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Sample records for 99-percent duration discharges

  1. Development and application of generalized-least-squares regression models to estimate low-flow duration discharges in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.

    1994-01-01

    Physically based mathematical models were developed by use of generalized-least-squares regression analyses to estimate long-term 95-, 98-, and 99-percent duration discharges for ungaged streams in Massachusetts. Duration discharges for 61 sites were used in the recession analyses; 37 sites were streamflow-gaging stations and 24 sites were low-flow partial-record stations. The duration discharges were related to basin chacteristics measured from digital data bases, by use of geographic information systems computer software. Significant chacterisfics used in the models were drainage area, area underlain by stratified-drift deposits per unit of stream length in the basin, and a surrogate for the effective head on the aquifer in the stratified-drift deposits, computed by subtracting the minimum basin elevation from the mean basin elevation. Standard errors of prediction were 57.5, 85.6, and 98.5 percent for models for the 95-, 98-, and 99-percent duration discharges, respectively. Model error variances were about 10 times the sampling error variances, indicating that the precision of future models are likely to be improved more by obtaining better measurements of basin characteristics or by adding new sites to the analyses than by collecting more streamflow data at the sites presently used in the analyses. The models were used to predict duration discharges for 35 selected sites in the Concord River, Noah Coastal, South Coastal, Narragansett and Tenmile River Basins. Ninety-perrcent prediction intervals were computed for the estimates at each of the sites, except at sites where values of the independent variables were outside the ranges of those for the sites used in the regression analyses.

  2. Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the "other 99 percent".

    PubMed

    Autor, David H

    2014-05-23

    The singular focus of public debate on the "top 1 percent" of households overlooks the component of earnings inequality that is arguably most consequential for the "other 99 percent" of citizens: the dramatic growth in the wage premium associated with higher education and cognitive ability. This Review documents the central role of both the supply and demand for skills in shaping inequality, discusses why skill demands have persistently risen in industrialized countries, and considers the economic value of inequality alongside its potential social costs. I conclude by highlighting the constructive role for public policy in fostering skills formation and preserving economic mobility.

  3. [Duration of breast feeding after mandatory early discharge].

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, O

    1993-08-23

    A trial arrangement for mandatory early discharge for all normal multiparae was started in 1990 and the duration of breastfeeding was investigated by a questionnaire. 89 mothers who stayed at the hospital were compared to 113 mothers who were discharged within 24 hours after delivery. The latter group was also compared to 122 early discharged mothers who delivered 14-17 months after the trial arrangement had started. The three groups were comparable in all aspects. After four weeks a large proportion of the later discharged mothers were still breastfeeding compared to the other two groups (p < 0.001). This difference disappeared later, hence when comparing the total duration of breastfeeding no differences were found between the three groups.

  4. Inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively stabilized, long pulse duration transverse discharge apparatus. The use of a segmented electrode where each segment is attached to an inductive element permits high energy, high efficiency, long-pulsed laser outputs to be obtained. The present apparatus has been demonstrated with rare-gas halide lasing media. Orders of magnitude increase in pulse repetition frequency are obtained in lasing devices that do not utilize gas flow.

  5. Estimates of Flow Duration, Mean Flow, and Peak-Discharge Frequency Values for Kansas Stream Locations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2004-01-01

    Streamflow statistics of flow duration and peak-discharge frequency were estimated for 4,771 individual locations on streams listed on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. These statistics included the flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent, as well as the mean flow value. Peak-discharge frequency values were estimated for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent and the mean flow for uncontrolled flow stream locations. The contributing-drainage areas of 149 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Kansas and parts of surrounding States that had flow uncontrolled by Federal reservoirs and used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. Logarithmic transformations of climatic and basin data were performed to yield the best linear relation for developing equations to compute flow durations and mean flow. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were contributing-drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. The analyses yielded a model standard error of prediction range of 0.43 logarithmic units for the 90-percent duration analysis to 0.15 logarithmic units for the 10-percent duration analysis. The model standard error of prediction was 0.14 logarithmic units for the mean flow. Regression equations used to estimate peak-discharge frequency values were obtained from a previous report, and estimates for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods were determined for this report. The regression equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute flow durations, mean flow, and estimates of peak-discharge frequency for locations along uncontrolled flow streams on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. Flow durations, mean

  6. Characteristics of moderate current vacuum discharge triggered by multipicosecond and nanosecond duration laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Moorti, A.; Kumbhare, S.R.; Naik, P.A.; Gupta, P.D.; Romanov, I.V.; Korobkin, Yu.V.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.

    2005-02-15

    A comparative study of the characteristics of moderate-current ({approx}10 kA), low-energy ({<=}20 J) vacuum discharge triggered by multipicosecond and nanosecond duration laser pulses is performed. Temporal profiles of the x-ray emission, discharge current, and anode voltage measured in vacuum discharge created between a planar titanium cathode and a conical point-tip anode are observed to be quite different for the two regimes of the laser pulse duration. While cathode plasma jet pinching is clearly observed in the discharge created by low-energy ({approx}5 mJ), 27 ps full width at half-maximum (FWHM) laser pulses, a feeble pinching occurred for 4 ns (FWHM) laser pulses only above a threshold energy of {approx}250 mJ. In addition to the multiple K-shell x-ray pulses emitted from the titanium anode up to 100 ns, evidence of a much harder x-ray component (h{nu}>100 keV) is also seen in the discharge triggered by picosecond laser pulses.

  7. Plasma processes in water under effect of short duration pulse discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurbanov, Elchin

    2013-09-01

    It is very important to get a clear water without any impurities and bacteria by methods, that don't change the physical and chemical indicators of water now. In this article the plasma processes during the water treatment by strong electric fields and short duration pulse discharges are considered. The crown discharge around an electrode with a small radius of curvature consists of plasma leader channels with a high conductivity, where the thermo ionization processes and UV-radiation are taken place. Simultaneously the partial discharges around potential electrode lead to formation of atomic oxygen and ozone. The spark discharge arises, when plasma leader channels cross the all interelectrode gap, where the temperature and pressure are strongly grown. As a result the shock waves and dispersing liquid streams in all discharge gap are formed. The plasma channels extend, pressure inside it becomes less than hydrostatic one and the collapse and UV-radiation processes are started. The considered physical processes can be successfully used as a basis for development of pilot-industrial installations for conditioning of drinking water and to disinfecting of sewage.

  8. Influence of pulse duration on the plasma characteristics in high-power pulsed magnetron discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinidis, S.; Dauchot, J.P.; Ganciu, M.; Ricard, A.; Hecq, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-power pulsed magnetron discharges have drawn an increasing interest as an approach to produce highly ionized metallic vapor. In this paper we propose to study how the plasma composition and the deposition rate are influenced by the pulse duration. The plasma is studied by time-resolved optical emission and absorption spectroscopies and the deposition rate is controlled thanks to a quartz microbalance. The pulse length is varied between 2.5 and 20 {mu}s at 2 and 10 mTorr in pure argon. The sputtered material is titanium. For a constant discharge power, the deposition rate increases as the pulse length decreases. With 5 {mu}s pulse, for an average power of 300 W, the deposition rate is {approx}70% of the deposition rate obtained in direct current magnetron sputtering at the same power. The increase of deposition rate can be related to the sputtering regime. For long pulses, self-sputtering seems to occur as demonstrated by time-resolved optical emission diagnostic of the discharge. In contrary, the metallic vapor ionization rate, as determined by absorption measurements, diminishes as the pulses are shortened. Nevertheless, the ionization rate is in the range of 50% for 5 {mu}s pulses while it lies below 10% in the case of a classical continuous magnetron discharge.

  9. Post-Test Inspection of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long-Duration Test Hardware: Discharge Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George C.

    2016-01-01

    NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test (LDT) is part of the comprehensive service life assessment of the NEXT thruster. The test was voluntarily terminated in April 2014 after accumulating 51,184 hours of high voltage operation, processing 918 kg of xenon, and delivering 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. This presentation covers the post-test inspection of the thruster hardware, in particular of the discharge chamber and other miscellaneous components such as propellant isolators and electrical cabling.

  10. Ultrashort Two-Photon-Absorption Laser-Induced Fluorescence in Nanosecond-Duration, Repetitively Pulsed Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jacob Brian

    Absolute number densities of atomic species produced by nanosecond duration, repetitively pulsed electric discharges are measured by two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF). Relatively high plasma discharge pulse energies (=1 mJ/pulse) are used to generate atomic hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen in a variety of discharge conditions and geometries. Unique to this work is the development of femtosecond-laser-based TALIF (fs-TALIF). Fs-TALIF offers a number of advantages compared to more conventional ns-pulse-duration laser systems, including better accuracy of direct quenching measurements in challenging environments, significantly reduced photolytic interference including photo-dissociation and photo-ionization, higher signal and increased laser-pulse bandwidth, the ability to collect two-dimensional images of atomic species number densities with far greater spatial resolution compared with more conventional diagnostics, and much higher laser repetition rates allowing for more efficient and accurate measurements of atomic species number densities. In order to fully characterize the fs-TALIF diagnostic and compare it with conventional ns-TALIF, low pressure (100 Torr) ns-duration pulsed discharges are operated in mixtures of H2, O2, and N2 with different buffer gases including argon, helium, and nitrogen. These discharge conditions are used to demonstrate the capability for two-dimensional imaging measurements. The images produced are the first of their kind and offer quantitative insight into spatially and temporally resolved kinetics and transport in ns-pulsed discharge plasmas. The two-dimensional images make possible comparison with high-fidelity plasma kinetics models of the presented data. The comparison with the quasi-one-dimensional kinetic model show good spatial and temporal agreement. The same diagnostics are used at atmospheric pressure, when atomic oxygen fs-TALIF is performed in an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ). Here, the

  11. Influence of excitation pulse duration of dielectric barrier discharges on biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, J.; Omairi, T.; Mertens, N.; Helmke, A.; Emmert, S.; Viöl, W.

    2013-04-01

    Two dielectric barrier discharges created in atmospheric pressure air were compared to investigate influences of excitation pulse duration on plasma parameters. A plasma source with a pulsed excitation and pulse durations in the µs range as well as a source with pulse durations in the ns range were investigated. An aluminum plate with skin lipids of the stratum corneum on the one hand and an aluminum needle without lipids for operating in the single filamentary mode on the other hand were used as opposite electrodes. The optical emission spectroscopy was arranged to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures by comparing experimental with simulated spectra. Vibrational temperatures were calculated in a range 2200-2600 K, rotational temperatures were measured from 300 up to 600 K. In addition, the electron temperatures (7-15 eV) and the reduced electric fields (280-800 Td) were estimated. Electric parameters were detected by both current and voltage measurements with a resulting range 200-500 mW of dissipated power.

  12. Post-Test Inspection of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long-Duration Test Hardware: Discharge Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George C.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT Long-Duration Test is part of a comprehensive thruster service life assessment intended to demonstrate overall throughput capability, validate service life models, quantify wear rates as a function of time and operating condition, and identify any unknown life-limiting mechanisms. The test was voluntarily terminated in February 2014 after demonstrating 51,184 hours of high-voltage operation, 918 kg of propellant throughput, and 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. The post-test inspection of the thruster hardware began shortly afterwards with a combination of non-destructive and destructive analysis techniques, and is presently nearing completion. This paper presents relevant results of the post-test inspection for the discharge chamber as well as other miscellaneous components such as the high-voltage propellant isolators and electrical cabling. Comparison of magnetic field measurements taken during pretest and post-test inspections indicate that the field strength did not degrade, consistent with performance data obtained during the test. Inspection of discharge chamber mesh samples show a deposition coating primarily composed of grid material that is approximately 15 micrometers in thickness. This thickness is well within the retention capability of the mesh and is therefore not expected to present any issues. Approximately 3.1 grams of deposition flakes were found at the bottom of the discharge chamber, composed primarily of grid material and carbon. Calculated size histograms of these flakes indicate that 99% have a maximum dimension of 200 micrometers or smaller, which is significantly less than the ion optics grid gap. Larger flakes that are capable of causing a grid-to-grid short will be analyzed to determine if their formation will occur in flight or is a facility effect. The high-voltage propellant isolators as well as numerous other electrical insulators were inspected and no evidence of arcing or any other issues were found.

  13. Natural and Diverted Low-Flow Duration Discharges for Streams Affected by the Waiahole Ditch System, Windward O`ahu, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu W.; Fontaine, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    For nearly a century, the Waiahole Ditch System has diverted an average of approximately 27 million gallons per day of water from the wet, northeastern part of windward O`ahu, Hawai`i, to the dry, central part of the island to meet irrigation needs. The system intercepts large amounts of dike-impounded ground water at high altitudes (above approximately 700 to 800 ft) that previously discharged to Waiahole (and its tributaries Waianu and Uwao), Waikane, and Kahana Streams through seeps and springs. Diversion of this ground water has significantly diminished low flows in these streams. Estimates of natural and diverted flows are needed by water managers for (1) setting permanent instream flow standards to protect, enhance, and reestablish beneficial instream uses of water in the diverted streams and (2) allocating the diverted water for instream and offstream uses. Data collected before construction of the Waiahole Ditch System reflect natural (undiverted) flow conditions. Natural low-flow duration discharges for percentiles ranging from 50 to 99 percent were estimated for four sites at altitudes of 75 to 320 feet in Waiahole Stream (and its tributaries Waianu and Uwao Streams), for six sites at altitudes of 10 to 220 feet in Waikane Stream, and for three sites at altitudes of 30 to 80 feet in Kahana Stream. Among the available low-flow estimates along each affected stream, the highest natural Q50 (median) flows on Waiahole (altitude 250 ft), Waianu (altitude 75 ft), Waikane (altitude 75 ft), and Kahana Streams (altitude 30 ft) are 13, 7.0, 5.5, and 22 million gallons per day, respectively. Q50 (median) is just one of five duration percentiles presented in this report to quantify low-flow discharges. All flow-duration estimates were adjusted to a common period of 1960-2004 (called the base period). Natural flow-duration estimates compared favorably with limited pre-ditch streamflow data available for Waiahole and Kahana Streams. Data collected since construction of

  14. Nitriding molybdenum: Effects of duration and fill gas pressure when using 100-Hz pulse DC discharge technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlaq, U.; R., Ahmad; Shafiq, M.; Saleem, S.; S. Shah, M.; Hussain, T.; A. Khan, I.; K., Abbas; S. Abbas, M.

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum is nitrided by a 100-Hz pulsed DC glow discharge technique for various time durations and fill gas pressures to study the effects on the surface properties of molybdenum. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used for the structural and morphological analysis of the nitrided layers. Vickers' microhardness tester is utilized to investigate surface microhardness. Phase analysis shows the formation of more molybdenum nitride molecules for longer nitriding durations at fill gas pressures of 2 mbar and 3 mbar (1 bar = 105 Pa). A considerable increase in surface microhardness (approximately by a factor of 2) is observed for longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar pressure. Longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar fill gas pressure favors the formation of homogeneous, smooth, hard layers by the incorporation of more nitrogen.

  15. High-power sources with smoothly adjustable pulse duration for powering gas-discharge tubes of laser pumping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, V. M.; Ivanov, L. P.; Ganshin, Y. A.; Karpyshev, I. L.; Korneyev, V. A.

    1985-10-01

    A series of power supplies for gas-discharge tubes in laser pumping systems has been developed on the basis of the same circuit but with different levels of partial discharge of the capacitive energy storing device. The charger converts the a.c. network voltage into a constant current, very efficiently and at the same charging rate regardless of the discharge level. An overall size and weight reduction is made possible by an intermediate frequency conversion from 50 Hz to 1 kHz, which also allows raising the repetition rate of output pulses. The charger consists of an inverter and a rectifier. The parallel-type inverter includes a thyristor-diode bridge with capacitors and a transformer, and a choke coil, for converting the sine-wave a.c. network voltage into a higher-frequency (1 kHz) square-wave alternating one after the first rectifying it. An important feature here is stiff overvoltage suppression, especially across the switching capacitors, during wide swings such as from no load to full load. The rectifier includes a 300/1000 V step-up transformer with another thyristor-diode bridge and a choke coil in series. A discharge commutator across the rectifier output shunted by a filter-capacitance ensures proper cutoff of the charge discharge current and corresponding control of the pulse duration.

  16. Dynamic photolytical actinometry of the vacuum-ultraviolet radiation produced by multichannel surface discharges of submicrosecond duration

    SciTech Connect

    Tcheremiskine, V. I.; Uteza, O. P.; Sentis, M. L.; Mikheev, L. D.

    2007-06-15

    Absolute measurements of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation power produced by a planar broadband optical source of submicrosecond light pulse duration are carried out in the transient regime of formation of a photodissociation (bleaching) wave in a photodecomposing absorptive medium. The source is based on a multichannel surface discharge initiated in Ar/N{sub 2} gas mixtures on the area of {approx}0.1 m{sup 2}. The energetic characteristics of the produced VUV radiation are determined on the basis of spatially and temporally resolved observations of the pulsed photolysis of XeF{sub 2} vapors. It is shown that the photon flux intensity produced by the source within the spectral range of 120-200 nm reaches 1.1x10{sup 23} photons/cm{sup 2} s corresponding to the effective brightness temperature of discharge plasma of 20 kK and to the intrinsic efficiency of the discharge VUV emission of 3.2%. Numerical simulations of the photolysis process show a rather weak sensitivity of the results to the fraction of discharge radiation emitted into the line spectrum, as well as to the angular distribution of emitted radiation. The spectral band of measurements can be selected according to the choice of parent photodecomposing particles.

  17. Constraints on the rate of discharge and duration of the Mangala Valles flood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, T. J.; Gorsline, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Interest in Mangala Valles remains high within the planetary science community. This is justified because the survey mission images provide us with nearly complete coverage of the system at high resolution. Upcoming high resolution topography from the Mars Observer Laser Altimeter will enable the application of flood discharge models with an unprecedented level of detail. Previous work on the Mangala Valles problem has relied on the available low resolution topography. This has limited the ability of workers to constrain discharge calculations to only within several-order-of-magnitude estimates. Local determinations of channel depths via shadow length measurements and photoclinometric profiling are much more accurate, but can only be applied to steep slopes (and/or low sun elevations) in the case of shadow measurements, or across relatively short distances (to avoid changes in albedo along asymmetric photoclinometric profiles). We are taking stereo parallax measurements from medium resolution Viking Orbiter images, which provide a valuable intermediate check of the topography between those measurements made thus far and the upcoming Mars Observer data. The images used are from orbits 034A and 637A, and cover Mangala Valles from the source graben in Memnonia Fossae to the beginning of the bifurcated reach (at 9.5 deg lat., 151.5 deg lon.). These images are about 300 m/pixel and 250 m/pixel, respectively. Both sets of images were orthographically projected to 250 m/pixel. The separation angle between left-right pairs is approximately 52 degrees. This results in a vertical accuracy on the order of plus or minus 260 m. Though this is still somewhat coarse, the channel relief is clearly resolved. Preliminary profiles across Mangala Valles and the large topographic ridge to the east are shown on the following page. An east-west regional tilt that resulted from slight scaling differences in the digital data has been 'removed' by visually estimating a regional datum on the

  18. Post-Test Inspection of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long-Duration Test Hardware: Discharge and Neutralizer Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George C.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT Long-Duration Test is part of a comprehensive thruster service life assessment intended to demonstrate overall throughput capability, validate service life models, quantify wear rates as a function of time and operating condition, and identify any unknown life-limiting mechanisms. The test was voluntarily terminated in April 2014 after demonstrating 51,184 hours of high-voltage operation, 918 kg of propellant throughput, and 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. The post-test inspection of the thruster hardware began shortly afterwards with a combination of non-destructive and destructive analysis techniques, and is presently nearing completion. This presentation presents relevant results of the post-test inspection for both discharge and neutralizer cathodes.

  19. Post-Test Inspection of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long-Duration Test Hardware: Discharge and Neutralizer Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George C.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT Long-Duration Test is part of a comprehensive thruster service life assessment intended to demonstrate overall throughput capability, validate service life models, quantify wear rates as a function of time and operating condition, and identify any unknown life-limiting mechanisms. The test was voluntarily terminated in February 2014 after demonstrating 51,184 hours of high-voltage operation, 918 kg of propellant throughput, and 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. The post-test inspection of the thruster hardware began shortly afterwards with a combination of non-destructive and destructive analysis techniques, and is presently nearing completion. This paper presents relevant results of the post-test inspection for both discharge and neutralizer cathodes. Discharge keeper erosion was found to be significantly reduced from what was observed in the NEXT 2 kh wear test and NSTAR Extended Life Test, providing adequate protection of vital cathode components throughout the test with ample lifetime remaining. The area of the discharge cathode orifice plate that was exposed by the keeper orifice exhibited net erosion, leading to cathode plate material building up in the cathode-keeper gap and causing a thermally-induced electrical short observed during the test. Significant erosion of the neutralizer cathode orifice was also found and is believed to be the root cause of an observed loss in flow margin. Deposition within the neutralizer keeper orifice as well as on the downstream surface was thicker than expected, potentially resulting in a facility-induced impact on the measured flow margin from plume mode. Neutralizer keeper wall erosion on the beam side was found to be significantly lower compared to the NEXT 2 kh wear test, likely due to the reduction in beam extraction diameter of the ion optics that resulted in decreased ion impingement. Results from the post-test inspection have led to some minor thruster design improvements.

  20. Statistical summaries of streamflow records, Oklahoma through 1974: Compilations of flow-duration, low-flow, high-flow, monthly duration tables and statistics of annual discharge through 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mize, Lionel D.

    1975-01-01

    Tables summarizing daily streamflow data by year are presented for gaging stations in Oklahoma that have at least 5 years of either unregulated or regulated stream-gaging record through September 30, 1974. Separate tables are presented for unregulated and regulated periods of record. These summary tables include: (1) the number of days in each year that the daily discharge was between selected limits (duration tables), (2) the lowest mean daily discharge (frequency tables), (3) the highest mean daily discharge (frequency tables), (4) a monthly duration table for each station with 29 years or more of essentially unregulated record, and (5) statistics of annual discharge. These summaries provide useful information about the quantity, distribution, and variability of streamflow and provide basic data for developing relations for estimating streamflow at sites other than regular stream-gaging sites. This information is also useful in designing bridges, culverts, and other hydraulic structures as well as reservoirs for water supply, flood control, and low-flow augmentation.

  1. The effect of interactive Web-based monitoring on breastfeeding exclusivity, intensity, and duration in healthy term infants after hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Azza H; Roumani, Ali M.; Szucs, Kinga; Zhang, Lingsong; King, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a web-based, interactive, breastfeeding monitoring system increased breastfeeding duration, exclusivity, and intensity as primary outcomes and decreased symptoms of postpartum depression as a secondary outcome. Methods A two arm randomized controlled trial took place in three Midwestern hospitals. Postpartum women were randomly assigned to the control or intervention group. Women in the control group (n=57) followed the standard hospital protocol, while women in the intervention group (n= 49) were given access to an online, interactive, breastfeeding monitoring system and prompted to record breastfeeding and infant output data for 30 days. A follow-up online survey was sent to both groups at 1, 2, and 3 months to assess breastfeeding outcomes and postpartum depression. Results For mothers and infants, there were no significant differences in demographics between groups. No significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes were found between groups at discharge (p = 0.707). A significant difference in breastfeeding outcomes was found between groups at 1, 2, and 3 months (p = 0.027, p = 0.000 and p = 0.002). Members of the intervention group had higher exclusive breastfeeding rates at 1, 2, and 3 months. By the end of the third month, 84% of the intervention group was breastfeeding compared to 66% in the control group. Postpartum depression symptom scores decreased for both groups at 1, 2, and 3 months (4.9±3.9, 4.3±4.9, and 3.2±3.9 for control and 4.7±4.5, 3.0±3.4, and 2.8±3.6 for intervention). However, there was no significant difference between groups at 1, 2, and 3 months (p= 0.389, 0.170, and 0.920) for depression. Conclusion The web-based interactive breastfeeding monitoring system may be a promising intervention to improve breastfeeding duration, exclusivity, and intensity. PMID:26779838

  2. A 99 percent purity molecular sieve oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Molecular sieve oxygen generating systems (MSOGS) have become the accepted method for the production of breathable oxygen on military aircraft. These systems separate oxygen for aircraft engine bleed air by application of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology. Oxygen is concentrated by preferential adsorption in nitrogen in a zeolite molecular sieve. However, the inability of current zeolite molecular sieves to discriminate between oxygen and argon results in an oxygen purity limitations of 93-95 percent (both oxygen and argon concentrate). The goal was to develop a new PSA process capable of exceeding the present oxygen purity limitations. A novel molecular sieve oxygen concentrator was developed which is capable of generating oxygen concentrations of up to 99.7 percent directly from air. The process is comprised of four absorbent beds, two containing a zeolite molecular sieve and two containing a carbon molecular sieve. This new process may find use in aircraft and medical breathing systems, and industrial air separation systems. The commercial potential of the process is currently being evaluated.

  3. Regional Regression Equations to Estimate Flow-Duration Statistics at Ungaged Stream Sites in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple linear regression equations for determining flow-duration statistics were developed to estimate select flow exceedances ranging from 25- to 99-percent for six 'bioperiods'-Salmonid Spawning (November), Overwinter (December-February), Habitat Forming (March-April), Clupeid Spawning (May), Resident Spawning (June), and Rearing and Growth (July-October)-in Connecticut. Regression equations also were developed to estimate the 25- and 99-percent flow exceedances without reference to a bioperiod. In total, 32 equations were developed. The predictive equations were based on regression analyses relating flow statistics from streamgages to GIS-determined basin and climatic characteristics for the drainage areas of those streamgages. Thirty-nine streamgages (and an additional 6 short-term streamgages and 28 partial-record sites for the non-bioperiod 99-percent exceedance) in Connecticut and adjacent areas of neighboring States were used in the regression analysis. Weighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine the predictive equations; weights were assigned based on record length. The basin characteristics-drainage area, percentage of area with coarse-grained stratified deposits, percentage of area with wetlands, mean monthly precipitation (November), mean seasonal precipitation (December, January, and February), and mean basin elevation-are used as explanatory variables in the equations. Standard errors of estimate of the 32 equations ranged from 10.7 to 156 percent with medians of 19.2 and 55.4 percent to predict the 25- and 99-percent exceedances, respectively. Regression equations to estimate high and median flows (25- to 75-percent exceedances) are better predictors (smaller variability of the residual values around the regression line) than the equations to estimate low flows (less than 75-percent exceedance). The Habitat Forming (March-April) bioperiod had the smallest standard errors of estimate, ranging from 10.7 to 20.9 percent. In

  4. Flow-duration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James Kincheon

    1959-01-01

    The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

  5. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy laparoscopic - discharge; Cholelithiasis - laparoscopic discharge; Biliary calculus - laparoscopic discharge; Gallstones - laparoscopic discharge; Cholecystitis - laparoscopic discharge

  6. Pancreatitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... fluids through an intravenous (IV) tube in your vein and nutrition through a feeding tube or IV. ...

  7. Lung surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracotomy - discharge; Lung tissue removal - discharge; Pneumonectomy - discharge; Lobectomy - discharge; Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - ...

  8. Radical prostatectomy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostatectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy - discharge; LRP - discharge; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy - discharge ; RALP - discharge; Pelvic lymphadenectomy - discharge; Prostate cancer - prostatectomy

  9. Safety Is 99 Percent Attitude: Strategies to Contain Workers' Compensation Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Janet

    1993-01-01

    The University of Denver (Colorado) reduced workers' compensation losses 97 percent in 1990-91 by developing a master safety plan, sponsoring safety training, managing medical costs, providing modified duty for injured employees, screening applicants, orienting new employees, investigating claims thoroughly, performing life-safety audits, and…

  10. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge.Signs of yeast infectionsWhite, cottage cheese-like dischargeSwelling and pain around ...

  11. Anti-reflux surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... fundoplication - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - discharge; Thal fundoplication - discharge; Hiatal hernia repair - discharge; Endoluminal fundoplication - discharge; GERD - fundoplication discharge; ...

  12. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - discharge; Stem cell transplant - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant - discharge; Reduced intensity; Non-myeloablative transplant - discharge; Mini transplant - discharge; Allogenic bone marrow transplant - ...

  13. 42 CFR 418.26 - Discharge from hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discharge from hospice care. 418.26 Section 418.26... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.26 Discharge from hospice care. (a) Reasons for discharge. A hospice may discharge a patient if— (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 418.26 - Discharge from hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discharge from hospice care. 418.26 Section 418.26... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.26 Discharge from hospice care. (a) Reasons for discharge. A hospice may discharge a patient if— (1) The...

  15. 42 CFR 418.26 - Discharge from hospice care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discharge from hospice care. 418.26 Section 418.26... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HOSPICE CARE Eligibility, Election and Duration of Benefits § 418.26 Discharge from hospice care. (a) Reasons for discharge. A hospice may discharge a patient if— (1)...

  16. Septoplasty - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000246.htm Septoplasty - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Septoplasty is surgery to correct any problems in the ...

  17. Osteomyelitis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000297.htm Osteomyelitis - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have osteomyelitis , a bone infection caused by bacteria or other ...

  18. Cirrhosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000290.htm Cirrhosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have cirrhosis of the liver. Scar tissue forms and your ...

  19. Cardiac catheterization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization - cardiac - discharge; Heart catheterization - discharge: Catheterization - cardiac; Heart catheterization; Angina - cardiac catheterization discharge; CAD - cardiac catheterization discharge; Coronary artery disease - cardiac catheterization ...

  20. Newborn jaundice - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jaundice of the newborn - discharge; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia - discharge; Breastfeeding jaundice - discharge; Physiologic jaundice - discharge Images Exchange transfusion - series Infant jaundice References Kaplan M, ...

  1. Kidney removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... nephrectomy - discharge; Open nephrectomy - discharge; Laparoscopic nephrectomy - discharge; Partial nephrectomy - discharge ... Plan to have someone drive you home from the hospital. DO NOT drive yourself home. You may ...

  2. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Auricular fibrillation - discharge; A-fib - discharge; AF - discharge; Afib - discharge ... been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  3. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  4. Nipple Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... If the ultrasound shows a lesion within a milk duct, you may need a biopsy to confirm that it's a papilloma or to exclude a cancer. Nipple discharge is rarely a sign of breast cancer. But it might be a sign of ...

  5. Retrospective analysis of pathologic nipple discharge.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wu, D; Fan, Z-M

    2015-02-13

    The cause of pathologic nipple discharge is mainly benign lesions, but there is still a possibility of malignancy. Pathologic nipple discharge may be the only or the first symptom of breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the clinical factors associated with lesions in patients with pathologic nipple discharge using a retrospective analysis of clinical data in 207 cases. The univariate analysis showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, or breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Discharge characteristics, duration of disease, and identification of lesions had no clear clinical significance (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis also showed that age >50 years, breast lumps, and breast calcifications were risk factors associated with breast cancer in nipple discharge patients (P < 0.05). Age, breast lumps, and breast calcifications had important clinical significance in identification of benign and malignant nipple discharge.

  6. Power Balance Estimation in Long Duration Discharges on QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Idei, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.; I. Kalinnikova, E.; Nagashima, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Higashijima, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Mitarai, O.; Fukuyama, A.; Takase, Y.; Gao, X.; H., Liu; Qian, J.; Ono, M.; Raman, R.

    2016-11-01

    Fully non-inductive plasma start-up was successfully achieved by using a well-controlled microwave source on the spherical tokamak, QUEST. Non-inductive plasmas were maintained for approximately 3-5 min, during which time power balance estimates could be achieved by monitoring wall and cooling-water temperatures. Approximately 70%-90% of the injected power could be accounted for by calorimetric measurements and approximately half of the injected power was found to be deposited on the vessel wall, which is slightly dependent on the magnetic configuration. The power distribution to water-cooled limiters, which are expected to be exposed to local heat loads, depends significantly on the magnetic configuration, however some of the deposited power is due to energetic electrons, which have large poloidal orbits and are likely to be deposited on the plasma facing components.

  7. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  8. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge; Contraception - tubal ... chap 23. Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo ...

  9. Pulsed submicrosecond multichannel sliding discharges of opposite polarities: Filling of the discharge gap with spark channels

    SciTech Connect

    Trusov, K. K.

    2012-05-15

    Results are presented from measurements of the discharge current and the factor of the discharge gap filling with spark channels during pulsed sliding discharges of opposite polarities in Ne, Ar, and Xe on an aluminum oxide ceramic surface. The measurements were performed in the regime of single pulses of submi-crosecond duration at discharge voltages of 0-12 kV with two discharge chambers with different thicknesses of the ceramic plate (0.4 and 0.17 cm) and different electrode gap lengths (4 and 10.3 cm) at gas pressures of 30 and 100 kPa. The results obtained for discharges of opposite polarities are compared with one another, and common features of discharges in three gases are revealed. It is shown that the filling of the discharge gap with spark channels in the gases under study is more efficient in the case of the positive polarity of the discharge voltage, except Xe at a pressure of 100 kPa in the electrode gap of length 10.3 cm. The quasi-homogeneous regime of discharge in each of the three gases is attained easier at lower gas pressures. Comparison of the data on the filling factors of the discharge gap and the peak currents of opposite-polarity discharges for each gas at a given pressure indicates that the higher the discharge current, the more densely the discharge gap is filled with spark channels.

  10. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study.

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Peptic esophagitis - discharge; Reflux esophagitis - discharge; GERD - discharge; Heartburn - chronic - discharge ... You have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a condition in which food or liquid travels backwards from the stomach to the esophagus ( ...

  12. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculoperitoneal - discharge; VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... Your child has hydrocephalus and needed a shunt placed to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure in the brain. This buildup of brain ...

  13. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  14. TSC simulation of ohmic discharges in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Jardin, S.C.; Bell, M.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1992-04-01

    The Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) has been used to model the time dependence of several ohmic discharges in the TFTR experiment. We have refined the semi-empirical thermal conductivity model and the sawtooth model in TSC so that good agreement is obtained between the simulation and the experiment in electron and ion temperature profiles, and in the current profiles for the entire duration of the discharges. Neoclassical resistivity gives good agreement with the measured surface voltages and rate of poloidal flux consumption.

  15. Impact of response duration on multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Dipanwita; Barnett, Zachary P; Wallace, Mark T

    2012-11-01

    Multisensory neurons in the superior colliculus (SC) have been shown to have large receptive fields that are heterogeneous in nature. These neurons have the capacity to integrate their different sensory inputs, a process that has been shown to depend on the physical characteristics of the stimuli that are combined (i.e., spatial and temporal relationship and relative effectiveness). Recent work has highlighted the interdependence of these factors in driving multisensory integration, adding a layer of complexity to our understanding of multisensory processes. In the present study our goal was to add to this understanding by characterizing how stimulus location impacts the temporal dynamics of multisensory responses in cat SC neurons. The results illustrate that locations within the spatial receptive fields (SRFs) of these neurons can be divided into those showing short-duration responses and long-duration response profiles. Most importantly, discharge duration appears to be a good determinant of multisensory integration, such that short-duration responses are typically associated with a high magnitude of multisensory integration (i.e., superadditive responses) while long-duration responses are typically associated with low integrative capacity. These results further reinforce the complexity of the integrative features of SC neurons and show that the large SRFs of these neurons are characterized by vastly differing temporal dynamics, dynamics that strongly shape the integrative capacity of these neurons.

  16. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  17. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  18. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  19. Gastric bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Bariatric surgery - gastric bypass - discharge; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - discharge; Gastric bypass - Roux-en-Y - discharge; Obesity ... Gloy VL, Briel M, Bhatt DL, et al. Bariatric surgery versus non-surgical treatment for obesity: a systematic ...

  20. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, depending ...

  1. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  2. Experimental study of micro electrical discharge machining discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragança, I. M. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Dias, F. M.; Martins, P. A. F.; Alves, L. L.

    2013-06-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (μEDM) is an atmospheric-pressure plasma-assisted technology that uses point-to-plane discharges in liquid dielectrics to remove microscopic quantities of electrically conductive materials. In this work, an innovative μEDM prototype machine was specifically designed and fabricated to produce and control single spark discharges, thus, resolving the typical limitations of (multi-discharge) commercial machines. The work analyses the type of discharge and the micro-plasma electron-density values obtained for 0.5-38 μm gap sizes, 3-10 000 μs pulse durations, 75-250 V low breakdown voltages, and 1-20 A discharge currents, using different combinations of metallic electrodes in oil and in water. Results allow fitting, for micro-scale and low voltages, an empirical law between the maximum gap-size for breakdown, the breakdown voltage, and the effective stress-time. The electron density ne is obtained by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of the Hα-line Stark broadening (yielding ne˜1016-1017 cm-3, i.e., ionization degrees of ˜2×10-5-10-4) and by a semi-empirical resistive plasma model. The model uses the experimental values of several electrical and geometrical quantities, and of the gas pressure estimated as ˜60 bar-2 kbar from measurements of the plasma mechanical action, obtained using a force sensor. The quantitative information of this phenomenological study can assist the optimization of this micro-fabrication technique.

  3. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Arrol, W.J.; Jefferson, S.

    1957-08-27

    The construction of gas discharge devices where the object is to provide a gas discharge device having a high dark current and stabilized striking voltage is described. The inventors have discovered that the introduction of tritium gas into a discharge device with a subsequent electrical discharge in the device will deposit tritium on the inside of the chamber. The tritium acts to emit beta rays amd is an effective and non-hazardous way of improving the abovementioned discharge tube characteristics

  4. Long duration flights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  5. Long Duration Sorbent Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Knox, James C.; Long, David A.; Miller, Lee; Cmaric, Gregory; Thomas, John

    2016-01-01

    The Long Duration Sorbent Testbed (LDST) is a flight experiment demonstration designed to expose current and future candidate carbon dioxide removal system sorbents to an actual crewed space cabin environment to assess and compare sorption working capacity degradation resulting from long term operation. An analysis of sorbent materials returned to Earth after approximately one year of operation in the International Space Station's (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) indicated as much as a 70% loss of working capacity of the silica gel desiccant material at the extreme system inlet location, with a gradient of capacity loss down the bed. The primary science objective is to assess the degradation of potential sorbents for exploration class missions and ISS upgrades when operated in a true crewed space cabin environment. A secondary objective is to compare degradation of flight test to a ground test unit with contaminant dosing to determine applicability of ground testing.

  6. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; PTA - peripheral artery - discharge; Angioplasty - peripheral artery - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - peripheral artery- discharge; PAD - PTA discharge; PVD - PTA discharge

  7. Lightning Mapping Observations of Volume-Filling Small Discharges in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning is usually considered to be a large-scale electrical discharge in the atmosphere. For example, the American Meteorological Society's Glossary of Meteorology defines lightning as "a transient, high-current electric discharge with pathlengths measured in kilometers" (http://glossary.ametsoc.org/wiki/Lightning). There have been several reported examples of short-duration discharges in thunderstorms, which have a duration of a few microseconds to less than a millisecond, and have a small spatial extent These short-duration discharges were located at high altitudes (> 14 km), altitudes consistent with being located between the upper positive charge and the negative screening layer. At these altitudes, the electric field needed to initiate an electrical discharge is much lower than it is at the altitudes of initiation for IC (~8 km) or CG (~5 km) flashes. We have recently reported on short-duration "precursor" discharges with durations of a few microseconds to a few milliseconds, which occur in the high-fields between the mid-level negative and upper positive charge regions. These "precursor" discharges are discrete in both time and space, being separated in time by hundreds of milliseconds to several seconds, and localized in space, usually very close to the initiation location of a subsequent IC discharge. We have recently observed nearly continuous, volume filling short-duration discharges in several thunderstorms. These discharges have durations of much less than a millisecond, spatial extents of less than a few hundred meters, and occur randomly in the volume between the mid-level negative and upper positive charge regions. During an active period, these discharges occur every few milliseconds. The rates of these discharges decreases dramatically to a few per second following an IC discharge, then increases to several hundred per second until the next discharge. In a storm just off the Florida coast, one cell was producing a large number of these small

  8. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  9. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  10. Numerical investigation of dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing

    1997-12-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a transient discharge occurring between two electrodes in coaxial or planar arrangements separated by one or two layers of dielectric material. The charge accumulated on the dielectric barrier generates a field in a direction opposite to the applied field. The discharge is quenched before an arc is formed. It is one of the few non-thermal discharges that operates at atmospheric pressure and has the potential for use in pollution control. In this work, a numerical model of the dielectric barrier discharge is developed, along with the numerical approach. Adaptive grids based on the charge distribution is used. A self-consistent method is used to solve for the electric field and charge densities. The Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method in a non-uniform grid spacing is used to solve the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate. The Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) method is modified to solve the continuity equations in the non-uniform grid spacing. Parametric studies of dielectric barrier discharges are conducted. General characteristics of dielectric barrier discharges in both anode-directed and cathode-directed streamer are studied. Effects of the dielectric capacitance, the applied field, the resistance in external circuit and the type of gases (O2, air, N2) are investigated. We conclude that the SOR method in an adaptive grid spacing for the solution of the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate is convergent and effective. The dielectric capacitance has little effect on the g-factor of radical production, but it determines the strength of the dielectric barrier discharge. The applied field and the type of gases used have a significant role on the current peak, current pulse duration and radical generation efficiency, discharge strength, and microstreamer radius, whereas the external series resistance has very little effect on the streamer properties. The results are helpful in

  11. Low-flow and flow-duration characteristics of Alabama streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkins, J.B.; Pearman, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of minimum 7-day average discharges with recurrence intervals of 2 and 10 years for 228 continuous-record gaging stations are presented in this report. Low-flow frequency discharge estimates for 447 partial-record stations are also presented. These discharge estimates were computed by relating base-flow discharge measurements at the partial- record stations to daily-mean discharge values at selected continuous-record gaging stations. Flow- duration characteristics for 207 continuous-record gaging stations are also provided.

  12. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... get enough calories to heal and grow. After heart surgery, most babies and infants (younger than 12 to 15 months) can take ... valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... open heart surgery References Bernstein D. General principles ...

  13. Spine surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms should get better in a few weeks. Recovery after laminectomy and fusion surgery is longer. You will not be able ... discharge; Anterior spinal fusion - discharge; Spine surgery - spinal fusion - discharge Images Spinal surgery -- cervical - series References Agrawal BM, Zeidman SM, Rhines L, ...

  14. Surface micro-discharges on spacecraft dielectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balmain, K. G.; Cuchanski, M.; Kremer, P. C.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive measurements on Teflon and Kapton in a scanning electron microscope indicate the existence of a well-defined family of surface micro-discharges characteristic of the dielectric material. For a given small region exposed to the 16-20 kV electron beam, the strongest discharge pulses are similar in shape and amplitude. For Teflon, typical pulse durations are 2-3 ns, rise and fall times are sometimes as low as 0.2 ns, current amplitudes are approximately 100 mA flowing down to the pedestal and the pulses are unidirectional with no ringing. The use of a rapid-scan electron microscope with a secondary-electron imaging system reveals complex charge distributions resembling Lichtenberg figures on a supposedly flat homogeneous dielectric surface. These patterns undergo extensive alteration at each micro-discharge pulse and indicate that both the charging and discharging processes are highly nonuniform over the dielectric surface. The use of floodbeam causes the occurrence of a large-scale macro-discharges, in which a typical peak current is 40 A with a duration of 120 ns.

  15. Anti-reflux surgery - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...

  16. Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

  17. High Power ECR Ion Thruster Discharge Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Carpenter, Christian; Williams, George W.

    2006-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) based ion thrusters with carbon based ion optics can potentially satisfy lifetime requirements for long duration missions (approximately 10 years) because grid erosion and cathode insert depletion issues are virtually eliminated. Though the ECR plasma discharge has been found to typically operate at slightly higher discharge losses than conventional DC ion thrusters (for high total thruster power applications), the discharge power fraction is small (less than 1 percent at 25 kW). In this regard, the benefits of increased life, low discharge plasma potentials, and reduced complexity are welcome tradeoffs for the associated discharge efficiency decrease. Presented here are results from discharge characterization of a large area ECR plasma source for gridded ion thruster applications. These measurements included load matching efficacy, bulk plasma properties via Langmuir probe, and plasma uniformity as measured using current probes distributed at the exit plane. A high degree of plasma uniformity was observed (flatness greater than 0.9). Additionally, charge state composition was qualitatively evaluated using emission spectroscopy. Plasma induced emission was dominated by xenon ion lines. No doubly charged xenon ions were detected.

  18. Phonological Encoding and Phonetic Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Melinda Denise

    2013-01-01

    Studies of connected speech have repeatedly shown that the contextual predictability of a word is related to its phonetic duration; more predictable words tend to be produced with shorter duration, when other factors are controlled for (Aylett & Turk, 2004, 2006; Bell et al., 2003; Bell, Brenier, Gregory, Girand, & Jurafsky, 2009; Gahl,…

  19. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  20. Particle balance in long duration RF driven plasmas on QUEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Yoshida, N.; Yugami, N.; Honda, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Mishra, K.; Kuzmin, A.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Watanabe, O.; Onchi, T.; Watanabe, H.; Tokunaga, K.; Higashijima, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Takase, Y.; Fukuyama, A.; Mitarai, O.; Peng, Y. K. M.

    2015-08-01

    Global particle balance in non-inductive long-duration plasma on QUEST has been investigated. Approximately 70% of the fuel hydrogen (H) was retained in the wall and then was almost exhausted just after the discharge. The global recycling ratio (Rg), defined as the ratio of the evacuated H2 flux to that injected, was found to gradually increase during discharges and subsequently rose rapidly. To study the growth of Rg, the thermal desorption spectra after deuterium implantation in a specimen exposed to QUEST plasma was analyzed with a model which includes reflection, diffusion, solution, recombination, trapping, and plasma-induced desorption in the re-deposition layer. The model reconstructs the growth of Rg during a long-duration plasma and indicates solution plays a dominant role in the growth.

  1. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    of members is 55; however, two have holding tanks and discharge shore-side and a third vessel is the car ferry Badger that discharges shore-side...Alaskan waters, and in numerous European ports such as Venice and Oslo ever since 2003. Model Capacitiy Load Installed Power

  2. Lithium battery discharge tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  3. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  4. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  5. Co-axial discharges

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J. S.; Smith, L. P.

    1960-11-22

    An apparatus is described for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantuge that ions that return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. These discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering the plasma area because of the arc barrier set up by the cylindrical outer arc. (auth)

  6. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  7. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, S.

    1958-11-11

    An apparatus utilized in introducing tritium gas into envelope of a gas discharge device for the purpose f maintaining the discharge path in ionized condition is described. ln addition to the cathode and anode, the ischarge device contains a zirconium or tantalum ilament arranged for external excitation and a metallic seed containing tritium, and also arranged to have a current passed through it. Initially, the zirconium or tantalum filament is vaporized to deposit its material adjacent the main discharge region. Then the tritium gas is released and, due to its affinity for the first released material, it deposits in the region of the main discharge where it is most effective in maintaining the discharge path in an ionized condition.

  8. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  9. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    PubMed Central

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of patients left their room before noon in the postintervention period (P < 0.001), though there was no statistical difference in before noon discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P < 0.001). ED mean LOS of patients admitted to the hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P < 0.001). Six Sigma methodology can be an effective change management tool to improve discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  10. Glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

  11. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  12. Discharge lamp technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  13. Breast radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  14. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  15. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart failure - overview Heart pacemaker High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Smoking - tips on how to quit ... ask your doctor How to read food labels Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge Low-salt diet Mediterranean diet ...

  16. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  17. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  18. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  19. Uterine artery embolization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000161.htm Uterine artery embolization - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had uterine artery embolization (UAE). UAE is a procedure to treat ...

  20. Deep vein thrombosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000027.htm Deep vein thrombosis - discharge To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. You were treated for deep vein thrombosis ( DVT ). This is a condition in ...

  1. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove it. Torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Inflamed or damaged ... surgery Knee pain Meniscal allograft transplantation Patient Instructions ACL reconstruction - discharge Getting your home ready - knee or ...

  2. Corneal transplant - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000243.htm Corneal transplant - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a corneal transplant. Most of the tissue of your cornea (the ...

  3. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000178.htm Shoulder replacement - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder ...

  4. Electric discharge during electrosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I.; Keidar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 103 A/cm2. The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 1016 cm−3 and (1-2) Ohm−1cm−1, respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold. PMID:25880721

  5. Oil Discharge Reporting Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a facility or vessel discharges oil to navigable waters or adjoining shorelines, the owner/operator is required to follow certain federal reporting requirements. This fact sheet outlines those reporting requirements.

  6. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000166.htm Femur fracture repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a fracture (break) in the femur in your leg. It ...

  7. Crohn disease - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet Nasogastric feeding tube Small bowel resection - discharge Review Date 12/2/2014 Updated by: Jenifer K. ... Frankford-Torresdale Hospital, Aria Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  8. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  9. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around ...

  10. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  11. Identifying discharge practice training needs.

    PubMed

    Lees, L; Emmerson, K

    A training needs analysis tool was developed to identify nurses' discharge training needs and to improve discharge practice. The tool includes 49 elements of discharge practice subdivided into four areas: corporate, operational, clinical and nurse-led discharge. The tool was disseminated to 15 wards on two hospital sites with assistance from the practice development team. Analysis of discharge training is important to assess discharge training needs and to identify staff who may assist with training.

  12. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  13. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of -0/+20 percent of the rated time delay period throughout the operating temperature range and range of delay settings. (b) The pre-discharge alarm must: (1) Sound for the duration of the time delay;...

  14. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of -0/+20 percent of the rated time delay period throughout the operating temperature range and range of delay settings. (b) The pre-discharge alarm must: (1) Sound for the duration of the time delay;...

  15. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  16. EUV radiation from nitrogen capillary discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav

    2014-08-01

    In the last decade EUV sources attract interest from researchers over the world. One of the main motivations is EUV lithography, which could lead to further miniaturization in electronics. Nitrogen recombination laser at wavelength of 13.4 nm based on capillary discharge Z-pinch configuration could be used in experiments with testing of resolution of photoresist for EUV lithography (close to wavelength of 13.5 nm Si/Mo multilayer mirrors have a high reflectivity at normal incidence angles). In this work, pinching of nitrogen-filled capillary discharge is studied for the development of EUV laser, which is based on recombination pumping scheme. The goal of this study is achieving the required plasma conditions using a capillary discharge Z-pinch apparatus. In experiments with nitrogen, the capillary length was shortened from 232 mm to 90 mm and current quarter-period was changed from 60 ns to 50 ns in contrast with early experiments with Ne-like argon laser. EUV radiation from capillary discharge was registered by X-ray vacuum diode for different pressure, amplitude and duration of pre-pulse and charging voltage of the Marx generator.

  17. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  18. Theoretical Study of Methods for Improving the Energy Efficiency of NOx Removal from Diesel Exhaust Gases by Silent Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoyama, Taiji; Yoshioka, Yoshio

    To improve the NO removal performance in silent discharge process, we investigated the influence of the physical parameters such as current density, channel radius and pulse duration of the one micro discharge under the constant reduced electric field strength. And influence of the micro discharges occurrence locations were also discussed. In order to analyze the NO removal process, we assumed that the pulse micro discharges occur repeatedly at the same location in static gas and that the chemical reactions induced by micro discharge forms many radicals, which react with pollutants and by-products. The conclusions we obtained are that lower current density, smaller discharge radius and shorter discharge duration improve NO removal efficiency. These results also mean that the lower discharge energy of the one micro discharge and the larger number of parallel micro discharges increase the NO removal performance. Therefore, to make the area of one micro discharge small is a desirable way to improve the NO removal performance. So we think that the glow like discharge might be more effective than the streamer like discharge mode. Next, using the two-dimensional model, which considered the influence of gas flow, we obtained a conclusion that the repeated micro discharges at different positions are very effective to increase the De-NOx performance. The reason is that the reaction of NO2+O→NO+O2 and ozone dissociation reactions are suppressed by the movement of the location of micro discharges.

  19. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    SciTech Connect

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S; Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V

    2016-01-31

    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  20. Antarctic subglacial lake discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank

    Antarctic subglacial lakes were long time supposed to be relatively closed and stable environments with long residence times and slow circulations. This view has recently been challenged with evidence of active subglacial lake discharge underneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Satellite altimetry observations witnessed rapid changes in surface elevation across subglacial lakes over periods ranging from several months to more than a year, which were interpreted as subglacial lake discharge and subsequent lake filling, and which seem to be a common and widespread feature. Such discharges are comparable to jökulhlaups and can be modeled that way using the Nye-Röthlisberger theory. Considering the ice at the base of the ice sheet at pressure melting point, subglacial conduits are sustainable over periods of more than a year and over distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Coupling of an ice sheet model to a subglacial lake system demonstrated that small changes in surface slope are sufficient to start and sustain episodic subglacial drainage events on decadal time scales. Therefore, lake discharge may well be a common feature of the subglacial hydrological system, influencing the behavior of large ice sheets, especially when subglacial lakes are perched at or near the onset of large outlet glaciers and ice streams. While most of the observed discharge events are relatively small (101-102 m3 s-1), evidence for larger subglacial discharges is found in ice free areas bordering Antarctica, and witnessing subglacial floods of more than 106 m3 s-1 that occurred during the middle Miocene.

  1. Timing Control of Self-organized Dielectric Barrier Discharge and Influence of Discharge Driving Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Junichi; Kubota, Yuki; Oki, Hidenori; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    The two-dimensional array of filaments generated by the self-organizing of atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharges has plasma photonic crystal applications. The net generation time for the self-organization of discharge in one cycle is expected to be short because of its self-extinguishing feature, but that did not happen. However, we attempted to shorten the net generation time by implementing a time difference to drive the parallel array discharge units. The timing of the voltage applied to the discharge cells was controlled by the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors of the circuits, which were turned on by a signal from a single peripheral interface controller. The resultant duty cycles of the discharge current duration per cycle were 6% (single cell), 12% (two parallel cells), and 27% (three parallel cells). When the frequency was changed from 100 to 300 kHz, the generation time increased from 0.61 to 0.72 μs (100 kHz), 0.91 to 1.23 μs (200 kHz), and 1.54 to 1.91 μs (300 kHz). According to these results, frequency and maintenance time are proportional. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26390094, 24540530.

  2. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  3. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  4. Discharge after discharge: predicting surgical site infections after patients leave hospital.

    PubMed

    Daneman, N; Lu, H; Redelmeier, D A

    2010-07-01

    In this population-based retrospective cohort study, we examined the frequency, severity, and prediction of post-discharge surgical site infections (SSIs). We evaluated all patients admitted for their first elective surgical procedure in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2008. Procedure and patient characteristics were derived from linked hospital, emergency room and physician claims databases within Canada's universal healthcare system. The 30 day risk of SSI was derived from the initial hospital admission, outpatient consultations, return emergency room visits and readmissions. The cohort included 622 683 patients, of whom 84 081 (13.5%) were diagnosed with SSI, and more than half (48 725) were diagnosed post-discharge. Post-discharge infections were associated with an increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio: 2.28; 95% confidence interval: 2.11-2.48), return emergency room visit (9.08; 8.89-9.27), and readmission (6.16; 5.98-6.35). The most common risk index predicted incremental increases in the risk of in-hospital SSI, but did not predict increases in the risk of post-discharge infection. Patients with post-discharge infections had baseline characteristics more akin to uninfected patients than patients with in-hospital infections. Predictors of post-discharge infection included shorter procedure duration, shorter length of stay, rural residence, alcoholism, diabetes and obesity. Post-discharge SSIs are frequent, severe, scattered over time and location, and hard to predict using common risk indices. They represent an important hidden burden in our healthcare system.

  5. Bone marrow transplant – children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Transplant - bone marrow - children - discharge; Stem cell transplant - children - discharge; Hematopoietic stem cell transplant -children - discharge; Reduced intensity, non-myeloablative transplant - children - discharge; Mini transplant - children - discharge; Allogenic ...

  6. Methods for estimating selected flow-duration and flood-frequency characteristics at ungaged sites in Central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kjelstrom, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    Methods for estimating daily mean discharges for selected flow durations and flood discharge for selected recurrence intervals at ungaged sites in central Idaho were applied using data collected at streamflow-gaging stations in the area. The areal and seasonal variability of discharge from ungaged drainage basins may be described by estimating daily mean discharges that are exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time each month. At 73 gaging stations, mean monthly discharge was regressed with discharge at three points—20, 50, and 80—from daily mean flow-duration curves for each month. Regression results were improved by dividing the study area into six regions. Previously determined estimates of mean monthly discharge from about 1,200 ungaged drainage basins provided the basis for applying the developed techniques to the ungaged basins. Estimates of daily mean discharges that are exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time each month at ungaged drainage basins can be made by multiplying mean monthly discharges estimated at ungaged sites by a regression factor for the appropriate region. In general, the flow-duration data were less accurately estimated at discharges exceeded 80 percent of the time than at discharges exceeded 20 percent of the time. Curves drawn through the three points for each of the six regions were most similar in July and most different from December through March. Coefficients of determination of the regressions indicate that differences in mean monthly discharge largely explain differences in discharge at points on the daily mean flow-duration curve. Inherent in the method are errors in the technique used to estimate mean monthly discharge. Flood discharge estimates for selected recurrence intervals at ungaged sites upstream or downstream from gaging stations can be determined by a transfer technique. A weighted ratio of drainage area times flood discharge for selected recurrence intervals at the gaging station can be used to estimate

  7. Vessel Sewage Discharges: No-Discharge Zones (NDZs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    States may petition the EPA to establish areas, called no discharge zones (NDZs), where vessel sewage discharges are prohibited. This page describes how NDZs are designated, the types of designations, who enforces them, and how to comply.

  8. Process Performances of 2 ns Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takao; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2011-08-01

    Pulsed discharge plasmas have been used to treat exhaust gases. Since pulse duration and the rise time of applied voltage to the discharge electrode has a strong influence on the energy efficiency of pollutant removal, the development of a short-pulse generator is of paramount importance for practical applications. In this work, it is demonstrated that the non thermal plasma produced by the 2 ns pulsed discharge has a higher energy efficiency than the 5 ns pulsed discharge plasma for NO removal and ozone generation. Typically, the NO removal efficiency was 1.0 mol kW-1 h-1 for 70% NO removal (initial NO concentration = 200 ppm, gas flow = 10 L/min). Meanwhile, the ozone yield was 500 g kW-1 h-1 for 20 g/m3 ozone concentration in the case of oxygen feeding. These energy efficiencies are the highest in the literature.

  9. Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I. K.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Younger, P. M.; Beven, K. J.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.; Freer, J. E.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2010-12-01

    The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models depends on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency are challenged by problems including: (1) uncertain discharge data, (2) variable importance of the performance with flow magnitudes, (3) influence of unknown input/output errors and (4) inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. A new calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs) was developed which addresses these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs) of the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested - based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WASMOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments without resulting in overpredicted simulated uncertainty. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application e.g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the new method is less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than the normal use of limits of

  10. Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I. K.; Guerrero, J.-L.; Younger, P. M.; Beven, K. J.; Seibert, J.; Halldin, S.; Freer, J. E.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2011-07-01

    The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models will normally depend on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, are challenged by problems including: (1) uncertain discharge data, (2) variable sensitivity of different performance measures to different flow magnitudes, (3) influence of unknown input/output errors and (4) inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. This paper explores a calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs) to address these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs) on the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested - based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WASMOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application, e.g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the method appears less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than previous use of limits of acceptability applied

  11. GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  12. Electrostatic discharge test apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William Conrad (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge properties of materials are quantitatively measured and ranked. Samples are rotated on a turntable beneath selectable, co-available electrostatic chargers, one being a corona charging element and the other a sample-engaging triboelectric charging element. Samples then pass under a voltage meter to measure the amount of residual charge on the samples. After charging is discontinued, measurements are continued to record the charge decay history over time.

  13. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  14. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOEpatents

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  15. TMF ultra-high rate discharge performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.

    1997-12-01

    BOLDER Technologies Corporation has developed a valve-regulated lead-acid product line termed Thin Metal Film (TMF{trademark}) technology. It is characterized by extremely thin plates and close plate spacing that facilitate high rates of charge and discharge with minimal temperature increases, at levels unachievable with other commercially-available battery technologies. This ultra-high rate performance makes TMF technology ideal for such applications as various types of engine start, high drain rate portable devices and high-current pulsing. Data are presented on very high current continuous and pulse discharges. Power and energy relationships at various discharge rates are explored and the fast-response characteristics of the BOLDER{reg_sign} cell are qualitatively defined. Short-duration recharge experiments will show that devices powered by BOLDER batteries can be in operation for more than 90% of an extended usage period with multiple fast recharges. The BOLDER cell is ideal for applications such as engine-start, a wide range of portable devices including power tools, hybrid electric vehicles and pulse-power devices. Applications such as this are very attractive, and are well served by TMF technology, but an area of great interest and excitement is ultrahigh power delivery in excess of 1 kW/kg.

  16. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Thomas J.; Somers, William P.

    1969-01-01

    The techniques used in making discharge measurements at gaging stations are described in this report. Most of the report deals with the current-meter method of measuring discharge, because this is the principal method used in gaging streams. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, and volumetric tanks in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  17. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  18. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity.

    PubMed

    Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Strickler, Jennifer; Dunlap, Eloise

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm.

  19. Eruption Source Parameters for Recent Icelandic Eruptions and Their Implications for Duration and Termination of Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thordarson, T.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1947, Iceland has featured 26 volcanic eruptions (2.5 eruptions/year). These include events at the central volcanoes Hekla, Eyjafjallajökull, Grímsvötn and Askja and the fissure eruptions of Surtsey 1963-67 and Nornahraun 2014-15. Of these, 11 are effusive, 8 are mixed (explosive to effusive) and 6 are within-glacier events. Surtsey is the only emergent submarine event (1309 days; 1 km3). Duration of effusive eruptions spans 0.3 to 181 days, with volume, average and peak magma discharge ranging from 10-5-1.6 km3, 0.5-123 m3/s and 1-370 m3/s. Similarly, the mixed events have durations spanning 2.8 to 393 days with volume, average and peak magma discharge ranging from 0.03-0.87 km3, 14-617 m3/s and 50-35600 m3/s. Duration of within-glacier events spans 4.4 to 14 days with volume, average and peak magma discharge ranging from 0.05-0.27 km3, 9-440 m3/s and 400-14000 m3/s. The discharge profiles for these eruptions are highly variable. Mixed eruptions often feature intense discharge (1500 to 40000 m3/s) at the onset of eruption (lasting hours), but some start in a much more subdued manner (500-1000 m3/s). This initial phase is followed by low (3-20 m3/s) magma discharge lasting for weeks to months that normally terminates abruptly. The onset of effusive eruptions is typified by modest discharge (10's to 100's m3/s). They can be very abrupt (<1 day), or drawn out for weeks to months with discharge dropping steadily throughout. The within-glacier events are short-lived explosive events, although with highly varied intensity (see above), and appear to terminate rather abruptly. Plots of eruption duration against size or discharge exhibits no systematic correlation suggesting that none of the eruption source parameters exert principal control on eruption duration or termination. However, these parameters may play a role in conjunction with other factors such as the nature of the lithostratigraphic succession and the local stress field at the eruption site.

  20. Charge transferred in brush discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talarek, M.; Kacprzyk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatic discharges from surfaces of plastic materials can be a source of ignition, when appear in explosive atmospheres. Incendivity of electrostatic discharges can be estimated using the transferred charge test. In the case of brush discharges not all the energy stored at the tested sample is released and the effective surface charge density (or surface potential) crater is observed after the discharge. Simplified model, enabling calculation of a charge transferred during electrostatic brush discharge, was presented. Comparison of the results obtained from the simplified model and from direct measurements of transferred charge are presented in the paper.

  1. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David A.

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  2. Compact intracloud discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David Adam

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackbeard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackbeard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackbeard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackbeard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground-based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events are produced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDs, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground- based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDs. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDs were recorded from three

  3. Continuous pile discharging machine

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  4. Runaway electrons preionized diffuse discharges at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Sorokin, Dmitry A.

    2010-09-01

    Breakdown of the gaps with a non-uniform electric field filled with nitrogen and air as well as with other gases under high-voltage nanosecond pulses was investigated. It is shown that conditions of obtaining a diffuse discharge without a source of additional ionization are extended at the voltage pulse duration decreasing. A volume discharge is formed due to the gap pre-ionization by runaway electrons and X-ray quanta. At a negative polarity of the electrode with a small radius of curvature, a volume (diffuse) discharge formation is determined by pre-ionization with runaway electrons which are generated due to the electric field amplification near the cathode and in the gap. At a positive polarity of the electrode with a small radius of curvature, the X-ray radiation, generated at the runaway electrons braking at the anode and in the gap, is of great importance in a volume discharge formation. A runaway electrons preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) has two characteristic stages. In the first stage, the ionization wave overlaps the gap during a fraction of a second. The discharge current is determined by the conductivity current in the dense plasma of the ionization wave and the displacement current in the remaining part of the gap. The second stage of the discharge can be related to the anomalous glow discharge with a high specific input power. During the second stage, the gap voltage decreases and the cathode spots formed as a result of explosive electron emission can participate in the electron emission from the cathode. At the increase of the voltage pulse duration and specific input power, the REP DD transforms into a spark discharge form. A REP DD is easily realized in various gases and at different pressures; see [1] and references in [1]. At pressure decrease was obtained the anode electrons beam current to rise (up to ~2 kA/cm2 in helium). At the REP DD, the anode is influenced by the plasma of a dense nanosecond discharge with the specific input power

  5. Early Discharge of Preterm Infants- An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Sandeep; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early home discharge of preterm infants is a priority in developing countries due to bed shortage and poor socio-economic status. There is wide variation in home discharge policies for preterm infants. Limited data exists on optimal timing for discharging such infants. In view of the socio-economic and medico-legal importance of the issue, we aimed to study the outcomes of our ex-preterm infants discharged home ‘early’, to guide our clinical practice. Aim To study the rates of re-admissions/mortality within 4 weeks after discharge in preterm (born <34 weeks) infants. Materials and Methods This was an analysis of retrospectively collected data on all ex-preterm infants (gestation <34 weeks at birth) discharged home from our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during the study period. Infants enrolled were stratified based on their gestation age: Group I (n=54): 26-29 weeks, Group II (n=181): 30-34 weeks. Data on demographic characteristics, hospital course and outcomes were analysed for infants meeting inclusion criteria. Re-admission and/or mortality within 4 weeks after discharge were studied. Results The mean±(SD) duration of stay was 42±19 vs. 19±14 days in group I vs. II infants. Five (2.7%) infants were re-admitted within the first four weeks after discharge in group II; none in group I. Conclusion Early home discharge for preterm infants born <34 weeks was feasible and safe in our set-up. Large prospective studies are required to confirm these benefits. PMID:28208967

  6. Large discharge-volume, silent discharge spark plug

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Michael

    1995-01-01

    A large discharge-volume spark plug for providing self-limiting microdischarges. The apparatus includes a generally spark plug-shaped arrangement of a pair of electrodes, where either of the two coaxial electrodes is substantially shielded by a dielectric barrier from a direct discharge from the other electrode, the unshielded electrode and the dielectric barrier forming an annular volume in which self-terminating microdischarges occur when alternating high voltage is applied to the center electrode. The large area over which the discharges occur, and the large number of possible discharges within the period of an engine cycle, make the present silent discharge plasma spark plug suitable for use as an ignition source for engines. In the situation, where a single discharge is effective in causing ignition of the combustible gases, a conventional single-polarity, single-pulse, spark plug voltage supply may be used.

  7. Tilt changes of short duration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHugh, Stuart

    1976-01-01

    Section I of this report contains a classification scheme for short period tilt data. For convenience, all fluctuations in the local tilt field of less than 24 hours duration will be designated SP (i.e., short period) tilt events. Three basic categories of waveshape appearance are defined, and the rules for naming the waveforms are outlined. Examples from tilt observations at four central California sites are provided. Section II contains some coseismic tilt data. Fourteen earthquakes in central California, ranging in magnitude from 2.9 to 5.2, were chosen for study on four tiltmeters within 10 source dimensions of the epicenters. The raw records from each of the four tiltmeters at the times of the earthquakes were photographed and are presented in this section. Section III contains documentation of computer programs used in the analysis of the short period tilt data. Program VECTOR computes the difference vector of a tilt event and displays the sequence of events as a head-to-tail vector plot. Program ONSTSP 1) requires two component digitized tilt data as input, 2) scales and plots the data, and 3) computes and displays the amplitude, azimuth, and normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude. Program SHARPS computes the onset sharpness, (i.e., the normalized derivative of the tilt amplitude at the onset of the tilt event) as a function of source-station distance from a model of creep-related tilt changes. Program DSPLAY plots the digitized data.

  8. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  9. Sentence durations and accentedness judgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Z. S.; Stockmal, Verna; Markus, Dace

    2003-04-01

    Talkers in a second language can frequently be identified as speaking with a foreign accent. It is not clear to what degree a foreign accent represents specific deviations from a target language versus more general characteristics. We examined the identifications of native and non-native talkers by listeners with various amount of knowledge of the target language. Native and non-native speakers of Latvian provided materials. All the non-native talkers spoke Russian as their first language and were long-term residents of Latvia. A listening test, containing sentences excerpted from a short recorded passage, was presented to three groups of listeners: native speakers of Latvian, Russians for whom Latvian was a second language, and Americans with no knowledge of either of the two languages. The listeners were asked to judge whether each utterance was produced by a native or non-native talker. The Latvians identified the non-native talkers very accurately, 88%. The Russians were somewhat less accurate, 83%. The American listeners were least accurate, but still identified the non-native talkers at above chance levels, 62%. Sentence durations correlated with the judgments provided by the American listeners but not with the judgments provided by native or L2 listeners.

  10. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... angioplasty and stenting - discharge; CAS - discharge; Endarterectomy - carotid artery - discharge; Angioplasty - carotid artery - discharge ... were done to open a narrowed or blocked artery that supplies blood to your brain. Your health ...

  11. Electric arc discharge damage to ion thruster grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, D. D.; Nakanishi, S.; Finke, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Arcs representative of those occurring between the grids of a mercury ion thruster were simulated. Parameters affecting an arc and the resulting damage were studied. The parameters investigated were arc energy, arc duration, and grid geometry. Arc attenuation techniques were also investigated. Potentially serious damage occurred at all energy levels representative of actual thruster operating conditions. Of the grids tested, the lowest open-area configuration sustained the least damage for given conditions. At a fixed energy level a long duration discharge caused greater damage than a short discharge. Attenuation of arc current using various impedances proved to be effective in reducing arc damage. Faults were also deliberately caused using chips of sputtered materials formed during the operation of an actual thruster. These faults were cleared with no serious grid damage resulting using the principles and methods developed in this study.

  12. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-08-31

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology.

  13. Correlates of Long Sleep Duration

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Malhotra, Atul; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; White, David P.; Hu, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective Sleeping more than 7 to 8 hours per day has been consistently associated with increased mortality. Whether this association is causal and what pathways explain this association are unknown. We sought to identify factors that could potentially explain the association between long sleep and mortality. Design Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. Participants Middle-aged women (n = 60,028) participating in the Nurses Health Study II who reported a habitual sleep duration of 7 hours or more. Results Multiple sclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7, 95% confidence interval [3.0–4.5]), antidepressant use (OR = 3.1, [2.9–3.3]), benzodiazepine use (OR = 3.0 [2.6–3.3]), and systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 2.9, [2.3–3.6]) were the factors most strongly associated with prolonged sleep. Combining these data with prevalence information and a range of plausible associations with mortality, the confounding rate ratio was estimated. This parameter is the ratio of the unadjusted long sleep–mortality rate ratio to the rate ratio adjusted for the factor and measures the extent that the factor can alter the long sleep—mortality association, either through confounding or as a causal intermediate. Based on this parameter, psychiatric and socioeconomic factors have the greatest potential to influence the long sleep–mortality relationship. Assuming each factor doubles mortality risk, the confounding rate ratios for depression, antidepressant use, and unemployment were 1.10, 1.18, and 1.12. Lesser influential factors were benzodiazepine use, poverty, low societal status, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity. Conclusion Depression and low socioeconomic status are strong candidates for producing the statistical association between long sleep and mortality, either as confounders or as causal intermediates. Future causal research on the effects of long sleep should include a detailed assessment of psychiatric disease and socioeconomic status. PMID:16895254

  14. Channel Forming Discharges and Scaling Relationships in Small Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayshaw, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    One of the major challenges in predicting or mitigating the impacts of disturbance on hydrologic systems is to link changes in hydrology to changes in sediment delivery and transport. Because of the complexity of modelling, usually only one system is considered in isolation, with any potential changes in the corresponding system inferred. For instance, a study of a small watershed might consider changes to peak flows or to sediment delivery to the channel, but not alteration in channel pattern caused by those changes. Linking our understanding of expected changes in hydrology and sediment transport is therefore important for improving land use management. In order to improve this understanding, the development of models and concepts linking hydrologic change to geomorphic change, and vice versa, is necessary. Channel and reach parameters (such as width, depth, slope, and channel pattern) reflect the adjustment of the stream channel to inputs of water, wood and sediment from upstream and upslope. Therefore, channel parameters can be used as indicators which synthesize the hydrologic and geomorphic processes occurring in a watershed (Goodwin et al, 1998). Two parameters which are particularly relevant are the bankfull discharge and the effective discharge. Bankfull discharge (Wolman and Leopold, 1957) is defined as the discharge at which the stream channel is full to the top of its banks, but not flooding over the bank. Effective discharge (Wolman and Miller, 1960) is defined as the discharge that, averaged over time, transports the most sediment. Estimating the frequency, magnitude, and duration of bankfull and effective discharge in a single stream reach provides an indication of the stream channel's stability and the frequency with which geomorphically effective events occur in the watershed upstream. Determining the bankfull and effective discharge for multiple streams across a region enables regionalization, consideration of scaling relationships, and evaluation

  15. Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green

  16. A comprehensive inpatient discharge system.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, E. M.; Teich, J. M.; Pedraza, L. A.; Thomas, D.

    1996-01-01

    Our group has developed a computer system that supports all phases of the inpatient discharge process. The system fills in most of the physician's discharge order form and the nurse's discharge abstract, using information available from sign-out, order entry, scheduling, and other databases. It supplies information for referrals to outside institutions, and provides a variety of instruction materials for patients. Discharge forms can be completed in advance, so that the patient is not waiting for final paperwork. Physicians and nurses can work on their components independently, rather than in series. Response to the system has been very favorable. PMID:8947755

  17. Long-pulse plasma discharge on the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Narihara, K.; Shoji, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Ogawa, H.; Goto, M.; Morisaki, T.; Peterson, B. J.; Sato, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ashikawa, N.; Nishimura, K.; Funaba, H.; Chikaraishi, H.; Watari, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sakamoto, M.; Ichimura, M.; Takase, Y.; Notake, T.; Takeuchi, N.; Torii, Y.; Shimpo, F.; Nomura, G.; Takahashi, C.; Yokota, M.; Kato, A.; Zhao, Y.; Kwak, J. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Yamada, H.; Kawahata, K.; Ohyabu, N.; Ida, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Noda, N.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.; LHD experiment Group

    2006-03-01

    A long-pulse plasma discharge of more than 30 min duration was achieved on the Large Helical Device (LHD). A plasma of ne = 0.8 × 1019 m-3 and Ti0 = 2.0 keV was sustained with PICH = 0.52 MW, PECH = 0.1 MW and averaged PNBI = 0.067 MW. The total injected heating energy was 1.3 GJ. One of the keys to the success of the experiment was a dispersion of the local plasma heat load to divertors, accomplished by sweeping the magnetic axis inward and outward. Causes limiting the long pulse plasma discharge are discussed. An ion impurity penetration limited further long-pulse discharge in the 8th experimental campaign (2004).

  18. Cable Discharge System for fundamental detonator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peevy, Gregg R.; Barnhart, Steven G.; Brigham, William P.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed the modification and installation of a cable discharge system (CDS) which will be used to study the physics of exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonators and exploding foil initiators (EFI or slapper). Of primary interest are the burst characteristics of these devices when subjected to the constant current pulse delivered by this system. The burst process involves the heating of the bridge material to a conductive plasma and is essential in describing the electrical properties of the bridgewire foil for use in diagnostics or computer models. The CDS described herein is capable of delivering up to an 8000 A pulse of 3 micron duration. Experiments conducted with the CDS to characterize the EBW and EFI burst behavior are also described. In addition, the CDS simultaneous VISAR capability permits updating the EFI electrical Gurney analysis parameters used in our computer simulation codes. Examples of CDS generated data for a typical EFI and EBW detonator are provided.

  19. Implementation of Discharge Plans for Chronically Ill Elders Discharged Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Enola K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the extent to which discharge plans for elderly patients with congestive heart failure were implemented as planned, tested the consequences of implementation problems, and identified factors associated with implementation problems. Implications for hospital discharge planners and home health care are discussed. (KW)

  20. Characterization of electrical discharges on Teflon dielectrics used as spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadlowsky, E. J.; Hazelton, R. C.; Churchill, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The dual effects of system degradation and reduced life of synchronous-orbit satellites as a result of differential spacecraft charging underscore the need for a clearer understanding of the prevailing electrical discharge phenomena. In a laboratory simulation, the electrical discharge current, surface voltage, emitted particle fluxes, and photo-emission associated with discharge events on electron beam irradiated silver-backed Teflon samples were measured. Sample surface damage was examined with optical and electron beam microscopes. The results are suggestive of a model in which the entire sample surface is discharged by lateral sub-surface currents flowing from a charge deposition layer through a localized discharge channel to the back surface of the sample. The associated return current pulse appears to have a duration which may be a signature by which different discharge processes may be characterized.

  1. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (<1ms) too short for being detected by the catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  2. Pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, Sophia

    A phenomenological picture of pulsed electrical discharge in gas bubbles in water is produced by combining electrical, spectroscopic, and imaging methods. The discharge is generated by applying one microsecond long 5 to 20 kilovolt pulses between the needle and disk electrodes submerged in water. A gas bubble is generated at the tip of the needle electrode. The study includes detailed experimental investigation of the discharge in argon bubbles and a brief look at the discharge in oxygen bubbles. Imaging, electrical characteristics, and time-resolved optical emission data point to a fast streamer propagation mechanism and formation of a plasma channel in the bubble. Spectroscopic methods based on line intensity ratios and Boltzmann plots of line intensities of argon, atomic hydrogen, and argon ions and the examination of molecular emission bands from molecular nitrogen and hydroxyl radicals provide evidence of both fast beam-like electrons and slow thermalized ones with temperatures of 0.6 -- 0.8 electron-volts. The collisional nature of plasma at atmospheric pressure affects the decay rates of optical emission. Spectroscopic study of rotational-vibrational bands of hydroxyl radical and molecular nitrogen gives vibrational and rotational excitation temperatures of the discharge of about 0.9 and 0.1 electron-volt, respectively. Imaging and electrical evidence show that discharge charge is deposited on the bubble wall and water serves as a dielectric barrier for the field strength and time scales of this experiment. Comparing the electrical and imaging information for consecutive pulses applied at a frequency of 1 Hz indicates that each discharge proceeds as an entirely new process with no memory of the previous discharge aside from long-lived chemical species, such as ozone and oxygen. Intermediate values for the discharge gap and pulse duration, low repetition rate, and unidirectional character of the applied voltage pulses make the discharge process here unique

  3. IDF relationships for short duration rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesarchio, Valeria; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio; Spina, S.

    2013-10-01

    The intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships bound rainfall intensity to duration and return period. These relationships are commonly used as an input in design of many hydraulic structures and drainage systems. Empirical IDF are estimated on the basis of recorded maximum annual precipitation of given durations, often ranging from 1 h to 24 h. For shorter durations, extrapolations are applied. In this paper, maximum annual precipitation for durations shorter than 1 h (namely, 30 min and 10 min) are evaluated using a rainfall disaggregation model and then used for the evaluation of the IDF relationship. A comparison of values obtained with the extrapolated values is then performed, and the results are discussed. Keywords: intensity-duration-frequency curves, rainfall disaggregation, entropy.

  4. Quantifying Construction Site Sediment Discharge Risk and Treatment Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Dealing with soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the potentially large spatial and temporal extent and conditions of bare soils. Best Management Practices (BMP) are commonly used to eliminate or reduce offsite discharge of sediment. However, few efforts have investigated the time varying risk of sediment discharge from construction sites, which often have dynamic soil conditions and the potential for less than optimal BMP installations. The goal of this research is to improve the design, implementation and effectiveness of sediment and erosion control at construction sites using site specific, temporal distributions of sediment discharge risk. Sediment risk is determined from individual factors leading to sediment expert, such as rainfall frequency, the adequacy of BMP installations, and the extent and duration of bare soil conditions. This research specifically focuses on quantifying: (a) the effectiveness of temporary sediment and control erosion control BMPs in preventing, containing, and/or treating construction site sediment discharge at varying levels of "proper" installation, and (b) sediment discharge potential from construction sites during different phases of construction, (ex., disturbed earth operations). BMPs are evaluated at selected construction sites in southern California and at the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 meter, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, potential less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Soil conditions are also varied to represent site conditions during different phases of construction (i.e., loose lifts

  5. Regression models of discharge and mean velocity associated with near-median streamflow conditions in Texas: utility of the U.S. Geological Survey discharge measurement database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A database containing more than 16,300 discharge values and ancillary hydraulic attributes was assembled from summaries of discharge measurement records for 391 USGS streamflow-gauging stations (streamgauges) in Texas. Each discharge is between the 40th- and 60th-percentile daily mean streamflow as determined by period-of-record, streamgauge-specific, flow-duration curves. Each discharge therefore is assumed to represent a discharge measurement made for near-median streamflow conditions, and such conditions are conceptualized as representative of midrange to baseflow conditions in much of the state. The hydraulic attributes of each discharge measurement included concomitant cross-section flow area, water-surface top width, and reported mean velocity. Two regression equations are presented: (1) an expression for discharge and (2) an expression for mean velocity, both as functions of selected hydraulic attributes and watershed characteristics. Specifically, the discharge equation uses cross-sectional area, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area of the watershed, and mean annual precipitation of the location; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.95 and residual standard error of approximately 0.23 base-10 logarithm (cubic meters per second). The mean velocity equation uses discharge, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area, and mean annual precipitation; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.50 and residual standard error of approximately 0.087 third root (meters per second). Residual plots from both equations indicate that reliable estimates of discharge and mean velocity at ungauged stream sites are possible. Further, the relation between contributing drainage area and main-channel slope (a measure of whole-watershed slope) is depicted to aid analyst judgment of equation applicability for ungauged sites. Example applications and computations are provided and discussed within a real-world, discharge

  6. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program Demonstration Project § 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  7. Interactions between surface discharges induced by volume discharges in a dielectric barrier discharge system

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yenan; Dong, Lifang Zhao, Longhu; Wang, Yongjie; Pan, Yuyang; Li, Ben

    2014-10-15

    The interaction between micro-discharges involved in surface discharges (SDs) is studied in dielectric barrier discharge system. Instantaneous images taken by high speed cameras show that the SDs are induced by volume discharges (VDs). They cannot cross the midperpendicular of two neighbouring volume charges at low voltage while they stretch along it at high voltage, indicating that there is interaction between SDs. The differences of plasma parameters between SD and VD are studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The simulation of the electric fields of the wall charges accumulated by VD further confirms the existence of the interaction.

  8. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  9. Penetration and Duration of Fuel Sprays from a Pump Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1931-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of individual fuel sprays from a pump injection system. The changes in the spray-tip penetration with changes in the pump speed, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, discharge-orifice area, injection-tube length and diameter, and pump throttle setting were measured. In addition, the effects of the variables on the time lag and duration of injection can be controlled by the dimensions of the injection tube, the area of the discharge orifice, and the injection-valve opening and closing pressures.

  10. Capillary discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  11. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  12. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  13. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  14. Discharge formation in a XеCl laser pumped by high specific power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.

    2013-02-01

    Stable glow of the discharge of various types in the gas mixture of a XeCl laser is investigated for specific pumping power in the range 1.2-4.6 MW/cm3 and pulse duration of 40 ns. It is demonstrated that formation of partially homogeneous plasma with many intensive cathode spots on the electrode allows the maximum energy and duration of the lasing pulse to be obtained with laser efficiency of 2.4%. It is revealed that for the specific pumping powers up to 1.5 MW/cm3, a very homogeneous volume discharge with a small number of lowintensive cathode spots is formed in the discharge gap. With further increase in the specific pumping power exceeding 4.5 MW/cm3, current microinhomogeneities are formed in the volume discharge of this type leading to lasing breakdown.

  15. Point source of UV-radiation with a frequency of 1 khz and short pulse duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shut'ko, Yu. V.; Erofeev, M. V.

    2012-04-01

    Radiation of the discharge plasma from a nanosecond breakdown in a nonuniform electric field of short interelectrode gaps is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude of ~10 kV, pulse duration of ~1 ns (FWHM), and pulse front duration of ~0.2 ns are used. It is demonstrated that for pulsed-periodic breakdown of the gap 0.5 mm long in air at atmospheric pressure, the main contribution to plasma radiation give lines of the electrode material and the continuum, and the maximum radiation intensity is registered in the region of 200-300 nm, where ~40% of total radiation energy is concentrated.

  16. Spring flood analysis using the flood-duration-frequency approach: application to the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javelle, Pierre; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Bobée, Bernard

    2003-12-01

    Most often, flood frequency analysis describes a flood event only by its peak. However, the true flood severity is also defined by its volume and duration. This paper presents an approach allowing flood events to be considered in a more complete way: the flood-duration-frequency (QdF) approach. In a similar manner to the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis, averaged discharges are computed over different fixed durations d. For each duration a frequency distribution of maximum averaged discharges is studied. Finally, a continuous formulation is fitted, as a function of the return period T and the duration d over which discharges have been averaged. The proposed model has been tested for 169 catchments in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, Canada. The shapes of the QdF curves enabled us to define different types of flood behaviour and to identify the corresponding geographic regions. This mapping of flood behaviour was the basis for the delineation of seven homogeneous geographical regions, containing catchments having the same hydrological behaviour as is required for regional flood frequency analysis. Copyright

  17. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  18. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  19. Duration Sensitivity Depends on Stimulus Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morewedge, Carey K.; Kassam, Karim S.; Hsee, Christopher K.; Caruso, Eugene M.

    2009-01-01

    When people are asked to assess or compare the value of experienced or hypothetical events, one of the most intriguing observations is their apparent insensitivity to event duration. The authors propose that duration insensitivity occurs when stimuli are evaluated in isolation because they typically lack comparison information. People should be…

  20. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a) This part has not been...

  1. A systematic review on the effect of the organisation of hospital discharge on patient health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    health outcome was identified. This systematic review highlights a wide heterogeneity between studies, especially in terms of the component(s) of the hospital discharge process investigated, study designs, outcomes and follow-up durations. PMID:28003282

  2. Autonomic Recovery after Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couckuyt, Kurt; Verheyden, Bart; Liu, Jiexin; Aubert, Andre E.

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the recovery of cardiovascular autonomic modulation after long-duration spaceflight (6 months) is evaluated over a period of 30 days. Results from long-duration spaceflight were compared with the results obtained in astronauts who spent about 10 days in space. It is expected that cardiovascular recovery after spaceflight takes longer when the time spent in weightlessness is extended. Six male astronauts who spent 6 months in space in the ISS participated in the study. It was found that after long duration spaceflight, there is a sympathetic autonomic dominance resulting in post-flight orthostatic tachycardia. Surprisingly, no differences were found in autonomic changes and post-flight recovery after long-duration spaceflight compared to post-flight autonomic control after short-duration spaceflight.

  3. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  4. Environmentally induced discharges on satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    A discharge process whose trigger conditions are a negative exposed metallic surface surrounded by a less negative dielectric, and a large voltage gradient at a dielectric/metal interface is proposed. Analysis of SCATHA data for a discharge substantiates the postulation. Surface discharges cause a small transient charge transfer to space which results in voltage transients. A method of computing these transients, based on the charge lost through the capacitance to space and a fraction of charge stored in the dielectric at the discharge source was developed. It gives an estimate of the discharge transients at the discharge site, which is used as input for coupling code analysis of structure/system response. The transient computations were applied to a three-axis stabilized, geosynchronous satellite for both sunlight and eclipse charging. The energy of the transient pulses are about 1 mJ for sunlight discharge and 8 mJ for eclipse. Changing of selected coatings on the satellite would relieve the stress.

  5. Electrical discharge occurring between a negatively charged particle cloud and a grounded sphere electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Y.; Migita, S.; Toki, K.; Sugimoto, T.

    2008-12-01

    Electrostatic discharge occurring between a space-charge cloud and a grounded object was investigated using a large-scale charged particle cloud formed by using three set of cloud generators consisting of a blower and corona charger. The ejecting velocity of the particles affects the formation of the charged cloud. At the lower velocity, the charged cloud spread due to electrostatic repulsion force, while at the higher velocity cloud forms an elongated conical shape. To cause electrostatic discharge between the cloud and a grounded object, a grounded sphere electrode with 100 mm in diameter was set at the inside or outside of the cloud. The brush-like discharge channels reached the maximum length of 0.55 m. The discharge current has a waveform with single or multi-peak, a current peak of several amperes, the maximum charge quantity of 2 μC, and the duration of several microseconds. The relationship between the charge quantity and the current peak or the duration in each discharge was examined. The discharge between the cloud and the electrode placed at the outside of the cloud has relatively longer channels and multi-peak current with the longer duration, while that at the inside of the cloud has the lower charge quantity with single peak.

  6. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  7. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  8. Discharge ratings at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    A discharge rating is the relation of the discharge at a gaging station to stage and sometimes also to other variables. This chapter of 'Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations' describes the procedures commonly used to develop simple ratings where discharge is related only to stage and the most frequently encountered types of complex ratings where additional factors such as rate of change in stage, water-surface slope, or index velocity are used. Fundamental techniques of logarithmic plotting and the applications of simple storage routing to rating development are demonstrated. Computer applications, especially for handheld programmable calculators, and data handling are stressed.

  9. Attentional entrainment and perceived event duration

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, J. Devin; Fromboluti, Elisa Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the contribution of dynamic attending theory (DAT) and attentional entrainment to systematic distortions in perceived event duration. Three experiments were conducted using an auditory oddball paradigm, in which listeners judged the duration of a deviant (oddball) stimulus embedded within a series of identical (standard) stimuli. To test for a role of attentional entrainment in perceived oddball duration, oddballs were presented at either temporally expected (on time) or unexpectedly early or late time points relative to extrapolation of the context rhythm. Consistent with involvement of attentional entrainment in perceived duration, duration judgements about the oddball were least distorted when the oddball occurred on time with respect to the entrained rhythm, whereas durations of early and late oddballs were perceived to be shorter and longer, respectively. This pattern of results was independent of the absolute time interval preceding the oddball. Moreover, as expected, an irregularly timed sequence context weakened observed differences between oddballs with on-time and late onsets. Combined with other recent work on the role of temporal preparation in duration distortions, the present findings allot at least a portion of the oddball effect to increased attention to events that are more expected, rather than on their unexpected nature per se. PMID:25385779

  10. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Dmochowski RR, Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American ...

  11. Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000239.htm Peripheral artery bypass - leg - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had peripheral artery bypass surgery to re-route the blood supply ...

  12. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-04-04

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space there between, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt%.

  13. Surgery for pancreatic cancer -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000820.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... References Claudius C, Lillemoe KD. Palliative Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  14. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  15. Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000150.htm Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... your bowel (intestine). This condition is called an intestinal obstruction . The blockage may be partial or total (complete). ...

  16. Application of Microsecond Voltage Pulses for Water Disinfection by Diaphragm Electric Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakaurov, S. V.; Suvorov, I. F.; Yudin, A. S.; Solovyova, T. L.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the dependence of copper and silver ions formation on the duration of voltage pulses of diaphragm electric discharge and on the pH of treated liquid medium. Knowing it allows one to create an automatic control system to control bactericidal agent's parameters obtained in diaphragm electric discharge reactor. The current-voltage characteristic of the reactor with a horizontal to the diaphragm membrane water flow powered from the author's custom pulse voltage source is also presented. The results of studies of the power consumption of diaphragm electric discharge depending on temperature of the treated liquid medium are given.

  17. Detrapping of tungsten nanoparticles in a direct-current argon glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Couëdel, L. Kumar, K. Kishor; Arnas, C.

    2014-12-15

    Nanoparticles are grown from the sputtering of a tungsten cathode in a direct current argon glow discharge. Laser light scattering of a vertical laser sheet going through the plasma reveals that the dust particle cloud is compressed and pushed towards the anode during the discharge. Scanning electron microscopy images of substrates exposed to the plasma for given durations show that dust particles are continuously falling down on the anode during the discharge. These observations are explained by the fact that the electrostatic force at the negative glow-anode sheath boundary cannot balance the ion drag, gravity, and thermophoresis forces for particles of more than a few tens of nanometres in diameter.

  18. Antimicrobial action of a discharge with a liquid cathode on the electrode liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Yu. A.; Kuzikova, I. L.; Zinov'eva, S. V.; Shkol'nik, S. M.; Medvedeva, N. G.

    2015-09-01

    The antimicrobial influence of a discharge with a liquid cathode on an electrode liquid at atmospheric pressure was studied. The degree of the antimicrobial action of the discharge was shown to depend on the treatment regime and on the species of investigated microorganism test cultures. Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens show the most prominent sensitivity to the treatment. Yeastlike fungi Candida albicans and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis are more resistant toward the action of the discharge. Increasing the duration of the treatment and raising the current from 60 to 150 mA leads to an increase in the inhibiting action on cells of P. fluorescens and C. albicans.

  19. RF micro-discharge thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2004-11-01

    Propulsion devices for spacecrafts with masses of several tens to one hundred kilograms are in an increasing demand. These devices should provide thrust of a few mN and specific impulse of about 1000 s at the total power consumption of several tens of W. In search of an alternative solution for lower power range, we investigated an rf discharge initiated in a sub-millimeter capillary fed by a gaseous propellant. In such a discharge, it is possible to heat plasma electrons up to temperatures of ˜ 20-30 eV. Steep density drop at the open end of the capillary should be a reason of the formation of a double layer, were the discharge ions are accelerated to energies of ˜5Te. A laboratory prototype demonstrated stable operation at the argon flow rate of 4-10 sccm. The discharge was powered by a 2 MHz rf generator. Power consumption of the discharge was about 16 W. Ionization rate was moderate due to nonoptimal electrode configuration, which resulted in the propellant utilization of 6-11%. Relatively wide plume angle of ˜130 degrees indicates that the acceleration region is placed outside the capillary and has a convex shape. Stability and parameters of the discharge depends on the material of the capillary channel. Among advantages of the rf micro-discharge thruster are simplicity, small size, and absence of cathode-neutralizer. Being optimized, the rf micro-discharge thruster seems very promising propulsion device for sub-mN thrust range.

  20. Augment railgun and sequential discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Proprietary R&D efforts toward the creation of tactical weapon systems-applicable railguns are presented. Attention is given to measures taken for projectile velocity maximization and sequential-discharge operation, and to an augmenting railgun which has demonstrated a 66-percent efficiency improvement over the two-rail baseline railgun system. This device is characterized by strong interaction between capacitor bank submodules during sequential discharge.

  1. Excimer emission from pulsed microhollow cathode discharges in xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.-J.; Nam, S. H.; Rahaman, H.; Iberler, M.; Jacoby, J.; Frank, K.

    2013-12-15

    Direct current (dc) microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is an intense source for excimer radiation in vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 172 nm in a high pressure xenon (Xe) gas. The concentration of precursors for the excimer formation, i.e., excited and ionized gas atoms, increases significantly by applying high voltage pulse onto the dc MHCD over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. The intensity of the excimer emission for the voltage pulse of 20 ns duration exceeds that of the emission intensity obtained from the same MHCD operated only in the dc mode, by one order of magnitude. In addition, the emission intensity increases by one order of magnitude over the pulse duration range from 20 to 100 ns. It can be assumed that the emission intensity of the MHCD source increases as long as the duration of the high voltage pulse is shorter than the electron relaxation time. For the high voltage pulse of 100 ns duration, the emission intensity has been found to be further enhanced by a factor of three when the gas pressure is increased from 200 to 800 mbar.

  2. Corona Discharge Influence on Moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, Vladimir

    2004-09-01

    It is known that the electric discharge has bacteriocid effect. We are interesting on influence of corona discharge on moulds and searching for it's fungicide effect. In this work we study the mould penicillium digitatum by using an easy apparatus, where may be situated two measured samples. One in the burning corona discharge and one in the area with ozone generated by this corona only. We expose the spores of penicillium digitatum on a metal plate and on a cultivating medium on cca 0.01mA, 5kV corona discharge and on generated ozone only for time cca two days. It is the time needed for sprouting of spores and growing of they to a visible size. The pilot results show, that the ozone generated by the corona discharge has none or very low influence on the sprouting and growing of the spores. Direct corona discharge inhibit the sprouting only, but does not kill the spores. In next experiments we will try to find some minimum inhibit and killing concentration of ozone and try to expose the sprout inhibition.

  3. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Deb, A. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Kishore, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  4. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  5. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Ground Water Protected Area made pursuant to this regulation, and...

  6. A progressive-duration schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Kara B; Byrne, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We describe a schedule of reinforcement involving systematic, within-session increases in response-duration requirements. Rats received access to appetitive reinforcers for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery. Sessions ended when reinforcement criteria were unmet for a period of ten minutes. Breaking points, defined as the terminal duration requirement in effect prior to the end of the session, stabilized when environmental conditions were held constant. Breaking points were sensitive to manipulations of both food deprivation and reinforcer quality. Analogous to progressive-ratio schedules, progressive-duration schedules may provide an assay for measuring the amount of behavior an organism will emit for a given reinforcer under current motivational conditions.

  7. [Duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis].

    PubMed

    Pereira, P Ricardo; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The duration of antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis is a controversial issue. Antibiotic regimens have changed over time along with the criteria used to determine the ideal antibiotic therapy duration. The authors aim to make an historical overview on this matter and simultaneously add the evidence of recent studies, pointing out some issues in results interpretation, namely, their design and the associated demographic and epidemiological questions. Clinical assays on this subject, with statistically significant results, are quite recent. Most of the scientific knowledge has been acquired empirically through the times. The actual investigation paradigm, in what concerns to antibiotic therapy in bacterial meningitis, lays on the dichotomy: "short versus long duration regimens". Nevertheless, so far, the existing studies have not completely cleared this doubt. Thus, despite some evidence suggests that short duration antibiotic regimens are effective for some patients, in patients with severe disease presentations or with other morbidities its use may be questioned.

  8. 14 CFR 420.43 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE License Terms and Conditions § 420.43 Duration. A license to operate a launch site remains in effect for five years from the date of issuance...

  9. Perceived duration of chromatic and achromatic light.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Haruyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-15

    Luminance and color information are considered to be processed in parallel systems. The integration of information from these two separate systems is crucial for the visual system to produce a coherent percept. To investigate how luminance and color lights are perceived in time, we measured the perceived duration of light stimuli with and without colors in a paradigm involving simultaneous perception with presentation of two successive stimulus frames. Luminance contrast and color contrast of the stimuli were set with a chromatic substitution technique. In Experiment 1, the perceived duration of both chromatic stimuli and achromatic stimuli increased as the luminance contrast decreased. Experiment 2 tested if the duration of the percept was influenced by color contrast which was defined by colorimetric purity of the stimuli, when luminance contrast was set as low as practically possible. The result showed that the duration of the percept decreased with increasing color contrast of the stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 3 demonstrated that the trend of perceived duration was consistent with the four primary colors, provided that the effective color contrast of stimulus was corrected based on the contrast sensitivity to the color. These experiments indicate that, with a high luminance contrast level, perceived duration of a stimulus is predominantly defined by luminance contrast, whereas in low luminance contrast conditions, the duration depends on the color contrast. The perceived duration of color stimuli showed an "inverse color contrast effect", similar to the well-known "inverse intensity effect" for luminance stimuli. The similarities and the differences between the two systems, as well as their priorities in processing temporal information of visual stimuli are further discussed.

  10. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams

    1999-01-01

    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social self-confidence than did mothers providing breast milk exclusively. PMID:22945984

  11. Generation of high-current electron beam in a wide-aperture open discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokhan, P. A.; Zakrevsky, Dm. E.; Gugin, P. P.

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, it was examined generation of nanosecond-duration electron-beam (EB) pulses by a wide-aperture open discharge burning in helium or in a mixture of helium with nitrogen and water vapor. In the experiments, a discharge cell with coaxial electrode geometry, permitting radial injection of the electron beam into operating lasing medium, was used, with the cathode having radius 2.5 cm and length 12 cm. It was shown possible to achieve an efficient generation of a high-intensity electron beam (EB pulse power ˜250 MW and EB pulse energy up to 4 J) in the kiloampere range of discharge currents (up to 26 kA at ˜12 kV discharge voltage). The current-voltage characteristics of the discharge proved to be independent of the working-gas pressure. The existence of an unstable dynamic state of EB, conditioned by the presence of an uncompensated space charge accumulated in the discharge cell due to the exponential growth of the current in time during discharge initiation and the hyperbolic growth of current density in the direction towards the tube axis, was revealed. The obtained pulsed electron beam was used to excite the self-terminated laser on He 21P10-21S0 transition. The oscillations developing in the discharge cell at high discharge currents put limit to the pumping energy and emissive power of the laser excited with the radially converging electron beam.

  12. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness < B > = - 0.2 and memory < M > = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  13. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  14. Matching the critical portion of the flow duration curve to minimise changes in modelled excess shear.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, C A; Roesner, L A

    2006-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic modeling in the USEPA Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) were used to examine the effectiveness of typical stormwater management practices in reducing the potential for stream erosion. Fifty-year continuous simulations were used to produce flow duration curves and stream erosion rates for a variety of critical shear stress values representative of both cohesive and non-cohesive sediments. An excess shear stress erosion potential index was used to evaluate changes in erosion between undeveloped conditions of a 10 hectare watershed and four variations of post-development stormwater control. Evaluation of flow duration curves showed that when development takes place, the duration of mid- to low-range discharges increase significantly, especially when detention practices are applied. In channels with low entrainment thresholds for bed and bank materials, e.g. sands and highly erodible clays, the significant increase of the duration of mid- to low-range discharges results in erosion potential index values greater than two regardless of the detention practices used. Overcontrol detention resulted in erosion potential index values of less than one, indicating a loss of erosion potential for bed materials such as most gravels (d(s) > 6 mm) and resistant clays that have critical shear stress values greater than four Pa.

  15. Flood duration and chute cutoff formation in a wandering gravel-bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, A.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Chute cutoffs occur when a bypass or "chute" channel incises across a bar or low floodplain area, re-distributing water and sediment. Cutoffs result from a setup and a triggering event, typically during overbank flow, but the combined effect of magnitude and duration on potential erosion in in-channel and overbank areas is still poorly constrained. Here we investigated how overbank flow duration impacts cutoff formation and spatiotemporal shear stress patterns in a wandering gravel-bed river. We applied a two-dimensional hydraulic model to a recently reconstructed reach of the Clark Fork River in western Montana that experienced chute cutoffs during a long-duration flood in 2011. Hydrographs with increasing durations exceeding overbank were simulated; for each magnitude-duration combination, various metrics were quantified for in-channel and overbank areas separately. We confirm the hypothesized importance of floodplain elevation, vegetation presence, chute-channel inlet entrance location, and high overbank shear stress zones at bend apexes on cutoff occurrence. Floodplain width plays an important role in controlling unit discharge such that overbank areas are more competent in a narrower floodplain conveyance corridor. Duration controls cumulative flow exceeding sediment mobility thresholds, having the largest effect in overbank areas. Side channels at the reconstructed study site act like naturally formed incipient chutes. This work describes a complex floodplain system characteristic of wandering gravel-bed rivers with implications for understanding morphodynamic evolution, river restoration, and flow management in regulated rivers.

  16. Water purification by electrical discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akbar Malik, Salman

    2001-02-01

    There is a continuing need for the development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. Ozonation processes are now replacing conventional chlorination processes because ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent and a more effective disinfectant without any side effects. However, the fact that the cost of ozonation processes is higher than chlorination processes is their main disadvantage. In this paper recent developments targeted to make ozonation processes cheaper by improving the efficiency of ozone generation, for example, by incorporation of catalytic packing in the ozone generator, better dispersion of ozone in water and faster conversion of dissolved ozone to free radicals are described. The synthesis of ozone in electrical discharges is discussed. Furthermore, the generation and plasma chemical reactions of several chemically active species, such as H2O2, Obullet, OHbullet, HO2bullet, O3*, N2*, e-, O2-, O-, O2+, etc, which are produced in the electrical discharges are described. Most of these species are stronger oxidizers than ozone. Therefore, water treatment by direct electrical discharges may provide a means to utilize these species in addition to ozone. Much research and development activity has been devoted to achieve these targets in the recent past. An overview of these techniques and important developments that have taken place in this area are discussed. In particular, pulsed corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and contact glow discharge electrolysis techniques are being studied for the purpose of cleaning water. The units based on electrical discharges in water or close to the water level are being tested at industrial-scale water treatment plants.}

  17. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  18. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  19. Arctic River Discharge and Sediment Loads --- an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Hudson, B.; Cohen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that river discharge has been increasing (+10%) over the last 30 years (1977-2007) for most arctic rivers. The peak melt month occurs earlier in the season in 66% of the studied rivers. Cold season flow is also increasing. Satellite discharge estimates, daily, based on microwave radiometry, are now possible from 1998 onwards. Daily river discharge hindcasts over the last 60 years using the water balance model WBMsed at a 10km spatial resolution are now available. The WBMsed model can be used in forecast mode assuming valid input climatology. The challenge here has been the accuracy of sub-polar precipitation grids. While each of these three methods (gauging, orbital sensing, modeling) has temporal and spatial coverage limitations, the combination of all three methods provides for a realistic way forward for estimating local discharge across the pan arctic. Flood inundation products are routinely produced for the pan-arctic using automated mapping algorithms developed by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory. The determination of artic river sediment loads is less than ideal. Some rivers have only been monitored for a short number of years, and many have not been monitored at all. The WBMsed model is perhaps the best method of estimating the daily sediment flux to the Arctic Ocean, at least for rivers where the mean discharge is greater than 30 m3/s. Additionally there is limited-duration field monitoring by national surveys. New methods are being explored, including back calculating the delivery of sediment to the coastal ocean by plume dimensions observed from space (MODIS, LandSat). These methods have had moderate success when applied to plumes extending in the Greenland fjords. Canada maintains an active circa 7-y satellite program (ArcticNet) to track the Mackenzie discharge during the spring-summer runoff period when turbid river water is apt to flow under and over marginal sea ice in the Beaufort Sea.

  20. Pulsed COIL initiated by discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuryshev, Nikolai N.

    2004-06-01

    Pulsed mode makes COIL possible to produce pulses which power can significantly exceed that of CW COIL mode at the same flowrate of chemicals. Such a mode can find application in material treatment, in drilling for oil wells, as an optical locator, in laser frequency conversion via non-linear processes, in laser propulsion, etc. The method of volume generation of iodine atoms was shown to be the most effective one in generation of high power pulses. The base of method is substitution of molecular iodine in operation mixture for iodide which is stable in the mixture with singlet oxygen, and subsequent forced dissociation of iodide. In this approach the advantage of direct I-atom injection in laser active medium is demonstrated. The comparison of experimental results obtained with different sources used for iodide dissociation shows the electric discharge provides significantly higher electrical laser efficiency in comparison with photolysis initiation. At the same time, the specific energy of the electric discharge initiated COIL is at disadvantage in relation with that obtained with photolysis initiation. This fact is a result of active medium temperature increase due to insufficient initiation selectivity of electric discharge. Both longitudinal and transverse electric discharges were investigated as possible sources for laser initiation. The transverse discharge is more promising for increased operation pressure of active medium. The operation pressure is limited by dark reaction of iodide with singlet delta oxygen. The repetitively pulsed operation with repetition rate of up to 75 Hz of pulsed COIL is demonstrated.

  1. Laser Thomson scattering in a pulsed atmospheric arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Bradley; Adams, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Laser scattering measurements, including Rayleigh, Raman, and Thomson scattering have been performed on an atmospheric pulsed arc discharge. Such laser scattering techniques offer a non-invasive diagnostic to measure gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density in atmospheric plasma sources, particularly those with feature sizes approaching 1 mm. The pulsed discharge is ignited in a pin to pin electrode geometry using a 6 kV pulse with 10 ns duration. The electrodes are housed in a glass vacuum chamber filled with argon gas. The laser signal is produced by a Nd:Yag laser supply, repetitively pulsed at 10 Hz and frequency quadrupled to operate at 266 nm. The scattered laser signal is imaged onto a triple grating spectrometer, which is used to suppress the Rayleigh scatter signal in order to measure the low amplitude Thomson and Raman signals. Preliminary results include measurements of electron temperature and electron density in the plasma column taken during the evolution of the discharge. The laser system is also used to measure the Rayleigh scattering signal, which provides space and time resolved measurements of gas temperature in the arc discharge.

  2. Hospital discharge documentation and risk of rehospitalisation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Luke O; Strater, Amy; Smith, Lisa; Lee, Jungwha; Press, Robert; Ward, Norman; Weigelt, John A; Boling, Peter; Williams, Mark V

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND Avoidable hospital readmission is a focus of quality improvement efforts. The effectiveness of individual elements of the standard discharge process in reducing rehospitalisation is unknown. METHODS The authors conducted a case-control study of 1039 patients experiencing rehospitalisation within 30 days of discharge and 981 non-rehospitalised patients matched on admission diagnosis, discharge disposition, and severity of illness. In separate models for each discharge process component, the authors measured the relationship between readmission and discharge summary completion, contents of discharge summary, completion of discharge instructions, contents of discharge instructions, presence of caregiver for discharge instruction, completion of medication reconciliation, and arrangement of ambulatory follow-up prior to discharge. RESULTS Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, including severity of illness and discharge disposition, the study failed to find an association between readmission and most components of the discharge process. There was no association between readmission and medication reconciliation, transmission of discharge summary to an outpatient physician, or documentation of any specific aspect of discharge instruction. Associations were found between readmission and discharge with followup arranged (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.21; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.37) and increasing number of medicines (adjusted OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04). CONCLUSIONS Documentation of discharge process components in the medical record may not reflect actual discharge process activities. Alternatively, mandated discharge processes are ineffective in preventing readmission. The observed absence of an association between discharge documentation and readmission indicates that discharge quality improvement initiatives should target metrics of discharge process quality beyond improving rates of documentation.

  3. Cardiac stimulation with high voltage discharge from stun guns.

    PubMed

    Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Massé, Stephane; Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Dorian, Paul; Sevaptsidis, Elias; Waxman, Menashe

    2008-05-20

    The ability of an electrical discharge to stimulate the heart depends on the duration of the pulse, the voltage and the current density that reaches the heart. Stun guns deliver very short electrical pulses with minimal amount of current at high voltages. We discuss external stimulation of the heart by high voltage discharges and review studies that have evaluated the potential of stun guns to stimulate cardiac muscle. Despite theoretical analyses and animal studies which suggest that stun guns cannot and do not affect the heart, 3 independent investigators have shown cardiac stimulation by stun guns. Additional research studies involving people are needed to resolve the conflicting theoretical and experimental findings and to aid in the design of stun guns that are unable to stimulate the heart.

  4. Optical emission spectrum of filamentary nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbanev, S. A.; Khomenko, A. Yu; Stepanyan, S. A.; Popov, N. A.; Starikovskaia, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    Streamer-to-filament transition is a general feature of high pressure high voltage (HV) nanosecond surface dielectric barrier discharges. The transition was studied experimentally using time- and space-resolved optical emission in UV and visible parts of spectra. The discharge was initiated by HV pulses 20 ns in duration and 2 ns rise time, positive or negative polarity, 20-60 kV in amplitude on the HV electrode. The experiments were carried out in a single-shot regime at initial pressures P  >  3 bar and ambient initial temperature in air, N2, H2:N2 and O2:Ar mixtures. It was shown that the transition to filamentary mode is accompanied by the appearance of intense continuous radiation and broad atomic lines. Electron density calculated from line broadening is characterized by high absolute values and long decay in the afterglow. The possible reasons for the continuous spectra were analyzed.

  5. Micro-Discharge Micro-Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited 1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Micro -discharge Micro -thruster John...This paper summarizes the experiments and analysis of the micro -discharge micro - thruster developed jointly by Ewing Technology Associates and the...University of Washington. The key experimental result has been the demonstration of a sustained discharge in a very simple micro -discharge type of

  6. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  7. Power supplies for long duration balloon flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichfield, Ernest W.

    Long duration balloon flights require more electrical power than can be carried in primary batteries. This paper provides design information for selecting rechargeable batteries and charging systems. Solar panels for recharging batteries are discussed, with particular emphasis on cells mounting suitable for balloon flights and panel orientation for maximum power collection. Since efficient utilization of power is so important, modern DC to DC power conversion techniques are presented. On short flights of 1 day or less, system designers have not been greatly concerned with battery weight. But, with the advent of long duration balloon flights using superpressure balloons, anchor balloon systems, and RACOON balloon techniques, power supplies and their weight become of prime importance. The criteria for evaluating power systems for long duration balloon flights is performance per unit weight. Instrumented balloon systems have flown 44 days. For these very long duration flights, batteries recharged from solar cells are the only solution. For intermediate flight duration, say less than 10 days, the system designer should seriously consider using primary cells. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  8. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  9. Helicon plasma thruster discharge model

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.

    2014-04-15

    By considering particle, momentum, and energy balance equations, we develop a semi-empirical quasi one-dimensional analytical discharge model of radio-frequency and helicon plasma thrusters. The model, which includes both the upstream plasma source region as well as the downstream diverging magnetic nozzle region, is compared with experimental measurements and confirms current performance levels. Analysis of the discharge model identifies plasma power losses on the radial and back wall of the thruster as the major performance reduction factors. These losses serve as sinks for the input power which do not contribute to the thrust, and which reduce the maximum plasma density and hence propellant utilization. With significant radial plasma losses eliminated, the discharge model (with argon) predicts specific impulses in excess of 3000 s, propellant utilizations above 90%, and thruster efficiencies of about 30%.

  10. Stroke rehabilitation and discharge planning.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter

    Nurses play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process of patients who have had a stroke. The nurse's role in the wider stroke multidisciplinary team is complex and diverse and, as such, stroke nurses may find it hard to describe their role and how it fits into the rehabilitation and discharge planning process. A definition of the stroke nurse role in prominent publications such as those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of Physicians is lacking. This article emphasises the role of the stroke nurse in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process in the stroke unit, while highlighting the complexity, diversity and importance of this role in providing holistic care and support for patients who have survived a stroke. The author draws on his clinical experience of stroke nursing practice in primary, secondary and tertiary care in west central Scotland.

  11. Evidence that gestation duration and lactation duration are coupled traits in primates.

    PubMed

    Dubman, Evgenia; Collard, Mark; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2012-12-23

    Gestation duration and lactation duration are usually treated as independently evolving traits in primates, but the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) suggests both durations should be determined by metabolic rate. We used phylogenetic generalized least-squares linear regression to test these different perspectives. We found that the allometries of the durations are divergent from each other and different from the scaling exponent predicted by the MTE (0.25). Gestation duration increases much more slowly (0.06 < m < 0.12), and lactation duration much more quickly (0.36 < m < 0.52) with body mass than the MTE predicts. By contrast, we found that the combined duration of gestation and lactation is consistent with the MTE's predictions (0.22 < m < 0.35). These results suggest that gestation duration and lactation duration might best be viewed as distinct but coupled adaptations. When transferring energy to their offspring, primate mothers must meet metabolically dictated physiological requirements while optimizing the timing of the switch from gestation to lactation in relation to some as-yet-unidentified body-size-related factor.

  12. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  13. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  14. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOEpatents

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  15. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  16. Wide-aperture electric-discharge XeCl lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Ivan; Losev, Valery F.; Liu, Jingry; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2004-05-01

    Experimental results of long-pulse generation in X-ray preionized XeCl lasers with the 9x7 cm2 and 5.4x3 cm2 apertures are described. The lasers operate in the Ne-Xe-HCl mixture with the pressure up to 4 atm. Paper-oil pulse forming lines and a rail-gap switch for the discharge pumping were used. A 3.5 and 10 J output with the optical pulse duration of 250-300 ns (FWHM) has been extracted.

  17. STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.

  18. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  19. Latent profile approach to duration of stalking.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl; Tolvanen, Asko

    2010-07-01

    Stalking behavior and victim-stalker relationship are often the principal known factors in a stalking case. Thus, they are of great importance when trying to identify factors contributing to stalking duration. The present study aims to identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of behavioral stalking dimensions. These victim subgroups, stalking dimensions, and victim-stalker relationship are examined in relation to stalking duration. Using a sample of 137 university students, latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed five distinct victim subgroups based on stalker behavior dimensions: surveillance, low-profile, social lurker, wide scope, and baseline stalkers. The subgroups were significantly related to stalking duration and explained a considerable amount of the variance along with the stalking dimensions and victim-stalker relationship. Connections to stalking literature and utility of person-orientated methods in stalking research are discussed.

  20. [Labor duration: from normality to dystocia].

    PubMed

    Kayem, G

    2015-04-01

    "Normal" labor has been surprisingly little studied in the past 60 years even though it is a central axis in obstetrics. Standards were proposed 60 years ago by Emmanuel Friedman and adopted by many countries to become then, driven from Dublin school, the conditions allowing the management of labor: rupture of membranes and oxytocin with, in case of failure for dynamic dystocia, cesarean. Recent data have suggested that labor duration had changed since the 1960s. Changes in women's characteristics and in obstetric practice especially with the widespread use of oxytocin and realization of epidural may have an impact on labor duration. Current studies suggest that it may be possible to authorize longer labor duration without significant increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity. However, it is premature to change practices following the latest American recommendations without prior studies.

  1. Numerical simulation of operation modes in atmospheric pressure uniform barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Niu, Dongying; Yin, Zengqian; Fang, Tongzhen; Wang, Long

    2012-08-01

    The characteristics of dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage are simulated in atmospheric pressure helium based on a one-dimensional fluid model. A stepped discharge is obtained per half voltage cycle with gas gap width less than 2 mm by the simulation, which is different to the pulsed discharge excited by a sinusoidal voltage. For the stepped discharge, the plateau duration increases with increasing the voltage amplitude and decreasing the gas gap. Therefore, uniform discharge with high temporal duty ratio can be realized with small gap through increasing the voltage amplitude. The maximal densities of both electron and ion appear near the anode and the electric field is almost uniformly distributed along the gap, which indicates that the stepped discharge belongs to a Townsend mode. In contrast to the stepped discharge with small gas gap, a pulsed discharge can be obtained with large gas gap. Through analyzing the spatial density distributions of electron and ion and the electric field, the pulsed discharge is in a glow mode. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics are analyzed for the above mentioned discharges under different gas gaps, from which the different discharge modes are verified.

  2. Modelling the interaction between the plasma and the neutral gas in a pulsed glow discharge in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Guiberteau, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Zoheir, C.

    1995-12-31

    We present here the first results obtained from the modelling of a pulsed glow discharge in nitrogen, taking into account the heat transfer to the neutral gas. The aim of modelling is to optimize the plasma process in a nitriding reactor. The iron sample to be nitrided forms the cathode of the glow discharge at low pressure (100 to 200 Pa). The reactor uses two disks of diameter 50 mm as electrodes with a 40 mm gap. It works in a pulsed regime (cycle period varies from 10 to 100 ms) with a discharge duration which can be varied from 0.5 to 10 ms. Experimental studies have been carried out using emission spectroscopy resolved in space (1 mm) and time (1 {mu}s), under various discharge and post-discharge durations. These studies have shown the important effect of energy transfer from the discharge to the neutral gas. In fact this transfer produces an expansion of the negative glow observed when the post-discharge duration is decreased. A realistic modelling should thus be performed bearing in mind that the neutral gas behaves not as a thermostat. Consequently the thermal and hydrodynamic evolution of the neutral gas must be considered in the whole modelling.

  3. Modeling terrestrial gamma ray flashes produced by relativistic feedback discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ningyu; Dwyer, Joseph R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports a modeling study of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) produced by relativistic feedback discharges. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes are intense energetic radiation originating from the Earth's atmosphere that has been observed by spacecraft. They are produced by bremsstrahlung interactions of energetic electrons, known as runaway electrons, with air atoms. An efficient physical mechanism for producing large fluxes of the runaway electrons to make the TGFs is the relativistic feedback discharge, where seed runaway electrons are generated by positrons and X-rays, products of the discharge itself. Once the relativistic feedback discharge becomes self-sustaining, an exponentially increasing number of relativistic electron avalanches propagate through the same high-field region inside the thundercloud until the electric field is partially discharged by the ionization created by the discharge. The modeling results indicate that the durations of the TGF pulses produced by the relativistic feedback discharge vary from tens of microseconds to several milliseconds, encompassing all durations of the TGFs observed so far. In addition, when a sufficiently large potential difference is available in thunderclouds, a self-propagating discharge known as the relativistic feedback streamer can be formed, which propagates like a conventional positive streamer. For the relativistic feedback streamer, the positive feedback mechanism of runaway electron production by the positrons and X-rays plays a similar role as the photoionization for the conventional positive streamer. The simulation results of the relativistic feedback streamer show that a sequence of TGF pulses with varying durations can be produced by the streamer. The relativistic streamer may initially propagate with a pulsed manner and turn into a continuous propagation mode at a later stage. Milliseconds long TGF pulses can be produced by the feedback streamer during its continuous propagation. However

  4. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  5. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Arias, D.; Leveton, L.

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature on slow wave sleep (SWS) in long duration space flight, and place this within the context of the broader literature on SWS particularly with respect to analogous environments such as the Antarctic. Explore how SWS could be measured within the International Space Station (ISS) context with the aim to utilize the ISS as an analog for future extra-orbital long duration missions. Discuss the potential use of emergent minimally intrusive wireless technologies like ZEO for integrated prelaunch, flight, and return to Earth analysis and optimization of SWS (and general quality of sleep).

  6. Model-based screening for critical wet-weather discharges related to micropollutants from urban areas.

    PubMed

    Mutzner, Lena; Staufer, Philipp; Ort, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Wet-weather discharges contribute to anthropogenic micropollutant loads entering the aquatic environment. Thousands of wet-weather discharges exist in Swiss sewer systems, and we do not have the capacity to monitor them all. We consequently propose a model-based approach designed to identify critical discharge points in order to support effective monitoring. We applied a dynamic substance flow model to four substances representing different entry routes: indoor (Triclosan, Mecoprop, Copper) as well as rainfall-mobilized (Glyphosate, Mecoprop, Copper) inputs. The accumulation on different urban land-use surfaces in dry weather and subsequent substance-specific wash-off is taken into account. For evaluation, we use a conservative screening approach to detect critical discharge points. This approach considers only local dilution generated onsite from natural, unpolluted areas, i.e. excluding upstream dilution. Despite our conservative assumptions, we find that the environmental quality standards for Glyphosate and Mecoprop are not exceeded during any 10-min time interval over a representative one-year simulation period for all 2500 Swiss municipalities. In contrast, the environmental quality standard is exceeded during at least 20% of the discharge time at 83% of all modelled discharge points for Copper and at 71% for Triclosan. For Copper, this corresponds to a total median duration of approximately 19 days per year. For Triclosan, discharged only via combined sewer overflows, this means a median duration of approximately 10 days per year. In general, stormwater outlets contribute more to the calculated effect than combined sewer overflows for rainfall-mobilized substances. We further evaluate the Urban Index (Aurban,impervious/Anatural) as a proxy for critical discharge points: catchments where Triclosan and Copper exceed the corresponding environmental quality standard often have an Urban Index >0.03. A dynamic substance flow analysis allows us to identify the most

  7. Changes in electric organ discharge after pausing the electromotor system of Gymnotus carapo.

    PubMed

    Schuster, S

    2000-05-01

    During their entire lives, weakly electric fish produce an uninterrupted train of discharges to electrolocate objects and to communicate. In an attempt to learn about activity-dependent processes that might be involved in this ability, the continuous train of discharges of intact Gymnotus carapo was experimentally interrupted to investigate how this pausing affects post-pause electric organ discharges. In particular, an analysis was conducted of how the amplitude and relative timing of the three major deflections of the complex discharge change over the course of the first 1000 post-pause discharges. The dependence of these variables on the duration of the preceding pause and on water temperature is analysed. In addition, pause-induced small reverberations at the end of the discharge are described. Common to all amplitude changes is a fast initial decrease in amplitude with a slow recovery phase; amplitude changes scale with the duration of the preceding pause and are independent of the interdischarge interval. The absence of changes in the postsynaptic-potential-derived first phase of the discharge together with changes in the amplitude ratio of the third and fourth deflections suggest that the amplitude changes are mainly due to pause-induced changes in the inner resistance of the electric organ. A model is formulated that approximates the pattern of amplitude changes. The post-pause changes described here may provide a new way to test current models of complex discharge generation in Gymnotus carapo and illustrate the speed at which changes of an electric organ discharge can take place.

  8. Investigation of scaling laws as applied to the gas discharge in the case of a barrier-discharge-excited Kr/CCl4 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikulev, A. A.; Tsvetkov, V. M.

    2010-01-01

    The electrical and luminescent characteristics of a barrier-discharge lamp filled with a Kr/CCl4 (150: 1) mixture are experimentally studied versus the value of pd, which varies in the range (7.6-14) × 103 Pa cm. When simulating the gas discharge using similarity parameters, the following relationships are fulfilled: for pd = const ( p is the pressure, d is the interelectrode distance), the pulse duration and the mean current density are τ j ˜ 1/ p and < j> ˜ p; the surface charge density on the electrodes, σ ˜ const; the duration of the UV radiation pulse and the efficiency of UV radiation due to a KrCl* (222 nm) exciplex, τrad ˜ 1/ p and η ˜ p 2. The maximal radiation efficiency achieved in the experiments is about 13%. Deviations from the similarity laws for the gas discharge are related to the filamentary form of the observed discharge. Qualitative analysis indicates that similarity laws may be fulfilled for such a form of discharge as well but locally, within a single filament.

  9. Construction of estimated flow- and load-duration curves for Kentucky using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unthank, Michael D.; Newson, Jeremy K.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Nelson, Hugh L.

    2012-01-01

    Flow- and load-duration curves were constructed from the model outputs of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) application for streams in Kentucky. The WATER application was designed to access multiple geospatial datasets to generate more than 60 years of statistically based streamflow data for Kentucky. The WATER application enables a user to graphically select a site on a stream and generate an estimated hydrograph and flow-duration curve for the watershed upstream of that point. The flow-duration curves are constructed by calculating the exceedance probability of the modeled daily streamflows. User-defined water-quality criteria and (or) sampling results can be loaded into the WATER application to construct load-duration curves that are based on the modeled streamflow results. Estimates of flow and streamflow statistics were derived from TOPographically Based Hydrological MODEL (TOPMODEL) simulations in the WATER application. A modified TOPMODEL code, SDP-TOPMODEL (Sinkhole Drainage Process-TOPMODEL) was used to simulate daily mean discharges over the period of record for 5 karst and 5 non-karst watersheds in Kentucky in order to verify the calibrated model. A statistical evaluation of the model's verification simulations show that calibration criteria, established by previous WATER application reports, were met thus insuring the model's ability to provide acceptably accurate estimates of discharge at gaged and ungaged sites throughout Kentucky. Flow-duration curves are constructed in the WATER application by calculating the exceedence probability of the modeled daily flow values. The flow-duration intervals are expressed as a percentage, with zero corresponding to the highest stream discharge in the streamflow record. Load-duration curves are constructed by applying the loading equation (Load = Flow*Water-quality criterion) at each flow interval.

  10. Design of a fast computer-based partial discharge diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva, Jose R.; Karady, G. G.; Domitz, Stan

    1991-01-01

    Partial discharges cause progressive deterioration of insulating materials working in high voltage conditions and may lead ultimately to insulator failure. Experimental findings indicate that deterioration increases with the number of discharges and is consequently proportional to the magnitude and frequency of the applied voltage. In order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of deterioration produced by partial discharges, instrumentation capable of individual pulse resolution is required. A new computer-based partial discharge detection system was designed and constructed to conduct long duration tests on sample capacitors. This system is capable of recording large number of pulses without dead time and producing valuable information related to amplitude, polarity, and charge content of the discharges. The operation of the system is automatic and no human supervision is required during the testing stage. Ceramic capacitors were tested at high voltage in long duration tests. The obtained results indicated that the charge content of partial discharges shift towards high levels of charge as the level of deterioration in the capacitor increases.

  11. Timing and Duration of Flow in Ephemeral Streams of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gungle, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Frequency, timing, and duration of streamflow were monitored in 20 ephemeral-stream channels across the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, southeastern Arizona, during an 18-month period. One channel (Walnut Gulch) had Agricultural Research Service streamflow-gaging stations in place. The sediments of the remaining 19 ephemeral-stream channels were instrumented with multiple temperature loggers along the channel lengths. A thermograph-interpretation technique was developed in order to determine frequency, timing, and duration of streamflow in these channels. Streamflow onset was characterized by exceedance of a critical minimum drop in temperature within the channel sediments during any 15-minute interval, whereas streamflow cessation was identified by the local temperature minimum that immediately followed the critical temperature drop. All data for the 18-month period from December 1, 2000, to May 31, 2002, were analyzed in terms of monsoon (June 1 to September 19) and nonmonsoon (September 20 to May 31) periods. Nonmonsoon precipitation during the 2000-2002 study period (excludes October and November 2000) was 82 percent and 39 percent of the 30-year average, respectively, whereas monsoon precipitation during 2001 was 99 percent of the 30-year average. Ephemeral streamflow was detected at least once during the monitoring period at 87 percent of the monitoring sites (45 of the 52 sites that returned useful data; includes 4 streamflow-gaging stations). The summer monsoon period accounted for 82 percent of all streamflow events by number and 71 percent of all events by total streamflow duration. Nonmonsoon streamflow events peaked in number, total streamflow duration, and mean streamflow duration midway between the Huachuca Mountains and the San Pedro River on the west side of the subwatershed. These three streamflow parameters dropped off sharply about 10 kilometers from the mountain front. The number and total duration of nonmonsoon

  12. Battery charge-discharge controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccanti, A. D.

    1969-01-01

    Charge-discharge controller contains punched-tape programmer capable of programming 305 discrete steps in the battery load. The indicating instrumentation includes meters for ampere-hours, watt-hours, voltage, current, and internal temperature and pressure. It also generates analog signals for recording the displayed data.

  13. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  14. Prediction and validation of hemodialysis duration in acute methanol poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Philippe; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Ghannoum, Marc; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) in methanol poisoning (MP) is dependent on the methanol concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. However, methanol assays are not easily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of treatment. Here we provide a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD in MP. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 71 episodes of MP in 55 individuals who were treated with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition and HD. Four patients had residual visual abnormality at discharge and only one patient died. In 46 unique episodes of MP with high-efficiency HD the mean methanol elimination half-life (T1/2) during HD was 108 min in women, significantly different from the 129 min in men. In a training set of 28 patients with MP, using the 90th percentile of gender-specific elimination T1/2 (147 min in men and 141 min in women) and a target methanol concentration of 4 mmol/l allowed all cases to reach a safe methanol of under 6 mmol/l. The prediction model was confirmed in a validation set of 18 patients with MP. High-efficiency HD time in hours can be estimated using 3.390 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for women and 3.534 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for men, where MCi is the initial methanol concentration in mmol/l, provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected.

  15. Prolongation of the lifetime of guided discharges triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments up to 130 μs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantchouk, L.; Honnorat, B.; Thouin, E.; Point, G.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2016-04-01

    The triggering and guiding of electric discharges produced in atmospheric air by a compact 100 kV Marx generator is realized in laboratory using an intense femtosecond laser pulse undergoing filamentation. We describe here an approach allowing extending the lifetime of the discharges by injecting a current with an additional circuit. Laser guiding discharges with a length of 8.5 cm and duration of 130 μs were obtained.

  16. Modification of surface layers of copper under the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulepov, M. A.; Akhmadeev, Yu. Kh.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Kolubaeva, Yu. A.; Krysina, O. V.; Kostyrya, I. D.

    2011-05-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the action of the volumetric discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the surface of copper specimens are presented. The volumetric (diffuse) discharge in nitrogen and CO2 at atmospheric pressure was initiated by applying high voltage pulses of nanosecond duration to a tubular foil cathode. It has been found that the treatment of a copper surface by this type of discharge increases the hardness of the surface layer due to oxidation.

  17. Self synchronization of surface discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegraud, Katia; Rousseau, Antoine

    2008-10-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharges (SDBD) are mainly investigated for airflow control. In this paper, they are used to study surface processes in dielectric barrier discharges. A previous study has shown the self triggered behavior of a SDBD: the plasma initiates through several simultaneous and adjacent filaments around the electrode [1]. This phenomenon has been investigated under the name of collective effects, where the light of a first filament can trigger the ignitions its neighbors [1, 2]. It allows initiating several tens of streamers during a current peak of ˜50 ns. In the present study, we propose to investigate the self synchronization of the discharge in a two electrodes system: the setup consists of two high voltage electrodes on the same glass plate. A third electrode, under the plate, is grounded. ICCD measurements show that the discharge appears simultaneously on both electrodes on a 50 ns time scale. Nanosecond resolved measurements of the streamers propagation reveal that the ignitions on one electrode can be delayed by few nanoseconds in respect to the other one. This means that the discharge from a first electrode can trigger the second one. Finally, iCCD measurements allow calculating the streamers propagation velocity, varying from 3.4x10^7 cm/s at the beginning of the propagation to 0.7x10^7cm/s at the end of the propagation [3]. [1] K. Allegraud, O. Guaitella, A. Rousseau, J. Phys. D. : Appl. Phys. 40 7698--7706 (2007) [2] O. Guaitella, F. Thevenet, C. Guillard, A. Rousseau, J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 39 2964--72 (2006) [3] K. Allegraud, A. Rousseau, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation

  18. 14 CFR 21.77 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... surrendered, superseded, revoked, or otherwise terminated, provisional type certificates and amendments... effective for twelve months after the date of issue. (d) An amendment to a Class I or Class II provisional type certificate is effective for the duration of the amended certificate. (e) A provisional...

  19. The Course and Duration of Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Psychological tests were administered to a crisis group undergoing surgery for cancer and to a comparison group on the night before surgery and thereafter at three-week intervals. Results indicated significant psychological changes only in the crisis group. Duration of crisis was greater than six weeks but less than seven months. (Author)

  20. 14 CFR 21.159 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.159 Section 21.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION... Administrator, or the location of the manufacturing facility is changed....

  1. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  2. Short-Duration Simulations from Measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Enghauser, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A method is presented that ascribes proper statistical variability to simulations that are derived from longer-duration measurements. This method is applicable to simulations of either real-value or integer-value data. An example is presented that demonstrates the applicability of this technique to the synthesis of gamma-ray spectra.

  3. Estimating the duration of speciation from phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Rampal S; Morlon, Hélène; Lambert, Amaury

    2014-08-01

    Speciation is not instantaneous but takes time. The protracted birth-death diversification model incorporates this fact and predicts the often observed slowdown of lineage accumulation toward the present. The mathematical complexity of the protracted speciation model has barred estimation of its parameters until recently a method to compute the likelihood of phylogenetic branching times under this model was outlined (Lambert et al. ). Here, we implement this method and study using simulated phylogenies of extant species how well we can estimate the model parameters (rate of initiation of speciation, rate of extinction of incipient and good species, and rate of completion of speciation) as well as the duration of speciation, which is a combination of the aforementioned parameters. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a primate phylogeny. The simulations show that phylogenies often do not contain enough information to provide unbiased estimates of the speciation-initiation rate and the extinction rate, but the duration of speciation can be estimated without much bias. The estimate of the duration of speciation for the primate clade is consistent with literature estimates. We conclude that phylogenies combined with the protracted speciation model provide a promising way to estimate the duration of speciation.

  4. Duration and Intensity as Correlates of Fo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Eric

    1978-01-01

    The speech of two male Taiwanese speakers was analyzed to determine whether fundamental frequency (Fo) is correlated with both duration and intensity; five conclusions are drawn. The results are discussed in terms of theories of pitch production and speed of pitch change. (EJS)

  5. A Short-Duration Gel Diffusion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a gel diffusion experiment that permits the completion of duplicate diffusion runs within a three-hour laboratory session. Information included for the short-duration gel diffusion experiment is the diffusion cell, the experiment, data treatment, and the expected results of the experiment. (Author/DS)

  6. Iterated rippled noise discrimination at long durations.

    PubMed

    Yost, William A

    2009-09-01

    Iterated rippled noise (IRN) was used to study discrimination of IRN stimuli with a lower number of iterations from IRN stimuli with a higher number of iterations as a function of stimulus duration (100-2000 ms). Such IRN stimuli differ in the strength of the repetition pitch. In some cases, the gain used to generate IRN stimuli was adjusted so that both IRN stimuli in the discrimination task had the same height of the first peak in the autocorrelation function or autocorrelogram. In previous work involving short-duration IRN stimuli (<500 ms), listeners were not able to discriminate between IRN stimuli that had different numbers of iterations but the same height of the first peak in the autocorrelation function. In the current study, IRN discrimination performance improved with increases in duration, even in cases when the height of the first peak in the autocorrelation was the same for the two IRN stimuli. Thus, future studies involving discrimination of IRN stimuli may need to use longer durations (1 s or greater) than those that have been used in the past.

  7. 14 CFR 21.443 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.443 Section 21.443 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures § 21.443...

  8. 14 CFR 21.313 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.313 Section 21.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Approval of Materials, Parts, Processes, and Appliances § 21.313...

  9. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration. 330.1102 Section 330.1102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of...

  10. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 330.1102 Section 330.1102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of...

  11. Estimated flow-duration curves for selected ungaged sites in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Studley, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    Flow-duration curves for 1968-98 were estimated for 32 ungaged sites in the Missouri, Smoky Hill-Saline, Solomon, Marais des Cygnes, Walnut, Verdigris, and Neosho River Basins in Kansas. Also included from a previous report are estimated flow-duration curves for 16 ungaged sites in the Cimarron and lower Arkansas River Basins in Kansas. The method of estimation used six unique factors of flow duration: (1) mean streamflow and percentage duration of mean streamflow, (2) ratio of 1-percent-duration streamflow to mean streamflow, (3) ratio of 0.1-percent-duration streamflow to 1-percent-duration streamflow, (4) ratio of 50-percent-duration streamflow to mean streamflow, (5) percentage duration of appreciable streamflow (0.10 cubic foot per second), and (6) average slope of the flow-duration curve. These factors were previously developed from a regionalized study of flow-duration curves using streamflow data for 1921-76 from streamflow-gaging stations with drainage areas of 100 to 3,000 square miles. The method was tested on a currently (2001) measured, continuous-record streamflow-gaging station on Salt Creek near Lyndon, Kansas, with a drainage area of 111 square miles and was found to adequately estimate the computed flow-duration curve for the station. The method also was tested on a currently (2001) measured, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging station on Soldier Creek near Circleville, Kansas, with a drainage area of 49.3 square miles. The results of the test on Soldier Creek near Circleville indicated that the method could adequately estimate flow-duration curves for sites with drainage areas of less than 100 square miles. The low-flow parts of the estimated flow-duration curves were verified or revised using 137 base-flow discharge measurements made during 1999-2000 at the 32 ungaged sites that were correlated with base-flow measurements and flow-duration analyses performed at nearby, long-term, continuous-record, streamflow-gaging stations (index stations

  12. Comparison of disability duration of lumbar intervertebral disc disorders among types of insurance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Ryeol; Kim, Joon Youn; Hong, Young Seoub; Lim, Hyun Sul; Lee, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jong Tae; Moon, Jai Dong; Jeong, Baek Geun

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorder including low back pain sharply increased since 2000 in Korea. The objectives of the present study are to compare disability duration of lumbar intervertebral disc displacement among types of insurances, and to obtain its appropriate duration. The medical records of all patients whose final diagnosis in discharge summary of chart was lumber specified intervertebral disc displacement (LIVD) in 6 large general hospitals in Korea were reviewed to compare the length of admission and disability among different types of insurances. The information on age, gender, the length of admission, the length of follow-up for LIVD, occupation, operation, combined musculoskeletal diseases, and type of insurance was investigated. 552 cases were selected and analyzed to calculate arithmetic mean, median, mode, and geometric mean of disability duration. There was a significant difference in the length of admission and disability among types of insurance after controlling covariates such as age and combined diseases by the analysis of covariance. The length of admission in cases of IACI and AI was much longer than that of HI, and the length of disability in cases of IACI was much longer than that of HI. Prolonged duration of admission and disability was not assumed due to combined diseases, complication or other unexplainable personal factors in cases of those with industrial accidents compensation insurance and automobile insurance. This means that proper management of evidence-based disability duration guidelines is urgently needed in Korea.

  13. Removing the impact of water abstractions on flow duration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoero, Alessandro; Ganora, Daniele; Galeati, Giorgio; Laio, Francesco; Claps, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    on few easy-access parameters, of correction of the water abstraction impact. The model, based on an exponential form of the river Flow Duration Curve (FDC), allows completely analytical solutions. Hence the method can be applied extensively. This is particularly relevant when working on a general outlook on water resources (regional or basin scale), given the high number of water abstractions that should be considered. The correction method developed is based on only two hard data that can be easily found: i) the design maximum discharge of the water intake and ii) the days of exercise, between a year. Following the same correction hypothesis also the abstracted discharge statistics have been reconstructed analytically and combined with the statistics of the receiving reach, that can be different from the original one. This information can be useful when we are assessing water availability in a river network interconnected by derivation channels. The goodness of the correction method proposed is proven by the application to a case study in North-West Italy, along a second order tributary of the Po River. Flow values recorded at the river gauge station were affected, significantly, by the presence of a 5 MW hydropower plant. Knowing the amount of water abstracted daily by the power plant we are able to reconstruct, empirically, the natural discharge on the river and compare its main statistics with the ones computed analytically using the proposed correction model. An extremely low difference between empirical and analytical reconstructed mean discharge and L-moment of variation was founded. Also, the importance of the day of exercise information was highlighted. The correction proposed in this work is able to give a correct indication of the non-impacted natural streamflows characteristics, especially in alpine regions where water abstraction impact is a main issue.

  14. Electrocorticogram encoding of upper extremity movement duration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po T; King, Christine E; McCrimmon, Colin M; Shaw, Susan J; Millett, David E; Liu, Charles Y; Chui, Luis A; Nenadic, Zoran; Do, An H

    2014-01-01

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) is a promising long-term signal acquisition platform for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems such as upper extremity prostheses. Several studies have demonstrated decoding of arm and finger trajectories from ECoG high-gamma band (80-160 Hz) signals. In this study, we systematically vary the velocity of three elementary movement types (pincer grasp, elbow and shoulder flexion/extension) to test whether the high-gamma band encodes for the entirety of the movements, or merely the movement onset. To this end, linear regression models were created for the durations and amplitudes of high-gamma power bursts and velocity deflections. One subject with 8×8 high-density ECoG grid (4 mm center-to-center electrode spacing) participated in the experiment. The results of the regression models indicated that the power burst durations varied directly with the movement durations (e.g. R(2)=0.71 and slope=1.0 s/s for elbow). The persistence of power bursts for the duration of the movement suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1) is likely active for the entire duration of a movement, instead of providing a marker for the movement onset. On the other hand, the amplitudes were less co-varied. Furthermore, the electrodes of maximum R(2) conformed to somatotopic arrangement of the brain. Also, electrodes responsible for flexion and extension movements could be resolved on the high-density grid. In summary, these findings suggest that M1 may be directly responsible for activating the individual muscle motor units, and future BCI may be able to utilize them for better control of prostheses.

  15. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  16. The design and rationale for the Acute Medically Ill Venous Thromboembolism Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alexander T; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kitt, Michael M; Lorenz, Todd J

    2014-03-01

    Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE.

  17. 40 CFR 1700.8 - Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Effect on States No-Discharge...

  18. 40 CFR 1700.8 - Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Effect on States No-Discharge...

  19. 40 CFR 1700.8 - Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Effect on States No-Discharge...

  20. 40 CFR 1700.8 - Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Effect on States No-Discharge...

  1. 40 CFR 1700.8 - Discharges for which no-discharge zones can be established.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE; UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES UNIFORM NATIONAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS FOR VESSELS OF THE ARMED FORCES Effect on States No-Discharge...

  2. Flood durations and their response to ENSO at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Lall, Upmanu

    2014-05-01

    The economic losses associated with flooding are huge. In 2012 alone, economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion, and these losses are rising rapidly. Hence, in recent years several methods have been developed to assess the influence of climate change, climate variability, and socioeconomic change, on flood hazard and flood loss. To date, most of the studies employ methods that simulate flood hazards based on some measure of instantaneous peak discharge (e.g. peak annual discharge), which is used as a proxy for the severity of an event. However, recent large flood disasters, for example those experienced in Thailand, Pakistan, and Queensland, have shown that for the most disastrous floods, the duration of flooding is also very important. To date, few studies have specifically assessed the impacts of climate change and/or variability on flood durations. In this contribution, we examine relationships between flood durations at the global scale and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). At the globally aggregated scale, we found no statistical difference between the number of floods during El Niño and La Niña years, compared to the number of floods during neutral years. However, we found that the durations of floods during both El Niño and La Niña are longer than during neutral years. At the regional scale, we found that ENSO exerts a very large influence on both the number of flood events and the duration of those floods. Statistically significant differences in the average duration of floods between neutral years and El Niño and/or La Niña years were found in Australia and Oceania, Eastern Asia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Middle and South Africa, North Africa, and Western Europe. We present maps showing the geographical patterns of these influences at the basin scale. We also provide composite analyses of atmospheric conditions during long duration floods for several case study regions (e.g. Queensland, Chao Phraya). Finally, we discuss how

  3. Numerical investigation of pulse-modulated atmospheric radio frequency discharges in helium under different duty cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Jizhong; Ding Zhengfen; Li Xuechun; Wang Dezhen; Wang Qi

    2011-12-15

    Experiments observed that the pulse duty cycle has effects on the plasma homogeneity in pulse-modulated radio frequency (rf) discharges. In this paper, pulse-modulated rf (13.56 MHz) helium discharges are theoretically investigated using a two dimensional fluid model. With the pulse period being fixed to 15 {mu}s, it is found that when the pulse-on duration is over 4 {mu}s, i.e., the duty cycle is larger than approximately 27%, the discharge transits from an inhomogeneous to a homogeneous mode in every specific part of each pulse cycle under currently-used simulation parameters. More quantitative analysis shows that the discharge becomes more homogeneous as the duty cycle is increased but does not reach complete homogeneity. Possible reasons for the homogeneity improvement are discussed.

  4. Scaling of Flow Duration Curves Across the Contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahnamay Naeini, M.; Vrugt, J. A.; Sadegh, M.; Gomes, G. J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The scaling method has been used extensively in vadose zone hydrology to analyze the spatial variability of the soil hydraulic properties. This method relies on the similar media concept of Miller and Miller (1955) and coalesces a set of functional relationships into a single reference curve using so-called scaling factors that relate the hydraulic properties at a given location to the mean properties at an arbitrary reference point. In this talk, we will adapt the scaling method to surface hydrology and characterize the spatial variability of the flow duration curve (FDC) across the contiguous United States. Scaling factors are derived numerically by fitting closed-form parametric expressions of the FDC (Vrugt and Sadegh, 2013; Sadegh et al., 2015) to multi-year discharge data of the MOPEX data set. Results show that the FDC scaling factor exhibits a strong geographic trend with spatial patterns similar to those observed in the US soil and precipitation maps. Spatio-temporal kriging of the scaling factor can be used to predict the FDC of an ungauged watershed.

  5. Internal dynamics of electrical discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kadish, A.; Maier, W.B. II ); Robiscoe, R.T. )

    1990-01-01

    The existence of thresholds for electrical discharge onset suggests a functional relation between macroscopic resistivity and current. At low current, the resistivity should be inversely proportional to the magnitude of the current. Macroscopic models which employ this scaling predict many empirically observed properties of transient electrical discharges, such as (1) thresholds for onset of current, (2) abrupt termination of current in active regions of a current channel, (3) current restart in passive regions of current channels, (4) leaders, and (5) residual charge, both in channels and at sources when current terminates. We present an overview of research with these models and use examples to illustrate the results that have been obtained. We also show how these models predict current channel formation and describe results of efforts to benchmark theory with experimental data. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Spectral emission of corona discharges.

    PubMed

    Grum, F; Costa, L F

    1976-01-01

    Corona-discharge devices are commonly used in a variety of research and development applications. They are known to produce a considerable amount of electromagnetic radiation, mainly in the uv region of the spectrum. The mechanism involved is presumed to be the ionization and radiative recombination of the gases surrounding the high-voltage terminal of the device. A series of high-resolution emission spectra of corona discharge has been measured in atmospheres of nitrogen, helium, and air. (The nitrogen and helium are Air Products 99.995% purity, total hydrocarbons less than 0.5 ppm.) These data are presented here and are compared with published spectroscopic reference data. All the emission lines reported in the spectroscopic reference literature were detected, as well as other lines, which may conceivably be due to impurities.

  7. [Ductoscopy for pathologic nipple discharge].

    PubMed

    Waaijer, Laurien; van Diest, Paul J; van der Pol, Carmen C; Verolme, Berna; Hennink, Annelies; Witkamp, Arjen J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic nipple discharge is a symptom that frequently causes female patients to visit the outpatient breast clinic. In the vast majority of cases, the symptom is caused by a benign intraductal laesion. The options for diagnosis and treatment have long been limited; surgery was not infrequently the treatment of choice. With the advent of breast ductoscopy, a micro-endoscopic procedure, it is possible to visualise abnormalities in the ductal system. Tissue for histopathological investigation can be retrieved from the duct and the condition can be treated. The patient with nipple discharge is consequently prevented from having to undergo an invasive and fairly 'blindly' executed procedure under general anaesthesia. The miniscule dimensions of the duct in which the technique is carried out pose the greatest challenge to the further development of the ductoscope.

  8. National water quality assessment of the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit; water withdrawals and treated wastewater discharges, 1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Fanning, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    ,293 million gallons per day, of which 69 percent was ground water and 31 percent was surface water. An estimated 1.254 millon acres were irrigated within the study unit during 1990. Water withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in the study unit in 1990 totaled 1,552 million gallons per day, of which 99 percent was surface water and 1 percent was ground water. An additional 6,919 million gallons per day of saline surface water were withdrawn for thermoelectric power generation in 1990, solely for cooling purposes. Treated wastewater discharged within the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit totaled nearly 1,187 million gallons per day in 1990. Of the total water discharged, 58 percent was discharged directly into surface water and the remaining 42 percent was discharged to ground water (through drain fields, injection wells, percolation ponds or spray fields). Domestic wastewater facilities discharged in the study unit totaled nearly 789 million gallons per day, industrial wastewater facilities discharged 213 million gallons per day, and releases from septic tanks was estimated at 185 million gallons per day. More than 1.3 million septic tanks were estimated in use within the study unit in 1990.

  9. Ion Runaway in Lightning Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fülöp, T.; Landreman, M.

    2013-07-01

    Runaway ions can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields, where the accelerating electric force is augmented by the low mean ionic charge due to the imbalance between the number of electrons and ions. Here we derive an expression for the high-energy tail of the ion distribution function in lightning discharges and investigate the energy range that the ions can reach. We also estimate the corresponding energetic proton and neutron production due to fusion reactions.

  10. (Gas discharges and their applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L. G.

    1988-10-06

    The traveler attended the IX International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications held in Venice, Italy, September 19--23, 1988. He was a member of the International Organizing Committee of the conference, chaired a scientific session, presented a paper, and participated in scientific discussions and the planning of the next conference. Also, he exchanged research information and ideas on electron, ion, and laser interactions in fluid media with many participants.

  11. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  12. Discharge Asymmetry in Delta Bifurcations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, G.; Paola, C.; Voller, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    Distributary networks are formed by channels which bifurcate downstream in a river delta. Sediment and water fluxes are often split unequally in delta bifurcations. Understanding flux asymmetry in distributary networks is important for predicting how a delta will respond to sea-level rise. We present results of a quasi-1D model of a delta bifurcation. Consistent with previous results, in the absence of deposition, stable bifurcations may be either symmetric or asymmetric, depending on flow conditions. However, in a depositional setting, a stable asymmetric flow partitioning is no longer possible, as the dominant branch becomes less and less steep relative to the other branch. This feedback eventually causes the second branch to become favored. For the depositional case, we identify three regimes of bifurcation behavior: 1) stable symmetric bifurcation, 2) "soft" avulsions where the dominant branch switches without complete abandonment of the previous channel, and 3) complete avulsions where one branch is completely abandoned. In each case, the bifurcation is symmetric in the long-term average, but the latter two allow for short-term asymmetry. We find that keeping upstream sediment and water discharges fixed, as downstream channel length increases the regime shifts from symmetric to soft avulsions to complete avulsions. In the two avulsion regimes we examine the effect of upstream sediment and water discharges and downstream channel length on avulsion period and maximum discharge ratio. Finally, we compare numerical modeling results to a fixed-wall bifurcation experiment. As in the numerical model, the presence or absence of a downstream sink exerts a strong control on system behavior. If a sink is present, a bifurcation may be asymmetric indefinitely. Conversely, without a sink the system is depositional, and the feedback between sediment discharge asymmetry and slope causes the bifurcation to remain symmetric in the long-term average.

  13. Efficiency, effectiveness, and duration of stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shah, S; Vanclay, F; Cooper, B

    1990-02-01

    This prospective multicenter study identifies the variables significant in the prediction of rehabilitation efficiency, achievement of rehabilitation potential and duration of rehabilitation stay in 258 persons with a first stroke admitted to comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation in Brisbane, Australia, during 1984. All three dependent variables were poorly predicted, with only 17% of the variance in rehabilitation efficiency, only 30% of the variance in achievement of rehabilitation potential, and only 22% of the variance in duration of rehabilitation stay explained. Unlike other reports, we considered most of the major medical (side of paralysis, stroke etiology, site of the lesion, arterial distribution affected, etc.), rehabilitative (initial Barthel Index score, interval from stroke onset to acute-care hospital admission, interval from hospital admission to rehabilitation commencement, neurologic measures, etc.), and demographic (age, years of education, occupation, ethnicity, etc.) variables. The high proportion of unexplained variance is likely to be due to nonmedical factors influencing the selection of patients for rehabilitation.

  14. Discharge-pumped XUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jiri; Kolacek, Karel; Straus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2016-09-01

    We have built two experimental devices (CAPEX and CAPEX-U) working as XUV sources, which are based on the fast, pinching capillary discharge. On both these devices we have observed lasing at 46.9 nm (Ne-like Ar line). However, besides lasing at the above mentioned relatively long wavelength, they are also used for testing a possibility of amplification at the wavelengths below 20 nm that have more practical applications. Particularly, at present nitrogen-filled capillary (?4 mm x 90 mm) discharge is studied for the development of XUV (soft X-ray) laser based on recombination pumping scheme: the fully stripped nitrogen nuclei recombine to hydrogen-like atoms, where Balmer-alpha transition (wavelength 13.4 nm) is - according to theoretical predictions - capable of creating population inversion. The modified electrical parameters (peak current 60 kA with quarter period of 45 ns) meet the necessary theoretical conditions. The only question remains, if suitable pre-pulse can suppress the capillary-wall-ablation, which in all presently known cases has quashed the amplification. In this paper the recent results obtained from both these discharge systems (argon-, nitrogen-filled capillaries) will be presented. Acknowledgement: This work was performed under auspices and with the support of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (Contract 14-29772S) and of the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (INGO contract LG15013).

  15. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  16. Localization of Short Duration Periodic Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    the localization of multiple interfering sperm whales using multi- sensor time difference of arrival”, 130 Journal of the Acoustical Society of...often make short duration periodic signals such as clicks. It is common to locate whales by measuring the time difference for the same click...can occur when the sources are whales in a pod. In this case, a set of hyperbolic solutions will be created for each source and many false

  17. 46 CFR 154.1115 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 154.1115 Discharge. (a) The discharge density of each water spray system must be at least: (1) 10000...) against vertical surface, including the water rundown. (b) The water spray protection under § 154.1110...

  18. Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    TURP - discharge; Prostate resection - transurethral - discharge ... You had transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery to treat an enlarged prostate. Your surgeon inserted a tube-like tool called a cystoscope (or endoscope) through your urethra ( ...

  19. Uniform National Discharge Standards (UNDS): Rulemaking Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA and Department of Defense used a batch rulemaking process for establishing the discharge standards for vessels of the Armed Forces. They identified and evaluated the discharges and determined which require marine pollution control devices.

  20. Metadata - National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) is an annual probability survey that collects information on the characteristics of inpatients discharged from non-federal short-stay hospitals in the United States.

  1. [Desulphurization with multi-needle-water film electrodes by corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-ran; Li, Guo-feng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2008-09-01

    The study of this paper adopted stainless steel multi-needle as a high voltage electrode system, and water film as low voltage electrode. The electrodes were supplied with negative DC high voltage. Polluted gas containing sulfur dioxide (SO2) flowed into the corona discharge field from the center of the high voltage electrode system in an axis direction, then get across the water surface. Under the effect of corona discharge plasma and water absorption, SO2 was removed by converting it into sulfuric acid. The effect of the three factors which were the applied voltage, SO2 inlet concentration and duration of the exposure to the corona discharge on desulphurization efficiency has been studied mostly. Moreover, the concentrations of SO3(2-) and SO4(2-) ions in the water were measured and the mechanism of desulphurization was analyzed. The results showed that there was a synergistic effect on the removal of SO2 when combining corona discharge and water absorption, and both the desulphurization efficiency and the amount of sulfuric acid increased evidently. As the applied voltage and the duration increased, the desulphurization efficiency increased. Also, the SO2 inlet concentration had effect on desulphurization efficiency. When the SO2 inlet concentration was 430 x 10(-6), the voltage was 14.5 kV and the duration was 7.5 s, a desulphurization efficiency of more than 90% could be attained.

  2. Underwater loudness for pure tones: Duration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudahy, Edward A.; Schwaller, Derek; Fothergill, David; Wolgemuth, Keith

    2003-04-01

    The loudness of underwater pure tones was measured by loudness matching for pure tones from 100 to 16,000 Hz. The standard was a one second tone at 1000 Hz. The signal duration was varied from 20 milliseconds to 5 seconds. Subjects were instructed to match the loudness of the comparison tone at one of the test frequencies to the loudness of the standard tone. Loudness was measured at the threshold, the most comfortable loudness, and the maximum tolerable loudness. The intensity of the standard was varied randomly across the test series. The subjects were bareheaded U.S. Navy divers tested at a depth of 3 meters. All subjects had normal in-air hearing. Tones were presented to the right side of the subject from an array of underwater sound projectors. The sound pressure level was calibrated at the location of the subject's head with the subject absent. Loudness increased and threshold decreased as duration increased. The effect was greatest at the lowest and highest frequencies. The shape of the loudness contours across frequency and duration derived from these measurements are different from in-air measurements. [Research supported by ONR.

  3. Evaluation of Long Duration Flight on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of utilizing either an airship or aircraft as a flight platform for long duration flight within the atmosphere of Venus. In order to achieve long-duration flight, the power system for the vehicle had to be capable of operating for extended periods of time. To accomplish these, two types of power systems were considered, a solar energy-based power system utilizing a photovoltaic array as the main power source and a radioisotope heat source power system utilizing a Stirling engine as the heat conversion device. Both types of vehicles and power systems were analyzed to determine their flight altitude range. This analysis was performed for a station-keeping mission where the vehicle had to maintain a flight over a location on the ground. This requires the vehicle to be capable of flying faster than the wind speed at a particular altitude. An analysis was also performed to evaluate the altitude range and maximum duration for a vehicle that was not required to maintain station over a specified location. The results of the analysis show that each type of flight vehicle and power system was capable of flight within certain portions of Venus s atmosphere. The aircraft, both solar and radioisotope power proved to be the most versatile and provided the greatest range of coverage both for station-keeping and non-station-keeping missions.

  4. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

  5. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  6. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after hospital discharge: transition to preventive care.

    PubMed

    Kaatz, Scott; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2011-08-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, the common clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism (VTE), are among the most preventable complications of hospitalized patients. However, survey data repeatedly show poor rates of compliance with guideline-based preventive strategies. This has led the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to deny reimbursement for hospital readmission for thromboembolic complications in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty. Multiple strategies and national initiatives have been developed to improve rates of VTE prophylaxis during hospitalization; however, most VTE occurs in the outpatient setting. Epidemiologic data suggest that recent surgery or hospitalization is a strong risk factor for the development of VTE and that this risk may persist for up to 6 months. These observations call into question whether VTE prophylaxis should be administered only during hospitalization or if this preventive strategy should be continued after hospital discharge. Many of the randomized trials showing efficacy of VTE prophylaxis have used longer durations of prophylaxis than are typical for current length of hospital stay, highlighting the issue of how long the duration of prophylaxis should be. Several patient groups have undergone formal testing to evaluate the risks and benefits of extended-duration VTE prophylaxis, but this issue is less clear for other categories of patients. Although there is clear consensus that most hospitalized patients should receive VTE prophylaxis, there is uncertainty about whether to continue VTE prophylaxis in the immediate post-hospital period or for an extended duration. The transition from inpatient to outpatient care is a key event in the coordination of continuity of care, but VTE-specific care transition guidance is limited. In this article, we review the evidence for both standard- and extended-duration VTE prophylaxis and discuss the difficulties in effectively maintaining VTE

  7. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  8. Electrical discharges in Chinese salamander Andrias davidianus.

    PubMed

    Olshanskii, V M; Baron, V D; Wei, Xue

    2016-11-01

    In 2-year-old Chinese giant salamanders Andrias davidianus, occasional electric discharges with a characteristic pattern similar to the electric discharges of weakly electric catfish, Polypterus and Protopterus, were recorded for the first time. The discharges markedly differ in shape from the myograms accompanying abrupt movements of the salamander or exceeded them in amplitude by more than an order of magnitude. The discharges were recorded both in the autonomous experiment in the absence of experimenters and at a weak tactile stimulation.

  9. Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved barrier discharge produced in trapped helium gas at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Chiper, Alina Silvia; Popa, Gheorghe

    2013-06-07

    Experimental study was made on induced effects by trapped helium gas in the pulsed positive dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in symmetrical electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. Using fast photography technique and electrical measurements, the differences in the discharge regimes between the stationary and the flowing helium are investigated. It was shown experimentally that the trapped gas atmosphere (TGA) has notable impact on the barrier discharge regime compared with the influence of the flowing gas atmosphere. According to our experimental results, the DBD discharge produced in trapped helium gas can be categorized as a multi-glow (pseudo-glow) discharge, each discharge working in the sub-normal glow regime. This conclusion is made by considering the duration of current pulse (few {mu}s), their maximum values (tens of mA), the presence of negative slope on the voltage-current characteristic, and the spatio-temporal evolution of the most representative excited species in the discharge gap. The paper focuses on the space-time distribution of the active species with a view to better understand the pseudo-glow discharge mechanism. The physical basis for these effects was suggested. A transition to filamentary discharge is suppressed in TGA mode due to the formation of supplementary source of seed electrons by surface processes (by desorption of electrons due to vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules, originated from barriers surfaces) rather than volume processes (by enhanced Penning ionisation). Finally, we show that the pseudo-glow discharge can be generated by working gas trapping only; maintaining unchanged all the electrical and constructive parameters.

  10. Design flow duration curves for environmental flows estimation in Damodar River Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ravindra Kumar; Murthy, Shankar; Verma, Sangeeta; Mishra, Surendra Kumar

    2016-11-01

    In this study, environmental flows (EFs) are estimated for six watersheds of Damodar River Basin (DRB) using flow duration curve (FDC) derived using two approaches: (a) period of record and (b) stochastic approaches for daily, 7-, 30-, 60-day moving averages, and 7-daily mean annual flows observed at Tenughat dam, Konar dam, Maithon dam, Panchet dam, Damodar bridge, Burnpur during 1981-2010 and at Phusro during 1988-2010. For stochastic FDCs, 7-day FDCs for 10, 20-, 50- and 100-year return periods were derived for extraction of discharge values at every 5% probability of exceedance. FDCs derived using the first approach show high probability of exceedance (5-75%) for the same discharge values. Furthermore, discharge values of 60-day mean are higher than those derived using daily, 7-, and 30-day mean values. The discharge values of 95% probability of exceedance (Q95) derived from 7Q10 (ranges from 2.04 to 5.56 cumec) and 7Q100 (ranges from 3.4 to 31.48 cumec) FDCs using the second approach are found more appropriate as EFs during drought/low flow and normal precipitation years.

  11. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  12. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  13. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  14. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  15. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  16. 14 CFR 31.61 - Static discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Static discharge. 31.61 Section 31.61... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.61 Static discharge. Unless shown not to be... gas as a lifting means to ensure that the effects of static discharges will not create a hazard....

  17. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level...

  18. 22 CFR 309.23 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Discharge. 309.23 Section 309.23 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.23 Discharge. Once a debt has been closed out for accounting purposes and collection has been terminated, the debt is discharged. Peace Corps will...

  19. 22 CFR 309.23 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discharge. 309.23 Section 309.23 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.23 Discharge. Once a debt has been closed out for accounting purposes and collection has been terminated, the debt is discharged. Peace Corps will...

  20. 22 CFR 309.23 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discharge. 309.23 Section 309.23 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.23 Discharge. Once a debt has been closed out for accounting purposes and collection has been terminated, the debt is discharged. Peace Corps will...

  1. 22 CFR 309.23 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Discharge. 309.23 Section 309.23 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.23 Discharge. Once a debt has been closed out for accounting purposes and collection has been terminated, the debt is discharged. Peace Corps will...

  2. 22 CFR 309.23 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Discharge. 309.23 Section 309.23 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.23 Discharge. Once a debt has been closed out for accounting purposes and collection has been terminated, the debt is discharged. Peace Corps will...

  3. Acoustic Doppler discharge-measurement system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Michael R.; Oltmann, Richard N.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A discharge-measurement system that uses a vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler has been developed and tested by the U.S. Geological Survey. Discharge measurements using the system require a fraction of the time needed for conventional current-meter discharge measurements and do not require shore-based navigational aids or tag lines for positioning the vessel.

  4. Effects of flow duration on local scour at bridge piers in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butch, Gerard K.; Lumia, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The relation of local scour to the duration of high flows and other hydraulic properties is being studied at 31 bridge sites in New York State. Clear-water scour is common at most of the sites, and local-scour holes that formed during prolonged high flows did not refill during flow recessions. The deepening of about 20 local-scour holes by subsequent high flows indicates that the length of time a flow exceeds a given discharge can affect local scour at a site. Many high flows of short duration did not cause scour. Hourly discharge data collected at nearby U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations were used to develop a hydrograph-based factor that incorporates the duration and magnitude of high flows and the shape of the hydrograph (runoff rate per hour). This factor improved statistically derived estimates of local-scour depth. Combining the hydrograph-based factor with a momentum factor that represents flow velocity, water depth, and bed-material size decreased the standard error of estimate from 60 to 55 percent and increased the coefficient of determination from 0.66 to 0.73. The streambed of the Cohocton River at State Route 333 in Steuben County was lowered 40-60 cm near a pier during a high flow that exceeded the mean-annual peak discharge (Q2) for 71 hours March 31-April 3, 1993. A similar high flow at this site March 30-31, 1993 exceeded the Q2 for 21 hours but produced no scour. The streambed of the Otselic River at State Route 333 in Cortland County was lowered 170 cm near the pier during a high flow that exceeded the Q2 for 27 hours April 10-11, 1993; 30 cm of this scour occurred during the flow recession.

  5. The effect of mothers’ empowerment program on premature infants’ weight gain and duration of hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Mohammaddoost, Fatemeh; Mosayebi, Ziba; Peyrovi, Hamid; Chehrzad, Minoo-Mitra; Mehran, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The readiness of mothers to take care for infants at discharge is a critical issue. Poor readiness of mothers in taking care of premature infants at the time of discharge is associated with potential adverse consequences. This study examined the effect of implementing mothers’ empowerment program on the weight gain and duration of hospitalization in premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental before-after study with a control group, in which 80 mothers with premature infants who were hospitalized in NICU Level II of two hospitals were recruited in the study. Mothers’ empowerment program was implemented as a three-stage training program for the intervention group. Mothers’ readiness questionnaire was completed by the mothers before the intervention and at the discharge time. The changes in mean of mothers’ readiness scores were compared in both the groups. Results: The mean of daily weight gain in infants of the intervention group (3.95 g) was significantly higher than that of the infants in the control group (−0.9 g) (P = 0.003). The average duration of hospitalization for infants in the intervention and control groups was 15.45 days and 20.95 days, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference (P = 0.003). Conclusions: Providing training to the mothers regarding how to care for premature infants can be a useful and effective method in the process of weight gain of premature and low-birth newborns, and may shorten the duration of infants’ hospitalization. PMID:27563317

  6. A joined multi-metric calibration of river discharge and nitrate loads with different performance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Marcelo B.; Guse, Björn; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Hydrological models are useful tools to investigate hydrology and water quality in catchments. The calibration of these models is a crucial step to adapt the model to the catchment conditions, allowing effective simulations of environmental processes. In the model calibration, different performance measures need to be considered to represent different hydrology and water quality conditions in combination. This study presents a joined multi-metric calibration of discharge and nitrate loads simulated with the ecohydrological model SWAT. For this purpose, a calibration approach based on flow duration curves (FDC) is advanced by also considering nitrate duration curves (NDC). Five segments of FDCs and of NDCs are evaluated separately to consider the different phases of hydrograph and nitrograph. To consider both magnitude and dynamics in river discharge and nitrate loads, the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) is used additionally as a statistical performance metric to achieve a joined multi-variable calibration. The results show that a separate assessment of five different magnitudes improves the calibrated nitrate loads. Subsequently, adequate model runs with good performance for different hydrological conditions both for discharge and nitrate are detected in a joined approach based on FDC, NDC, and KGE. In that manner, plausible results were obtained for discharge and nitrate loads in the same model run. Using a multi-metric performance approach, the simultaneous multi-variable calibration led to a balanced model result for all magnitudes of discharge and nitrate loads.

  7. Blue and green jets in laboratory discharges initiated by runaway electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloplotov, D. V.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    Spectral and amplitude-temporal characteristics of plasma radiation of nanosecond pulse-periodic discharge in air, nitrogen and argon in pressure range of 30-760 Torr were investigated. Discharge gap geometry was a “point-to-plane”. Voltage pulses of negative polarity (amplitude, FWHM and risetime was 13 kV, 10 ns and 4 ns, respectively) were applied to a pointed cathode made of different metals (stainless steel, aluminum and copper). Jets of different colour were observed near a cathode tip. They are formed due to explosive emission. Colour of jets depends on the cathode material. Intense lines of the atoms and ions of iron in the wavelength range of 200-600 nm, aluminum with λ = 394.4, 396.15 nm, including multiply charged ion Al VI with λ = 360.39 and 361.65 nm, copper with λ = 324.8, 327.3, 510.6, 515.3, 521.8, 522 nm were registered. The resonance energy transfer from metastable A3Π+u level of nitrogen molecule to 3d104p level of Cu I was found. As a result a luminescence duration of Cu I was about 1.5 μs at duration of discharge current of 1.5 ps. During constriction of the diffuse discharge the sputtering of material occurs in the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the discharge gap.

  8. Snowmelt and rain in a marginal snowpack watershed: Amount and duration of water input controls runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Rock, N.

    2013-12-01

    Snowmelt predictably delivers a concentrated pulse of water to watersheds, and therefore structures ecosystems and human water management. The deep irrigation from snowmelt also delivers water effectively to the base of the critical zone in water-limited climates, and hence controls the advance of the weathering front. Changes in snowmelt therefore stand as a prominent concern for the impacts of future climate warming. We use a headwater watershed in the Colorado Front Range to explore the impacts of varying delivery of rain and snow on runoff. Gordon Gulch, a 2.7 km2 forested watershed at 2650 m elevation in the Colorado Front Range, is drained by a small first order stream. A snowpack builds on north-facing slopes, while snow comes and goes on south-facing slopes. In water years 2010-2012, total precipitation ranged from 480 to 560 mm. Total runoff, which ranged from 55 to 102 mm, does not correlate with annual precipitation. Over half of the total annual discharge occurs in a period of a few weeks each year; in two of the study years, peak discharge occurred in spring following snowmelt. In one year, peak discharge was entirely rain driven. In 2010 and 2011, discharge peaked during late spring (May) storms after the snow pack melted. The highest annual runoff, and longest duration high discharge period, occurred in water year 2010. In that year, ablation of most of a ~70 cm snowpack (on N-facing slopes; S facing slopes were bare) was followed by a 25 day stormy period in which ~130 mm of mixed rain and snow fell. Two discharge maxima occurred in response to precipitation events during this wet, post-snowpack period. In total, discharge remained high for ~6 weeks. In water year 2011, a smaller snowpack (max. ~30 cm), and drier spring produced a much more compact high runoff season of ~2 weeks. Although water year 2011 had ~10% more total precipitation, it produced 30% less runoff than water year 2010. A greater proportion of the 2011 precipitation fell in summer

  9. Regionalisation of flow duration curves on global scale and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffeldt, A.; Halldin, S.; Rodhe, A.; Xu, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Flow duration curves (FDCs) summarise information of the hydrological characteristics of rivers and the shape of the FDC depends both on climatic and physical factors. FDCs are used for a variety of applications such as water resources estimation, hydropower planning and evaluation of hydrological models. Given the lack of discharge data in many areas in the world, a technique to estimate FDCs in ungauged or poorly gauged basins is desirable. There exist plenty of examples of regionalisation of FDCs within relatively limited areas (e.g. for local sub-basins or at national or regional scale), but to our knowledge it has not been done on global scale. The large variety of shapes of the flow duration curves and uncertainty in data complicates the process of regionalisation on this large scale. In this study, several methodologies are used to construct FDCs in basins assumed to be ungauged and the results are compared and discussed.

  10. Predicting Breastfeeding Duration Related to Maternal Attitudes in a Taiwanese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yen-Ju; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal attitudes and sociodemographic variables associated with Taiwanese mothers’ continuation of breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum. A sample of 140 in-hospital breastfeeding mothers was recruited in Taiwan. Participants completed the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) in the hospital prior to discharge. Postdischarge participants were contacted by telephone at 3 and 6 weeks postpartum to obtain information regarding their feeding method and duration. Findings revealed that in-hospital maternal breastfeeding attitudes are predictive of breastfeeding duration. Insufficient milk supply was the reason most often given for discontinuing breastfeeding. Women’s husband/partner was found to be the main source of breastfeeding support. We recommend health-care professionals add the IIFAS to their assessment to identify mothers at high risk for discontinuing breastfeeding and to develop and better evaluate breastfeeding promotion programs. PMID:22942621

  11. The effects of steep-front, short-duration impulses on power distribution components

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.B.; Lux, A.E.; Grzybowski, Stanislaw; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-07-01

    A line type pulser has been developed to test the effects of steep-front, short duration (SFSD) pulses on distribution components. Risetime is 50-100 ns, and pulse duration is on the order of 300 ns. Terminators often shattered or punctured rather than flashing over. Insulator flashover voltage is approximately 1.5 times CFO for standard lightning impulses. Arresters exhibit an inductive character, with SFSD peak voltage at 10 kA approximately 4--5 times the 8 /times/ 20 microsecond 10 kA discharge voltage. Polyethylene insulated cable has a characteristic degradation in which failure voltage decreases with number of SFSD pulses. 7 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Vertebral position alters paraspinal muscle spindle responsiveness in the feline spine: effect of positioning duration.

    PubMed

    Ge, Weiqing; Long, Cynthia R; Pickar, Joel G

    2005-12-01

    Proprioceptive information from paraspinal tissues including muscle contributes to neuromuscular control of the vertebral column. We investigated whether the history of a vertebra's position can affect signalling from paraspinal muscle spindles. Single unit recordings were obtained from muscle spindle afferents in the L6 dorsal roots of 30 Nembutal-anaesthetized cats. Each afferent's receptive field was in the intact muscles of the low back. The L6 vertebra was controlled using a displacement-controlled feedback motor and was held in each of three different conditioning positions for durations of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 s. Conditioning positions (1.0-2.2 mm dorsal and ventral relative to an intermediate position) were based upon the displacement that loaded the L6 vertebra to 50-60% of the cat's body weight. Following conditioning positions that stretched (hold-long) and shortened (hold-short) the spindle, the vertebra was repositioned identically and muscle spindle discharge at rest and to movement was compared with conditioning at the intermediate position. Hold-short conditioning augmented mean resting spindle discharge by +4.1 to +6.2 impulses s(-1); however, the duration of hold-short did not significantly affect this increase (F(4,145) = 0.49, P = 0.74). The increase was maintained at the beginning of vertebral movement but quickly returned to baseline. Conversely, hold-long conditioning significantly diminished mean resting spindle discharge by -2.0 to -16.1 impulses s(-1) (F(4,145) = 11.23, P < 0.001). The relationship between conditioning duration and the diminished resting discharge could be described by a quadratic (F(1,145) = 9.28, P = 0.003) revealing that the effects of positioning history were fully developed within 2 s of conditioning. In addition, 2 s or greater of hold-long conditioning significantly diminished spindle discharge to vertebral movement by -5.7 to -10.0 impulses s(-1) (F(4,145) = 11.0, P < 0.001). These effects of vertebral positioning

  13. Quality assessment of a discharge summary system.

    PubMed Central

    van Walraven, C; Weinberg, A L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the completeness of hospital discharge summaries and the efficiency of the discharge summary system in two urban teaching hospitals. DESIGN: Descriptive study, with follow-up telephone survey. SETTING: General internal medicine services at two urban tertiary care hospitals affiliated with the University of Ottawa. PATIENTS: A total of 135 patient charts, representing 10% of the patients discharged from the services between Aug. 1 and Dec. 31, 1993. Three charts were unavailable for review, and 26 were excluded because of patient death, early patient discharge (within 48 hours after admission) or lack of discharge summary; this left 106 summaries for analysis of completeness and 114 (including the charts without a summary) for analysis of efficiency. OUTCOME MEASURES: Completeness: proportion of summaries in which the following information was reported: admission diagnosis, drug allergies, physical examination, significant laboratory tests and results, discharge diagnosis, discharge medications and medical follow-up. Efficiency: time taken to generate the discharge summary and whether the patient's family physician received it. RESULTS: Of the 106 charts with a discharge summary, information was available from the dictation system database for all but one (99.1% complete). Information was missing on the admission diagnosis in 34.0% (36/106) of the summaries, the discharge diagnosis in 25.5% (27/106) and the discharge medications in 22.8% (23/101). Of the 268 significant laboratory tests and results noted in the charts 115 (42.9%) were not reported in the discharge summary. Of the 94 discharge summaries in charts with the patient's family physician listed on the facesheet, 38 (40.4%) were not received by the family physician. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable deficiencies in the completeness of the discharge summaries and the efficiency of the discharge summary system were found in the participating hospitals. Replication of this study in other settings

  14. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  15. Coupled gas discharge and pulse circuit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Dadelszen, Michael; Rothe, Dietmar E.

    1991-04-01

    Two examples of the importance of accurate coupling of driving electric circuits to discharge models, when simulating fast pulse discharges, are presented. The first example uses a commercial electric field analysis code, TETRAelf, to simulate a pulsed discharge TEA CO2 laser and demonstrates the value of including displacement current effects in the modeling of the avalanche phase of the discharge. The second example uses a commercial electric circuit analysis package, ECA, to simulate a three-electrode, long-pulse, 2-J, XeCl excimer laser. Both the saturable magnetic cores and the discharge kinetics are included in the simulation. Comparisons are made between the numerical results and experimental data.

  16. Behavior of a cycled Ni-Cd battery during pulse discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, G.; Vaidyanathan, H.; Nakhleh, W.

    1997-12-01

    The pulse discharge behavior of a 9-Ah, 12-V nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery fabricated for the FAST program was studied. The response of the battery voltage to a pulse with a current of 60 A and duration of 10 to 200 ms was measured, along with the capacity remaining at the end of pulse discharge. The maximum drop in voltage at the beginning of the pulse was 505 to 1,049 mV, and battery capacity remained stable.

  17. System and method for altering characteristics of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit

    2003-06-03

    System and method for oxidizing contaminants to alter specific properties, such as tack, of contaminants. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater. An electrical discharge in the liquid medium oxidizes materials, which may be dissolved or suspended therein, such as stickies, pitch, sulfide, ink, toner, and other substances, thereby reducing tack, odor, and/or zeta potential, as well as producing other desirable effect.

  18. Theory of powerful nonsteady xenon discharge taking vaporization of its stabilizing walls into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, V. M.; Ivanov, V. V.; Terentev, Iu. I.; Shcherbakov, A. A.

    1981-07-01

    A complex mathematical model of an unsteady xenon discharge of average duration (100 to 1000 microsec) is developed, consideration being given to the erosion of the quartz walls. Expressions are derived for the phenomena occurring in the plasma, the wall temperature, the vaporization of the shell material, and the introduction of the erosion products into the discharge. Experiments, based on the model and involving a flash lamp (R = 0.35 cm), are presented, and satisfactory agreement is found between the theoretical and the experimental results.

  19. Surge discharge capability and thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, M.; Kojima, S.; Nishiwaki, S.; Sato, T.; Yanabu, S.

    1983-02-01

    The surge discharge capability and the thermal stability of a metal oxide surge arrester were examined experimentally. It was found that the breakdown energy is nearly the same against the switching surge and the temporary overvoltage of various peak values and time durations. Heat dissipation capability of an 84kV porcelain-type model arrester was examined and found to be less than that of a small model unit, while this relation of the value had been considered opposite in a previously published paper. From these experimental data, the limit at high operation stress was found to be determined by the thermal stability rather than by the discharge capability

  20. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  1. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents.

  2. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  3. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  4. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  5. Corona discharge of Titan's troposphere.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R; Ramirez, S I

    1997-01-01

    The atmosphere of Titan is constantly bombarded by galactic cosmic rays and Saturnian magnetospheric electrons causing the formation of free electrons and primary ions, which are then stabilized by ion cluster formation and charging of aerosols. These charged particles accumulate in drops in cloud regions of the troposphere. Their abundance can substantially increase by friction, fragmentation or collisions during convective activity. Charge separation occurs with help of convection and gravitational settling leading to development of electric fields within the cloud and between the cloud and the ground. Neutralization of these charge particles leads to corona discharges which are characterized by low current densities. These electric discharges could induce a number of chemical reactions in the troposphere and hence it is of interest to explore such effects. We have therefore, experimentally studied the corona discharge of a simulated Titan's atmosphere (10% methane and 2% argon in nitrogen) at 500 Torr and 298 K by GC-FTIR-MS techniques. The main products have been identified as hydrocarbons (ethane, ethyne, ethene, propane, propene + propyne, cyclopropane, butane, 2-methylpropane, 2-methylpropene, n-butene, 2-butene, 2,2-dimethylpropane, 2-methylbutane, 2-methylbutene, n-pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, 2,2-dimethylhexane, 2,2-dimethylpentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 2,3-dimethylpentane and n-heptane), nitriles (hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen, ethanenitrile, propanenitrile, 2-methylpropanenitrile and butanenitrile) and an uncharacterized film deposit. We present their trends of formation as a function of discharge time in an ample interval and have derived their initial yields of formation. These results clearly demonstrate that a complex organic chemistry can be initiated by corona processes in the lower atmosphere. Although photochemistry and charged particle chemistry occurring in the stratosphere can account for many of the

  6. The trend of suspended-sediment discharge of the Brandywine Creek at Wilmington, Del., 1947-1955

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Harold P.

    1957-01-01

    This report presents an analysis and evaluation of the trend of the sediment yield for the Brandywine Creek at Wilmington, Del., for the period from December 1946 to September 1955. The interest in such an analysis and evaluation stems from the efforts of the Brandywine Valley Association and others to reduce erosion and improve land use in the watershed. The data used for the analysis were taken from the continuous suspended-sediment and water-discharge records of the stream at Wilmington and the precipitation records at 8 standard and 1 recording rain gages. The analysis was made on the basis of 123 storm events for this period of record using only the water and sediment discharge attributed to direct runoff. These data represent 89 percent of the total sediment discharge and 19 percent of the total water discharge. The sediment load for each of the storm runoff events was correlated with storm runoff, rainfall intensity, and season to remove the effect, if ant, of the variation caused by these factors. The evaluation of the relative trend of sediment yield was made by two methods; first, the accumulative graph pr double mass curve as a graphical method, and second, the rank correlation method which results in a numerical coefficient and its significant. The graphical method of this evaluation shows an approximate 38 percent decrease in sediment yield for the period 1952 to 1955 from that for the period 1947 to 1951. The rank correlation coefficient was 0.152 for the same analysis showing a very high level (almost 99 percent) of confidence in the significance of a decreasing trend. A parallel analysis to that above using "peakedness" instead of rainfall intensity as a measure of storm intensity was made because "peakedness" is easier to evaluate than rainfall intensity. The results of this analysis again indicates the probably decreasing trend of sediment yield as shown by the change in slope of the accumulative graph from 0.77 fir the 1947 to 1951 period to 1

  7. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  8. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  9. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  10. Long Duration Exposure Facility space optics handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, William T.; Taylor, Edward; Bloemker, Carl; White, Frank; Rensner, Gary; Watts, Alan

    1993-09-01

    This handbook provides a user a space optics design guide to materials based on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Space Optics Experiments. The materials covered are refractive optics, coatings, filters, mirrors, second surface mirrors, quartz microbalances, and fiber optics. The guide presents the data and the experience learned from the LDEF Space Optics Experiments in one volume in a user-friendly fashion. The data reported in the handbook are a compilation of the data published by the individual experimenters. Natural space environment data with an emphasis on the microparticle environment are also presented.

  11. Monitoring Mars for Electrostatic Discharges with the DSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Bower, G.; Catling, D.; Garcia Miro, C.; Martinez, S.; de Pater, I.; Renno, N. O.; Ruf, C.; Siemion, A.

    2010-10-01

    The Deep Space Network antenna DSS-13 was used during 43 sessions of approximately twelve hours duration between Feb. 4 and Apr. 23, 2010, to monitor Mars for electrostatic discharges. Such discharges had been detected with a special detector installed at DSS-13 by Ruf et al. (GRL 36, L13202, 2009) in June of 2006. The discharge signature was enhanced kurtosis (the fourth moment of the signal normalized to the second moment, which is proportional to power) modulated by the Schumann resonance (circum-planet light travel time) of Mars. Although DSS-13 is an R&D station, the receivers and data processing equipment used were identical to those used by operational DSN stations which routinely track Mars. The signals in four adjacent pairs of ½ MHz channels were digitized and processed to produce samples of kurtosis in real-time. These were then recorded for later analysis. To verify that Mars was the source of any possible events, the antenna was moved off Mars for 45 sec every 5 min. We demonstrated that the DSN can monitor Mars routinely during normal operations without any additional equipment by including a down-link signal in one channel and seeing the kurtosis change as expected as the antenna pointing was changed. We saw no anomalous kurtosis during local thunderstorms. We will report on the analysis of kurtosis data for Mars events. In a student research project continuing this activity, the signals from operational DSN antennas in Spain engaged in normal down-link operations are being processed for the kurtosis signature which characterizes electrostatic discharges. This work was performed by the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

    1999-02-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

  13. The impact of financial discharge from methadone maintenance therapy on incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Nickolas D.; Fu, Jeannia J.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The authors sought to analyze the relationship between financial discharge from methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and subsequent involvement in the criminal justice system among individuals receiving state-subsidized MMT slots and individuals who were financially discharged from MMT. Methods The authors examined state-level client treatment records from all individuals who were on a subsidized MMT slot and all individuals who were discharged due to their inability to pay (financial discharge) from one of the three MMT programs during an 18-month period. The authors cross-referenced these records, through a state-managed database, with records of the Department of Corrections. Results Individuals in the control group had longer durations of stay in MMT and fewer other kinds of treatment admissions during the study period. An 81 percent of individuals in the financially discharged group received other treatment episodes versus 0.3 percent in the control group (p < 0.001). More than twice the number of individuals financially discharged from MMT were incarcerated during the study period when compared with the control group (67 percent vs 33 percent, p < 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, individuals in the control group had 0.26 times the odds of incarceration when compared with individuals financially discharged from MMT (95% CI: 0.09-0.73). Conclusions MMT has been shown to reduce involvement in the criminal justice system, yet cost of MMT continues to inhibit its accessibility. Our data suggest that removal of cost as a barrier to access MMT may facilitate longer treatment duration and minimize involvement with the criminal justice system. PMID:21046934

  14. Study of transient spark discharge focused at NOx generation for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janda, M.; Martišovitš, V.; Hensel, K.; Machala, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is focused at nitrogen oxides generation by transient spark (TS) in atmospheric pressure air. The TS is a DC-driven self-pulsing discharge with short duration (∼⃒10-100 ns) high current pulses (>1A), with the repetition frequency 1-10 kHz. Thanks to the short spark duration, highly reactive non-equilibrium plasma is generated, producing ∼⃒300 ppm of NOx per input energy density 100 J.l-1. Further optimization of NO/NO2 production to improve the biomedical/antimicrobial effects is possible by modifying the electric circuit generating the TS.

  15. Modelling Discharge Inception in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, C.; Dubinova, A.; Ebert, U.; Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.

    2014-12-01

    The electric fields in thunderstorms can exceed the breakdown value locally near hydrometeors. But are fields high enough and the regions large enough to initiate a streamer discharge? And where would a sufficient density of free electrons come from to start the discharge in the humid air that rapidly binds electrons in water-clusters? To analyse these questions, we investigate the interaction of extensive air showers (created by high energy cosmic particles) with the hydrometeors in a thunderstorm. The extensive air showers are modelled in full detail with CORSIKA (https://web.ikp.kit.edu/corsika/). As extensive air showers are occurring with a frequency that strongly depends on their size, proper stochastics are derived to cope with the large number of random variables in the system, such as: occurrence, primary energy, altitude of first interaction and inclination. These variables are important factors that determine the extremes of the high energy particle flux passing through a hydrometeor at a given altitude. In addition, the interaction of the high energy particle flux with the hydrometeor is modelled with EGS5 (http://rcwww.kek.jp/research/egs/egs5.html). Finally the streamer initiation and evolution is modelled by our 2.5D streamer fluid code that now can include dielectric bodies; here we used the frequency dependent dielectric permittivity of ice, accounting for the fact that ice can not polarise instantaneously.

  16. Measurement of discharge using tracers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Cobb, Ernest D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of fluorescent dyes and fluorometers that can measure these dyes at very low concentrations has made dye-dilution methods practical for measuring discharge. These methods are particularly useful for determining discharge under certain flow conditions that are unfavorable for current meter measurements. These include small streams, canals, and pipes where 1. Turbulence is excessive for current-meter measurement but conducive to good mixing. 2. Moving rocks and debris may damage instruments placed in the flow. 3. Cross-sectional areas or velocities are indeterminate or changing. 4. The flow is unsteady, such as the flow that exists with storm-runoff events on small streams and urban storm-sewer systems. 5. The flow is physically inaccessible or unsafe. From a practical standpoint, such methods are limited primarily to small streams, because of the excessively long channel-mixing lengths required for larger streams. Very good accuracy can be obtained provided that 1. Adequate mixing length and time are allowed. 2. Careful field and laboratory techniques are used. 3. Dye losses are not significant. This manual describes the slug-injection and constant-rate injection methods of performing tracer-dilution measurements. Emphasis is on the use of fluorescent dyes as tracers and the equipment, field methods, and laboratory procedures for performing such measurements. The tracer-velocity method is also briefly discussed.

  17. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /√{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  18. Effects of Weather Variables on Ascospore Discharge from Fusarium graminearum Perithecia

    PubMed Central

    Manstretta, Valentina; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a predominant component of the Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex of small grain cereals. Ascosporic infection plays a relevant role in the spread of the disease. A 3-year study was conducted on ascospore discharge. To separate the effect of weather on discharge from the effect of weather on the production and maturation of ascospores in perithecia, discharge was quantified with a volumetric spore sampler placed near maize stalk residues bearing perithecia with mature ascospores; the residues therefore served as a continuous source of ascospores. Ascospores were discharged from perithecia on 70% of 154 days. Rain (R) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were the variables that most affected ascospore discharge, with 84% of total discharges occurring on days with R≥0.2 mm or VPD≤11 hPa, and with 70% of total ascospore discharge peaks (≥ 30 ascospores/m3 air per day) occurring on days with R≥0.2 mm and VPD≤6.35 hPa. An ROC analysis using these criteria for R and VPD provided True Positive Proportion (TPP) = 0.84 and True Negative Proportion (TNP) = 0.63 for occurrence of ascospore discharge, and TPP = 0.70 and TNP = 0.89 for occurrence of peaks. Globally, 68 ascospores (2.5% of the total ascospores sampled) were trapped on the 17 days when no ascospores were erroneously predicted. When a discharge occurred, the numbers of F. graminearum ascospores sampled were predicted by a multiple regression model with R2 = 0.68. This model, which includes average and maximum temperature and VPD as predicting variables, slightly underestimated the real data and especially ascospore peaks. Numbers of ascospores in peaks were best predicted by wetness duration of the previous day, minimum temperature, and VPD, with R2 = 0.71. These results will help refine the epidemiological models used as decision aids in FHB management programs. PMID:26402063

  19. Duration of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis after surgery.

    PubMed

    Kearon, Clive

    2003-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is indicated while in the hospital after major surgery. There is evidence that the prevalence of asymptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, detected by routine venography after major orthopedic surgery, is lower at hospital discharge in patients who have received 10 days rather than 5 days of prophylaxis. This observation supports the current American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommendation for a minimum of 7 to 10 days of prophylaxis after hip and knee replacement, even if patients are discharged from the hospital within 7 days of surgery. As risk of VTE persists for up to 3 months after surgery, patients at high risk for postoperative VTE may benefit from extended prophylaxis (eg, an additional 3 weeks after the first 7 to 10 days). Extended prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) reduces the frequency of postdischarge VTE by approximately two thirds after hip replacement; however, the resultant absolute reduction in the frequency of fatal pulmonary embolism is small (ie, estimated at 1 per 2,500 patients). Indirect evidence suggests that, compared with LMWH, efficacy of extended prophylaxis after hip replacement is greater with fondaparinux, similar with warfarin, and less with aspirin. Extended prophylaxis is expected to be of less benefit after knee than after hip replacement. In keeping with current ACCP recommendations, at a minimum, extended prophylaxis should be used after major orthopedic surgery in patients who have additional risk factors for VTE (eg, previous VTE, cancer). If anticoagulant drug therapy is stopped after 7 to 10 days, an additional month of prophylaxis with aspirin should be considered.

  20. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    PubMed

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p<0.05), but not after the low-intensity protocol (p>0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching.

  1. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  2. Electron emission mechanism during the nanosecond high-voltage pulsed discharge in pressurized air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levko, D.; Yatom, S.; Vekselman, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-02-01

    A comparison between the results of x-ray absorption spectroscopy of runaway electrons (RAEs) generated during nanosecond timescale high-voltage (HV) gas discharge and the simulated attenuation of the x-ray flux produced by the runaway electron spectrum calculated using particle-in-cell numerical modeling of such a type of discharge is presented. The particle-in-cell simulation considered the field and explosive emissions (EEs) of the electrons from the cathode. It is shown that the field emission is the dominant emission mechanism for the short-duration (<2.5 ns) high-voltage pulses, while for the long-duration (>5 ns) high-voltage pulses, the explosive emission is likely to play a significant role.

  3. Estimating potential diapause duration in Calanus finmarchicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumweber, Whitley J.; Durbin, Edward G.

    2006-11-01

    Deep basins in the Gulf of Maine act as refuge for a large population of diapausing Calanus finmarchicus during the summer and fall. This population acts as the primary seed population for Georges Bank in the spring and is thought to be composed primarily of individuals that developed during the previous spring bloom. The factors affecting growth and mortality in the summer-fall population are not well understood, however, and loss terms from advection and starvation may be large. To assess the potential energetic limitation and loss of C. finmarchicus from the Gulf of Maine basins, a new nitrogen-specific respiration model has been developed for the resting stage of the species. Stage C5 C. finmarchicus were collected during July, September, and December 2003 from Wilkinson and Georges Basins. Animals were collected using both MOCNESS tows and zooplankton samplers on the Johnson Sea Link II submersible. Metabolic rates were measured using a Micro-Oxymax gas analyzer and Winkler incubation techniques both at sea and on animals kept in culture on shore. Respiration rates measured in the field were not significantly different from those measured on shore, with a mean of 130 μmol O 2 gN -1 h -1 (14.4 μmol O 2 gC -1 h -1) at 0 °C and a Q10 of 2.77 (2.58 for carbon-specific respiration). Using the nitrogen-specific rates in conjunction with visual estimates of nitrogen weight and lipid stores, we derived a discrete function for predicting potential diapause duration based on an animal's length, oil sac volume, and the in situ temperature. The maximum potential diapause duration for a C5 C. finmarchicus is predicted to range from 280 days at 0 °C to approximately 90 days at 11 °C. The maximum potential diapause duration in the Gulf of Maine is predicted to be between 3.5 and 5.5 months. These results suggest that energetic limitation may play a role in controlling the population dynamics of diapausing C. finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine. A reassessment of the

  4. Discharge processes of UV pre-ionized electric-discharge pulsed DF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Qikun; Xie, Jijiang; Shao, Chunlei; Wang, Chunrui; Shao, Mingzhen; Guo, Jin

    2016-03-01

    The discharge processes of ultraviolet (UV) pre-ionized electric-discharge pulsed DF laser operating with a SF6-D2 gas mixture are studied. A mathematical model based on continuity equation of electrons and Kirchhoff equations for discharge circuit is established to describe the discharge processes. Voltage and current waveforms of main discharge and voltage waveforms of pre-ionization are solved numerically utilizing the model. The calculations correctly display some physical processes, such as the delay time between pre-ionization and main discharge, breakdown of the main electrode and self-sustained volume discharge (SSVD). The results of theory are consistent with the experiments, which are performed in our non-chain pulsed DF laser. Then the delay inductance and peak capacitance are researched to analyze their influences on discharge processes, and the circuit parameters of DF laser are given which is useful to improve the discharge stability.

  5. Modelling Discharge Inception in Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutjes, Casper; Dubinova, Anna; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trihn, Gia Thi Ngoc

    2015-04-01

    The electric fields in thunderstorms can exceed the breakdown value locally near hydrometeors. But are fields high enough and the regions large enough to initiate a streamer discharge? And where would a sufficient density of free electrons come from to start the discharge in the humid air that rapidly binds electrons in water-clusters? At the AGU last December we presented our results with the focus on the first question: the streamer initiation, simulated by our 2D cylindrical symmetric streamer fluid code, that now can include dielectric bodies. We use the frequency dependent dielectric permittivity of ice, accounting for the fact that ice can not polarise instantaneously. This important fact makes it harder to develop a streamer. For the second question we showed that an extensive air shower can produce the needed electron density to start a discharge and that relativistic breakdown is not needed. But what are the 'optimal' parameters in question to be expected in a thunderstorm? Which hydrometeor sizes and shapes work and which do not? How (in)homogeneous is the electron density produced by the extensive air shower? And how much will this influence the streamer initiation? The problem is very multi-scale; there are 4 orders of magnitude in time, 8 orders of magnitude in length and 16 orders of magnitude in energy; from high energetic cosmic particles entering the atmosphere down to streamer development near a hydrometeor. We have now one-to-one connected the high energy domain, usually >> 0.5 MeV, of the extensive air shower, down to thermal (~0.03 eV) energies. We simulate the extensive air showers in full detail with CORSIKA [1] and than extend only the electromagnetic part, with use of EGS5 [2] and our group developed codes [3]. We will present the (in)homogeneity of the produced free electron density by extensive air showers and it's influence on the streamer initiation problem. [1] https://web.ikp.kit.edu/corsika/ [2] http://rcwww.kek.jp/research/egs/egs5

  6. Using Contaminant Transport Modeling to Determine Historical Discharges at the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogwell, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    When it is determined that a contaminated site needs to be remediated, the issue of who is going to pay for that remediation is an immediate concern. This means that there needs to be a determination of who the responsible parties are for the existing contamination. Seldom is it the case that records have been made and kept of the surface contaminant discharges. In many cases it is possible to determine the relative amount of contaminant discharge at the surface of the various responsible parties by employing a careful analysis of the history of contaminant transport through the surface, through the vadose zone, and within the saturated zone. The process begins with the development of a dynamic conceptual site model that takes into account the important features of the transport of the contaminants through the vadose zone and in the groundwater. The parameters for this model can be derived from flow data available for the site. The resulting contaminant transport model is a composite of the vadose zone transport model, together with the saturated zone (groundwater) flow model. Any calibration of the model should be carefully employed in order to avoid using information about the conclusions of the relative discharge amounts of the responsible parties in determining the calibrated parameters. Determination of the leading edge of the plume is an important first step. It is associated with the first discharges from the surface of the site. If there were several discharging parties at the same time, then it is important to establish a chemical or isotopic signature of the chemicals that were discharged. The time duration of the first discharger needs to be determined as accurately as possible in order to establish the appropriate characterization of the leading portion of the resulting plume in the groundwater. The information about the first discharger and the resulting part of the plume associated with this discharger serves as a basis for the determination of the

  7. Stability of atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirokov, Alexandre V.

    There has been a considerable interest in non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges over the past decade due to increased number of industrial applications. Although non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges have been intensively studied for the past century the clear physical picture of these discharges is far from being complete. Spontaneous transition of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges to thermal discharge and discharge filamentation are among least understood plasma phenomena. The discharge stability and reliable control of plasma parameters are highly desirable for numerous applications. This study focuses on stability of atmospheric pressure glow discharges with respect to filamentation and arcing. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APG) is the newest and the most promising addition to the family of non-thermal atmospheric pressure discharges. However this discharge is very susceptible to thermal instability which causes arcing, loss of uniformity and significant damage to electrodes. Suppression of thermal instability and effective control of discharge parameters is critical for industrial applications. A model was developed to understand transition to arc in atmospheric pressure glow discharges. APG discharges that operate in pure helium and in helium with addition of oxygen and nitrogen were considered in these studies. Simulation results indicate that arcing is the result of sheath breakdown rather than thermal instability. It was shown that although sheath breakdown is always followed by overheating the transition to arc in atmospheric glow discharges is not a result of thermal instability. In second part of this research interaction between plasma filaments in dielectric barrier discharges has been studied. This interaction is responsible for the formation of microdischarge patterns reminiscent of two-dimensional crystals. Depending on the application, microdischarge patterns may have a significant influence on DBD performance

  8. Spontaneous Raman scattering: a useful tool for investigating the afterglow of nanosecond scale discharges in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, A.; Cléon, G.; Vervisch, P.; Cessou, A.

    2012-04-01

    Nanosecond scale discharges are considered an interesting way for assisting combustion by enhancing either flame stabilization or ignition. Better understanding of energy deposit and radical species production processes is still required under pressure conditions normally encountered in combustion. The purpose of the present paper is to show that spontaneous Raman scattering, seldom used to investigate nanosecond pulsed discharges, is a useful measurement method for investigating the energy deposit of these discharges. The advantage of spontaneous Raman scattering is described by analyzing N2 and O2 spectra during the post-discharge of a filamentary nanosecond air discharge under atmospheric pressure, using phase-locked average spectra. The main advantages of spontaneous Raman scattering measurements are that they allow line-wise probing of different species with the same experimental setup and the determination of vibrational distribution by comparison with theoretical modeling over a wide range of vibrational levels (from v=0 to v=20 for N2). The model proposed takes into account the high level of vibrational excitation and the strong non-equilibrium observed, allowing the characterization of the vibrational relaxation over the complete post-discharge duration. Although the rotational structure is not resolved, the rotational temperature and thus translational temperature are determined with a moderate uncertainty for T above 500 K.

  9. Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Aksinin, V I; Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N; Antsiferov, S A; Velikanov, S D; Gerasimov, A Yu; Gostev, I V; Kalinovskii, V V; Konovalov, V V; Mikhalkin, V N; Sevryugin, I V

    2014-01-31

    Generation characteristics of a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser with the electro-discharge production of atomic iodine were compared with inductively stabilised edged or anisotropic- resistive cathodes used for ignition of the volume discharge. The discharge was initiated by the radiation of a barrier discharge from the side of a grid anode. It was found that at equal specific electrical energy depositions to the gas-discharge plasma, the system with the anisotropic-resistive cathode provides a more stable and uniform volume discharge with the possibility of varying the composition and pressure of working mixtures over a wide range and a greater specific extraction of laser energy is observed (up to 2.4 J L{sup -1}). At a high pulse repetition rate of laser pulses (50 – 100 Hz) and long duration of the pulse trains (longer than a minute) the surface of anisotropic-resistive cathode became eroded. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. An experimental study of the role of subsurface plumbing on geothermal discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Namiki, Atsuko; Ueno, Yoshinori; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Munoz-Saez, Carolina; Murphy, Fred

    2016-01-01

    In order to better understand the diverse discharge styles and eruption intervals observed at geothermal features, we performed three series of laboratory experiments with differing plumbing geometries. A single, straight conduit that connects a hot water bath (flask) to a vent (funnel) can originate geyser-like periodic eruptions, continuous discharge like a boiling spring, and fumarole-like steam discharge, depending on the conduit length and radius. The balance between the heat loss from the conduit walls and the heat supplied from the bottom determines whether and where water can condense which in turn controls discharge style. Next, we connected the conduit to a cold water reservoir through a branch, simulating the inflow from an external water source. Colder water located at a higher elevation than a branching point can flow into the conduit to stop the boiling in the flask, controlling the periodicity of the eruption. When an additional branch is connected to a second cold water reservoir, the two cold reservoirs can interact. Our experiments show that branching allows new processes to occur, such as recharge of colder water and escape of steam from side channels, leading to greater variation in discharge styles and eruption intervals. This model is consistent with the fact that eruption duration is not controlled by emptying reservoirs. We show how differences in plumbing geometries can explain various discharge styles and eruption intervals observed in El Tatio, Chile, and Yellowstone, USA.

  11. An experimental study of the role of subsurface plumbing on geothermal discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Atsuko; Ueno, Yoshinori; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Munoz-Saez, Carolina; Murphy, Fred

    2016-09-01

    In order to better understand the diverse discharge styles and eruption intervals observed at geothermal features, we performed three series of laboratory experiments with differing plumbing geometries. A single, straight conduit that connects a hot water bath (flask) to a vent (funnel) can originate geyser-like periodic eruptions, continuous discharge like a boiling spring, and fumarole-like steam discharge, depending on the conduit length and radius. The balance between the heat loss from the conduit walls and the heat supplied from the bottom determines whether and where water can condense which in turn controls discharge style. Next, we connected the conduit to a cold water reservoir through a branch, simulating the inflow from an external water source. Colder water located at a higher elevation than a branching point can flow into the conduit to stop the boiling in the flask, controlling the periodicity of the eruption. When an additional branch is connected to a second cold water reservoir, the two cold reservoirs can interact. Our experiments show that branching allows new processes to occur, such as recharge of colder water and escape of steam from side channels, leading to greater variation in discharge styles and eruption intervals. This model is consistent with the fact that eruption duration is not controlled by emptying reservoirs. We show how differences in plumbing geometries can explain various discharge styles and eruption intervals observed in El Tatio, Chile, and Yellowstone, USA.

  12. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  13. Long Duration Exposure Facility: A general overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Lightner, E. Burton

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is a large, low-cost, reusable, unmanned, free-flying spacecraft which accommodates technology, science, and applications experiments for long-term exposure to the space environment. The LDEF was designed and built by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Specifically, the LDEF was designed to transport experiments into space via the Space Shuttle, to free fly in Earth orbit for an extended period, and be retrieved on a later Space Shuttle flight allowing experiments to be returned to Earth for postflight analysis in the laboratory. The LDEF with a full complement of experiments was placed in Earth orbit in April 1984 by Challenger and retrieved from orbit in January 1990 by Columbia. A general overview of the LDEF, its mission, systems, experiments, and operations is presented. Excerpts from various NASA documents are extensively used.

  14. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  15. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  16. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  17. Use of pacifiers and breastfeeding duration.

    PubMed

    Victora, C G; Tomasi, E; Olinto, M T; Barros, F C

    1993-02-13

    Pacifiers are widely used in many developing countries. Although their use is not recommended for breastfeeding infants, there have been no published reports on the association between pacifier use and risk of early weaning. In a study of 354 infants in Brazil, mothers were asked about pacifier use at age 1 month, duration of breastfeeding, and introduction of other foods. Among 249 children still breastfed at 1 month, the risk that a child would be weaned at any age between 1 and 24 months was higher in pacifier users than in non-users (hazard ratio 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.6). The association remained even after adjustment for the child's age, sex, birthweight, socioeconomic status, and age at introduction of bottle-feeding.

  18. Effects of methamphetamine on duration discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Münire Ozlem

    2003-08-01

    Experiments 1 and 2 address the controversy regarding the reliability of methamphetamine effects on interval timing. A temporal discrimination procedure was used, in which the rats were reinforced for pressing the left or the right levers after short and long signals, respectively. Methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg sc) severely disrupted operant performance at 20-100 min after injection, which disabled the measurement of drug effects on temporal perception (Experiment 1). The same dose of methamphetamine shifted the psychometric function to the left at 100-180 min after injection, indicating an increase in subjective durations (Experiment 2). Although these results confirm the role of dopamine in interval timing, that a change in the speed of a neural clock mediates the methamphetamine-induced change in temporal perception is still a working hypothesis.

  19. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  20. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  1. What works to improve duration of exclusive breastfeeding: lessons from the exclusive breastfeeding promotion program in rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Susiloretni, Kun Aristiati; Hadi, Hamam; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Soenarto, Yati S; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify determinants of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at the individual, family, community, and organizational level. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a multilevel promotion of EBF program in two rural public health centers (PHCs) in the Demak district, Central Java, Indonesia. The program was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group. A total of 599 participants were enrolled, consisting of 163 mother infant pairs, 163 fathers, 163 grandmothers, 82 community leaders, and 28 midwives. EBF duration and its determinants were measured and analyzed using Cox proportional-hazard model. Mothers with a high level of breastfeeding knowledge had the greatest EBF duration. Mothers who had a knowledge score >80 had a 73 % (HR 0.27, 95 % CI 0.15, 0.48) greater chance of EBF compared to mothers who had a knowledge score of <60. Factors which shortened EBF duration were grandmother's lack of support for EBF (HR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.33, 3.14), received formula samples at discharge (HR 1.99, 95 % CI 1.25, 3.16), and maternal experience of breast engorgement (HR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.94). High maternal breastfeeding knowledge was the only factor associated with longer duration of EBF. Barriers to EBF were breast engorgement, receiving formula samples at discharge, and a grandmother's lack of support for EBF.

  2. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  3. QT-Interval Duration and Mortality Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2012-01-01

    Background Extreme prolongation or reduction of the QT interval predisposes patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the association of variations in the QT interval within a reference range with mortality end points in the general population is unclear. Methods We included 7828 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline QT interval was measured via standard 12-lead electrocardiographic readings. Mortality end points were assessed through December 31, 2006 (2291 deaths). Results After an average follow-up of 13.7 years, the association between QT interval and mortality end points was U-shaped. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios comparing participants at or above the 95th percentile of age-, sex-, race-, and R-R interval–corrected QT interval (≥439 milliseconds) with participants in the middle quintile (401 to <410 milliseconds) were 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.81) for total mortality, 2.55 (1.59-4.09) for mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 1.63 (0.96-2.75) for mortality due to coronary heart disease, and 1.65 (1.16-2.35) for non-CVD mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios comparing participants with a corrected QT interval below the fifth percentile (<377 milliseconds) with those in the middle quintile were 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.88) for total mortality, 1.35 (0.77-2.36) for CVD mortality, 1.02 (0.44-2.38) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.42 (0.97-2.08) for non-CVD mortality. Increased mortality also was observed with less extreme deviations of QT-interval duration. Similar, albeit weaker, associations also were observed with Bazett-corrected QT intervals. Conclusion Shortened and prolonged QT-interval durations, even within a reference range, are associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. PMID:22025428

  4. Short duration thermal metamorphism in CR chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briani, G.; Quirico, E.; Gounelle, M.; Paulhiac-Pison, M.; Montagnac, G.; Beck, P.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Bonal, L.; Jacquet, E.; Kearsley, A.; Russell, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    CR chondrites are considered as one of the most primitive classes of meteorites. Most of them experienced a mild aqueous alteration and show no evidence of significant effect of thermal metamorphism. We present here a search for low degree metamorphic effects in CR chondrites. We studied 15 CR chondrites using different metamorphic indicators: (1) structure and Ni content of metal grains; (2) hydration state of matrix; (3) structure and composition of organic matter. The different metamorphic indicators show that two of the analyzed CR chondrites, GRA 06100 and GRO 03116, experienced thermal metamorphism. Indeed, all of the metal grains in GRA 06100 and half of the metal grains in GRO 03116 show Ni-rich phases; the matrix of GRA 06100 is almost completely dehydrated, and the matrix of GRO 03116 is partially dehydrated; Raman spectra of organic matter in these two meteorites are clearly different from those obtained for organic matter in the other CR chondrites, which resemble Raman spectra of organic matter in unmetamorphosed, CM2 meteorites; IR spectra of insoluble organic matter extracted from GRA 06100 and GRO 03116 show lower carbonyl abundance and higher CH2/CH3 ratio with respect to organic matter of unmetamorphosed chondrites. The other CR chondrites analyzed here lack these characteristics and only show a few metal grains with Ni-rich inclusions. Our results also show that the metamorphic effects observed in GRA 06100 and GRO 03116 are different from those observed in type 3 chondrites, which experienced long-duration metamorphism of radiogenic origin. We infer that thermal processing in these two CRs extended over a short duration and was triggered by impacts.

  5. Numerical Modelling of Electrical Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán-Olivencia, F. J.; Pontiga, F.; Castellanos, A.

    2014-03-01

    The problem of the propagation of an electrical discharge between a spherical electrode and a plane has been solved by means of finite element methods (FEM) using a fluid approximation and assuming weak ionization and local equilibrium with the electric field. The numerical simulation of this type of problems presents the usual difficulties of convection-diffusion-reaction problems, in addition to those associated with the nonlinearities of the charged species velocities, the formation of steep gradients of the electric field and particle densities, and the coexistence of very different temporal scales. The effect of using different temporal discretizations for the numerical integration of the corresponding system of partial differential equations will be here investigated. In particular, the so-called θ-methods will be used, which allows to implement implicit, semi-explicit and fully explicit schemes in a simple way.

  6. Theory of beam plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    The general theory of beam plasma discharge (BPD) is discussed in relation to space and laboratory beam injection situations. An important concept introduced is that even when beam plasma instabilities are excited, there are two regime of BPD with radically different observational properties. They are described here as BPD with either classical or anomalous energy depositions. For high pressures or low altitudes, the classical is expected to dominate. For high altitudes and laboratory experiments, where the axial system size is less than lambda sub en, no BPD will be triggered unless the unstable waves are near the ambient plasma frequency and their amplitudes at saturation are large enough to create suprathermal tails by collapsing.

  7. Modelling Of Chlorine Inductive Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabert P.; Despiau-Pujo, E.

    2010-07-01

    III-V compounds such as GaAs, InP or GaN-based materials are increasingly important for their use in optoelectronic applications, especially in the telecommunications and light detection industries. Photonic devices including lasers, photodetectors or LEDs, require reliable etching processes characterized by high etch rate, profile control and low damage. Although many problems remain to be understood, inductively coupled discharges seem to be promising to etch such materials, using Cl2/Ar, Cl2/N2 and Cl2/H2 gas chemistries. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources meet most of the requirements for efficient plasma processing such as high etch rates, high ion densities and low controllable ion energies. However, the presence of a negative ion population in the plasma alters the positive ion flux, reduces the electron density, changes the electron temperature, modifies the spatial structure of the discharge and can cause unstable operation. Several experimental studies and numerical simulation results have been published on inductively coupled Cl2/Ar plasmas but relatively few systematic comparisons of model predictions and experimental data have been reported in given reactor geometries under a wide range of op- erating conditions. Validation of numerical predictions is essential for chemically complex plasma processing and there is a need to benchmark the models with as many measurements as possible. In this paper, comparisons of 2D fluid simulations with experimental measurements of Ar/Cl2 plasmas in a low pressure ICP reactor are reported (Corr et al. 2008). The electron density, negative ion fraction and Cl atom density are investigated for various conditions of Ar/Cl2 ratio, gas pressure and applied RF power in H mode. Simulations show that the wall recombination coefficient of Cl atom (?) is a key parameter of the model and that neutral densities are very sensitive to its variations. The best agreement between model and experiment is obtained for ? = 0

  8. DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

    1962-05-15

    A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)

  9. System and method for altering the tack of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Sujit; Corcoran, Howard

    2007-11-13

    A system and method for altering the tack of a material, namely a polymer used as an adhesive, also known as stickies, or pitch. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater.

  10. Size study of dust produced in a CCP RF discharge for the simulation of Titan's chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, G.; Cernogora, G.; Hadamcik, E.; Szopa, C.; Renard, J. B.

    2008-09-07

    A radio-frequency discharge in a N{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} gaseous mixture is used to reproduce Titan's aerosols. To understand the dust growth mechanisms, the effect of different parameters on their size is studied. It is shown that the tholins are bigger for a large amount of methane and for a lower gas flow in the plasma. The evolution of tholins' size with plasma duration is also presented.

  11. 10-J long-pulse electric-discharge XeCl laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losev, Valery F.; Konovalov, Ivan; Liu, Jingru; Panchenko, Yury

    2003-11-01

    An X-ray preionized XeCl laser with a large aperture (9x7 cm) is described. Laser operates at Ne-Xe-HCl mixture with pressure up to 4 atm. Paper-oil pulse forming lines and rail-gap switch for discharge pump was used. 10 J output with optical pulse duration up to 300 ns (FWHM) have been extracted from active volume 5.4 l with an electric efficiency 1.2%.

  12. System and method for altering the tack of materials using an electrohydraulic discharge

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit; Corcoran, Howard

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for altering the tack of a material, namely a polymer used as an adhesive, also known as stickies, or pitch. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater.

  13. Deep discharge reconditioning: Pros and cons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Deep-discharge reconditioning (DDR) can be of great benefit to battery performance, especially in geosynchronous orbit, if performed properly and regularly, and can be essential to operation of batteries at the high depths of discharge (DOD) required to minimize weight. The procedure should be tailored to fit the nature of the degradation occuring during regular cycling. DDR is not without its drawbacks, however, and these differ depending on the normal DOD to be sustained and/or whether the discharge is done at the battery or the cell level. Battery-level discharge carries the minimum weight penalty but raises questions of the effects of low-rate cell reversal that as yet have no firm answers. Cell level discharge avoids cell reversal but carries significant penalties of weight and complexity. Thus no universal procedure or method of implementation of deep-discharge reconditioning is now available and thus the various approaches must be evaluated for each application.

  14. Capillary underwater discharges in repetitive pulse regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baerdemaeker, F.; Monte, M.; Leys, C.

    2004-03-01

    In this study a capillary underwater discharge, that is sustained with AC (50 Hz) voltages up to 7.5 kV, is investigated. In a capillary discharge scheme, the current is, at some point along its path between two submerged electrodes, flowing through a narrow elongated bore in a dielectric material. When the current density is sufficiently high, local boiling and subsequent vapour breakdown results in the formation of a plasma within this capillary. At the same time the capillary emits an intense jet of vapour bubbles. Time-dependent electrical current, voltage and light emission curves are recorded for discharges in solutions of NaCl in distilled water and reveal different discharge regimes, depending on the conductivity and the excitation voltage, ranging from repetitive microsecond discharge pulses to a quasi-continuous discharge with a glow-like voltage-current characteristic.

  15. Experimental analysis of direct current corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lagăr, A.; Diniş, C. M.; Popa, G. N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental analysis of current-voltage characteristic of DC corona discharge. In experiments were used an electrostatic discharge system, consists of an active brass electrode, and a passive copper electrode (plane). A high-voltage source has been used to produce the positive or negative DC discharge. To analyse the influence of active electrode surface were used a conical and a spherical electrode, with small radius of curvature. The gap between the electrodes was varied by moving the passive electrode. Current-voltage characteristics of DC corona discharge were obtained at a constant distance between the discharge electrodes, by changing the amplitude of supply voltage. Corona current and voltage were acquired using a digital oscilloscope. Experiments allowed the study of the effects due to the active electrode and the air gap between the electrodes, on the onset voltage and the current of corona discharge.

  16. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50 Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  17. Effects of antidromic discharges in crayfish primary afferents.

    PubMed

    Cattaert, Daniel; Bévengut, Michelle

    2002-10-01

    Contrary to orthodromic spikes that are generated in sensory organs and conveyed to CNS, antidromic spikes are generated in the axon terminals of the sensory neurons within the CNS and are conveyed to the peripheral sensory organ. Antidromic discharges are observed in primary afferent neurons of both vertebrates and invertebrates and seem to be related to the rhythmic activity of central neural networks. In this study, we analyzed the effect of antidromic discharges on the sensory activity of a leg proprioceptor in in vitro preparations of the crayfish CNS. Intracellular microelectrodes were used both to record the orthodromic spikes and to elicit antidromic spikes by injecting squares pulses of depolarizing current at various frequencies. Experiments were performed on the three types of identified sensory afferents (tonic, phasotonic, and phasic). The main results showed a reduction of the firing frequency of the orthodromic activity in 82% of the tested afferents. In tonic afferents, during their occurrences and according to their frequency, antidromic spikes or bursts reduced or suppressed the orthodromic activity. Following their terminations, they also induced a silent period and a gradual recovery of the orthodromic activity, both of which increased as the duration and the frequency of the antidromic bursts increased. In phasotonic and phasic afferents, antidromic bursts reduced or suppressed the phasic responses as their frequency and durations increased. In phasotonic afferents, if elicited prior to the movements, long-duration bursts with increasing frequency reduced more rapidly the tonic background activity than the phasic one whereas short-duration bursts at high frequency produced strong decreases of both. The effect of antidromic bursts accumulated when they are repetitively elicited. Antidromic bursts induced a much larger decrease of the sensory activity than adaptation alone. The occurrences of antidromic spikes or bursts may have a functional role

  18. Prediction of Daily Flow Duration Curves and Streamflow for Ungauged Catchments Using Regional Flow Duration Curves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents a method to predict flow duration curves (FDCs) and streamflow for ungauged catchments in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA. We selected 29 catchments from the Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont physiographic provinces to develop and test the propo...

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  1. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  2. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  3. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  4. Shockwave Interactions with Argon Glow Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    SHOCKWAVE INTERACTIONS WITH ARGON GLOW DISCHARGES THESIS Nicholas S. Siefert, Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GAP/ENP/06-18 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...the United States Government. AFIT/GAP/ENP/06-18 SHOCKWAVE INTERACTIONS WITH ARGON GLOW DISCHARGES THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT/GAP/ENP/06-18 SHOCKWAVE INTERACTIONS WITH ARGON GLOW DISCHARGES Nicholas S. Siefert, BS

  5. Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bruce J; Holmes, Robert M; McClelland, James W; Vörösmarty, Charles J; Lammers, Richard B; Shiklomanov, Alexander I; Shiklomanov, Igor A; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2002-12-13

    Synthesis of river-monitoring data reveals that the average annual discharge of fresh water from the six largest Eurasian rivers to the Arctic Ocean increased by 7% from 1936 to 1999. The average annual rate of increase was 2.0 +/- 0.7 cubic kilometers per year. Consequently, average annual discharge from the six rivers is now about 128 cubic kilometers per year greater than it was when routine measurements of discharge began. Discharge was correlated with changes in both the North Atlantic Oscillation and global mean surface air temperature. The observed large-scale change in freshwater flux has potentially important implications for ocean circulation and climate.

  6. Surface water discharges from onshore stripper wells.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-01-16

    Under current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules, small onshore oil producers are allowed to discharge produced water to surface waters with approval from state agencies; but small onshore gas producers, however, are prohibited from discharging produced water to surface waters. The purpose of this report is to identify those states that allow surface water discharges from small onshore oil operations and to summarize the types of permitting controls they use. It is intended that the findings of this report will serve as a rationale to encourage the EPA to revise its rules and to remove the prohibition on surface water discharges from small gas operations.

  7. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gutsol, Alexander F; Fridman, Alexander; Blank, Kenneth; Korobtsev, Sergey; Shiryaevsky, Valery; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  8. Timing interventions in relation to temporomandibular joint closed lock duration: a systematic review of 'locking duration'.

    PubMed

    Al-Baghdadi, M; Durham, J; Steele, J

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) 'closed lock' (CL) is a clinical condition causing TMJ pain and limited mouth opening (painful locking) that is mostly attributed to disc displacement without reduction (DDwoR), or less commonly to anchored disc phenomenon (ADP). Both conditions are described clinically as CL that can be 'acute' or 'chronic' depending on the duration of locking. There is, however, no consensus about the duration of locking that defines the acute state and its effect on the success of interventions. This review paper, therefore, aims to provide: (i) a narrative review of the pathophysiological need for early intervention in DDwoR and the clinical implications of acute/chronic CL stages on the management pathway; (ii) a systematic review investigating the effects of locking duration on the success of interventions for CL management. Electronic and manual searches until mid-August 2013 were conducted for English-language studies of any design investigating the effects of non-surgical and surgical interventions for acute or chronic CL (DDwoR or ADP). A total of 626 records were identified, and 113 studies were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were completed for all included studies. Included studies were, however, heterogeneous and mostly of poor-quality leading to contradictory and inconsistent evidence on the effect of the duration of locking on treatment outcomes. Future high-quality trials investigating the effect of CL duration on treatment outcome are needed. At present, early intervention by 'unlock' mandibular manipulation seems to be the most practical and realistic approach that can be attempted first in every CL patient as an initial diagnostic/therapeutic approach.

  9. Experimental study on hard x-rays emitted from metre-scale negative discharges in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, P. O.; van Deursen, A. P. J.; Ebert, U.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the development of metre long negative discharges and focus on their x-ray emissions. We describe appearance, timing and spatial distribution of the x-rays. They appear in bursts of nanosecond duration mostly in the cathode area. The spectrum can be characterized by an exponential function with 200 keV characteristic photon energy. With nanosecond-fast photography we took detailed images of the pre-breakdown phenomena during the time when x-rays were registered. We found bipolar discharge structures, also called ‘pilot systems’, in the vicinity of the cathode. As in our previous study of x-rays from positive discharges, we correlate the x-ray emission with encounters between positive and negative streamers. We suggest that a similar process is responsible for x-rays generated by lightning leaders.

  10. Luminescence flash and temperature determination of the bubble generated by underwater pulsed discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liancheng; Zhu, Xinlei; Yan, Hui; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Zhen; Yan, Keping

    2017-01-01

    An intense luminescence flash can be induced during the collapse phase of bubbles generated by pulsed discharge in water. To gain insight into this special phenomenon, we experimentally investigated the optical characteristics and luminescence temperature inside collapsing bubbles. The duration of the luminescence flash generated by pulsed discharge was around tens of microseconds, which was confirmed by high-speed recording and the photodiode output, and the inception time of the luminescence flash was approximately 32.5 μs before the bubble collapsed to its minimum size. The temperatures of the luminescence flash at discharge energies of 25 and 30 J/pulse calculated according to the two-line radiance ratio method were 6673 and 6728 K, respectively.

  11. Plasma Parameter of a Capillary Discharge-Produced Plasma Channel to Guide an Ultrashort Laser Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Terauchi, Hiromitsu; Bai, Jin-xiang; Yugami, Noboru

    2009-01-22

    We have observed the optical guiding of a 100-fs laser pulse with the laser intensity in the range of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} using a 1.5-cm long capillary discharge-produced plasma channel for compact electron acceleration applications. The optical pulse propagation using the plasma channel is achieved with the electron densities of 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and the electron temperatures of 0.5-4 eV at a discharge time delay of around 150 ns and a discharge current of 500 A with a pulse duration of 100-150 ns. An energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons from a laser-plasma acceleration scheme showed a peak at 1.3 MeV with a maximum energy tail of 1.6 MeV.

  12. Investigation of microplasma discharge in sea water for optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamaleev, Vladislav; Okamura, Yo; Kitamura, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu

    2016-07-01

    Microplasma discharge in sea water for optical emission spectroscopy was investigated using a needle-to-plane electrode system. The electrodes of a Pd needle and a Pt plate were placed with a gap of 25 µm in typical artificial sea water or locally sampled natural deep sea water. A pulse current source, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the sea water between the electrodes, was used. The circuit parameters were optimized to decrease the breakdown voltage and the spark duration to suppress erosion of the electrodes. Using a microgap configuration, spark discharges were reproducibly ignited in the highly conductive sea water at low breakdown voltages. The ignition of spark discharges required not only a critical voltage sufficient for breakdown, but also a critical energy for preheating of the sea water, sufficient for bubble formation. The possibility of using optical emission spectroscopy of microplasma in water is shown for identifying elemental composition of sea water.

  13. Short-pulsed, electric-discharge degradation of toxic and sludge wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Bystritskii, V.M.; Wessel, F.J.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project funded by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a collaborative effort with the University of California at Irvine (UCI), which was the lead project performer. Short-pulse, electric-discharge streamers were used to degrade aromatic and chlorinated compounds in water aerosols. An atomizer supplies 10--50 {micro}m aerosol droplets to a discharge chamber containing thin wires that are driven by electric pulses of 50--90 kV amplitude, 50--150 ns pulse duration, and 100 Hz repetition rate. The combination of a high electric field, large H{sub 2}O dielectric constant and atomization provide efficient degradation of organic molecules including: paranitrophenol, di-chlorophenol and perchloroethylene. The specific energy input for degradation of a pollutant molecule depends on the particular compound, its concentration, and the operational parameters of the discharge.

  14. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  15. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  16. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  17. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  18. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  19. Time in Language: Event Duration in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll-Florit, Marta; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates how we process and represent event duration in on-line language comprehension. Specifically, it examines how events of different duration are processed and what type of knowledge underlies their representations. Studies 1-4 examined verbs and phrases in different contexts. They showed that durative events took longer to…

  20. 5 CFR 1209.11 - Duration of stay; interim compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of stay; interim compliance... WHISTLEBLOWING Stay Requests § 1209.11 Duration of stay; interim compliance. (a) Duration of stay. A stay becomes...) Interim compliance. An agency must immediately comply with an order granting a stay request. Although...

  1. 27 CFR 1.43 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of permits. 1.43 Section 1.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Amendment and Duration of Basic Permits § 1.43 Duration of permits. A basic permit shall continue in...

  2. 27 CFR 1.43 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of permits. 1.43 Section 1.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Amendment and Duration of Basic Permits § 1.43 Duration of permits. A basic permit shall continue in...

  3. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  4. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  5. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  6. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  7. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) § 725.210 Duration of augmented benefits. Augmented benefits payable on behalf of a spouse or divorced spouse, or...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2001.12 Section 2001.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.12 Duration of classification. (a) Determining duration of classification for...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2001.12 Section 2001.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.12 Duration of classification. (a) Determining duration of classification for...

  10. Thirty years of satellite-derived lava discharge rates at Etna: Implications for steady volumetric output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Andrew; Steffke, Andrea; Calvari, Sonia; Spampinato, Letizia

    2011-08-01

    We present a 30 year long data set of satellite-derived time-averaged lava discharge rates (TADR) for Mount Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy), spanning 1980-2010 and comprising 1792 measurements during 23 eruptions. We use this to classify eruptions on the basis of magnitude and intensity, as well as the shape of the TADR time series which characterizes each effusive event. We find that while 1983-1993 was characterized by less frequent but longer-duration effusive eruptions at lower TADRs, 2000-2010 was characterized by more frequent eruptions of shorter duration and higher TADRs. However, roughly the same lava volume was erupted during both of these 11 year long periods, so that the volumetric output was linear over the entire 30 year period, increasing at a rate of 0.8 m3 s-1 between 1980 and 2010. The cumulative volume record can be extended back in time using data available in the literature. This allows us to assess Etna's output history over 5 centuries and to place the current trend in historical context. We find that output has been stable at this rate since 1971. At this time, the output rate changed from a low discharge rate phase, which had characterized the period 1759 to 1970, to a high discharge rate phase. This new phase had the same output rate as the high discharge rate phase that characterized the period 1610-1669. The 1610-1669 phase ended with the most voluminous eruption of historic times.

  11. Defining High Risk: Cost-effectiveness of Extended Duration Thromboprophylaxis Following Major Oncologic Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Iannuzzi, James C.; Rickles, Aaron S.; Kelly, Kristin N.; Fleming, Fergal J.; Dolan, James G.; Monson, John R. T.; Noyes, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Extended duration thromboprophylaxis (EDTPPX) is the practice of prescribing antithrombotic therapy for 21 days after discharge, commonly used in surgical patients who are at high risk for venothromboembolism (VTE). While guidelines recommend EDTPPX, criteria are vague due to a paucity of data. The criteria can be further informed by cost-effectiveness thresholds. This study sought to determine the VTE incidence threshold for the cost-effectiveness EDTPPX compared to inpatient prophylaxis. Methods A decision tree was used to compare EDTPPX for 21 days after discharge to 7-days of inpatient-prophylaxis with base case assumptions based on an abdominal oncologic resection without complications in an otherwise healthy individual. Willingness to pay was set at $50,000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess uncertainty within the model, with particular interest in the threshold for costeffectiveness based on VTE incidence. Results EDTPPX was the dominant strategy when VTE probability exceeds 2.39%. Given a willingness to pay threshold of $50,000/QALY, EDTPPX was the preferred strategy when VTE incidence exceeded 1.22% and 0.88% when using brand name or generic medication costs respectively. Conclusions EDTPPX should be recommended whenever VTE incidence exceeds 2.39%. When post-discharge estimated VTE risk is 0.88%–2.39% patient preferences about self-injections and medication costs should be considered. PMID:24101450

  12. Diffuse discharge produced by repetitive nanosecond pulses in open air, nitrogen, and helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Tao; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Zhang, Cheng; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Zhang, Dongdong; Erofeev, Mikhail V.; Ren, Chengyan; Shutko, Yuliya V.; Yan, Ping

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric-pressure gas discharge driven by high voltage pulses with fast rise-time and short duration has attracted significant attention for various plasma applications. In this paper, discharges were generated in a highly non-uniform electric field by point-plane gaps in open air by four repetitive nanosecond-pulse generators with repetition rate up to 1 kHz. The rise time of generators was 25 (generator #1), 15 (generator #2), 3 (generator #3), and 0.2 ns (generator #4) and a full width at half maximum was 40, 30-40, 5, and 1 ns, respectively. The experimental results show that there were typical discharge fashions, i.e., corona, diffuse, spark, or arc modes. The variables affecting the discharge characteristics, including the gap spacing and applied pulse parameters, were investigated. Especially, the diffuse discharges were investigated and discussed. With generator #1 at voltage 70-120 kV, characteristics of measured x-rays on the discharge modes were studied, and it indicates that counts of x-rays in a diffuse discharge are up to a peak value under the experimental conditions. With amplitude of voltage pulses in incident wave up to 18 (generator #3) and 12.5 kV (generator #4), runaway electron beam in low pressure helium, nitrogen, and air in a pulse-periodic mode of discharge with repetition rate up to 1 kHz was obtained. Electron beam was registered behind a thin foil in a pressure range from several to tens of Torr. X-ray radiation was obtained in a wide range of pressures, as well as at atmospheric pressure of helium, nitrogen, and air. Voltage pulses of positive and negative polarities were used. Generation of runaway electrons with pulses of positive polarity appeared because of reflected voltage pulses of reverse polarity.

  13. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center

  14. Hurricane Mitch: Peak Discharge for Selected River Reachesin Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Mark E.; Phillips, Jeffrey V.; Spahr, Norman E.

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane Mitch began as a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea on 22 October 1998. By 26 October, Mitch had strengthened to a Category 5 storm as defined by the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale (National Climate Data Center, 1999a), and on 27 October was threatening the northern coast of Honduras (fig. 1). After making landfall 2 days later (29 October), the storm drifted south and west across Honduras, wreaking destruction throughout the country before reaching the Guatemalan border on 31 October. According to the National Climate Data Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Climate Data Center, 1999b), Hurricane Mitch ranks among the five strongest storms on record in the Atlantic Basin in terms of its sustained winds, barometric pressure, and duration. Hurricane Mitch also was one of the worst Atlantic storms in terms of loss of life and property. The regionwide death toll was estimated to be more than 9,000; thousands of people were reported missing. Economic losses in the region were more than $7.5 billion (U.S. Agency for International Development, 1999). Honduras suffered the most widespread devastation during the storm. More than 5,000 deaths, and economic losses of more than $4 billion, were reported by the Government of Honduras. Honduran officials estimated that Hurricane Mitch destroyed 50 years of economic development. In addition to the human and economic losses, intense flooding and landslides scarred the Honduran landscape - hydrologic and geomorphologic processes throughout the country likely will be affected for many years. As part of the U.S. Government's response to the disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted post-flood measurements of peak discharge at 16 river sites throughout Honduras (fig. 2). Such measurements, termed 'indirect' measurements, are used to determine peak flows when direct measurements (using current meters or dye studies, for example) cannot be made. Indirect measurements of

  15. Biophysiologic and Social Stress Relationships with Breast Milk Feeding Pre and Post Discharge from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, Isabell B.; Singh, Namrata; Le, Cindy; Bell, Cynthia; Whiteside, Christy; Collins, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine influences on incidence of breast milk feeding (BMF) at time of discharge and 6 months later among infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Design A 2-year prospective descriptive NICU hospital-based cohort design. Setting Academic Center Level III–IV NICU. Participants Five hundred and thirty-five infants cared for in NICU and a subgroup of one hundred twenty-nine participant mothers who answered questionnaires. Methods Pre-discharge data were collected using maternal and infant medical records. Post discharge data were collected from maternal questionnaires. Results At NICU discharge, biophysiologic stressors predictive of not receiving BMF included birth weight < 1500 grams (p<0.035), heart surgery (p= 0.014), and inhaled nitric oxide treatment (p=.002). Teenage mothers were less likely to BMF (p= 0.022). After discharge, BMF duration correlated with BMF duration of a prior infant (p<0.009). Most mothers reported BMF > 4 months, 91% continued pumping, and 89% indicated an interest in a hospital support group. Logistic regression analysis (R2 0.45) identified factors that significantly increased the likelihood of BMF > 4 months: BMF plan (p<0.001), convenience (p=0.018), and family as resource (p=0.025). Negative associations were: awareness of immune benefits (p=0.025), return to work (p=0.002), and infants requiring surgical ligation of the patent ductus arterious (p=0.019). Conclusions Social and medical stressors contribute to BMF duration pre and post NICU discharge. We speculate that active NICU BMF support targeting vulnerable infants and their families and assisting with plans for BMF pre and post discharge will help overcome barriers. PMID:22834882

  16. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  17. NASA's extended duration orbiter medical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee; Sawin, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The physiological issues involved in safely extending Shuttle flights from 10 to 16 days have been viewed by some as academic. After all, they reasoned, humans already have lived and worked in space for periods exceeding even 28 days in the United States Skylab Program and onboard the Russian space stations. The difference in the Shuttle program is in the physical position of the astronauts as they reenter the Earth's atmosphere. Crewmembers in the earlier Apollo, Skylab, and Russian programs were returned to Earth in the supine position. Space Shuttle crewmembers, in contrast, are seated upright during reentry and landing; reexperiencing the Earth's g forces in this position has far more pronounced effects on the crewmember's physiological functions. The goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Medical Project (EDOMP) has been to ensure that crewmembers maintain physiological reserves sufficient to perform entry, landing, and egress safely. Early in the Shuttle Program, it became clear that physiological deconditioning during space flight could produce significant symptoms upon return to Earth. The signs and symptoms observed during the entry, landing, and egress after Shuttle missions have included very high heart rates and low blood pressures upon standing. Dizziness, 'graying out,' and fainting have occurred on ambulation or shortly thereafter. Other symptoms at landing have included headache, light-headedness, nausea and vomitting, leg cramping, inability to stand for several minutes after wheel-stop, and unsteadiness of gait.

  18. Pegaso: Long durations balloons from polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G. R.; di Stefano, G. D. S.; di Felice, F. D. F.; Masi, S. M.; Cardillo, A. C.; Musso, I. M.; Ibba, R. I.; Palangio, P. P.; Caprara, F. C.; Peterzen, S. P.; Pegaso Group

    Launched from the Mario Zuccelli Station Baia Terra Nova in Antarctica during the 2005 06 austral summer the PEGASO-D payload lifted into the stratospheric anticyclone over the southern polar region This effort marks the first Long Duration Scientific payload to be launched from this location and is the fourth such payload launched in the polar regions Performing in the framework of the NOBILE AMUNDSEN collaborative LDB development between ASI-ARR The Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology INGV with the sponsorship of the Italian Antarctic Program PNRA and the Italian Space Agency ASI designed and built the Ultra-Light system together with three Universities in Italy The Pegaso program has been created to investigate the Earth magnetic field and provide a precursor series of small payload launches for the bigger LDB program such as OLIMPO BOOMERanG and BArSPOrt through this collaboration between ASI and ARR The Italian scientific community aware of the big advantages that LDB balloons can offer to their experiments proposed to extend the LDB program to Southern polar regions besides performing launches from the newly initiated Nobile Amundsen Stratospheric Balloon Center in Svalbard Norway Three PEGASO Polar Explorer for Geomagnetics And other Scientific Observations payloads have been launched from the Svalbard No in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range ASI and ISTAR Operations and logistics during the past two northern summers These stratospheric altitude m 35000 small 10kmc balloons have floated in the stratosphere between 14 to

  19. Svarna - vanga - a short duration toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Sharma; Gyaneshwar; Joshi, D; Aryya, N C; Pandey, V B

    1985-10-01

    Swarna - Vanga, an Ayurvedic preparation, is used in the treatment mainly of Pramehas (genitor urinary and metabolic disorders), Sveta Pradara (Leucorrhoea), Kasa - Swasa (Respiratory disorders), etc. The drug contains tin and sulphur as major components along with traces of mercury, iron and aluminum. According to modern point of view certain metals have been claimed toxic to both human and animal. Since Svarna - Vanga contains these metals, it is essential to screen out its toxic effect, if any, although it is claimed in Ayurveda that when a metal is processed as prescribed, it become non - toxic or the least toxic. Considering the above facts, an animal experiment was carried out for short duration (14 days) to screen the toxic effects of Svarna - Vanga (SV) in increasing doses of the drug starting from the maximum therapeutic dose (12.5 mg / 100 gm b.wt / day). The drug was found to have no toxic effects in tissues of the animal at doses of 12.5 mg and 25 mg / 100 gm b.wt. / day. Fine fatty vacuolization in liver and focal superficial mucosal degeneration and necrosis of small intestine confined to one animal each at dose of 50 mg / 100gm b.wt. and 100 mg/ 100 gm. b.wt. / day were observed. Our study indicates that the drug has no toxic effect on tissues at therapeutic dose.

  20. Long Duration Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles; Hunyadi, Sarah; Jacobs, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability of an interface between incompressible, miscible liquids with an initial 2-D sinusoidal perturbation. The experiments are conducted in NASA Glenn Research Center's 2.2 Second Drop Tower. The experimental rig is isolated from aerodynamic drag by a surrounding drag shield. The rig falls 7 1/2 inches relative to the drag shield during the 79 ft fall of the system. An internal spring-driven sled impacting a clay ball provides the impulsive acceleration while the package is at the top of the drop tower, with the package timed to release just after the impulsive acceleration is complete. The instability evolves for 2.2 seconds until the package impacts an air bag at the bottom of the drop tower. The increased duration of these experiments provides for more than twice the observation time of the RM instability in the non-linear regime that will allow for better experimental comparison with asymptotic theories of perturbation amplitude and velocity.

  1. Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David; Schmidt, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Center on Materials for Space Structures (CMSS) at Case Western Reserve University is one of seventeen Commercial Centers for the Development of Space. It was founded to: (1) produce and evaluate materials for space structures; (2) develop passive and active facilities for materials exposure and analysis in space; and (3) develop improved material systems for space structures. A major active facility for materials exposure is proposed to be mounted on the exterior truss of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). This Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE) experiment will be an approximately 6 1/2 ft. x 4 ft. panel facing into the velocity vector (RAM) to provide long term exposure (up to 30 years) to atomic oxygen, UV, micro meteorites, and other low earth orbit effects. It can expose large or small active (instrumented) or passive samples. These samples may be mounted in a removable Materials Flight Experiment (MFLEX) carrier which may be periodically brought into the SSF for examination by CMSS's other SSF facility, the Space Materials Evaluation Facility (SMEF), which will contain a Scanning Electron Microscope, a Variable Angle & Scanning Ellipsometer, a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, and other analysis equipment. These facilities will allow commercial firms to test their materials in space and promptly obtain information on their materials survivability in the LEO environment.

  2. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  3. Plasma Catalysis of Methane Decomposition in Pulse Microwave Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapkin, B.; Rusanov, V.; Jivotov, V.; Babaritski, A.; Potechin, S.; Etievant, C.

    1997-10-01

    Investigation of plasma catalysis effects in various chemical reactions, such as SO2 and hydrocarbons oxidation, ammonia and nitrogen oxides synthesis, has been of interest for many decades. Present work describes the first experimental observation and theoretical analysis of plasma catalysis effects in the case of endothermic methane decomposition into molecular hydrogen and carbon black. Process energy requirements are coverd mainly by low potential gas thermal energy while plasma is used for acceleration of chemical reactions via active species generation. The experiments were done as follows: (i) methane was preheated in a conventional heat exchanger up to about 40-65 ^oC where thermal methane decomposition is limited by process kinetics, (ii) methane was passed through a non-equilibrium pulse microwave discharge (9.04 GHz, pulse duration 1 μs). Experiments have shown a strong catalytic effect of plasma on methane decomposition. The degree of conversion after discharge increased drastically, despite gas cooling, because of heat absorption in the methane decomposition reaction. Theoretical analysis of process kinetics and energy balance gave clear evidence of the catalytic effect of plasma under experimental conditions. The estimated chain length was about 300. The possible mechanism of plasma catalysis, the ion-molecular chain Winchester mechanism, is proposed and described.

  4. Excimer radiation from pulsed micro hollow cathode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzenhauser, Isfried; Ernst, Uwe; Frank, Klaus

    2001-10-01

    Since several years d.c. microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs) are under investigation as efficient sources of VUV excimer radiation [1]. Up to now overall efficiency and the radiation power of the MHCDs are too low to compete e.g. with silent discharges. Substantial improvement in these parameters would make by its simple geometry MCHDs attractive for a wide range of applications. Experiments and simulations show that the efficiency of MCHDs is substantially reduced by high gas temperatures beyond 1500 K. Measurements in pure nitrogen showed that the gas temperature can be reduced about 40The actual experiments are with Xe and Ar bands in the VUV and the results of radiation output under d.c. and pulsed operation for different pulse duration and repetition rates are presented. [1] A. El-Habachi, K.H. Schoenbach, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(7), pp. 885-887 (1998) [2] U. Ernst, "Emissionsspektroskopische Charakterisierung von Hochdruck-Mikrohohlkathodenentladungen", Ph. D thesis, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 2001 This work was supported by DFG under the contact FR 1273-1

  5. The cloud-ionosphere discharge: a newly observed thunderstorm phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Winckler, J R

    1997-09-30

    This paper deals with a luminous electric discharge that forms in the mesospheric region between thundercloud tops and the ionosphere at 90-km altitude. These cloud-ionosphere discharges (CIs), following visual reports dating back to the 19th century, were finally imaged by a low-light TV camera as part of the "SKYFLASH" program at the University of Minnesota in 1989. Many observations were made by various groups in the period 1993-1996. The characteristics of CIs are that they have a wide range of sizes from a few kilometers up to 50 km horizontally; they extend from 40 km to nearly 90 km vertically, with an intense region near 60-70 km and streamers extending down toward cloud tops; the CIs are partly or entirely composed of vertical luminous filaments of kilometer size. The predominate color is red. The TV images show that the CIs usually have a duration less than one TV field (16.7 ms), but higher-speed photometric measurements show that they last about 3 ms, and are delayed 3 ms after an initiating cloud-ground lightning stroke; 95% of these initiating strokes are found to be "positive"-i.e., carry positive charges from clouds to ground. The preference for positive initiating strokes is not understood. Theories of the formation of CIs are briefly reviewed.

  6. Study of the process of dust grain discharging in the afterglow of an RF discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Filatova, I. I.; Trukhachev, F. M.; Chubrik, N. I.

    2011-12-15

    The process of decay of dust structures formed of polydisperse grains injected into an RF discharge is investigated. The dust grain velocities after switching-off of the discharge are measured. The number density, dimensions, and residual charges of dust grains are estimated from the balance of forces acting on the grains after discharge is switched off.

  7. Influence of dust particles on glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, D. N.; Shumova, V. V.; Vasilyak, L. M.; Fortov, V. E.

    2010-11-01

    The gas discharge-dust particle interaction for a dc discharge in air with micron-sized particles is investigated. The plasma of the dc column is described in the frame of diffusion approximation combined with the orbital motion limited approximation for ion and electron flow on the dust component surface. The problem is solved for dust particles of 2 μm radius, embedded in a uniform glow discharge column with a diameter of 16 mm at air pressure 0.5 torr, discharge current 0.5-3 mA and particle concentration up to 105 cm-3. The current-voltage characteristics as an easy-to-observe measure of the nonlocal dust influence on the total amount of charge carriers in the discharge, as well as the radial distributions of plasma components in the dc discharge, are calculated for different dust concentrations and discharge currents. The results are compared with recently published experimental data. The presence of dust particles leads to an increase of the longitudinal electric field due to additional loss of ions and electrons. A decrease of the radial electric field within the dust cloud under the action of dust particles results in an essential change of the electron concentration profile, down to the appearance of the local minimum at the axis of the discharge.

  8. Eddy correlation measurements of submarine groundwater discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crusius, J.; Berg, P.; Koopmans, D.J.; Erban, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new, non-invasive means of quantifying groundwater discharge into marine waters using an eddy correlation approach. The method takes advantage of the fact that, in virtually all aquatic environments, the dominant mode of vertical transport near the sediment-water interface is turbulent mixing. The technique thus relies on measuring simultaneously the fluctuating vertical velocity using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and the fluctuating salinity and/or temperature using rapid-response conductivity and/or temperature sensors. The measurements are typically done at a height of 5-15??cm above the sediment surface, at a frequency of 16 to 64??Hz, and for a period of 15 to 60??min. If the groundwater salinity and/or temperature differ from that of the water column, the groundwater specific discharge (cm d- 1) can be quantified from either a heat or salt balance. Groundwater discharge was estimated with this new approach in Salt Pond, a small estuary on Cape Cod (MA, USA). Estimates agreed well with previous estimates of discharge measured using seepage meters and 222Rn as a tracer. The eddy correlation technique has several desirable characteristics: 1) discharge is quantified under in-situ hydrodynamic conditions; 2) salinity and temperature can serve as two semi-independent tracers of discharge; 3) discharge can be quantified at high temporal resolution, and 4) long-term records of discharge may be possible, due to the low power requirements of the instrumentation. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Runaway electron beam in atmospheric pressure discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, E. V.; Barengolts, S. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to study the formation of a runaway electron (RAE) beam from an individual emission zone in atmospheric pressure air discharges with a highly overvolted interelectrode gap. It is shown that the formation of a RAE beam in discharges at high overvoltages is much contributed by avalanche processes.

  10. 32 CFR 881.7 - Discharge upgrade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE MILITARY PERSONNEL DETERMINATION OF ACTIVE MILITARY SERVICE AND DISCHARGE FOR CIVILIAN OR CONTRACTUAL GROUPS § 881.7 Discharge upgrade. If... Force Board for Correction of Military Records under AFI 36-2603, Air Force Board for Correction...

  11. The risks of getting hospital discharge wrong.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Hospital discharge remains a hot topic for all of us who work with older people. As the recent National Audit Office (NAO) 2016 report on discharging older patients from hospital rather bluntly put it: 'There are currently far too many older people in hospitals who do not need to be there.'

  12. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  13. Analytical Ion Thruster Discharge Performance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Wirz, Richard E.; Katz, Ira

    2006-01-01

    A particle and energy balance model of the plasma discharge in magnetic ring-cusp ion thrusters has been developed. The model follows the original work of Brophy in the development of global 0-D discharge models that utilize conservation of particles into and out of the thruster and conservation of energy into the discharge and out of the plasma in the form of charged particles to the walls and beam and plasma radiation. The present model is significantly expanded over Brophy's original work by including self-consistent calculations of the internal neutral pressure, electron temperature, primary electron density, electrostatic ion confinement (due to the ring-cusp fields), plasma potential, discharge stability, and time dependent behavior during recycling. The model only requires information on the thruster geometry, ion optics performance and electrical inputs such as discharge voltage and currents, etc. to produce accurate performance curves of discharge loss versus mass utilization efficiency. The model has been benchmarked against the NEXIS Laboratory Model (LM) and Development Model (DM) thrusters, and successfully predicts the thruster discharge loss as a function of mass utilization efficiency for a variety of thrusters. The discharge performance model will be presented and results showing ion thruster performance and stability given.

  14. Recent Topics on Electrical Discharge Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Toshiki

    Resent topics on electrical-discharge-related technologies along with the research activities of the technical committee on electrical discharges (TC-ED) of IEEJ are presented briefly. Following the introduction of the major research subjects that TC-ED is responsible to cover, a few examples of the investigating R&D committees' (IRDCs) activity are mentioned.

  15. Keeping the Zero in Zero Discharge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Paul; Jackson, John

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on Great Lakes pollution as it describes the evolution of the zero discharge concept, outlines the major areas of debate, and explores facets of a developing strategy to ensure the ultimate success of the zero discharge approach. (46 references) (LZ)

  16. 32 CFR 724.111 - Punitive discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BOARD Definitions § 724.111 Punitive discharge. A discharge awarded by sentence of a court-martial... special court-martial. (b) Dishonorable. A separation from the naval service under dishonorable conditions. It may be effected only as a result of the approved sentence of a general court-martial....

  17. 32 CFR 724.111 - Punitive discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BOARD Definitions § 724.111 Punitive discharge. A discharge awarded by sentence of a court-martial... special court-martial. (b) Dishonorable. A separation from the naval service under dishonorable conditions. It may be effected only as a result of the approved sentence of a general court-martial....

  18. 32 CFR 724.111 - Punitive discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BOARD Definitions § 724.111 Punitive discharge. A discharge awarded by sentence of a court-martial... special court-martial. (b) Dishonorable. A separation from the naval service under dishonorable conditions. It may be effected only as a result of the approved sentence of a general court-martial....

  19. 32 CFR 724.111 - Punitive discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BOARD Definitions § 724.111 Punitive discharge. A discharge awarded by sentence of a court-martial... special court-martial. (b) Dishonorable. A separation from the naval service under dishonorable conditions. It may be effected only as a result of the approved sentence of a general court-martial....

  20. 32 CFR 724.111 - Punitive discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BOARD Definitions § 724.111 Punitive discharge. A discharge awarded by sentence of a court-martial... special court-martial. (b) Dishonorable. A separation from the naval service under dishonorable conditions. It may be effected only as a result of the approved sentence of a general court-martial....

  1. 32 CFR 724.112 - Clemency discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clemency discharge. 724.112 Section 724.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW... it serves to change, seal, erase or in any way modify the individual's past military...

  2. 32 CFR 724.112 - Clemency discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clemency discharge. 724.112 Section 724.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW... it serves to change, seal, erase or in any way modify the individual's past military...

  3. 32 CFR 724.112 - Clemency discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clemency discharge. 724.112 Section 724.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW... it serves to change, seal, erase or in any way modify the individual's past military...

  4. 32 CFR 724.112 - Clemency discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clemency discharge. 724.112 Section 724.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW... it serves to change, seal, erase or in any way modify the individual's past military...

  5. 32 CFR 724.112 - Clemency discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clemency discharge. 724.112 Section 724.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW... it serves to change, seal, erase or in any way modify the individual's past military...

  6. Plasma in a Pulsed Discharge Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remy, J.; Bienier, L.; Salama, F.

    2005-01-01

    The plasma generated in a pulsed slit discharge nozzle is used to form molecular ions in an astrophysically relevant environment. The plasma has been characterized as a glow discharge in the abnormal regime. Laboratory studies help understand the formation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ions that are thought to be the source of the ubiquitous unidentified infrared bands.

  7. Electrical discharges in the atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ksanfomaliti, L. V.; Vasilchikov, N. M.; Ganpantserova, O. F.; Petrova, Y. V.; Suvorov, A. P.; Filippov, G. F.; Yablonskaya, O. V.; Yabrova, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    Data received from Venera 11 and 12 experiments involving the electrical activity of the atmosphere of Venus show that the electrical discharges occur in the cloud layer. Their energy is roughly the same as in terrestrial lightning, but with a pulse repetition frequency of the discharges which is much greater.

  8. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  9. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  10. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL CARE FOR PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff...

  11. Organizational Determinants of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Duration in Women

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Lemak, Christy Harris

    2009-01-01

    Longer treatment duration has consistently been related to improved substance use outcomes. This study examined how tailored women's programming and organizational characteristics were related to duration in outpatient substance abuse treatment in women. Data were from two waves of a national outpatient substance abuse treatment unit survey (n=571 in 1999/2000, n=566 in 2005). Analyses were conducted separately for methadone and non-methadone programs. Negative binomial regressions tested associations between organizational determinants, tailored programming, and women's treatment duration. Of the tailored programming services, childcare was significantly related to longer duration in the non-methadone programs, but few other organizational factors were. Tailored programming was not associated to treatment duration in methadone programs, but ownership, affiliation, and accreditation were related to longer duration. Study findings suggest evidence for how external relationships related to resources, treatment constraints, and legitimacy may influence women's treatment duration. Methadone programs may be more vulnerable to external influences. PMID:19038526

  12. Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Eagleman, David M.; Pariyadath, Vani

    2009-01-01

    Perceived duration is conventionally assumed to correspond with objective duration, but a growing literature suggests a more complex picture. For example, repeated stimuli appear briefer in duration than a novel stimulus of equal physical duration. We suggest that such duration illusions appear to parallel the neural phenomenon of repetition suppression, and we marshal evidence for a new hypothesis: the experience of duration is a signature of the amount of energy expended in representing a stimulus, i.e. the coding efficiency. This novel hypothesis offers a unified explanation for almost a dozen illusions in the literature in which subjective duration is modulated by properties of the stimulus such as size, brightness, motion and rate of flicker. PMID:19487187

  13. Mental Summation of Temporal Duration within and across Senses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Perceiving, memorizing, and estimating temporal durations are key cognitive functions in everyday life. In this study, a duration summation paradigm was used to examine whether summation of temporal durations introduces an underestimation or overestimation bias, and whether this bias is common to visual and auditory modalities. Two within- or across-modality stimuli were presented sequentially for variable durations. Participants were asked to reproduce the sum of the two durations (0.6-1.1 s). We found that the sum of two durations was overestimated regardless of stimulus modalities. A subsequent control experiment indicated that the overestimation bias arose from the summation process, not perceptual or memory processes. Furthermore, we observed strong positive correlations between the overestimation bias for different sensory modalities within participants. These results suggest that the sum of two durations is overestimated, and that supra-modal processes may be responsible for this overestimation bias.

  14. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The radiofrequency magnetic dipole discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Marcante, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Fassina, A.; Spolaore, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a novel and simple concept of plasma source, which is able to produce a radiofrequency magnetized discharge with minimal power requirements. The source is based on the magnetron concept and uses a permanent magnet as an active electrode. The dipolar field produced by the magnet confines the electrons, which cause further ionization, thus producing a toroidally shaped plasma in the equatorial region around the electrode. A plasma can be ignited with such scheme with power levels as low as 5 W. Paschen curves have been built for four different working gases, showing that in Helium or Neon, plasma breakdown is easily obtained also at atmospheric pressure. The plasma properties have been measured using a balanced Langmuir probe, showing that the electron temperature is around 3-4 eV and higher in the cathode proximity. Plasma densities of the order of 1016 m-3 have been obtained, with a good positive scaling with applied power. Overall, the electron pressure appears to be strongly correlated with the magnetic field magnitude in the measurement point.

  16. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  17. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  18. KSC Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Discussion of key electrostatic issues that have arisen during the past few years at KSC that the Electrostatics Laboratory has studied. The lab has studied in depth the Space Shuttle's Thermal Control System Blankets, the International Space Station Thermal Blanket, the Pan/Tilt Camera Blankets, the Kapton Purge Barrier Curtain, the Aclar Purge Barrier Curtain, the Thrust Vector Controller Blankets, the Tyvek Reaction Control System covers, the AID-PAK and FLU-9 pyro inflatable devices, the Velostat Solid Rocket Booster mats, and the SCAPE suits. In many cases these materials are insulating meaning that they might be a source of unsafe levels of electrostatic discharge (ESD). For each, the lab provided in-depth testing of each material within its current configuration to ensure that it does not cause an ESD concern that may violate the safety of the astronauts, the workers and equipment for NASA. For example the lab provides unique solutions and testing such as Spark Incendivity Testing that checks whether a material is capable of generating a spark strong enough to ignite a flammable gas. The lab makes recommendations to changes in specifications, procedures, and material if necessary. The lab also consults with a variety of non-safety related ESD issues for the agency.

  19. Duration of hospital participation in Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation and survival of in-hospital cardiac arrest☆

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Steven M.; Huszti, Ella; Warren, Sam A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Sayre, Michael R.; Nichol, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Get With the Guidelines (GWTG-R) is a data registry and quality improvement program for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA). It is unknown if duration of hospital participation in GWTG-R is associated with IHCA outcomes. Methods We analyzed adults with IHCA from 362 hospitals participating in GWTG-R between 2000 and 2009. Using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering on hospital, we determined the association between duration of hospital participation in GWTG-R and patient outcomes after IHCA, adjusted for patient and arrest characteristics and secular trend. Using these methods, we also evaluated the association between duration of participation and factors previously correlated with survival after IHCA, including ECG monitored status, after-hours arrest, and time to defibrillation. Results Of 104,732 patients with IHCA, 17,646 patients (16.9%) survived to discharge. Duration of hospital participation in GWTG-R was associated with IHCA event survival (per year of participation, odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% CI 1.00–1.04; p = 0.046) but not survival to discharge (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.99–1.04; p = 0.18). Among factors previously correlated with IHCA survival, duration of participation was associated with time to defibrillation ≤2 min (per year of participation, OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03–1.10; p < 0.001), but not ECG monitored status (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.93–1.06; p = 0.90) or survival of after-hours arrest (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.99–1.03; p = 0.41). Among ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) arrests, time to defibrillation attenuated the association between duration of hospital participation and outcomes. Conclusion Duration of hospital participation in GWTG-R was significantly associated with survival of the IHCA event, but not with survival to discharge. In VT/VF arrests, this association may have been mediated by improvements in time to defibrillation. PMID:22429975

  20. Computing discharge using the index velocity method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  1. Helium corona-assisted air discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Nan; Gao Lei; Ji Ailing; Cao Zexian

    2011-10-15

    Operation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases including air at low voltages yet without consuming any inert gas will enormously promote the application of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium-filled glass bulb--for a needle-plate distance of 12 mm, 1.0 kV suffices. Ultraviolet emission from helium corona facilitates the discharging of air, and the discharge current manifests distinct features such as relatively broad Trichel pulses in both half periods. This design allows safe and economic implementation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases, which will find a broad palette of applications in surface modification, plasma medicine and gas treatment, etc.

  2. Corona Discharge Influences Ozone Concentrations Near Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Gaither, Kari A.; Anantatmula, Shantha M.; Mong, Gary M.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Lessor, Delbert L.

    2004-02-26

    Ozone is produced by corona discharge in air. Its production is enhanced near grounded water. Whether grounded animals behave like grounded water, producing more ozone was investigated. Rats were exposed to corona discharge in a plastic cage. The concentration of ozone in the gas phase was monitored. The ozone concentration exceeded ambient levels only in the presence of corona discharge and either rats or water. When water or rats were exposed to corona discharge, ozone levels were more than 10 times higher than controls. Ozone levels increased rapidly with applied voltage. There was also a correlation between the distance of the corona needle to the rats and the amount of ozone produced. As the distance increased, ozone production decreased. These results are discussed in relation to the potential exposure of mammals to ozone in the vicinity of corona discharge and electric fields.

  3. Beam discharge excited by distributed virtual cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Barabanov, V. N.; Dubinov, A. E.; Loiko, M. V.; Saikov, S. K.; Selemir, V. D.; Tarakanov, V. P.

    2012-02-15

    A new type of beam discharge, i.e., beam discharge with a distributed virtual cathode (VC) is proposed and considered by numerical simulation. The discharge is established during counter motion of high-current electron beams in a gas-filled equipotential cavity and is characterized by a state of hot dense electron plasma of primary electrons. The discharge temporal dynamics is studied. It is shown that the VC lifetime depends linearly from this sum in a wide range of the sum of beam currents, from the boundary current of two-beam instability to the critical current of Pierce instability. Generation of nonlinear electrostatic structures shaped as phase bubbles in the discharge is detected, and their dynamics is studied. The parameters are determined, at which the multiple coexistence of phase bubbles and their coalescence during collisions is observed.

  4. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  5. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and infant infection

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M A; Carson, C; Sacker, A; Kelly, Y

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We estimated the risk of infection associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Subject/Methods: We analysed the data on 15 809 term, singleton infants from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Infants were grouped according to months of EBF: never, <2, 2–4, 4–6 and 6 (the latter being World Health Organisation (WHO) policy since 2001: ‘post-2001 WHO policy'). Among those EBF for 4–6 months, we separated those who started solids, but not formula, before 6 months, and were still breastfeeding at 6 months (that is, WHO policy before 2001: ‘pre-2001 WHO policy'), from other patterns. Outcomes were infection in infancy (chest, diarrhoeal and ear). Results: EBF was not associated with the ear infection, but was associated with chest infection and diarrhoea. EBF for <4 months was associated with a significantly increased risk of chest infection (adjusted risk ratios (RR) 1.24–1.28) and diarrhoea (adjusted RRs 1.42–1.66) compared with the pre-2001 WHO policy. There was an excess risk of the chest infection (adjusted RR 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97–1.46) and diarrhoea (adjusted RR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.47) among infants EBF for 4–6 months, but who stopped breastfeeding by 6 months, compared with the pre-2001 WHO policy. There was no significant difference in the risk of chest infection or diarrhoea in those fed according to the pre-2001 versus post-2001 WHO policy. Conclusions: There is an increased risk of infection in infants EBF for <4 months or EBF for 4–6 months who stop breastfeeding by 6 months. These results support current guidelines of EBF for either 4–6 or 6 months, with continued breastfeeding thereafter. PMID:27460268

  6. Performance and discharge characteristics of doped (beta) MnO2 in H2SO4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Buqui D.; Lobo, Fernando S.; Kamatdalal, V. N.

    1994-10-01

    Doped manganese dioxides (beta-MnO2) were prepared by thermal decomposition (180 C) of manganese nitrate in the presence of weighed quantities of NH4VO3, Na2WO4 center-dot 2H2O, LiNO3, AgNO3, or MoO3. Detailed chemical analyses, surface area, and pycnometric density determinations were carried out, and the electrochemical performance was evaluated in H2SO4 (8 N) electrolyte. The discharge behavior was monitored using constant currents and constant resistances (both continuous and intermittent discharge). Some of the Mo-doped samples together with the Li- and Ag-doped materials performed well as cathodes in H2SO4. The consistency of discharge duration under different discharge regimes was a marked feature of the behavior of some of the compositions.

  7. Features of the Growth Dynamics of Plasma Jets in Laser-Induced Vacuum Discharges with High Rates of Current Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobkin, Yu. V.; Romanov, I. V.; Paperny, V. L.

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study of the dynamics of formation of plasma jets and ion beams in laser-induced low-voltage discharges with high rates of current rise has been performed. It has been found that for given discharge characteristics (energy store voltage, discharge current, current rise rate, and discharge gap spacing) there exist optimum initial conditions, determined by the characteristics of the laser radiation, that provide stable single pinching of the cathode plasma jet at its maximum compression. Increasing the ion density and decreasing the temperature of the foreplasma by reducing the laser radiation power density at the cathode due to an increase in laser pulse duration improves the stability of the plasma pinching at a lower energy input.

  8. Predicting the Discharge Rate Contribution of the Binuwang Watershed to the Agos River, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, Dakila; Paningbatan, Eduardo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In 2004, Typhoon Winnie brought torrential rains which triggered massive landslides and floods which devastated the provinces of Infanta, Real and General Nakar in the Philippines. Winnie inflicted USD 111.14 million worth of damage to crops, livestock and infrastructure and left thousands dead or homeless. The Binuwang River is a sub-tributary of the Agos River, but the extent to which it contributes to flooding has not yet been determined. This study measures the depth of the Binuwang River to estimate the discharge rate contribution of the Binuwang River Watershed to the Agos River using an automatic rain gauge recorder and water level loggers set to record at 5-minute intervals. Flood-generating rainfall events were monitored during the onset of Typhoon Nesat (locally called 'Pedring') September 26-27, 2011. The automated rain gauge recorded 227 mm cumulative rainfall over a 6-hour and 41-minute period. It reached a peak rainfall intensity of 17.5 mm per 5-minute interval that generated a discharge height increase of 1.8 m at the monitoring station and a total discharge volume of 99,823 m3 over a 35-hour duration. An 8.81-hour lag time from the peak rainfall to the peak discharge concentration was recorded. A PCRaster-based hydrologic model was used to predict the total discharge hydrograph of the Binuwang River Watershed. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil and land use maps were prepared to parameterize the model. The observed and predicted discharge hydrographs were found to be highly correlated. Among the parameters used to calibrate the model hydrologic output, most sensitive are the infiltration saturation coefficient and Manning's roughness coefficient. An increase in the infiltration saturation coefficient resulted in a decreased discharge height, while an increase of Manning's roughness coefficient lengthened the lag time. The predicted discharge volume and height were used to simulate the impact of reforestation and land conversion to cultivated

  9. Streamflow, base flow, and ground-water recharge in the Housatonic River basin, western Massachusetts and parts of eastern New York and northwestern Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bent, Gardner C.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflows for selected flow durations from 1 to 99 percent and the August median streamflows were estimated for 11 long-term streamflow-gaging stations in and near the study area. Estimates of streamflow and associated standard errors were determined for selected flow durations from 50 to 99 percent and the August median streamflows for 21 low-flow partial-record stations and for selected flow durations from 1 to 99 percent and the August median streamflows for two partial-record stations and seven short-term discontinued streamflow-gaging stations. Median streamflows per square mile for the 10-, 50-, and 90-percent flow durations and the August median streamflows were 3.90, 1.01, 0.185, and 0.248 cubic feet per second per square mile. Streamflows per square mile at selected flow-duration discharges between 1 and 99 percent at the 41 stations were related to basin characteristics to explain differences in streamflow characteristics. Basin characteristics included basin elevations, extent of stratified-drift deposits, land use, aspect, and underlying bedrock geology types. Most streamflow differences were positively correlated to basin elevation differences, most likely because precipitation increases with elevation, and to stratified-drift deposits, which allow more precipitation to recharge the ground water and to discharge later than do till and bedrock deposits.Mean base flow was computed from continuous records of daily mean discharge at 11 long-term streamflow-gaging stations in and near the study area. Mean annual base flow ranged from 13.4 to 24.5 inches per year. Minimum annual base flow ranged from 45 to 72 percent of mean annual rates at the 11 long-term stations, and the ratio of base flow to streamflow (base-flow index) ranged from 0.55 to 0.80. Base-flow durations between 1 and 99 percent were calculated from streamflow records at the 11 long-term streamflow-gaging stations. Base flow accounted for 45.5 to 85.0 percent of total annual streamflow at

  10. Effect of discharge polarity on the propagation of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jets and the densities of OH, NO, and O radicals.

    PubMed

    Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    The atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet is an emerging technology for plasma biomedical applications. In this paper, the authors focus on the effect of discharge polarity on propagation of the discharge and the densities of OH, NO, and O radicals. The plasma jet is applied to a glass surface placed on a grounded metal plate. Positive or negative voltage pulses with 25 μs duration, 8 kV amplitude, and 10 kpps repetition rate are used for the plasma jet. The plasma propagation is measured using a short-gated ICCD camera. The light emission intensity of the discharge generated at the rising phase of the voltage pulse is approximately equivalent for both polarities, while that generated during the falling phase is much higher for the negative discharge than the positive one. The shape of the discharge changes with the discharge polarity. The OH, NO, and O densities in the plasma jet are also measured for both polarities. It is found that the OH density is almost the same regardless the discharge polarity. Conversely, the negative discharge produces more O atoms and the positive discharge produces more NO molecules. These results indicate that the polarity of the discharge affects the densities of some reactive species produced in the plasma jet.

  11. Smartphone for measuring river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Haro, Salvador; Lüthi, Beat; Philippe, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Smartphones have become powerful and have extended their capacities including different types of sensors. These capabilities make them very interesting for its applications in water management. We have developed a new mobile device application for open-channel flow measurements. This app can be used to determine the flow in e.g. rivers, artificial channels, irrigation ditches, furrows, etc. The smartphone app computes the runoff by analysing a few seconds of a movie that is recorded using the smartphone camera. The runoff is calculated from the estimated water level, surface velocity and from prior knowledge on the channel geometry. The water level is determined by the separation line of image segments with and without optical flow. Via calibration of the smartphone camera position this separation line is mapped to a water level. The surface velocity is calculated using a modified method of the standard Particle Image Velocimetry method. Among the key characteristics of the method is the fact that no tracer particles are needed. There are two flavours of the app. In the first one, all the measurements are taken using the available sensors in the mobile device and all the calculations are made making only use of the device. Three results are given back: the water level, the average surface velocity and discharge. This information can be sent via SMS. In the second one, the movie is send to a central computer where more detailed calculations are made, like fine camera calibration, camera stabilization tuning, definition of the region of interest, the sub-windows for the velocity analysis can be changed, different algorithms can be chosen, etc. It also generates more detailed results. Using smartphones, measurements can be made at much lower cost, since there is no need of permanent installations, which also makes it possible to take measurements in any place.

  12. Two-dimensional simulation of discharge channels in atmospheric-pressure single dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui Wang, Dezhen

    2015-11-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the filaments (or discharge channels) in atmospheric-pressure discharge with one plate electrode covered by a dielectric layer. Under certain discharge parameters, one or more stable filaments with wide radii could be regularly arranged in the discharge space. Different from the short-lived randomly distributed microdischarges, this stable and thick filament can carry more current and have longer lifetime. Because only one electrode is covered by a dielectric layer in the simulation, the formed discharge channel extends outwards near the dielectric layer and shrinks inwards near the naked electrode, agreeing with the experimental results. In this paper, the evolution of channel is studied, and its behavior is like a streamer or an ionization wave, but the propagation distance is short. The discharge parameters such as voltage amplitude, electrode width, and N{sub 2} impurities content could significantly influence the number of discharge channel, which is discussed in the paper.

  13. Flow duration of Kentucky streams through 1990; historical and monthly flow characteristics, including the effects of reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, K.J.; Burns, R.J.; Martin, G.R.; Allgeier, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents flow-duration tables and plots for selected streamflow sites in Kentucky with three or more years of continuous record through 1990. Flow duration describes the frequency with which given streamflows are equalled or exceeded. The flow-duration tables were computed using daily mean discharge values for the entire period specified and for each month of the period specified. Only complete years of record were used for the computation. For sites where the streamflow is affected by regulation, separate tables are presented for the period before regulation (unregulated), the period of record after regulation (regulated) and the entire period of record (historical). Flow-duration plots are also presented for each station using the data for the entire period specified. Where practicable, several flow-duration plots are shown together. This includes stations on the same stream, such as main-stem stations, and stations within the same watershed. For stations affected by regulation, which have up to three sets of data available for one station (unregulated, regulated, and historical), the three plots are shown together to clearly illustrate the influence of regulation in augmenting low flows and reducing high flows.

  14. Improvement of discharge pumping for pulsed high-pressure gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikin, Alexei A.; Galaktionov, Imar I.; Belov, Sergei N.; Kanatenko, Michael A.; Podmoshensky, Ivan V.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents an upgrading technique using anisotropic-resistive (AR) electrodes and radionucide pre-ionization for discharge pumping of pulsed high-pressure gas lasers. Plutonium-238, polonium-210 and krypton-85 radionucide alpha and beta radiation sources were effectivelyused for pre-ionization in the volumetric discharge setup. These sources feature high stability, versatility and simplicity as compared to traditional UV irradiation and electron beam ionization techniques. The use of AR electrodes makes it possible to suppress efficiently electrode instabilities in volumetric discharges with various power modes of operation and to increase energy input in an active medium by a factor of 2-3 due to extended discharge duration in the volumetric phase. With the use of the AR cathode as an alternative to a metal one, a commercially available photo-ionization 2 laser gained two-fold increase in generation energy. It also showed a stable operation of the volumetric discharge in Ar, Kr, Xe mixtures with He at atmospheric pressure and allowed us to obtain generation in An, Kr!, Xe! spectral lines.

  15. Whiteboards and discharge traffic lights: visual management in acute care.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lauri; Bassham, Jane; Lewis, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    Flinders Medical Centre was experiencing issues with timely discharge and knowing the potential discharges and in-patient bed capacity for the next day. This case study describes the application of 'visual management' theory to discharge processes. The solutions developed were 'patient journey boards' and 'discharge traffic lights'. The implementation of these visual management systems has enabled the hospital to improve its discharge processes.

  16. Patient perceptions of quality in discharge instruction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paul Alexander; Drain, Maxwell; Gesell, Sabina B; Mylod, Deirdre M; Kaldenberg, Dennis O; Hamilton, Julie

    2005-10-01

    The present study investigates patient perceptions of the quality of discharge instruction by assessing inpatients' ratings of care and service in the United States over the past 5 years (1997-2001) (n = 4,901,178). As expected, patients' ratings of "instructions given about how to care for yourself at home" showed a strong, consistent positive relationship with overall patient satisfaction from 1997 through 2001. Nevertheless, patient satisfaction with discharge instructions decreased significantly each year (p < 0.001). Patients gave lower ratings to the quality of discharge instruction than to the overall quality of their hospital stay which indicates a failure to match the quality delivered among other services within the hospital. Patient assessments of discharge instruction quality varied systematically among conditions. Patients with musculoskeletal diseases and disorders (MDC-8) rated discharge instruction considerably lower than all other patient groups. Patients' age, sex, self-described health status and length of stay did not predict patients' evaluations of discharge instructions. U.S. hospitals may not be meeting existing AMA and JCAHO standards for patient education and discharge.

  17. High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, J. T.; Brenning, N.; Lundin, D.; Helmersson, U.

    2012-05-15

    The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge is a recent addition to plasma based sputtering technology. In HiPIMS, high power is applied to the magnetron target in unipolar pulses at low duty cycle and low repetition frequency while keeping the average power about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the peak power. This results in a high plasma density, and high ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, which allows better control of the film growth by controlling the energy and direction of the deposition species. This is a significant advantage over conventional dc magnetron sputtering where the sputtered vapor consists mainly of neutral species. The HiPIMS discharge is now an established ionized physical vapor deposition technique, which is easily scalable and has been successfully introduced into various industrial applications. The authors give an overview of the development of the HiPIMS discharge, and the underlying mechanisms that dictate the discharge properties. First, an introduction to the magnetron sputtering discharge and its various configurations and modifications is given. Then the development and properties of the high power pulsed power supply are discussed, followed by an overview of the measured plasma parameters in the HiPIMS discharge, the electron energy and density, the ion energy, ion flux and plasma composition, and a discussion on the deposition rate. Finally, some of the models that have been developed to gain understanding of the discharge processes are reviewed, including the phenomenological material pathway model, and the ionization region model.

  18. Nipple Discharge: A Sign of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Richards, T; Hunt, A; Courtney, S; Umeh, H

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Nipple discharge is regarded a sign of breast cancer. Type of discharge and cytology are unreliable for diagnosis. Most malignant cases have a detectable breast mass. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nipple discharge and breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients who underwent operation for nipple discharge at a district general hospital (population 460,000) over a 3-year period were included. All had normal clinical, radiological and cytological examination. Operation and histopathology reports were reviewed. RESULTS Eighty-six patients underwent operation for nipple discharge. Median age was 54 years (range, 32–84 years). Analysis of nipple discharge revealed red blood cells (RBCs) in 35 patients (40%). At operation, 81 patients underwent radical sub-areola duct excision (Hadfield's procedure) and five microdochectomy. Histopathology reported duct ectasia in 59 patients and benign ductal papilloma in 25. Two patients had occult malignancy – DCIS (1) and LCIS (1). No invasive cancer was found. CONCLUSIONS Nipple discharge alone is not usually a sign of breast cancer. Occult malignancy is rare. A period of ‘watchful waiting’ may prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgery. PMID:17346403

  19. Discharge planning quality from the carer perspective.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, K A; Moss, J R; Gill, T K

    2000-01-01

    Discharge planning endeavours to assist the transition of patients from the acute hospital setting into the community. We examined the quality of discharge planning from the perspective of the carer. Spouses were the most common carers for the elderly patients in our study. Many carers were also elderly, with their own health problems. Using a new instrument (entitled PREPARED) (K. Grimmer and J. Moss, Int J Qual Health Care (in press)), carers rated the quality of planning for discharge much lower than did the patient, indicating that their needs were often not met when discharge was being planned. In free text responses, carers expressed their dissatisfaction over communication about how the family would cope once the patient went home. Carers generally had lower summary mental quality of life scores than the Australian norms (as measured by the SF-36 health survey (J. Ware and R. Sherbourne, Med Care 1992; 30: 473-483)), suggesting that the caring role may have impacted upon their emotional wellbeing. The rate of use of community services in the first week post-discharge was low, suggesting that carers and patients carried the majority of the burden immediately after discharge. We suggest that planning for hospital discharge requires more consideration of the carer.

  20. Prediction of initiation and duration of breast-feeding for neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Lessen, Rachelle; Crivelli-Kovach, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Women who desire to breast-feed their sick newborns often encounter obstacles, including insufficient support and education as well as unsupportive hospital practices. The purpose of this study was to describe maternal, neonatal, and outside influences associated with the intention, initiation, and duration of breast-feeding for women whose newborns were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. One hundred mothers were interviewed. Most mothers (67%) intended to breast-feed exclusively and this was significantly related to maternal characteristics such as age, education, parity, smoking and marital status, pre-breast-feeding experience, and the influences of the neonate's father and prenatal education. Seventy-eight mothers initiated pumping. Initiation was significantly related to maternal education, smoking, parity, previous breast-feeding experience, the neonate's physician, the neonate's father, and postpartum breast-feeding education. Fifty-four mothers were followed up by telephone after discharge until weaning. Thirty percent were exclusively breast-feeding at 2 weeks after discharge, and 15% were breast-feeding at 1 year. Duration of breast-feeding was significantly associated with education, marital status, ethnicity, income, assistance from nurses and lactation consultants, and feeding method along with milk type and milk volume at discharge. Increased family support, timely breast-feeding information, and a supportive neonatal intensive care unit environment are needed for women to succeed in breast-feeding their hospitalized newborns.