guiding of electric discharges produced in atmospheric air by a compact 100 kV Marx generator is realized in laboratory using an intense femtosecond laser pulse undergoing filamentation. We describe here an approach allowing extending the lifetime of the discharges by injecting a current with an additional circuit. Laser guiding discharges with a length of 8.5 cm and duration of 130 μs were obtained.

  18. Modification of surface layers of copper under the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, M. A.; Akhmadeev, Yu. Kh.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Kolubaeva, Yu. A.; Krysina, O. V.; Kostyrya, I. D.

    2011-05-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the surface of copper specimens are presented. The volumetric (diffuse) discharge in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure was initiated by applying high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration to a tubular foil cathode. It has been found that the treatment of a copper surface by this type of discharge increases the hardness of the surface layer due to oxidation.

  19. Water purification by electrical discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akbar Malik, Salman

    2001-02-01

    There is a continuing need for the development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. Ozonation processes are now replacing conventional chlorination processes because ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent and a more effective disinfectant without any side effects. However, the fact that the cost of ozonation processes is higher than chlorination processes is their main disadvantage. In this paper recent developments targeted to make ozonation processes cheaper by improving the efficiency of ozone generation, for example, by incorporation of catalytic packing in the ozone generator, better dispersion of ozone in water and faster conversion of dissolved ozone to free radicals are described. The synthesis of ozone in electrical discharges is discussed. Furthermore, the generation and plasma chemical reactions of several chemically active species, such as H2O2, Obullet, OHbullet, HO2bullet, O3*, N2*, e-, O2-, O-, O2+, etc, which are produced in the electrical discharges are described. Most of these species are stronger oxidizers than ozone. Therefore, water treatment by direct electrical discharges may provide a means to utilize these species in addition to ozone. Much research and development activity has been devoted to achieve these targets in the recent past. An overview of these techniques and important developments that have taken place in this area are discussed. In particular, pulsed corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and contact glow discharge electrolysis techniques are being studied for the purpose of cleaning water. The units based on electrical discharges in water or close to the water level are being tested at industrial-scale water treatment plants.}

  20. Design of a fast computer-based partial discharge diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva, Jose R.; Karady, G. G.; Domitz, Stan

    1991-01-01

    Partial discharges cause progressive deterioration of insulating materials working in high voltage conditions and may lead ultimately to insulator failure. Experimental findings indicate that deterioration increases with the number of discharges and is consequently proportional to the magnitude and frequency of the applied voltage. In order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of deterioration produced by partial discharges, instrumentation capable of individual pulse resolution is required. A new computer-based partial discharge detection system was designed and constructed to conduct long duration tests on sample capacitors. This system is capable of recording large number of pulses without dead time and producing valuable information related to amplitude, polarity, and charge content of the discharges. The operation of the system is automatic and no human supervision is required during the testing stage. Ceramic capacitors were tested at high voltage in long duration tests. The obtained results indicated that the charge content of partial discharges shift towards high levels of charge as the level of deterioration in the capacitor increases.

  1. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  2. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  3. Magnetic dipole discharges. III. Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2013-08-15

    Instabilities in a cross-field discharge around a permanent magnet have been investigated. The permanent magnet serves as a cold cathode and the chamber wall as an anode. The magnet is biased strongly negative and emits secondary electrons due to impact of energetic ions. The electrons outside the sheath are confined by the strong dipolar magnetic field and by the ion-rich sheath surrounding the magnet. The electron energy peaks in the equatorial plane where most ionization occurs and the ions are trapped in a negative potential well. The discharge mechanism is the same as that of cylindrical and planar magnetrons, but here extended to a 3-D cathode geometry using a single dipole magnet. While the basic properties of the discharge are presented in a companion paper, the present focus is on various observed instabilities. The first is an ion sheath instability which oscillates the plasma potential outside the sheath below the ion plasma frequency. It arises in ion-rich sheaths with low electron supply, which is the case for low secondary emission yields. Sheath oscillations modulate the discharge current creating oscillating magnetic fields. The second instability is current-driven ion sound turbulence due to counter-streaming electrons and ions. The fluctuations have a broad spectrum and short correlation lengths in all directions. The third type of fluctuations is spiky potential and current oscillations in high density discharges. These appear to be due to unstable emission properties of the magnetron cathode.

  4. Pseudospark discharges via computer simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The authors of this paper developed a hybrid fluid-particle (Monte Carlo) model to describe the initiation phase of pseudospark discharges. In this model, time-dependent fluid equations for the electrons and positive ions are solved self-consistently with Poisson's equation for the electric field in a two-dimensional, cylindrically symmetrical geometry. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine the ionization source term in the fluid equations. This model has been used to study the evolution of a discharge in helium at 0.5 torr, with an applied voltage of 2 kV and in a typical pseudospark geometry. From the numerical results, the authors have identified a sequence of physical events that lead to the rapid rise in current associated with the onset of the pseudospark discharge mode. For the conditions the authors have simulated, they find that there is a maximum in the electron multiplication at the time which corresponds to the onset of the hollow cathode effect, and although the multiplication later decreases, it is always greater than needed for a steady-state discharge. Thus the sheaths inside the hollow cathode tend to collapse against the walls, and eventually cathode emission mechanisms (such as field-enhanced thermionic emission) which the authors have not included will start to play a role. In spite of the approximation in this model, the picture which has emerged provides insight into the mechanisms controlling the onset of this potentially important discharge mode.

  5. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  6. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  7. Long duration backlighter experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A. B.; Glendinning, S. G.; Young, P. E.; Hsing, W. W.; Foord, M.; Schneider, M.; Lu, K.; Dittrich, T.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.

    2008-10-15

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {mu}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {mu}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {mu}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  8. Long Duration Exposure Facility: A general overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Lightner, E. Burton

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is a large, low-cost, reusable, unmanned, free-flying spacecraft which accommodates technology, science, and applications experiments for long-term exposure to the space environment. The LDEF was designed and built by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Specifically, the LDEF was designed to transport experiments into space via the Space Shuttle, to free fly in Earth orbit for an extended period, and be retrieved on a later Space Shuttle flight allowing experiments to be returned to Earth for postflight analysis in the laboratory. The LDEF with a full complement of experiments was placed in Earth orbit in April 1984 by Challenger and retrieved from orbit in January 1990 by Columbia. A general overview of the LDEF, its mission, systems, experiments, and operations is presented. Excerpts from various NASA documents are extensively used.

  9. Artificial gravity for long duration spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the fundamental physical properties of gravitational and centrifugal forces, describes the physiological changes that result from long-term exposure to the nearly gravity-free environment of space, and explores the nature of these changes. The paper then cites currently employed and advanced techniques that can be used to prevent some of these changes. Following this review, the paper examines the potential use of artificial gravity as the ultimate technique to maintain terrestrial levels of physiological functioning in space, and indicates some of the critical studies that must be conducted and some of the trade-offs that must be made before artificial gravity can intelligently be used for long duration spaceflight.

  10. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  11. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  12. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  13. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  14. The efficacy of stream power and flow duration on geomorphic responses to catastrophic flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Buraas, E. M.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Geomorphologists have long studied the impacts of extreme floods, yet the association between the magnitude of flow parameters (discharge, velocity, shear stress, or stream power) and resulting geomorphic effectiveness remains vague and non-deterministic. Attempts have been made to include flow duration and total expenditure of stream power, in combination with peak unit stream power, as important variables, but there has been minimal exploration of this hydraulic combination. Taking advantage of Tropical Storm Irene's rapid track through eastern Vermont (USA) in late summer 2011, this paper presents the array of geomorphic responses to a short duration (time to peak of < 8 h) but high magnitude flood that was the twentieth century flood of record for numerous watersheds. We present herein the geomorphic imprint of Tropical Storm Irene flooding within a larger context of fluvial theory concerning the role of, and trade-off between, the magnitude of energy expenditure during a flood and its duration. Focusing on a detailed field effort within the 187-km2 Saxtons River basin in southeastern VT, augmented by select sites along the adjacent lower gradient Williams River (291-km2), we elucidate (1) the geomorphic effects of a short duration flood in a humid, well-vegetated landscape; (2) the relationship between geomorphic response and (a) peak stream power, (b) total stream power, and (c) flow duration of stream power above a critical threshold; and (3) the spatial variation of geomorphic effects relative to reach-scale geologic and geomorphic controls. Flooding associated with Tropical Storm Irene ranged from the 1000 year recurrence interval (RI) flood (based on Weibull flood frequency analysis) to the 300 year RI flood (log Pearson Type III). Discharges spawned a peak unit stream power of 712 W/m2 (Saxtons River) and 361 W/m2 (Williams River), with total energy expenditure throughout the event of ~ 16,000 × 103 and 15,000 × 103 J, respectively. For the Saxtons

  15. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism. PMID:21562672

  16. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  17. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  18. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. Prediction of Daily Flow Duration Curves and Streamflow for Ungauged Catchments Using Regional Flow Duration Curves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents a method to predict flow duration curves (FDCs) and streamflow for ungauged catchments in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA. We selected 29 catchments from the Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont physiographic provinces to develop and test the propo...

  1. Helicon plasma thruster discharge model

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.

    2014-04-15

    By considering particle, momentum, and energy balance equations, we develop a semi-empirical quasi one-dimensional analytical discharge model of radio-frequency and helicon plasma thrusters. The model, which includes both the upstream plasma source region as well as the downstream diverging magnetic nozzle region, is compared with experimental measurements and confirms current performance levels. Analysis of the discharge model identifies plasma power losses on the radial and back wall of the thruster as the major performance reduction factors. These losses serve as sinks for the input power which do not contribute to the thrust, and which reduce the maximum plasma density and hence propellant utilization. With significant radial plasma losses eliminated, the discharge model (with argon) predicts specific impulses in excess of 3000 s, propellant utilizations above 90%, and thruster efficiencies of about 30%.

  2. Helicon plasma thruster discharge model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, T.

    2014-04-01

    By considering particle, momentum, and energy balance equations, we develop a semi-empirical quasi one-dimensional analytical discharge model of radio-frequency and helicon plasma thrusters. The model, which includes both the upstream plasma source region as well as the downstream diverging magnetic nozzle region, is compared with experimental measurements and confirms current performance levels. Analysis of the discharge model identifies plasma power losses on the radial and back wall of the thruster as the major performance reduction factors. These losses serve as sinks for the input power which do not contribute to the thrust, and which reduce the maximum plasma density and hence propellant utilization. With significant radial plasma losses eliminated, the discharge model (with argon) predicts specific impulses in excess of 3000 s, propellant utilizations above 90%, and thruster efficiencies of about 30%.

  3. Stroke rehabilitation and discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter

    Nurses play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process of patients who have had a stroke. The nurse's role in the wider stroke multidisciplinary team is complex and diverse and, as such, stroke nurses may find it hard to describe their role and how it fits into the rehabilitation and discharge planning process. A definition of the stroke nurse role in prominent publications such as those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of Physicians is lacking. This article emphasises the role of the stroke nurse in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process in the stroke unit, while highlighting the complexity, diversity and importance of this role in providing holistic care and support for patients who have survived a stroke. The author draws on his clinical experience of stroke nursing practice in primary, secondary and tertiary care in west central Scotland. PMID:23082362

  4. Bankfull Discharge Using Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leão, J. O.; Silva, J. S.; Research Team Of Rhasa

    2013-05-01

    Satellite altimetry is now a mature tool to collect water levels over large and medium-size rivers. The present study is dedicated to the determination of bankfull discharge using satellite altimetry and imagery to determine hydrological parameters such as the phase of the bankfull discharge at the crossing of the river bed with the ground track of the altimetry missions or the surface slope of the river. We applied the methodology to the two major tributaries of the Amazon river, namely the Rio Madeira and the Rio Negro. The results are a significzant difference in the values of bankfull discharge in the two basins, together with significant difference in along-course slopes, reflecting the difference in geomorphological context between the two watersheds.

  5. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  6. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  7. Environmentally induced discharges on satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of assessing hazards to geosynchronous satellite systems from geomagnetic substorm encounters is investigated. The available space flight data, coupled with analytical modeling studies, show that only relatively low differential charging is possible from environmental encounters. Using an analytical study of a discharge event on SCATHA, a discharge process is postulated where a small amount of charge is lost to space. These characteristics could then be used as inputs to a coupling model to determine the hazard to a spacecraft. The procedure is applied to a three axis stabilized satellite design.

  8. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  9. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  10. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  11. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891... General Program Requirements § 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund reservation for the capital advance is 18 months from the date of issuance with limited exceptions up to 24...

  12. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of leases. 211.27 Section 211.27 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 211.27 Duration of leases. (a) All leases shall be for a term not to exceed a primary term of lease duration of ten (10) years and, absent specific lease provisions to...

  13. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  14. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  15. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  16. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  17. Time in Language: Event Duration in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll-Florit, Marta; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates how we process and represent event duration in on-line language comprehension. Specifically, it examines how events of different duration are processed and what type of knowledge underlies their representations. Studies 1-4 examined verbs and phrases in different contexts. They showed that durative events took longer to…

  18. Decoding stimulus duration from neural responses in the auditory midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Fremouw, Thane; Covey, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Neurons with responses selective for the duration of an auditory stimulus are called duration-tuned neurons (DTNs). Temporal specificity in their spiking suggests that one function of DTNs is to encode stimulus duration; however, the efficacy of duration encoding by DTNs has yet to be investigated. Herein, we characterize the information content of individual cells and a population of DTNs from the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) by measuring the stimulus-specific information (SSI) and estimated Fisher information (FI) of spike count responses. We found that SSI was typically greatest for those stimulus durations that evoked maximum spike counts, defined as best duration (BD) stimuli, and that FI was maximal for stimulus durations off BD where sensitivity to a change in duration was greatest. Using population data, we demonstrate that a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) can accurately decode stimulus duration from evoked spike counts. We also simulated a two-alternative forced choice task by having MLE models decide whether two durations were the same or different. With this task we measured the just-noticeable difference threshold for stimulus duration and calculated the corresponding Weber fractions across the stimulus domain. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the spiking responses of DTNs from the mammalian IC contain sufficient information for the CNS to encode, decode, and discriminate behaviorally relevant auditory signal durations. PMID:25122706

  19. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  20. Autonomous portable pulsed-periodical generator of high-power radiofrequency-pulses based on gas discharge with hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulychev, Sergey V.; Dubinov, Alexander E.; L'vov, Igor L.; Popolev, Vyacheslav L.; Sadovoy, Sergey A.; Sadchikov, Eugeny A.; Selemir, Victor D.; Valiulina, Valeria K.; Vyalykh, Dmitry V.; Zhdanov, Victor S.

    2016-05-01

    Portable autonomous generator of high-power RF-pulses based on the gas discharge with hollow cathode has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Input and output characteristics are the following: discharge current amplitude is 800 A, duration of generated RF-pulses is 350 ns, carrier frequency is ˜90 MHz, power in RF-pulse is 0.5 MW, pulse repetition rate is 0.5 kHz, and device efficiency is ˜25%.

  1. Autonomous portable pulsed-periodical generator of high-power radiofrequency-pulses based on gas discharge with hollow cathode.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, Sergey V; Dubinov, Alexander E; L'vov, Igor L; Popolev, Vyacheslav L; Sadovoy, Sergey A; Sadchikov, Eugeny A; Selemir, Victor D; Valiulina, Valeria K; Vyalykh, Dmitry V; Zhdanov, Victor S

    2016-05-01

    Portable autonomous generator of high-power RF-pulses based on the gas discharge with hollow cathode has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Input and output characteristics are the following: discharge current amplitude is 800 A, duration of generated RF-pulses is 350 ns, carrier frequency is ∼90 MHz, power in RF-pulse is 0.5 MW, pulse repetition rate is 0.5 kHz, and device efficiency is ∼25%. PMID:27250451

  2. What works to improve duration of exclusive breastfeeding: lessons from the exclusive breastfeeding promotion program in rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Susiloretni, Kun Aristiati; Hadi, Hamam; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Soenarto, Yati S; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify determinants of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at the individual, family, community, and organizational level. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a multilevel promotion of EBF program in two rural public health centers (PHCs) in the Demak district, Central Java, Indonesia. The program was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group. A total of 599 participants were enrolled, consisting of 163 mother infant pairs, 163 fathers, 163 grandmothers, 82 community leaders, and 28 midwives. EBF duration and its determinants were measured and analyzed using Cox proportional-hazard model. Mothers with a high level of breastfeeding knowledge had the greatest EBF duration. Mothers who had a knowledge score >80 had a 73 % (HR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.15, 0.48) greater chance of EBF compared to mothers who had a knowledge score of <60. Factors which shortened EBF duration were grandmother's lack of support for EBF (HR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.33, 3.14), received formula samples at discharge (HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.25, 3.16), and maternal experience of breast engorgement (HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.94). High maternal breastfeeding knowledge was the only factor associated with longer duration of EBF. Barriers to EBF were breast engorgement, receiving formula samples at discharge, and a grandmother's lack of support for EBF. PMID:25487415

  3. Modelling the dispersion of radionuclides following short duration releases to rivers: Part 1. Water and sediment.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Bowes, M J; Denison, F H

    2006-09-15

    This paper evaluates and generalises state-of-the-art approaches for modelling short duration liquid discharges of radionuclides ((3)H, (14)C, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (65)Zn, (89)Sr, (90)Sr, (125)I, (131)I, (241)Am, isotopes of Pu and U) to rivers. An advection-dispersion model was parameterised and used to predict the concentrations of radionuclides in the river environment, i.e. in river water, river bed sediment and fish (Part II of this paper covers uptake to fish). The coupled transport and bio-uptake model was used to predict the concentrations of radionuclides in the River Thames, UK, and one of its tributaries as a result of hypothetical short duration discharges. A simplified version of this model was developed and presented as "look-up" graphs. The influence of various environmental parameters on model output was evaluated by sensitivity analysis. Time-integrated water and sediment concentrations and maximum sediment concentrations may be predicted for all rivers on the basis of the river volumetric flow rate only. Maximum concentration in water is, however, also dependent on other river characteristics. For this latter case, generalised modelling approaches are tested for use in situations where detailed hydrological and dispersion data are not available. PMID:16678242

  4. Decomposition of methyl orange using pulsed discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure: Effect of different electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yui; Wahyudiono; Machmudah, Siti; Takada, Noriharu; Kanda, Hideki; Sasaki, Koichi; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-01-01

    One of the new technologies for water treatment is the pulsed discharge plasma method, which utilizes high voltage pulses with a fast rise time and a very short duration. In this study, under argon atmosphere at 313 K, the decoloration of methyl orange was conducted with copper (Cu) and stainless steel #304 (SUS-304) as electrodes in the batch reactor. The performance of pulse discharge plasma generation was observed using an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. The results show that the intermediate compounds from the degradation of methyl orange consist primarily of aromatic compounds containing nitrogen functional groups. At the same number of plasma discharge times, the percentage conversion of methyl orange with Cu as the electrode is higher than that with SUS as the electrode. However, the percentage degradation of methyl orange is over 90% in both cases when the number of plasma discharge times was 20000.

  5. Mapping flood regime descriptors for flow-duration-frequency characterisation at ungauged location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauquet, E.; Leblois, E.; Galéa, G.

    2003-04-01

    Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA) is a commonly used tool for describing the flood regime. However, most often, FFA characterises a flood event only by its instantaneous peak or its maximum daily flow. This information is essential but insufficient for many purposes. Flood severity is not only defined by its peak value, but also by its volume and duration. The recommended method is the flow-duration-frequency (QdF) approach, that is similar to the intensity-duration-frequency analysis (IdF) applied to rainfall. QdF curves can be estimated at ungauged location using an analytical expression derived from regional analysis. To recover these curves where no streamflow data are available, two parameters need to be interpolated: D, a duration related to the flood dynamic behaviour and a flood index, i.e. Q10, the 10-year-return period instantaneous peak flood. It allows estimating any T-year-return period discharge averaged over different durations d. The main problem is the way to estimate these parameters related to an area - the drainage basin - and that are hierarchised by the river network. The presentation is focused on the regionalisation methods of the two parameters D and Q10. Two approaches for interpolation are considered. The first one is based on regression analysis: the two parameters are derived from catchment characteristics. The second one consists in an interpolation of the requested values taking the river network into account within an adapted geostatistical framework. Hypothesis and results are discussed on a case study, the French part of the Mosel basin.

  6. Discharge patterns in the lateral superior olive of decerebrate cats.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nathaniel T; Davis, Kevin A

    2012-10-01

    Anatomical and pharmacological studies have shown that the lateral superior olive (LSO) receives inputs from a number of sources and that LSO cells can alter the balance of their own excitatory and inhibitory drive. It is thus likely that the ongoing sound-evoked responses of LSO cells reflect a complex interplay of excitatory and inhibitory events, which may be affected by anesthesia. The goal of this study was to characterize the temporal discharge patterns of single units in the LSO of unanesthetized, decerebrate cats in response to long-duration ipsilateral best-frequency tone bursts. A decision tree is presented to partition LSO units on the basis of poststimulus time histogram shape, adaptation of instantaneous firing rate as a function of time, and sustained discharge rate. The results suggest that LSO discharge patterns form a continuum with four archetypes: sustained choppers that show two or more peaks of activity at stimulus onset and little adaptation of rate throughout the response, transient choppers that undergo a decrease in rate that eventually stabilizes with time, primary-like units that display an initial peak of activity followed by a monotonic decline in rate to a steady-state value, and onset-sustained units that exhibit an initial peak of activity at stimulus onset followed by a low sustained activity. Compared with the chopper units, the nonchopper units tend to show longer first-spike latencies, lower peak firing rates, and more irregular sustained discharge patterns. Modeling studies show that the full range of LSO response types can be obtained from an underlying sustained chopper by varying the strength and latency of a sound-driven ipsilateral inhibition relative to that of excitation. Together, these results suggest that inhibition plays a major role in shaping the temporal discharge patterns of units in unanesthetized preparations. PMID:22745462

  7. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  8. [Desulphurization with multi-needle-water film electrodes by corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-ran; Li, Guo-feng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2008-09-01

    The study of this paper adopted stainless steel multi-needle as a high voltage electrode system, and water film as low voltage electrode. The electrodes were supplied with negative DC high voltage. Polluted gas containing sulfur dioxide (SO2) flowed into the corona discharge field from the center of the high voltage electrode system in an axis direction, then get across the water surface. Under the effect of corona discharge plasma and water absorption, SO2 was removed by converting it into sulfuric acid. The effect of the three factors which were the applied voltage, SO2 inlet concentration and duration of the exposure to the corona discharge on desulphurization efficiency has been studied mostly. Moreover, the concentrations of SO3(2-) and SO4(2-) ions in the water were measured and the mechanism of desulphurization was analyzed. The results showed that there was a synergistic effect on the removal of SO2 when combining corona discharge and water absorption, and both the desulphurization efficiency and the amount of sulfuric acid increased evidently. As the applied voltage and the duration increased, the desulphurization efficiency increased. Also, the SO2 inlet concentration had effect on desulphurization efficiency. When the SO2 inlet concentration was 430 x 10(-6), the voltage was 14.5 kV and the duration was 7.5 s, a desulphurization efficiency of more than 90% could be attained. PMID:19068659

  9. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Methane Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chong; Fridman, Alexander; Rabinovich, Alexander; Dobrynin, Danil

    2015-09-01

    With the large amount of nature gas discovery every year, there is an increasing interest on modification of methane. The fact that methane is gaseous makes it less economic and efficient than liquid fuel. Here we propose a new way of converting methane from gas phase to liquid phase. Dielectric barrier discharge is used to treat methane and nitrogen mixture bubbles inside of liquid fuel. Nitrogen is here to help activate methane into an excited state, then it is possible for the excited molecules to react with other liquid hydrocarbon. Gaseous methane is converted in to liquid phase when excited methane replace a hydrogen and add onto the carbon chain. In this study some preliminary experiments is done to verify this hypothesis. There is equivalent weight increases with methane and nitrogen mixture discharging in diesel when compare to only nitrogen discharging in diesel. The same experiment have also been done with gas mixture discharged in 1-methylnaphthalene. And FTIR analysis of the after treatment hydrocarbon liquid all indicates that there is an increasing in C-H bond concentration and a decreasing in phenyl ring structure.

  10. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  11. Discharging Student Loans in Bankruptcy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahart, Alan M.

    1978-01-01

    Section 439A of the Education Amendments of 1976 restricts the dischargeability of federal student loans to cases of "undue hardship." The origin, applications, and legal procedures involved in Section 439A and in Section 523(a) of the new Bankruptcy Code are examined and suggestions are made for determining the meaning of "undue hardship." (SF)

  12. Geostatistical prediction of flow-duration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, A.; Castellarin, A.; Brath, A.

    2013-11-01

    We present in this study an adaptation of Topological kriging (or Top-kriging), which makes the geostatistical procedure capable of predicting flow-duration curves (FDCs) in ungauged catchments. Previous applications of Top-kriging mainly focused on the prediction of point streamflow indices (e.g. flood quantiles, low-flow indices, etc.). In this study Top-kriging is used to predict FDCs in ungauged sites as a weighted average of standardised empirical FDCs through the traditional linear-weighting scheme of kriging methods. Our study focuses on the prediction of period-of-record FDCs for 18 unregulated catchments located in Central Italy, for which daily streamflow series with length from 5 to 40 yr are available, together with information on climate referring to the same time-span of each daily streamflow sequence. Empirical FDCs are standardised by a reference streamflow value (i.e. mean annual flow, or mean annual precipitation times the catchment drainage area) and the overall deviation of the curves from this reference value is then used for expressing the hydrological similarity between catchments and for deriving the geostatistical weights. We performed an extensive leave-one-out cross-validation to quantify the accuracy of the proposed technique, and to compare it to traditional regionalisation models that were recently developed for the same study region. The cross-validation points out that Top-kriging is a reliable approach for predicting FDCs, which can significantly outperform traditional regional models in ungauged basins.

  13. NASA long duration balloon capability development project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlik, D.; Craddock, W.

    1993-02-01

    The potential benefits of a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) capability have long been recognized and some modest efforts have previously been undertaken by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF), et. al., going back to the late 1960's. In 1988, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) made a decision to dedicate significant resources toward this effort and a technical and management approach was established. The objective of the project is to develop a near global LDB capability for both Antarctic and mid-latitude applications, including the required telecommunications, navigation and positioning, power, data processing and control systems necessary to conduct flights of scientific experiments weighing 1500 pounds or more on conventional balloons for periods of up to three weeks. The first operational use of the new capability is planned in support of Solar Max experiments in Antarctica during the 1991-1992 austral summer. Development of the Antarctica support system configuration has been initiated and the first test flight was conducted from McMurdo Station in December 1989 - January 1990. The progress, status and future plans for development of the new LDB capability will be discussed.

  14. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  15. Immune changes during short-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R

    1993-09-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight. PMID:8371049

  16. NASA's extended duration orbiter medical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee; Sawin, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The physiological issues involved in safely extending Shuttle flights from 10 to 16 days have been viewed by some as academic. After all, they reasoned, humans already have lived and worked in space for periods exceeding even 28 days in the United States Skylab Program and onboard the Russian space stations. The difference in the Shuttle program is in the physical position of the astronauts as they reenter the Earth's atmosphere. Crewmembers in the earlier Apollo, Skylab, and Russian programs were returned to Earth in the supine position. Space Shuttle crewmembers, in contrast, are seated upright during reentry and landing; reexperiencing the Earth's g forces in this position has far more pronounced effects on the crewmember's physiological functions. The goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Medical Project (EDOMP) has been to ensure that crewmembers maintain physiological reserves sufficient to perform entry, landing, and egress safely. Early in the Shuttle Program, it became clear that physiological deconditioning during space flight could produce significant symptoms upon return to Earth. The signs and symptoms observed during the entry, landing, and egress after Shuttle missions have included very high heart rates and low blood pressures upon standing. Dizziness, 'graying out,' and fainting have occurred on ambulation or shortly thereafter. Other symptoms at landing have included headache, light-headedness, nausea and vomitting, leg cramping, inability to stand for several minutes after wheel-stop, and unsteadiness of gait.

  17. Analysis of the duration of migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Néto, Raimundo Pereira; Almeida, Kelson James; Bernardino, Silvya Neri

    2014-02-15

    To determine the minimum duration of migraine prophylaxis, after patients become pain-free. Migraine patients diagnosed according to criteria of International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 were treated prophylactically. After becoming pain-free, they were divided into two equal groups: in group 1, prophylaxis was maintained for another 12 months and in group 2, for 24 months. Each group was followed for more three years after prophylaxis period. Of the 50 patients, 39 (78%) were female and 11 (22%) were male. The age ranged from 18 to 50 years. Before treatment, the attack frequency for groups 1 and 2 was, respectively, 16.3 ± 12.8 and 16.4 ± 11.8 days per month (p = 0.769). Patients in groups 1 and 2 have become pain-free, respectively, with 21.4 ± 11.2 and 16.8 ± 9.9 months (p = 0.161). During three years without treatment, groups 1 and 2 maintained an annual frequency of respectively 3.2 and 0.5 headache days. Of the patients in group 2, 76.0% (19/25) remained pain-free during follow-up, versus 44.0% (11/25) of group 1, with a significant difference (p=0.001). The best results were obtained when migraine prophylaxis was maintained for 24 months after patients became pain-free. PMID:24308946

  18. Kicking atoms with finite duration pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Julia; Chai, Shijie; Daszuta, Boris; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    The atom optics delta-kicked particle is a paradigmatic system for experimental studies of quantum chaos and classical-quantum correspondence. It consists of a cloud of laser cooled atoms exposed to a periodically pulsed standing wave of far off-resonant laser light. A purely quantum phenomena in such systems are quantum resonances which transfers the atoms into a coherent superposition of largely separated momentum states. Using such large momentum transfer ``beamsplitters'' in atom interferometers may have applications in high precision metrology. The growth in momentum separation cannot be maintained indefinitely due to finite laser power. The largest momentum transfer is achieved by violating the usual delta-kick assumption. Therefore we explore the behavior of the atom optics kicked particle with finite pulse duration. We have developed a semi-classical model which shows good agreement with the full quantum description as well as our experiments. Furthermore we have found a simple scaling law that helps to identify optimal parameters for an atom interferometer. We verify this by measurements of the ``Talbot time'' (a measurement of h/m) which together with other well-known constants constitute a measurement of the fine structure constant.

  19. Motoneuron afterhyperpolarisation duration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Piotrkiewicz, Maria; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Motor unit (MU) potentials were registered from 20 ALS patients and 13 age-matched control individuals during isometric constant force contractions of brachial biceps (BB). The registered signals were decomposed into single MU potential trains. The estimates of duration of the afterhyperpolarisation (AHP) in MNs, derived from the interspike interval variability, was compared between ALS patients (124 MNs) and control subjects (111 MNs) and no significant differences were encountered. However, the relationship between TI and age for patients appeared to be qualitatively different from that of the control group. The dependence of patients’ AHPs on relative force deficit (RFD), which quantified muscle involvement, was more specific. For RFDs below 30%, the AHP estimate was significantly lower than control values and then increased thereafter with increasing RFDs. Moreover, firing rates of patients with the smallest RFDs were significantly higher while firing rates of patients with the greatest RFDs were significantly lower than control values. The AHP shortening in the early stages of muscle impairment is consistent with the decrease in firing threshold of ‘fast’ MNs found in spinal cord slices from neonatal SOD1 mice. The later elongation of the AHP may be caused by the higher vulnerability of ‘fast’ MNs to degeneration and by the influence of reinnervation. Our results are comparable to what has been observed in acute experiments in animal models, providing a bridge between animal and clinical research that may be relevant for identification of mechanism(s) underlying neurodegeneration in ALS. PMID:21486815

  20. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  1. Self synchronization of surface discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegraud, Katia; Rousseau, Antoine

    2008-10-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharges (SDBD) are mainly investigated for airflow control. In this paper, they are used to study surface processes in dielectric barrier discharges. A previous study has shown the self triggered behavior of a SDBD: the plasma initiates through several simultaneous and adjacent filaments around the electrode [1]. This phenomenon has been investigated under the name of collective effects, where the light of a first filament can trigger the ignitions its neighbors [1, 2]. It allows initiating several tens of streamers during a current peak of ˜50 ns. In the present study, we propose to investigate the self synchronization of the discharge in a two electrodes system: the setup consists of two high voltage electrodes on the same glass plate. A third electrode, under the plate, is grounded. ICCD measurements show that the discharge appears simultaneously on both electrodes on a 50 ns time scale. Nanosecond resolved measurements of the streamers propagation reveal that the ignitions on one electrode can be delayed by few nanoseconds in respect to the other one. This means that the discharge from a first electrode can trigger the second one. Finally, iCCD measurements allow calculating the streamers propagation velocity, varying from 3.4x10^7 cm/s at the beginning of the propagation to 0.7x10^7cm/s at the end of the propagation [3]. [1] K. Allegraud, O. Guaitella, A. Rousseau, J. Phys. D. : Appl. Phys. 40 7698--7706 (2007) [2] O. Guaitella, F. Thevenet, C. Guillard, A. Rousseau, J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 39 2964--72 (2006) [3] K. Allegraud, A. Rousseau, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

  2. Serotonin neurons and sleep. I. Long term recordings of dorsal raphe discharge frequency and PGO waves.

    PubMed

    Lydic, R; McCarley, R W; Hobson, J A

    1987-10-01

    Brain stem transection studies suggest that pontine neurons play a key role in regulating the mammalian sleep cycle. The serotonin (5-HT) hypothesis originally postulated that pontine 5-HT containing neurons directly initiated and maintained synchronized or NREM sleep and "primed" rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Contrary to the predictions of this hypothesis, single unit recordings from the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) have uniformly shown that DRN discharge rate is positively correlated with behavioral arousal but negatively correlated with both the NREM and REM phases of sleep. These findings required revision of the original 5-HT hypothesis and suggested instead that DRN discharge may influence the maintenance of behavioral arousal and, by ceasing to discharge, may contribute to the generation of NREM and REM sleep. The purpose of this paper was to quantitatively assess the strength of the correlation between DRN discharge, REM sleep, and PGO waves following the experimental perturbations of the sleep cycle. Since forced locomotor activity is known to powerfully alter the timing of sleep and wakefulness, the present experiments used forced activity in an attempt to dissociate DRN discharge from the sleep cycle. It was hypothesized that such dissociations would suggest DRN discharge is not involved in sleep cycle regulation. Contrastingly, preserved correlations would support the hypothesis of a possible causal relationship between DRN discharge, PGO waves activity, and the timing of sleep and wakefulness. Extracellular recordings were obtained from single cells in the DRN of intact, undrugged cats across greater than 300 sleep cycles with durations ranging from about 8 to 80 mins. Forced activity significantly reduced the amount of time spent in wakefulness and increased the number but not the duration of REM sleep epochs. The results revealed that DRN discharge rate was altered as a function of sleep cycle duration. In no case, however, was forced

  3. Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved barrier discharge produced in trapped helium gas at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Chiper, Alina Silvia; Popa, Gheorghe

    2013-06-07

    Experimental study was made on induced effects by trapped helium gas in the pulsed positive dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in symmetrical electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. Using fast photography technique and electrical measurements, the differences in the discharge regimes between the stationary and the flowing helium are investigated. It was shown experimentally that the trapped gas atmosphere (TGA) has notable impact on the barrier discharge regime compared with the influence of the flowing gas atmosphere. According to our experimental results, the DBD discharge produced in trapped helium gas can be categorized as a multi-glow (pseudo-glow) discharge, each discharge working in the sub-normal glow regime. This conclusion is made by considering the duration of current pulse (few {mu}s), their maximum values (tens of mA), the presence of negative slope on the voltage-current characteristic, and the spatio-temporal evolution of the most representative excited species in the discharge gap. The paper focuses on the space-time distribution of the active species with a view to better understand the pseudo-glow discharge mechanism. The physical basis for these effects was suggested. A transition to filamentary discharge is suppressed in TGA mode due to the formation of supplementary source of seed electrons by surface processes (by desorption of electrons due to vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules, originated from barriers surfaces) rather than volume processes (by enhanced Penning ionisation). Finally, we show that the pseudo-glow discharge can be generated by working gas trapping only; maintaining unchanged all the electrical and constructive parameters.

  4. Recovery of electrical stability in the gaps after a sliding discharge on a dielectric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkov, E. P.; Dashuk, P. N.

    1980-11-01

    Experimental results are presented on the recovery of electrical stability in gaps of air, argon, xenon, SF6, and argon-SF6 mixtures after a sliding discharge on a dielectric surface; pressure was in the range of 2500-9500, discharge current was in the range 2-4000 A, and current pulse duration was in the range 10-20 microsec. It is shown that after the discharge the breakdown voltage of the discharge gaps decreases to 0.1-0.4 U sub 0 (where U sub 0 is the breakdown voltage in the absence of a preliminary discharge) at current pulses of 150-4000 A and 10 microsec, and to 0.2-0.5 U sub 0 at 2-5 A and 10-20 microsec. After a streamer discharge, the breakdown voltage of the gaps decreases to 0.85-0.9 U sub 0; after the leader discharge it decreases to 0.6-0.8 U sub 0 in air, rare gases and the rare gas/SF6 mixture, and to 0.8-0.9 U sub 0 in pure SF6.

  5. Time-resolved measurement of pressure evolution in underwater nanosecond discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinov, Ilya; Guaitella, Olivier; Starikovskaia, Svetlana; Rousseau, Antoine

    2012-10-01

    Electrical discharges in water and other dielectric liquids have been extensively studied since almost fifty years, however reliable data on plasma parameters within the propagation phase is still missing. We report on shadowgraphic imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) both with nanosecond time resolution of pulsed nanosecond discharge generated with point to wire electrode configuration. High voltage pulses of 10 kV and 30 ns duration (FWHM) are delivered by commercial pulse generator FPG 10 (FIG GmbH). Sub-millimeter discharge with filamentary structure develops at 50 km/s in axial direction of pin electrode. Using Hugoniot equations maximal discharge pressure at ignition can be obtained from shock wave front velocity. Analytical model of supersonic cavity expansion based on Kirkwood-Bethe approximation gives discharge pressure evolution from experimentally measured discharge channel expansion velocity profile. Thus, the pressure of 5 GPa is measured at the discharge ignition and drops drastically by the end of voltage pulse. Time-resolved OES spectrum shows a strong broadening of atomic Hydrogen (Balmer series) and oxygen (OI 777 nm) lines with almost continuum emission in the region 300-700 nm. Complex Hα and OI 777 profiles are due to combined contribution of Van Der Waals and Stark broadening. Electronic density can be deduced from lorentzian fit of Stark broadening and gives for electronic density 10^24 - 10^25 m-3.

  6. Magnitude and frequency of peak discharges for Mississippi River Basin Flood of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, W.O., Jr.; Eash, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of the 1993 peak discharges in the upper Mississippi River Basin are characterized by applying Bulletin 17B and L-moment methods to annual peak discharges at 115 unregulated watersheds in the basin. The analysis indicated that the 1993 flood was primarily a 50-year or less event on unregulated watersheds less than about 50,000 km2 (20,000 mi2). Of the 115 stations analyzed, the Bulletin 17B and L-moment methods were used to identify 89 and 84 stations, respectively, having recurrence intervals of 50 years or less, and 31 and 26 stations, respectively, having recurrence intervals greater than 50 years for the 1993 peak discharges. The 1993 flood in the upper Mississippi River Basin was significant in terms of (a) peak discharges with recurrence intervals greater than 50 years at approximately 25 percent of the stations analyzed, (b) peak discharges of record at 33 of the 115 stations analyzed, (c) extreme magnitude, duration, and areal extent of precipitation, (d) flood volumes with recurrence intervals greater than 100 years at many stations, and (e) extreme flood damage and loss of lives. Furthermore, peak discharges on several larger, regulated watersheds also exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval. However, for about 75 percent of the 115 unregulated stations in the analysis, the frequency of the 1993 peak discharges was less than a 50-year event.

  7. A joined multi-metric calibration of river discharge and nitrate loads with different performance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Marcelo B.; Guse, Björn; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Hydrological models are useful tools to investigate hydrology and water quality in catchments. The calibration of these models is a crucial step to adapt the model to the catchment conditions, allowing effective simulations of environmental processes. In the model calibration, different performance measures need to be considered to represent different hydrology and water quality conditions in combination. This study presents a joined multi-metric calibration of discharge and nitrate loads simulated with the ecohydrological model SWAT. For this purpose, a calibration approach based on flow duration curves (FDC) is advanced by also considering nitrate duration curves (NDC). Five segments of FDCs and of NDCs are evaluated separately to consider the different phases of hydrograph and nitrograph. To consider both magnitude and dynamics in river discharge and nitrate loads, the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) is used additionally as a statistical performance metric to achieve a joined multi-variable calibration. The results show that a separate assessment of five different magnitudes improves the calibrated nitrate loads. Subsequently, adequate model runs with good performance for different hydrological conditions both for discharge and nitrate are detected in a joined approach based on FDC, NDC, and KGE. In that manner, plausible results were obtained for discharge and nitrate loads in the same model run. Using a multi-metric performance approach, the simultaneous multi-variable calibration led to a balanced model result for all magnitudes of discharge and nitrate loads.

  8. Blue and green jets in laboratory discharges initiated by runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloplotov, D. V.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    Spectral and amplitude-temporal characteristics of plasma radiation of nanosecond pulse-periodic discharge in air, nitrogen and argon in pressure range of 30-760 Torr were investigated. Discharge gap geometry was a “point-to-plane”. Voltage pulses of negative polarity (amplitude, FWHM and risetime was 13 kV, 10 ns and 4 ns, respectively) were applied to a pointed cathode made of different metals (stainless steel, aluminum and copper). Jets of different colour were observed near a cathode tip. They are formed due to explosive emission. Colour of jets depends on the cathode material. Intense lines of the atoms and ions of iron in the wavelength range of 200-600 nm, aluminum with λ = 394.4, 396.15 nm, including multiply charged ion Al VI with λ = 360.39 and 361.65 nm, copper with λ = 324.8, 327.3, 510.6, 515.3, 521.8, 522 nm were registered. The resonance energy transfer from metastable A3Π+u level of nitrogen molecule to 3d104p level of Cu I was found. As a result a luminescence duration of Cu I was about 1.5 μs at duration of discharge current of 1.5 ps. During constriction of the diffuse discharge the sputtering of material occurs in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the discharge gap.

  9. Electromuscular incapacitating devices discharge and risk of severe bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Havranek, Stepan; Neuzil, Petr; Linhart, Ales

    2015-06-01

    Electromuscular incapacitating devices (EMDs) are high-voltage, low-current stimulators causing involuntary muscle contractions and sensory response. Existing evidence about cardiac effects of EMD remains inconclusive. The aim of our study was to analyze electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) changes induced by EMD discharge.We examined 26 volunteers (22 men; median age 30 years) who underwent single standard 5-second duration exposure to TASER X26 under continuous echocardiographic and electrocardiographic monitoring. Microvolt T-wave alternans testing was performed at baseline (MTWA-1), as well as immediately and 60 minutes after EMD exposure (MTWA-2 and MTWA-3, respectively).Mean heart rate (HR) increased significantly from 88 ± 17 beats per minute before to 129 ± 17 beats per minute after exposure (P < 0.001). However, in 2 individuals, an abrupt decrease in HR was observed. In one of them, interval between two consecutive beats increased up to 1.7 seconds during the discharge. New onset of supraventricular premature beats was observed after discharge in 1 patient. Results of MTWA-1, MTWA-2, and MTWA-3 tests were positive in one of the subjects, each time in a different case.Standard EMD exposure can be associated with a nonuniform reaction of HR and followed by heart rhythm disturbances. New MTWA positivity can reflect either the effect of EMD exposure or a potential false positivity of MTWA assessments. PMID:25710795

  10. Electromuscular Incapacitating Devices Discharge and Risk of Severe Bradycardia

    PubMed Central

    Havranek, Stepan; Neuzil, Petr; Linhart, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Electromuscular incapacitating devices (EMDs) are high-voltage, low-current stimulators causing involuntary muscle contractions and sensory response. Existing evidence about cardiac effects of EMD remains inconclusive. The aim of our study was to analyze electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) changes induced by EMD discharge. We examined 26 volunteers (22 men; median age 30 years) who underwent single standard 5-second duration exposure to TASER X26 under continuous echocardiographic and electrocardiographic monitoring. Microvolt T-wave alternans testing was performed at baseline (MTWA-1), as well as immediately and 60 minutes after EMD exposure (MTWA-2 and MTWA-3, respectively). Mean heart rate (HR) increased significantly from 88 ± 17 beats per minute before to 129 ± 17 beats per minute after exposure (P < 0.001). However, in 2 individuals, an abrupt decrease in HR was observed. In one of them, interval between two consecutive beats increased up to 1.7 seconds during the discharge. New onset of supraventricular premature beats was observed after discharge in 1 patient. Results of MTWA-1, MTWA-2, and MTWA-3 tests were positive in one of the subjects, each time in a different case. Standard EMD exposure can be associated with a nonuniform reaction of HR and followed by heart rhythm disturbances. New MTWA positivity can reflect either the effect of EMD exposure or a potential false positivity of MTWA assessments. PMID:25710795

  11. System and method for altering characteristics of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit

    2003-06-03

    System and method for oxidizing contaminants to alter specific properties, such as tack, of contaminants. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater. An electrical discharge in the liquid medium oxidizes materials, which may be dissolved or suspended therein, such as stickies, pitch, sulfide, ink, toner, and other substances, thereby reducing tack, odor, and/or zeta potential, as well as producing other desirable effect.

  12. Method for visualizing gas temperature distributions around hypersonic vehicles by using electric discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Masatomi

    1993-06-01

    A method for visualizing qualitative gas temperature distributions around hypersonic vehicles by taking a photograph of the electric discharge is proposed. A gas temperature distribution over a slightly blunted wedge is visualized using the electric discharge generated by a pair of point-line electrodes. A hypersonic tunnel used for the experiment is characterized by Mach 10, a freestream duration of 10 ms, and a stagnation temperature of the tunnel barrel of 1000 K. It is concluded that the photograph shows a radiation spectrum contrast near the model surface, from which a temperature layer is seen.

  13. Surge discharge capability and thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, M.; Kojima, S.; Nishiwaki, S.; Sato, T.; Yanabu, S.

    1983-02-01

    The surge discharge capability and the thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester were examined experimentally. It was found that the breakdown energy is nearly the same against the switching surge and the temporary overvoltage of various peak values and time durations. Heat dissipation capability of an 84kV porcelain-type model arrester was examined and found to be less than that of a small model unit, while this relation of the value had been considered opposite in a previously published paper. From these experimental data, the limit at high operation stress was found to be determined by the thermal stability rather than by the discharge capability

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Asymmetric surface barrier discharge plasma driven by pulsed 13.56 MHz power in atmospheric pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedrick, J.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2010-09-01

    Barrier discharges are a proven method of generating plasmas at high pressures, having applications in industrial processing, materials science and aerodynamics. In this paper, we present new measurements of an asymmetric surface barrier discharge plasma driven by pulsed radio frequency (rf 13.56 MHz) power in atmospheric pressure air. The voltage, current and optical emission of the discharge are measured temporally using 2.4 kVp-p (peak to peak) 13.56 MHz rf pulses, 20 µs in duration. The results exhibit different characteristics to plasma actuators, which have similar discharge geometry but are typically driven at frequencies of up to about 10 kHz. However, the electrical measurements are similar to some other atmospheric pressure, rf capacitively coupled discharge systems with symmetric electrode configurations and different feed gases.

  15. Internal dynamics of electrical discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kadish, A.; Maier, W.B. II ); Robiscoe, R.T. )

    1990-01-01

    The existence of thresholds for electrical discharge onset suggests a functional relation between macroscopic resistivity and current. At low current, the resistivity should be inversely proportional to the magnitude of the current. Macroscopic models which employ this scaling predict many empirically observed properties of transient electrical discharges, such as (1) thresholds for onset of current, (2) abrupt termination of current in active regions of a current channel, (3) current restart in passive regions of current channels, (4) leaders, and (5) residual charge, both in channels and at sources when current terminates. We present an overview of research with these models and use examples to illustrate the results that have been obtained. We also show how these models predict current channel formation and describe results of efforts to benchmark theory with experimental data. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  17. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-01

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  18. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  19. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1115 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 154.1115 Discharge. (a) The discharge density of each water spray system must be at least: (1) 10000...) against vertical surface, including the water rundown. (b) The water spray protection under § 154.1110...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1115 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 154.1115 Discharge. (a) The discharge density of each water spray system must be at least: (1) 10000...) against vertical surface, including the water rundown. (b) The water spray protection under § 154.1110...

  3. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  4. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  5. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Falkenstein, Z.

    1998-12-31

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. Here, the application of DBDs for ozone synthesis, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air, the generation of incoherent (V)UV radiation and surface processing (etching, ashing) is presented. The main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidally-driven DBDs (transient, filamented, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) are described, and a simple plasmachemical reaction pathway for ozone synthesis are give. Experimental results on the degradation of VOCs (2-propanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride), as well as byproduct formation is presented for stand-alone DBD treatment, as well as for simultaneous (V)UV illumination of the discharge. Illumination of the discharge with (V)UV can change the plasmachemistry by enhanced formation of certain species of radicals--and thereby change byproduct formation--but also can change the discharge physics, known as the Joshi effect. As an example for generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent UV light, experimental results on a XeBr* excimer UV light source are presented. Effects of the total and partial pressure of a Xe/Br{sub 2} system, the gap spacing and the applied driving frequency on the UV radiant efficiency are shown. For the application of DBDs for surface processing, experimental results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers using DBDs in oxygen are shown function of gas pressure, gap spacing and applied frequency.

  6. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  7. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required

  8. Estimating stream discharge using stage and multi-level acoustic Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, J. B.; Rasmussen, K.; Ledet Jensen, J.; Bering Ovesen, N.

    2011-12-01

    For temperate region countries with small or moderately sized streams, such as those in Denmark, seasonal weed growth imposes a significant temporal change of the stage-discharge relation. In the past such problems were often avoided by using hydraulic structures, however, firm ecology based restrictions prevent that hydraulic structures are made at the discharge stations presently. As a consequence, the nonlinear drift in weed density and structure adds a significant uncertainty to the hydrograph. Furthermore, the expected increase in extreme discharge situations due to climate changes in the Northern part of Europe may further violate a stable relation between stage and discharge in streams. Extreme high flow situations cause abrupt rise in stage, and consequently weed can be partly uprooted and partly bend down along the bed, thereby changing the conveyance of the stream. In addition, extreme high flow situations can cause the streams to flood the banks. If these hydraulic changes occur in between direct measurements of discharge they are not detected or accounted for in the stage-discharge relation, and the hydrograph can be significantly biased. The objective of this research is to investigate how both seasonal and short duration changes in weed distribution and abrupt changes in stage are recognized in the stream's velocity gradient. It is examined whether the use of multi-level acoustic Doppler velocimetry can provide an improved method for hydrograph estimation with lower uncertainty than traditional stage-discharge methods. In this presentation we shall present results from a study where, at two sites in Denmark, the stream velocity field has been mapped by the use of three Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter (ADVM) instruments. The ADVM instruments are mounted in three different depths, continuously measuring horizontal average water velocities. Velocity and stage data are selected from one summer and two winter periods, and a method for converting velocity

  9. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  10. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  11. Flow duration of Kentucky streams through 1990; historical and monthly flow characteristics, including the effects of reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, K.J.; Burns, R.J.; Martin, G.R.; Allgeier, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents flow-duration tables and plots for selected streamflow sites in Kentucky with three or more years of continuous record through 1990. Flow duration describes the frequency with which given streamflows are equalled or exceeded. The flow-duration tables were computed using daily mean discharge values for the entire period specified and for each month of the period specified. Only complete years of record were used for the computation. For sites where the streamflow is affected by regulation, separate tables are presented for the period before regulation (unregulated), the period of record after regulation (regulated) and the entire period of record (historical). Flow-duration plots are also presented for each station using the data for the entire period specified. Where practicable, several flow-duration plots are shown together. This includes stations on the same stream, such as main-stem stations, and stations within the same watershed. For stations affected by regulation, which have up to three sets of data available for one station (unregulated, regulated, and historical), the three plots are shown together to clearly illustrate the influence of regulation in augmenting low flows and reducing high flows.

  12. 25 CFR 162.607 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Duration of leases. 162.607 Section 162.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.607 Duration of leases. Leases granted or approved under this part shall be limited to the minimum duration, commensurate with the...

  13. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level...

  14. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level...

  15. Acoustic Doppler discharge-measurement system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Michael R.; Oltmann, Richard N.

    1990-01-01

    A discharge-measurement system that uses a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler has been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey. Discharge measurements using the system require a fraction of the time needed for conventional current-meter discharge measurements and do not require shore-based navigational aids or tag lines for positioning the vessel.

  16. Flood discharge measurement of mountain rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.

    2012-11-01

    An efficient method that accounts for personal safety, accuracy and reliability for measuring flood discharge of mountain rivers is proposed. It is composed of new measurement method, tools, and techniques. Measuring flood discharge from mountain rivers by using conventional method is costly, time-consuming, and dangerous. Thus previous discharge measurements for mountainous areas were typically based on estimated precipitation, which alone cannot generate accurate measurements. This study applies a novel flood discharge measurement system composed of an Acoustic Doppler Profiler and crane system to accurately and quickly measure velocity distributions and water depths. Moreover a novel and efficient method for measuring discharge, which is based on the relationship between mean and maximum velocities and the relationship between cross-sectional area and gauge height is applied to estimate flood discharge. Flood discharge from mountain rivers can be estimated easily and rapidly by measuring maximum velocity in the river crosssection and the gauge height. The measured flood discharges can be utilized to create a reliable stage-discharge relationship for continuous estimations of discharge using records of water stage. The proposed method was applied to the Nanshih River, Taiwan. Results of measured discharges and estimated discharges only slightly differed from each other, demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  18. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  19. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  20. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge. 32.89 Section 32.89 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR... Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  1. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  2. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  3. 46 CFR 108.453 - Discharge outlets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge outlets. 108.453 Section 108.453 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.453 Discharge outlets. Each discharge outlet must be of...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1115 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 154.1115 Discharge. (a) The discharge density of each water spray system must be at least: (1) 10000... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge. 154.1115 Section 154.1115 Shipping COAST...) against vertical surface, including the water rundown. (b) The water spray protection under § 154.1110...

  5. 14 CFR § 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... event for declassification based on the duration of the national security sensitivity of the information... original classification authority otherwise determines that the sensitivity of the information...

  6. Short-wavelength ablation of solids: pulse duration and wavelength effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juha, Libor; Bittner, Michal; Chvostova, Dagmar; Letal, Vit; Krasa, Josef; Otcenasek, Zdenek; Kozlova, Michaela; Polan, Jiri; Prag, Ansgar R.; Rus, Bedrich; Stupka, Michal; Krzywinski, Jacek; Andrejczuk, Andrzej; Pelka, Jerzy B.; Sobierajski, Ryszard H.; Ryc, Leszek; Feldhaus, Josef; Boody, Frederick P.; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Bartnik, Andrzej; Mikolajczyk, Janusz; Rakowski, Rafal; Kubat, P.; Pina, Ladislav; Grisham, Michael E.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Menoni, Carmen S.; Rocca, Jorge J. G.

    2004-11-01

    For conventional wavelength (UV-Vis-IR) lasers delivering radiation energy to the surface of materials, ablation thresholds, ablation (etch) rates, and the quality of ablated structures often differ dramatically between short (typically nanosecond) and ultrashort (typically femtosecond) pulses. Various short-wavelength (l < 100 nm) lasers emitting pulses with durations ranging from ~ 10 fs to ~ 1 ns have recently been put into a routine operation. This makes it possible to investigate how the ablation characteristics depend on the pulse duration in the XUV spectral region. 1.2-ns pulses of 46.9-nm radiation delivered from a capillary-discharge Ne-like Ar laser (Colorado State University, Fort Collins), focused by a spherical Sc/Si multilayer-coated mirror were used for an ablation of organic polymers and silicon. Various materials were irradiated with ellipsoidal-mirror-focused XUV radiation (λ = 86 nm, τ = 30-100 fs) generated by the free-electron laser (FEL) operated at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF1 FEL) in Hamburg. The beam of the Ne-like Zn XUV laser (λ = 21.2 nm, τ < 100 ps) driven by the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) was also successfully focused by a spherical Si/Mo multilayer-coated mirror to ablate various materials. Based on the results of the experiments, the etch rates for three different pulse durations are compared using the XUV-ABLATOR code to compensate for the wavelength difference. Comparing the values of etch rates calculated for short pulses with those measured for ultrashort pulses, we can study the influence of pulse duration on XUV ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiencies measured with short pulses at various wavelengths (i.e. 86/46.9/21.2 nm from the above-mentioned lasers and ~ 1 nm from the double stream gas-puff Xe plasma source driven by PALS) show that the wavelength influences the etch rate mainly through the different attenuation lengths.

  7. Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

    1999-02-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

  8. Production of runaway electrons by negative streamer discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanrion, O.; Neubert, T.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we estimate the probability that cold electrons can be accelerated by an ambient electric field into the runaway regime, and discuss the implications for negative streamer formation. The study is motivated by the discovery of ms duration bursts of γ-rays from the atmosphere above thunderstorms, the so-called Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes. The radiation is thought to be bremsstrahlung from energetic (MeV) electrons accelerated in a thunderstorm discharge. The observation goes against conventional wisdom that discharges in air are carried by electrons with energies below a few tens of eV. Instead the relativistic runaway electron discharge has been proposed which requires a lower threshold electric field; however, seed electrons must be born with energies in the runaway regime. In this work we study the fundamental problem of electron acceleration in a conventional discharge and the conditions on the electric field for the acceleration of electrons into the runaway regime. We use particle codes to describe the process of stochastic acceleration and introduce a novel technique that improves the statistics of the relatively few electrons that reach high energies. The calculation of probabilities for electrons to reach energies in the runaway regime shows that even with modest fields, electrons can be energized in negative streamer tips into the runaway regime, creating a beamed distribution in front of the streamer that affects its propagation. The results reported here suggest that theories of negative streamers and spark propagation should be reexamined with an improved characterization of the kinetic effects of electrons.

  9. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  10. Electron emission mechanism during the nanosecond high-voltage pulsed discharge in pressurized air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, D.; Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-02-01

    A comparison between the results of x-ray absorption spectroscopy of runaway electrons (RAEs) generated during nanosecond timescale high-voltage (HV) gas discharge and the simulated attenuation of the x-ray flux produced by the runaway electron spectrum calculated using particle-in-cell numerical modeling of such a type of discharge is presented. The particle-in-cell simulation considered the field and explosive emissions (EEs) of the electrons from the cathode. It is shown that the field emission is the dominant emission mechanism for the short-duration (<2.5 ns) high-voltage pulses, while for the long-duration (>5 ns) high-voltage pulses, the explosive emission is likely to play a significant role.

  11. Variables associated with vaginal discharge after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation for adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Jing; Han, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Bing-Song; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiu-Mei; Ge, Hai-Long; Dong, Xue-Juan

    2016-08-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the significant variables for vaginal discharge after ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) therapy. Materials and methods PMWA was performed on 117 patients with adenomyosis from October 2012 to July 2014. The presence or absence, colour, quantity and duration of vaginal discharge, which was different from pre-ablation, were recorded within 1 year after PMWA. Patients were categorised into G1 (n = 26, without vaginal discharge), G2 (n = 40, vaginal discharge lasting 1 to 19 days), and G3 (n = 51, vaginal discharge lasting ≥20 days) groups. The potentially correlative variables were analysed. Variables with significant correlations with vaginal discharge post-ablation were identified via binary logistic regression analysis. Results The differences in adenomyosis type, pre-ablation uterine volume, total microwave ablation energy, total non-perfused volume (NPV) and minimum distance from the non-perfused lesion (NPL) margin to the endomyometrial junction (EMJ) among groups were statistically significant (p = 0.005, p = 0.000, p = 0.000, p = 0.005 and p = 0.000, respectively). Minimum distance from the NPL margin to the EMJ was the strongest predictor of vaginal discharge post-ablation with odds ratio (OR) 0.632, p = 0.018, 95% CI 0.432-0.923. Patients with diffuse adenomyosis were more likely to have prolonged vaginal discharge (≥20 days) post-ablation (OR 3.461, p = 0.000, 95% CI 1.759-7.536). Conclusion The minimum distance from the NPL margin to the EMJ and adenomyosis type were significantly associated with vaginal discharge post-ablation. PMID:27087631

  12. Characteristics of charge and discharge of PMMA samples due to electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guo-Bao; Wang, Fang; Hu, Tian-Cun; Cao, Meng

    2015-11-01

    In this study, using a comprehensive numerical simulation of charge and discharge processes, we investigate the formation and evolution of negative charge and discharge characteristics of a grounded PMMA film irradiated by a nonfocused electron beam. Electron scattering and transport processes in the sample are simulated with the Monte Carlo and the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) methods, respectively. The properties of charge and discharge processes are presented by the evolution of internal currents, charge quantity, surface potential, and discharge time. Internal charge accumulation in the sample may reach saturation by primary electron (PE) irradiation providing the charge duration is enough. Internal free electrons will run off to the ground in the form of leakage current due to charge diffusion and drift during the discharge process after irradiation, while trapped electrons remain. The negative surface potential determined by the charging quantity decreases to its saturation in the charge process, and then increases in the discharge process. A larger thickness of the PMMA film will result in greater charge amount and surface potential in charge saturation and in final discharge state, while the electron mobility of the material has little effects on the final discharge state. Moreover, discharge time is less for smaller thickness or larger electron mobility. The presented results can be helpful for estimating and weakening the charging of insulating samples especially under the intermittent electron beam irradiation in related surface analysis or measurement. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175140 and 11004157) and the Foundation of National Key Laboratory of Space Microwave Technology of China (Grant No. 9140C530101130C53013).

  13. Effects of Weather Variables on Ascospore Discharge from Fusarium graminearum Perithecia

    PubMed Central

    Manstretta, Valentina; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a predominant component of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex of small grain cereals. Ascosporic infection plays a relevant role in the spread of the disease. A 3-year study was conducted on ascospore discharge. To separate the effect of weather on discharge from the effect of weather on the production and maturation of ascospores in perithecia, discharge was quantified with a volumetric spore sampler placed near maize stalk residues bearing perithecia with mature ascospores; the residues therefore served as a continuous source of ascospores. Ascospores were discharged from perithecia on 70% of 154 days. Rain (R) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were the variables that most affected ascospore discharge, with 84% of total discharges occurring on days with R≥0.2 mm or VPD≤11 hPa, and with 70% of total ascospore discharge peaks (≥ 30 ascospores/m3 air per day) occurring on days with R≥0.2 mm and VPD≤6.35 hPa. An ROC analysis using these criteria for R and VPD provided True Positive Proportion (TPP) = 0.84 and True Negative Proportion (TNP) = 0.63 for occurrence of ascospore discharge, and TPP = 0.70 and TNP = 0.89 for occurrence of peaks. Globally, 68 ascospores (2.5% of the total ascospores sampled) were trapped on the 17 days when no ascospores were erroneously predicted. When a discharge occurred, the numbers of F. graminearum ascospores sampled were predicted by a multiple regression model with R2 = 0.68. This model, which includes average and maximum temperature and VPD as predicting variables, slightly underestimated the real data and especially ascospore peaks. Numbers of ascospores in peaks were best predicted by wetness duration of the previous day, minimum temperature, and VPD, with R2 = 0.71. These results will help refine the epidemiological models used as decision aids in FHB management programs. PMID:26402063

  14. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population

    PubMed Central

    Dobing, Selina; Frolova, Natalia; McAlister, Finlay

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep. Methods GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH) questionnaire, to characterize the previous night’s sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use. Results Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001). Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371), effectiveness (190), and supplementation (115) subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%), nursing interruptions (30%), uncomfortable beds (18%), bright lights (16%), unfamiliar surroundings (14%), and pain (9%). Conclusions Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients. PMID:27280292

  15. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Böhm, Patrick S.; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Adamovich, Igor V.; Lempert, Walter R.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ~100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns-1. The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (~100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ~1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85-95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen curve for

  16. The Impact of Attention on Judgments of Frequency and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested. PMID:26000712

  17. Effect of pulsation rest phase duration on teat end congestion.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Penry, J F; Rasmussen, M D; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of d-phase (rest phase) duration of pulsation on the teat canal cross-sectional area during the period of peak milk flow from bovine teats. A secondary objective was to test if the effect of d-phase duration on teat canal cross-sectional area was influenced by milking system vacuum level, milking phase (b-phase) duration, and liner overpressure. During the d-phase of the pulsation cycle, liner compression facilitates venous flow and removal of fluids accumulated in teat-end tissues. It was hypothesized that a short-duration d-phase would result in congestion of teat-end tissue and a corresponding reduction in the cross-sectional area of the teat canal. A quarter milking device, designed and built at the Milking Research and Instruction Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was used to implement an experiment to test this hypothesis. Pulsator rate and ratios were adjusted to achieve 7 levels of d-phase duration: 50, 100, 150, 175, 200, 250, and 300ms. These 7 d-phase durations were applied during one milking session and were repeated for 2 vacuum levels (40 and 50kPa), 2 milking phase durations (575 and 775ms), and 2 levels of liner overpressure (9.8 and 18kPa). We observed a significant reduction in the estimated cross-sectional area of the teat canal with d-phase durations of 50 and 100ms when compared with d-phase durations of 150, 175, 225, 250, and 300ms. No significant difference was found in the estimated cross-sectional area of the teat canal for d-phase durations from 150 to 300ms. No significant interaction was observed between the effect of d-phase and b-phase durations, vacuum level, or liner overpressure. PMID:26947293

  18. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (≥ 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  19. Size study of dust produced in a CCP RF discharge for the simulation of Titan's chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, G.; Cernogora, G.; Hadamcik, E.; Szopa, C.; Renard, J. B.

    2008-09-07

    A radio-frequency discharge in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} gaseous mixture is used to reproduce Titan's aerosols. To understand the dust growth mechanisms, the effect of different parameters on their size is studied. It is shown that the tholins are bigger for a large amount of methane and for a lower gas flow in the plasma. The evolution of tholins' size with plasma duration is also presented.

  20. Ignition probabilities of wildland fuels based on simulated lightning discharges. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, D.J.; Schlieter, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    Ignition of wildland fine fuels by lightning was simulated with an electric arc discharge in the laboratory. The results showed that fuel parameters such as depth, moisture content, bulk density, and mineral content can be combined with the duration of the simulated continuing current to give ignition probabilities. The fuel state parameters of importance and the ignition probabilities were determined using logistic regression. Graphs, tables, formulas, and a FORTRAN computer program are given for field use.

  1. System and method for altering the tack of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Corcoran, Howard

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for altering the tack of a material, namely a polymer used as an adhesive, also known as stickies, or pitch. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater.

  2. System and method for altering the tack of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Corcoran, Howard

    2007-11-13

    A system and method for altering the tack of a material, namely a polymer used as an adhesive, also known as stickies, or pitch. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater.

  3. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  4. Understanding and execution of discharge instructions.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Eric A; Chugh, Amita; Williams, Mark V; Grigsby, Jim; Glasheen, Jeffrey J; McKenzie, Marlene; Min, Sung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Discharge from the acute care hospital is increasingly recognized as a time of heightened vulnerability for lapses in safety and quality. The capacity of patients to understand and execute discharge instructions is critical to promote effective self-care. This study explores factors that predict understanding and execution of discharge instructions in a sample of 237 recently discharged older adults. A study nurse conducted a postdischarge home visit to ascertain patient understanding and assess execution of instructions. Health literacy, cognition, and self-efficacy were important predictors of successful understanding and execution of instructions. Neither discharge diagnosis nor complexity of discharge instructions was found to be a significant predictor of these outcomes. Results indicate a need to implement reliable protocols that identify patients at risk for poor understanding and execution of hospital discharge instructions and provide customized approaches to meet them at their respective levels. PMID:23354870

  5. Application of Micro Discharge for Air Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Takeki; L. S., Manisha Nishamani; Kanamori, Masaki

    Micro discharge is investigated which is occurred with a pair of electrodes covered with dielectric barrier. The discharge gap is set at an order of micro meters by changing a spacer from 0 to 100μm. Paschen's law states the minimum sparking voltage of various gases for respective discharge gaps in atmospheric pressure. In this paper, characteristics of micro discharges, such as discharge voltages, discharge currents, discharge power, which is obtained with the help of Lissajous figures, and the relationships between these characteristics are presented. Characteristics of ozone generation and treatment of high concentration NOx, which is contained in exhaust gas of automobiles, are investigated. Byproducts are confirmed by FT-IR and GC-MS.

  6. Impedances of Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF satellite) and comparison with cells stored terrestrially

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1991-11-01

    Impedances were measured on several Li/SO2 cells retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite. These cells were used to power instruments and recorders and had all been partially or fully discharged. Impedances were also measured on several cells that were stored in cold storage since manufacture. Unfortunately, none of the cells stored terrestrially had undergone any discharge, whereas all of the cells on the satellite were at least partially discharged early in the mission and then remained on orbit for about 5 years further. It has been observed by others that storage of an Li/SO2 cell after partial discharge, increases the resistance and thickness of the passive film on the Li electrode, as indicated by an increase in the time for recovery of voltage when a load is applied (voltage lag), or in some cases by an inability of a cell to sustain a normal current after such storage. Since the cells stored terrestrially were not discharged in the same manner as the LDEF cells, a direct comparison cannot be made. Thus, the effects of the space environment cannot be separated from the effects of storage after partial discharge. It is believed that the increases in impedance in the LDEF cells are largely due to the storage upon partial discharge rather than the effects of the space environment.

  7. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  8. Analysis of Charge Redistribution During Self-discharge of Double-Layer Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yin, Yajiang; You, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Self-discharge is an important factor that severely affects the performance of double-layer supercapacitors. This paper studies the self-discharge behavior of double-layer supercapacitors with experimental and modeling methods. The movement of ions, side-reactions, and instability of the double layer are taken into consideration. The influence of various factors, such as the initial voltage, charge duration, short-term history, and current, on the self-discharge is simulated, showing good agreement with experimental data. The simulation of the ion distribution also gives a detailed explanation of the mechanism of self-discharge and verifies the interpretation of the relaxation process proposed in a recent study. It further clarifies the key role of the charging/discharging current in influencing charge redistribution during self-discharge, which was neglected in previous studies. The results show that the relaxation period during which the supercapacitor loses energy very quickly is due to the unbalanced distribution of ions, and it could be avoided by further charging or by applying a small charging current.

  9. Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Aksinin, V I; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N; Antsiferov, S A; Velikanov, S D; Gerasimov, A Yu; Gostev, I V; Kalinovskii, V V; Konovalov, V V; Mikhalkin, V N; Sevryugin, I V

    2014-01-31

    Generation characteristics of a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser with the electro-discharge production of atomic iodine were compared with inductively stabilised edged or anisotropic- resistive cathodes used for ignition of the volume discharge. The discharge was initiated by the radiation of a barrier discharge from the side of a grid anode. It was found that at equal specific electrical energy depositions to the gas-discharge plasma, the system with the anisotropic-resistive cathode provides a more stable and uniform volume discharge with the possibility of varying the composition and pressure of working mixtures over a wide range and a greater specific extraction of laser energy is observed (up to 2.4 J L{sup -1}). At a high pulse repetition rate of laser pulses (50 – 100 Hz) and long duration of the pulse trains (longer than a minute) the surface of anisotropic-resistive cathode became eroded. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Plasma synthetic jet actuator: electrical and optical analysis of the discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinger, A.; Naudé, N.; Cambronne, J. P.; Caruana, D.

    2014-08-01

    Active flow control is based on the development of robust actuators which are reliable, small and easy to integrate. A promising actuator referred to as plasma synthetic jet actuator produces a synthetic jet with high exhaust velocities and holds the promise of enabling high-speed flows. With this high velocity jet, it is possible to reduce fluid phenomena such as transition and turbulence, thus making it possible to increase an aircraft's performance whilst at the same time reducing its environmental impact. This high velocity jet is produced by a pulsed discharge in a microcavity. In this paper, we focus on the properties of the discharge in order to understand the functioning of the actuator. In the first part an electrical description of the discharge in presented. Afterwards, optical measurements (optical emission spectroscopy and ICCD photograph) enable the determination of temperature, volume and duration of the discharge. At the end of the paper we present an electrical model of the discharge, which can be obtained both from electrical measurements and from macroscopic properties of the discharge (temperature, volume). This electrical model can easily be included in electrical simulation software.

  11. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  12. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  13. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  14. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  15. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  16. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  17. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  18. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  19. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  20. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  1. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  2. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  3. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  4. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  5. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  6. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. 625.7 Section 625.7 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section 57... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow shall be limited to a maximum of...

  17. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  18. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  19. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  20. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  1. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  2. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  3. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  4. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  5. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  6. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  7. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  8. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  9. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  10. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  11. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  12. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  13. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  14. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  15. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  16. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  17. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  18. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  19. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy... Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a specified... criteria are met under § 52.103(g) or allowing operation during an interim period under the...

  20. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  1. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  2. Neuronal representation of duration discrimination in the monkey striatum

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Atsushi; Oshio, Ken-ichi; Inase, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Functional imaging and lesion studies in humans and animals suggest that the basal ganglia are crucial for temporal information processing. To elucidate neuronal mechanisms of interval timing in the basal ganglia, we recorded single-unit activity from the striatum of two monkeys while they performed a visual duration discrimination task. In the task, blue and red cues of different durations (0.2–2.0 sec) were successively presented. Each of the two cues was followed by a 1.0 sec delay period. The animals were instructed to choose the longer presented colored stimulus after the second delay period. A total of 498 phasically active neurons were recorded from the striatum, and 269 neurons were defined as task related. Two types of neuronal activity were distinguished during the delay periods. First, the activity gradually changed depending on the duration of the cue presented just before. This activity may represent the signal duration for later comparison between two cue durations. The activity during the second cue period also represented duration of the first cue. Second, the activity changed differently depending on whether the first or second cue was presented longer. This activity may represent discrimination results after the comparison between the two cue durations. These findings support the assumption that striatal neurons represent timing information of sensory signals for duration discrimination. PMID:25677545

  3. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal resource lease which stipulates that it shall continue in full force and effect beyond the expiration of... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  4. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according to its terms but not later than...

  5. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  6. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  7. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  8. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  9. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  10. Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

  11. 14 CFR 63.15 - Duration of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of certificates. 63.15 Section 63.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS General § 63.15 Duration of certificates....

  12. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  13. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  14. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or a human intelligence source or key design concepts of weapons of mass destruction, an original... concepts of weapons of mass destruction, the duration shall be up to 75 years and shall be designated with... indefinite duration of classification under a prior order; or in those cases where a document is missing...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or a human intelligence source or key design concepts of weapons of mass destruction, an original... concepts of weapons of mass destruction, the duration shall be up to 75 years and shall be designated with... indefinite duration of classification under a prior order; or in those cases where a document is missing...

  16. 20 CFR 410.202 - Duration of entitlement; miner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; miner. 410.202 Section 410.202 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Requirements for Entitlement; Duration of...

  17. 34 CFR 690.6 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 690.6 Section 690.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL PELL GRANT PROGRAM Scope, Purpose and General Definitions § 690.6 Duration of...

  18. 34 CFR 690.6 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 690.6 Section 690.6... Definitions § 690.6 Duration of student eligibility. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a student is eligible to receive a Federal Pell Grant for the period of time required to...

  19. 34 CFR 690.6 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 690.6 Section 690.6... Definitions § 690.6 Duration of student eligibility. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a student is eligible to receive a Federal Pell Grant for the period of time required to...

  20. 34 CFR 690.6 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 690.6 Section 690.6... Definitions § 690.6 Duration of student eligibility. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, a student is eligible to receive a Federal Pell Grant for the period of time required to...

  1. 10 CFR 72.42 - Duration of license; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of license; renewal. 72.42 Section 72.42 Energy... Conditions of License § 72.42 Duration of license; renewal. (a) Each license issued under this part must be.... (b) Applications for renewal of a license should be filed in accordance with the...

  2. 32 CFR 2103.13 - Duration of original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of original classification. 2103.13... DECLASSIFIED Original Classification § 2103.13 Duration of original classification. Original classification may be extended beyond six years only by officials with Top Secret classification authority....

  3. 25 CFR 162.607 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of leases. 162.607 Section 162.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LEASES AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.607 Duration of leases. Leases granted or approved under this part shall be limited to...

  4. 25 CFR 212.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of leases. 212.27 Section 212.27 Indians BUREAU... MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases § 212.27 Duration of leases. The provisions of § 211.27 of this subchapter are applicable to leases under this part....

  5. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  6. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  7. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  8. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  9. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  10. 7 CFR 984.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 984.87 Section 984.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination hereof...

  11. 7 CFR 955.82 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 955.82 Section 955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.82 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  12. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  13. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  14. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  15. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  16. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  17. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  18. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  19. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  20. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...