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Sample records for 99m clearance curves

  1. The use of diethyl-IDA Tc 99m clearance curves in the differentiation of biliary atresia from other forms of neonatal jaundice

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.C.; Hitch, D.C.; Manion, C.V.

    1982-03-01

    A family of isotope elimination curves that reflects changes in the biodistribution of diethyl-IDA Tc 99m in neonatal cholestatic jaundice and biliary atresia is defined. Time/activity curves generated from equal areas over the heart and liver were evaluated separately and in conjunction with the scintigraphic data. Patients without scintigraphic evidence of significant hepatic uptake and with a hepatic curve that resembled the cardiac curve were found to have neonatal hepatitis. Good hepatic uptake and a hepatic curve with a terminal portion that appeared to be parallel to or divergent from the cardiac curve were associated with biliary atresia. Apparently converging hepatic and cardiac curves were associated with biliary patency. Although preliminary, these results provide further documentation that diethyl-IDA Tc 99m is useful in discriminating biliary atresia from other causes of cholestatic jaundice, while reducing radiation exposure and the need for pharmacologic intervention.

  2. Use of diethyl-IDA Tc 99m clearance curves in the differentiation of biliary atresia from other forms of neonatal jaundice

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.C.; Hitch, D.C.; Manion, C.V.

    1982-03-01

    A family of isotope elimination curves that reflects changes in the biodistribution of diethyl-IDA Tc 99m in neonatal cholestatic jaundice and biliary atresia is defined. Time/activity curves generated from equal areas over the heart and liver were evaluated separately and in conjunction with the scintigraphic data. Patients without scintigraphic evidence of significant hepatic uptake and with hepatic curve that resembled the cardiac curve were found to have neonatal hepatitis. Good hepatic uptake and a hepatic curve with a terminal portion that appeared to be parallel to or divergent from the cardiac curve were associated with biliary atresia. Apparently converging hepatic and cardiac curves were associated with biliary patency. Although preliminary, these results provide further documentation that diethyl-IDA Tc 99m is useful in discriminating biliary atresia from other causes of cholestatic jaundic, while reducing radiation exposure and the need for pharmacologic intervention.

  3. Lung clearance of intratracheally instilled 99mTc-tobramycin using pulmonary surfactant as vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Van 't Veen, Annemarie; Gommers, Diederik; Verbrugge, Serge J C; Wollmer, Per; Mouton, Johan W; Kooij, Peter P M; Lachmann, Burkhard

    1999-01-01

    The use of pulmonary exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for intratracheally administered antibiotics to improve local antimicrobial therapy has been proposed. The present study investigated lung clearance rates in the rat of intratracheally instilled technetium labelled tobramycin with and without the addition of surfactant to the antibiotic solution. The influence of surfactant on 99mTc-tobramycin lung clearance rates was studied dynamically with a gamma-camera in anaesthetized spontaneously breathing animals and in mechanically ventilated animals. The results show that instillation of 99mTc-tobramycin with use of surfactant as vehicle significantly increases 99mTc-tobramycin lung clearance compared to instillation of 99mTc-tobramycin solution alone (P=0.006 between the two spontaneously breathing groups of animals and P=0.02 between the two ventilated groups of animals, ANOVA for repeated time measurements). The half life (t½) of composite clearance curves in spontaneous breathing animals was 147 min for animals receiving 99mTc-tobramycin versus 61 min for animals receiving 99mTc-tobramycin with surfactant. In mechanically ventilated animals this was 163 min versus 51 min, respectively. It is concluded that exogenous surfactant, used as vehicle for intratracheally instilled 99mTc-tobramycin, increases lung clearance rate of 99mTc-tobramycin in rats. PMID:10204995

  4. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  5. Technetium-99m MAG-3 clearances after captopril in experimental renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1989-05-01

    Rats with one kidney clamped (2K1C), both kidneys clamped (2K2C), unilaterally nephrectomized with remaining kidney clamped (1K1C), and normals, were studied using /sup 99m/Tc mercaptoacetyltriglycine ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3) and /sup 131/I orthoiodohippurate ((/sup 131/I)OIH). Clearances of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3 and (/sup 131/I)OIH were performed after constricted rats became hypertensive. Clearances were repeated after i.v. Captopril. Clearances of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3 and (/sup 131/I)OIH in normals didn't change significantly after Captopril. Clearances of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3 and (/sup 131/I)OIH decreased insignificantly after Captopril in the 2K2C model. in the 2K1C group, normal kidney clearance increased ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3 p less than 0.01 and (/sup 131/I)OIH p less than 0.025) and clamped kidney clearance decreased after inhibition ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3, p less than 0.01, (/sup 131/I)OIH p less than 0.02). Clearances increased in the 1K1C group after Captopril ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3 p less than 0.0025 and (/sup 131/I)OIH, p less than 0.001). The ratio of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG-3 to (/sup 131/I)OIH before Captopril was 0.81 and 0.84 after Captopril. Changes in renal function after Captopril depend on the model of renovascular hypertension and possibly the dose administered. Technetium-99m MAG-3 clearance parallels (/sup 131/I)orthoiodohippurate in renovascular hypertension.

  6. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol from coal miners' lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Brill, A.B.; Harold, W.H.

    1985-07-01

    Alterations in regional epithelial permeability were assessed in 22 retired West Virginia coal miners' lungs by measuring the clearance of inhaled 0.5-..mu..m Tc-99m DTPA aerosol. Activity was measured in both lungs and in regions of interest placed over the lung periphery in the apical, middle, and basal portions of each lung. Clearance rates (T/sub 1/2/) for 5 nonsmokers, 8 ex-smokers, and 9 smokers were significantly faster than for comparable subjects measured elsewhere, who were not coal miners. Regional apex-to-base distributions of DTPA were measured as a function of clearance time and compared with regional ventilation and perfusion. Regional, as well as overall lung clearance curves of 8 smokers and 4 ex-smokers had two components, with overall T/sub 1/2/ of <7 min for the faster one. No correlations were found between T/sub 1/2/ and DLCO or with P(A-a)O/sub 2/. The results of our study suggest that measurement of DTPA clearance is a potentially useful noninvasive technique to assess lung injury in miners exposed to coal dust. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Dual pathway clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from the bronchial mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.D.; Ilowite, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    Many studies have reported clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the alveolar epithelial surface, but few have measured clearance of this solute from the bronchial mucosa. Those that have attempted such measurements have discounted the possibility that 99mTc-DTPA may be removed from the bronchial airways by mucocilliary transport as well as by absorption through the epithelium. This study was designed to better approximate the rate of 99mTc-DTPA absorption across the bronchial epithelium by correcting the measurements of total 99mTc-DTPA clearance for mucus transport. On two separate study days, each normal, nonsmoking subject (n = 8) breathed an aqueous aerosol (2.0 microns MMAD, sigma g = 2.0) containing 99mTc bound to DTPA or human serum ablumin (HSA) (a relatively nonpermeable solute that is cleared only by mucus transport over the period of measured clearance) while seated in front of a gamma camera. Breathing pattern was standardized to produce a similar central deposition of particles on both study days. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, exponential rate constants (Ktot and Km) were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modeling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. Results showed that mucus clearance (Km) accounted for two thirds of the total rate of 99mTc-DTPA clearance (Ktot) (mean Ktot = 0.00985, Km = 0.00698, and Kp = 0.00287/min).

  8. Pulmonary 99mTc-DTPA aerosol clearance and survival in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)

    PubMed Central

    Mogulkoc, N; Brutsche, M; Bishop, P; Murby, B; Greaves, M; Horrocks, A; Wilson, M; McCullough, C; Prescott, M; Egan, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Clearance of inhaled technetium 99m-labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) from the lungs is a potential indicator of disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
METHODS—We prospectively analysed the usefulness of this technique for predicting survival in 106 non-smoking patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern IPF diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) scanning or histological examination (M/F 65/41, mean (SD) age 61 (11) years). DTPA clearance was analysed according to both mono-exponential and bi-exponential models. Half times for the fast (t0.5F) and slow (t0.5S) components of clearance, the percentage contribution of the fast component (fF), and half time for mono-exponential approximation to the early part of the clearance curve (t0.5) were calculated.
RESULTS—The patients had substantially faster t0.5 (mean 23.9 (9.6) minutes) than normal values (>45 minutes). Thirty seven patients (35%) died during follow up (median 15 months). Univariate Cox regression analysis identified significant predictors of survival as age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), % predicted TLC, carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO), % predicted TLCO, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2), oxygen saturation, t0.5F, and HRCT fibrosis score. Multiple stepwise Cox regression analysis identified t0.5F (p=0.03, hazard ratio 0.747, 95% CI 0.578 to 0.964), % predicted TLC (p=0.02, hazard ratio 0.976, 95% CI 0.956 to 0.995), % predicted TLCO (p=0.003, hazard ratio 0.960, 95% CI 0.935 to 0.986), and age (p=0.003, hazard ratio 1.062, 95% CI 1.021 to 1.104) as independent predictors of survival.
CONCLUSION—These data suggest that 99mTc-DTPA clearance t0.5F measurement may predict survival in patients with UIP pattern IPF.

 PMID:11713353

  9. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  10. Clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, J.A.H.; Wollmer, P.; Bakker, W.; Hannappel, E.; Lachmann, B. Univ. of Lund Univ. of Erlangen )

    1992-04-01

    The authors measured clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ([sup 99m]Tc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and animals treated with instillation of saline were also studied. Clearance was measured during standard conditions of mechanical ventilation and during ventilation with large tidal volumes. In ambroxol- and surfactant-treated groups, clearance rate was reduced compared with untreated control animals. In contrast, clearance rate increased after saline instillation. The differences were observed at both modes of ventilation. The findings indicate that the pulmonary surfactant system is a rate-limiting factor for the clearance of [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and that the volume dependence of clearance is not explained by stretching of the alveolar wall only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  12. Tracheal blood flow and luminal clearance of [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, Z.; Corfield, D.R.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G. )

    1992-10-01

    Tracheal blood flow and [sup 99m][Tc]-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance were measured in the sheep trachea in vivo. The tracheal arteries were isolated and perfused. An isolated segment of tracheal lumen was filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA, and radioactivity was measured in blood from a catheterized tracheal vein. Infusions at constant pressure of methacholine (n=5), albuterol (n=6), and histamine (n=5) increased arterial inflow and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Phenylephrine (n=9) decreased arterial inflow and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. When the tracheal arteries were initially perfused at constant flow and the flow rate was then changed, 50% increases in flow (n=5) increased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Decreases in flow of 50% (n=3) and 100% (n=10) decreased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Infusion of the same drugs at constant flow produced significant changes in perfusion pressure but no significant changes in venous outflow or, except for histamine, in [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output. Thus [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output was inversely related to both mechanically and drug-induced changes in tracheal blood flow but, except for histamine, was not directly affected by the drugs. The results may be due to redistribution of blood between collateral circuits and altered interstitial fluid volume affecting [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA transport across the interstitium. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Rapid clearance of inhaled aerosols of Technetium-99M DTPA in patients with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.R.; Duane, G.B.; Effros, R.M.; Mena, I.

    1985-05-01

    Because infection with Pheumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) causes alteration of the type I epithelial cells as the primary event, the authors studied patients with PCP to determine if PCP causes rapid clearance of Tc-99m DTPA. Twenty normal non-smoking subjects and 7 non-smoking patients with histologically proven PCP were studied. Serial studies were obtained in three patients. Following a two-minute inhalation of 1.6 ..mu..m aerosol particles of Tc-99m DTPA in saline, the activity over three peripheral regions of interest (ROI) of each lung was monitored for the next 7 minutes. The rate of decline of activity over each ROI was expressed as per cent decline/min. In 7 patients with PCP, the average clearance was 7.5 +- 3.6% min., normal, 1.3 +- 0.6% min.(SD). Three patients studied from 5 to 38 days following therapy had improvement in the rate of clearance. This has been demonstrated to be persistent even after clinical recovery of the patient. The ability to quantitate injury to the pulmonary epithelium may directly reflect the ability of Pneumocystis carinii to invade the lung. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DTPA clearance may be a useful test to help diagnosis and monitor the activity of PCP infections.

  14. Regional respiratory clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA: posture and smoking effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dusser, D.J.; Minty, B.D.; Collignon, M.A.; Hinge, D.; Barritault, L.G.; Huchon, G.J.

    1986-06-01

    We studied 10 healthy nonsmokers and 8 healthy smokers, in both the upright and supine position, to investigate whether regional differences in respiratory clearance of technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (RC-DTPA) existed and to assess the influence of posture and smoking on the regional RC-DTPA. RC-DTPA was assessed by the lung clearance rates (%/min) of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (0.8 micron MMD; 2.4 GSD), using data corrected for recirculating radioactivity, in the upper (zone 1), middle (zone 2), and lower (zone 3) posterior lung fields. In nonsmokers, RC-DTPA in zone 1 was faster than in zone 2 or 3 in both the upright (P less than 0.001) and supine positions (P less than 0.0). No effect was produced by changes in posture on the regional RC-DTPA. In smokers, RC-DTPA was increased in all zones compared with the nonsmokers (P = 0.004), with a further increase in RC-DTP in zone 1 in the upright posture compared with the other regions (P less than 0.001). We conclude that in nonsmokers regional RC-DTPA is faster in zone 1 than in other zones, and this is not related to recirculation of radioactivity; posture does not modify the regional RC-DTPA of nonsmokers; smoking increases RC-DTPA in all zones and more in zone 1 in the upright posture.

  15. Ozone-induced changes in the pulmonary clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA in man

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrl, H.R.; Vincent, L.M.; Kowalsky, R.J.; Horstman, D.H.; O'Neil, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    Ozone is a respiratory irritant that has been shown in animals to increase the premeability of the respiratory epithelium. In the study the authors have recently reported that respiratory epithelial permeability was similarly affected in eight healthy non-smoking young men exposed to ozone (ARRD, 135 (1987) 1124-8). Permeability was evaluated by determining the pulmonary clearance of inhaled aerosolized 99mTc-DTPA with sequential posterior lung imaging by a computer-assisted gamma camera. In a randomized crossover design, 16 young men were exposed for 2 h to purified air and 0.4 ppm ozone while performing intermittent high intensity treadmill exercise; forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured before and at the end of exposures. The results demonstrate that ozone exposure increased respiratory epithelial permeability. Such an increase may be a manifestation of direct ozone-induced epithelial-cell injury, lung inflammation, or both.

  16. Measurement of gastric mucosal blood flow in dogs by the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone clearance technique

    SciTech Connect

    Doebroente, Z.; Lang, J.; Sagi, I.; Varro, V.

    1982-07-01

    In anesthetized dogs, correlation was found between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and aminopyrine clearance measured in the same animal after administration of the gastric secretory stimulants vasopressin or glucagon. Similar correlation was observed between the /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone and /sup 14/C aminopyrine clearance during histamine administration. The clearance values were always corrected by the actual degree of dissociation of the radioactive molecules. The results suggest that /sup 99m/Tc 4-methylaminophenazone is suitable to study circulatory changes in human gastric mucosa. Advantages of this compound include a much lower dose of radiation absorbed by the patient and his surroundings, a simplified measurement technique, and considerably reduced expenses.

  17. Pneumocystis pneumonia increases the clearance rate of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Higenbottam, T.W.

    1985-10-01

    Despite no radiographic change, a patient with Pneumocystis pneumonia showed increased clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc DTPA from lung to blood. Gas transfer for carbon monoxide was also reduced, but improved with treatment. This was paralleled by serial increase in the t1/2 LB.

  18. Hepatic clearance measured with (99m)Tc-GSA single-photon emission computed tomography to estimate liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Watanabe, Kenji; Imai, Koji; Uchida, Koichiro; Einama, Takahiro; Shuke, Noriyuki; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-28

    To evaluate the clinical utility of hepatic clearance (HC) measured with technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to estimate the degree of liver fibrosis. Seventy-eight consecutive patients who underwent initial hepatectomy due to hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in this study. Indocyanine green clearance (ICG R15), quantitative indices estimated by (99m)Tc-GSA [the receptor index (LHL15 and HH15) and HC via SPECT analysis], and conventional liver function tests were performed before hepatectomy. Correlations among the quantitative indices for liver functional reserve, conventional liver function tests, and the degree of liver fibrosis were evaluated. The degree of liver fibrosis was correlated with ICG R15, HH15, LHL15, and HC. HC showed the best correlation with conventional liver function tests. According to multivariate analysis, HC and LHL15 were significant independent predictors of severe fibrosis. HC was the most valuable index for predicting severe fibrosis. HC measured with (99m)Tc-GSA SPECT is a reliable index for assessing liver fibrosis before hepatectomy.

  19. Comparison of methods for calculating glomerular filtration rate: Technetium-99m-DTPA scintigraphic analysis, protein-free and whole-plasma clearance of technetium-99m-DTPA and iodine-125-iothalamate clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Goates, J.J.; Morton, K.A.; Whooten, W.W.; Greenberg, H.E.; Datz, F.L.; Handy, J.E.; Scuderi, A.J.; Haakenstad, A.O.; Lynch, R.E. )

    1990-04-01

    True glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured in normal volunteers and in patients with normal and impaired renal function by the iothalamate clearance (IC) method of Sigman. Within 24 hr, GFR was also determined by two other methods: technetium-99m- ({sup 99m}Tc) DTPA scintigraphic analysis (SA) utilizing a modification of the Gates computer program, and by measuring disappearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA from whole plasma (WPC) and from protein-free ultrafiltered plasma (PFPC). Determinations of GFR by IC and by PFPC methods were virtually identical (mean absolute error 5.36 ml/min, r = 0.99, p greater than 0.05). GFRs measured in protein-free, ultrafiltered plasma differed significantly from those obtained from whole plasma only in sicker patients and in those taking multiple medications (in whom alterations in protein-binding of DTPA may be seen). The SA method correlated less well with the iodine-125-({sup 125}I) IC method than did either the protein-free or whole-plasma clearance methods (mean absolute error 32.36 ml/min, r = 0.74, p less than 0.05). However, the SA method provided useful information with respect to differential (split) renal function.

  20. Bronchoalveolar lavage and clearance of 99m-Tc-DTPA in asbestos workers without evidence of asbestosis.

    PubMed

    Gellert, A R; Langford, J A; Uthayakumar, S; Rudd, R M

    1985-07-01

    We performed BAL and measured the clearance of 99m-Tc-DTPA in 20 non-smoking subjects (mean age 50, range 36-68 years) occupationally exposed to asbestos (mean duration 14, range 3-30 years). All had normal lung function and none had clinical or radiological evidence of asbestosis. The mean BAL results were: total cells per ml 737 X 10(3) (360-1210), percentage macrophages 79 (49-96), percentage lymphocytes 13 (1-42), percentage neutrophils 8 (1-40), percentage eosinophils 0 (0-3), asbestos bodies per ml 83 (0-550). Eight subjects showed increased percentage of lymphocytes and four others showed increased percentages of neutrophils when compared with normal ranges in our laboratory. Higher percentages of neutrophils correlated with longer duration of exposure to asbestos (r = 0.54, P less than 0.025), and shorter time since last exposure to asbestos (r = -0.54, P less than 0.025). Four subjects showed faster clearance of 99m-Tc-DTPA than was observed in 31 normal non-smoking control subjects. There was a tendency for faster solute clearance to be associated with greater numbers of BAL macrophages (r = -0.39, P less than 0.10) but there were no significant relationships between solute clearance and other BAL variables. BAL profiles in asbestos workers may be abnormal in the absence of clinical or radiological evidence of asbestosis.

  1. Accurate and precise plasma clearance measurement using four 99mTc-DTPA plasma samples over 4 h

    PubMed Central

    Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Barnfield, Mark C.; Waller, Michael L.; Murray, Anthony W.; Burniston, Maria T.; Babyn, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Glomerular filtration rate can be measured as the plasma clearance (CL) of a glomerular filtration rate marker despite body fluid disturbances using numerous, prolonged time samples. We desire a simplified technique without compromised accuracy and precision. Materials and methods We compared CL values derived from two plasma concentration curve area methods – (a) biexponential fitting [CL (E2)] and (b) Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting [CL (Tk-GV)] – for 4 versus 8 h time samplings from 412 99mTc-DTPA studies in 142 patients, mostly paediatric patients, with suspected fluid disturbances. Results CL (Tk-GV) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h, both accurately and precisely agreed with the standard, which was taken to be nine samples/8 h CL from (noncompartmental) numerical integration [CL (NI)]. The E2 method, four samples/4 h, and nine samples/8 h median CL values significantly overestimated the CL (NI) values by 4.9 and 3.8%, respectively. Conclusion Compared with the standard, CL (E2) from four samples/4 h and from nine samples/8 h proved to be the most inaccurate and imprecise method examined, and can be replaced by better methods for calculating CL. The CL (Tk-GV) can be used to reduce sampling time in half from 8 to 4 h and from nine to four samples for a precise and accurate, yet more easily tolerated and simplified test. PMID:26465802

  2. Effects of positive expiratory pressure on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Isabella Martins; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Masiero, Paulo Ricardo; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Resqueti, Vanessa Regiane; Fregonezi, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas; Menna-Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) on pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability in healthy subjects. Methods: We evaluated a cohort of 30 healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 28.3 ± 5.4 years, a mean FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.89 ± 0.14, and a mean FEV1 of 98.5 ± 13.1% of predicted. Subjects underwent technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in two stages: during spontaneous breathing; and while breathing through a PEP mask at one of three PEP levels-10 cmH2O (n = 10), 15 cmH2O (n = 10), and 20 cmH2O (n = 10). The 99mTc-DTPA was nebulized for 3 min, and its clearance was recorded by scintigraphy over a 30-min period during spontaneous breathing and over a 30-min period during breathing through a PEP mask. Results: The pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was significantly shorter when PEP was applied-at 10 cmH2O (p = 0.044), 15 cmH2O (p = 0.044), and 20 cmH2O (p = 0.004)-in comparison with that observed during spontaneous breathing. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that PEP, at the levels tested, is able to induce an increase in pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and lung volume in healthy subjects. PMID:28117469

  3. Effects of positive expiratory pressure on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Isabella Martins de; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; Masiero, Paulo Ricardo; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Resqueti, Vanessa Regiane; Fregonezi, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas; Menna-Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) on pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability in healthy subjects. We evaluated a cohort of 30 healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 28.3 ± 5.4 years, a mean FEV1/FVC ratio of 0.89 ± 0.14, and a mean FEV1 of 98.5 ± 13.1% of predicted. Subjects underwent technetium-99m-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy in two stages: during spontaneous breathing; and while breathing through a PEP mask at one of three PEP levels-10 cmH2O (n = 10), 15 cmH2O (n = 10), and 20 cmH2O (n = 10). The 99mTc-DTPA was nebulized for 3 min, and its clearance was recorded by scintigraphy over a 30-min period during spontaneous breathing and over a 30-min period during breathing through a PEP mask. The pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA was significantly shorter when PEP was applied-at 10 cmH2O (p = 0.044), 15 cmH2O (p = 0.044), and 20 cmH2O (p = 0.004)-in comparison with that observed during spontaneous breathing. Our findings indicate that PEP, at the levels tested, is able to induce an increase in pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and lung volume in healthy subjects. Avaliar os efeitos da pressão expiratória positiva (PEP) na permeabilidade da membrana epitelial pulmonar em indivíduos saudáveis. Foi avaliada uma coorte de 30 indivíduos saudáveis (15 homens e 15 mulheres), com média de idade de 28,3 ± 5,4 anos, média da relação VEF1/CVF de 0,89 ± 0,14 e média de VEF1 de 98,5 ± 13,1% do previsto. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a cintilografia pulmonar por inalação de radioaerossol de ácido dietilenotriaminopentacético marcado com tecnécio-99m (99mTc-DTPA em inglês) em dois estágios: durante respiração espontânea e durante respiração com uma máscara de PEP de 10 cmH2O (n = 10), 15 cmH2O (n = 10) ou 20 cmH2O (n = 10). O 99mTc-DTPA foi nebulizado por 3 min, e sua depuração foi registrada por cintilografia por um

  4. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in oncology patients receiving Cisplatin chemotherapy: Predicted creatinine clearance against 99mTc-DTPA methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaidah Syed Sahab, Sharifah; Manap, Mahayuddin; Hamzah, Fadzilah

    2017-05-01

    The therapeutic potential of cisplatin as the best anticancer treatment for solid tumor is limited by its potential nephrotoxicity. This study analyses the incidence of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in oncology patients through GFR estimation using 99mTc-DTPA plasma sampling (reference method) and to compare with predicted creatinine clearance and Tc-99m renal scintigraphy. A prospective study of 33 oncology patients referred for GFR estimation in Penang Hospital. The incidence of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity was analysed via radionuclide and creatinine based method. Of 33 samples, only 21 selected for the study. The dose of cisplatin given was 75 mg/m2 for each cycle. The mean difference of GFR pre and post chemotherapy (PSC 2) was 13.38 (-4.60, 31.36) ml/min/1.73m2 (p 0.136). Of 21 patients, 3 developed severe nephrotoxicity (GFR < 50ml/min/1.73 m2) contributing 14.3% of incidence. Bland-Altman plot showed only PSC 1 is in agreement with PSC 2 technique. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) also showed that PSC 1 has high degree of reliability in comparison to PSC 2 (p < 0.001). The other methods do not show reliability and agreement in comparison to PSC 2 (p < 0.05). 3 of 21 patients (14.3%) developed severe nephrotoxicity post cisplatin chemotherapy. This percentage is much less than the reported 20 - 25% of cases from other studies, probably due to small sample size and biased study population due to strict exclusion criteria. Radionuclide method for evaluating GFR is the most sensitive method for the detection of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by showing 3 of 21 patients developing severe nephrotoxicity. PSC 1 was found to be a reliable substitute of PSC 2. The other methods are not reliable for detection of early nephrotoxicity. We will recommend the use of single plasma sampling method (PSC 1) for GFR estimation in monitoring post cisplatin chemotherapy patients.

  5. Effect of cimetidine on blood clearance, gastric uptake, and secretion of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, V.V.; Piccone, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The effect of cimetidine, an H/sub 2/-receptor blocking agent, on the secretion of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate was studied in 11 dogs. In cimetidine-treated animals, there was increased retention of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate by the gastric wall as compared with the untreated animals. The results indicate the potential use of cimetidine for enhanced visualization of Meckel's diverticulum, Barrett's esophagus, and the stomach, with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate.

  6. Impact of Multiple Negative Charges on Blood Clearance and Biodistribution Characteristics of 99mTc-Labeled Dimeric Cyclic RGD Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of multiple negative charges on blood clearance kinetics and biodistribution properties of 99mTc-labeled RGD peptide dimers. Bioconjugates HYNIC-P6G-RGD2 and HYNIC-P6D-RGD2 were prepared by reacting P6G-RGD2 and P6D-RGD2, respectively, with excess HYNIC-OSu in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. Their IC50 values were determined to be 31 ± 5 and 41 ± 6 nM, respectively, against 125I-echistatin bound to U87MG glioma cells in a whole-cell displacement assay. Complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-P6G-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-P6G-RGD2) and [99mTc(HYNIC-P6D-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-P6D-RGD2) were prepared in high radiochemical purity (RCP > 95%) and specific activity (37–110 GBq/μmol). They were evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma xenografts for their biodistribution. The most significant difference between 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 and 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 was their blood radioactivity levels and tumor uptake. The initial blood radioactivity level for 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 (4.71 ± 1.00%ID/g) was ∼5× higher than that of 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 (0.88 ± 0.05%ID/g), but this difference disappeared at 60 min p.i. 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 had much lower tumor uptake (2.20–3.11%ID/g) than 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 (7.82–9.27%ID/g) over a 2 h period. Since HYNIC-P6D-RGD2 and HYNIC-P6G-RGD2 shared a similar integrin αvβ3 binding affinity (41 ± 6 nM versus 31 ± 5 nM), the difference in their blood activity and tumor uptake is most likely related to the nine negative charges and high protein binding of 99mTc-P6D-RGD2. Despite its low uptake in U87MG tumors, the tumor uptake of 99mTc-P6D-RGD2 was integrin αvβ3-specific. SPECT/CT studies were performed using 99mTc-P6G-RGD2 in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts. The SPECT/CT data demonstrated the tumor-targeting capability of 99mTc-P6G-RGD2, and its tumor uptake depends on the integrin αvβ3 expression levels on tumor cells and neovasculature. It was concluded that

  7. Effects of amino acids on melanoma targeting and clearance properties of Tc-99m-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides.

    PubMed

    Flook, Adam M; Yang, Jianquan; Miao, Yubin

    2013-11-14

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of amino acids on melanoma targeting and clearance properties of new (99m)Tc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptides. RSD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH {c[Arg-Ser-Asp-DTyr-Asp]-Lys-Cys-Cys-Glu-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2}, RNleD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH, RPheD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH, and RdPheD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH peptides were synthesized and evaluated for their melanocortin-1 (MC1) receptor binding affinities in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The biodistribution of (99m)Tc-RSD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH, (99m)Tc-RFD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH, and (99m)Tc-RfD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The substitution of Gly with Ser, Phe, and dPhe increased the MC1 receptor binding affinities of the peptides, whereas the substitution of Gly with Nle decreased the MC1 receptor binding affinity of the peptide. (99m)Tc-RSD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH exhibited the highest melanoma uptake (18.01 ± 4.22% ID/g) and the lowest kidney and liver uptake among these (99m)Tc-peptides. The B16/F1 melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using (99m)Tc-RSD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH as an imaging probe. It is desirable to reduce the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RSD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH to facilitate its potential therapeutic application.

  8. Altered clearance of inhaled /sup 99m/Tc-pentetate aerosol following ozone or CdCl/sub 2/ aerosol exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Platner, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Altered respiratory epithelial permeation of the inhaled hydrophilic solute /sup 99m/Tc-Pentetate (diethylene triamine penta acetate, DTPA) was observed sequentially after acute CdCl/sub 2/ aerosol inhalation and during prolonged ozone exposure in the ferret. Following CdCl/sub 2/ aerosol exposure, Tc-Pentetate clearance rates showed a dose related significant decrease at 3 hours post-exposure, followed by a significant increase at 24 hours to 5 days. Ozone exposure resulted in a markedly nonlinear dose response for /sup 99m/Tc-Pentetate clearance rates. At all dose rates the response was delayed with no significant increase in clearance rates observed with 3 to 12 hours of exposure. At 0.5 ppm and at 3 ppm ozone, the Tc-Pentetate clearance rate exceeded control levels at 24 hours, peaked at 48 hours and returned to near control rates after 7 days of continuous exposure. At 1 ppm a variable response was observed with only 20% of the population responding with increased clearance rates after 24 hours.

  9. A gamma-distribution convolution model of (99m)Tc-MIBI thyroid time-activity curves.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Carl A; Wanasundara, Surajith N; Wesolowski, Michal J; Erbas, Belkis; Babyn, Paul S

    2016-12-01

    The convolution approach to thyroid time-activity curve (TAC) data fitting with a gamma distribution convolution (GDC) TAC model following bolus intravenous injection is presented and applied to (99m)Tc-MIBI data. The GDC model is a convolution of two gamma distribution functions that simultaneously models the distribution and washout kinetics of the radiotracer. The GDC model was fitted to thyroid region of interest (ROI) TAC data from 1 min per frame (99m)Tc-MIBI image series for 90 min; GDC models were generated for three patients having left and right thyroid lobe and total thyroid ROIs, and were contrasted with washout-only models, i.e., less complete models. GDC model accuracy was tested using 10 Monte Carlo simulations for each clinical ROI. The nine clinical GDC models, obtained from least counting error of counting, exhibited corrected (for 6 parameters) fit errors ranging from 0.998% to 1.82%. The range of all thyroid mean residence times (MRTs) was 212 to 699 min, which from noise injected simulations of each case had an average coefficient of variation of 0.7% and a not statistically significant accuracy error of 0.5% (p = 0.5, 2-sample paired t test). The slowest MRT value (699 min) was from a single thyroid lobe with a tissue diagnosed parathyroid adenoma also seen on scanning as retained marker. The two total thyroid ROIs without substantial pathology had MRT values of 278 and 350 min overlapping a published (99m)Tc-MIBI thyroid MRT value. One combined value and four unrelated washout-only models were tested and exhibited R-squared values for MRT with the GDC, i.e., a more complete concentration model, ranging from 0.0183 to 0.9395. The GDC models had a small enough TAC noise-image misregistration (0.8%) that they have a plausible use as simulations of thyroid activity for querying performance of other models such as washout models, for altered ROI size, noise, administered dose, and image framing rates. Indeed, of the four washout

  10. The impact of 177Lu-octreotide therapy on 99mTc-MAG3 clearance is not predictive for late nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Werner, Rudolf A; Beykan, Seval; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lückerath, Katharina; Weich, Alexander; Scheurlen, Michael; Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K; Lassmann, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Hänscheid, Heribert

    2016-07-05

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors may lead to kidney deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc--MAG3) clearance for the early detection of PRRT-induced changes on tubular extraction (TE). TE rate (TER) was measured prior to 128 PRRT cycles (7.6±0.4 GBq 177Lu-octreotate/octreotide each) in 32 patients. TER reduction during PRRT was corrected for age-related decrease and analyzed for the potential to predict loss of glomerular filtration (GF). The GF rate (GFR) as measure for renal function was derived from serum creatinine. The mean TER was 234 ± 53 ml/min/1.73 m² before PRRT (baseline) and 221 ± 45 ml/min/1.73 m² after a median follow-up of 370 days. The age-corrected decrease (mean: -3%, range: -27% to +19%) did not reach significance (p=0.09) but significantly correlated with the baseline TER (Spearman p=-0.62, p<0.001). Patients with low baseline TER showed an improved TER after PRRT, high decreases were only observed in individuals with high baseline TER. Pre-therapeutic TER data were inferior to plasma creatinine-derived GFR estimates in predicting late nephropathy. TER assessed by 99mTc-MAG3-clearance prior to and during PRRT is not suitable as early predictor of renal injury and an increased risk for late nephropathy.

  11. The impact of 177Lu-octreotide therapy on 99mTc-MAG3 clearance is not predictive for late nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Rudolf A.; Beykan, Seval; Higuchi, Takahiro; Lückerath, Katharina; Weich, Alexander; Scheurlen, Michael; Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken; Buck, Andreas K.; Lassmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors may lead to kidney deterioration. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc­-MAG3) clearance for the early detection of PRRT-induced changes on tubular extraction (TE). TE rate (TER) was measured prior to 128 PRRT cycles (7.6±0.4 GBq 177Lu-octreotate/octreotide each) in 32 patients. TER reduction during PRRT was corrected for age-related decrease and analyzed for the potential to predict loss of glomerular filtration (GF). The GF rate (GFR) as measure for renal function was derived from serum creatinine. The mean TER was 234 ± 53 ml/min/1.73 m2 before PRRT (baseline) and 221 ± 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 after a median follow-up of 370 days. The age-corrected decrease (mean: −3%, range: −27% to +19%) did not reach significance (p=0.09) but significantly correlated with the baseline TER (Spearman p=−0.62, p<0.001). Patients with low baseline TER showed an improved TER after PRRT, high decreases were only observed in individuals with high baseline TER. Pre-therapeutic TER data were inferior to plasma creatinine-derived GFR estimates in predicting late nephropathy. TER assessed by 99mTc-MAG3­clearance prior to and during PRRT is not suitable as early predictor of renal injury and an increased risk for late nephropathy. PMID:27259246

  12. A comparative study of renal scintigraphy and clearance with technetium-99m-MAG3 and iodine-123-hippurate in patients with renal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Suur, R.B.; Bois-Svensson, I.; Mesko, L. )

    1990-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare kit prepared technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) with our routine radiopharmaceutical, iodine-123-hippurate our routine radiopharmaceutical, iodine-123-hippurate ((123I)OIH) for renal dynamic scintigraphy. Seventeen patients with different nephrologic disorders or hypertension were first studied with OIH and then reinvestigated with MAG3 2-8 days later. Renal MAG3 gamma camera images were almost identical with those of OIH except for higher (p less than 0.01) liver-to-background ratios at 20 min postinjection, irrespective of kidney function. Urinary peristalsis was visible longer and more clearly in the MAG3 studies. MAG3 and OIH renograms showed identical relative kidney uptake (r = 0.99), but elimination of MAG3 from the kidneys was slower (p less than 0.01). The plasma clearance of MAG3 was lower than that of OIH, but correlated (r = 0.92) significantly. The plasma distribution volume and content in blood cells was lower (p less than 0.01), but the binding of MAG3 to plasma proteins was higher, 90%, as compared with 74% for OIH, p less than 0.01. Urinary excretion expressed as a percent of the given dose 60 min after injection was the same for the two substances. Thus, there are some significant differences in the renal handling, plasma distribution, and cell penetration between MAG3 and (123I)OIH. MAG3, however, seems to have particular qualifications as a radionuclide for dynamic renal scintigraphy, especially in patients who require acute investigations or in those with low renal function.

  13. Single-sample 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetate plasma clearance in advanced renal failure by the mean sojourn time approach.

    PubMed

    Gref, Margareta C; Karp, Kjell H

    2009-03-01

    The single-sample Tc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (DTPA) clearance method by Christensen and Groth is recommended by the Radionuclides in Nephrourology Committee on Renal Clearance for use in adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > or = 30 ml/min. The purpose of this study was to test a new Tc-DTPA single-sample low clearance formula for GFR lesser than 30 ml/min. Twenty-one adult patients (29 investigations) were included. Reference clearance was calculated with both Cr-EDTA and Tc-DTPA according to Brøchner-Mortensen with samples drawn between 3 and 24 h. Single-sample clearance was calculated from a 24 h sample using the low clearance formula(Equation is included in full-text article.) C(t) is the activity of the tracer in the plasma sample t minutes after the injection and Q0 is the injected amount. ECV is the extracellular volume in ml defined as the distribution volume of the tracer. ECV is estimated from the body surface area as ECV=8116.6xbody surface area-28.2. The mean difference between reference and Tc-DTPA single-sample clearance was -0.5 ml/min (SD 1.0 ml/min) for Tc-DTPA and -0.8 ml/min (SD 1.2 ml/min) for Cr-EDTA as reference clearance. In adult patients it is possible, even with GFR lesser than 30 ml/min, to get an accurate determination of Tc-DTPA plasma clearance from a single sample using the mean sojourn time approach. The blood sample should be obtained about 24 h after injection of the GFR tracer.

  14. Area between the hepatic and heart curves of (99m)Tc-galactosyl-human serum albumin scintigraphy represents liver function and disease progression for preoperative evaluation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kohei; Mizuguchi, Toru; Katagiri, Yoshimi; Kawamoto, Masaki; Nakamura, Yukio; Meguro, Makoto; Ota, Shigenori; Sasaki, Shigeru; Miyanishi, Koji; Sonoda, Tomoko; Mori, Mitsuru; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Kato, Junji; Hirata, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    We developed software to calculate the pixels of interest in the area between the hepatic and heart curves (ABC) of (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of the ABC to evaluate liver function before hepatectomy. Between January 2005 and December 2010, 205 consecutive patients who underwent initial hepatectomy were enrolled in this study. The ABC was calculated using original computer software. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for evaluation of Child-Pugh score grade B (Child B), pathological chronic hepatitis (CH), and liver cirrhosis (LC). The AUC of any indicator for Child B was more than 0.900 except bilirubin. The AUC of ABC for CH and LC (AUC 0.734 each) was comparable to those of HH15 (clearance index; AUC 0.704 and 0.700, respectively) and LHL15 (receptor index; AUC 0.703 and 0.706, respectively) in multiple receiver operating characteristic comparison. We have developed a novel liver function indicator, the ABC, to count radioactivity in sequence. The ABC reflects liver function according to pathological deterioration of the liver. Although the ABC gave no significant advantage compared to HH15 and LHL15, it improved the AUC evaluation by 0.028-0.034.

  15. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Collins, Emory D.

    1998-01-01

    A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

  16. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  17. Mechanism of renal concentration of technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the mechanism of tubular localization and the effects of commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance on renal uptake and urinary excretion of technetium-99m glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GHA). The in-vivo protein binding and protein-free plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA also were quantitated. Kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA averaged 11% of the injected dose in control animals. This varied slightly among groups but was significantly reduced by probenecid blockade and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) competition to 4 and 2, respectively. Technetium-99m DMSA was not affected in its renal accumulation by these maneuvers. The total plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA was lower than iodine-125( SVI)iothalamate but the clearance of the protein free supernate was higher, raising a possibility of some tubular secretion. Hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1% injected dose. These data demonstrate that renal accumulation of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA is blocked by probenecid and PAH suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by enzyme systems similar to those involved in PAH and hippuran transport. It appears that (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA uptake measures a different aspect of kidney function than (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  18. Effect of Co-Ligands on Chemical and Biological Properties of 99mTc(III) Complexes [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (L = Cl, F, SCN and N3; CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Ernest, Carley; Freiji, Tom; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 99mTc-Teboroxime ([99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe]) is a member of the BATO (boronic acid adducts of technetium dioximes) class of 99mTc(III) complexes. This study sought to explore the impact of co-ligands on solution stability, heart uptake and myocardial retention of [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (99mTc-Teboroxime: L = Cl; 99mTc-Teboroxime(F): L = F; 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN): L = SCN; and 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3): L = N3). Methods Radiotracers 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared by reacting 99mTc-Teboroxime with NaF, NaSCN and NaN3, respectively. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their heart retention and liver clearance kinetics. Results Complexes 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared in high yield with high radiochemical purity. All new radiotracers were stable for >6 h in the kit matrix. In its HPLC chromatogram, 99mTc-Teboroxime showed one peak at ~15.5 min, which was shorter than that of 99mTc-Teboroxime(F) (~16.4 min). There were two peaks for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN) at 16.5 and 18.3 min. 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) appeared as a single peak at 18.4 min. Their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-times of fast/slow components were 1.6 ± 0.4/60.7±8.9 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime, 0.8±0.2/101.7±20.7 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(F), 1.2±0.3/84.8±16.6 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN), and 2.9±0.9/51.6±5.0 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3). The 2-min heart uptake followed the order of 99mTc-Teboroxime (3.00±0.37%ID/g) > 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) (2.66±0.01 %ID/g) ≈ 99mTc-Sestamibi (2.55±0.46 %ID/g) > 99mTcN-MPO (2.38±0.15 %ID/g). 99mTc-Teboroxime remains the best in first-pass extraction. The best image acquisition window is 0 – 5 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine and 0 – 15 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine(N3). Conclusion Co-ligands had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention

  19. Evaluation of lung epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Derya; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koca, Gokhan

    2011-10-01

    Chronic inhalant use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological, renal, hepatic, and pulmonary damage. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding respiratory complications in inhalant abusers. The aim of this study was to evaluate pulmonary epithelial permeability in the volatile substance abuse (VSA) using Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy. This study included 18 patients with volatile substance abuse and 18 volunteer controls. All of patients and controls were smokers. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was performed in all cases. Time-activity curves from each lung were generated and clearance half-time (T(1/2)) of Tc-99m DTPA were calculated. T(1/2) of whole lung was calculated as a mean of the T(1/2) of left and right lung. The T(1/2) values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance in the substance abusers were significantly decreased as compared to the control group with respective mean values of 28.86 ± 8.44, and 62.14 ± 26.12 min (p = 0.001). It was seen Tc-99m DTPA clearance from lung was faster as the duration of substance abuse was increased. Tc-99m DTPA pulmonary clearance is markedly accelerated in the volatile substance abuse. This suggests that inhalant abuse of substance may produce abnormalities in pulmonary alveolo-capillary membrane function.

  20. Complexes of technetium-99m with tetrapeptides containing one alanyl and three glycyl moieties.

    PubMed

    Vanbilloen, H P; De Roo, M J; Verbruggen, A M

    1996-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that tetrapeptides can be efficiently labelled with technetium-99m by direct labelling at alkaline pH. Tetrapeptides can be considered derivatives of mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in which the mercaptoacetyl moiety is replaced by an amino acid residue. In view of the interesting biological properties of some C-methyl substituted derivatives of 99mTc-MAG3, we have now synthesised and evaluated the complexes of 99mTc with tetrapeptides containing three glycyl (G) moieties and one D- or L-alanyl (A) moiety. In mice, 99mTc-L-GAGG, 99mTc-D-GGAG and 99mTc-L-GGAG showed a rapid and high renal excretion, comparable to that of 99mTc-MAG3. Renal handling was somewhat reduced for isomers d and l of 99mTc-AGGG and 99mTc-D-GAGG and markedly inferior for 99mTc-L-GGGA and 99mTc-D-GGGA. In the baboon, 99mTc-L-AGGG, 99mTc-D-AGGG and 99mTc-L-GAGG showed a comparable or even higher 1-h plasma clearance than 99mTc-MAG3. 99mTc-D-GAGG, 99mTc-L-GGAG and 99mTc-D-GGAG were characterised by a lower plasma clearance and the clearance of 99mTc-L-GGGA and 99mTc-D-GGGA was remarkably low. The three 99mTc-labelled tetrapeptides with the highest plasma clearance in a baboon were compared with 99mTc-MAG3 in a human volunteer. 99mTc-L-AGGG and 99mTc-L-GAGG had a roughly similar plasma clearance as 99mTc-MAG3. The clearance of 99mTc-D-AGGG was significantly lower and liver uptake was clearly visible with this compound. Left kidney renograms of 99mTc-L-AGGG and 99mTc-D-AGGG indicated moderate kidney accumulation. On the other hand, the renogram obtained after injection of 99mTc-L-GAGG had an excellent shape and the maximum kidney concentration was slightly higher than for 99mTc-MAG3. These results show the importance of the position of the methyl substituent on the 99mTc-tetrapeptide with respect to its biological behaviour.

  1. Comparison of iodine-131 OIH and technetium-99m MAG3 renal imaging in volunteers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Christian, P.E.; Kasina, S.

    1986-06-01

    Animal studies have suggested that the nonisomeric N3S triamide mercaptide ligand, /sup 99m/Tc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), may provide a satisfactory /sup 99m/Tc-labeled replacement for /sup 131/I hippurate (OIH). Sequential 30-min (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 (5-10 mCi) and (/sup 131/I)OIH (300 microCi) imaging studies were performed in ten normal volunteers in order to compare the image quality, renal excretion, blood clearance, and time to peak height of the renogram curve. In addition, (/sup 99m/Tc) MAG3 (5 mCi) and (/sup 131/I)OIH (150 microCi) were administered simultaneously in eight volunteers for comparison of 180-min blood and plasma clearances and urine excretion. In the sequential imaging studies, the blood clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 was more rapid than (/sup 131/I)OIH with a mean clearance of 1.30 l/min compared with 0.88 l/min for (/sup 131/I)OIH (p less than 0.05). Seventy-three percent of the injected dose of the MAG3 was excreted by 30 min compared with 66.8% for (/sup 131/I)OIH. Whole kidney and cortical renogram curves showed no significant difference in the time to peak height for MAG3 and (/sup 131/I)OIH. In all subjects, the quality of the (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 images were clearly superior to (/sup 131/I)OIH. Following simultaneous injection, blood and plasma clearances for (/sup 131/I)OIH were more rapid than MAG3 when determined for multiple time intervals from 0-30 to 0-180 min (p less than or equal to 0.05). The 0-30-min clearances of MAG3 and (/sup 131/I)OIH were only slightly greater than the 0-180-min clearances and can be used to obtain valid comparisons of the two agents. As in the sequential study, 30-min urine excretion was greater for MAG3 than (/sup 131/I)OIH (73.1 compared with 69.6%) but the difference was not statistically significant.

  2. sup 99m Tc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    SciTech Connect

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references.

  3. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression.

  4. A Tc-99m labeled laminin derived peptide, Tc-99m-YIGSR for thrombus specific imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.

    1994-05-01

    Laminin derived adhesive peptides were studied as potential agents for thrombus specific imaging. Using a novel peptide Tc-99m labeling method studies were performed in vitro using human whole blood clots and platelets, and in vivo scintigraphy in animals with experimental thrombi. Aliquots of 0.1 ml human blood were placed in inclined Petri dishes until clot was well formed. Clots were rinsed 3x with phosphate buffer and 10 {mu}Ci Tc-99m YIGSR II was added. After incubation at room temperature for 1 hr, clots were again washed 3x. Residual activity was measured. Platelets were harvested using routine methods and incubated with Tc-99m YIGSR II, washed and assayed. Blocking experiments using cold YIGSR II showed that the Tc-99m labeled peptide preparation YIGSR II binds specifically and selectively to clot and platelets as compared to control experiments using nonspecific human Tc-99m IgG. Tissue distribution studies showed rapid blood clearance, urinary excretion and to a lesser degree GI tract excretion. Tc-99m YIGSR II was lower in all organs except kidneys compared to Tc-99m 50 H.19, Tc-99m IgG and Tc-99m YIGSR I. Tc-99m-YIGSR II consistently visualized thrombi within 30 min p.i. In vivo scintigraphic (thrombus/contralateral side) ratio was 3:1 and ex vivo direct counting (thrombosed to nonthrombosed vessel segment) was 5.4: 1. Compared to monoclonal antibodies peptide preparations are non- or minimally immunogenic, preparation is probably less expensive and there is also less danger of viral DNA contamination. These considerations and our data indicate that the Tc-99m-YIGSR II peptide has significant potential as a thrombus imaging agent.

  5. Comparative evaluation of Tc-99m cystine and Tc-99m MAG3 in normals and patients with renal functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Misra, Mridula; Pradhan, Prasanta K; De, Kakali; Chandra, Susmita; Das, Birendra K

    2009-03-01

    Tc-99m cystine has been proved to be a good renal agent in animals for morphologic as well as the functional status of the kidney. In this study, we compared Tc-99m cystine with Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, which is used for evaluation of renal function in normal patients, and those with various degrees of renal functional impairment. The clearance values and static images are compared with Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine. The results show that Tc-99m cystine has good radiopharmaceutical characteristics suitable for evaluation of both renal function as well as morphology.

  6. Clinical comparison of technetium-99m-EC, technetium-99-m-MAG3 and Iodine-131-OIH in renal disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Kabasakal, L.; Turoglu, T.; Oensel, C.

    1995-02-01

    Technetium-99m-ethylenedicysteine has recently been developed for renal function studies. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-EC were studied by constant infusion technique and compared with {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 and {sup 131}I-OIH in 11 patients with various renal disorders. After giving a 7.4 MBq {sup 131}I-OIH and 90-110 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-EC or {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 bolus, a constant infusion (MBq/ml) {sup 99m}Tc--agent and 0.07 MBq/m {sup 131}I-OIH was started. Sixteen blood and five urine samples were obtained over three hr. The renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-EC was higher than than of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. The {sup 99m}Tc-EC/OIH and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3/OIH ratios were 0.75 {plus_minus} 0.05 and 0.55 {plus_minus} 0.10 (p=0.00087), respectively. The distribution volume of {sup 99m}Tc-EC was also higher than that of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 (15722 {plus_minus} 4644 and 9509 {plus_minus} 2788 ml/1.73m{sup 2}, respectively; p=0.072). The {sup 99m}Tc-EC/OIH and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG/OIH distribution volume ratios were 1.03 {plus_minus} 0.14 and 0.55 {plus_minus} 0.10, respectively (p = 0.0003). The 60-min excretion values of {sup 99m}Tc-EC and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 were compared to that of OIH. The {sup 99m}Tc-EC/OIH and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3/OIH excretion ratios were 0.96 {plus_minus} 0.06 and 1.07 {plus_minus} 0.10, respectively (p=0.162). The protein binding of {sup 99m}-EC and OIH were found to be 34% {plus_minus}4 and 66% {plus_minus}5, respectively (p<0.0001). The red cell binding of {sup 99m}Tc-EC was negligible (3% {plus_minus}1.2) in comparison to OIH (27% {plus_minus}3; p< 0.0001). This limited study demonstrates the pharmacokinetic and renal clearance properties of {sup 99m}Tc-EC. This agent has good potential for renal function evaluation. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Results of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m EHIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, S.M.; Ahmed, R.; Rok

    1989-05-01

    Tc-99m labelled 2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyliminodiacetic acid (EHIDA) is a non-toxic radiopharmaceutical that was found to undergo rapid biliary excretion in a normal human, with accumulation of radioactivity in the gall bladder and intestine. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and the passage of the same into the intestine within 15 to 40 minutes, with or without visualization of the gall bladder. In the jaundiced patient, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion was increased. Tc-99m EHIDA has been extensively investigated in 1634 patients to evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders.

  8. Novel (99m)Tc(III) Complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime) Useful as Radiotracers for Heart Imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Fang, Wei; Liu, Shuang

    2016-11-16

    In this study, we evaluated seven new (99m)Tc(III) complexes [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] ((99m)Tc-2Fboroxime: R = 2-formylfuran-3-yl (2F); (99m)Tc-3Fboroxime: R = furan-3-yl (3F); (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime: R = 5-formyfuran-2-yl (5F); (99m)Tc-HPboroxime: R = 6-hydroxylpyridin-2-yl (HP); (99m)Tc-MPYboroxime: R = 5-methoxypyridin-3-yl (MPY); (99m)Tc-PMboroxime: R = 1,5-pyrimidin-3-yl (PM); and (99m)Tc-4PYboroxime: R = pyridin-4-yl (4PY)) for their potential as heart imaging agents. All new (99m)Tc(III) radiotracers except (99m)Tc-2Fboroxime were prepared with high radiochemical purity (RCP > 95%). The low RCP (∼75%) for (99m)Tc-2Fboroxime is most likely caused by steric hindrance from the 3-formyl group. Biodistribution and imaging studies were performed in SD rats. Planar image quantification was performed to compare their myocardial retention times. We found that the myocardial washout curves of new (99m)Tc(III) radiotracers were best fitted the biexponential decay function. The AUC (area under the curve) values followed the general trend: (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime (129 ± 6) > (99m)Tc-3Fboroxime (114 ± 11) > (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (104 ± 16) > (99m)Tc-MPYboroxime (92 ± 18) > (99m)Tc-4PYboroxime (77 ± 10) > (99m)Tc-PMboroxime (68 ± 14) ≈ (99m)Tc-HPboroxime (62 ± 14). The 2 min heart uptake values from biodistribution studies follow the ranking order of (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime (3.75 ± 0.15%ID/g) ≈ (99m)Tc-MPYboroxime (3.73 ± 0.24%ID/g) > (99m)Tc-PMboroxime (3.47 ± 0.15%ID/g) ≈ (99m)Tc-3Fboroxime ≈ (3.25 ± 0.77%ID/g). The 5 min heart uptake of (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime (3.91 ± 0.09%ID/g) was almost identical to its 2 min heart uptake (3.75 ± 0.15%ID/g), and its 15 min heart uptake value (2.83 ± 0.08%ID/g) compared well to the 2 min heart uptake of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (3.00 ± 0.37%ID/g). It took ∼5 min for (99m)Tc-5Fboroxime to approach the 1 min heart uptake value of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime (∼3.5% ID/g) and ∼9.5 min to reach the 2 min heart uptake value of (99m

  9. Technetium-99m-L,L-ethylenedicysteine is more effective than technetium-99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid for excluding obstruction in patients with pyelocalicinal dilation.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mariana C L; de Lima, Marcelo Lopes; Pepe, Carlos F V; Etchebehere, Elba C S C; Santos, Allan O; Amorim, Bárbara J; Camargo, Edwaldo E; Ferreira, Ubirajara; Palma, Paulo C R; Ramos, Celso D

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of diuretic dynamic renal scintigraphy (DDRS) with technetium-99m-L,L-ethylenedicysteine ((99m)Tc-EC) in patients with indeterminate or possible false-positive results for urinary obstruction by technetium-99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) DDRS. A total of 92 patients (63 male; mean age, 16.6 +/- 21.25 years) were studied, with a total of 103 kidneys presenting indeterminate (20/103) or possible false-positive results for obstruction attributable to reduced renal function or severe kidney dilation (83/103) by (99m)Tc-DTPA DDRS (<60% of radiopharmaceutical excreted in 20 minutes-half-time clearance [T(1/2)] >15 minutes). Patients were reimaged after intravenous injection of (99m)Tc-EC, with dynamic images before and after furosemide administration using the same acquisition parameters applied in the previous (99m)Tc-DTPA study. Time interval between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-EC renograms was 2-64 days. The percentage of excreted material 20 minutes after furosemide was calculated using both radiopharmaceuticals, and were statistically compared using the paired samples t test. The excretion after furosemide injection was 25.3% +/- 18.2% for (99m)Tc-DTPA and 41.2% +/- 26.1% for (99m)Tc-EC, with a statistically significant difference between both radiopharmaceuticals (P <.0001). Using (99m)Tc-EC obstruction was excluded in 36 of 103 kidneys, which excreted >60%. A total of 10 of 83 kidneys (12.0%) with an obstructive pattern by (99m)Tc-DTPA study turned out to be indeterminate by (99m)Tc-EC DDRS. There was an agreement between (99m)Tc-EC and (99m)Tc-DTPA studies in 54 of 83 kidneys with obstructive (65.1%) and in 3 of 20 (15.0%) with indeterminate patterns. (99m)Tc-EC was more effective than (99m)Tc-DTPA for excluding obstruction, presenting less false-positive and indeterminate results. (99m)Tc-EC can substitute (99m)Tc-DTPA to evaluate patients with urinary tract dilation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Tc-99m Labeled carrier for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Henze, Eberhard

    1984-01-01

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by non-covalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  11. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  12. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA: Evidence for glomerular filtration and peritubular uptake

    SciTech Connect

    de Lange, M.J.; Piers, D.A.; Kosterink, J.G.; van Luijk, W.H.; Meijer, S.; de Zeeuw, D.; van der Hem, G.K.

    1989-07-01

    The finding of an enhanced excretion of (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in patients with tubular reabsorption disorders prompted us to investigate the role of filtration in the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA. Our studies in human serum indicated that binding to serum proteins was approximately 90%. Chromatography of human urine and studies in rats showed that the complex was excreted unaltered into the urine. Renal extraction of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in a human volunteer was 5.8%. Continuous infusion of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in 13 individuals with normal renal function gave the following results (mean +/- s.d.): plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 34 +/- 4 ml/min, urinary clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 12 +/- 3 ml/min. The calculated filtered load of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA closely resembled the urinary clearance, whereas the plasma clearance was about three times faster. This indicates that peritubular uptake accounts for approximately 65% and filtration for approximately 35% of the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  13. Evaluation of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine in patients with impaired renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Eshima, D.; Christian, P.E.; Milton, W.

    1987-02-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), a new radiopharmaceutical shown to have biological properties similar to iodine-131 o-iodohippurate (OIH) in animals and healthy volunteers, was compared with OIH in 15 patients with varying degrees of renal impairment. The Tc-99m MAG3 images were uniformly superior, regardless of the serum creatinine level. There was no significant difference in the 30-minute blood clearance of OIH and MAG3. MAG3 protein binding (78.6%) was greater than that of OIH (53.1%) (P less than or equal to .01), and the volume of distribution of MAG3 (7.06 liters) was less than that of OIH (10.78 liters) (P less than or equal to .01). In six patients the 30-minute urinary excretion of the two agents was essentially identical. The time to the peak height of the renogram curves was more rapid for MAG3 than for OIH using both cortical and whole-kidney regions of interest (P less than or equal to .02). In summary, preliminary results suggest that Tc-99m MAG3 performs well in patients with impaired renal function and may well be an acceptable replacement for OIH. A kit formulation is currently undergoing clinical evaluation.

  14. Preparation of (99m)Tc-PQQ and preliminary biological evaluation for the NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yanyan; Zhou, Xingqin; Cao, Guoxian; Xu, Xijie; Zou, Meifen; Qin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Rongjun

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), an essential nutrient, antioxidant, redox modulator and nerve growth factor found in a class of enzymes called quinoproteins, was labeled with (99m)Tc by using stannous fluoride (SnF2) method. Radiolabeling qualification, quality control and characterization of (99m)Tc-PQQ and its biodistribution studies in mice were performed and discussed. Effects of pH values, temperature, time and reducing agents concentration on the radiolabeling yield were investigated. The quality control procedure of (99m)Tc-PQQ was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC), radio high-performance liquid chromatography (RHPLC) and paper electrophoresis methods. The average radiolabeling yield was 94 ± 1% under optimum conditions of 0.99 mg of PQQ, 30 μg of SnF2, 0.5 mg of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-2Na) and 18.5 MBq of Na(99m)TcO4 at pH 6 and 25 °C with a response volume of 1 ± 0.1 mL. (99m)Tc-PQQ was stable and anionic. Lipid-water partition coefficient of (99m)Tc-PQQ was -1.49 ± 0.16. The pharmacokinetics parameters of (99m)Tc-PQQ were t1/2α = 18.16 min, t1/2β = 100.45 min, K12 = 0.013 min(-1), K21 = 0.017 min(-1), Ke = 0.016 min(-1), AUC (area under the curve) = 1040.78 ID% g(-1) min and CL (plasma clearance) = 0.096 mL min(-1). The dual-exponential equation was Y = 10.88e(-0.038t)  + 5.21e(-0.0069t) . The biodistribution of (99m)Tc-PQQ was studied in ICR (Institute for Cancer Research 7701 Burhelme Are., Fox Chase, Philadelphia, PA 1911 USA) mice. In vitro autoradiographic studies clearly showed that the (99m)Tc-PQQ radioactivity accumulated predominantly in the hippocampus and cortex, which had a high density of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor (NMDAR). The enrichment can be blocked by NMDAR redox modulatory site antagonists-ebselen (EB) and (99m)Tc-PQQ is therefore a promising candidate for the molecular imaging of NMDAR. To date, however, there have been no studies characterizing

  15. Images of liposarcoma using technetium-99m bleomycin and technetium (V)-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Shane, F.I.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Ishii, M.

    1986-12-01

    The effectiveness of Tc-99m bleomycin (BLM) and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are compared with that of Ga-67 citrate, which is currently the most widely used agent. In four patients with lipomatous tumors, the clinical significance of tumor imaging with each of these three agents is discussed and compared. Results indicate that both Tc-99m BLM and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are superior in detecting the extension or localization of liposarcomas.

  16. Animal evaluation of technetium-99m triamide mercaptide complexes as potential renal imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Eshima, D.; Taylor, A. Jr.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Hansen, L.; Sorenson, J.F.

    1987-07-01

    Technetium-99m mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3), a (/sup 99m/Tc)triamide mercaptide (N3S) compound has been synthesized in an attempt to obviate the stereochemistry problems associated with the diamide dimercaptide (N2S2) ligands. Because initial studies have been promising, the terminal glycine on the MAG3 compound has been varied to create a new series of N3S compounds. Twelve new N3S complexes were initially screened in mice and the more promising complexes, /sup 99m/Tc mercaptoacetylgylcylglycyl-glycine ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3), /sup 99m/Tc mercaptoacetylgylcylglycyl-L-alanine ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG2-Ala), and both complexes of /sup 99m/Tc mercaptoeacetylglycylglycyl-L-asparagine ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG2-Asn) and /sup 99m/Tc mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl-L-glutamine ((/sup 99m/Tc)MAG2-Gln), were further evaluated in rats utilizing constant infusion blood clearances, extraction efficiencies and protein binding assays. The renal excretion of all these complexes compared favorably with simultaneously administered (/sup 131/I)OIH and (/sup 125/I)iothalamate. The triamide mercaptide complexes represent a new ligand class for /sup 99m/Tc, which may provide a variety of complexes for the evaluation of renal tubular function.

  17. Evaluation of residual functional lung volume on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy in primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Lai, Yung-Chuang; Lu, Chia-Ying; Dai, Zen-Kong

    2008-12-01

    Kartagener syndrome is diagnosed as sinusitis, bronchitis (bronchiectasis), and situs inversus by the clinical features. It is a subclass of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) disease. A 12-year-old girl who had frequent upper and lower airway infections since birth, which was confirmed as Kartagener syndrome by HRCT imaging. We present the residual functional lung volume and mucociliary clearance findings seen on Tc-99m DTPA aerosol ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scintigraphy.

  18. Sclerosing cholangitis: cholescintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled DISIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ament, A.E.; Bick, R.J.; Miraldi, F.D.; Haaga, J.R.; Wiedenmann, S.D.

    1984-04-01

    Four patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PCS) were examined with the hepatobiliary agent Tc-99m-labeled DISIDA (diisopropylphenylcarbamoyl iminodiacetic acid), and the results correlated with those of invasive cholangiography. Cholescintigraphy is superior to cholangiography in cases of suspected PSC where there is nonfilling of biliary radicals due to high-grade stenosis. The finding of delayed hepatic parenchymal clearance can allow estimation of the degree of obstruction of the various branches of the major bile ducts. Cholescintigraphy offers a noninvasive method of investigating patients with suspected sclerosing chloangitis, leading to earlier diagnosis. Confirmation with invasive cholangiographic procedures is recommended.

  19. Direct 99m Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Jou; Yen, Chao-Liang; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2008-03-01

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+ ion in saline, a significant yield of 99m Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical 99m Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, alpha-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+. Retention of bioactivity of the 99m Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  20. Technetium-99m DTPA aerosol and gallium scanning in acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, C.; Meignan, M.; Rosso, J.; Cinotti, L.; Mayaud, C.; Revuz, J.

    1987-07-01

    In 11 non-smoking AIDS patients suspected of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), the results of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol clearances, gallium scans, and arterial blood gases were compared with those of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine patients had PCP. All had increased clearances five times higher than the normal (5.6 +/- 2.3% X min-1 vs 1.1 +/- 0.34% X min-1, N = 10, P less than 0.001), suggesting an increased alveolar permeability. Gallium scans were abnormal in six patients but normal or slightly abnormal in the three others. Four of these nine patients had normal chest x-rays. In two of these the gallium scan was abnormal, but in the two others, only the increased Tc-99m DTPA clearances showed evidence of lung disease. Two patients had normal BAL, with normal clearances and gallium scans. Four out of the nine patients with PCP were studied after treatment. Three recovered and had normal clearance and gallium scans. One still had PCP with increased clearance but normal gallium scan. Gallium scanning and Tc-99m DTPA clearance are useful for detecting lung disease in AIDS patients with suspected PCP and for prompting BAL when chest x-rays and PaO/sub 2/ levels are normal. Due to its high sensitivity, a normal Tc-99m DTPA clearance could avoid BAL.

  1. Clinical comparison of I-131 orthoiodohippurate and the kit formulation of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Ziffer, J.A.; Steves, A.; Eshima, D.; Delaney, V.B.; Welchel, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) purified by high-performance liquid chromatography is a renal tubular agent with characteristics similar to those of iodine-131 orthoiodohippurate (OIH). A kit formulation for Tc-99m MAG3 has been developed and compared with I-131 OIH in 17 patients with suspected renal dysfunction and three potential kidney donors. There were no adverse reactions. Tc-99m MAG3 images were of good quality and consistently better than I-131 OIH images. There was no significant difference in the relative renal uptake of Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH. The 30-minute urinary excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 was 36.4%, versus 40.4% for I-131 OIH. The average plasma clearance of Tc-99m MAG3 (138 mL/min +/- 117) was less than that of I-131 OIH (272 mL/min +/- 205) (P less than .001); however, there was good correlation between the Tc-99m MAG3 and I-131 OIH clearances (r = .87). The volume of distribution of Tc-99m MAG3 (5.96 L +/- 1.94) was less than that of I-131 OIH (9.41 L +/- 3.73) (P less than .001). These characteristics and the advantages of a simple kit formulation should lead to widespread clinical use.

  2. Quantitation of renal function with technetium-99m MAG3

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.D.; Thorstad, B.L.; Yester, M.V.; Stutzman, M.; Dubovsky, E.V.

    1988-12-01

    The technetium-labeled hippuran analog (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 was compared with ( T I)hippuran in 50 patients using a quantitative renal function protocol that includes: (a) estimation of effective renal plasma flow by a single-injection, single-sample plasma clearance method, (b) determination of relative function of right and left kidney from the initial count rate over each kidney, and (c) comparison of recovered urine activity with plasma disappearance. This protocol is suitable for routine clinical use, and, in fact, has been used heavily at our clinic for a number of years. By slight modification of the formulas, the results obtained with (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 agreed well with those using ( T I)hippuran. We conclude that (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 can be substituted for ( T I)hippuran in the quantitative protocol, with the better image quality and lower radiation dose (in abnormals) of a technetium-labeled agent.

  3. Detection of alveolar epithelial injury by 99mTC-DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scan following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Okudan, Berna; Han, Serdar; Baldemir, Makbule; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    DTPA clearance rate is a reliable index of alveolar epithelial permeability, and is a highly sensitive marker of pulmonary epithelial damage, even of mild degree. In this study, 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was used to assesss the pulmonary epithelial membrane permeability and to investigate the possible application of this permeability value as an indicator of early alveolar or interstitial changes in patients with blunt chest trauma. A total of 26 patients was chest trauma (4 female, 22 male, 31-80 yrs, mean age; 53+/-13 yrs) who were referred to the emergency department in our hospital participated in this tsudy. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) aerosol inhalation scintigraphy was performed on the first and thirtieth days after trauma. Clearance half times (T1/2) were calculated by placing a mono-exponential fit on the curves. Penetration index (PI) was calculated on the first-minute image. On the first day, mean T1/2 value of the whole lung was 63+/-19 minutes (min), and thirtieth day mean T1/2 value was 67+/-21 min. On the first day, mean PI values of the lung and 30th day mean PI value were 0.60+/-0.05, and 0.63+/-0.05, respectively. Significant changes were observed in radioaerosol clearance and penetration indices. Following chest trauma, clearance of 99mTc-DTPA increased owing to breakdown of the alveolar-capillary barrier. This increase in the epithelial permeability of the lung appears to be an early manifestation of lung disease that may lead to efficient therapy in the early phase.

  4. Quantitative temporal analysis of /sup 99m/Technetium p-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) as a measure of hepatic function in health and disease

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S.N.; George, E.A.; Perrillo, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Excretory liver function was analyzed in 10 healthy volunteers and 28 subjects with acute or chronic liver injury following intravenous administration of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid. Hepatobiliary transit of this agent was quantitated at 5-min intervals for a total of 60 min. Indices of total liver activity, liver cell uptake, liver parenchymal clearance, and bile duct clearance of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid were calculated from time--activity curves over heart, liver, extrahepatic bile ducts, and gallbladder. Seven subjects with acute viral hepatitis, 15 with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and 6 with intrahepatic cholestasis were evaluated. Compared with healthy volunteers, a significant (p less than 0.0001) reduction in total liver activity and liver parenchymal clearance was demonstrated in all patient groups. Major resolution in all liver-derived indices, particularly total liver activity, occurred during convalescence from hepatitis and after biliary drainage. Nonmeasurable bile duct clearance always indicated a diagnosis of extrahepatic obstruction in cholestatic subjects, and this index normalized in subjects following biliary drainage. Whereas visual assessment of /sup 99m/technetium p-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid scans provided limited, useful information about the functional status of the liver, quantitative temporal analysis proved to be a much more effective technique.

  5. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  6. Free water clearance curves during saline, mannitol, glucose and urea diuresis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Maldonado, Manuel; Opava-Stitzer, Susan

    1978-01-01

    1. Free water clearances were measured during infusion of hypotonic saline, glucose, urea, and mannitol in Brattleboro rats. For each solute the free water clearances were plotted using either V or (CH2O + CNa) as the distal tubular delivery term. 2. In all cases the use of (CH2O + CNa) as distal delivery term yielded a steeper relationship than when V was used. There were no significant differences in the CH2O to V relationship when saline, glucose and mannitol was the solute infused. Urea, however, resulted in a curve with a slope significantly less than that for the other solutes. 3. When CH2O was plotted against (CH2O + CNa) there was still no significant difference between the slopes of the curves during saline or mannitol infusion. Use of this delivery term, however, resulted in a slope during glucose infusion which was significantly greater than that during saline or mannitol infusion. The slope for urea infusion remained lower than that for any other solute. 4. Regardless of the delivery term used, there was no significant difference in the slopes of the curves for awake Wistar and awake Brattleboro rats during mannitol infusion. This indicates that the awake rat is a suitable model for free water clearance studies. 5. The results indicate that NaCl and mannitol are both adequate for free water clearance and that (CH2O + CNa) is a better index of distal delivery than V. PMID:690907

  7. Effect of captopril on 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renograms in two-kidney, one clip hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Nally, J.V. Jr.; Clarke, H.S. Jr.; Grecos, G.P.; Saunders, M.; Gross, M.L.; Potvin, W.J.; Windham, J.P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to improve on the noninvasive detection of renal artery stenosis, we investigated the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on computer-assisted /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal flow studies in a canine model of two-kidney, one clip hypertension and compared these findings with clearances of inulin and p-aminohippuric acid in the stenotic and contralateral kidney before and after converting enzyme inhibition. The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renal flow study with the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1.5 mg/kg bolus with 1.5 mg/min infusion) showed an increased sensitivity in the detection of unilateral renal artery stenosis over the use of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study alone. Captopril induced striking alterations that were most evident in the 15-minute /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renal flow study, in which all nine curves exhibited severely blunted uptake and excretion of the radionuclide. These changes were reversed during a recovery study without converting enzyme inhibition and were not seen when blood pressure was lowered with nitroprusside to a level similar to that observed during converting enzyme inhibition. The changes shown by the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study during converting enzyme inhibition correlated with a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate of the stenotic kidney. Captopril infusion significantly decreased the glomerular filtration rate of the stenotic kidney (16.0 +/- 3.1 vs 11.0 +/- 2.5 mg/min, p less than 0.03) but not of the contralateral kidney (32.4 +/- 2.6 vs 28.4 +/- 2.8 mg/min).

  8. Use of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine to evaluate renal function in horses.

    PubMed

    Woods, P R; Drost, W T; Clarke, C R; Rodebush, C J

    2000-01-01

    Ten healthy horses were injected intravenously with 99mTc-MAG3 and the disappearance of radioactivity from the blood was measured. The total body clearance (Cl(B)) and elimination half-life (t1/2(beta)) were 7.9 +/- 1.5 ml/kg/minute and 32.8 +/- 4.1 minutes, respectively. The disappearance of 99mTc-MAG3 from the blood of 2 horses with compromised renal function was also measured. The data suggest that 99mTc-MAG3 is a useful and clinically applicable radiopharmaceutical for measurement of effective renal blood flow in the horse.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of technetium-99m MAG3 as a hippuran replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Eshima, D.; Johnson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A new technetium-chelating agent based on a triamide monomercaptide tetradentate set of donor groups, mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3), was synthesized and evaluated. Chelation with /sup 99m/Tc resulted in a single radiochemical product as expected. Studies in mice of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 indicated excretion rates faster than omicron-iodohippurate (OIH) both in normal and in probenecid treated animals. Specificity for renal excretion was essentially complete. Clearance studies in rats resulted in 2.84 ml/min/100 g for (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3, 2.17 for OIH, and 1.29 for (125I)iothalamate. Extraction efficiencies were 85% for (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3, 69% for OIH and 39% for (125I)iothalamate. Probenicid depressed the clearance both of (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 and OIH at 25 and 50 mg/kg/hr, but to a greater extent with (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3. The greater effect is offset, however, by the larger fraction secreted by the renal tubular cells. The animal results suggest that (/sup 99m/Tc)MAG3 may be a useful alternative to (131I)OIH.

  10. Renal uptakes of 99mTc-MAG3, 99mTc-DTPA, and 99mTc-DMSA in rabbits with unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Guk; Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Shim, Kyung Mi; Kang, Seong Soo; Chae, Hong In; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Renal function measurements using (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3) dynamic scintigraphs were compared to those obtained using (99m)Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Eighteen experimental rabbits were randomly divided into (99m)Tc-DTPA-, (99m)Tc-MAG(3)-, and (99m) Tc-DMSA-injected groups. Experimental unilateral renal damage was induced by ligating a unilateral right ureter in 18 rabbits. Scintigraphic images were obtained at 2 and 5 h after intravenous injection of (99m)Tc-DMSA, or immediately after administration of (99m)Tc-DTPA or (99m)Tc-MAG(3). For the dynamic images using (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3), rapid sequential images were obtained every 2 s for 30 images up to 1 min. The three groups presented different relative renal functions between the left normal and the right abnormal kidneys at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks post-ligation (p<0.05). However, the between-group comparisons showed no significant differences at any time. These results suggest that dynamic images of (99m)Tc-DTPA and (99m)Tc-MAG(3) can be used to measure the relative renal function in place of the static image of (99m)Tc-DMSA.

  11. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in long-term catheterized kidney. Comparison with renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Higashihara, E.; Tokuda, H.; Kishi, H.; Niijima, T.; Okada, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Iio, M.

    1988-04-01

    We studied 23 long-term catheterized kidneys in 14 patients. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DMSA) was measured at one- and two-hour intervals after injection, and the uptake was corrected for variations in renal depth. These values were compared with inulin, creatinine, and para-amino hippurate (PAH) clearances which were measured in each kidney by collecting urine through long-term catheterization. Correlation coefficient was obtained between PAH clearance corrected for the body surface area and the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. The correlation coefficients between the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA and the clearance values are not significantly different from those between the one-hour uptake and the clearance values. Corrections of the uptake for variations in renal depth did not improve the correlation coefficients. The results show that /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA is an excellent method to estimate the renal plasma flow and the one-hour uptake without correction for renal depth is clinically sufficient to evaluate the split renal function.

  12. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in long-term catheterized kidney. Comparison with renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Higashihara, E.; Tokuda, H.; Kishi, H.; Niijima, T.; Okada, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Iio, M.

    1988-04-01

    We studied 23 long-term catheterized kidneys in 14 patients. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DMSA) was measured at one- and two-hour intervals after injection, and the uptake was corrected for variations in renal depth. These values were compared with inulin, creatinine, and para-amino hippurate (PAH) clearances which were measured in each kidney by collecting urine through long-term catheterization. Correlation coefficient was obtained between PAH clearance corrected for the body surface area and the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. The correlation coefficients between the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA and the clearance values are not significantly different from those between the one-hour uptake and the clearance values. Corrections of the uptake for variations in renal depth did not improve the correlation coefficients. The results show that /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA is an excellent method to estimate the renal plasma flow and the one-hour uptake without correction for renal depth is clinically sufficient to evaluate the split renal function.

  13. Importance of the two ester functions for the brain retention of 99mTc-labelled ethylene dicysteine diethyl ester (99mTc-ECD).

    PubMed

    Vanbilloen, H P; Cleynhens, B J; Verbruggen, A M

    1998-08-01

    99mTc-ethylene dicysteine diethyl ester (99mTc-L,L-ECD) is a neutral lipophilic tracer agent that crosses the blood-brain barrier and is retained in the brain of primates following enzymatic hydrolysis of one of the ester functions to the ionized mono-ester, mono-acid metabolite. Up to now, it is not clear whether the second ethylcarboxylate group is essential for brain uptake and retention. Therefore, we have synthesized and studied two derivatives of 99mTc-L,L-ECD that contain only one ethylcarboxylate function, namely 99mTc-labelled L- and D-ethylene cysteamine cysteine ethyl ester (99mTc-ECCE). Direct labelling of L- or D-ECCE at neutral pH and room temperature resulted for each of them in the formation of two probably diastereomeric 99mTc-complexes in a 1:1 ratio. This means that four different isomers could be isolated. The 99mTc-labelled complexes formed after labelling ECCE (A and B, in order of elution during HPLC) are slightly less lipophilic than 99mTc-L,L-ECD. In mice, all four isomers show a low brain activity at 10 min post injection (p.i.), approximately 0.1% to 0.3% of the injected dose versus 0.9% for 99mTc-L,L-ECD. The clearance from the blood is comparable with (isomers LA and LB) or slower (isomers DA and DB) than that of 99mTc-L,L-ECD. Isomers LA and DA show high liver uptake and rapid excretion to the intestines. Both 99mTc-ECCE-LB and 99mTc-ECCE-DB, the most lipophilic isomers, are cleared from the blood mainly by the kidneys and excreted more efficiently to the urine. 99mTc-ECCE-LB is characterized by a surprisingly high heart uptake (about 1.5% of i.d.) at 10 min p.i. versus 1.0% for 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) and 0.2-0.3% for the other isomers, but also lung uptake is relatively high. In the baboon, brain and heart uptake of isomers LA and LB of 99mTc-ECCE were negligible. Activity concentrated mostly in the hepatobiliary system for isomer LA and in the renal system for isomer LB. The results indicate a clear difference

  14. Retention of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate in the human brain after intracarotid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, L.; Lassen, N.A.; Andersen, A.R.; Dam, M.

    1994-01-01

    {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate (ECD) was injected as a bolus into the internal carotid artery, and cerebral uptake and retention were recorded with fast-rotating single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) equipment in four patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured tomographically with the {sup 133}Xe inhalation technique. The authors applied a three-compartment kinetic model and algorithms modified from a previous analysis of {sup 99m}{Tc} d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide (HM-PAO) kinetics. The bicisate brain uptake and retention curve was very similar to that of HM-PAO, and it can be described by a triexponential function including an initial steep component representing the vascular transmitted spike, a second less steep component representing back-diffusion from brain tissue to blood, and a third, very slow component, representing the very slow loss due to incomplete retention of the deesterified hydrophilic metabolites. Computerized curve-fitting on data from three patients gave average kinetic values for the first-passage (unilateral) extraction of E = 0.60 (range, 0.59-0.61); the overall retained fraction of the tracer supplied was R = 0.44 (0.43-0.45), and the conversion/clearance ratio was {alpha} = k{sub 3}/k{sub 2} = 2.59 (2.38-2.77). This {alpha} is higher than that for HM-PAO, and therefore bicisate uptake as a function of blood flow is more linear than in HM-PAO. Less correction for backdiffusion is therefore needed. From 1 to 24 h there was an average loss of hydrophilic tracer of 3.5%/h, but the late distribution images were essentially unchanged over time, pointing to practically the same rate of loss in all regions. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Decreased renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA in patients with tubular proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Hee; Lee, So Hee; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hee Gyung; Oh, So Won; Lee, Dong Soo; Ha, Il Soo; Choi, Yong; Cheong, Hae Il

    2009-11-01

    Although technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) renal scans are widely used to evaluate renal tubular mass function, the mechanism by which renal uptake of DMSA occurs is still the subject of debate. Patients with various proximal tubular disorders show markedly decreased renal DMSA uptake, even when there is normal creatinine clearance. We measured the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA 3 h after its injection in 13 patients with Dent disease or Lowe syndrome, both of which are typical proximal tubular disorders with defective megalin and cubilin-mediated endocytosis. Serial images of three patients were also obtained at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h post-injection. The correlations between renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA and creatinine clearance and the degrees of acidemia and tubular proteinuria were then evaluated. The renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was markedly decreased in all patients, and the decreased uptake was detected in all serial images. In contrast, bladder radioactivity was higher than normal in all of the serial images when compared to renal radioactivity. Additionally, the uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was inversely proportional to the amount of urine beta(2)-microglobulin. These results strongly suggest that DMSA is filtered in the glomeruli and subsequently undergoes megalin- and cubilin-mediated endocytosis in the proximal tubules.

  16. New series of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary tracers: N'-acyl- and N'-sulfonyl ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, Y.; Kono, A.; Maeda, T.; Ohya, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Various Tc-99m-labeled N'-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid (EDDA) are evaluated as hepatobiliary imaging agents. N'-substituted aromatic acyl and aromatic sulfonyl derivatives of EDDA, labeled with Tc-99m, were administered to rabbits and golden hamsters, and the distribution indicated clearance by the hepatobiliary system. N'-aromatic sulfonyl EDDAs were labeled with Tc-99m by the SnCl/sub 2/ method with more than 99% yield. Clearance of Tc-99m-p-toluenesulfonyl EDDA from the blood and the liver was as rapid as that of Tc-99m N-(2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Tc-99m diethyl IDA). Substitution of a bulky group at the aromatic ring in Tc-99m benzene-sulfonyl EDDA lowered urinary excretion. It is concluded that the sulfonyl EDDAs provide a fruitful source for Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. 99mTc-LHRH in tumor receptor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Dawei; Sun, Lingfei; Hu, Xiang; Hao, Xiaowen

    2017-01-01

    tissues, the positive rate of 40%; 20 cases of lung cancer positive rate of 85%, the corresponding normal tissues, the positive rate of 15.79%; 20 cases of endometrial cancer positive rate of 80% in the corresponding normal tissues was 16.67% positive. 99mTc-LHRH mark was 97.9–100.0%, the radiochemical purity of 93.9–96.4%, marking the reaction gel content of <5%. Great product receptor marker analysis showed 99mTc-LHRH with saturable receptor binding characteristics and inhibition, and high affinity, RT = 23.2174 pmol, KD = 0.4348 nmol; intravenous injection of 131I-LHRH within 72 h after the mice rapidly cleared the blood radioactivity, the major radioactive accumulation in the liver and kidneys and by the liver, renal clearance, and other tissues and organs of the radioactivity gradually decreased with time. In conclusion, i) the liver, lung, breast, prostate, endometrial cancer exist in both LHRHR; ii) 99mTc-LHRH preparation is simple, rapid, radiochemical purity product obtained higher marks, better stability, no further purification; and iii) LHRH 99mTc labeled, still has a high receptor binding ability, biological activity; and has an ideal and realistic dynamics in animals, there is hope, as with the clinical value of imaging agent of GnRH receptors. PMID:28693207

  18. /sup 99m/Tc-aprotinin: A new tracer for kidney morphology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.; Donadio, C.; Tramonti, G.; Lorusso, P.; Bellitto, L.; Lunghi, F.

    1984-01-01

    Aprotinin (Ap), a low molecular weight polyeptide (6500 dalton), is a protease inhibitor which is electively and stably accumulated in the kidney. In 112 adult patients, with either uni- or bilateral renal disease with different degrees of renal impairment (from normal GFR to advanced renal failure), renal scans were performed by means of Ap labelled with /sup 99m/Tc. Highly satisfactory renal scans were obtained in all patients. In 20 patients with renal failure (serum creatinine 1.8 - 8.5 mg/dl, mean 4.7) a comparison was made of the renal scans obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-Ap and with /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was slightly better than /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, especially in patients with far advanced renal failure. Some aspects of the pharmacokinetics of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap were studied in 72 cases. In 22 of these patients plasma clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was determined by the single injection method using a two-compartment model. In patients with GFR>90 ml/min plasma cl of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was 67.6 +- 8.4 SD ml/min. A good correlation was observed between plasma clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap and GFR (r = 0.74). After i.v. injection /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was stably fixed by the kidney. Renal radioactivity remained stable between the 2nd and the 8th hour after the injection. Urinary excretion of radioactivity measured in 35 patients in the first and in the second 2-hour interval after i.v. injection of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was negligible in all patients (2.7 +- 1.5 SD percent of the dose in the fist 2 hours; 2.8 +- 1.4 SD between the 2nd and the 4th hour). Conclusions. /sup 99m/Tc-Ap is an excellent agent for renal imaging. It also seems promising for renal function studies.

  19. Detection of acute inhalation injury in fire victims by means of technetium-99m DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Y; Kao, C H; Wang, S J

    1997-02-01

    Mortality and morbidity in fire victims are largely a function of injury due to heat and smoke. While the degree and area of burn together constitute a reliable numerical measure of cutaneous injury due to heat, as yet no satisfactory measure of inhalation injury has been developed. In this study, we employed technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) radioaerosol lung scintigraphy (inhalation scan) to evaluate acute inhalation injury in fire victims. Ten normal controls and 17 survivors from a fire accident were enrolled in the study. All patients suffered from respiratory symptoms (dyspnoea and/or cough with sputum). 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was performed in all subjects, using a commercial lung aerosol delivery unit. The degree of lung damage was presented as the clearance rate (k; %/min) calculated from the time-activity curve over the right lungs. In addition, the distribution pattern of the radioactivity in the lungs was evaluated and classified into two groups: homogeneous distribution and inhomogeneous distribution. A plain chest radiograph (CxR) and pulmonary function test (PFT) were performed in the same group of patients. The results showed that 6/17 (35.3%) patients had inhomogeneous distribution of radioactivity in their inhalation scans, and 11/17 (64.7%) had homogeneous scans. Five of the six patients with inhomogeneous scans were admitted for further management, and all patients with homogeneous scans were discharged from the emergency department and needed no further intensive care. The clearance rates of the right lung were 0.73%+/-0.13%/min for normal controls and 1.54%+/-0.58%/min for fire victims. The difference was significant, with a P value of less than 0.01. Using a cut-off value of 0.9%/min (all normal subjects were below 0. 9%/min), 14 (82.4%) patients had abnormal clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the lung. In contrast, only three (17.6%) patients had abnormal CxR and three (17.6%) had abnormal

  20. Correlation of elimination fraction area under the curve with total body clearance.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Tomasz; Raczyńska-Pawelec, Anna; Starościak, Marcin; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to determine the area under the curve ([Formula: see text]), which corresponds to the sum of all elimination processes correlated with the total clearance value. The study attempted to determine the [Formula: see text] based on the coordinates known from classic non-compartmental pharmacokinetics for a single administration of the drug. 318 pharmacokinetics profiles were used for the analysis, obtained from 220 healthy subjects over ten studies. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed with the use of Phoenix™ WinNonlin(®) 6.3. The leave-one-out (LOO) method was used for model cross-validation. Squared cross-validated correlation coefficient (Q (2)) parameter and the difference between Q (2) and R (2) were calculated as a measure of the internal performance and model predictive ability. A high correlation between the clearance value and [Formula: see text] was demonstrated (R (2) > 0.65). However, only in the case of four studies was it possible to validate the linear model using the leave-one-out validation procedure (R (2) > 0.86). The present study proposed a method of graphical and mathematical determination of the area under the curve for the drug elimination process after a single dose of the drug. Furthermore, the concept of calculating the statistical moments and mean elimination time (MET) only for elimination processes based on [Formula: see text] was presented. The result of this work is also a new method of determining the half-life of elimination phase based on the MET value.

  1. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Lesions: Comparative Study with 99mTc-MIBI

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shi; Ji, Tiefeng; Wen, Qiang; Song, Yan; Zhu, Lei; Xu, Zheli; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the potential application of 99mTc-3P-Arg-Gly-Asp (99mTc-3P4-RGD2) scintimammography (SMM) and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) SMM for the differentiation of malignant from benign breast lesions. Method Thirty-six patients with breast masses on physical examination and/or suspicious mammography results that required fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-MIBI SMM were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 60 min and 20 min respectively after intravenous injection of 738±86 MBq radiotracers on a separate day. Images were evaluated by the tumor to non-tumor localization ratios (T/NT). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed on each radiotracer to calculate the cut-off values of quantitative indices and to compare the diagnostic performance for the ability to differentiate malignant from benign diseases. Results The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in benign lesions (3.54±1.51 vs. 1.83±0.98, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM were 89.3%, 90.9% and 89.7%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 2.40. The mean T/NT ratio of 99mTc-MIBI in malignant lesions was also significantly higher than that in benign lesions (2.86±0.99 vs. 1.51±0.61, p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI SMM were 87.5%, 72.7% and 82.1%, respectively, with a T/NT cut-off value of 1.45. According to the ROC analysis, the area under the curve for 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM (area = 0.851) was higher than that for 99mTc-MIBI SMM (area = 0.781), but the statistical difference was not significant. Conclusion 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM does not provide any significant advantage over the established 99mTc-MIBI SMM for the detection of primary breast cancer. The T/NT ratio of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SMM was significantly higher than that of 99m

  2. Novel (99m)Tc(III)-azide complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2=cyclohexanedione dioxime) as potential radiotracers for heart imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Yumin; Avcibasi, Ugur; Liu, Shuang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, novel (99m)Tc(III)-azide complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] ((99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3: R=IS; (99m)Tc-MPboroxime-N3: R=MP; (99m)Tc-PAboroxime-N3: R=PA; (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3: R=PY; and (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3: R=5U) were evaluated as heart imaging agents. Complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (R=IS, MP, PA, PY and 5U) were prepared by ligand exchange between NaN3 and [(99m)TcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R]. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their initial heart uptake and myocardial retention. (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3, (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 and (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3 were prepared with high RCP (93-98%) while the RCP of (99m)Tc-MPboroxime-N3 and (99m)Tc-PAboroxime-N3 was 80-85%. The myocardial retention curves of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3, (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 and (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3 were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-time of the fast component was 1.6±0.4min for (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3, 0.7±0.1min for (99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 and 0.9±0.4min for (99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3. The 2-min heart uptake from biodistribution studies followed the ranking order of (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 (3.60±0.68%ID/g)>(99m)Tc-PYboroxime-N3 (2.35±0.37%ID/g)≫(99m)Tc-Uboroxime-N3 (1.29±0.06%ID/g). (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 had the highest 2-min heart uptake among (99m)Tc radiotracers revaluated in SD rats. High quality SPECT images were obtained with the right and left ventricular walls being clearly delineated. The best image acquisition window was 0-5min for (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3. Both azide coligand and boronate caps had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention of complexes [(99m)Tc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R]. Among the radiotracers evaluated in SD rats, (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 has the highest initial heart uptake with the heart retention comparable to that of (99m)Tc-Teboroxime. (99m)Tc-ISboroxime-N3 is a promising alternative to (99m)Tc-Teboroxime for SPECT MPI. Copyright

  3. Cationic technetium-99m complexes of N-substituted pyridoxal derivatives as renal function agents

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Koji; Takata, Jiro

    1994-10-01

    New cationic technetium-chelating agents containing a pyridinium group have been synthesized and evaluated as potential renal radiopharmaceuticals. The pyridinium compounds used in the study are N-methyl pyridoxal chloride, N-ethyl pyridoxal chloride, N-propyl pyridoxal chloride, 1-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-formylpyridinium chloride, 1-methyl-2-formyl-3-hydroxpyridinium chloride and the Schiff`s bases of N-methyl pyridoxal chloride with amino acid, amino acid ester and amino acid amide. Complexes of these chelating agents with {sup 22m}Tc were prepared using a Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} or a SnCl{sub 2} solution as a reducing agent. The purity of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes was determined by paper electrophoresis in 0.1 Mtris buffer. Electrophoresis indicates slightly positive-charged species. The log P values of these complexes showed a hydrophilic nature. Urinary excretion of the {sup 99m}Tc N-alkylated pyridoxal derivatives, {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, {sup 99m}Tc-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3) and {sup 131}I-o-iodohippurate were determined in mice and rats at different time intervals. In a rat model, the pyridoxal-derived {sup 99m}Tc complexes are rapidly excreted in urine and provide clear renal scintigrams. Hepatobiliary excretion was negligible, reducing scan interference from the intestines. Total clearances were lower than that of {sup 131}I-hippurate and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. The rate of urinary clearance of the new tracers was not significantly faster than {sup 99m}Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the inhibitor N{sup 1}-methylnicotinamide had only a minimal effect on the renal behavior. Though the new tracers have cationic properties, the pyridinium group did not contribute largely to the excretion of active transport. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. A novel approach to infection imaging using a synthetic Tc-99m-labeled leukotactic peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Sharma, S. ||

    1996-05-01

    RMT1, a synthetic peptide binding to PMN and macrophage receptors was labeled with Tc-99m and investigated as a potential imaging agent for abscess and inflammation. Experimental abscesses were induced in rabbits and dogs by turpentine and E.coli injection. After injection of Tc-99m-RMT1 two and twelve day old abscesses were visualized within 20 min. In initial studies, a dose of 30 {mu}g of peptide/3 mCi was used. This amount was subsequently reduced to 1.5 {mu}g peptide with same amount of Tc-99m yielding similar imaging results. Technetium-99m-IgG and Tc-99m-MAG-3 were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. After injection of IgG abscesses were visualized but activity in blood was always higher than in abscess. When using Tc-99m RMT1 rapid abscess visualization and faster blood clearance was observed. The accumulation of RMT1 was monophasic, i.e., following the initial visualization, activity continued to build up continuously for 1{1/2} hr. Tc-99m-MAG3 accumulated initially in abscess, but activity washed out. In dogs, RMT1 blood clearance showed three components: a fast component with t{1/2}=1.9 min, 73%, intermediate t{1/2}=22 min, 24.5% and slow component, t{1/2}=115, 9.5% with 3 hours cumulative urine excretion of 40-51%. RMT1 appears to be more advantageous than currently available methods because of rapidity of imaging, simpler preparation before injection and will probably be less expensive and time consuming compared to labeled WBC. These results indicate that clinical experiments are warranted.

  5. Effects of radiofrequency ablation on individual renal function: assessment by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takashi; Sato, Shuhei; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Mimura, Hidefumi; Yasui, Kotaro; Gobara, Hideo; Saika, Takashi; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2006-04-01

    We quantitatively evaluated total and individual renal function by technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) renal scintigraphy before and after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of renal tumors. Eleven patients who underwent Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy 1 week before and after RFA were evaluated (7 men and 4 women; age range: 23-83 years; mean age: 60.6 years). Five patients had solitary kidneys, and five had normally or minimally functioning contralateral kidneys. One patient had a renal cell carcinoma in the contralateral kidney. One patient with a solitary kidney underwent RFA a second time for a residual tumor. In patients with a solitary kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 5 of 6 RFAs, and in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney, MAG3 clearance decreased after 4 of 5 RFAs, but no significant differences were observed between before and after treatments. In addition to the total MAG3 clearance, the split MAG3 clearance was evaluated in patients with a normally functioning contralateral kidney. MAG3 clearance decreased in 4 of 5 treated kidneys, while it adversely increased in the contralateral kidneys after 4 of 5 RFAs. No significant differences, however, were observed between before and after treatments. The results of our study revealed no significant differences in sCr, BUN, CCr, or MAG3 clearance between pre- and post-RFA values. These results support data regarding the functional impact and safety of renal RFA in published reports. We evaluated total and individual renal function quantitatively using Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy before and after treatment. This scintigraphy was very useful in assessing the effects of RFA on renal function.

  6. Exercise acutely increases renal transit time of Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) in a post-liver transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Rajan; Chahal, Manisha; Appel, Gerald; Bergmann, Steven; Tikofsky, Ronald; Fawwaz, Rashid; Van Heertum, Ronald

    2006-12-01

    This case demonstrates the effect of exercise on the clearance of Tc-99m MAG3 in a patient with renal insufficiency status post-liver transplant. Even after furosemide administration, the tracer was retained in the kidneys after exercise. This is in contrast to normal clearance demonstrated on a baseline study performed 3 days previously.

  7. 99mTc(CO)3-labeled pamidronate and alendronate for bone imaging.

    PubMed

    Palma, Elisa; Correia, João D G; Oliveira, Bruno L; Gano, Lurdes; Santos, Isabel C; Santos, Isabel

    2011-03-28

    Bone scintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-methylenediphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) or (99m)Technetium-hydroxymethylenediphosphonate ((99m)Tc-HMDP) presents several limitations, namely low specificity, uncertainty in the radiopharmaceutical's molecular structure and long acquisition time after injection. Aiming to find bone-seeking radiotracers based on the core fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)](+) with improved chemical and biological properties, we synthesized new conjugates (pz-PAM and pz-ALN), comprising a pyrazolyl-diamine chelating unit (pz: N,N,N donor atom set) for metal stabilization and a pendant pamidronate (PAM) or alendronate (ALN) moiety for bone targeting. The reaction of the conjugates with fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)](+) yielded (> 95%) the stable complexes fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(pz-PAM)](-) (2a) and fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(pz-ALN)](-) (3a), which have been characterized by comparing their HPLC gamma-traces with the UV-vis traces of the Re surrogates 2 and 3, respectively. 2a and 3a bind strongly onto hydroxyapatite. The biodistribution studies in Balb-c mice have shown that 2a and 3a presented an high bone uptake (2a 18.3 ± 0.6% I.D./g, 3a 17.3 ± 6.1% I.D./g, at 1 h post injection), similar to (99m)Tc-MDP (17.1 ± 2.4% I.D./g, at 1 h post injection), with comparable clearance from most tissues and increased total excretion (2a 66% I.D., 3a 67% I.D. and (99m)Tc-MDP 49% I.D., at 1 h post injection). The bone-to-blood (2a 86.2, 3a 74.7) and the bone-to-muscle ratios (2a 77.7, 3a 79.0) are higher than the ones found for (99m)Tc-MDP (70.9, 47.9), at 4 h post injection. Planar whole-body gamma camera images of the rats injected with the (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled pamidronate (2a) and alendronate (3a) confirmed the overall adequate biological profile of the new radiotracers for bone imaging.

  8. New series of Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary tracers: N'-acyl- and N'-sulfonyl ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Karube, Y.; Kono, A.; Maeda, T.; Ohya, M.; Matsushima, Y.

    1981-07-01

    Various Tc-99m-labeled N'-substituted derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N-diacetic acid (EDDA) are evaluated as hepatobiliary imaging agents. N-substituted aromatic acyl and aromatic sulfonyl derivatives of EDDA, labeled with Tc-99m, were administered to rabbits and golden hamsters, and the distribution indicated clearance by the hepatobiliary system. N'-aromatic sulfonyl EDDAs were labeled with Tc-99m by the SnCl/sub 2/ method with more than 99% yield. Clearance of Tc-99m-p-toluenesulfonyl EDDA from the blood and the liver was as rapid as that of TC-99m N-(2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)iminodiacetic acid (Tc-99m benzenesulfonyl EDDA lowered urinary excretion. It is concluded that the sulfonyl EDDAs provide a fruitful source for Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.

  9. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of a (99m)Tc-folic acid radiotracer prepared using [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) metal fragment.

    PubMed

    Vats, Kusum; Subramanian, Suresh; Mathur, Anupam; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2017-03-01

    Folate receptors (FR) are over-expressed on a wide variety of tumor cells and are a potential molecular target for radiolabeled folates. In this respect, several SPECT and PET based radiofolates have been evaluated in the past albeit with their high renal uptake posing limitation towards their clinical use. To overcome this, a new (99m)Tc labeled folic acid was synthesized via the use of [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) metal fragment, where the presence of the latter pharmacophore redirects in vivo clearance via the hepatobiliary pathway. In this respect, folic acid was derivatized at the γ-acid group with a cysteine BFCA (bifunctional chelating agent) and subsequently reacted with the preformed [(99m)TcN](2+) intermediate in presence of PNP2 (bisphosphine) ligand, to yield the final complex. While preliminary, in vivo distribution of the complex exhibited high association of activity with liver and intestines and provided support to the rationality of the present design as clearance of labeled folic acid could be effected via the hepatic route, the in vitro studies of the folic acid-cysteine conjugate carried out in KB-31 cells, did not show much promise with reduction in receptor affinity in comparison with the native folic acid. The route followed herein to prepare a folic-acid based radiotracer constitutes the first report of radiolabeling folic acid using the [(99m)TcN(PNP)](2+) as a radiosynthon. Modification in the structure of conjugate by linking the BFCA through a long-chain linker can be envisaged to improve the affinity of [(99m)TcN(PNP)]-folic acid complex towards FRs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Research of 99mTcO4- and 99mTcO2- in injectable solutions of 99mTc-HMDP by inverse phase HPTLC].

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Y; Zoubir, Br; Xicluna, A; Bidet, A-Cl

    2006-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy allows the diagnostic of many pathologies related to bone through the intravenous administration of a phosphonate bone marker complexed to 99 metastable technetium (99mTc). The instability of these injectable solutions on contact with air can lead to a mixture of pertechnetate VII (99mTcO4-) and technetium IV (99mTcO2-, xH2O), technetium IV being the only derivative to fix bone. A qualitative control of the purity of these solutions proved to be consequently important before administration. We report here the perfecting of a new chromatographic test based on reverse phase high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). This test, simple, rapid and reproductive allows without ambiguity the detection of 99mTcO4-(VII) and 99mTcO2-(IV), xH2O in hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) injectable solutions ready to use.

  11. 99mTc-Tetraethylenepentamine-Folate--a new 99mTc-based folate derivative for the detection of folate receptor positive tumors: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Panwar, Puja; Shrivastava, Vibha; Tandon, Vibha; Mishra, Pushpa; Chuttani, Krishna; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Mishra, Anil K

    2004-10-01

    A new radiopharmaceutical, 99mTc-Tetraethylenepentamine(TEPA)-Folate has been synthesized introducing TEPA to the gamma-carboxyl group of folic acid. This binds with 99mTc high efficiency at ambient temperature. The resulting 99mTc-N5-Folate is stable under physiological conditions at least for 24 h after radiocomplexation. TEPA is a known open chain pentamine (N5) chelator, its four-nitrogen act as the binding site for 99mTc. The folate membrane receptor binding of the 99mTc-TEPA-Folate by established human tumor cell lines (KB, U-87MG and MDA-MB-468) showed Kd in microM range in normal DMEM (10% serum, 10 microM folic acid). The blood kinetic studies showed more than 70% clearance within five minutes from the circulation. The KB cell line tumors in mice were readily identifiable in the gamma images and revealed major accumulation of radiotracer in liver, kidneys and intestines. High tumor uptake was shown in the tumor bearing nude mice; tumorto-blood ratios reached 2.68 +/- 0.52 and 5.5 +/- 1.47 at 1 and 4 h after post injection respectively. Surviving fractions as obtained in clonogenic assay were 1.02 +/- 0.07 and 1.03 +/- 0.05 in U-87MG and MDA-MB-468 cell lines respectively. The 99mTc-N5-Folate conjugate have promising utility as a receptor specific radiopharmaceutical for imaging neoplastic tissues known to over express folate-binding protein.

  12. Myocardial infarct imaging in patients with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Superiority of technetium-99m pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.P.; Milne, N.; Karlsberg, R.P.; Olson, H.G.; Kuperus, J.

    1987-07-01

    Technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) has been used successfully for imaging acute myocardial infarction in a canine model. The application in humans, however, has not been previously reported. In order to determine the feasibility of using this agent in clinical studies and to compare the agent to technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi), ten patients with proven myocardial infarction were studied. While imaging of transmural infarctions in humans was achieved using Tc-99m DMSA, scores for the Tc-99m DMSA images (1.8 +/- 0.96) were not as high as for Tc-99m PPi (2.5 +/- 0.45) (P less than 0.05). Discordance among four independent interpreters was greater for images obtained with Tc-99m DMSA. The superiority of Tc-99m PPi was evident whether images were obtained early (within 24 hours) or late (within five days). Although DMSA images were not obscured by rib uptake, they were less sensitive (63%) than Tc-99m PPi (97%). A potential advantage of Tc-99m DMSA in imaging acute myocardial infarction is that radiotracer concentration in the infarct occurs primarily in the early postinfarction period. The longer postinfarction that Tc-99m DMSA imaging was attempted, the lower the concentration of radiotracer. Thus, Tc-99m DMSA would not be expected to have the same persistence pattern as Tc-99m PPi into the remote postinfarction period. The persistent positivity of Tc-99m PPi has made it difficult to diagnose reinfarction.

  13. Lung ventilation studies with technetium-99m Pseudogas

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, W.M.; Sullivan, P.J.; Lomas, F.E.; Evans, V.A.; McLaren, C.J.; Arnot, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    Technetium-99m Pseudogas is an ultrafine near monodisperse aerosol of 0.12-microgram diam particle size. This report describes initial clinical experiences with 27 patients referred for investigation of suspected pulmonary embolism, and in whom Pseudogas ventilation images were compared with a high quality commercial aerosol. An additional group of ten patients with severe COPD was examined in a comparative trial of Pseudogas with 81mKr. Pseudogas was better than a conventional aerosol in reaching a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using a simple blinded comparison with coded images. In addition, bronchial deposition was minimal unless COPD was severe. Moderately well patients had no difficulty inhaling the necessary activity in one or two breaths, and even severely ill and frail aged persons could accomplish the passive breathing maneuver in less than a minute. Clearance of Pseudogas was directly to the systemic circulation with a half-time of 10 min in normal subjects extending up to 100 min in patients with airways disease.

  14. Initial Evaluation of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) as a Renal Tracer in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Folks, Russell D; Taylor, Andrew T

    2014-09-01

    Preclinical studies in rats showed that two of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers (rac- and L-ASMA) had pharmacokinetic properties equivalent to that of (131)I-OIH, the radiopharmaceutical standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers in healthy human subjects. Three ASMA ligands (rac-, L- and D-ASMA) were labeled with (99m)Tc(CO)3 using an IsoLink kit (Covidien), and each formed (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) tracer was co-injected with (131)I-OIH into healthy human subjects followed by sequential imaging, plasma clearance measurements and timed urine collection. Plasma protein binding, red cell uptake and percent injected dose in the urine were determined. Urine from each group of volunteers was analyzed for metabolites by HPLC. Image quality was excellent with all three agents. Each (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) preparation was excreted unchanged in the urine. The plasma clearance ratio ((99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA)/(131)I-OIH) was 81 ± 3 % for D-ASMA compared to only 20 ± 4 % for L-ASMA and 37 ± 7 % for rac-ASMA; the 81 % clearance ratio for D-ASMA isomer is still ∼ 30 % higher than the (99m)Tc-MAG3/(131)I-OIH clearance ratio (∼50-60 %). Red cell uptake was similar for all three tracers (6-9 %), and all tracers had a relatively rapid renal excretion; at 3 h, the (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA)/(131)I-OIH urine ratio was 100 ± 3 % for D-ASMA, 80 ± 2 % for L-ASMA and 88 ± 1 % for rac-ASMA. The renal excretion characteristics of (99m)Tc(CO)3(D-ASMA) in humans are superior to those of the other two (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers studied, but are still inferior to (131)I-OIH, even though there was no difference in the clearance of two of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers and (131)I-OIH in rats. The work described here demonstrates the sensitivity in in vivo biological behavior of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers to their subtle structural differences.

  15. Preparation of (99m)Tc-C(60)(OH)(x) and its biodistribution studies.

    PubMed

    Qingnuan, Li; yan, Xiu; Xiaodong, Zhang; Ruili, Liu; qieqie, Du; Xiaoguang, Shun; Shaoliang, Chen; Wenxin, Li

    2002-08-01

    The biological behavior of fullerene derivatives shows their considerable potential for medical applications. In order to provide a C(60) derivative for biodistriburtion studies, the (99m)Tc-labeling of C(60)(OH)(x) was optimized. Gamma counting and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were used to assess the biodistribution of the (99m)Tc-labeled compound in mice and rabbits. Biodistribution studies in mice and imaging of rabbits indicated that (99m)Tc-C(60)(OH)(x) was widely distributed in all tissues. A significant percentage of total activity was retained for 48 h, particularly in the kidneys, bone, spleen, and liver. All tissues displayed a slow clearance over 48 h, except for bone, which showed slightly increasing localization within 24 h.

  16. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program.

  17. Tc-99m DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of Tc-99m DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of Tc-99m DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) with time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of Tc-99m DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies.

  18. 99mTc DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of 99mTc DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of 99mTc DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) ith time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of 99mTc DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies.

  19. Technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid radioaerosol scintigraphy in organophosphate induced pulmonary toxicity: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Yucel; Kaya, Eser; Yurumez, Yusuf; Sahin, Onder; Bas, Orhan; Fidan, Huseyin; Sezer, Murat

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to investigate pathological signs of lung damages caused by acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning by using Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol scintigraphy and histopathological investigation. Fourteen rabbits were divided into two equal groups (n = 7). Group 1 (control group) received normal saline (same volume of fenthion, 2 ml/kg) via orogastric tube. Group 2 (OP toxicity group) received 150 mg/kg of fenthion (diluted fenthion, 2 ml/kg) via orogastric tube. Six hours later, Tc-99m-DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was performed in both groups. Then all rabbits were anesthetized with ketamine hydrochloride (35 mg/kg, i.p.) and xysilazine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), and sacrificed by intracardiac blood discharge. The lungs were then removed. There was a significant difference in T1/2 values of Tc-99m DTPA clearance between control group and OP toxicity group (p = 0.04). Intraparenchymal vascular congestion and thrombosis, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, respiratory epithelial proliferation, number of macrophages in the alveolar, and bronchial lumen, alveolar destruction, emphysematous changes, and bronchoalveolar hemorrhage scores were significantly higher in the rabbits exposed to OP compared with the control group (p < 0.05). This study showed that OP toxicity caused a decrease in the alveolar clearance. Tc-99m DTPA radioaerosol inhalation lung scintigraphy was found to be a sensitive determination of acute lung damage in OP poisoning.

  20. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aungurarat, A.; Ngamprayad, T.; Dangprasert, M.; Phumkem, S.; Jowanaridhi, B.

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin for diagnosis of bacterial infection was investigated by varying factors which affected this compound. The optimum conditions for preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and a lyophilized kit for Tc-99m labelling were studied. The results from biodistribution study showed that the percentages of the injected dose per gram tissues of infected area at 1 and 3 hours after injection were around 0.25-0.56. 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was found sterile, pyrogen-free and non-toxic. Radiochemical purity was greater than 90% with greater than 6 hours of stability.

  1. Comparison of technetium-99m sulfur colloid and technetium-99m albumin colloid labeled solid meals for gastric emptying studies.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, R; Douesnard, J M; Beauchamp, G; Guimond, J

    1987-08-01

    A Tc-99m albumin colloid (Tc-AC) kit has been introduced as an alternative to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for liver-spleen imaging. Since there is no need for boiling, the use of Tc-AC reduces preparation time and manipulation. Tc-SC is one of the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for the labeling of solid-phase markers in gastric emptying studies. In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the labeling efficiency and stability in hydrochloric acid and in human gastric juice of intracellularly labeled chicken liver and scrambled eggs labeled with Tc-SC and Tc-AC. Gastric emptying studies also were performed on 20 healthy volunteers with both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled egg sandwiches. There was no significant difference between Tc-SC and Tc-AC in the labeling efficiency of chicken liver (98% +/- 1% for Tc-SC, 96% +/- 2% for Tc-AC) and scrambled eggs (92% +/- 2% for Tc-SC, 91% +/- 3% for Tc-AC). However, both Tc-SC and Tc-AC labeled scrambled eggs showed a lower stability than chicken liver, particularly in human gastric juice. Gastric emptying curves from both meals in 20 normal subjects were also similar, with a mean half-emptying time of 85 +/- 13 minutes and 87 +/- 16 minutes for the meals containing Tc-SC and Tc-AC respectively. Tc-AC is a reliable alternative to Tc-SC as a radiotracer for solid-phase gastric emptying studies.

  2. Comparison of Tc-99m maraciclatide and Tc-99m sestamibi molecular breast imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Michael K; Morrow, Melissa M B; Hunt, Katie N; Boughey, Judy C; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Conners, Amy Lynn; Rhodes, Deborah J; Hruska, Carrie B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) performed with (99m)Tc sestamibi has been shown to be a valuable technique for the detection of breast cancer. Alternative radiotracers such as (99m)Tc maraciclatide may offer improved uptake in breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare relative performance of (99m)Tc sestamibi and (99m)Tc maraciclatide in patients with suspected breast cancer, using a high-resolution dedicated gamma camera for MBI. Women with breast lesions suspicious for malignancy were recruited to undergo two MBI examinations-one with (99m)Tc sestamibi and one with (99m)Tc maraciclatide. A radiologist interpreted MBI studies in a randomized, blinded fashion to assign an assessment score (1-5) and measured lesion size. Lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio was measured with region-of-interest analysis. Among 39 analyzable patients, 21 malignant tumors were identified in 21 patients. Eighteen of 21 tumors (86%) were seen on (99m)Tc sestamibi MBI and 19 of 21 (90%) were seen on (99m)Tc maraciclatide MBI (p = 1). Tumor extent measured with both radiopharmaceuticals correlated strongly with pathologic size ((99m)Tc sestamibi, r = 0.84; (99m)Tc maraciclatide, r = 0.81). The L/B ratio in detected breast cancers was similar for the two radiopharmaceuticals: 1.55 ± 0.36 (mean ± S.D.) for (99m)Tc sestamibi and 1.62 ± 0.37 (mean ± S.D.) for (99m)Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.53). No correlation was found between the L/B ratio and molecular subtype for (99m)Tc sestamibi (r s  = 0.12, p = 0.63) or (99m)Tc maraciclatide (r s  = -0.12, p = 0.64). Of 20 benign lesions, 10 (50%) were seen on (99m)Tc sestamibi and 9 of 20 (45%) were seen on (99m)Tc maraciclatide images (p = 0.1). The average L/B ratio for benign lesions was 1.34 ±0.40 (mean ±S.D.) for (99m)Tc sestamibi and 1.41 ±0.52 (mean ±S.D.) for (99m)Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.75). Overall diagnostic performance was similar for both radiopharmaceuticals

  3. [99mTc-ECD dynamic SPECT in "luxury perfusion" of subacute stroke].

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, K; Fujiwara, S; Yoshimoto, T

    1995-11-01

    To evaluate the cerebral pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) at blood flow levels beyond the normal range, we investigated "luxury perfusion" in subacute stroke, ictal hyperperfusion in epilepsy and post-decompressive hyperemia in head trauma. All 7 patients showed a hyperactive area on SPECT studies using 99mTc-HM-PAO. 99mTc-ECD static image demonstrated a hyperactive area in both epilepsy and head trauma, and a hypoactive area in "luxury perfusion." On the dynamic SPECT of 99mTc-ECD in both epilepsy and head trauma, brain distribution of the tracer was determined within 2 min. postinjection and remained stable for up to 1 hour; however, "luxury perfusion" area showed a change from initial hyperactivity to late hypoactivity with the passage of time. The time activity curve in "luxury perfusion" area demonstrated a steep decrease of counts/pixel for up to 4-5 minutes postinjection, and a moderate decrease in the following phase. The early wash-out mechanism of 99mTc-ECD from "luxury perfusion" area can be described by a biexponential function including an initial steep decrease representing the rapid loss of the lipophilic complexes which were not metabolized in injured brain tissue.

  4. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-09-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function.

  5. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in evaluation of active Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Jiang, Xu-Feng; Wang, Shu; Chen, Hao-Yan; Sun, Jiao; Li, Pei-Yong; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Yong-Ju

    2007-06-01

    A promising radiopharmaceutical (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-Octreotide) can be applied for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with the potential to replace Indium-111 labeled somatostatin analogus. Here we evaluate whether orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be used as a Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) activity parameter to predict the retrobulbar irradiation response. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy was performed on 14 consecutive patients demonstrating moderated to severe Graves' ophthalmopathy. The patients were treated with retrobulbar irradiation following the octreoscan and the response to this therapy was assessed at 3 months after the start of treatment. The orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake was calculated to assess the effects of treatment. Among the 14 GO patients, eight (57.1%) responded to retrobulbar radiotherapy; six (42.9%) showed no change. We compared the eight responders and six non-responders in terms of orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC uptake, using the orbital/occipital ratio. On the 4-h (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy, responders had a higher orbital/occipital uptake ratio than the no-responders (P = 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the orbital/occipital ratio and the clinical activity score (CAS) (P = 0.034). The Receiving-Operator-Characteristic curve showed the best threshold for discriminating active and inactive disease was 1.40 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 83.3%). In the responders group, all these eight patients had positive scintigraphy. While there were five patients who had negative scintigraphy in the non-responders group. Orbital (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy can be a useful method for the estimation of disease activity and prediction the response to subsequent radiotherapy in GO patient. And the patients with positive octreoscan were more likely to respond to irradiation.

  6. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  7. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-07-01

    Valuate complementary role of (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and (99m)Technetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. NINETY ONE SITES SUSPECTED TO HAVE BONE INFECTION WERE DIVIDED IN TO TWO GROUPS: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte ((99m)Tc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan ((99m)Tc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, (99m)Tc-MDP, and (99m)Tc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. (99m)Tc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for (99m)Tc-MDP. On the other hand, (99m)Tc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for (99m)Tc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for (99m)Tc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for (99m)Tc-MDP. Combined imaging with (99m)Tc-WBCs and (99m)Tc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis.

  8. Electron impact ionisation of encapsulated 99mTc@C 60 and 99mTc@C 70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Đustebek, J. B.; Đorđević, V. R.; Cvetićanin, J. M.; Veličković, S. R.; Veljković, M. V.; Nešković, O. M.; Rakočević, Z. L.; Bibić, N. M.

    2010-03-01

    The present study shows simultaneous surface ionisation and electron impact ionisation during the formation and investigation of endohedral fullerenes 99mTc@C 60 and 99mTc@C 70. The endohedral fullerenes were generated using a mass spectrometer with a triple rhenium filament as an ion source. The ionisation energies (IE) determined were: 8.52 ± 0.25 eV for 99mTc@C 60 and 9.57 ± 0.25 eV for 99mTc@ C 70.

  9. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  10. Excretion of technetium 99m hexakismethoxyisobutylisonitrile in milk.

    PubMed

    Rubow, S M; Ellmann, A; le Roux, J; Klopper, J

    1991-01-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following the administration of technetium 99m hexakismethoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) to a patient referred for cold spot myocardial scintigraphy was determined. During the first 24 h after administration, only 41.2 kBq 99mTc (0.0084% of the injected dose) was excreted in 448 ml milk with the highest concentration of 0.49 kBq/ml in the first sample. The images obtained show a high concentration of 99mTc-MIBI in the lactating breasts contrary to the very small percentage excreted in the milk. Comparison with various recommendations regarding nursing after administration of radiopharmaceuticals seems to indicate that the administration of 99mTc-MIBI does not necessitate an interruption of breast-feeding.

  11. Preclinical evaluation of 99mTc(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA), a new renal radiotracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to 131I-OIH

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Marzilli, Luigi G.; Taylor, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    In an ongoing effort to develop a renal tracer with pharmacokinetic properties comparable to PAH and superior to those of both 99mTc-MAG3 and 131I-OIH, we evaluated a new renal tricarbonyl radiotracer based on the aspartic-N-monoacetic acid ligand, 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA). The ASMA ligand features two carboxyl groups and an amine function for the coordination of the {99mTc(CO)3}+ core as well as a dangling carboxylate to facilitate rapid renal clearance. Methods rac-ASMA and L-ASMA were labeled with a 99mTc-tricarbonyl precursor and radiochemical purity of the labeled products was determined by HPLC. Using 131I-OIH as an internal control, we evaluated biodistribution in normal rats with 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers and in rats with renal pedicle ligation with 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA). Clearance studies were conducted in 4 additional rats. In vitro radiotracer stability was determined in PBS buffer pH 7.4 and in challenge studies with cysteine and histidine. 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) metabolites in urine were analyzed by HPLC. Results Both 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) preparations had > 99% radiochemical purity and were stable in PBS buffer pH 7.4 for 24 h. Challenge studies on both revealed no significant displacement of the ligand. In normal rats, % injected dose in urine at 10 and 60 min for both preparations averaged 103% and 106% that of 131I-OIH, respectively. The renal clearances of 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) and 131I-OIH were comparable (P = 0.48). The tracer was excreted unchanged in the urine, proving its in vivo stability. In pedicle-ligated rats, 99mTc(CO)3(rac-ASMA) had less excretion into the bowel (P < 0.05) and was better retained in the blood (P < 0.05) than 131I-OIH. Conclusion Both 99mTc(CO)3(ASMA) complexes have pharmacokinetic properties in rats comparable to or superior to those of 131I-OIH, and human studies are warranted for their further evaluation. PMID:22717977

  12. Sustained Availability of Technetium-99m - Possible Paths Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    The availability of technetium-99m (99mTc) for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/99mTc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F 99Mo) produced by use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. The use of HEU targets is being phased out because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, so alternative strategies for production of both 99Mo and 99mTc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the 99Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of 99mTc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of 99mTc without the use of HEU. In this paper the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. In addition, the international actions in progress towards evolving possible alternative strategies to produce 99Mo and/or 99mTc are analyzed. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide 99Mo and 99mTc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of 99mTc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

  13. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-04-15

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated.

  14. Monitoring Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Xenograft After Paclitaxel Treatment With 99mTc-Labeled Duramycin SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Luo, Rui; Niu, Lei; Qiu, Fan; Fang, Wei; Fu, Tong; Zhao, Ming; Zhang, Ying-Jian; Hua, Zi-Chun; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Our goal was to validate the feasibility of(99m)Tc-duramycin as a potential apoptosis probe for monitoring tumor response to paclitaxel in breast cancer xenografts. The binding of(99m)Tc-duramycin to phosphatidylethanolamine was validated in vitro using paclitaxel-treated human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. Female BALB/c mice (n = 5) bearing breast cancer xenografts were randomized into 2 groups and intraperitoneally injected with 40 mg/kg paclitaxel or phosphate-buffered saline.(99m)Tc-duramycin (37-55.5 MBq) was injected at 72 hours posttreatment, and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography was performed at 2 hours postinjection. Apoptotic cells and activated caspase 3 in explanted tumor tissue were measured by flow cytometry. Cellular ultrastructural changes were assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy.(99m)Tc-duramycin with radiochemical purity of >90% exhibited rapid blood clearance and predominantly renal clearance. The tumor-to-muscle ratio in the paclitaxel-treated group (5.29 ± 0.62) was significantly higher than that in the control. Tumor volume was decreased dramatically, whereas tumor uptake of(99m)Tc-duramycin (ex vivo) significantly increased following paclitaxel treatment, which was consistent with apoptotic index, histological findings, and ultrastructural changes. Our data demonstrated the feasibility of(99m)Tc-duramycin for early detection of apoptosis after paclitaxel chemotherapy in breast carcinoma xenografts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate.

  16. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  17. Imaging considerations for a technetium-99m myocardial perfusion agent

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Lister-James, J.; Campbell, S.; Holman, B.L.

    1986-03-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging with /sup 201/Tl chloride suffers from a number of physical, geometric, and dosimetric constraints that could be diminished if an agent labeled with /sup 99m/Tc were available. The cationic complex /sup 99m/Tc hexakis-(t-butylisonitrile)technetium(I) ((/sup 99m/Tc)TBI) has been shown to concentrate in the myocardial tissue of both animals and humans, with preliminary clinical studies demonstrating a number of technical attributes not possible with /sup 201/Tl. Technetium-99m-TBI is a promising myocardial imaging agent that may permit high quality planar, gated, and tomographic imaging of both myocardial ischemia and infarction with reduced imaging times and improved resolution.

  18. Production of medical 99 m Tc isotope via photonuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, K.; Takahashi, N.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Fan, G. T.; Takemoto, A.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nishimura, M.

    2017-01-01

    99 m Tc with a 6 hour half-life is one of the most important medical isotopes used for the Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) inspection in hospitals of US, Canada, Europe and Japan. 99 m Tc isotopes are extracted by the milking method from parent 99Mo isotopes with a 66 hour half-life. The supply of 99Mo isotopes now encounters a serious crisis. Hospitals may not suitably receive 99Mo medical isotopes in near future, due to difficulties in production by research nuclear reactors. Many countries are now looking for alternative ways to generate 99Mo isotopes other than those with research reactors. We discuss a sustained availability of 99 m Tc isotopes via the nat Mo(γ, n) photonuclear reaction, and discuss to solve technical problems for extracting pure 99 m Tc isotopes from other output materials of photonuclear reactions.

  19. TC-99m MIBI SPECT imaging in patients with lung carcinoma: is it a functional probe of multidrug resistance genes?

    PubMed

    Ak, Ilknur; Gülbaş, Zafer; Ocak, Suna; Kaya, Eser; Alataş, Füsun; Vardareli, Erkan; Metintaş, Muzaffer

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenotype concerns altered membrane transport that results in lower cell concentrations of cytotoxic drug in many cancer types, including lung cancer, and is related to the overexpression of a variety of proteins that act as adenosine triphosphate-dependent extrusion pumps. Tc-99m Sestamibi (MIBI) is a transport substrate for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) pump. In this study, we assessed the uptake and clearance of technetium-99m-2-hexakis 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI) from the tumor and its correlation with messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Pgp, MDR-associated protein (MRP1), and lung resistance protein (LRP) in lung carcinoma. This study was carried out on 19 patients (mean age, 60.1 +/- 2.07 years) with advanced-stage lung carcinoma. The tumor samples obtained by bronchoscopy were assessed to estimate the levels of Pgp, MRP1, and LRP expression on mRNA level by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tc-99m MIBI chest imaging was performed 15 and 180 minutes after injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI. The early (T/Be) and delayed (T/Bd) Tc-99m MIBI uptakes and washout rate (WR) of Tc-99m MIBI from the tumor were measured. No correlation was found between the T/Be Tc-99m MIBI uptake of tumors (T/Be) and the levels of Pgp mRNA, MRP1 mRNA, and LRP mRNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. There was a correlation between the mean T/Bd Tc-99m MIBI uptake and Pgp expression of the tumors (P = 0.001, Spearman rho = - 0.702). There was a correlation between the WR of Tc-99m MIBI from the tumor and Pgp expression of the tumor (P = 0.000, Spearman rho = 0.875). Washout rate of Tc-99m MIBI was not related to the levels of MRP1 mRNA (P = 0.93, Spearman rho = 0.02) or LRP mRNA (P = 0.47, Spearman rho = 0.177). Increased WR of Tc-99m MIBI is related in Pgp over expression of the tumor. Tc-99m MIBI single photon emission computed tomography imaging may be a functional probe of overexpression of Pgp in

  20. Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GHA) renal uptake: Influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m-GHA is widely used for renal imaging but little is known about its handling by the kidney. Simultaneous single injection clearances of Tc-99m-GHA and I-125 Iothalamate were performed on 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats divided among six groups: I Control; II Dehydrated; III Mannitol infusion; IV Probenecid; V Alkaline urine (sodium bicarbonate); and VI Acid urine (ammonium chloride). Plasma concentration and urine excretion were followed during 80 minutes post injection. The livers and kidneys were removed and counted 120 minutes post injection. Total clearance of GHA was lower than Iothalamate in controls (0.90 +- 0.24 S.D. ml/min/100gr vs 1.47 +- 0.18, p < 0.005) but clearance of the protein free supernate was higher (1.67 +- 0.28 p=N.S.) raising a possibility of degree of tubular secretion. Unlike Tc-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) acidification of the urine appeared to have no effect on the amount of GHA in the urine (66.1 +- 6.35% Inj. dose vs 67.19 +- 6.05 p=n.s.) and hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1%. Kidney uptake of GHA was 11.16 +- 1.53 (% Inj. dose) in controls. This varied slightly among groups but was markedly reduced by Probenecid blockade (4.08 +- 1.75, p < 0.0005). It appears that liver uptake of GHA is minimal, the non-protein bound fraction is freely filtered and its clearance correlates significantly with the GFR. Importantly renal accumulation of GHA is blocked by probenecid suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by the enzyme system involved in PAH and Hippuran transport. It thus appears that measurement of renal function with GHA represents a different aspect of function than DMSA.

  1. Molybdenum-99/technetium-99m management: race against time.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-11-01

    Molybdenum-99 is a parent of diagnostic nuclear medicine. It decays to technetium-99m, which used in over 30 million investigations per year around the world. Supplies of Tc-99m remained fragile in the last few years, which may occur again in the short and long term. Few suggestions have been registered in this letter to cope inadequate supply of the most wanted radionuclide for patient care.

  2. Radioactive equilibrium: 99Mo/99mTc decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P; Bé, Marie-Martine

    2014-05-01

    Within the Decay Data Evaluation Project, as an example of a radioactive equilibrium with isomer, the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc equilibrium mixture decay characteristics are examined. The results of a new decay data evaluation are presented for (99)Mo/(99m)Tc decay to nuclear levels in (99)Tc. These evaluated data have been obtained using information published up to 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatic uptake of technetium-99m diphosphonate in thalassemia major

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, H.M.; Smith, R.

    1986-02-01

    Two cases of thalassemia major are presented in which bone scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse hepatic uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonate. Although abnormal splenic and renal uptake of Tc-99m phosphates has been reported in patients with thalassemia major, hepatic uptake has not been reported previously. This scintigraphic finding is presumably due to increased iron deposition in the liver, resulting from increased iron turnover and retention in these patients and from multiple previous blood transfusions.

  4. Technetium-99m DMSA imaging and the obstructed kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R.; Roland, J.H.; Froideville, J.L.; Kinthaert, J.; Hall, M.; Verboven, M.; Collier, F.

    1986-06-01

    Although several authors have claimed that the function of an obstructed kidney could be overestimated on Tc-99m DMSA imaging, the clinical importance of such an overestimation has not been well documented. Partial obstruction of one ureter was created in a rat, and a relative Tc-99m DMSA uptake was obtained 4 hours after intravenous injection. By puncture of the isolated obstructed kidney, it was shown that the function of that kidney was overestimated by at least 17%.

  5. Poor Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake, re-evaluation with Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy in Lowe syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Demirel, Koray; Diri, Akif; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2011-10-01

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules as low molecular weight proteins. In Lowe syndrome this mechanism is impaired and so poor DMSA uptake is seen. Poor DMSA uptake was shown in very few studies, but none mentioned normal Tc-99m MAG3 uptake. In this case, the patient had poor DMSA uptake, normal MAG3 uptake and a neurogenic bladder in anterior to the left kidney that attenuates left kidney.

  6. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  7. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer.

  8. Rapid diagnosis of occult abscesses using sup 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, T.A.; Rhodes, B.A. ); Thakur, M.L. ); Marcus, C.S. ); Ballou, B. )

    1991-01-01

    Acute infections, such as appendicitis and occult infections in AIDS patients, can be diagnosed within two hours by gamma scintigraphy after i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibodies reactive with human granulocytes. The antibody, murine IgM anti-SSEA-1, is partially reduced using Sn(II) to expose and protect reactive sulfide groups. The antibody is then purified, stannous tartrate and stabilizers are added, and the mixture is lyophilized. To label, sodium pertechnetate is added. After a 15 minute incubation the tracer drug is injected. The rate of accumulation and degree of concentration at the site of infection is presumptively determinative of the severity of the infection. Acceptance criteria and tests for the {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibody product have been established and validated. Greater than 93% of the {sup 99m}Tc is firmly bound to the protein as determined by quantitative HPLC. Radiochemical impurities, colloidal {sup 99m}Tc and free pertechnetate are together less than 4% as determined by thin layer chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction, measured by binding to solid phase antigen, and affinity measured be ELISA, are unchanged by the {sup 99m}Tc-direct labeling process. Two hour blood clearance in rats is within 90% of the value of the {sup 125}I labeled analog. The immunoreactive fraction decreases less than 10% when incubated in human plasma for 24 hours. This method has been compared to other direct labeling methods, and found to give higher radiochemical yields. 5 figs.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc/Re-tricarbonyl quinolone complexes.

    PubMed

    Kydonaki, Theocharis E; Tsoukas, Evangelos; Mendes, Filipa; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G; Paulo, António; Papadopoulou, Lefkothea C; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia; Psomas, George

    2016-07-01

    New rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with the quinolone antimicrobial agents oxolinic acid (Hoxo) and enrofloxacin (Herx) and containing methanol, triphenylphosphine (PPh3) or imidazole (im) as unidentate co-ligands, were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of complex [Re(CO)3(oxo)(PPh3)]∙0.5MeOH was determined by X-ray crystallography. The deprotonated quinolone ligands are bound bidentately to rhenium(I) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylate oxygen. The binding of the rhenium complexes to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) was monitored by UV spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and competitive studies with ethidium bromide; intercalation was suggested as the most possible mode and the DNA-binding constants of the complexes were calculated. The rhenium complex [Re(CO)3(erx)(im)] was assayed for its topoisomerase IIα inhibition activity and was found to be active at 100μM concentration. The interaction of the rhenium complexes with human or bovine serum albumin was investigated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy (through the tryptophan quenching) and the corresponding binding constants were determined. The tracer complex [(99m)Tc(CO)3(erx)(im)] was synthesized and identified by comparative HPLC analysis with the rhenium analog. The (99m)Tc complex was found to be stable in solution. Upon injection in healthy mice, fast tissue clearance of the (99m)Tc complex was observed, while both renal and hepatobiliary excretion took place. Preliminary studies in human K-562 erythroleukemia cells showed cellular uptake of the (99m)Tc tracer with distribution primarily in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria and less in the nucleus. These preliminary results indicate that the quinolone (99m)Tc/Re complexes show promise to be further evaluated as imaging or therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tc-99m-tetrofosmin scintigraphy: an alternative scintigraphic method for following up differentiated thyroid carcinoma--preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gallowitsch, H J; Kresnik, E; Mikosch, P; Pipam, W; Gomez, I; Lind, P

    1996-12-01

    The usefulness of the myocardial perfusion agent, Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (Myoview) in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was evaluated in a clinical study of 15 patients, primary treated with thyroidectomy and high-dose I-131-therapy (2960-3700 MBq). 12 with suspected recurrence and metastases and three patients without any suspicion and compared with other non-specific tracers like TI-201 and Tc-99m-sestamibi. Twelve patients with elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels of more than 10 ng/ml (group A), four of these had negative I-131 scans, and three patients with Tg levels less than 10 ng/ml (group B) were examined under TSH suppressive L-Thyroxine treatment. Whole body scans were taken with Tl-201 (74 MBq: 20 mn post injection), Tc-99m-sestamibi (370 MBq: 20-60 min post injection) and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (370 MBq: 20-60 min post injection). Tumor/background ratios and optional time/activity analyses (up to 150 min post injection) were evaluated using the region of interest approach. Compared with Tl-201 (T/BG: 1.59, +/- 0.396). Tc-99m-tetrofosmin showed slightly but not significant better T/BG ratios and detection rates (T/BG: 1.76, +/- 0.345). Tc-99m-sestamibi (1.51, +/- 0.31 p = 0.05) showed significantly lower values than Tc-99m-tetrofosmin In the light of these results, scintigraphy with Tc-99m-tetrofosmin seems to be a possibly sensitive imaging modality in the follow-up of DTC with possible advantages concerning T/Bg ratio, background clearance, detection rate and dosimetry compared with Tl-201 and Tc-99m-sestamibi, especially in patients with elevated Tg level and no iodine uptake, but further investigations are needed to confirm our preliminary results.

  11. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan: radiolabeling, molecular modeling, biodistribution and gamma scintigraphy as a hopeful radiopharmaceutical for lung nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Rashed, H M; Marzook, F A; Farag, H

    2016-12-01

    Lung imaging radiopharmaceuticals are helpful agents for measuring pulmonary blood flow and allow detection of pulmonary embolism and lung cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging. Zolmitriptan (a selective serotonin receptor agonist) was successfully labeled with (99m)Tc via direct labeling method under reductive conditions studying different factors affecting the labeling efficiency. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan was obtained with a maximum labeling yield of 92.5 ± 0.61 % and in vitro stability up to 24 h. Molecular modeling was done to predict the structure of (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan and ensure that radiolabeling did not affect binding ability of zolmitriptan to its receptor. Biodistribution studies showed that maximum lung uptake of (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan was 23.89 ± 1.2 % injected dose/g tissue at 15 min post-injection and retention in lungs remained high up to 1 h, whereas the clearance from mice appeared to proceed mainly via the renal pathway. Scintigraphic images confirmed the biodistribution results showing a high resolution lung image with low accumulation of radioactivity in other organs except kidneys and urinary bladder. (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan is not a blood product and so it is more safe than the currently available (99m)Tc-MAA, and its lung uptake is higher than that of the recently discovered (123)I-IPMPD, (99m)Tc(CO)5I and (99m)Tc-DHPM. So, (99m)Tc-zolmitriptan could be used as a hopeful radiopharmaceutical for lung scintigraphic imaging.

  12. 99mTc-MAMA-chrysamine G, a probe for beta-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, N A; Dom, R J; de Groot, T J; Bormans, G M; Verbruggen, A M

    1999-11-01

    Chrysamine G (CG), an analogue of Congo red, is known to bind in vitro to the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta 10-43) and to homogenates of several regions of the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We synthesised a conjugate of 2-(acetamido)-CG with a bis-S-trityl protected monoamide-monoaminedithiol (MAMA-Tr(2)) tetraligand, which was efficiently deprotected and labelled with a 75% yield with technetium-99m, to obtain (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. In mice, (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was cleared mainly by the hepatobiliary system, resulting in a fast blood clearance. Brain uptake of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was low. Co-injection with the blood pool tracer iodine-125 human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) demonstrated a brain/blood activity ratio for (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG that was significantly higher than that for (125)I-HSA (t test for dependent samples, P<0.02), indicating the ability of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to cross the blood-brain barrier. In vitro autoradiography demonstrated pronounced binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to beta-amyloid deposits in autopsy sections of the parietal and occipital cortex of an AD patient as compared with controls. Adding 10 microM Congo red during incubation displaced the binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. Congo red staining and autoradiography identified the same lesions. (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG seems to bind selectively to beta-amyloid deposition in human brain parenchyma and blood vessels in vitro and thus might be a lead compound for further development of a useful tracer agent for the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. MO Tripeptide Diastereomers (M = 99/99mTc, Re): Models To Identify the Structure of 99mTc Peptide Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Cantorias, Melchor V.; Howell, Robertha C.; Todaro, Louis; Cyr, John E.; Berndorff, Dietmar; Rogers, Robin D.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    deprotonated metallo-amide form, possessing a short N1–M bond. The pKa measurements of the N1 amine (pKa ~5.6) suggested that this amine is rendered more acidic by both metal complexation and the presence of the lysine residue. Furthermore, peptide chelators incorporating a lysine (like the chelator of [TcO]depreotide) likely exist in the deprotonated form in vivo, comprising a neutral metal center. Deprotonation possibly mediates the interconversion process between the syn and anti diastereomers. The N1 amine group on non-lysine-containing metallopeptides is not as acidic (pKa ~6.8) and does not deprotonate and crystallize as do the metallo-amide species. Three of the tripeptide ligands (FGC, FSC, and FKC) were radiolabeled with 99mTc, and the individual syn and anti isomers were isolated for biodistribution studies in normal female nude mice. The main organs of uptake were the liver, intestines, and kidneys, with the FGC compounds exhibiting the highest liver uptake. In comparing the diastereomers, the syn compounds had substantially higher organ uptake and slower blood clearance than the anti compounds. PMID:17691766

  14. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  15. The washout rate of a subcutaneous 99mTc-HSA depot in lower extremity lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mads R; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny; Bülow, Jens

    2012-03-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is currently the leading diagnostic modality of lower extremity lymphoedema but has been criticized for being unreliable. Washout rate constants have been investigated and proven to be of diagnostic value in several studies of breast-cancer-related lymphoedema; however, the applicability in lower extremity lymphoedema needs further evaluation. The aim of the study was to verify if washout of (99m) Tc-human serum albumin ((99m) Tc-HSA) is a reliable diagnostic tool in lower extremity lymphoedema. Twenty healthy volunteers and eight patients (11 legs) with lymphoscintigraphy verified lower extremity lymphoedema participated in the study. A depot consisting of 0.1 ml 10 MBq/ml (99m) Tc-HSA was injected subcutaneously into the dorsum of each foot. The depot washout rate was measured using a portable scintillation detector system and time-activity curves were generated. After 30 min of supine rest and 10 min of standardized ergometric exercise, measurements were recorded for 20 min. Following correction for physical decay of (99m) Tc, the depot washout rate constant was calculated using linear regression analysis. Finally depot half-life was calculated from the washout rate constant. Median half-life for healthy volunteers was 9.4 h (range 2.5-28.3 h). Median half-life for lymphoedema patients was 10.7 h (range 1.5-35.1 h). No statistical significant difference could be detected between healthy volunteers and lymphoedema patients (P = 0.78). The washout rate of a subcutaneous (99m) Tc-HSA depot is not a reliable diagnostic tool in examination of lower extremity lymphoedema. Additional examinations revealed in vivo instability of the utilized (99m) Tc-HSA as the likely reason. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  16. Clinical translation of a PSMA inhibitor for (99m)Tc-based SPECT.

    PubMed

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Luna-Gutiérrez, Myrna; Ocampo-García, Blanca; Santos-Cuevas, Clara; Azorín-Vega, Erika; Jiménez-Mancilla, Nallely; Orocio-Rodríguez, Emmanuel; Davanzo, Jenny; García-Pérez, Francisco O

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly over-expressed in advanced prostate cancers. (68)Ga-labeled PSMA inhibitors (iPSMA) are currently used for prostate cancer detection by PET imaging. The availability of simple, efficient and reproducible radiolabeling procedures is essential for developing new SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for clinical translation. The aim of this research was to prepare (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys(Nal)-Urea-Glu ((99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA) obtained from lyophilized kit formulations and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo radiopharmaceutical binding to prostate cancer cells over-expressing PSMA, as well as the (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA normal biodistribution in humans and the preliminary uptake in patients with prostate cancer. (99m)Tc labeling was performed by adding sodium pertechnetate solution and a 0.2M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to a lyophilized formulation containing HYNIC-iPSMA, EDDA, tricine, mannitol and stannous chloride. The radiochemical purity was evaluated by reversed-phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Stability studies in human serum were performed by size-exclusion HPLC. In vitro cell uptake was tested using prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumor uptake were determined in LNCaP tumor-bearing nude mice with blocked and non-blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Whole-body images from three healthy men and two patients with histologically-confirmed prostate cancer (one of them with a previous (68)Ga-PSMA-617scan) were acquired at 1h and 3h after (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA administration with radiochemical purities of >98%. In vitro and in vivo studies showed high radiopharmaceutical stability in human serum, specific recognition for PSMA, high tumor uptake (10.22±2.96% ID/g at 1h) with rapid blood clearance and mainly kidney elimination. Preliminary images in patients demonstrated the ability of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA to detect tumors and

  17. Technetium-99m generators--the available options.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R E

    1982-10-01

    The review describes the three most commonly used methods of separating 99mTc from 99Mo, namely chromatography, sublimation and solvent extraction. General comparisons are made between the various generator systems and their respective advantages and weaknesses. The method of producing the parent radionuclide 99Mo often dictates which of the generator options is more appropriate to a particular 99mTc user. Although the use of fission-produced 99Mo is widespread, this technique is not ideal since it requires considerable capital investment and gives rise to large quantities of long-lived radioactive waste. In certain countries such resources cannot be presumed and as a result alternative methods of producing 99mTc from neutron-activation-produced 99Mo are attractive. Recent advances in generator technology indicate that neutron-activation-produced 99Mo may eventually replace the need for fission-produced 99Mo. The review mentions one method of achieving this goal.

  18. Rim sign in Tc-99m sulfur colloid hepatic scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Usha A; Barron, Bruce J; Lamki, Lamk M

    2005-04-01

    A case of pericholecystic hyperperfusion on Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) flow images with a pericholecystic rim of increased activity (PCHA) on delayed planar and single-photon emission computed tomography images of the liver was seen in a patient with a history of multiple renal transplants admitted with cramping right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Laparotomy performed 5 days after the scan revealed an acutely perforated gangrenous gallbladder and occluded cystic duct. The secondary findings of gallbladder hyperperfusion and PCHA or "rim sign" have been frequently reported with Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary imaging. These secondary findings in conjunction with a nonvisualized gallbladder on an IDA scan suggest a complicated or advanced stage of acute cholecystitis and usually require urgent surgical intervention. The rim sign on Tc-99m SC scintigraphy also likely indicates the same grave diagnosis.

  19. Clinical experience with 99mTc-disofenin as a cholescintigraphic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.; Jansholt, A.L.; Vera, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    99mTc-disofenin, a derivative of iminodiacetic acid, was used for cholescintigraphy in 6 volunteers (in addition to assessment of blood and urine clearance) and in 82 patients referred for evaluation of hepatobiliary tract disease. This radionuclide was cleared rapidly from the blood by the hepatocytes, which permitted satisfactory to excellent images of the hepatobiliary system; interference by renal activity was seen in only 9/82 patients (11%). Acute cholecystitis was correctly diagnosed in 20 patients, although 9 (45%) had jaundice; bilirubin levels ranged from 1.2 to 7.6 mg/dl. The biliary tract was normal in 16 of the 27 patients with jaundice (60%).

  20. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  1. In vivo behavior of 99mTc-fibrinogen and its potential as a thrombus-imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Harwig, S S; Harwig, J F; Coleman, R E; Welch, M J

    1976-01-01

    We have investigated the in vivo behavior of 99mTc-fibrinogen, prepared by a mild and efficient electrolytic method employing tin electrodes. The clearance mechanisms of this agent were studied, and its efficacy for imaging deep-vein thrombi in dogs with an Anger camera was determined. The 99mTc-fibrinogen preparations, which are stable in vitro, undergo partial rapid exchange of the technetium with other plasma proteins and with anions of the blood buffer system in vivo, resulting in an early drop in the percent of radioactivity associated with clottable protein. However, very little or no oxidation to pertechnetate occurs. The nonclottable material is much more rapidly cleared from the blood than the remaining 99mTc-fibrinogen, and the proportion of clottable protein activity increases with time. The fraction of 99mTc-fibrinogen that remains intact in vivo is biologically active and will incorporate into thrombi. Higher thrombus-to-blood activity ratios are obtained with 99mTc-fibrinogen than with radioidinated fibrinogen when both agents are injected into dogs 4 hr after induction of femoral vein thrombosis. Clearly delineated images of the thrombi are obtained, beginning about 2.5 hr after injection. Thus, 99mTc-fibrinogen may be of clinical use as a thrombus-imaging agent in patients under-going active thrombosis, especially in regions of high blood pool.

  2. Lung fluid clearance in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Lawrence, Mark D; Cavallaro, Elena; Rubino, Vito; Bersten, Andrew D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure (Pmv) consistently leads to alveolocapillary barrier thickening and reduction in the filtration coefficient. In animal models of chronic heart failure (CHF) the lung remains dry despite hydrostatic forces. As fluid flux is bi-directional, it has been postulated that an increase in alveolar fluid clearance may facilitate the dry lung when Pmv is chronically elevated. In this study we aimed to examine alveolar fluid clearance in ambulatory patients with CHF secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction compared against non-CHF controls. Lung clearance following aerosol delivery of (99m)technetium (Tc)-diethyl triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was measured non-invasively by scintigraphy and half time of (99m)Tc-DTPA clearance (T (1/2)) was calculated by mono-exponential curve fit. Alveolar fluid clearance measured as half time DTPA clearance was significantly faster in CHF patients than controls (P=0.001). This was further defined by NYHA classification. No correlation was found between DTPA clearance and plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine or aldosterone hormone (P>0.05). Our results support an association between increasing alveolar fluid clearance and disease severity in CHF, and the concept of controlled bi-directional fluid flux in CHF associated with increasing Pmv, and represents another defence mechanism of the lung against pulmonary oedema. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  6. Bilateral urinothorax identified by technetium-99m DPTA renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ralston, M.D.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of unilateral urinary tract obstruction with extravasation resulting in bilateral pleural effusions is presented. The fluid within the pleural cavities was established to originate from the kidney using (/sup 99m/Tc)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and scintillation camera imaging.

  7. [Renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-penicillamine].

    PubMed

    Lichte, H; Hör, G

    1975-02-01

    By application of 99mTc-Penicillamine in renal scintigraphy excellent scintigraphies of the kidneys, especially by using the gamma-camera, can be obtained, even in case of damaged renal function, up to an increase of creatinine in serum of about 7 mg %.

  8. Enterogastric reflux detection with technetium-99m IDA

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, A.; Pavia, J.; Loomena, F.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Setoain, J.

    1985-08-01

    A Tc-99m IDA scan was performed in a patient with severe alkaline esophagitis subsequent to a Billroth I gastroenterostomy. The scan showed enterogastric reflux simultaneously with gastroesophageal reflux of bile. The study was recorded in a computer and the reflux quantitated.

  9. Amyloid goiter: preoperative scintigraphic diagnosis using Tc-99m pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Pehrson, J.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.

    1984-04-01

    Amyloid goiter is a rare clinical entity. The diagnosis is rarely made preoperatively because clinical and laboratory findings are nonspecific. The authors report two cases of amyloid goiter in whom the diagnosis was made preoperatively using Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy.

  10. Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O.

    1996-11-01

    SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Comparison of the tumor-seeking agent Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid and the renal imaging agent Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Nakajima, T.; Yomoda, I.; Masuda, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Hata, N.

    1985-03-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, interest has been focused on the design of the (+5) oxidation state Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMSA) as a tumor-seeking agent. Tc-99m(V) DMSA holds a TcO4(3-) core and, like PO4(3-), has excellent characteristics for tumor uptake, but has a different distribution than the well-known renal scanning agent, Tc-99m DMSA. The differences in chemical behavior of Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are discussed. Three cases in which neoplasms were studied with Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are presented. Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m(V) DMSA, having a common ligand and tracer but, with the metal ion core in a different oxidation state, the uptake characteristics are altered markedly.

  12. Statistical parametric mapping demonstrates asymmetric uptake with Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in normal brain

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Jones, David T; Stead, Matt; Kazemi, Noojan; O'Brien, Terence J; So, Elson L; Blumenfeld, Hal; Mullan, Brian P; Worrell, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate diethylester (ECD) and Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of a variety of neurologic disorders. Although these tracers have been very helpful in diagnosing and guiding treatment of neurologic disease, data describing the distribution and laterality of these tracers in normal resting brain are limited. Advances in quantitative functional imaging have demonstrated the value of using resting studies from control populations as a baseline to account for physiologic fluctuations in cerebral perfusion. Here, we report results from 30 resting Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans and 14 resting Tc-99m HMPAO scans of normal volunteers with no history of neurologic disease. Scans were analyzed with regions of interest and with statistical parametric mapping, with comparisons performed laterally (left vs. right), as well as for age, gender, and handedness. The results show regions of significant asymmetry in the normal controls affecting widespread areas in the cerebral hemispheres, but most marked in superior parietotemporal region and frontal lobes. The results have important implications for the use of normal control SPECT images in the evaluation of patients with neurologic disease. PMID:21934696

  13. [Assessment of obstructive nephropathy using diuretic 99mTc-DTPA renogram and 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Okamura, K; Takaba, H; Ito, K; Shimoji, T

    1987-12-01

    99mTc-DMSA and diuretic 99mTc-DTPA renoscintigraphy were performed on 51 kidneys suspected of obstructive nephropathy based on excretory urography to evaluate the residual renal function and the degree of urinary flow impairment respectively. We classified the response to diuretics into 6 patterns: I. normal, IIa. severely damaged renal function, IIb. slow RI excretion without urinary tract visualization (pattern II had no response to furosemide), IIIa. rapid elimination of tracer from the obstructed upper tract, IIIb. slow elimination, and IV. gradual tracer accumulation in the pelvicalyceal system with fairly well preserved renal function but no response. Hydronephrosis varied according to pattern type, in the ascending order of I, IIIa, IIIb and IV (p less than 0.05). Degree of hydronephrosis was inversely related to 99mTc-DMSA uptake, but without statistical significance. 99mTc-DMSA uptake was lower for pattern III as a whole (IIIa + (IIIb) than for pattern I (p less than 0.005), but there was no difference between IIIa and IIIb. Pattern IIa exhibited a significantly lower uptake than any of the other groups. (p less than 0.005) In contrast to previous views, we believe that pattern IIIa indicates a mild obstruction of urinary flow and impaired renal function. Consequently, assessment of obstructive nephropathy should not be based only on urodynamic study but also on differential renal function test.

  14. Radionuclide imaging of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) using 99mTc-labeled neurotensin peptide 8-13.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaijun; An, Rui; Gao, Zairong; Zhang, Yongxue; Aruva, Mohan R

    2006-05-01

    To prepare 99m technetium (99mTc)-labeled neurotensin (NT) peptide and to evaluate the feasibility of imaging oncogene NT receptors overexpressed in human small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The NT analogue (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was synthesized such that histidine was attached at the N-terminus. The analogue was labeled with [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3] at pH 7. 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) in vitro stability was determined by challenging it with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, human serum albumin (HSA) and cysteine. The affinity, 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) binding to SCLC cell line NCI-H446, was studied in vitro. Biodistribution and imaging with 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) were performed at 4 and 12 h postinjection, and tissue distribution and imaging after receptor blocking were carried out at 4 h in nude mice bearing human SCLC tumor. Blood clearance was determined in normal mice. The affinity constant (Kd) of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) to SCLC cells was 0.56 nmol/L. When challenged with 100 times the molar excess of DTPA, HSA or cysteine, more than 97+/-1.8% radioactivity remained as 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13). Tumor-to-muscle ratio was 3.35+/-1.01 at 4 h and 4.20+/-1.35 at 12 h postinjection. The excretory route of 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) was chiefly through the renal pathway. In the receptor-blocking group treated with unlabeled (Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13), tumor-to-muscle ratio at 4 h was 1.25+/-0.55. The results suggest that 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) specifically binds to the SCLC cells and made 99mTc-(Nalpha-His)Ac-NT(8-13) a desirable compound for further studies in planar or SPECT imaging of oncogene receptors overexpressed in SCLC cells.

  15. Glomerular filtration rate estimated from the uptake phase of 99mTc-DTPA renography in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U; Møller, M L; Ladefoged, S D; Mehlsen, J; Jensen, H A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea. Fifty patients with reduced renal function (serum creatinine between 150 and 600 micromol/l) were enrolled in the study. GFR was estimated from the uptake phase of 99mTc-DTPA renography (GFR(DTPA)). The renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (GFR(EDTA)) was used as the reference method. Creatinine clearance (C(Cr)), urea clearance (C(Ur)) and the mean of urea and creatinine clearance (C(Cr+Ur)/2) were also calculated from urine collected during a period of 24 h. Limits of agreement were used for method comparison. The limit of agreement between GFR(DTPA) and GFR(EDTA) was 2 +/- 17 ml/min. The mean difference did not deviate significantly from zero. The other clearance techniques had larger limits of agreement and a mean difference significantly different from zero. Furthermore, C(Ur) and C(Cr+Ur)/2 had systematic deviations of the differences, indicating that C(Ur) and C(Cr+Ur)/2 are poor estimates of GFR. The limit of agreement between GFR(DTPA) and GFR(EDTA) are acceptable and, therefore, GFR estimated from 99mTc-DTPA renography is acceptable for clinical use in patients with reduced renal function. Furthermore, the method is simple and less time consuming compared with renal clearance techniques.

  16. Focal uptake of Tc-99m MDP in a gossypiboma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Bejoy G; Silverman, Eugene D

    2008-04-01

    A 51-year-old Korean woman with a history of breast cancer underwent screening bone scintigraphy, which revealed minimal soft tissue uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the right lower quadrant. CT and plain films confirmed that the uptake was due to a retained surgical sponge or gossypiboma. The incidence of gossypibomas has been reported at high as 1 in 1000 to 15,000 intra-abdominal operations. The natural progression of an aseptic gossypiboma is a foreign body reaction and granuloma formation. This inflammatory granulomatous reaction is the most likely cause of the extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m MDP. This entity should be added to the already extensive list of etiologies of extraosseous MDP accumulation.

  17. Bone metastasis on Tc99-m sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan

    PubMed Central

    Hatemi, Lachin; Jabi, Feraas

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented to our department for a stress myocardial perfusion imaging study with Tc99m-sestamibi. Incidental focal uptake, found in the left upper anterior chest, was initially felt to be located in the left breast. After additional single-photon CT imaging was performed the same day, extracardiac foci within the ribs, spine, and left lung (worrisome for active metastases) were shown to be present, with the initial focus located within a left rib rather than a breast. A review of previous radiographic and nuclear imaging studies confirmed metastatic disease from recurrent follicular thyroid cancer. Atypical focal extracardiac activity must be closely scrutinized for the possibility of malignancy, as Tc99m-sestamibi (in addition to being myocardium-avid) is tumor-avid. PMID:27190553

  18. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Groshar, D.; Weininger, J.

    1984-07-01

    Red blood cells labeled with 99mTc constitute a suitable intravascular agent for imaging of vascular abnormalities. Hemangiomas are characterized by low perfusion and a high blood pool. This ''perfusion blood-pool mismatch,'' not encountered in other lesions, may help in the specific diagnosis of this tumor. This is particularly so in cavernous hemangiomas of the liver where three-phase 99mTc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy should precede liver biopsy. Red cell scintigraphy also is useful for establishing the vascular nature of hemangiomas of the head and neck and the skin and for diagnosis of venous occlusion. Heat-damaged red blood cells provide a specific spleen imaging agent. This should be used when patients with suspected splenic pathology have equivocal colloid scintigraphy.

  19. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  20. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  1. (99m)Tc-MAG3: Image Wisely.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew T; Folks, Russell D; Rahman, A K M Fazlur; Polsani, Aruna; Dubovsky, Eva V; Halkar, Raghuveer; Manatunga, Amita

    2017-02-17

    Purpose To determine if commonly administered doses of technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) mertiatide (MAG3) in the range of 300-370 MBq (approximately 8-10 mCi) contribute to image interpretation and justify the resulting radiation exposure. Materials and Methods The respective institutional review boards approved this HIPAA-compliant study and waived informed consent. Baseline and furosemide (99m)Tc-MAG3 imaging examinations in 50 patients suspected of having renal obstruction and 48 patients suspected of having renovascular hypertension (RVH) were randomly selected from archived databases and were independently scored by three experienced readers without access to 2-second flow images. Readers were blinded to their original scores, and then they rescored each examination with access to high-activity 2-second flow images. Relative renal function was determined after a low activity (62.9 MBq ± 40.7) baseline acquisition for RVH and a high activity (303.4 MBq ± 48.1) acquisition after administration of enalaprilat. Data were analyzed by using random effects analysis of variance and mean and standard error of the mean for the difference between sets of scores and the difference between relative function measurements. Results There was no significant difference in the scores without flow images compared with blinded scores with high-activity flow images for patients suspected of having obstruction (P = .80) or RVH (P = .24). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the relative uptake measurements after administration of low and high activities (P > .99). Conclusion Administered doses of (99m)Tc-MAG3 in the range of 300-370 MBq (approximately 8-10 mCi) do not affect the relative function measurements or contribute to interpretation of images in patients suspected of having RVH or obstruction compared with administration of lower doses; unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by administering doses in the range of 37-185 MBq as recommended incurrent guidelines

  2. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  3. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  4. Clinical evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renogram

    SciTech Connect

    Van Poppel, H.; Vereecken, R.; Vekemans, K.; Verduyn, H.; Mortelmans, L.; de Roo, M.

    1985-04-01

    Two hundred-two /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renograms for urologic problems were evaluated. Some technical aspects of the examination and the value of the scintigraphic depth estimation are discussed. Pre- and postoperative uptake values in patients with renal surgery and sequential postoperative examinations are considered. The value of DMSA renograms in predicting recovery in obstructive uropathy and in deciding to opt for conservative therapy or nephrectomy is discussed.

  5. Properties of technetium-99m labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, B.A.; Zamora, P.O.; Newell, K.D.; Reed, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the chemical and immunochemical properties of monoclonal antibodies or fragments which have been labeled with Tc-99m using the pretinning method. The labeled proteins were evaluated using: Sephadex G-25 gel column scanning to determine percentage radiolabeled protein; HPLC to determine the molecular weight and purity of the proteins; reactivity with solid phase antigens to determine immunoreactivity under a variety of storage conditions; and the Tc-99m transchelation method of a previous study to determine the strength of the bonding. Percentage labeled protein ranges from 65 to 95%. Under certain labeling conditions small fractions of the F(ab')2 protein can be converted to aggregates of Fab fragments. Immunoreactivity depends on the purity and immunoreactivity of the original protein and is not changed by the labeling procedure. Transchelation is minimal (less than 5% at 4000 molar excess of EDTA). It is concluded that the pretinning method can be used to produce an extremely stable, immunoreactive, Tc-99m labeled antibody or antibody fragments. The labeled proteins retain their biologic activity during storage or during incubation with human plasma.

  6. Comparison of technetium-99m IgG with technetium-99m red blood cells labeling in cardiac blood-pool scintigraphy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Asli, Isa Neshandar; Semnani, Shahriar; Jallalat, Sara; Ansari, Mojtaba; Amini, Abdullatif; Barekat, Maryam; Assadi, Majid

    2011-01-01

    This first clinical prospective study was conducted to use of technetium-99m immunoglobulin G ((99m)Tc-IgG) as compared with autologous (99m)Tc-red blood cells (RBC) in gated blood pool ventriculography. We studied 12 patients who referred to us for a possible diagnosis of liver hemangioma or infection. Six patients underwent gated planar blood pool (GPBP) acquisition using (99m)Tc-RBC and 6 GPBP acquisition using (99m)Tc-IgG. The use of (99m)Tc-IgG in cardiac blood pool studies provided comparable images to (99m)Tc-RBC. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-IgG, which is readily available and needs only a single injection, may be an attractive alternative to (99m)Tc-RBC for the estimation of various cardiac function parameters like left ventricular function.

  7. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  8. Diagnostic Value of Semiquantitative Analysis of 99mTechnetium-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI Imaging in Predicting Early-Stage Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Kai; Xu, Shi-Qing; Ma, Yu-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of semiquantitative analysis (SQA) of 99mTc-MIBI imaging in predicting early-stage cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in thyroid carcinoma (TC). Material/Methods TC patients (n=106) undergoing surgical resection and histopathological examination were enrolled. All patients received 99mTc-MIBI imaging prior to surgery. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression was detected by PT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. With pathological results as the criterion standard, the diagnostic efficiency of 99mTc-MIBI imaging in predicting early-stage CLNM was evaluated. The correlation of P-gp with 99mTc-MIBI imaging was investigated. Logistic regression analysis was applied for analyzing the factors affecting early-stage CLNM. Results The detection rate and misdiagnosis rate of 99mTc-MIBI imaging for early-stage CLNM diagnosis were 87.3% and 12.7%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an accuracy of 99mTc-MIBI imaging of 85.85%. Preoperative 99mTc-MIBI scan showed statistical differences between metastasis and non-metastasis groups in early and delayed T/NT and washout rate (all P<0.05). The percentage of P-gp-expressing cells and the expression rate of P-gp gene both exhibited statistical differences between metastasis and no-metastasis groups (both P<0.05). Tumor diameter, lesion distribution, the percentage of P-gp-expressing cells, and the expression rate of P-gp gene were risk factors for CLNM (all P<0.05). Conclusions 99mTc-MIBI imaging has value in qualitative diagnosis of early-stage CLNM in TC. Tumor diameter, lesion distribution, the percentage of P-gp-expressing cells, and the expression rate of P-gp gene were risk factors for CLNM. PMID:28362720

  9. Radiation hazards from horses undergoing scintigraphy using technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Whitelock, R G

    1997-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent of the radiation hazard to personnel from horses undergoing scintigraphy using technetium99m methylene diphosphonate (99Tcm-MDP). From the data produced it is possible to derive safe working protocols which are comfortably within the legislated limits for whole body doses as set out in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. Measurements were made of the surface and environmental activities which result from individuals undergoing scintigraphic evaluation and also from urine contaminated bedding. The use of both high and low activities in the assessment of the radiation hazard to personnel and owners is considered.

  10. Tc-99m glucoheptonate is poor man's fluorodeoxyglucose.

    PubMed

    Lele, Ramchandra D

    2011-10-01

    While fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) has emerged as an important radiotracer for imaging tumors, myocardial viability and infection, the role of other glucose analogues should also be explored. Tc-99m Glucoheptonate (GHA) has been used for imaging brain tumors and lung tumors. The uptake mechanism may be linked to GLUT-1 (Glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 expression similar to FDG. GHA is easily available and cheap. With the availability of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), GHA imaging should be re-explored as a tumor agent and also for imaging myocardial viability.

  11. XECT--a least squares curve fitting program for generalized radiotracer clearance model.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, S; Turczyński, B

    1991-01-01

    The program uses the joint Monte Carlo-Simplex algorithm for fitting the generalized, non-monoexponential model of externally detected decay of radiotracer activity in the tissue. The optimal values of the model parameters (together with the rate of the blood flow) are calculated. A table and plot of the experimental points and the fitted curve are generated. The program was written in Borland's Turbo Pascal 5.5 for the IBM PC XT/AT and compatible microcomputers.

  12. Development of (99m)Tc-labeled asymmetric urea derivatives that target prostate-specific membrane antigen for single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sampei, Sotaro; Matsuoka, Daiko; Harada, Naoya; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Arimitsu, Kenji; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed strongly in prostate cancers and is, therefore, an attractive diagnostic and radioimmunotherapeutic target. In contrast to previous reports of PMSA-targeting (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complexes that are cationic or lack a charge, no anionic (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complexes have been reported. Notably, the hydrophilicity conferred by both cationic and anionic charges leads to rapid hepatobiliary clearance, whereas an anionic charge might better enhance renal clearance relative to a cationic charge. Therefore, an improvement in rapid clearance would be expected with either cationic or anionic charges, particularly anionic charges. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel anionic (99m)Tc-tricarbonyl complex ([(99m)Tc]TMCE) and evaluated its use as a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging probe for PSMA detection. Direct synthesis of [(99m)Tc]TMCE from dimethyl iminodiacetate, which contains both the asymmetric urea and succinimidyl moiety important for PSMA binding, was performed using our microwave-assisted one-pot procedure. The chelate formation was successfully achieved even though the precursor included a complicated bioactive moiety. The radiochemical yield of [(99m)Tc]TMCE was 12-17%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% after HPLC purification. [(99m)Tc]TMCE showed high affinity in vitro, with high accumulation in LNCaP tumors and low hepatic retention in biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies. These findings warrant further evaluation of [(99m)Tc]TMCE as an imaging agent and support the benefit of this strategy for the design of other PSMA imaging probes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous technetium-99m MIBI angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baillet, G.Y.; Mena, I.G.; Kuperus, J.H.; Robertson, J.M.; French, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) was performed with the myocardial perfusion agent technetium-99m MIBI. In 27 patients, it was compared with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid FPRNA. A significant correlation was present in left (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) as well as right (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) ventricular ejection fraction measured with both radiopharmaceuticals. In 13 patients, MIBI derived segmental wall motion was compared with contrast ventriculography. A high correlation was present (p less than 0.001), and qualitative agreement was found in 38/52 segments. In 19 patients with myocardial infarction a significant correlation was present between MIBI segmental wall motion and perfusion scores (p less than 0.001). In ten patients with a history of myocardial infarction, 18 myocardial segments demonstrated diseased coronary vessels and impaired wall motion at contrast angiography. These segments were all identified by the MIBI wall motion and perfusion study. We conclude that MIBI is a promising agent for simultaneous evaluation of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at rest.

  14. Technetium-99m NGA functional hepatic imaging: preliminary clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Trudeau, W.L.; Porter, B.A.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.; O'Grady, L.F.

    1985-11-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ( (Tc)NGA) is a radiolabeled ligand to hepatic binding protein, a receptor which resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. This receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical and its kinetic model provide a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver function. Eighteen patients were studied: seven with hepatoma, eight with liver metastases, four with cirrhosis, and one patient with acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Technetium-99m NGA liver imaging provided anatomic information of diagnostic quality comparable to that obtained with other routine imaging modalities, including computed tomography, angiography, ultrasound, and (Tc)sulfur colloid scintigraphy. Kinetic modeling of dynamic (Tc)NGA data produced estimates of standardized hepatic blood flow, Q (hepatic blood flow divided by total blood volume), and hepatic binding protein concentration, (HBP). Significant rank correlation was obtained between (HBP) estimates and CTC scores. This correlation supports the hypothesis that (HBP) is a measure of functional hepatocyte mass. The combination of decreased Q and markedly reduced (HBP) may have prognostic significance; all three patients with this combination died of hepatic failure within 6 wk of imaging.

  15. Evaluation of 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 Affibody® molecule for in vivo molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J-M; Zhao, X-M; Ren, X-C; Wang, N; Han, J-Y; Jia, L-Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an improved method for labelling ZHER2:342 with Technetium-99m (99mTc) using Gly-(d) Ala-Gly-Gly as a chelator and to evaluate the feasibility of its use for visualization of HER2 expression in vivo. Methods: The Affibody® molecule ZHER2:342 was synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid phase synthesis. The chelator, Gly-(d) Ala-Gly-Gly, was introduced by manual synthesis as the N-terminal extensions of ZHER2:342. ZHER2:342 was labelled with 99mTc. The labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and in vitro stability of the labelled molecular probe were analysed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Biodistribution and molecular imaging using 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 were performed. Results: The molecular probe was successfully synthesized and labelled with 99mTc with the labelling efficiency of 98.10 ± 1.73% (n = 5). The radiolabelled molecular probe remained highly stable in vitro. The molecular imaging showed high uptake in HER2-expressing SKOV-3 xenografts, whereas the MDA-MB-231 xenografts with low HER2 expression were not clearly imaged at any time after the injection of 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342. The predominant clearance pathway for 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 was through the kidneys. Conculsion: 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 using Gly-(d) Ala-Gly-Gly as a chelator is a promising tracer agent with favourable biodistribution and imaging properties that may be developed as a radiopharmaceutical for the detection of HER2-positive malignant tumours. Advances in knowledge: The 99mTc-peptide-ZHER2:342 molecular probe is a promising tracer agent, and the results in this study provide a foundation for future development of protocols for earlier visual detection of cancer in the clinical setting. PMID:24273251

  16. Standardization of (99m)Tc by means of a software coincidence system.

    PubMed

    Brito, A B; Koskinas, M F; Litvak, F; Toledo, F; Dias, M S

    2012-09-01

    The procedure followed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory, at IPEN, for the primary standardization of (99m)Tc is described. The primary standardization has been accomplished by the coincidence method. The beta channel efficiency was varied by electronic discrimination using a software coincidence counting system. Two windows were selected for the gamma channel: one at 140 keV gamma-ray and the other at 20 keV X-ray total absorption peaks. The experimental extrapolation curves were compared with Monte Carlo simulations by means of code ESQUEMA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosis of obstructive jaundice in infants: Tc-99m DISIDA in duodenal juice

    SciTech Connect

    Jaw, T.S.; Wu, C.C.; Ho, Y.H.; Huang, B.L.; Lu, C.C.

    1984-03-01

    Technetium-99m di-isopropylphenylcarbamoylmethylimidodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy, together with measurements of radioactivity in duodenal juice, was used to evaluate 23 infants with prolonged obstructive jaundice. Four patients proved to have biliary atresia. The remainder had neonatal hepatitis. There was distinct differentiation of biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis when the time-activity curves were analyzed. In neonatal hepatitis the radioactivity in duodenal juice is obviously higher, peaking above 1500 cpm/100 ..mu..l per mCi dose. In biliary atresia the pattern is flattened, with maximal activity below 500 cpm/100 ..mu..l per mCi dose.

  18. The normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary study

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, V.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The biliary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p less than 0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p less than 0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  19. Normal fasting and postprandial diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m hepatobiliary stud

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Spitzer, W.M.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Kuni, C.C.

    1981-12-01

    Diisopropyl-IDA TC 99m imaging studies were performed in 11 normal subjects in both the fasting and postprandial states. In 5- to 60-minute analog images obtained in both fasting and postprandial studies, the cardiac blood pool was almost never seen, renal pelvic radioactivity was commonly seen, the extrahepatic biliary tract was always seen, and the left hepatic duct was always more prominent than the right hepatic duct. The billiary tract was visualized by ten minutes in nine of 11 fasting studies and 10 of 11 postprandial studies. The gallbladder was visualized in all eleven fasting studies, but in only four postprandial studies (p<0.05). The zero- to sixty-minute digital data indicated a greater hepatocyte clearance, an earlier time of peak parenchymal radioactivity, and a faster parenchymal washout in the postprandial studies compared with fasting studies (p<0.05). Approximately nine percent of the injected dose was recovered in the urine during the first three hours in fasting and postprandial studies. The normal diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m study in the fasting and postprandial states is defined; significant differences exist between the two states.

  20. /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate for quantitation of differential renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Balseiro, J.; Fahey, F.H.; Le, T.V.; Dubiansky, V.

    1987-05-01

    Differential renal function was calculated by using /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (Tc-GH) in 51 patients. Computer-acquired background-corrected individual renal function was calculated by using both the 1-3-min uptake counts and the 2-4-hr delayed static counts. The degree of correlation between the two was high (r = .96). An equally high correlation was noted in 16 children who were 12 years old or younger, in 15 patients with renal size disparity greater than 60/40%, and in six patients with abnormal creatinine clearances. Ten patients had a 30-min dynamic /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study followed immediately by the injection of Tc-GH and acquisition of delayed static images 2-4 hr later. A high degree of correlation (r = .99) was seen between the 1-3-min differential function obtained by using Tc-DTPA and the 2-4-hr delayed differential function obtained by using Tc-GH. This study shows that Tc-GH is a clinically useful and valid tool for calculation of differential renal function and that Tc-GH combines many of the best aspects of Tc-DTPA and Tc-DMSA.

  1. Clinical efficacy of 99m-technetium mercaptoacetylglycine kit formulation in routine renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    duCret, R.P.; Boudreau, R.J.; Gonzalez, R.; Carpenter, R.; Tennison, J.; Kuni, C.C.

    1989-07-01

    99m-Technetium mercaptoacetylglycine is a promising new renal radiopharmaceutical undergoing phase III trials in the United States. In a preliminary investigation of the efficacy and safety of mercaptoacetylglycine in 30 adult patients with suspected renal disease we used simultaneous imaging with orthoiodohippurate as the physiological ''gold standard''. Of these patients 11 had undergone renal transplantation. Factors, such as time to peak renal activity, clearance half-life and regional functional comparison, were similar by orthoiodohippurate and mercaptoacetylglycine imaging. Visual and quantitative analysis of angiograms and renograms was markedly facilitated with the use of mercaptoacetylglycine. Several morphological abnormalities were apparent only during mercaptoacetylglycine evaluation. No adverse effects, changes in vital signs or significant changes in clinical laboratory status were encountered. Since mercaptoacetylglycine combined an excellent technetium image with the pharmacokinetics of orthoiodohippurate, mercaptoacetylglycine may supplant all other agents for routine clinical use.

  2. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  3. Study on 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal accumulation using in vitro cellular model.

    PubMed

    Nový, Zbynĕk; Mandíková, Jana; Trejtnar, Frantisek

    2011-02-01

    Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labelled with technetium-99m belongs to standard renal radiodiagnostics. However, the renal transport mechanisms responsible for their high renal uptake have not been fully explained. In addition, no in vitro experimental study comparing the renal uptake of these radiopharmaceuticals at the cellular level has not been performed. The investigation compared the 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake using primary rat renal cells and evaluated contribution of active and passive transport processes to the renal accumulation. The renal cells were isolated from the rat kidneys by means of the two-phase collagenase perfusion method. The used experimental model showed to be useful tool for such type of investigation. The results documented significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the accumulation of 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 in the rat isolated cells. The found experimental data indicated several times higher uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 than that found in 99mTc-DMSA. 99mTc-MAG3 cellular uptake was substantially decreased when active, energy-dependent processes were inhibited. However, 99mTc-DMSA accumulation in the renal cells demonstrated only a minor dependency on energy. These findings demonstrate a very different character of the membrane transport determining 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 renal accumulation.

  4. Biodistribution, dosimetry, and clinical evaluation of technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer in normal subjects and in patients with chronic cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Hellman, R.S.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Mena, I.G.; Leveille, J.; Gherardi, P.G.; Moretti, J.L.; Bischof-Delaloye, A.; Hill, T.C.; Rigo, P.M.

    1989-06-01

    Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) has high initial cerebral uptake with slow clearance in nonhuman primates suggesting ideal characteristics for single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) imaging. We evaluated the biodistribution, dosimetry and scintigraphic pattern of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD in normal subjects and the accuracy of SPECT imaging in patients with chronic cerebral infarction. Sixteen normal subjects were injected with approximately 10 mCi of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD. Anterior and posterior single-pass whole-body images were obtained at multiple times after injection. Blood clearance of the radiotracer was rapid, falling to 10.0 +/- 6.6% and 4.9 +/- 1.1% of the injected dose at 2 and 60 min, respectively. Brain uptake was 6.4 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose 5 min after injection. The critical organ was the urinary bladder. Technetium-99m ECD SPECT was performed with a rotating gamma camera in ten of the 16 normal subjects and 34 patients with clinical and CT evidence of chronic stroke. Thirty-three of the thirty-four patients had focal (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD abnormalities on SPECT (97.1%) based on visual inspection of the SPECT images. In summary, we obtained high quality SPECT images as a result of the optimal physical and biologic characteristics of the tracer. Technetium-99m ECD SPECT shows promise for the evaluation of patients with stroke.

  5. The feasibility of imaging myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury using 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei; Johnson, Steven E.; Audi, Said; Zimmer, Michael; Holly, Thomas A; Lee, Daniel; Zhu, Bao; Zhu, Haibo; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    When pathologically externalized, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a potential surrogate marker for detecting tissue injuries. 99mTc-labeled duramycin is a peptide-based imaging agent that binds PE with high affinity and specificity. The goal of the current study was to investigate the clearance kinetics of 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a large animal model (normal pigs) and to assess its uptake in the heart using a pig model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The clearance and distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin were characterized in sham-operated animals (n = 5). In a closed chest model of myocardial ischemia, coronary occlusion was induced by balloon angioplasty (n = 9). 99mTc-duramycin (10-15 mCi) was injected intravenously at 1 hour after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 1 and 3 hours after injection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for changes associated with acute cellular injuries. Autoradiography and gamma counting was used to determine radioactivity uptake. For the remaining animals, 99mTc-tetrafosamin scan was performed on the second day to identify the infarct site. Results Intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin cleared from circulation predominantly via the renal/urinary tract with an α-phase half-life of 3.6 ± 0.3 minutes and β-phase half-life of 179.9 ± 64.7 minutes. In control animals, the ratios between normal heart and lung were 1.76 ± 0.21, 1.66 ± 0.22, 1.50 ± 0.20 and 1.75 ± 0.31 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. The ratios between normal heart and liver were 0.88 ± 0.13, 0.80 ± 0.13, 0.82 ± 0.19 and 0.88 ± 0.14. In vivo visualization of focal radioactivity uptake in the ischemic heart was attainable as early as 30 min post injection. The in vivo ischemic-to-normal uptake ratios were 3.57 ± 0.74 and 3.69 ± 0.91 at 1 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. Ischemic-to-lung ratios were 4.89 ± 0.85 and 4.93 ± 0.57; and ischemic-to-liver ratios were 2.05 ± 0.30 to 3.23 ± 0

  6. The feasibility of imaging myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury using (99m)Tc-labeled duramycin in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei; Johnson, Steven E; Audi, Said; Zimmer, Michael; Holly, Thomas A; Lee, Daniel C; Zhu, Bao; Zhu, Haibo; Zhao, Ming

    2015-02-01

    When pathologically externalized, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a potential surrogate marker for detecting tissue injuries. (99m)Tc-labeled duramycin is a peptide-based imaging agent that binds PE with high affinity and specificity. The goal of the current study was to investigate the clearance kinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled duramycin in a large animal model (normal pigs) and to assess its uptake in the heart using a pig model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. The clearance and distribution of intravenously injected (99m)Tc-duramycin were characterized in sham-operated animals (n=5). In a closed chest model of myocardial ischemia, coronary occlusion was induced by balloon angioplasty (n=9). (99m)Tc-duramycin (10-15mCi) was injected intravenously at 1hour after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 1 and 3hours after injection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for changes associated with acute cellular injuries. Autoradiography and gamma counting were used to determine radioactivity uptake. For the remaining animals, (99m)Tc-tetrafosamin scan was performed on the second day to identify the infarct site. Intravenously injected (99m)Tc-duramycin cleared from circulation predominantly via the renal/urinary tract with an α-phase half-life of 3.6±0.3minutes and β-phase half-life of 179.9±64.7minutes. In control animals, the ratios between normal heart and lung were 1.76±0.21, 1.66±0.22, 1.50±0.20 and 1.75±0.31 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3hours post-injection, respectively. The ratios between normal heart and liver were 0.88±0.13, 0.80±0.13, 0.82±0.19 and 0.88±0.14. In vivo visualization of focal radioactivity uptake in the ischemic heart was attainable as early as 30min post-injection. The in vivo ischemic-to-normal uptake ratios were 3.57±0.74 and 3.69±0.91 at 1 and 3hours post-injection, respectively. Ischemic-to-lung ratios were 4.89±0.85 and 4.93±0.57; and ischemic-to-liver ratios were 2.05±0.30 to 3.23±0.78. The size of (99m)Tc-duramycin positive

  7. Technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime lung scintigraphy findings in patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Gumuser, Gul; Pirildar, Timur; Tarhan, Serdar; Batok, Dilek; Ruksen, Ebru; Sakar, Aysin; Sayit, Elvan

    2011-05-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem disorder that is characterized by vasculitis, and consists of a triad of recurrent ulcers of the oral and genital mucosa with relapsing uveitis. The prevalence of pulmonary involvement varies in the range of 1-10% in various studies, and its complications are severe and life threatening. To objectively assess the degree of pulmonary vascular endothelial damage in BD, the lung uptake, and the clearance rate of technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-HMPAO) were determined. Twenty-three nonsmoking patients with BD (10 female, 13 male) and 11 (six female, five male) healthy nonsmoking controls underwent Tc-99m-HMPAO lung scanning, pulmonary function tests (PFT), chest radiograph examination, contrast-enhanced spiral chest computed tomography scanning, and high-resolution computed tomography examinations. Immediately after the bolus injection of 740 MBq of Tc-99m-HMPAO posterior sequential images were obtained at 1-s intervals for 150 s and subsequent images were obtained at one frame per minute (min) over a 10-min period, using a double-headed gamma camera equipped with a low-energy all-purpose parallel hole collimator. Dynamic images were used to calculate the Tc-99m-HMPAO lung clearance rate (T1/2). Simultaneously, a static anterior image, including a large part of the liver, was obtained of 5-min duration at 10 min after the injection. Regular regions of interests were drawn over the midportion of the right lung and the highest activity area of the liver parenchyma was selected and lung/liver (L/Li) uptake ratios were calculated to represent the degree of pulmonary vascular endothelial damage. Chest radiograph, high-resolution computed tomography, and computed tomography findings in patients with BD were nonspecific for BD. There was also a statistically significant difference between patients with BD (30.26 ± 10.55 s) and normal controls (19.53 ± 6.24 s) on their T1/2 values (P = 0.0004). The results show

  8. Tc-99m sestamibi bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Dvora; Krausz, Yodphat; Elstein, Deborah; Hadas-Halpern, Irith; Zimran, Ari

    2002-07-01

    No imaging technique has been found to be adequate to assess the severity and extent of bone involvement in patients with Gaucher disease. Marrow involvement, as determined by Tc-99m sulfur colloid, correlated well with the clinical and radiologic changes of the skeleton, but a normal pattern was found in the early stages of the disease. Subsequently, Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) has been suggested for direct visualization of glycolipid deposits in the bone marrow. This study was initiated as a pilot using MIBI to detect various forms of bone disease in patients with Gaucher disease of varying severity. Eleven patients (9 men; median age, 39.9; age range, 21 to 61 years) were evaluated. The clinical severity of disease was scored at presentation, and four patients with moderate to severe disease were treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Each patient underwent a radiographic skeletal survey, bone densitometry, and MIBI scintigraphy. The scan included static images of the lower limbs, with a whole-body scan acquired between the early and late acquisition. Tracer uptake in the bone marrow was graded and correlated with clinical and objective variables. All but one patient had increased MIBI uptake in the bone marrow. No correlation was noted between MIBI uptake and severity score, radiographic changes, densitometry z score, or treatment status. MIBI scanning is a sensitive technique for detecting bone marrow deposits in Gaucher disease, but it is inadequate for early identification of patients at high risk for skeletal complications or for the follow-up of patients treated with enzyme replacement.

  9. (99m)Technetium Sestamibi-(123)Iodine Scintigraphy Is More Accurate Than (99m)Technetium Sestamibi Alone before Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ryhänen, Eeva M; Schildt, Jukka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Väisänen, Mika; Ahonen, Aapo; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Välimäki, Matti J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Studies comparing outcome of single-(99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-sestamibi) and dual-tracer (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy in combination with (123)I before primary surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. Methods. We compared (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in a single-centre retrospective series of 269 PHPT patients. The results were related to laboratory, surgical and histological findings. Results. (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi were positive in 206 (76.6%) and 111 (41.3%) of 269 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Accuracies for (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi were 63.4% and 34.9%, respectively (96% CI, P < 0.001). Prevalence of multiglandular disease was 15.2%. In multiglandular disease, (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi revealed 43.8 and 22.1% of pathological glands, respectively (P < 0.001). Cure rate was similar for patients with (191/206; 92.7%) and without (59 of 63; 93.7%) a positive (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I finding. Duration of targeted surgery (one or two quadrants) was 21 and 15 minutes shorter than bilateral neck exploration, respectively (both P < 0.001). Higher serum calcium (P = 0.014) and PTH (P = 0.055) concentrations and larger tumours (P < 0.001) characterized the 206 patients with a positive preoperative scan who were cured by removal of a single adenoma. Conclusions. (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I scintigraphy is more accurate than (99m)Tc-sestamibi before surgery of PHPT. However, outcome of surgery is not determined by scintigraphy alone.

  10. 99mTechnetium Sestamibi-123Iodine Scintigraphy Is More Accurate Than 99mTechnetium Sestamibi Alone before Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Ryhänen, Eeva M.; Schildt, Jukka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Väisänen, Mika; Ahonen, Aapo; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Välimäki, Matti J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Studies comparing outcome of single-99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi) and dual-tracer 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy in combination with 123I before primary surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. Methods. We compared 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi in a single-centre retrospective series of 269 PHPT patients. The results were related to laboratory, surgical and histological findings. Results. 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi were positive in 206 (76.6%) and 111 (41.3%) of 269 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Accuracies for 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi were 63.4% and 34.9%, respectively (96% CI, P < 0.001). Prevalence of multiglandular disease was 15.2%. In multiglandular disease, 99mTc-sestamibi/123I and 99mTc-sestamibi revealed 43.8 and 22.1% of pathological glands, respectively (P < 0.001). Cure rate was similar for patients with (191/206; 92.7%) and without (59 of 63; 93.7%) a positive 99mTc-sestamibi/123I finding. Duration of targeted surgery (one or two quadrants) was 21 and 15 minutes shorter than bilateral neck exploration, respectively (both P < 0.001). Higher serum calcium (P = 0.014) and PTH (P = 0.055) concentrations and larger tumours (P < 0.001) characterized the 206 patients with a positive preoperative scan who were cured by removal of a single adenoma. Conclusions. 99mTc-sestamibi/123I scintigraphy is more accurate than 99mTc-sestamibi before surgery of PHPT. However, outcome of surgery is not determined by scintigraphy alone. PMID:25722888

  11. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs.

    PubMed

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  12. Comparative evaluation of glutamate-sensitive radiopharmaceuticals: Technetium-99m-glutamic acid and technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-bis(glutamate) conjugate for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Dipti; Tiwari, Anjani K; Chuttani, Krishna; Kaul, Ankur; Singh, Harpal; Mishra, Anil K

    2010-12-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography has become a significant imaging modality with huge potential to visualize and provide information of anatomic dysfunctions that are predictive of future diseases. This imaging tool is complimented by radiopharmaceuticals/radiosubstrates that help in imaging specific physiological aspects of the human body. The present study was undertaken to explore the utility of technetium-99m (⁹⁹(m)Tc)-labeled glutamate conjugates for tumor scintigraphy. As part of our efforts to further utilize the application of chelating agents, glutamic acid was conjugated with a multidentate ligand, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The DTPA-glutamate conjugate [DTPA-bis(Glu)] was well characterized by IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy. The biological activity of glutamic acid was compared with its DTPA conjugate by radiocomplexation with ⁹⁹(m)Tc (labeling efficiency ≥98%). In vivo studies of both the radiolabeled complexes ⁹⁹(m)Tc-Glu and ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) were then carried out, followed by gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand albino rabbits. Improved serum stability of ⁹⁹(m)Tc-labeled DTPA conjugate indicated that ⁹⁹(m)Tc remained bound to the conjugate up to 24 hours. Blood clearance showed a relatively slow washout of the DTPA conjugate when compared with the labeled glutamate. Biodistribution characteristics of the conjugate in Balb/c mice revealed that DTPA conjugation of glutamic acid favors less accumulation in the liver and bone and rapid renal clearance. Tumor scintigraphy in mice showed increasing tumor accumulation, stable up to 4 hours. These preliminary studies show that ⁹⁹(m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Glu) can be a useful radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic applications in single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  13. Spatially resolved assessment of hepatic function using 99mTc-IDA SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hesheng; Cao, Yue

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: 99mTc-iminodiacetic acid (IDA) hepatobiliary imaging is usually quantified for hepatic function on the entire liver or regions of interest (ROIs) in the liver. The authors presented a method to estimate the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) voxel-by-voxel from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT with a 99mTc-labeled IDA agent of mebrofenin and evaluated the spatially resolved HEF measurements with an independent physiological measurement.Methods: Fourteen patients with intrahepatic cancers were treated with radiation therapy (RT) and imaged by 99mTc-mebrofenin SPECT before and 1 month after RT. The dynamic SPECT volumes were with a resolution of 3.9 × 3.9 × 2.5 mm{sup 3}. Throughout the whole liver with approximate 50 000 voxels, voxelwise HEF quantifications were estimated and compared between using arterial input function (AIF) from the heart and using vascular input function (VIF) from the spleen. The correlation between mean of the HEFs over the nontumor liver tissue and the overall liver function measured by Indocyanine green clearance half-time (T1/2) was assessed. Variation of the voxelwise estimation was evaluated in ROIs drawn in relatively homogeneous regions of the livers. The authors also examined effects of the time range parameter on the voxelwise HEF quantification.Results: Mean of the HEFs over the liver estimated using AIF significantly correlated with the physiological measurement T1/2 (r= 0.52, p= 0.0004), and the correlation was greatly improved by using VIF (r= 0.79, p < 0.0001). The parameter of time range for the retention phase did not lead to a significant difference in the means of the HEFs in the ROIs. Using VIF and a retention phase time range of 7–30 min, the relative variation of the voxelwise HEF in the ROIs was 10%± 6% of respective mean HEF.Conclusions: The voxelwise HEF derived from 99mTc-IDA SPECT by the deconvolution analysis is feasible to assess the spatial distribution of hepatic function in the

  14. Bis(dithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium-99m radidpharmaceuticals: A class of neutral myocardial imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualini, R.; Duatti, A.; Bellande, E.

    1994-02-01

    The synthesis and biodistribution in various animal models (rat, dog, pig and monkey) of {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals containing the Tc=N multiple bond are reported. The complexes are represented by the general formula {sup 99m}TcN(L){sub 2}, where L is the monoanionic form of a dithiocarbamate ligand of the type [R{sup 1}R{sup 2}-N-C(=S)S]{sup {minus}}, and R{sup 1} and R{sup 2} are variable, lateral groups. The preparations were carried out, both as a liquid and freeze-dried formulation, through a simple procedure involving the initial reaction of [{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}]{sup {minus}} with S-methyl N-methyl dithiocarbazate [H{sub 2}NN(CH{sub 3})C(=S)SCH{sub 3}], in the presence of tertiary phosphines or Sn{sup 2+} ion as reductants, followed by the addition of the sodium salt of the ligand (NaL) to afford the final product. The chemical identity of the resulting complexes was determined by comparing their chromatographic properties with those of the corresponding {sup 99}Tc analogs characterized by spectroscopic and x-ray crystallographic methods. The complexes are neutral and possess a distorted, square pyramidal geometry. No decomposition of the complexes, in physiological solution, was observed over a period of 6 hr. Imaging and biodistribution studies demonstrated that these radiopharmaceuticals localize selectively in the myocardium of rats, dogs and primates, but that they failed to visualize the pig heart. The kinetics of heart uptake and clearance were studied in rats and dogs, and found to be strongly influenced by variation of the lateral R{sup 1} and R{sup 2} groups. The high quality of myocardial images obtained in dogs and monkeys demonstrates that the derivative {sup 99m}TcN[E-t(EtO)NCS{sub 2}]{sub 2} [{sup 22m}N(NOEt)] exhibits the most favorable distribution properties for further studies in humans. 20 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of the first (99m)Tc(I)-specific semi-rigid tridentate ligand based on a click chemistry strategy.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Sihem; Malek Saied, Nadia; Picard, Claude; Benoist, Eric; Saidi, Mouldi

    2014-03-01

    A novel bifunctional chelating agent based on a click chemistry strategy has been synthesized and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic techniques. The metal chelating part of this new class of tridentate N2O ligand combined a triazole unit and an aromatic ring. This latter semi-rigid framework induced a pre-organization of the chelating cavity, improving the stability of the corresponding metallic complexes (M = (99m) Tc, Re). Thus, the (99m) Tc(CO)3 complex, obtained with good yield and excellent radiochemical purity (>90%), exhibited a high in vitro serum stability. Tissue biodistribution in normal mice showed a rapid clearance, no long-term retention in organs and no in vivo reoxidation of technetium-99m, making this compound a promising (99m)Tc-chelating system.

  16. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  17. [99mTc-octreotide receptor scintigraphy in NCI-H446 small cell lung cancer nude mice model].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zuo, Shuyao; Wang, Xufu; Liu, Xinfeng; Wang, Guoming; Wu, Fengyu

    2015-01-01

    For highly aggressive small cell lung cancer (SCLC), early diagnosis is important for its prognosis, but the current inspection methods are more limited, with poor specificity of the traditional imaging methods, and the high cost of PET/CT, difficult to popularization and application. SCLC is kind of neuroendocrine tumors, high expression of somatostatin receptors, which is the cornerstone of its early molecular imaging diagnosis. The aim of this study is to observe the biodistribution and metabolism of 99mTc-octreotide in normal and the human SCLC bearing nude mice. Dynamic and static scintigraphy at 0.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h were performed in both normal and tumor bearing nude mice after intravenous injection of 99mTc-octreotide. The technique of drawing region of interest (ROI) was used to obtain the averaged pixel counts and the activity-time (A-T) curve of brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, tumor, respectively. ① The biodistribution study in normal nude mice showed highest uptake in kidney and liver, lower in lung and heart, lowest in brain. Most 99mTc-octreotide was excreted via kidney. ② All tumors were displayed clearly at 3 h postinjection of 99mTc-octreotide. The averaged T/N ratio at 0.5 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h postinjection of 99mTc-octreotide was 1.163 ± 0.03, 2.08 ± 0.12, 3.03 ± 0.23, 2.689 ± 0.31, respectively (F=51.69, P<0.000,1). The radioactivity of tumor was lower than liver, and similar with the lung. The curve of tumor showed a radioactivity peak at 2 min-3 min postinjection. 99mTc-octreotide receptor imaging on nude mice bearing SCLC shares high positive rate, especially at 3 h postinjection.

  18. Tumor imaging in patients with advanced tumors using a new (99m) Tc-radiolabeled vitamin B12 derivative.

    PubMed

    Sah, Bert-Ram; Schibli, Roger; Waibel, Robert; von Boehmer, Lotta; Bläuenstein, Peter; Nexo, Ebba; Johayem, Anass; Fischer, Eliane; Müller, Ennio; Soyka, Jan D; Knuth, Alexander K; Haerle, Stefan K; Schubiger, Pius August; Schaefer, Niklaus G; Burger, Irene A

    2014-01-01

    Targeting cancer cells with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is hampered by unwanted physiologic tissue uptake mediated by transcobalamin. Adhering to good manufacturing practice, we have developed a new (99m)Tc-cobalamin derivative ((99m)Tc(CO)3-[(4-amido-butyl)-pyridin-2-yl-methyl-amino-acetato] cobalamin, (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin). The derivative shows no binding to transcobalamin but is recognized by haptocorrin, a protein present in the circulation and notably expressed in many tumor cells. In this prospective study, we investigated cancer-specific uptake of (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin in 10 patients with various metastatic tumors. Ten patients with biopsy-proven metastatic cancer were included. Dynamic imaging was started immediately after injection of 300-500 MBq of (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin, and whole-body scintigrams were obtained at 10, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min and after 24 h. The relative tumor activity using SPECT/CT over the tumor region after 4 h was measured in comparison to disease-free lung parenchyma. Patients 3-10 received between 20 and 1,000 μg of cobalamin intravenously before injection of (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin. The study population comprised 4 patients with adenocarcinomas of the lung, 3 with squamous cell carcinomas of the hypopharyngeal region, 1 with prostate adenocarcinoma, 1 with breast, and 1 with colon adenocarcinoma. The median age of the study group was 61 ± 11 y. Six of 10 patients showed positive tumor uptake on (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin whole-body scintigraphy. The scan was positive in 1 patient with colon adenocarcinoma, in 3 of 4 lung adenocarcinomas, in 1 of 3 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, and in 1 breast adenocarcinoma. Renal uptake was between 1% and 3% for the left kidney. Predosing with cobalamin increased the tumor uptake and improved blood-pool clearance. The best image quality was achieved with a predose of 20-100 ug of cold cobalamin. The mean patient dose was 2.7 ± 0.9 mSv/patient. To our knowledge, we report for the first

  19. A novel ternary ligand system useful for preparation of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes and (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Seung; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Shuang

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a novel ternary ligand system composed of a phenylhydrazine, a crown ether-containing dithiocarbamate (DTC), and a PNP-type bisphosphine (PNP). The combination of three different ligands with (99m)Tc results in cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes, [(99m)Tc(NNAr)(DTC)(PNP)]+, with potential radiopharmaceuticals for heart imaging. Synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes can be accomplished in two steps. For example, the reaction of phenylhydrazine with (99m)TcO4- at 100 degrees C in the presence of excess stannous chloride and 1,2-diaminopropane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) results in the [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacts with sodium N-(dithiocarbamato)-2-aminomethyl-15-Crown-5 (L4) and N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]ethoxyethylamine (PNP6) at 100 degrees C for 15 min to give the complex, [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(L4)(PNP6)]+ in high yield (>90%). Cationic complexes [(99m)Tc(NNPh)(DTC)(PNP)]+ are stable for > or = 6 h. Their composition was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:NNPh:DTC:PNP using the mixed-ligand experiments on the tracer ((99m)Tc) level and was further confirmed by the ESI-MS spectral data of a model compound [Re(NNPh)(L4)(L6)]+. It was found that both DTCs and bisphosphines have a significant impact on the lipophilicity of their cationic (99m)Tc-diazenido complexes. Results from a (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency experiment showed that 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HYBA) might be useful as a bifunctional coupling agent for (99m)Tc-labeling of small biomolecules. However, the (99m)Tc-labeling efficiency of HYBA is much lower than that of 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) with tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands.

  20. Fractionated elution using the TEKCIS technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jonathan; De Mil, Rémy; Peyronnet, Damien; Hecquard, Claudine; Agostini, Denis; Lemonnier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The TEKCIS technetium-99m (Tc) generator was designed to allow dry column shipment and automatized conception. A high Tc radioactive concentration is required in a subset of radiopharmacy procedures. Fractionated elution can be a useful tool to meet this requirement, especially when current elution is close to the generator expiration date. The aim of our study was to assess TEKCIS generator elution kinetics and to determine the optimal fractionated elution time to fit with procedures requiring the highest Tc radioactive concentration in clinical use. After duplicate elution at several predetermined elution times, the volume and activity of each eluate were measured. Two optimal time points were selected to perform fractionated elution and repeatability (n=34 and 33) assessed on TEKCIS generators calibrated at 6 or 8 GBq. The complete eluate volume (5 ml) was collected after 60 s of elution. A logarithmic equation was established between eluate volume (v, ml) from elapsed elution time (t, s): v=1.8335ln(t)-2.5965. Using the reciprocal equation, elution times required to obtain some commonly eluted volumes were calculated. Fractionated elutions during 15 and 20 s were selected and an average elution volume from 2.74 to 3.27 ml was collected, with an average elution yield of approximately 90 and 100%, respectively. Our work provides a simple and reliable methodology for the use of fractionated elution with the new TEKCIS generator.

  1. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Collins, J.D.; Najafi, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-10-01

    Current agents for lymphoscintigraphy have limitations because of slow migration of the colloidal tracer from the injection site and the unknown effect of phagocytosis on the removal of the labelled particles. The usefulness of Tc-99m dextran (TcDx) with a molecular weight of 110,000 has been tested for lymphoscintigraphy. Computer-assisted dynamic imaging and serial blood sampling in 13 dog experiments demonstrated that the tracer cleared only by lymph drainage from an interstitial injection site. Following interdigital injection of 1.0 ml (0.5-5.0 mCi), TcDx reached the knee or elbow lymph nodes in 12.4 +/- 6.5 (1 s.d.) sec, and the inguinal or axillary lymph nodes in 98.0 +/- 42.3 sec. It cleared from the injection site with a half-time of 31.5 min. In a dog with surgically induced lymphedema, tracer migration was markedly delayed in the edematous leg and the radionuclide lymphoscintigram resembled the contrast lymphangiogram. Initial studies in man yielded high-quality radionuclide lymphograms of the leg, and the pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. We concluded that TcDx is very promising for lymphoscintigraphy.

  2. Lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled dextran

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.; Collins, J.D.; Najafi, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-10-01

    Current agents for lymphoscintigraphy have limitations because of slow migration of the colloidal tracers from the injection site and the unknown effect of phagocytosis on the removal of the labeled particles. The usefulness of Tc-99m dextran (TcDx) with a molecular weight of 110,000 has been tested for lymphoscintigraphy. Computer-assisted dynamic imaging and serial blood sampling in 13 dog experiments demonstrated that the tracer cleared only by lymph drainage from an interstitial injection site. Following interdigital injection of 1.0 ml (0.5-5.0 mCi), TcDx reached the knee or elbow lymph nodes in 12.4 +/- 6.5 (1 s.d.) sec, and the inguinal or axillary lymph nodes in 98.0 +/- 42.3 sec. It cleared from the injection site with a half-time of 31.5 min. In a dog with surgically induced lymphedema, tracer migration was markedly delayed in the edematous leg and the radionuclide lymphoscintigram resembled the contrast lymphangiogram. Initial studies in man yielded high-quality radionuclide lymphograms of the leg, and the pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes. We conclude that TcDx is very promising for lymphoscintigraphy.

  3. Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors. PMID:22557795

  4. Discrepancies in brain perfusion SPECT findings between Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD: evaluation using dynamic SPECT in patients with hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, N; Koizumi, K; Mitsuka, S; Nukui, H

    1998-10-01

    Discrepancies have been reported between the findings of Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT imaging. This study investigated the discrepancies in the accumulation of these tracers using dynamic SPECT to detect the super early phase of distribution. Thirteen patients with luxury perfusion or high flow states were studied with both dynamic and standard SPECT using Tc-99m HMPAO and Tc-99m ECD within 1-3 days. Standard SPECT showed discrepancies in 6 of 13 patients. Patients with meningioma and cerebral thrombosis had increased accumulation of Tc-99m HMPAO and decreased uptake of Tc-99m ECD. Patients with arteriovenous malformation, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cavernous angioma had decreased accumulation of both tracers, but to different degrees. Dynamic SPECT showed increased or normal accumulation (i.e., essentially no discrepancy) in the first few minutes. However, Tc-99m HMPAO had a longer retention time than Tc-99m ECD in the ensuing 5-10 minutes. Dynamic SPECT revealed a similar accumulation pattern but different washout rates for the two tracers. Tc-99m HMPAO might be a more suitable tracer to detect high flow states or luxury perfusion because the findings on standard SPECT were more in agreement with those of dynamic SPECT using this tracer.

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc/99Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates for antibody pretargeting strategies.

    PubMed

    van Gog, F B; Visser, G W; Gowrising, R W; Snow, G B; van Dongen, G A

    1998-10-01

    Four 99mTc-MAG3-biotin conjugates were synthesized to determine their potential use in antibody pretargeting strategies for radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS). To use these 99mTc-MAG3-biotin conjugates as model compounds for 186Re-MAG3-biotin conjugates for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), nanomolar amounts of 99Tc were added as carrier to 99mTc. The biotin derivatives used for the preparation of the conjugates-biocytin, biotin hydrazide, biotinyl-piperazine, and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid-differed at the site that is regarded to be susceptible to hydrolysis by biotinidase present in human plasma. All four conjugates were produced with high radiochemical purity, were stable in PBS, and demonstrated full binding capacity to streptavidin. The 99mTc/99Tc-MAG3-labeled biotinyl-piperazine and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid conjugates were stable in mouse as well as human plasma, whereas the corresponding biocytin and biotin hydrazide conjugates were rapidly degraded. The biodistribution in nude mice at 30 min after injection was similar for all conjugates, and a rapid blood clearance and high intestinal excretion were both observed. It is concluded that the metabolic routing of a conjugate containing biotin and MAG3 is dominated by these two moieties. For this reason, MAG3-biotin conjugates do not seem suited for pretargeted RIT, for which quantitative and fast renal excretion is a prerequisite to minimize radiation toxicity. However, in a pretargeted RIS approach the 99mTc-MAG3-biotin conjugates might have potential.

  6. Single-sample methods to measure GFR with technetium-99m-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Lee, H B; Blaufox, M D

    1997-08-01

    Many single-sample methods have been suggested to simplify the methodology of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. The relative accuracy of these competing methods is still not clear for clinical practice. Fifty-four GFR studies with 99mTc-DTPA were performed on 37 adult patients (serum creatinine 0.8-10 mg/dl). Each study included a UV/P, plasma clearance method (three-sample) and single-sample methods. The single-sample methods used were those of Christensen and Groth (modified by Watson), Constable, Dakubu, Groth and Aasted, Jacobsson, Morgan, Russell and Tauxe. When the GFR > or = 30 ml/min (n = 26), all of the single-sample methods were highly correlated with UV/P. The correlation of the single-sample method with the plasma clearance was higher than with UV/P. In this group (GFR > or = 30 ml/min), the Groth 4-hr sample method had the best value of both absolute difference and percent absolute difference (mean +/- s.e. = 11.05 +/- 2.51 ml/min and 14.08% +/- 2.43%, respectively). Most single-sample methods do not perform well at GFR < 30 ml/min (n = 28), and none of them has a good correlation with UV/P or plasma clearance at this level of renal function. However, the Groth and Aasted's 4-hr sample method was the best compared with others (mean +/- s.e. = 8.43 +/- 1.30 ml/min for absolute difference, and 65.91% +/- 16.70% for percent absolute difference). Single-sample methods may not correctly predict GFR in advanced renal failure. Groth and Aasted's method with 4-hr plasma sample has both the lowest mean absolute difference and percent absolute difference in both the group with GFR > or = 30 ml/min and GFR < 30 ml/min. All methods perform acceptably at GFR > or = 30 ml/min.

  7. Effect of graded hypoxia on retention of technetium-99m-nitroheterocycle in perfused rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Rumsey, W.L.; Patel, B.; Linder, K.E.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of graded hypoxia on the retention of a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled nitroimidazole. Rat hearts were perfused retrogradely with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37{degrees}C and paced at 5 Hz. After a 20-min stabilization period, coronary flow was maintained at 8 ml/min/g wet wt and the hearts were perfused with media equilibrated with gas mixtures containing 5% CO{sub 2} and various levels of O{sub 2}, from 544 to 29 Torr. Technetium-99m-O(PnAO-1-(2-nitroimidazole)), BMS-181321, was infused for 20 min into a side port of the aortic cannula. Perfusion continued for an additional 40 min to allow for compound clearance. Each decrease of perfusate PO{sub 2} brought about an increase in the retention of BMS-181321, resulting in a good correlation between its retention and perfusate PO{sub 2} (r=0.97). Myocardial oxygen consumption was independent of oxygen delivery when the perfusate oxygen pressure was greater than 350 Torr. Below this value, oxygen consumption declined markedly as influent PO{sub 2}. A good correlation was obtained between retention of the nitroheterocycle and the cytosolic lactate/pyruvate ratio (r=0.98). When glucose was omitted from the perfusate (PO{sub 2}=27 Torr), retention of the nitroheterocycle was increased by about 25% as compared to hearts perfused in the presence of this substrate. These results indicate that myocardial retention of BMS-181321 is coupled to the level of tissue oxygenation and that hypoxic retention may be affected by substrate input. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Synthesis of specific SPECT-radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging based on methionine: 99mTc-DTPA-bis(methionine).

    PubMed

    Hazari, Puja Panwar; Shukla, Gauri; Goel, Vijay; Chuttani, Krishna; Kumar, Nitin; Sharma, Rajnish; Mishra, Anil Kumar

    2010-02-17

    Methionine-diethylenetriaminepentaaceticacid-methionine [DTPA-bis(Met)] was synthesized by covalently conjugating two molecules of methionine (Met) to DTPA and was labeled with (99m)Tc in high radiochemical purity and specific activity (166-296 MBq/micromol). Kinetic analysis showed K(m) of 12.95 +/- 3.8 nM and a maximal transport rate velocity (V(max)) of 80.35 +/- 0.42 pmol microg protein(-1) min(-1) of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) in U-87MG cells. DTPA-bis(Met) had dissociation constants (K(d)) of 0.067 and 0.077 nM in U-87MG and BMG, respectively. (35)S-methionine efflux was trans-stimulated by (99m)Tc-labeled DTPA conjugate demonstrating concentrative transport. The blood kinetic studies showed fast clearance with t(1/2) (F) = 36 +/- 0.5 min and t(1/2) (S) = 5 h 55 min +/- 0.85 min. U-87MG and BMG tumors saturated at approximately 2000 +/- 280 nmol/kg of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met). Initial rate of transport of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) in U-87MG tumor was found to be 4.68 x 10(-4) micromol/kg/min. The tumor (BMG cell line, malignant glioma) grafted in athymic mice were readily identifiable in the gamma images. Semiquantitative analysis from region of interest (ROI) placed over areas counting average counts per pixel with maximum radiotracer uptake on the tumor was found to be 11.05 +/- 3.99 and compared ROI with muscle (0.55 +/- 0.13). The tumor-to-contralateral muscle tissue ratio of (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) was found to be 23 +/- 3.3. Biodistribution revealed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the U-87MG, BMG, and EAT tumor-bearing mice. In clinical trials, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were found to be 87.8%, 92.8%, and 96.6%, respectively. (99m)Tc-DTPA-bis(Met) showed excellent tumor targeting and has promising utility as a SPECT-radiopharmaceutical for imaging methionine-dependent human tumors and to quantify the ratio of MET(+)/HCY(-).

  9. Generation of parametric images during routine Tc-99m PYP inhalation/Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scintigraphy. Technical note.

    PubMed

    Miron, S D; Wiesen, E J; Feiglin, D H; Cohen, A M; Bellon, E M

    1991-07-01

    A simple technique is described for generating ventilation/perfusion ratio and perfusion/ventilation ratio images from the posterior Tc-99m PYP aerosol inhalation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion images obtained during routine lung scintigraphy. These images highlight areas of ventilation/perfusion incongruence--mismatch or reverse mismatch--that may sometimes be difficult to detect on conventional images.

  10. [Improvement in nuclear medicine diagnosis of kidney function using 99m technetium mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3)].

    PubMed

    Erpenbach, K; Ebert, A; Wieler, H

    1991-03-01

    Renal scintigraphy and clearance measurement are indispensable in nephro-urologic disorders. A continuous series of 103 sequential scintigraphies and clearance measurements were performed with the new technetium-labelled agent MAG3 (Gamma-kamera, Phillips Tomo Diagnost) and 131I-orthohippuric acid (OIH) using the Oberhausen method (Nucleopan, Siemens). The time-activity curves obtained with the two radionuclides agreed exactly. Reaching a tubular excretion rate of nearly 90%, the clearance of MAG3 differed by no more than 6% from the OIH clearance in 95% of the cases. The factor between clearances of the two radionuclides was determined by means of a commercially available software according to the Oberhausen method and amounted to 0.59 +/- 0.09. The favorable physical properties and high activity of MAG3 permit exact examination of tubular function and better assessment of renal morphology than hippuran-labelled radionuclides. The low radiation dose combined with a better spatial resolution, especially, the constant availability in a nuclear medicine department should give the preference to MAG3.

  11. Development of 99mTc-neomannosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-MSA) as a novel receptor binding agent for sentinel lymph node imaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae Min; Hong, Mee Kyung; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Jaetae; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-12-01

    Various mannose receptor-binding agents, for example 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-mannosyl-polymer, have been developed for sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging. In order to simplify the synthesis and labelling procedure and to improve the biological properties, we developed a novel mannose receptor-binding agent, 99mTc-neomannosyl human serum albumin (99mTc-MSA), for SLN imaging. MSA was synthesized by conjugating mannopyranosylphenylisothiocyanate to human serum albumin (HSA). After reducing MSA with beta-mercaptoethanol and PD-10 column purification, a medronate solution containing stannous fluoride was added, divided into aliquots and freeze-dried. Reduced MSA was labelled with 99mTc-pertechnetate solution. The stability was checked for 24 h at 37 degrees C in human serum. The biodistribution of 99mTc-MSA in mice was investigated by intravenous injection through the tail vein and subcutaneous injection into the foot pad. The biodistributions of 99mTc-HSA and 99mTc-antimony sulphur colloid (99mTc-ASC) were also investigated for comparison. Dynamic whole-body images were obtained for 30 min after subcutaneous injection into the rats' foot pads. The number of mannose molecules conjugated per MSA was 15.9. The number of thiol groups produced was 19.4 per MSA after reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol. Labelling yields were always higher than 97%. 99mTc-MSA was stable for 24 h at 37 degrees C in human serum. The biodistribution in mice after intravenous injection showed high liver uptake (50.7+/-5.5% and 42.7+/-3.7% injected dose per gram at 10 and 60 min, respectively). 99mTc-MSA and 99mTc-ASC showed high accumulation in the lymph nodes after subcutaneous injection, whereas 99mTc-HSA and Tc-tin colloid did not, in both biodistribution and imaging studies. We have successfully developed a novel 99mTc-MSA for lymphoscintigraphy. The results of animal studies show that 99mTc-MSA has promising properties for SLN imaging.

  12. Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD dimers: impact of cyclic RGD peptides and 99mTc chelates on biological properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Kim, Young-Seung; Lu, Xin; Liu, Shuang

    2012-03-21

    The main objective of this study is to explore the impact of cyclic RGD peptides and (99m)Tc chelates on biological properties of (99m)Tc radiotracers. Cyclic RGD peptide conjugates, HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2) (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; RGD(2) = E[c(RGDfK)](2) and NIC = nicotinyl), HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2) (3G-RGD(2) = Gly-Gly-Gly-E[Gly-Gly-Gly-c(RGDfK)](2)), and HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2) (3P-RGD(2) = PEG(4)-E[PEG(4)-c(RGDfK)](2)), were prepared. Macrocyclic (99m)Tc complexes [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-RGD(2))(tricine)] (1), [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3G-RGD(2))(tricine)] (2), and [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC)-3P-RGD(2))(tricine)] (3) were evaluated for their biodistribution and tumor-targeting capability in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-435 human breast tumor xenografts. It was found that 1, 2, and 3 could be prepared with high specific activity (∼111 GBq/μmol). All three (99m)Tc radiotracers have two major isomers, which show almost identical uptake in tumors and normal organs. Replacing the bulky and highly charged [(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3″-trisulfonate) with a smaller [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)] resulted in less uptake in the kidneys and lungs for 3. Surprisingly, all three (99m)Tc radiotracers shared a similar tumor uptake (1, 5.73 ± 0.40%ID/g; 2, 5.24 ± 1.09%ID/g; and 3, 4.94 ± 1.71%ID/g) at 60 min p.i. The metabolic stability of (99m)Tc radiotracers depends on cyclic RGD peptides (3P-RGD(2) > 3G-RGD(2) ∼ RGD(2)) and (99m)Tc chelates ([(99m)Tc(HYNIC)(tricine)(TPPTS)] > [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-K(NIC))(tricine)]). Immunohistochemical studies revealed a linear relationship between the α(v)β(3) expression levels and tumor uptake or tumor/muscle ratios of 3, suggesting that 3 is useful for monitoring the tumor α(v)β(3) expression. Complex 3 is a very attractive radiotracer for detection of integrin α(v)β(3)-positive tumors.

  13. Differential Lung Uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-Duramycin in the Chronic Hyperoxia Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Anne V.; Audi, Said H.; Haworth, Steven T.; Roerig, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive radionuclide imaging has the potential to identify and assess mechanisms involved in particular stages of lung injury which occur with acute respiratory distress syndrome, for example. Lung uptake of 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is reported to be partially dependent on the redox status of the lung tissue while 99mTc-duramycin, a new marker of cell injury, senses cell death via apoptosis and/or necrosis. Thus, we investigated changes in lung uptake of these agents in rat exposed to hyperoxia for prolonged periods, a common model of acute lung injury. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-exposed to either normoxia (21% O2) or hyperoxia (85% O2) for up to 21 days. For imaging, the rats were anesthetized, injected i.v. with either 99mTc-HMPAO or 99mTc-duramycin (37-74 MBq) and planar images were acquired using a high sensitivity modular gamma camera. Subsequently, 99mTc-macroagreggated albumin (37 MBq, diam=10-40 μm) was injected i.v., imaged, and used to define a lung region-of-interest. The lung to background ratio was used as a measure of lung uptake. Results Hyperoxia exposure resulted in a 74% increase in 99mTc-HMPAO lung uptake, which peaked at 7 days and persisted for the 21 days of exposure. 99mTc-duramycin lung uptake was also maximal at 7 days of exposure but decreased to near control levels by 21 days. The sustained elevation of 99mTc-HMPAO uptake suggests ongoing changes in lung redox status whereas cell death appears to have subsided by 21 days. Conclusion These results suggest the potential use of 99mTc-HMPAO and 99mTc-duramycin as redox and cell-death imaging biomarkers, respectively, for in vivo identification and assessment of different stages of lung injury. PMID:23086010

  14. Sentinel node biopsy and lymphoscintigraphy with a technetium 99m labeled blue dye in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Richard; Tsopelas, Chris; Kollias, James; Chatterton, Barry E; Coventry, Brendon J

    2002-01-01

    Lymphatic mapping for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer and melanoma usually involves initial peritumoral injection of a radioisotope, gamma camera detection of the sentinel lymph node several hours prior to the operation, and separate perioperative injection of a blue dye. We have developed a combined approach using technetium 99m labeled blue dye (Evans Blue) for use in lymphoscintigraphy that may be injected as a single dose just prior to the operation. In an anesthetized rabbit model we dissected a hind limb to display the popliteal node and afferent lymphatic. Technetium 99m Evans Blue ((99m)Tc-EB) (22 MBq; 0.5 mL) was injected subdermally in the dorsum of the paw. Simultaneous digital and gamma camera images were obtained at 14 time intervals to 30 minutes post injection. For each of these time intervals the percentage of radioactivity and percentage blueness of the popliteal node were determined. Urine and afferent lymphatic fluid were analyzed by chromatography. The popliteal node was excised post mortem, placed into solvent solutions and analyzed for blueness and radioactivity. Time-activity curves for radioactivity and time-blueness curves for Evans Blue uptake showed strong correlation (r = 0.958). Lymph analysis suggested (99m)Tc-EB is mainly bound to endogenous proteins. Urine was radioactive but not colored, (99m)Tc-EB being metabolized and excreted in the urine as 1,7-diamino-8-naphthol-2,4-disulfonic acid. Prolonged exposure of node to solvents did not dissociate any blue coloration or radioactivity. (99m)Tc-EB and Evans Blue are simultaneously retained and concentrated in the sentinel lymph node. This process is rapid and reproducible. (99m)Tc-EB migrates at the same rate as Evans Blue in lymph, where it is transported as bound to endogenous proteins. These dye molecules are metabolized by reductive cleavage in the liver and then excreted renally as colorless, radioactive metabolites. This novel agent has the potential to facilitate lymphatic

  15. Effect of coronary blood flow on uptake and washout of /sup 99m/Tc DMPE and /sup 201/Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, H.; Adolph, R.J.; Deutsch, E.

    1982-12-01

    After intravenous administration of /sup 99m/Tc DMPE the flow-dependent kinetics were studied in dogs during induced ischemia and during induced maximal reactive hyperemia. A control group was also studied. Mean time-activity curves obtained from the myocardial wall were compared within the same intervention group and also with other groups. During reactive hyperemia, there was a rapid and absolute increase in uptake followed by a rapid washout, whereas during ischemia there was a slow and decreased uptake followed by a slow washout. The magnitude of /sup 99m/Tc DMPE uptake during reactive hyperemia was slightly less than that of /sup 201/Tl, but the decreased uptake with ischemia was about equal for the two agents. Following maximal uptake in the myocardium the effective half-life of /sup 99m/Tc DMPE was one-third to one-fourth that of /sup 201/Tl. The similar kinetics of /sup 99m/Tc DMPE compared to /sup 201/Tl suggests its usefulness in the evaluation of ischemic heart disease.

  16. Assessment of salivary gland function in patients after successful kidney transplantation using (99m)Tc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Orsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Keles, Mustafa; Ayan, Arif Kursad; Cankaya, Erdem; Ozkan, Ozalkan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic renal failure and its treatment can induce oral health problems and salivary glands dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess salivary glands function in patients with kidney transplantation using technetium-99m pertechnetate ((99m)Tc-P) salivary glands scintigraphy. We prospectively studied 34 patients with kidney transplantation (30 males and 4 females,mean age 39.76±11.6 years) and 28 healthy controls (12 males and 16 females, mean age 36.1±9.5 years). Salivary gland scintigraphy was performed nearly 4.4±2.9 years after successful kidney transplantation. Dynamic salivary glands scintigraphy was performed during 25min after the intravenous administration of 185MBq of (99m)Tc-P. Time-activity curves and glands functional parameters were calculated for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation of the radionuclide, and excretion fraction. Statistical analysis of the functional parameters showed no significant differences between patients with kidney transplantation and healthy controls (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that using (99m)Tc-P salivary gland scintigraphy, salivary glands function of patients with successful kidney transplantation do not differ statistically from those in healthy controls.

  17. A Novel Ternary Ligand System Useful for Preparation of Cationic 99mTc-Diazenido Complexes and 99mTc-Labeling of Small Biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Seung; He, Zhengjie; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a novel ternary ligand system composed of a phenylhydrazine, a crown ether-containing dithiocarbamate (DTC) and a PNP-type bisphosphine (PNP). The combination of three different ligands with 99mTc results in cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes,[99mTc(NNAr)(DTC)(PNP)]+, with potential radiopharmaceuticals for heart imaging. Synthesis of cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes can be accomplished in two steps with high yield. For example, the reaction of phenylhydrazine with 99mTcO4− at 100 °C in the presence of excess stannous chloride and 1,2-diaminopropane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid (PDTA) results in the [99mTc(NNPh)(PDTA)n] intermediate, which then reacts with sodium N-(dithiocarbamato)-2-aminimethyl-15-Crown-5 (L4) and N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-ethoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]ethoxy-ethylamine (PNP6) at 100 °C for 15 min to give the complex, [99mTc(NNPh)(L4)(PNP6)]+ in high yield (> 90%). Cationic complexes [99mTc(NNPh)(DTC)(PNP)]+ are stable for ≥6 h. Their composition was determined to be 1:1:1:1 for Tc:NNPh:DTC:PNP using the mixed-ligand experiments on the tracer (99mTc) level, and was further confirmed by the ESI-MS spectral data of a model compound [Re(NNPh)(L4)(L6)]+. It was found that both DTCs and bisphosphines have a significant impact on the lipophilicity of their cationic 99mTc-diazenido complexes. Results from a 99mTc-labeling efficiency experiment showed that 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HYBA) might be useful as a bifunctional coupling agent for 99mTc-labeling of small biomolecules. However, the 99mTc-labeling efficiency of HYBA is much lower than that of 6-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC) with tricine and trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3’,3”-trisulfonate (TPPTS) as coligands. PMID:16536480

  18. Radio-UHPLC: a tool for rapidly determining the radiochemical purity of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Kryza, David; Janier, Marc

    2013-08-01

    Determining the radiochemical purity (RCP) of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiopharmaceuticals using the method described in the package insert is a time-consuming process, requiring particular attention in order to achieve accurate RCP results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether radio-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (radio-UHPLC) may be an alternative method for RCP testing of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, (99m)Tc-MAG3 and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. Results obtained using radio-UHPLC were in excellent agreement with the standard method, with total analysis time being reduced to less than 3 min.

  19. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, S; Kawamura, J; Tomoyoshi, T; Yoshida, O

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  20. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  1. 99mTc-imidodiphosphonate: a superior radio-pharmaceutical for in vivo positive myocardial infarct imaging. II: Clinical data.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, S P; Ell, P J; Ross, P; Donaldson, R; Elliott, A T; Brown, N J; Williams, E S

    1978-01-01

    99mTc-Imidodiphosphonate was investigated as a new myocardial infarct imaging agent. In the acute phase, 50 patients admitted to the coronary care unit were serially scanned over a period of 7 days. A mobile gamma camera linked on line to a remote data processor was used. Because of higher uptake in infarcted myocardium and faster blood clearance, superior images than those recorded with 99mTc-pyrophosphate were obtained. Its ease of preparation, low cost, and favourable dosimetry (because of its label with conventional 99mTc) transforms this agent into the present radiopharmaceutical of choice for acute infarct imaging in particular if sizing and follow-up is intended versus time and type of treatment. In this series, no false positive cases were seen. The sensitivity of the method in the detection of full thickness myocardial infarction was 95%. It dropped to 70% in the detection of subendocardial infarction. However, some of these apparent false negative cases may reflect severe ischaemia without infarction. It is postulated that this discrimination may not always be realistic. Images PMID:637976

  2. The role of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of COPD and asthma.

    PubMed

    Karacavus, Seyhan; Intepe, Yavuz S

    2015-04-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and asthma are characterized as similar to each other in causing airway obstruction and being an inflammatory process. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m) Tc-DTPA) aerosol scintigraphy could be used in the differential diagnosis of asthma and COPD. Eighty-four patients (male/female: 32/52; mean age 50.2 ± 12.7 years) with obstructive lung disease and 30 healthy volunteers as the control group were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups as COPD and asthma and also smoking subgroups. Alveolar clearance study was performed using a radiolabeled aerosol of (99m) Tc-DTPA. Mucociliary clearance was evaluated with T½ , cap value and penetration index parameters. All patient underwent pulmonary function tests and Forced expiratory volume (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1 /FVC parameters were obtained. The mean of T½ values of (99m) Tc-DTPA aerosol and FEV1 /FVC value among spirometric tests of the nonsmoking COPD patients were significantly lower than nonsmoking asthma patients (46.1 ± 14.3, 62.3 ± 18.7, P = 0.02; 65.2 ± 10.8, 81.4 ± 16.5, P = 0.04, respectively). The cap value was significantly higher in nonsmoking COPD patients (1.21 ± 0.49, 0.76 ± 0.22, P = 0.03). While there were no statistically and significantly different between control and asthmatic groups at the scintigraphic parameters and spirometric parameters, the mean of T½ values, cap value and spirometric parameters were statistically different between control and COPD groups (P < 0.05). We showed that assessment of mucociliary permeability with (99m) Tc-DTPA aerosol scintigraphy was a useful, easy to apply and a noninvasive technique to use in the differential diagnosis of nonsmoker COPD and asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparison of efficacy of Tc-99m HIG and Tc-99m nanocolloid on sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Hulya; Gençoglu, Esra Arzu; Yagmurdur, Mahmut; Aras, Murat; Ozen, Aynur; Aktas, Ayse

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of Tc-99m human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) and Tc-99m nanocolloid at detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) with lymphoscintigraphy and an intraoperative gamma-probe (IGP) in patients with early breast cancer. The study group consisted of 50 women; 25 patients each were given Tc-99m HIG or Tc-99m nanocolloid for lymphoscintigraphy. Then, intraoperative SLN localization with IGP was performed. The results of IGP, lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye injected just before surgery, and pathology were compared. In the Tc-99m HIG group, one patient had tumours in both breasts. In two patients, we could not detect SLNs with lymphoscintigraphy, although they were detected with IGP and blue dye. We found SLNs for all tumours with IGP. With the intraoperative blue dye, SLNs were identified for 25 tumours; for one tumour, no SLN was detected with blue dye. In the histopathological examination, 13 tumours showed metastasis in the SLN and in 11 of these 13, there were also metastases in the axilla. One patient had a skip metastasis. In the Tc-99m nanocolloid group, SLNs were identified in 24 patients with lymphoscintigraphy. IGP found SLNs in 24 patients. The blue dye detected SLNs in all patients. On histopathological examination, 10 patients had metastasis in the SLN and there were also metastases in the axilla in all of these patients. Tc-99m HIG can be used in SLN detection with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and IGP in early-stage breast cancer patients.

  4. Tc-99m MDP, thallium-201 chloride and Tc-99m MAG3 renal uptake in subacute and chronic radiation nephritis compared.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, B; Uysal, K; Bekis, R; Cetingoz, R; Kaya, G C; Durak, H

    2001-10-01

    The authors present a comparison of the findings for thallium-201 (Tl-201), Tc-99m MAG3 and Tc-99m MDP in subacute and chronic radiation nephritis in a 9-yr-old boy who was treated by radiation therapy for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the left chest wall by a radiation port that partially included the left kidney. Tl-201 imaging three and six months later showed a cortical defect in the left kidney due to radiation nephritis. Tc-99m MDP scan showed increased uptake on both occasions, but more marked in the subacute period than in the chronic period. Tc-99m MAG3 showed decreased concentration and increased cortical retention three months later. Six months after the radiation therapy, a cortical defect corresponding to the cortical area that showed increased parenchymal retention was more prominent in the Tc-99m MAG3 scan. In the present case, Tc-99m MDP, Tl-201 and Tc-99m MAG3 findings may provide useful information for understanding pathophysiological damage in the kidney after radiation.

  5. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analogs labeled with technetium-99m and indium-111 for malignant melanoma targeting.

    PubMed

    Chen, JianQing; Cheng, Zhen; Miao, Yubin; Jurisson, Silvia S; Quinn, Thomas P

    2002-02-15

    Previous studies have shown that the compact structure of a rhenium-cyclized alpha--melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analog, [Cys3410,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(3--13), or Re-CCMSH, significantly enhanced its in vivo tumor uptake and retention. In this study, the metal chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was coupled to the N-terminus of Re-CCMSH in order to develop a melanoma-targeting peptide that could be labeled with a wider variety of imaging and therapeutic radionuclides. Biodistribution properties of indium-111 ((111)In)--labeled DOTA-Re-CCMSH were compared with the non-DOTA-containing technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)--CCMSH in murine melanoma--bearing C57 mice to determine the effects of DOTA on tumor uptake and whole-body clearance. The tumor targeting capacity and clearance kinetics of (111)In-DOTA-Re-CCMSH were also compared with other related cyclic and linear (111)In-labeled DOTA-alpha-MSH complexes. The in vivo distribution data showed that the conjugation of DOTA to Re-CCMSH did not reduce its initial tumor uptake kinetics but did enhance its tumor retention and renal clearance properties. The tumor uptake of (111)In-DOTA-Re-CCMSH was significantly higher than the other (111)In-DOTA--coupled cyclic or linear alpha-MSH analogs used in this study. Moreover, (111)In-DOTA-Re-CCMSH displayed lower radioactivity accumulation in normal tissues of interest than its non-Re-cyclized counterpart, (111)In-DOTA-CCMSH; the disulfide bond--cyclized (111)In-DOTA-CMSH; or the linear (111)In-DOTA-NDP. Peptide cyclization via rhenium coordination significantly enhanced the tumor targeting and renal clearance properties of DOTA-Re-CCMSH, making it an excellent candidate for melanoma radiodetection and radiotherapy. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.

  6. Tc-99m Ethylenedicysteine and Tc-99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy-Comparison of the Two for Detection of Scarring and Differential Cortical Function.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Anitha; Pawar, Shwetal U; Parelkar, Sandesh V; Shetye, Suruchi S; Ghorpade, Mangala K; Tilve, Gundu H

    2017-01-01

    The differential cortical function obtained by Tc-99m EC is comparable to that of Tc-99m DMSA. However, identification of scars on Tc-99m EC images needs to be studied. The aim of the study is to evaluate role of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring and differential cortical function by comparing with Tc-99m DMSA. Prospective observational study of recurrent UTI; minimum 6 weeks after acute episode; when urine examination is negative for pus cells. Forty-seven children with normal positioned kidneys underwent Tc-99m EC and DMSA scintigraphy. The DRF and cortical phase images of both studies in the same image matrix size were evaluated by two independent observers for scarring; Tc-99m DMSA was considered as the gold standard. MS Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat V3.1 and ROC analysis. There was no significant difference in the detection of scarring using two studies with Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) 0.932. The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring was 98.75% and 99.15%, respectively. There was good agreement between the differential cortical function calculated using two studies. The summed Tc-99m EC images with an acceptable high image contrast allow detection of cortical scarring in patients with normal kidney positions. It is an excellent single-modality comprehensive investigational agent for renal parenchymal defects, function, and excretion evaluation with the added advantages of lower cost, convenience, and low radiation exposure to the child.

  7. (99m)Tc sulfur colloid and (99m)Tc mebrofenin hepatobiliary functional liver imaging in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Saeedi, Fatma; Loutfi, Issa

    2011-01-01

    To use (99m)Tc sulfur colloid ((99m)Tc-SC) and (99m)Tc mebrofenin ((99m)Tc-BrIDA) to study liver function in normal and diabetic rats. Radionuclide imaging was performed on 2 groups of rats, using (99m)Tc-SC for one group and (99m)Tc-BrIDA for the other (20 rats per group) before and after induction of diabetes mellitus (DM) using streptozotocin administration (55 mg/kg i.p.). Dynamic acquisition was obtained for 1 h after the injection of 37 MBq of radiotracer. For the (99m)Tc-SC group, organ/tissue uptake was determined by drawing regions of interest (ROI) over the heart, liver, spleen and also the whole body (WB). The ratio of the ROI of each organ to the WB ROI was calculated. For (99m)Tc-BrIDA, ratios of cumulative count rates in liver, liver parenchyma, biliary tree and abdomen ROI to a WB ROI were also calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the ratios of organ/tissue uptake to WB uptake before and after DM induction using the paired t test. (99m)Tc-SC uptake ratios (means ±SD) showed a lower liver-to-WB uptake ratio (0.75 ± 0.05) in the rats after DM induction compared to baseline (0.81 ± 0.06), while the cardiac blood pool showed higher uptake ratios in the rats after DM induction (p = 0.026). For (99m)Tc-BrIDA, there was no significant difference in radiotracer uptake ratios obtained from the rats before and after DM induction (p = 0.41). Using functional liver imaging, there was a statistically significant decrease in the liver phagocytic/reticuloendothelial system function after DM induction, as evidenced by decreased (99m)Tc-SC liver uptake and increased blood pool compared to prediabetes, while the hepatobiliary function remained unchanged after DM induction using (99m)Tc-BrIDA imaging. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  9. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics.

  10. Preclinical Evaluation and First Patient Application of 99mTc-PSMA-I&S for SPECT Imaging and Radioguided Surgery in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Robu, Stephanie; Schottelius, Margret; Eiber, Matthias; Maurer, Tobias; Gschwend, Jürgen; Schwaiger, Markus; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-02-01

    Initial studies in patients have demonstrated the suitability of (111)In-PSMA-I&T ((111)In-DOTAGA-(3-iodo-y)-f-k-Sub(KuE)) (PSMA is prostate-specific membrane antigen and I&T is imaging and therapy) for radioguided surgery (RGS) of small metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) soft-tissue lesions. To meet the clinical need for a more cost-effective alternative, the PSMA-I&T-based tracer concept was adapted to (99m)Tc-labeling chemistry. Two PSMA-I&T-derived inhibitors with all-L-serine- (MAS3) and all-D-serine- (mas3) chelating moieties were evaluated in parallel, and a kit procedure for routine (99m)Tc labeling was developed. PSMA affinities (IC50) and internalization kinetics of (99m)Tc-MAS3-y-nal-k(Sub-KuE) and (99m)Tc-mas3-y-nal-k(Sub-KuE) ((99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S for imaging and surgery) were determined using LNCaP cells and ((125)I-BA)KuE as a radioligand and reference standard. In vivo metabolite analyses and biodistribution studies were performed using CD-1 nu/nu and LNCaP tumor-bearing CB-17 severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S in humans were investigated in a patient with advanced metastatic PCa via sequential planar whole-body SPECT imaging at 1, 3, 5, and 21 h after injection. Additionally, preoperative SPECT/CT (12 h after injection) and (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S-supported RGS (16 h after injection) were performed in 1 PCa patient with proven iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases. A robust and reliable kit-labeling procedure was established, allowing the preparation of (99m)Tc-MAS3-y-nal-k(Sub-KuE) and (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S in consistently high radiochemical yield and purity (≥98%, n > 50 preparations). Because of its improved internalization efficiency and superior in vivo stability, (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S was selected for further in vivo evaluation. Compared with (111)In-PSMA-I&T, (99m)Tc-PSMA-I&S showed delayed clearance kinetics but identical uptake in PSMA-positive tissues in the LNCaP xenograft model (1 h after injection). In

  11. Retention and distribution of two 99mTc-DTPA labelled vaginal dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Barry E; Penglis, Stan; Kovacs, Julie C; Presnell, Bernardine; Hunt, Barry

    2004-03-01

    To objectively evaluate the performance of new vaginal dosage forms, it is important to determine their time of residence and their distribution. This paper describes the in vivo characteristics of a reference and test product in this situation. A randomised cross-over study was performed in the same phase of the menstrual cycle in eight pre-menopausal women. The retention and distribution of a commercially available vaginal clotrimazole cream and a test gel product, each "labelled" with 99mTc-DTPA was assessed by gamma scintigraphy for 24 h after administration of the products. Mass balance analysis was attempted by collecting and counting sanitary napkins worn for the study time. Within individuals there was little variation in the clearance of the formulations, but wide variation between individuals with a range between 81 and 1% of the administered doses retained by 24 h. The losses appeared to occur mainly at times of urination with 12 +/- 8% (cream) and 20 +/- 23% (gel) collected on the sanitary napkins, but 46 +/- 34% (cream) and 38 +/- 22% gel activity not accounted for by 24 h. The intravaginal distribution of activity was similar for each product. Radioactive tracer methods are useful in assessing and comparing vaginal dosage forms.

  12. Diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis with technetium 99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, C.A.; Keeffe, E.B.; Lieberman, D.A.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Gilbert, S.; Eklem, M.J.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid planar biliary scintigraphy combined with single photon emission computed tomography could detect sclerosing cholangitis and provide additional information regarding the extent and severity of disease. Thirteen patients with sclerosing cholangitis and 13 normal control subjects were studied. Scintigraphic results were also compared with previously reported studies of patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction and with primary biliary cirrhosis. The planar scintigraphy in patients with sclerosing cholangitis showed beading or bandlike constrictions of the biliary tract corresponding to lesions seen on cholangiography, and the image pattern was distinctly different from images obtained from patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction or primary biliary cirrhosis. The single photon emission computed tomography images of the liver in patients with sclerosing cholangitis demonstrated multiple focal areas of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid retention, representing bile stasis in intrahepatic bile ducts. Compared to controls, the mean hepatic clearance half-time of /sup 99m/Tc-iminodiacetic acid was markedly delayed in patients with sclerosing cholangitis (6-10 times normal). Individual patients with sclerosing cholangitis had wider variation in isotope clearance half-time from three regions of the liver than patients with isolated common bile duct obstruction, consistent with regional difference in disease severity and variable impairment of bile flow. In 4 patients with sclerosing cholangitis with incomplete filling of the right and left hepatic ducts at cholangiography, planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy provided evidence of significant intrahepatic sclerosing cholangitis.

  13. Technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging for detecting prosthetic joint infection in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Feng; Hou, Yanjie; Lu, Shanshan; Tian, Wei; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Wang, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is essential to initiate early treatment and achieve a favorable outcome. In this study, we used a rabbit model to assess the feasibility of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V for detecting prosthetic joint infection. Right knee arthroplasty was performed on 24 New Zealand rabbits. After surgery, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was intra-articularly injected to create a model of prosthetic joint infection (the infected group, n = 12). Rabbits in the control group were injected with sterile saline (n = 12). Seven and 21 days after surgery, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging was performed in 6 rabbits of each group. Images were acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V (150 MBq). The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios were calculated for quantitative analysis. Seven days after surgery, increased technetium-99m-labeled annexin V uptake was observed in all cases. However, at 21 days a notable decrease was found in the control group, but not in the infected group. The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the infected group were 1.84 ± 0.29 in the early phase and 2.19 ± 0.34 in the delay phase, both of which were significantly higher than those of the control group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the delay phase at 21 days was the best indicator, with an accuracy of 80%. In conclusion, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging could effectively distinguish an infected prosthetic joint from an uninfected prosthetic joint in a rabbit model.

  14. Novel Cancer-Targeting SPECT/NIRF Dual-modality Imaging Probe 99mTc -PC-1007: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Xiao, Li; Popovic, Kosta; Xie, Xiuzhen; Chordia, Mahendra D.; Chung, Leland W.K.; Williams, Mark B.; Yue, Wei; Pan, Dongfeng

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in vivo biological evaluation of a heptamethine cyanine based dual-mode single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging probe 99mTc-PC-1007 is described. 99mTc-PC-1007 exhibited preferential accumulation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Cancer-specific SPECT/CT and NIRF imaging of 99mTc -PC-1007 was performed in a breast cancer xenograft model. The probe uptake ratio of tumor to control (spinal cord) was calculated to be 4.02 ± 0.56 at 6 h post injection (pi) and 8.50 ± 1.41 at 20 h pi (P<0.0001). Pharmacokinetic parameters such as blood clearance and organ distribution were assessed. PMID:24125889

  15. Evaluation of technetium-99m decay on Escherichia coli inactivation: effects of physical or chemical agents.

    PubMed Central

    Silva, C. R.; Valsa, J. O.; Caniné, M. S.; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    1998-01-01

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. Here, we have evaluated, on a DNA repair proficient Escherichia coli strain, the 99mTc decay inactivation and the influence of the (i) pre-treatment with metal ion chelators or of the (ii) treatment with a free radical scavenger on the protection of the cells against the lethal effect of the 99mTc. As SnCl2 is frequently used as a reducing agent in the 99mTc-labeling process, we have also studied the capability of SnCl2 to alter the biological effects induced by the 99mTc decay. As we are exposed to either chemical or physical agents in the nature, we have decided to study a possible influence of the ultraviolet solar radiation in the biological phenomena induced by the 99mTc decay. Our data point out (i) a very important role of the Auger and/or conversion electrons in the cytotoxicity induced by the 99mTc decay; (ii) SnCl2, the metal ion chelators and the free radical scavenger protect the cells against the lethal effect of the 99mTc; and (iii) near-UV does not alter the lethal effect of the 99mTc decay. PMID:9713950

  16. Lessons from the Tc-99m shortage: implications of substituting Tl-201 for Tc-99m single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Small, Gary R; Ruddy, Terrence D; Simion, Oana; Alam, Mohammed; Fuller, Lyanne; Chen, Li; Beanlands, Rob S; Chow, Benjamin J W

    2013-09-01

    In 2009, the Chalk River nuclear reactor closed for repairs that led to a critical shortage of technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Several centers used thallium-201 (Tl-201) as an alternative radiotracer for myocardial perfusion imaging. Because Tl-201 is considered by many as a suboptimal radiotracer, we sought to understand the impact of using Tl-201 (during the Tc-99m shortage) on downstream resource utilization. We performed a retrospective study at the Ottawa Heart Institute of 7402 patients (60% men; mean age, 62.6 ± 11.8 years), patients were referred for myocardial perfusion imaging between May 2008 and January 2011 (PRE_Tc-99m [2938 patients]), during (DURING_Tl-201 [2959 patients]), and after (POST_Tc-99m [1505 patients]) the Tc-99m shortage. Patients were followed for 6 months after their index myocardial perfusion imaging to determine subsequent rates of cardiac catheterization or noninvasive imaging. More downstream testing was seen in the Tl-201 cohort (639 [21.4%] patients) than the Tc-99m cohort (537 [12.1%] patients; P<0.001). After adjustment using propensity scores, differences in downstream referral rates were maintained. The downstream investigations resulted in an estimated increase in per-patient costs ($165.22; 95% confidence interval, 153.00-177.42) in the DURING_Tl-201 cohort compared with the Tc-99m cohort ($90.97; 95% confidence interval, 83.42-98.90; P<0.001). As well, the mean effective radiation dose per-patient was higher in DURING_Tl-201 (23.57 mSv; 95% confidence interval, 23.16-23.96) than in Tc-99m (12.92 mSv; 95% confidence interval, 12.55-13.40; P<0.001). In this single-center study, the use of Tl-201 during the Tc-99m shortage was associated with an increase in downstream testing, cost, and patient radiation exposure, but these findings may not be generalizable to other centers. Although Tl-201 provided a short-term solution to the unexpected Tc-99m shortage, long-term cost-effective solutions should be areas of future study.

  17. Usage of radiopharmaceuticals in the development of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems: validation of [99mTc]DTPA and [99mTc]ECD.

    PubMed

    Terán, Mariella; Savio, Eduardo; Paolino, Andrea; Frier, Malcolm

    2004-03-01

    Tablets containing drugs of different lipophilicity, ranitidine and cinarizine, and placebo were prepared and their in vitro behaviour was studied by dissolution and disintegration tests. [(99m)Tc]Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid ([(99m)Tc]DTPA) and [(99m)Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer ([(99m)Tc]ECD) were used as tracers of the process. Both of them were added to tablets during wet granulation. Dissolution and disintegration profiles were assessed at different pH values (1, 4 and 7). Radioactivity was evaluated in filtered samples and scintigraphic studies were carried out in gamma camera. Stability in dissolution media was confirmed for both tracers under these conditions. Dissolution and disintegration velocity constants were calculated. [(99m)Tc]DTPA proved to be an appropriate tracer for polar drugs such as ranitidine. Nevertheless, it was not a suitable tracer for lipophilic active drugs such as cinarizine. On the other hand, the most lipophilic tracer, [(99m)Tc]ECD, exhibited the opposite behaviour. Scintigraphic studies of the disintegration process did not show significant differences between placebos and tablets containing active drugs. As disintegration is a physical process it does not discriminate between chemical differences in tablet formulations. Both methods complement each other because the dissolution process can be followed when a suitable radiotracer is chosen according to the physicochemical characteristics of the active drug.

  18. Diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon by (99m)Tc-pertechnetate hand perfusion scintigraphy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pavlov-Dolijanovic, Slavica; Petrovic, Nebojsa; Vujasinovic Stupar, Nada; Damjanov, Nemanja; Radunovic, Goran; Babic, Dragan; Sobic-Saranovic, Dragana; Artiko, Vera

    2016-12-01

    We assess the usefulness of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate hand perfusion scintigraphy in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). The study population consisted of 18 patients with primary RP, 25 patients with secondary RP within systemic sclerosis (SSc), and ten healthy individuals. Gamma camera dynamic first-pass study during the first 60 s and a static scintigraphy after 5 min were recorded following a bolus injection of (99m)Tc-pertechnetate via a cubital vein. Regions of interest were drawn on the summed images around the fingers and the palmar region. The fingers-to-palm ratios were then calculated. The mean fingers-to-palm ratio for dynamic study (blood flow) was 0.58 ± 0.19 for the healthy group, 0.45 ± 0.18 for the primary RP, and 0.43 ± 0.21 for the SSc patients. The mean fingers-to-palm ratio for static study (blood pool) was 0.44 ± 0.06 for the healthy group, 0.42 ± 0.06 for the primary RP, and 0.36 ± 0.07 for the SSc patients. Analysis of variance showed these differences to be significant (p = 0.039 from blood flow and p = 0.004 from blood pool). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60% when using cutoff values of 0.40 for blood flow and sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 70% when using cutoff values of 0.37 for blood pool. Our method is able to differentiate between patients with normal and those with abnormal microcirculation of the hands. Dynamic study separates the healthy subjects from patients with RP, while static study separates primary from secondary RP.

  19. Retention of (/sup 99m/Tc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the human brain after intracarotid bolus injection: a kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lassen, N.A.; Andersen, A.R.; Friberg, L.; Paulson, O.B.

    1988-12-01

    (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO (HM-PAO) was injected rapidly into the internal carotid artery and its retention in the brain was recorded by external scintillation cameras in eight human subjects. A model is described based on three compartments: the lipophilic tracer in the blood pool of the brain, the lipophilic tracer inside the brain, and the hydrophilic form retained in the brain. The retention curve initially drops abruptly, corresponding to the nonextracted fraction of the injectate leaving the brain; it then falls exponentially towards the asymptotic level of the fractional steady-state retention R. Cerebral blood flow (F) was measured using the xenon-133 intracarotid injection method. The first-pass extraction E of HM-PAO was calculated from F using an empiric regression equation. The residue curves for the whole brain after intracarotid HM-PAO injection were analyzed to yield a retention fraction (R') and the brain clearance backflux constant of lipophilic HM-PAO (k). From the kinetic model and the measured values of R', k, and F, the following parameter values could be calculated: the average retained fraction of all tracer supplied to the brain, R = 0.38 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- SD), the conversion rate constant (lipophilic to hydrophilic tracer) in the brain k3 = 0.80 +/- 0.12 min-1, the efflux rate constant (brain to blood) k2 = 0.69 +/- 0.11 min-1, the conversion/clearance ratio alpha = k3/k2 = 1.18 +/- 0.25, the influx (blood clearance) constant K1 = 0.45 +/- 0.11 ml/g/min, and the brain/blood partition ratio lambda = K1/k2 = 0.67 +/- 0.23 ml/g. Using the kinetic model and assuming constancy of alpha, an algorithm was developed that corrects for the blood flow dependent backflux of HM-PAO and results in a more linear relation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and HM-PAO distribution.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of toluene inhalation on alveolar epithelial permeability by 99mTc-DTPA inhalation scintigraphy in automobile painters.

    PubMed

    Cerci, Sevim Sureyya; Ozturk, Onder; Sutcu, Recep; Ozbek, Feride Meltem; Baydar, Cetin Lutfi; Yildiz, Mustafa; Akkaya, Ahmet; Delibas, Namk

    2008-01-01

    The main component of paint thinner used in industry is toluene diisocyanate (TDI) which can cause occupational asthma in 5-10% of exposed workers. To investigate the effect of TDI on 99mTc clearance rate of alveolar epithelium and on pulmonary function tests (PFT) in automobile painters, and to determine the relationship between 99mTc-DTPA radioaerosol lung scintigraphy and serum levels of antioxidant enzymes and metalloproteinases (MMPs) of automobile painters. Twenty-eight automobile painters and 13 control subjects were included in the study. 99mTc-DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy and PFT were administered to all subjects. Clearance half-time (T1/2) and penetration index (PI) on the first-minute image after 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy were calculated. Blood levels of MDA, antioxidant enzymes and metalloproteinases were measured. The mean T1/2 values of automobile painters were longer in both smoker and non-smoker subjects, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). Although the PFT values decreased in automobile painters, there was no significant difference between each group. Any correlation between spirometric measurements and T1/2 or PI values in non-smoking automobile painters was not detected. Negative correlation among mean T1/2 value and FVC% and FEV1% in smoking automobile painters, and positive correlation between mean T1/2 value and MMP-9, GSH-Px levels in non-smoking automobile painters were detected. Our results suggested that the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA from the lungs of automobile painters was slower than in the control group, but the difference is not statistically significant. This data also supports the observation that TDI occasionally stimulates bronchial changes rather than alveolar changes in automobile painters.

  1. 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled WBC scan for the diagnosis of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Tyler A; Berven, Michael D; Vroman, Penny J

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this teaching case study is to demonstrate the novel use of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) in diagnosing chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO). (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled white blood cells were utilized to diagnose CRMO. Classically, CRMO is evaluated scintigraphically using (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate/hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBCs were chosen over (111)In-labeled WBCs because of the former's improved imaging characteristics and decreased radiation dose. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBCs were successful in diagnosing CRMO. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labeled WBC scanning is specific for the diagnosis of CRMO. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. Tc-99m DTPA uptake in extramedullary plasmacytoma of the retroperitoneum

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Michigishi, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1988-12-01

    A case is presented in which uptake of Tc-99m DTPA has been demonstrated in an extramedullary plasmacytoma of the retroperitoneum. Because Ga-67 citrate does not concentrate in the same areas as Tc-99m DTPA, a radionuclide-specific uptake mechanism may be present. Extramedullary plasmacytoma should be included in the list of possible causes if extrarenal or extracentral nervous system uptake of Tc-99m DTPA occurs.

  3. Hepatic uptake of technetium-99m HM-PAO in a fetus.

    PubMed

    Maguire, C; Florence, S; Powe, J E; Zabel, P L; Driedger, A A

    1990-02-01

    The normal biodistribution of technetium-99m HM-PAO ([99mTc]HM-PAO) includes significant uptake in the brain, liver, and kidneys. A pregnant patient studied with [99mTc] HM-PAO to confirm brain death provided an opportunity to examine the transplacental distribution of this radio-pharmaceutical in the unborn fetus. Uptake in the fetus after transplacental delivery is almost exclusively hepatic with a small amount of biliary excretion.

  4. Imaging of experimental myocardial infarction with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsberg, R.P.; Milne, N.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.

    1981-03-01

    We have studied the use of Tc-99m-labeled 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(Tc-99m DMSA) to scintigraph acute myocardial infaction after coronary occlusion in dogs. Optimal images were obtained 5 hr after injection of radiotracer, with consistent delineation 48 hr after occlusion. Delivery of tracer was dependent on blood flow. Uptake of tracer correlated to extent of infarction as determined by the myocardial depletion of creatine kinase. Myocardial Tc-99m DMSA was protein-bound.

  5. Technetium-99m-human polyclonal IgG radiolabeled via the hydrazino nicotinamide derivative for imaging focal sites of infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, M.J.; Juweid, M.; tenKate, C.I.; Schwartz, D.A.; Hauser, M.M.; Gaul, F.E.; Fuccello, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Strauss, H.W.; Fischman, A.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The biologic behavior of human polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) radiolabeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) by a novel method, via a nicotinyl hydrazine derivative, was evaluated in rats. Technetium-99m- and indium-111-IgG were co-administered to normal rats and biodistribution was determined at 2, 6, and 16 hr. The inflammation imaging properties of the two reagents were compared in rats with deep-thigh infection due to Escherichia coli. Blood clearance of both antibody preparations was well described by a bi-exponential function: ({sup 99m}Tc-IgG: t1/2 = 3.82 +/- 0.89 and 57.52 +/- 1.70 hr. {sup 111}In-IgG: 3.93 +/- 0.117 and 40.71 +/- 1.26 hr). Biodistributions in the solid organs were similar, however, small but statistically significant differences were detected: {sup 99m}Tc-IgG greater than {sup 111}In-IgG in lung, liver, and spleen; {sup 99m}Tc-IgG less than {sup 111}In-IgG in kidney and skeletal muscle (p less than 0.01). At all three imaging times, target-to-background ratio and percent residual activity for the two compounds were remarkably similar. These studies establish that human polyclonal IgG labeled with {sup 99m}Tc via a nicotinyl hydrazine modified intermediate is equivalent to {sup 111}In-IgG for imaging focal sites of infection in experimental animals.

  6. Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β- hCG) Clearance Curves in Women with Successfully Expectantly Managed Tubal Ectopic Pregnancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Samir; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Ben-Nagi, Jara; Koch, Marianne; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2015-01-01

    To establish clearance curves for serum β -hCG in women with successfully expectantly managed tubal ectopic pregnancies. Retrospective cohort study. Non- viable tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on transvaginal ultrasound. If initial serum β hCG was less than 5000 IU/L and patients were asymptomatic, expectant management was offered. Patients underwent serial β hCG measurements until serum β hCG was less than 20 IU/l, or the urine pregnancy test was negative. Early Pregnancy and Gynaecology Assessment Unit, Kings College Hospital, London (December 1998 to July 2006). We included 161 women with diagnosed non-viable tubal ectopic pregnancy who underwent successful expectant management. Serum β hCG level. Mean initial serum β- hCG was 488 IU/L (41 - 4883) and median serum β hCG clearance time was 19 days (5 - 82). The average half-life of β hCG clearance was 82.5 hours (±SD 50.2) in patients with steadily declining serum β- hCG levels compared to 106.7 hours (±SD 72.0) in patients with primarily plateauing β-hCG levels in the declining phase. However, these differences were not significant (p>0.05). We identified a median follow-up of 19 days until serum β hCG clearance in women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and successful expectant management. Although non- significant, women with initially plateauing serum β hCG showed a longer follow-up time until clearance compared to women with steadily declining β hCG levels. This information may serve as a guideline enabling clinicians to predict the length of follow-up for women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and expectant management.

  7. Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β- hCG) Clearance Curves in Women with Successfully Expectantly Managed Tubal Ectopic Pregnancies: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Samir; Mavrelos, Dimitrios; Sawyer, Elinor; Ben-Nagi, Jara; Koch, Marianne; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish clearance curves for serum β -hCG in women with successfully expectantly managed tubal ectopic pregnancies. Design Retrospective cohort study. Non- viable tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on transvaginal ultrasound. If initial serum β hCG was less than 5000 IU/L and patients were asymptomatic, expectant management was offered. Patients underwent serial β hCG measurements until serum β hCG was less than 20 IU/l, or the urine pregnancy test was negative. Setting Early Pregnancy and Gynaecology Assessment Unit, Kings College Hospital, London (December 1998 to July 2006). Patients We included 161 women with diagnosed non-viable tubal ectopic pregnancy who underwent successful expectant management. Main outcome measure Serum β hCG level. Results Mean initial serum β- hCG was 488 IU/L (41 - 4883) and median serum β hCG clearance time was 19 days (5 - 82). The average half-life of β hCG clearance was 82.5 hours (±SD 50.2) in patients with steadily declining serum β- hCG levels compared to 106.7 hours (±SD 72.0) in patients with primarily plateauing β-hCG levels in the declining phase. However, these differences were not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion We identified a median follow-up of 19 days until serum β hCG clearance in women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and successful expectant management. Although non- significant, women with initially plateauing serum β hCG showed a longer follow-up time until clearance compared to women with steadily declining β hCG levels. This information may serve as a guideline enabling clinicians to predict the length of follow-up for women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and expectant management. PMID:26135923

  8. Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine oxine (HM-PAO) uptake in a bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Sameshima, M.; Uwada, O.; Watanabe, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uptake of Tc-99m Hexamethylpropylene-amine Oxine (HM-PAO) was seen in bone metastases from carcinoma of the lung. The uptake was prominent when compared to Tc-99m MDP, I-123 IMP, and Ga-67 citrate. Brain imaging with Tc-99m HM-PAO and N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) is now frequently performed. Uptake of these agents has been reported in brain tumors and melanomas. In this report, uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO in a metastatic lesion in bone is discussed.

  9. 99mTc-DMSA scanning to diagnose pyelonephritic scarring in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, B.A.; Kay, R.; Wasnick, R.J.; Carty, H.

    1983-06-01

    99mTechnetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scanning provides superior quality images of renal parenchymal detail, which makes it highly sensitive for the diagnosis of pyelonephritic scarring. Unlike most other imaging techniques, radionuclide scanning is not affected by bowel gas or bony structures overlying the kidneys. This makes it particularly useful in children. Furthermore, renal scarring can be demonstrated by 99mTc-DMSA even before the classic gross anatomic and radiologic changes are present. The use of 99mTc-DMSA scanning in over 300 children has demonstrated its benefits and advantages over standard radiographic techniques.

  10. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  11. Pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT: does it have a place in predicting survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Mustafa, M; Abd El-Hadi, E; Monier, A; Badwey, A; Saad, E

    2015-01-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) is reported as a useful tool for detection of residual or recurrent gliomas. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 40 patients [21 males and 19 females; mean age 48.6 ± 12.2 years] with GBM were included. Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT was done after surgery and before onset of radiation therapy or chemotherapy (Baseline study), at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months as a follow-up after therapy. The end point of the study was clinical follow-up for 2 years and/or death. 4-6 weeks after therapy, 40 and 60 % had negative and positive Tc-99m (V) DMSA for viable tumor tissues respectively (P = 0.09). At 6 months follow-up, 62.5 % of (V) DMSA negative patients and 12.5 % of the positive subjects were responders (P = 0.001). The median over-all survival (OS) of all patients was 12.3 month [range 5-24 month]. Patients with positive (V) DMSA had worse survival (8.87 month) compared to the negative ones (16.67 month) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT studies at 4-6 weeks and 6-months follow-up were independent prognostic factors for survival [OR 1.069; 95 % CI 1.417-2.174; P = 0.03 and OR 1.055; 95 % CI 0.821-1.186; P = 0.01 respectively]. Stratification of tumors into risk groups based on prognostic parameters may improve outcome by altering or intensifying treatment methods. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid brain SPECT may have an additional prognostic role in patients with GBM which needs further evaluation in larger future series.

  12. Effective detection of the tumors causing osteomalacia using [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body scan.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming; Wang, Zhenghua; Tian, Jian; Xing, Xiaoping; Jin, Jin; Zhong, Dingrong; Zhang, Jingjing

    2013-11-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is an endocrine disorder caused by tumors producing excessive fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). The causative tumors are generally small, slow-growing benign mesenchymal tumors. The only cure of the disease depends on resection of the tumors, which are extremely difficult to localize due to their small sizes and rare locations. Since these tumors are known to express somatostatin receptors, this research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of [Tc-99m]-HYNIC-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) whole body imaging in this clinical setting Images of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scans and clinical chart from 183 patients with hypophosphatemia and clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The scan findings were compared to the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups. Among 183 patients, 72 were confirmed to have TIO while 103 patients were found to have other causes of hypophosphatemia. The possibility of TIO could not be either diagnosed or excluded in the remaining 8 patients. For analytical purposes, these 8 patients who could neither be diagnosed nor excluded as having TIO were regarded as having the disease, bringing the total of TIO patients to 80. The 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scan identified 69 tumors in 80 patients with TIO, which rendered a sensitivity of 86.3% (69/80). 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy excluded 102 patients without TIO with a specificity of 99.1% (102/103). The overall accuracy of 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC whole body scan in the localization of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 93.4% (171/183). Whole body 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC imaging is effective in the localization of occult tumors causing TIO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of atropine on oral clearance of a radiolabeled sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    LaForce, F.M.; Thompson, B.; Trow, R.

    1984-11-01

    Physical clearance is an important oral defense mechanism against gram-negative rods. The authors describe a simple technique that uses commercially available technetium-99m sulfur colloid to measure oral clearance. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was sprayed into the mouth, and clearance was measured as the percent decrease in radiolabel counts over 2 hours using a radioisotope camera. Results using this technique compared favorably with clearance data using Tc-99m radiolabeled Escherichia coli. Atropine significantly decreased oral clearance rates of the colloid. Decreased clearance may be an important risk factor in the development of gram-negative rod colonization in hospitalized patients. 15 references, 3 figures.

  14. Studies on the separation of 99mTc from large excess of molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Wojdowska, Wioletta; Pawlak, Dariusz; Parus, Józef L; Mikołajczak, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Due to aging and unexpected prolonged shutdown of nuclear reactors producing ⁹⁹Mo for ⁹⁹Mo/ 99mTc generators it was necessary to explore the alternative methods of technetium-99m production. The first choice were the accelerators. Three years ago IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) initiated the Coordinated Research Project "Accelerator-based Alternatives to Non-HEU production of Mo-99 /Tc-99m" aimed at direct production of 99mTc in proton accelerators using the ¹⁰⁰Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. POLATOM is participating in this enterprise together with the Heavy Ion Laboratory of Warsaw University and the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. ⁹⁹Mo/99mTc solutions and pure 99mTc used for generators production or milked from ready to use generators were used in experiments. Commercial chromatographic and laboratory-prepared columns were used for separation. The peristaltic pumps were used for solutions delivery onto the columns. Radioactivity of eluted ⁹⁹Mo and 99mTc was measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry or ionisation chamber in case of high radioactivity. For separation, three different chromatographic methods were used, one based on ion exchange and two on extraction. Synthetic mixtures simulating the real solutions were used. 99mTc is quantitatively bound in the Dowex-1 × 8 column whereas molybdenum is only slightly retained and totally rinsed with 2M NaOH. 99mTc is eluted with TBAB. The elution yield has been reproducible and amounted to 78%. The AnaLig Tc-02 resin column was used for 99mTc retention. Residual Mo was removed by rinsing with 2M NaOH and 99mTc eluted using small volume of water. The recovery was equal to about 85%. Using C-18 column coated with PEG over 80% of 99mTc was recovered in about 50 mL of water. The reduction of volume was necessary. The recovery of 99mTc was the highest using AnaLig Tc-02 resin. Time of 99mTc separation is the shortest for AnaLig Tc-02 resin and it is not higher than 100

  15. 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI causes plasmid DNA damage with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kotzerke, Joerg; Punzet, Robert; Runge, Roswitha; Ferl, Sandra; Oehme, Liane; Wunderlich, Gerd; Freudenberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, (99m)Tc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs); the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a (99m)Tc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of (99m)Tc pertechnetate ((99m)TcO4(-)). pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03) was twice that caused by (99m)TcO4(-) (0.51), and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the (99m)TcO4(-) treated sample (0.02 to 0.10). In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the (99m)TcO4(-) treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the (99m)Tc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, (99m)TcO4(-) induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by

  16. 99mTc-Labeled HYNIC-DAPI Causes Plasmid DNA Damage with High Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kotzerke, Joerg; Punzet, Robert; Runge, Roswitha; Ferl, Sandra; Oehme, Liane; Wunderlich, Gerd; Freudenberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    99mTc is the standard radionuclide used for nuclear medicine imaging. In addition to gamma irradiation, 99mTc emits low-energy Auger and conversion electrons that deposit their energy within nanometers of the decay site. To study the potential for DNA damage, direct DNA binding is required. Plasmid DNA enables the investigation of the unprotected interactions between molecules and DNA that result in single-strand breaks (SSBs) or double-strand breaks (DSBs); the resulting DNA fragments can be separated by gel electrophoresis and quantified by fluorescent staining. This study aimed to compare the plasmid DNA damage potential of a 99mTc-labeled HYNIC-DAPI compound with that of 99mTc pertechnetate (99mTcO4−). pUC19 plasmid DNA was irradiated for 2 or 24 hours. Direct and radical-induced DNA damage were evaluated in the presence or absence of the radical scavenger DMSO. For both compounds, an increase in applied activity enhanced plasmid DNA damage, which was evidenced by an increase in the open circular and linear DNA fractions and a reduction in the supercoiled DNA fraction. The number of SSBs elicited by 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI (1.03) was twice that caused by 99mTcO4− (0.51), and the number of DSBs increased fivefold in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated sample compared with the 99mTcO4− treated sample (0.02 to 0.10). In the presence of DMSO, the numbers of SSBs and DSBs decreased to 0.03 and 0.00, respectively, in the 99mTcO4– treated samples, whereas the numbers of SSBs and DSBs were slightly reduced to 0.95 and 0.06, respectively, in the 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI-treated samples. These results indicated that 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI induced SSBs and DSBs via a direct interaction of the 99mTc-labeled compound with DNA. In contrast to these results, 99mTcO4− induced SSBs via radical formation, and DSBs were formed by two nearby SSBs. The biological effectiveness of 99mTc-HYNIC-DAPI increased by approximately 4-fold in terms of inducing SSBs and by approximately 10-fold in terms of

  17. Differential receptor targeting of liver cells using 99mTc-neoglycosylated human serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Hong, Mee Kyung; Jang, Ja-June; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Neolactosyl human serum albumin (LSA) targets asialoglycoprotein receptor and shows high liver uptake due to accumulation in hepatocytes. Although neomannosyl human serum albumin (MSA) also shows high liver uptake, it has been reported to be taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. We compared the biological properties of LSA and MSA. 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA biodistribution in mice were investigated after intravenous injection. In vivo localization of rhodaminisothiocyanate (RITC)-LSA and fluoresceineisothiocyanate (FITC)-MSA were investigated in mouse liver. Excretion routes of 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA metabolites were examined. Both 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA showed high liver uptakes. RITC-LSA was taken up by hepatocytes whereas FITC-MSA was taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. 99mTc-MSA showed higher spleen and kidney uptakes than 99mTc-LSA. 99mTc-LSA metabolites excreted in urine and feces accounted for 44.4 and 50.0% of 99mTc-LSA injected, respectively, while 99mTc-MSA metabolites accounted for 51.5 and 10.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LSA is specifically taken up by hepatcytes while MSA by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. After taken up by the liver, LSA is metabolized by the hepatocytes and then excreted through both the hepatobiliary tract and kidney, whereas MSA is metabolized by Kupffer cells and endoghelial cells and then excreted mainly through the kidney.

  18. Effect of reperfusion and hyperemia on the myocardial distribution of technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, C.A.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Kloner, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m t-butylisonitrile ((/sup 99m/Tc)TBI) is a promising new radiotracer for myocardial imaging. Its myocardial uptake is sufficiently high in humans to permit planar, tomographic, and gated images of excellent technical quality. We studied the behavior of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI in the dog at rest and under conditions of hyperemia and reperfusion in order to determine the relationship between (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI myocardial concentration and blood flow. After permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, the correlation between the relative myocardial concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) measured with radiolabeled microspheres was excellent. In a dog model of transient hyperemia, the concentration of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was directly related to blood flow but underestimated the degree of hyperemia. Technetium-99m TBI redistributed into transiently ischemic myocardium. The myocardial concentrations of (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and thallium-201(/sup 201/TI) in transiently ischemic myocardium were similar at 10 and 30 min following reperfusion and were significantly higher than blood flow prior to reperfusion. When (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI was injected into the left anterior descending artery, the washout was slow, falling to 78% of initial activity at 120 min after injection. In conclusion, (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI reflects regional myocardial blood flow accurately in ischemic and normal resting myocardium and underestimates blood flow at high flows. The rate of myocardial redistribution after reperfusion is similar for (/sup 99m/Tc)TBI and /sup 201/TI.

  19. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-09-01

    (99m)Tc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of (99m)Tc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t½ = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of (99m)Tc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. (99m)Tc is usually supplied to hospitals through a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the β decay of the parent nuclide (99)Mo (t½ = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced (99)Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for (99m)Tc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about (99m)Tc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of (99m)Tc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced (99m)Tc are described.

  20. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo.

  1. Comparison of Tc-99m pertechnetate images with dual-phase Tc 99m MIBI and SPECT images in primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Sait; Shafipour, Hojjat; Asa, Sertac; Yılmaz, Sabire; Teksöz, Serkan; Önsel, Çetin

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of Tc-99m pertechnetate planar, dual-phase MIBI and MIBI-SPECT images in the determination and localization of parathyroid lesions. Materials and Methods: In this study, 38 patients who underwent operation for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole imaging of the neck and then MIBI planar and SPECT images in supine position was performed. Late SPECT images were acquired 120 minutes after the injection. Early and late MIBI images were quantitatively evaluated. Results: Of the 38 patients, 30 of them had adenoma, 2 patients had hyperplasia and 6 of them were normal on planar images. Thirty-four of 38 patients were positive on SPECT images. SPECT images of the patients with positive results were matched with pathology results. Conclusion: As a result, Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole, Tc-99m MIBI planar and SPECT images are useful for localization of parathyroid lesions especially in multinodular thyroid gland. However, US or CT images are necessary for more accurate localization and Tc-99m pertechnetate images are useful for interpreting and comparing with the early and late MIBI images. PMID:25143912

  2. Comparison of Tc-99m pertechnetate images with dual-phase Tc 99m MIBI and SPECT images in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Sager, Sait; Shafipour, Hojjat; Asa, Sertac; Yılmaz, Sabire; Teksöz, Serkan; Onsel, Cetin

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of Tc-99m pertechnetate planar, dual-phase MIBI and MIBI-SPECT images in the determination and localization of parathyroid lesions. In this study, 38 patients who underwent operation for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole imaging of the neck and then MIBI planar and SPECT images in supine position was performed. Late SPECT images were acquired 120 minutes after the injection. Early and late MIBI images were quantitatively evaluated. Of the 38 patients, 30 of them had adenoma, 2 patients had hyperplasia and 6 of them were normal on planar images. Thirty-four of 38 patients were positive on SPECT images. SPECT images of the patients with positive results were matched with pathology results. As a result, Tc-99m pertechnetate planar-pinhole, Tc-99m MIBI planar and SPECT images are useful for localization of parathyroid lesions especially in multinodular thyroid gland. However, US or CT images are necessary for more accurate localization and Tc-99m pertechnetate images are useful for interpreting and comparing with the early and late MIBI images.

  3. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI)6]+

    PubMed Central

    Faria, D.P.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Marques, F.L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ since impurities such as99mTc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH),99mTcO4 - and [99mTc(cysteine)2]-complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines. PMID:26445333

  4. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆].

    PubMed

    Faria, D P; Buchpiguel, C A; Marques, F L N

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ since impurities such as (99m)Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), (99m)TcO(4)(-) and [(99m)Tc(cysteine)₂]⁻ complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  5. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher than 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred after 2 hours of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) for 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic

  6. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, V. I. Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose

  7. Evaluation of the effect of isotretinoin on salivary gland function by Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging in acne vulgaris patients.

    PubMed

    Örsal, Ebru; Seven, Bedri; Erdem, Mustafa Teoman; Varoğlu, Erhan; Farimaz, Hatice; Ayan, Arif Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    Isotretinoin is an effective drug utilized in the management of acne vulgaris and is known to cause dry mouth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate this effect of isotretinoin on the salivary gland function in patients with acne vulgaris using technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pertechnetate imaging of the salivary glands. The study population consisted of 28 patients with acne vulgaris (6 males and 22 females, mean age 20.2 ± 2.3 years), who were treated with isotretinoin for 6 months. We performed radionuclide imaging of the salivary glands pretreatment and at months 3 and 6 of treatment. After 185 MBq (5 mCi) of Tc-99m pertechnetate was intravenously administered, imaging of the salivary glands was performed over a 25-min period. We measured the following glandular function parameters for the parotid and submandibular salivary glands via time-activity curves: uptake ratio, maximum accumulation, and ejection fraction. Statistically significant differences were observed in the values obtained at months 3 and 6 of treatment, compared with the pretreatment values. This study demonstrated that radionuclide imaging of the salivary glands can clearly show the glandular functions that are affected by drugs such as isotretinoin.

  8. Localization of neurofibromas by scanning with technetium-99m diethylene triamine-pentacetic acid (Tc-99 DTPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m DTPA is commonly utilized to evaluate renal function. Reports of a uterine myoma and a soft tissue sarcoma accumulating this radiopharmaceutical have also appeared in the literature. The authors have observed the affinity for plexiform as well as well circumscribed soft tissue tumors of neurofibromatosis for Tc-99m DTPA. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, twenty-eight sites of abnormal soft tissue localization of the isotope were documented by clinical and radiographic (predominantly CT) correlation. The best visualization of the tumors occurred 1 to 3 hours post-injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Multiple images (150,000 to 500,000 counts) of areas suspected of having neurofibromatous involvement were obtained. Several unsuspected lesions were recognized. Similar images obtained in sixteen control patients showed no similar soft tissue localization. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-centimeter subcutaneous neurofibroma. The mechanism for selectivity of neurofibroma for Tc-99m DTPA does not appear to be related to hypervascularity or necrosis. Time activity curves of several lesions demonstrate gradual increase in their activity pointing to cellular uptake or stasis within the tumor as possible explanations. The significance of this observation relates to easy mapping of lesions with minimal radiation. Important implications of this discovery include sequential evaluation of tumor growth and detection of unsuspected lesions.

  9. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. )

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  10. Spontaneous perforation of the ureter diagnosed on technetium 99m DTPA excretory urography

    SciTech Connect

    Barasch, E.; Kashdan, B.; Rathore, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of nontraumatic rupture of the ureter secondary to a nonopaque calculus is presented. Because of the inherent high image contrast caused by the leak of technetium 99m-DTPA-labeled urine, the technetium 99m-DTPA excretory urogram is seen as an alternative to the intravenous urogram or contrast-enhanced computed tomography in selected cases of suspected ureteral rupture.

  11. Simulation of the direct production of 99mTc at a small cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, M.; Kakavand, T.

    2014-06-01

    Usually 99mTc is produced indirectly through generator 99Mo/99mTc. In the present study, the direct production of this radioisotope by charged particle irradiation was investigated using Monte Carlo method. After scouting of the reactions that produce 99mTc, excitation functions of these reactions were predicted by optical model components in the TALYS-1.6 code. Suitable energy range of projectile for this production was selected by spotting of maximum cross section and minimum impurity due to other emission channels. Then target geometry was designed based on stopping power calculation by the SRIM code. Thick target yield of 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc, 98Mo(p,γ)99mTc and natMo(p,x)99mTc reactions was predicted by the result of excitation function and stopping power calculations. Finally, 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction was selected as a primary reaction for the direct production of 99mTc and its process was simulated by employing the MCNPX code to calculate the energy distribution of proton in the 100Mo target body and estimation of residual nuclei during irradiation. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental, the theoretical, and the simulation-based (analytical and directly) production yields. This study demonstrated that Monte Carlo provides a method for the design and optimization of targets for the radionuclide production purposes.

  12. Technetium-99m red blood cell venography in upper extremity deep venous thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstein, A.M.; Turbiner, E.H.

    1987-06-01

    The efficacy of Tc-99m RBC venography has been demonstrated with respect to the study of lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. A case is presented where Tc-99m RBC venography was used to study the upper as well as lower extremities in a patient with upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) who was found to have pulmonary embolism.

  13. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1-42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1-40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1-40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  14. Technetium-99m-alendronate: a new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Arteaga de Murphy, C; Meléndez-Alafort, L; Montoya-Molina, C; Sepúlveda-Méndez, J

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the preparation of a new technetium-99m-radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning. The chelating agent for 99mTc is a new bisphosphonate, alendronate, 4-amino-1-hydroxy-butylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (ABP) used as a treatment for osteoporosis. ABP, because of its amino group, seems to be better suited to form a strong and stable complex with technetium-99m and therefore might be better than 99mTc-etidronate (HEDP) or 99mTc-medronate (MDP) for bone scanning. A sterile dry kit containing APB, a reducing agent and a stabilizer was prepared. The parameters studied were molar concentrations, pH, shelf life, labeling efficiency and radiochemical purity. The oven dried sterile kit was formulated with 5 mg ABP, 0.25 mg stannous fluoride and 0.025 mg gentisic acid at pH 2.5-3.5. The labeling efficiency with 20-1500 MBq of pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) was over 95% at room temperature and was stable for 5 h. Technetium-99m-alendronate was tested in two rabbits and it proved to be a promising new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning. Work is underway to study 99mTc-ABP biodistribution in a statistically significant number of laboratory animals and, later on, to determine radiopharmacokinetic parameters in normal volunteers.

  15. /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate uptake in a thymoma: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.L.; Cowan, R.J.

    1982-04-01

    A case is reported to /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate accumulation within an anterior mediastinal thymoma during a search for substernal goiter. This reemphasizes the non-specificity of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate uptake and the need for caution in using this agent to detect ectopic thyroid tissue.

  16. Incidental detection of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor on Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Gupta, Vikas; Singh, Rajinder; Radotra, Bishan Dass; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2012-10-01

    The role of 99m-technetium labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy in acute gastro-intestinal bleed is well-established. The authors report a case of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) incidentally discovered on Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy.

  17. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  18. False-positive technetium 99m depreotide scintigraphy resulting from round atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Linda P; Balingit, Antonio G; Morison, David S; Gilman, Matthew D

    2003-04-01

    The authors report two cases of round atelectasis that showed increased accumulation of technetium (Tc) 99m depreotide on planar and single photon emission computed tomographic scintigraphy. It should be considered that round atelectasis is a potential nonmalignant cause for positive 99mTc depreotide scintigraphy.

  19. Biodistribution of TC-99m sestamibi in rats utilizing whole-body autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, M.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Arora, J.

    1994-05-01

    Current biodistribution models for Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) rely on gross imaging methods via Anger camera or at best, excision of animal tissue and counting tissue samples. These methods do not allow for detection of intra-organ inhomogeneities and small accumulations of activity are often treated as nonspecific background. The goal of this work was to examine the biodistribution of MIBI using whole-body autoradiography to obtain very detailed activity distribution information. Four anesthetized albino rats (300 g {plus_minus}10 g ) were injected into a dorsal metatarsal vein with an average of 333 MBq MIBI. One rat each was sacrificed at 5, 20, 60 and 180 minutes post-injection. Animals were embedded, frozen and slices (50-100 {mu}m thick) were obtained using a PMV-2250 macro-cryo-microtome and autoradiographs were made of slices. Cardiac uptake remained consistently high at all time points. All muscular areas exhibited uptake, including the diaphragm and GI tract wells. Significant MIBI uptake was observed in many different glands, including the submaxillary, suprarenal, thymus, lacrimal, harderian and thyroid. Pancreatic uptake was observed at each time. MIBI cleared from the liver and spleen quickly, with significant activity in the bowel at 5 minutes. High small bowel content activity was observed at all time points. The contents of the distal stomach and colon accumulated activity in all but the 5 minute studies. Clearance from the kidneys occurred between 1 and 3 hours, although kidney activity remained similar to the heart at 3 hours. Bladder activity was observed as early as 20 minutes, with the highest at the 3 hour time point. Very slight testicular uptake was observed in the epidydmis and wall of the scrotal sac. Although these autoradiographs confirm existing kinetics, they provide a unique, high-resolution record of previously unknown MIBI deposition areas such as the pancreas and GI tract lining.

  20. Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid gland scintigraphy: added value of Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid imaging for increasing interpretation confidence and avoiding additional testing.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel K; Nwoke, Franklin; Goldfarb, Richard C; Ongseng, Fukiat

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the benefit of adding a pertechnetate parathyroid scan (dual-isotope imaging) in the interpretation of sestamibi dual-phase parathyroid scintigraphy. One hundred and sixteen dual Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) and Tc-99m pertechnetate subtraction parathyroid studies, performed between January 2000 and February 2006, were retrospectively reviewed. Dual-phase technetium sestamibi examinations were initially interpreted, with blinding to the technetium pertechnetate findings. Subsequently, technetium pertechnetate scan findings were added, and changes in interpretation were recorded. By adding Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging, the interpretation of 17 scans (17/116=14.6%) was substantially altered. This included 5 scans (4%) that changed from negative to positive and 9 scans (8%) that changed from equivocal to positive, excluding ectopic tissue and directing minimally invasive surgery, without the need for further imaging, such as ultrasound, in 12% of cases. One examination changed from positive to negative. In addition, 2 scans changed from equivocal to negative, necessitating further preoperative imaging for the evaluation of additional pathology such as thyroid nodules and lymph nodes and the consideration of hyperplasia. Among the remaining 99 patients, Tc-99m pertechnetate scans may also have contributed to the diagnosis in the 66 positive Tc-99m MIBI scans by increasing confidence in the interpretation and obviating additional imaging. Ten cases remained equivocal. By adding Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging, scan interpretation was changed in 14.6% of cases, and interpretation confidence was enhanced in all but 10 remaining equivocal cases. The addition of a dual-isotope subtraction also eliminated the need for additional testing, such as ultrasound, in 12% of our cases. Increased confidence in interpretation that comes with dual-isotope subtraction may come at the cost of slight lengthening of imaging time but likely simplifies preoperative localization and

  1. Incidental detection of gastrointestinal stromal tumor by Tc-99m MDP bone scan.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Idakoji, Ibrahim A; Pampaloni, Miguel H

    2012-02-01

    This case demonstrates extraosseous 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) accumulation from a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 75-year-old woman underwent a temporal bone CT for conductive hearing loss that showed sclerosis in the right occipital condyle. Follow-up Tc-99m MDP bone scan for osseous metastases instead showed a mass-like extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in the anterior left upper quadrant. Differential diagnoses included gastric cancer, lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, systemic hypercalcemia, or heterotopic mesenteric ossification. Contrast CT showed a well-circumscribed mass arising from the stomach, and subsequent pathology confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumor. These tumors rarely can contain osteoclast-like giant cells and should be considered for extraosseous Tc-99m MDP accumulation.

  2. Methods for MAG3 conjugation and 99mTc radiolabeling of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Liu, Guozheng; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2006-01-01

    The chelator mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) forms a single stable chelate with technetium-99m (99mTc) oxotechnetate. The bifunctional N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester of mercaptoacetyltriglycine with S-acetyl protection of the sulfhydryl group may be used to conjugate MAG3 to primary amine functionalized biomolecules for the purpose of radiolabeling with 99mTc for gamma detection or single photon emission computed tomography imaging (SPECT). We report here an improved MAG3 conjugation and 99mTc radiolabeling method capable of generating high radiochemical yield and high specific radioactivity. Post-labeling purification will not be needed if the protocol is followed as presented. Apart from the preparation of reagents, the conjugation and purification requires about 4 h, while the labeling with 99mTc requires about an additional 30 min.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of (99m)Tc-DMSA lyophilized kit for renal imaging.

    PubMed

    Jan, Syed Umer; Abbass, Hafiz Ghulam

    2013-05-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been evaluated and used with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) in imaging of kidneys. DMSA lyophilized kits were prepared and radiolabelled with (99m)Tc. Paper and thin-layer chromatography have been employed using various eluent systems for the radiochemical analysis, percentage labeling and binding capacity of (99m)Tc-DMSA. Female albino rabbits were used for this study. Biological data obtained after intravenous injection of radiolabelled DMSA to female albino rabbits revealed 32.42% uptake and long retention time in the kidneys. On the basis of animal biodistribution data, it is suggested that DMSA when labeled with (99m)Tc is useful complex for renal imaging and can be successfully applied as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine. Clinical biodistribution and radiation dosimetry studies are planned in future.

  4. Detection of diffuse glomerular lesions in rats: II. Comparison of indium-111 cationic small macromolecules with technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.D.; Lyons, B.; Roskopf, M.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Whaley, D.

    1986-04-01

    Dextrans with average molecular weights of 5000, 10,000, and 17,500 and inulin were rendered cationic by amination with 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide. After limited coupling with DTPA cyclic dianhydride, they were labeled with 111In. A good correlation was found between their early renal uptake quantitated by camera-computer techniques and their renal clearance from multiple plasma samples in rats with glomerular damage induced by puromycin aminonucleoside and controls. However, there was poor correlation between the early renal uptake of these agents and the clearance of simultaneously injected (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA. The 2-hr organ distribution and urinary excretion of these agents were compared with the corresponding values of DTPA. The differences in clearance between rats with glomerular damage and controls were greater with aminated dextran (mol wt 5000) than with DTPA, confirming previous work with infusions of nonradioactive charged dextrans and neutral inulin. The cationic dextrans appear to reflect the presence or absence of the normal anionic charge of the glomerular membrane as well as changes in filtration rate. Aminated inulin did not differentiate between controls and rats with glomerular disease any better than DTPA, probably because the number of amino groups conjugated was insufficient to produce the charge effect.

  5. Localization of technetium-99m-glucarate in zones of acute cerebral injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yaoita, H.; Uehara, T.; Brownell, A.L.; Rabito, C.A.; Ahmad, M.; Khaw, B.A.; Fischman, A.J.; Strauss, H.W. )

    1991-02-01

    The potential structural similarity of technetium-99m-labeled glucaric acid (99mTc-glucarate) to that of fructose suggests that this agent may enter cells by a sugar transport system. Studies with LLC-PK1 cells demonstrated inhibition of 99mTc-glucarate uptake by fructose, confirming this potential relationship. Since anaerobic metabolism can use either glucose or fructose, we hypothesized that 99mTc-glucarate may concentrate in areas of acute ischemic injury. To test this hypothesis, 63 adult rats with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion followed by reperfusion were injected with 99mTc-glucarate and in vivo and ex vivo images were acquired. Seven animals were also studied with 18FDG and high resolution PET imaging. The radionuclide images were compared to the results of triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and conventional histopathology. Thirty-five rats had significant accumulation of 99mTc-glucarate and no TTC staining (indicating infarction) in the involved hemisphere. Of the remaining 28 rats with TTC staining (suggesting viability) of the involved hemisphere, 16 (57%) had 99mTc-glucarate accumulation. In the seven rats that were studied with both 99mTc-glucarate and 18FDG, 99mTc-glucarate accumulated at the center of the occluded MCA territory while 18FDG activity was decreased in this region. These results suggest that 99mTc-glucarate is a sensitive marker of acute severe cerebral injury, but its mechanism of localization is probably different from that of 18FDG.

  6. Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime lung scintigraphy findings in low-dose amiodarone therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaya, G Capa; Ertay, T; Tuna, B; Bekis, R; Tasci, C; Sayit, E; Yilmaz, O; Kargi, A; Durak, H

    2006-01-01

    Amiodarone (AD)-induced pulmonary toxicity is one of the major complications of long-term AD therapy. Technetium-99m-labeled D: ,L: -hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) scintigraphy has been used to assess lung injury. We designed this study to clarify lung uptake changes of Tc-99m HMPAO using low doses of AD (5 mg/kg/day) during long-term therapy in a rabbit model. Group 1 consisted of 7 rabbits fed with AD by gavage for 6 months. To investigate the effect of ketamine on Tc-99m HMPAO uptake, 5 rabbits were included in Group 2 as a control group. Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy was performed in both Group 1 and Group 2 at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks of AD intake. After 16, 20, and 24 weeks of drug intake, Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy was repeated only in group 1. One-min anterior images were acquired 30 min after the injection of 37 MBq of Tc-99m HMPAO. For semiquantitative evaluation, the mean count values were obtained and lung/background and liver/background ratios were calculated. Histopathologic evaluation was performed. No increase in lung and liver uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO was found 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks after drug intake. There was no significant increase in L/B and H/B ratios of Tc-99m HMPAO in Group 1 compared with Group 2. Both scintigraphic studies and histopathologic examinations showed nonspecific changes. Longitudinal studies investigating Tc-99m HMPAO lung uptake may be planned in patients carrying risk factors for AD-induced lung toxicity.

  7. Radionuclide cholescintigraphic imaging: an evaluation of several 99mTc labelled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    van Aswegen, A; van Wyk, J; Roodt, J P; Lötter, M G; Otto, A C; Minnaar, P C

    1986-01-01

    Recently, much interest has been shown in the development of 99mTc labelled cholescintigraphic agents for imaging the hepatobiliary tract. In this study six cholescintigraphic agents were compared in rabbits with respect to transit efficiency through the liver and the halftime on the washout portion of the liver time-activity curve. The agents compared were p-butyl-IDA (PBIDA), diisopropyl-IDA (DISIDA), two mebrofenin (MBF) agents and two pyridoxylaminates (PDA). Best transit efficiencies were obtained with MBF (34.1 and 31.2%) followed by PDA (27.7 and 24.9%) while DISIDA (23%) and PBIDA (19.3%) were the lowest. The same phenomenon was observed regarding the washout halftime, with MBF the most rapid (6.3 and 5.9 min), PDA more prolonged (10.1 and 12.0 min) and DISIDA and PBIDA the slowest (23.0 and 23.2 min). This study confirms the difference in physiological behaviour of the various cholescintigraphic agents and shows identical flow patterns for locally produced and imported compounds.

  8. Reliability of single kidney glomerular filtration rate measured by a 99mTc-DTPA gamma camera technique

    SciTech Connect

    Rehling, M.; Moller, M.L.; Jensen, J.J.; Thamdrup, B.; Lund, J.O.; Trap-Jensen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of a previously published method for determination of single kidney glomerular filtration rate (SKGFR) by means of technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA) gamma camera renography was evaluated. The day-to-day variation in the calculated SKGFR values was earlier found to be 8.8%. The technique was compared to the simultaneously measured renal clearance of inulin in 19 unilaterally nephrectomized patients with GFR varying from 11 to 76 ml/min. The regression line (y = 1.04 X -2.5) did not differ significantly from the line of identity. The standard error of estimate was 4.3 ml/min. In 17 patients the inter- and intraobserver variation of the calculated SKGFR values was 1.2 ml/min and 1.3 ml/min, respectively. In 21 of 25 healthy subjects studied (age range 27-29 years), total GFR calculated from the renograms was within an established age-dependent normal range of GFR.

  9. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis and soft tissue infection using a Tc-99m labeled tuftsin-analog peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Sharma, S.

    1997-05-01

    The localization of infection sites and of osteomyelitis is still an ongoing diagnostic challenge. In joints affected by arthritis, complicated fractures and around prosthetic devices, three-phase bone scans are non-diagnostic because the underlying condition will cause the third phase scan to be positive, while surrounding soft tissue inflammation may cause the first and second phase scans to be positive as well. Currently, the method of choice in these situations is to use radiolabeled white blood cell scans involving lengthy and expensive procedure and need for delayed imaging. We describe a method using a Tc-99m labeled leukotactic peptide for imaging osteomyelitis and soft tissue infections, which appears to be simpler, and enabling fast diagnosis. Abscesses, clean fractures and infected fractures simulating osteomyelitis were induced in rabbits as described earlier. RMT-1, a tuftsin-mimetic synthetic tetrapeptide labeled with Tc-99m was used. Blood clearance, urine excretion and whole body timed scintigraphy were carried out in normal dogs and evaluation of the compound was performed in dogs and rabbits with soft tissue chemical and bacterial abscesses and in rabbits with clean fractures and experimental osteomyelitis.

  10. Imaging Angiogenesis Using 99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Scintigraphy in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Gen; Miyamoto, Masaaki; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Yasutake, Masahiro; Tara, Shuhei; Takagi, Ikuyo; Seki, Naoki; Kumita, Shinichiro; Shimizu, Wataru

    2016-02-01

    One problem of vascular angiogenesis therapy is the lack of reliable methods for evaluating blood flow in the microcirculation. We aimed to assess whether (99m)Tc-macroaggregated albumin perfusion scintigraphy ((99m)Tc-MAA) predicts quantitated blood flow after therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease. Forty-six patients with peripheral artery disease were treated with bone marrow mononuclear cell implantation (BMCI). Before and 4 wk after BMCI, blood flow was evaluated via transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2), ankle-brachial index, intravenous (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin perfusion scintigraphy ((99m)Tc-TF), and intraaortic (99m)Tc-MAA. Four weeks after BMCI, TcPO2 improved significantly (20.4 ± 14.4 to 36.0 ± 20.0 mm Hg, P < 0.01), but ankle-brachial index did not (0.65 ± 0.30 to 0.76 ± 0.24, P = 0.07). Improvement in (99m)Tc-TF count (0.60 ± 0.23 to 0.77 ± 0.29 count ratio/pixel, P < 0.01) and (99m)Tc-MAA count (5.21 ± 3.56 to 10.33 ± 7.18 count ratio/pixel, P = 0.02) was observed in the foot region but not the lower limb region, using both methods. When these data were normalized by subtracting the pixel count of the untreated side, the improvements in (99m)Tc-TF count (-0.04 ± 0.26 to 0.08 ± 0.32 count ratio/pixel, P = 0.04) and (99m)Tc-MAA count (1.49 ± 3.64 to 5.59 ± 4.84 count ratio/pixel, P = 0.03) in the foot remained significant. (99m)Tc-MAA indicated that the newly developed arteries were approximately 25 μm in diameter. BMCI induced angiogenesis in the foot, which was detected using (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MAA. (99m)Tc-MAA is a useful method to quantitate blood flow, estimate vascular size, and evaluate flow distribution after therapeutic angiogenesis. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Safety, pharmacokinetic and dosimetry evaluation of the proposed thrombus imaging agent 99mTc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 Fab'.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, David J; Smart, Richard C; Tsui, Wendy W; Gerometta, Michael; Eisenberg, Paul R; Scott, Andrew M

    2006-06-01

    (99m)Tc-DI-DD-3B6/22-80B3 (Thromboview, hereafter abbreviated to (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 Fab') is a humanised, radiolabelled monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment with high affinity and specificity for the D-dimer domain of cross-linked fibrin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry of four increasing doses of (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two healthy volunteers (18-70 years; 16 male, 16 female) received a single intravenous injection of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 mg of (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 Fab'. Safety outcomes (vital signs, electrocardiography, haematology, biochemistry, adverse events and development of human anti-human antibodies) were assessed up to 30 days post injection. Blood and urine samples were collected up to 48 h post injection. Gamma camera images were acquired at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h post injection. Dosimetry was performed using standard MIRD methodology. No adverse events considered to be drug related were observed. Human anti-human antibody was not detectable in any subject during the follow-up period. (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' had a rapid initial plasma clearance (t (1/2)alpha=1 h). The pharmacokinetic profile of the Fab' fragment was generally linear across the four dose cohorts. By 24 h, 30-35% of the administered radioactivity appeared in the urine. There was marked renal accumulation with time, but no specific uptake was identified within other normal tissues. The effective dose was 9 mSv/750 MBq. (99m)Tc-DI-80B3 Fab' is well tolerated, is rapidly cleared and exhibits clinically acceptable dosimetry-characteristics well suited to a potential thrombus imaging agent.

  12. Technetium-99m-labeled rituximab for use as a specific tracer of sentinel lymph node biopsy: a translational research study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Baohe; Zhang, Yan; Zhai, Shizhen; Zhao, Qichao; Xie, Qing; Liu, Fei; Han, Xuedi; Li, Jinfeng; Ouyang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to develop and translate a CD20-antigen-targeted radiopharmaceutical, Technetium-99 m-labeled (99mTc) rituximab, for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection. Methods 99mTc-rituximab was synthesized and tested for stability in human serum. The binding affinity to CD20 was evaluated in Raji cells by flow cytometric analysis. Biodistribution and sentinel node mapping were carried out in bal b/c mice. Eighty-five patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Dynamic sentinel lymphoscintigraphy was first assessed in 12 patients before planar lymphoscintigraphy was assessed in a larger cohort. All patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary lymph node dissection. Results The cell-binding study showed that 99mTc-rituximab possessed compatible affinity to human CD20. In the mechanism study, 99mTc-labeled anti-mouse CD20 monoclonal antibodies could bind to mouse CD20 and accumulate in the SLN with 2.62±1.25 % of the percentage of injected activity, which could be blocked by excessive unlabeled antibody. Low uptake of non-sentinel nodes and fast clearance from the injection site were observed in the mice. Sentinel nodes were identified in 82 of 85 breast cancer patients (96.5%) by lymphoscintigraphy and SLNB. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 96.8% (30/31), 100% (51/51), and 98.8% (81/82), respectively. Conclusion 99mTc-rituximab, specifically binding to CD20, met most of the requirements of an ideal sentinel mapping agent for use in clinical settings. PMID:27246977

  13. [Use of a gamma probe for intraoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas with Tc-99m-tetrofosmin and Tc-99m-sestamibi].

    PubMed

    Gallowitsch, H J; Fellinger, J; Kresnik, E; Mikosch, P; Pipam, W; Unterweger, O F; Lind, P

    1997-01-01

    Especially ectopic adenomas may be problematic in intraoperative localization despite preoperative imaging resulting in a longer operating time and more extensive surgical preparation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possibility of intraoperative scintimetric detection of parathyroid adenomas with cationic, Tc-99m labelled tracers for its usefulness in ectopic adenomas. 12 women with biochemically confirmed hyperparathyroidism were included in our study. After injection of 370 MBq Tc-99m Tetrofosmin respectively Sestamibi, preoperative scintigraphy (double phase study and SPECT) was performed and T/NT ratios were evaluated for early, delayed and SPECT images. Surgery was performed using a hand-held gamma probe after preoperative injection of 555-925 MBq Tc-99m Tetrofosmin or Sestamibi. Count rates (cts/10 sec) were measured and used for calculating in situ- and ex situ-T/NT ratios. In 9 out of 12 patients, adenoma could be detected on static images. Three cases could only be detected with SPECT. 11 of 12 parathyroid adenomas could be confirmed intraoperatively. Intraoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma with Tc-99m-labelled cationic complexes and a gamma probe is possible and may be useful in case of ectopic adenoma by influencing surgical approach and operating time.

  14. Discrepant 99mTc-ECD images of CBF in patients with subacute cerebral infarction: a comparison of CBF, CMRO2 and 99mTc-HMPAO imaging.

    PubMed

    Shishido, F; Uemura, K; Inugami, A; Ogawa, T; Fujita, H; Shimosegawa, E; Nagata, K

    1995-08-01

    Three patients with subacute ischemic cerebral infarction examined by SPECT with 99mTc-ECD and PET within the same day showed signs of luxury perfusion in the subacute phase, which is between 9 to 20 days after the onset. A 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT study was also performed within 2 days of the ECD-SPECT study. ECD-SPECT images of three patients displayed a focal decreased uptake in the infarcted lesions, while in infarcted foci, there was almost equivalent or increased CBF compared to normal and unaffected areas, decreased CMRO2, and high HMPAO uptake. The ECD-SPECT results were similar to those of CMRO2 rather than CBF, though the HMPAO-SPECT image was similar to that of CBF. In one patient, HMPAO images revealed hyperfixation of the tracer. In the chronic phase and in the acute phase before 5 days after the onset, there were no discrepancies among the ECD-SPECT, CBF, HMPAO-SPECT, and CMRO2 images. These observations indicated that 99mTc-ECD is a good indicator of damaged brain tissues in subacute ischemic infarction. They also suggested that 99mTc-ECD is a potential agent with which to evaluate cerebral tissue viability in some pathological states of cerebrovascular disease. The characteristics may be suitable for confirming the effects of thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemia, because these conditions often show signs of luxury perfusion when the therapy is successful.

  15. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the IFIN-HH, Romania in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Sahagia, M.; Ioan, M. R.; Antohe, A.; Luca, A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, a comparison of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the Institutul National de Cercetare - Dezvoltare in Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara - 'Horia Hulubei' (IFIN-HH, Romania). Ampoules containing about 21 kBq and 40 kBq of a 99mTc solution were measured in the SIRTI for, respectively, one and three half-lives. The comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value and between the present IFIN-HH result, the other K4 participants and the six participants in the K1 comparison have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the NIM, China in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Liang, J. C.; Chen, J.; Liu, H. R.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, Q.; Yang, Y. D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the fourth comparison of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the Chinese National Institute of Metrology (NIM). An ampoule containing about 70 kBq of 99mTc traceable to the NIM primary standard was measured in the SIRTI for more than three half-lives. The comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the degrees of equivalence with the key comparison reference value and between the present NIM result, the other K4 participant and the six participants in the K1 comparison have been evaluated. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Distribution, elimination, and renal handling of (99m)technetium-Demogastrin 1.

    PubMed

    Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznickova, Alice; Laznicek, Milan; Novy, Zbynek; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A; Behe, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Radiolabeled cholecystokinin/gastrin (CCK) receptor-targeting peptides are promising compounds for radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy of certain malignancies. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of a CCK-2 receptor-specific peptide, Demogastrin 1, labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1), in rats. To investigate the fate of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in the rat, biodistribution and elimination studies in vivo were performed, and elimination parameters in perfused rat liver and kidney were determined. Biodistribution studies showed that (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 was rapidly cleared from the blood and most organs. A significant amount of radioactivity was detected in the CCK-2 receptor-rich organs, such as the stomach. Low radioactivity was found in the CCK-1 receptor-rich organs. Radioactivity in bowels and stomach declined relatively slowly. High and long-term retention of radioactivity in the kidneys was observed. Elimination of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 via the bile was negligible. A high and rapid renal excretion was observed in elimination experiments in vivo. In the perfused kidney, glomerular filtration was found to be the main renal excretion mechanism of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1. Demogastrin 1 was distributed preferentially to the organs expressing CCK-2 receptors. The decisive elimination route of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in rats was urinary excretion. A high and prolonged renal retention may limit potential clinical use of the compound.

  18. Demonstrating alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver by Tc-99m BIDA scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver underwent Tc-99m BIDA studies. All demonstrated 1) persistently high blood pool activity in the heart, lung, and soft tissue, 2) slow hepatic tracer uptake, 3) prolonged liver-to-bowel transit time, and 4) visualization of an enlarged spleen. Four of the six patients demonstrated evidence of ascites and in one patient there were visible collateral veins of the abdomen. These findings are due primarily to hepatic dysfunction and retaining Tc-99m BIDA in blood pool because of Tc-99m BIDA exclusively hepatic excretion and little or no alternative renal excretion. All six Tc-99m sulfur colloid studies were performed concomitantly. Except for bone marrow uptake and reversal of the normal liver-spleen ratio of radioactivity, the imaging abnormalities observed with Tc-99m BIDA were similar to those seen by Tc-99m SC. It is concluded that with Tc-99m BIDA studies, three of six abnormal findings, as described, suggest a decompensated stage of cirrhosis of the liver.

  19. Optical imaging of Tc-99m-based tracers: in vitro and in vivo results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Antonello E.; Meo, Sergio Lo; Calandrino, Riccardo; Sbarbati, Andrea; Boschi, Federico

    2011-11-01

    It has been recently shown that optical imaging (OI) methods can be used to image the in vivo biodistribution of several radiopharmaceuticals labeled with beta or alpha emitters. In this work particular attention has been focused on investigating the weaker optical signal induced by an almost pure gamma emitter like Tc-99m. Visible light emission measurements of a water solution containing Tc-99m were performed using a small animal OI system. A sequence of images was acquired for 24 h in order to study the decay of the luminescence signal. The difference between the luminescence decay half life and well-known Tc-99m half life was equal to 1%. in vivo imaging was performed by injecting one control nude mice with Tc-99m-MDP. Optical images obtained with equipment designed for bioluminescence imaging showed that a visible light emission was distinguishable and correctly localized in the bladder region where a higher concentration of Tc-99m-MDP was expected. The bladder to background ratio was always greater than 1. We conclude that the experimental data presented in this paper show that it is possible to detect in vivo luminescence optical photons induced by Tc-99m. This is important especially considering the large number of Tc-99m-based radiopharmaceutical currently available.

  20. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of (99m)TcO4(-), in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na(99m)TcO4, purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced (99m)Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons.

  1. Quantitative analysis of planar technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion images using modified background subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, K.; Wackers, F.J.; Mattera, J.A.; Fetterman, R.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Standard interpolative background subtraction, as used for thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), may create artifacts when applied to planar technetium-99m-Sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi) images, apparently because of the oversubtraction of relatively high extra-cardiac activity. A modified background subtraction algorithm was developed and compared to standard background subtraction in 16 patients who had both exercise-delayed {sup 201}Tl and exercise-rest {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi imaging. Furthermore, a new normal data base was generated. Normal {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi distribution was slightly different compared to {sup 201}Tl. Using standard background subtraction, mean defect reversibility was significantly underestimated by {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi compared to {sup 201}Tl (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus -1.8 +/- 8.4, p less than 0.05). Using the modified background subtraction, mean defect reversibility on {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images was comparable (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus 1.7 +/- 5.2, p = NS). We conclude, that for quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images a new normal data base, as well as a modification of the interpolative background subtraction method should be employed to obtain quantitative results comparable to those with {sup 201}Tl.

  2. A new approach for manufacturing and processing targets to produce 99mTc with cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matei, L.; McRae, G.; Galea, R.; Niculae, D.; Craciun, L.; Leonte, R.; Surette, G.; Langille, S.; Louis, C. St.; Gelbart, W.; Abeysekera, B.; Johnson, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The most important radioisotope for nuclear medicine is 99mTc. After the supply crisis of 99Mo starting in 2008, the availability of 99mTc became a worldwide concern. Alternative methods for producing the medical imaging isotope 99mTc are actively being developed around the world. The reaction 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc provides a direct route that can be incorporated into routine production in nuclear medicine centers that possess medical cyclotrons for production of other isotopes, such as those used for Positron Emission Tomography. This paper describes a new approach for manufacturing targets for the (p, 2n) nuclear reaction on 100Mo and the foundation for the subsequent commercial separation and purification of the 99mTc produced. Two designs of targets are presented. The targets used to produce 99mTc are subject to a number of operational constraints.They must withstand the temperatures generated by the irradiation, accommodate temperature gradients from cooling system of the target, must be resilient and must be easily post-processed to separate the 99mTc. After irradiation, the separation of Tc from Mo was carried out using an innovative two-step approach. The process described in this paper can be automated with modules that easily fit in standard production hot cells found in nuclear medicine facilities.

  3. Mapping lymph nodes in cancer management – role of 99mTc-tilmanocept injection

    PubMed Central

    Tausch, Christoph; Baege, Astrid; Rageth, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Two decades ago, lymphatic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) was introduced into surgical cancer management and was termed sentinel node navigated surgery. Although this technique is now routinely performed in the management of breast cancer and malignant melanoma, it is still under investigation for use in other cancers. The radioisotope technetium (99mTc) and vital blue dyes are among the most widely used enhancers for SLN mapping, although near-infrared fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green is also becoming more commonly used. 99mTc-tilmanocept is a new synthetic radioisotope with a relatively small molecular size that was specifically developed for lymphatic mapping. Because of its small size, 99mTc-tilmanocept quickly migrates from its site of injection and rapidly accumulates in the SLN. The mannose moieties of 99mTc-tilmanosept facilitate its binding to mannose receptors (CD206) expressed in reticuloendothelial cells of the SLN. This binding prevents transit to second-echelon lymph nodes. In Phase III trials of breast cancer and malignant melanoma, and Phase II trials of other malignancies, 99mTc-tilmanocept had superior identification rates and sensitivity compared with blue dye. Trials comparing 99mTc-tilmanocept with other 99mTc-based agents are required before it can be routinely used in clinical settings. PMID:25028560

  4. 99mTc-d-penicillamine-glucuronide: synthesis, radiolabeling, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Teksöz, Serap; Içhedef, Ciğdem Acar; Ozyüncü, Seniha; Müftüler, Fazilet Zümrüt Biber; Unak, Perihan; Medine, Ilker Emin; Ertay, Türkan; Eren, Mine Şencan

    2011-10-01

    The current study was aimed at synthesizing a glucuronide derivative of D-penicillamine (D-PA) to be used for imaging purposes. First of all, D-PA-glucuronide (D-PA-Glu) was synthesized by experimental treatments starting with uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme rich microsome preparate. Then, the synthesized compound was labeled with technetium ((99m)Tc) by using a reduction method with stannous chloride. Quality controls were performed by using high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer radio chromatography (TLRC). Radiolabeling yield of (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu was more than 98% according to TLRC results. In vitro evaluations of radiolabeled complexes were investigated on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu exhibited more accumulation on PC-3 cells versus (99m)Tc-D-PA at 240 minutes. In order to determine its radiopharmaceutical potential, biodistribution studies were carried out in male Albino Wistar rats. The biodistribution results of (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu, showed the highest uptake in prostate at 120 minutes postinjection with the main excretion route being through kidneys and bladder. (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu and (99m)Tc-D-PA have exhibited different biodistribution results.

  5. Effect of DMSA loading on the renal handling of technetium-99m in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1986-01-01

    The renal handling of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) was studied in rats treated with high doses of nonradioactive DMSA to inhibit the renal uptake mechanism(s). A static scan was obtained 1 hour after the intravenous (iv) injection of 99mTc DMSA and the radioactivity in kidneys and bladder was calculated as a percentage of the injected amount. Total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow were also determined. Preloading with DMSA caused a fall in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA together with a small increase in the amount excreted into the urinary bladder. Despite a stable GFR, the total amount of 99mTc DMSA handled by the kidneys (i.e., renal plus bladder activity) was reduced. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that peritubular uptake and subsequent intracellular fixation are of importance in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA. On the other hand, the radioactivity excreted into the urine probably stems from non-reabsorbed 99mTc DMSA initially filtered by the glomeruli.

  6. 99Mo/(99m)Tc separation: an assessment of technology options.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-02-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of (99m)Tc from (99)Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission (99)Mo (F (99)Mo) for production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F (99)Mo and consequently the shortage of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of (99)Mo as well as (99m)Tc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade (99m)Tc from low specific activity (99)Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing (99m)Tc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade (99m)Tc from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of (99m)Tc production.

  7. Assessment of antiangiogenic effect using 99mTc-EC-endostatin.

    PubMed

    Yang, David J; Kim, Kil-Dong; Schechter, Naomi R; Yu, Dong-Fang; Wu, Peng; Azhdarinia, Ali; Roach, Jennifer S; Kalimi, Saady K; Ozaki, Kaoru; Fogler, William E; Bryant, Jerry L; Herbst, Roy; Abbruzzes, James; Kim, E Edmund; Podoloff, Donald A

    2002-04-01

    Tumor vascular density may provide a prognostic indicator of metastatic potential or survival. The purpose of this study was to develop 99mTc-ethylenedicysteine-endostatin (99mTc-EC-endostatin) for the evaluation of anti-angiogenesis therapy. 99mTc-EC-endostatin was prepared by conjugating ethylenedicysteine (EC) to endostatin, followed by adding pertechnetate and tin chloride. Radiochemical purity was > 95%. In vitro cell viability, affinity and TUNEL assays were performed. Tissue distribution and planar imaging of radiolabeled endostatin were determined in tumor-bearing rats. To assess anti-angiogenic treatment response, rats were treated with endostatin, paclitaxel and saline, followed by imaging with 99mTc-EC-endostatin. Tumor response to endostatin therapy in tumor-bearing animal models was assessed by correlating tumor uptake dose with microvessel density, VEGF, bFGF and IL-8 expression during endostatin therapy. In vitro cell viability and TUNEL assays indicated no marked difference between EC-endostatin and endostatin. Cellular uptake assay suggests that endostatin binds to endostatin receptor. Biodistribution of 99mTc-EC-endostatin in tumor-bearing rats showed increased tumor-to-tissue count density ratios as a function of time. Tumor uptake (%ID/g) of 99mTc-EC-endostatin was 0.2-0.5. Planar images confirmed that the tumors could be visualized clearly with 99mTc-EC-endostatin. The optimal time for imaging using radiolabeled endostatin was 2 hrs. 99mTc-EC-endostatin could assess treatment response. There was a correlation between tumor uptake and cellular targets expression. The results indicate that it is feasible to use 99mTc-EC-endostatin to assess efficiency of anti-angiogenesis therapy.

  8. Mo-99/Tc-99m Separation: An Assessment of Technical Options

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, A; Pillai, M R A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of 99mTc from 99Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission 99Mo (F 99Mo) for production of 99Mo/99mTc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F 99Mo and consequently the shortage of 99Mo/99mTc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of 99Mo as well as 99mTc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade 99mTc from low specific activity 99Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing 99mTc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade 99mTc from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of 99mTc production.

  9. Detection of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice using (99m)Tc-duramycin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhonglin; Larsen, Brandon T; Lerman, Lilach O; Gray, Brian D; Barber, Christy; Hedayat, Ahmad F; Zhao, Ming; Furenlid, Lars R; Pak, Koon Y; Woolfenden, James M

    2016-08-01

    Apoptosis of macrophages and smooth muscle cells is linked to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. The apoptotic cascade leads to exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, thereby making apoptosis detectable using probes targeting PE. The objective of this study was to exploit capabilities of a PE-specific imaging probe, (99m)Tc-duramycin, in localizing atherosclerotic plaque and assessing plaque evolution in apolipoprotein-E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE(-/-) mice by feeding an atherogenic diet. (99m)Tc-duramycin images were acquired using a small-animal SPECT imager. Six ApoE(-/-) mice at 20weeks of age (Group I) were imaged and then sacrificed for ex vivo analyses. Six additional ApoE(-/-) mice (Group II) were imaged at 20 and 40weeks of age before sacrifice. Six ApoE wild-type (ApoE(+/+)) mice (Group III) were imaged at 40weeks as controls. Five additional ApoE(-/-) mice (40weeks of age) (Group IV) were imaged with a (99m)Tc-labeled inactive peptide, (99m)Tc-LinDUR, to assess (99m)Tc-duramycin targeting specificity. Focal (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the ascending aorta and aortic arch was detected at 20 and 40weeks in the ApoE(-/-) mice but not in ApoE(+/+) mice. (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the aortic lesions increased 2.2-fold on quantitative imaging in the ApoE(-/-) mice between 20 and 40weeks. Autoradiographic and histological data indicated significantly increased (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the ascending aorta and aortic arch associated with advanced plaques. Quantitative autoradiography showed that the ratio of activity in the aortic arch to descending thoracic aorta, which had no plaques or radioactive uptake, was 2.1 times higher at 40weeks than at 20weeks (6.62±0.89 vs. 3.18±0.29, P<0.01). There was barely detectable focal uptake of (99m)Tc-duramycin in the aortic arch of ApoE(+/+) mice. No detectable (99m)Tc-LinDUR uptake was observed in the aortas of ApoE(-/-) mice. PE

  10. Accumulation of 99mTc-PMT in renal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Toshiki; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Tanikake, Masato; Oida, Tomoyuki; Hida, Shuichi; Yasui, Hiroshi; Urata, Yoji; Tanaka, Akira; Morimoto, Taisuke

    2003-06-01

    We describe here a case in which 99mTc-Sn-N-pyridoxy-5-methyltryptophan (99mTc-PMT) scintigraphy was useful in diagnosing renal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 62-year-old man who had undergone hepatectomy for HCC presented 6 years after initial diagnosis with left flank pain and was found on CT and MRI to have a tumor in the left kidney. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99Tc-PMT was performed, and 99mTc-PMT accumulation was found in the tumor. Nephrectomy was performed and metastasis of HCC was confirmed.

  11. Technetium-99m-HIDA visualization of an obstructed gallbladder via an accessory hepatic duct

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, D.E.; Donald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) scintigraphy after sonographic evaluation of the gallbladder have been advocated recently for the diagnosis of acute obstructive cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Several authors have stated or inferred that gallbladder visualization with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA excludes acute cholecystitis and cystic duct obstruction. We describe a patient with surgically proven cystic duct obstruction whose gallbladder visualized on a /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA scan via an accessory hepatic duct which directly entered the gallbladder.

  12. Popliteal cysts and deep venous thrombosis: Tc-99m red blood cell venography

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, G.O.; Brand, C.A.; Ada, A.; Wong, C.

    1985-04-01

    Thirty-four patients who clinically were suspected of having deep venous thrombosis (DVT) underwent Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) venography followed by contrast venography. The sensitivity (88%) and specificity (94%) of Tc-99m RBC venography of DVT confirmed findings of previous studies. Twenty-four patients who had proved popliteal cysts and swollen calves also were examined using Tc-99m RBC venography. Large cysts showed lack of DVT features, photon deficient cold areas in the popliteal fossa, and diversion of venous flow around the photon deficient area. These features were seen in 25% of the study population (six patients), and assisted in the distinction between the two conditions.

  13. An incidental detection of aortic aneurysm on Tc-99m MAG3 renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Sadic, Murat; Demirel, Koray; Koca, Gökhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with newly diagnosed hypertension was referred for Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3) renal scintigraphy to evaluate the recent onset of impairment in renal functions. Dynamic imaging revealed activity flow which was suspicious for aortic aneurysm (AA) with a concurrent decrease in left renal blood flow. CT angiography of the thoracoabdominal aorta confirmed that this area corresponded to AA. The purpose of this report was to present the first case of incidental detection of AA on Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy and highlight the importance of correlative imaging for the diagnosis of abnormal radioactivity accumulation in the region of vascular structures.

  14. Luxury perfusion syndrome in cerebral vascular disease evaluated with technetium-99m HM-PAO.

    PubMed

    Spreafico, G; Cammelli, F; Gadola, G; Freschi, R; Zancaner, F

    1987-03-01

    A recently developed Tc-99m radiocompound, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (Tc-99m HM-PAO), exhibits favorable properties for regional cerebral blood flow study in man. The authors present a case of luxury perfusion syndrome observed in a 72-year-old patient with acute stroke and a right-sided hemiplegia, documented by planar scintigraphy and SPECT study in correlation with CT scan. The metabolic basis of this phenomenon is discussed and the usefulness of assessing regional brain perfusion by Tc-99m HM-PAO with conventional nuclear medicine equipment is underlined.

  15. Detection of bacterial infection by a technetium-99m-labeled peptidoglycan aptamer.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Iêda Mendes; de Sousa Lacerda, Camila Maria; Dos Santos, Sara Roberta; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear medicine clinicians are still waiting for the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of distinguishing between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers have several properties that make them suitable for molecular imaging. In the present study, a peptidoglycan aptamer (Antibac1) was labeled with (99m)Tc and evaluated by biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging in infection-bearing mice. Labeling with (99m)Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and in the molar excess of cysteine. The biodistribution and scintigraphic imaging studies with the (99m)Tc-Antibac1 were carried out in two different experimental infection models: Bacterial-infected mice (S. aureus) and fungal-infected mice (C. albicans). A (99m)Tc radiolabeled library, consisting of oligonucleotides with random sequences, was used as a control for both models. Radiolabeling yields were superior to 90% and (99m)Tc-Antibac1 was highly stable in presence of saline, plasma, and cysteine up to 6h. Scintigraphic images of S. aureus infected mice at 1.5 and 3.0h after (99m)Tc-Antibac1 injection showed target to non-target ratios of 4.7±0.9 and 4.6±0.1, respectively. These values were statistically higher than those achieved for the (99m)Tc-library at the same time frames (1.6±0.4 and 1.7±0.4, respectively). Noteworthy, (99m)Tc-Antibac1 and (99m)Tc-library showed similar low target to non-target ratios in the fungal-infected model: 2.0±0.3 and 2.0±0.6for (99m)Tc-Antibac1 and 2.1±0.3 and 1.9 ± 0.6 for (99m)Tc-library, at the same times. These findings suggest that the (99m)Tc-Antibac1 is a feasible imaging probe to identify a bacterial infection focus. In addition, this radiolabeled aptamer seems to be suitable in distinguishing between bacterial and fungal infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. 99mTc MIBI in neurofibromatosis imaging diagnosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Stefănescu, C; Meignan, M; Volkenstein, P; Rusu, V

    1996-01-01

    99mTc MIBI has been shown to accumulate in different cancer cells types, in vitro and malignant tumours in vivo, making evidence of the scintigraphic diagnostic of them. We report two cases of neurofibromatosis type I, which has realised high levels of 99mTc MIBI uptake, primary to all chemo- or radiotherapy. Only certain zones of tumorous localisation have been seen, but a relation with the lesion histology was not really established. In conclusion, 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy may be usefull in the investigation of type I neurofibromatosis.

  17. Neurofibromas: location by scanning with Tc-99m DTPA. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Mandell, G.A.; Herrick, W.C.; Harcke, H.T.; Sharkey, C.; Brooks, K.M.; MacEwen, G.D.

    1985-12-01

    The accumulation of technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA) in benign soft-tissue neurofibromatosis tumors is reported. In a series of 16 patients with clinical stigmata of neurofibromatosis, 28 sites of abnormal soft-tissue localization of the isotope observed scintigraphically were documented to be sites of soft-tissue tumor by clinical and/or radiographic (predominantly computed tomographic) correlations. The smallest lesion detected was a 1.5-cm subcutaneous neurofibroma. Normal physiologic nonrenal distribution of the Tc-99m DTPA was established by scintigraphic imaging of a control population.

  18. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  19. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  20. Measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow in humans using dynamic cardiac SPECT and 99mTc-tetrofosmin: Method and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Uttam; Sciammarella, Maria; Alhassen, Fares; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Ellin, Justin; Verdin, Emily; Boyle, Andrew; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2015-12-29

    The objective of this study was to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) in humans using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Dynamic SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a group of 16 patients. The SPECT data were reconstructed using a 4D-spatiotemporal iterative reconstruction method. The data corresponding to 9 patients were used to determine the flow-extraction curve for 99mTc-tefrofosmin while data from the remaining 7 patients were used for method validation. The nonlinear tracer correction parameters A and B for 99mTc-tefrofosmin were estimated for the 9 patients by fitting the flow-extraction curve K1 = F(1–Aexp(–B/F)) for K1 values estimated with 99mTc-tefrofosmin using SPECT and MBF values estimated with 13N-NH3 using PET. These parameters were then used to calculate MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in three coronary territories (LAD, RCA, and LCX) using SPECT for an independent cohort of 7 patients. The results were then compared with that estimated with 13N-NH3 PET. The flow-dependent permeability surface-area product (PS) for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was also estimated. The estimated flow-extraction parameters for 99mTc-tefrofosmin were found to be A = 0.91 ± 0.11, B = 0.34 ± 0.20 (R2 = 0.49). The range of MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44-3.81 mL/min/g. The MBF between PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (P < .001). However, the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (P = .037). The PS for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was (0.019 ± 0.10)*MBF + (0.32 ± 0.16). Dynamic cardiac SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and a clinical two-headed SPECT/CT scanner can be a useful tool

  1. Measurement of Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow in Humans Using Dynamic Cardiac SPECT and 99mTc-tetrofosmin: Method and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Uttam; Sciammarella, Maria; Alhassen, Fares; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Ellin, Justin; Verdin, Emily; Boyle, Andrew; Seo, Youngho; Botvinick, Elias H.; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) in humans using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods Dynamic SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a group of 16 patients. The SPECT data were reconstructed using a 4D-spatiotemporal iterative reconstruction method. The data corresponding to 9 patients were used to determine the flow-extraction curve for 99mTc-tefrofosmin while data from the remaining 7 patients were used for method validation. The nonlinear tracer correction parameters A and B for 99mTc-tefrofosmin were estimated for the 9 patients by fitting the flow-extraction curve K1=F(1−Aexp(−BF)) for K1 values estimated with 99mTc-tefrofosmin using SPECT and MBF values estimated with 13N-NH3 using PET. These parameters were then used to calculate MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in three coronary territories (LAD, RCA, and LCX) using SPECT for an independent cohort of 7 patients. The results were then compared with that estimated with 13N-NH3 PET. The flow dependent permeability surface-area product (PS) for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was also estimated. Results The estimated flow extraction parameters for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was found to be A=0.91±0.11, B=0.34±0.20 (R2 = 0.49). The range of MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44 ml/min/g to 3.81 ml/min/g. The MBF between PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). However, the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (p = 0.037). The PS for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was (0.091 ± 0.10) * MBF = (0.32 ± 0.16). Conclusions Dynamic cardiac SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and a clinical two-headed SPECT/CT scanner can be a useful tool for estimation of MBF. PMID:26715603

  2. The diagnostic value of 11C-methionine PET in hyperparathyroidism with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Leilei; Liu, Jun; Kan, Ying; Yang, Jigang; Wang, Xufu

    2017-05-01

    Background 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) parathyroid SPECT is generally regarded as the best preoperative localizing method in patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT). However, 99mTc-MIBI SPECT is false negative in approximately 25% of adenomas. 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) has been used in HPT with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scan results. Purpose To systematically review and conduct a meta-analysis of published data on the performance of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT with negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the literature was performed. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT and a negative 99mTc-MIBI SPECT was calculated on a per-patient basis using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. Results Nine studies that met all inclusion and exclusion criteria were included into our meta-analysis, comprising a total sample size of 137 patients. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of 11C-methionine PET in patients with HPT with negative or inconclusive 99mTc-MIBI SPECT scans was 86% and 86%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.87. Conclusion By merit of the high overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, 11C-methionine PET can potentially complement the diagnostic workup of patients with HPT and negative or inconclusive 99mTc-MIBI SPECT. 11C-methionine PET appears to be a promising diagnostic modality in complicated cases with HPT.

  3. Imaging of inflammatory arthritis with technetium-99m-labeled IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Breedveld, F.C.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Camps, J.A.; Feitsma, H.I.; Markusse, H.M.; Pauwels, E.K. )

    1989-12-01

    The accumulation of nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G (IgG) radiolabeled with 99mTc was compared to that of (99mTc)albumin and (99mTc)nanocolloid in rats with collagen induced arthritis. Serial scintigrams were acquired directly, 4 and 24 hr after injection. A clearly discernable image of the site of synovitis was seen with (99mTc)IgG as early as 4 hr postinjection. The relative intensity of the inflammatory lesion was maximal at 24 hr. Discrimination between arthritic and nonarthritic joints as well as correlations between the relative intensity of the arthritic joint and clinical indices of joint inflammation were superior with IgG compared to albumin or nanocolloid. These studies show that localization and severity of inflammatory joint disease can be detected with radiolabeled nonspecific IgG.

  4. Renal handling of amino acid /sup 99m/technetium chelates

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, M.; Banerjee, S.

    1988-09-01

    Four amino acids--alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, cystine, and cystein--and also one diamine, ethylenediamine, were chelated with /sup 99m/-technetium (/sup 99m/Tc), and their renal excretion patterns were studied in rabbits in the presence and absence of two renal tubular transport inhibitors, probenecid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. From the depression of renal excretion for the first three amino acid chelates, in the presence of the inhibitors, a renal tubular excretory pathway of elimination was suggested for these compounds. The renal excretions of /sup 99m/Tc-cystein and /sup 99m/Tc-ethylenediamine however, remained undepressed under similar experimental conditions. An explanation of these observations was forwarded from the possible chemical structures of these chelates.

  5. Parathyroid cyst with adenoma on thallium-201/technetium-99m subtraction imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, K.G.; Baeumler, G.R.

    1987-04-01

    A case of a parathyroid cyst with adenoma was seen on Tl-201/Tc-99m subtraction imaging. The literature regarding parathyroid cysts and the subtraction technique for parathyroid adenoma imaging was reviewed.

  6. Detection of urinary extravasation by delayed technetium-99m DTPA renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Aburano, T.; Hisada, K.

    1986-08-01

    Delayed imaging with Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy demonstrated urinary extravasation in a patient with acute anuria in whom early sequential imaging showed no abnormal extrarenal radionuclide accumulation.

  7. The kidney: Imaging with Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine, a technetium-labeled analog of iodohippurate

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.D.; Thorstad, B.L.; Stutzman, M.E.; Yester, M.V.; Fowler, D.; Dubovsky, E.V.

    1989-08-01

    A new renal imaging agent, technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3, mertiatide), is currently undergoing clinical trials. Like iodine-131 orthoiodohippurate (OIH)--and unlike all other available agents--it is avidly secreted by the renal tubules. Fifty patients underwent simultaneous renal imaging studies with I-131 OIH and Tc-99m MAG3. The superior physical properties of the Tc-99m label led to better image quality in all cases, largely due to count rates that were 50-fold better. In two patients, lesions were seen with MAG3 that were not visible with OIH. The biological properties of the two agents were found to be so similar that conventional diagnostic criteria for I-131 OIH could be used for Tc-99m MAG3 with only minor modifications.

  8. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 MBq) of /sup 99m/TcO-4. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n . 4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  9. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m, has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 M Bq) of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n=4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  10. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun

    2016-05-15

    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.

  11. Scintigraphy with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Amiriani, Taghi; Mirkarimi, HoneySadat; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahriar; Abedi, Jamshid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The clinical significance of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this prospective paper was to study the above. This study included 54 patients, 22 females and 32 males (mean age: 36.68±11.49; range: 18-63 years) with IBD who came to our clinics for follow-up and were examined clinically by colonoscopy and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy. On the follow-up studies, five patients (9.25%) relapsed, and 49 (90.74%) remained at a steady condition. There was a good correlation between the scintigraphic results and the clinical and colonoscopy data of the patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that 99mTc(V)DMSA scintigraphy can be complementary to colonoscopy for the diagnostic evaluation of IBD.

  12. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve.

  13. Visualization of cutaneous hemangioma with Tc-99m tagged red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Vujic, I.; Spicer, K.M.

    1981-10-01

    Scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBCs) was used to evaluate a patient with a large cutaneous hemangioma. The usefulness of this procedure when combined with arteriography is discussed.

  14. .sup.100Mo compounds as accelerator targets for production of .sup.99mTc

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Vernal; Lapi, Suzanne

    2016-09-20

    Methods of synthesizing .sup.100Mo.sub.2C and .sup.99mTcO.sub.4.sup.- are disclosed. Methods of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C generation involve thermally carburizing .sup.100MoO.sub.3. Methods of .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 generation involve proton bombardment of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C in a cyclotron. Yields of .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 can be increased by sintering .sup.100Mo.sub.2C prior to bombardment. The methods also include recycling of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C to form .sup.100MoO.sub.3. SPECT images obtained using .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 generated by the disclosed methods are also presented.

  15. Evaluation of (99m)Tc(i)-tricarbonyl complexes of fluoroquinolones for targeting bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Dipak Kumar; Baishya, Rinku; Halder, Kamal Krishna; Sen, Tuhinadri; Sarkar, Bharat R; Ganguly, Shantanu; Das, M K; Debnath, Mita Chatterjee

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled fluoroquinolones as novel SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for imaging bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones, e.g., ofloxacin (OFX), levofloxacin (LVX), lomefloxacin (LMX) and norfloxacin (NFX) were labeled with a fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)](+) precursor. The radiochemical purity of the radiopharmaceuticals exceeded 97% as determined by thin layer chromatography and HPLC. No further purification was necessary before injection. The Re(CO)(3) complex of one of the fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin) was synthesized using [Re(CO)(3)(H(2)O)(3)]OTf and Re(CO)(5)Br precursors in separate experiments and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. These studies revealed the formation of a single species in which the piperazinyl nitrogen and the -COOH group attached to the benzoxazine ring system of quinolone were involved in co-ordination to the Re(CO)(3) core. The HPLC elution pattern and retention time of the Re(CO)(3)-LVX complex were comparable to those of the corresponding (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-complex proving their similarity. When incubated in isotonic saline and serum up to 24 h (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled fluoroquinolones exhibited good in vitro stability. Biodistribution studies performed at different time points on rats intramuscularly infected with S. aureus as well as on rats with sterile inflammation revealed a higher uptake in the infected area than the turpentine induced inflamed area. The uptake in infected thigh was significant with (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-OFX followed by (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-LVX. The mean ratios of the uptake in infected/non-infected thighs were 4.75 and 4.27 at 8 h and 24 h, respectively, for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-OFX and 4.42 and 4.18 at 24 h and 8 h, respectively, for (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-LVX. The above abscess to muscle ratios were higher than reported for (99m)Tc-ciprofloxacin and other (99m)Tc-labeled fluoroquinolones. Scintigraphy studies also showed a significant uptake in the infectious lesions

  16. Lymphatic mapping with 99mTc-Evans Blue dye in sheep.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Chris; Bellon, Max; Bevington, Elaine; Kollias, James; Shibli, Sabah; Chatterton, Barry E

    2008-11-01

    99mTc-Evans Blue (EB) is an agent that contains both radioactive and color signals in a single dose. Earlier studies in animal models have suggested that this agent when compared with the dual-injection technique of radiocolloid/blue dye can successfully discriminate the sentinel lymph node. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 99mTc-EB as an agent to map the lymphatic system in an ovine model. Doses of 99mTc-EB (23 MBq) containing EB dye (4 mg) were administered intradermally to the limbs of four anesthetized sheep, and they were then imaged over 20-30 min using a gamma camera. The study protocol was repeated using 99mTc-antimony trisulfide colloid (ATC) and Patent Blue V dye. The lymph nodes (popliteal, inguinal, and iliac for hind limbs or prescapular for fore limbs) were identified with a gamma probe during the operative exposure, then dissected and counted in a large volume counter. Simple and complex (dual) drainage patterns were visible on the scans, and the sentinel node was more radioactive than higher tier nodes in a chain, for both radiotracers. For 99mTc-EB, maximum radioactive uptake was achieved at 3-6 min for popliteal lymph nodes, 12-14 min for iliac nodes, and 13-14 min for prescapular nodes. 99mTc-ATC resulted in maximum radioactive uptake at 4-6 min for popliteal lymph nodes, 13 min for an inguinal node, 13-20 min for iliac nodes, and 18 min for a prescapular node. Following 99mTc-EB injection, 15/15 lymph nodes harvested were all radioactive and blue. For 99mTc-radiocolloid/Patent Blue V injection, 8/14 nodes were radioactive and blue, and 6/14 nodes were radioactive only. The soluble radiotracer 99mTc-EB appeared to be a useful lymphoscintigraphic agent in sheep, in which radioactive counts from superficial lymphatic channels and lymph nodes were sufficient for planar imaging. In comparison with 99mTc-antimony trisulfide colloid, both tracers discriminated the sentinel lymph node up to 50 min after administration; however

  17. Regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, S.B.; Oberle, P.O.; Hoffman, T.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Pickett, R.D.; Neirinckx, R.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-PnAO) is a neutral lipophilic chelate that rapidly and passively enters the cerebral cortex (80% on first pass in baboon brain) and then clears exponentially leaving inadequate activity to perform conventional SPECT brain imaging. When side chains are attached to the PnAO backbone lipophilicity is increased, as well as brain retention. In this work the authors evaluated regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-PnAO and several of its derivatives in rat brain using serial autoradiography (ARG). Autoradiographs of each Tc-99m chelate at 5 sec. post peak brain uptake demonstrate discrete grey to white matter differentiation. White matter tracts are well delineated and the darker areas of grey matter appearing in the midbrain and thalamus, corresponding to areas of high capillary density and high blood flow documented with C-14-iodoantipyrine, are easily distinguished. Within 5 min. of the peak uptake the regional uptake and grey/white differentiation is lost on the Tc-99m-PnAO ARG. In contrast the 5 min. ARG of the more lipophilic Tc-99m, chelate with dimethyl-PnAO (DMPnAO) shows the complete reverse of the 5 sec. ARG, with greater activity in the white matter tracts than in the grey matter. One of the derivatives, tetramethyl-PAO (TMPAO) complexed with Tc-99m is retained in the grey matter of rat brain and shows persistent grey to white localization for at least 60 min., analogous to what has been reported with I-123-IMP. These results suggest that Tc-99m-TMPAO or one of its derivatives may be appropriate for SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow abnormalities.

  18. [Imaging of hyperparathyroidism-Ultrasonography and 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy-].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Yoshida, Atsushi; Kotani, Kohei; Shiomi, Susumu

    2016-06-01

    Treatments for primary hyperparathyroidism due to adenoma, hyperplasia and carcinoma and secondary hyperparathyroidism are mainly surgical resections of them. Accurate imaging diagnoses of the existences and the regions are very important for reductions of invasiveness. We describe ultrasonography and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy of hyperparathyroidism. We explain an advantage, a disadvantage and diagnosability of these modalities. We mention utilities of SPECT/CT, too. We show echogram and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy images about 3 cases of hyperparathyroidism.

  19. Intense splenic 99mTc-MDP uptake in a patient with myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Chun; Yang, Jigang

    2013-12-01

    99mTc-MDP bone scan was performed in a 49-year-old woman with breast cancer. Whole-body bone scan showed multiple foci of increased MDP activity in the bone and intense splenic 99mTc-MDP uptake. Initial bone marrow aspiration in multiple locations yielded no blood cells. A subsequent bone marrow biopsy in the left anterior superior iliac spine showed myelofibrosis in addition to the known bone metastasis.

  20. Gastrobiliary fistula: pre- and postoperative assessment with /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.W.; Telfer, N.; Halls, J.M.

    1981-07-01

    Demonstration of bile leakage through fistulas with hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals was first done with /sup 131/I rose bengal. The improved anatomic detail provided by technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid compounds gives more detailed information. We present a case with an unusual fistulous connection from a left proximal biliary radical to the gastric body in which /sup 99m/Tc-PIPIDA (paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid) studies were helpful in both pre- and postoperative assessment of biliary drainage.

  1. Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial imaging: Same-day rest-stress studies and dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Taillefer, R. )

    1990-10-16

    Unlike thallium-201, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi does not redistribute in the myocardium after injection. Thus, 2 separate injections, 1 at rest and the other at stress (or after dipyridamole), are required to differentiate ischemia from scar. From a physical viewpoint, a 24-hour interval between the 2 injections is preferable for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. However, same-day studies are more convenient in clinical practice. Results of studies using different Tc-99m sestamibi injection protocols are presented with emphasis on the advantages of a rest-stress injection sequence with a low dose at rest (7 mCi) followed 2 hours later by a higher dose at stress (25 mCi). A prospective study was conducted in a patient population with proven CAD using same-day studies to compare a rest-stress (7 and 25 mCi, respectively) to a stress-rest (7 and 25 mCi) Tc-99m sestamibi injection sequence. There was an agreement in 87.3% of the analyzed segments between the 2 protocols. However, the largest discordance for type of defect applied to 7.4% of the segments judged ischemic in the rest-stress protocol, which were called scars on stress-rest. This study showed that a rest-stress sequence is preferable when using a same-day protocol with a short time interval (less than 2 hours) between the 2 Tc-99m sestamibi injections because the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence. Preliminary studies were performed to evaluate dipyridamole with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. These studies showed that treadmill and dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi imaging are comparable and the results are similar to those obtained with thallium-201.

  2. Evaluating {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, Joao Manuel R. S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following {sup 99m}Tc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) alpha particle irradiation. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. Results: The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer {sup 211}At alpha particles and higher than {sup 131}I beta minus particles. All the other {sup 99m}Tc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to {sup 131}I beta minus particles. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than {sup 131}I beta minus particles and a probability similar to {sup 211}At alpha particles. Based on the results here, {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  3. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  4. Dose calibrator linearity test: 99mTc versus 18F radioisotopes*

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing 18F with 99mTc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and Methods The test was performed with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results Mean deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the 99mTc source as measured with the equipment pre-calibrated to measure 99mTc and 18F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the 18F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion The results of the linearity test using 99mTc were compatible with those obtained with the 18F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in 18F acquisition suggest 99mTc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use 18F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. PMID:25798005

  5. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin Uptake Correlates with the Sensitivity of Glioblastoma Cell Lines to Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Gerogianni, Paraskevi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

    2017-01-01

    99mTc-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) is a single-photon emission computed tomography tracer that has been used for brain tumor imaging. The aim of the study was to assess if 99mTc-TF uptake by glioblastoma cells correlates with their response to temozolomide (TMZ). We investigated the correlation of TMZ antitumor effect with the 99mTc-TF uptake in two glioblastoma cell lines. The U251MG cell line is sensitive to TMZ, whereas T98G is resistant. Viability and proliferation of the cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion assay and xCELLigence system. Cell cycle was analyzed with flow cytometry. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a gamma scintillation counter. TMZ induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in U251MG cells, whereas there was no effect on cell cycle in T98G cells. Lower 99mTc-TF uptake was observed in U251MG cells that were exposed to TMZ compared to control (P = 0.0159). No significant difference in respect to 99mTc-TF uptake was found in T98G cells when exposed to TMZ compared to control (P = 0.8). With 99mTc-TF, it was possible to distinguish between TMZ-sensitive and resistant glioblastoma cells within 6 h of treatment initiation. Thus, 99mTc-TF uptake may consist a novel approach to assess an early response of glioblastoma to chemotherapy and deserves further investigation. PMID:28217019

  6. Evaluation of 99mTc-MAMA-chrysamine G as an in vivo probe for amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, N A; Landman, W J; Jager, P L; de Groot, T J; Dupont, P J; Tooten, P C; Zekarias, B; Gruys, E; Verbruggen, A M

    2001-09-01

    To date, systemic amyloidosis is diagnosed histologically using Congo red staining or in vivo using iodine-123 labelled serum amyloid P component (123I-SAP) scintigraphy. We developed 99mTc-MAMA-CG, a 99mTc-labelled derivative of the lipophilic Congo red analogue chrysamine G (CG), as a possible alternative to 123I-SAP. In vivo 99mTc-MAMA-CG scintigraphy, performed in chickens with spontaneous joint amyloidosis, resulted as soon as 10 min after injection in scintigraphic images showing uptake of activity in amyloid-loaded organs (liver, joints). One of these chickens was studied also with 123I-SAP resulting in scintigraphic images revealing 123I-SAP binding to amyloid deposits in the liver. However, up to 11 h after injection no radioactivity was visible in the amyloid positive joints. In vitro autoradiography, performed on sections of chicken joints with Enterococcus faecalis induced amyloid arthropathy (chjAA), demonstrated the failure of 99mTc-MAMA-CG to bind significantly to amyloid deposits in the presence of 10 microM Congo red The specificity of 99mTc-MAMA-CG localisation was also established by the absence of 99mTc-MAMA-CG binding in non-amyloidotic organs in vitro and in vivo. 99mTc-MAMA-CG did not show any sign of acute toxicity. These findings establish the usefulness of 99mTc-MAMA-CG as a non-invasive in vivo diagnostic probe in chickens with amyloid arthropathy and suggest that it may also be applicable to human amyloidosis.

  7. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  8. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate quantitation of skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Blebea, J.; Kerr, J.C.; Franco, C.D.; Padberg, F.T. Jr.; Hobson, R.W. 2d.

    1988-08-01

    The study of ischemia and reperfusion injury in the extremity has been hampered by lack of an accurate method of measuring skeletal muscle injury. We used a bilateral isolated in vivo canine gracilis muscle model in 15 anesthetized dogs. The experimental muscles had 4, 6, or 8 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion. The contralateral gracilis muscle served as a control. Technetium 99m pyrophosphate (99mTc-PYP), an agent which localizes in injured muscle cells, was used to quantitate canine skeletal muscle damage. After 6 hours of ischemia and 1 hour of reperfusion, there was a significant increase of 215% of 99mTc-PYP uptake in the experimental vs the control muscle. Experimental muscle uptake was 8% greater than control after 4 hours and 405% more after 8 hours of ischemia and reperfusion. Segmental distribution of 99mTc-PYP uptake showed localization to be greatest in the middle of the muscle at the entry site of the gracilis artery. Electron microscopic evaluation also documented this area to have undergone the most severe injury. Distal portions of the muscle did not show increased damage. Our results show that 99mTc-PYP effectively quantitates skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion injury. The pattern of 99mTc-PYP uptake suggests that considerable injury is caused during reperfusion.

  9. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P R C; Almeida, M C; Bernardo, R M; Bernardo, L C; Brito, L C; Garcia, E A C; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2006-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with (99m)Tc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  10. Effects of lung volume on clearance of solutes from the air spaces of lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, B.T.; James, H.L.; McLarty, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Several investigators have shown that the clearance rate of aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA, mol wt = 492, radius = 0.6 nm) from the air spaces of the lungs of humans and experimental animals increases with lung volume. To further investigate this phenomenon we performed a compartmental analysis of the 2-h clearance of DTPA from the lungs of anesthetized sheep using a new method to more accurately correct for the effects of DTPA recirculation. This analysis showed that the DTPA clearance in eight sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.42 +/- 0.15%/min. Ventilating eight sheep with an end-expired pressure of 10 cmH/sub 2/O throughout the study increased the end-expired volume 0.4 +/- 0.1 liter BTPS and created a clearance curve that was best described by a two-compartment model. In these sheep 56 +/- 16% of the DTPA cleared from the lungs at a rate of 7.9 +/- 2.9%/min. The remainder cleared at a rate similar to that measured in the sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure (0.35 +/- 0.18%/min). Additional control and lung inflation experiments were performed using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled human serum albumin (mol wt = 66,000, radius = 3.6 nm). In six control sheep ventilated with zero end-expired pressure the albumin clearance was best described by a one-compartment model with a clearance rate of 0.06 +/- 0.02%/min. The clearance rate in six sheep with increased lung volume was slightly larger (0.09 +/- 0.02, P less than 0.05) but was well described by a one-compartment model.

  11. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  12. Effects of adenosine and a selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist on hemodynamic and thallium-201 and technetium-99m-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mekkaoui, Choukri; Jadbabaie, Farid; Dione, Donald P; Meoli, David F; Purushothaman, Kailasnath; Belardinelli, Luiz; Sinusas, Albert J

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a selective A(2A) adenosine receptor agonist (regadenoson) with adenosine in clinically relevant canine models with regard to effects on hemodynamics and thallium-201 ((201)Tl) and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The clinical application of vasodilator stress for perfusion imaging requires consideration of the effects of these vasodilating agents on systemic hemodynamics, coronary flow, and radiotracer uptake and clearance kinetics. Sequential imaging and arterial blood sampling was performed on control, anesthetized closed-chest canines (n = 7) to evaluate radiotracer biodistribution and kinetics after either a bolus administration of regadenoson (2.5 microg/kg) or 4.5-min infusion of adenosine (280 microg/kg). The effects of regadenoson on coronary flow and myocardial radiotracer uptake were then evaluated in an open-chest canine model of a critical stenosis (n = 7). Results from ex vivo single-photon emission computed tomography were compared with tissue well-counting. The use of regadenoson compared favorably with adenosine in regard to the duration and magnitude of the hemodynamic effects and the effect on (201)Tl and (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI biodistribution and kinetics. The arterial blood clearance half-time was significantly faster for (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (regadenoson: 1.4 +/- 0.03 min; adenosine: 1.5 +/- 0.08 min) than for (201)Tl (regadenoson: 2.5 +/- 0.16 min, p < 0.01; adenosine: 2.7 +/- 0.04 min, p < 0.01) for both vasodilator stressors. The relative microsphere flow deficit (0.34 +/- 0.02%) during regadenoson stress was significantly greater than the relative perfusion defect with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (0.69 +/- 0.03%, p < 0.001) or (201)Tl (0.53 +/- 0.02%, p < 0.001), although (201)Tl tracked the flow deficit within the ischemic region better than (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI. The perfusion defect score was larger with (201)Tl (22 +/- 2.8% left ventricular) than with (99m)Tc-sestaMIBI (17 +/- 1

  13. Preparation of (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization in rats (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization.

    PubMed

    İlem-Özdemir, Derya; Yararbas, Ulkem; Zengel, Baha; Ertan, Gökhan; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2016-12-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first regional lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a malignant tumor. Therefore, this node is a "sentinel" for second metastatic lymph node stations and for labeling regional tumor spread. For SLN detection, many surgeons preferred a combination of a preoperative injection of radiolabeled colloid and the intraoperative injection of blue dye. Under this combination protocol, nodes are considered to be "sentinel nodes" if they are radioactive and blue. The aim of this study is to develop a new single agent that combines both detection methods. For this purpose Isosulfan Blue (ISB) was radiolabeled by (99m)Tc with high labeling yield and stability. In vivo gamma scintigraphy studies were performed with rats. According to the scintigraphic studies, (99m)Tc-ISB shows rapid and high accumulation in both axillary (ALN) and popliteal lymph node (PLN). After the imaging study, extremity was opened and nodes were scanned for the radioactivity. According to performed study the lymph nodes were clearly seen to become blue and carried compound was sufficient to allow identification with a gamma probe. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-ISB has the potential to facilitate lymphatic mapping and subsequent sentinel node biopsy for solid malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrarenal blood flow distributions from first transit recordings of Tc-99m radiochelates

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, G.R.; Wesolowski, C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1985-05-01

    A computer-assisted curve stripping technique was used to derive renal transit times and flow fractions from the first transit aortic and renal recordings of Tc-99m radiochelate (DTPA, GHA, MDP) following peripheral bolus injection. Mean values +- 1 S.D. for 40 normal kidneys: first and second component transit times: T1=6.8 +- 2.4 sec., T2=12.8 +- 3.2 sec; flow fractions: fl=67 +- 9%, f2=17 +- 10%; residual fraction (slower components and filtration): Rf=16 +- 9%. A tumor population of 11 patients without known renal disease was studied prior to chemotherapy. Mean fl was diminished, and mean f2, T1, and Rf were elevated (p<.05). 18 hypertensive patients evaluated with angiography, renal vein renins, and scintigraphy were also reviewed. The mean f1 was decreased and the mean f2,T1, T2, and Rf were increased in this population (p<.01). The fl:T1 ratio proved to be a sensitive indicator asymmetric renal disease. The mean left-to-right ratio (L/R) of f1/T1 in normals was 1.02 +- 0.10 (r=.93) and 1.6 +- 1.5(r=.50) in the hypertensives. A L/R fl/T1 <.82 or >1.22 had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 80%, and positive prediction value of 92% for the presence of an arterial lesion (stenosis of >70%). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value for lateralized or bilaterally elevated renins were 73%, 50%, and 73%, respectively. The authors conclude that intrarenal blood flow distributions can be derived non-invasively and simultaneously for both kidneys, that the results obtained are similar to those previously reported with the invasive xenon washout technique, and that disease tends to produce intrarenal flow shifts and prolongation of transit times.

  15. Technetium 99m sestamibi in the assessment of chronic coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Berman, D S; Kiat, H; Van Train, K; Garcia, E; Friedman, J; Maddahi, J

    1991-07-01

    Extensive work has already been performed with regard to both planar and single photon emission computed (SPECT) technetium 99m sestamibi studies. Before widespread application of optimized acquisition and processing methods, clinical results between 99mTc sestamibi and thallium 201 were remarkably similar. It is anticipated that as techniques for 99mTc sestamibi planar and SPECT imaging become optimized, improvements in sensitivity and specificity for detection of coronary artery disease, over those observed with 201TI, might be forthcoming. This expectation is based on the improved image quality inherent in the use of the 99mTc agent with its higher count rate and higher energy. This improvement in image quality may be a principal reason for laboratories to switch from 201TI to 99mTc sestamibi imaging. It is anticipated that, with improved imaging characteristics, it will be easier for the average community hospital to obtain higher quality planar or SPECT imaging using 99mTc sestamibi rather than 201TI. In addition to improved image quality, the characteristics of 99mTc sestamibi allow gated planar or SPECT perfusion images to be obtained. It has been suggested that stress-gated SPECT sestamibi studies may provide all the information contained in a stress-rest nongated 99mTc sestamibi study, thereby potentially increasing patient throughput, a major concern with SPECT. Throughput can also be increased by using dual-isotope approaches with rest 201TI and stress technetium sestamibi acquisitions, employing either separate or simultaneous imaging with which the entire study can be accomplished in less than 2 hours. With simultaneous dual-isotope acquisition, camera time can be reduced by 50%. Finally, 99mTc sestamibi offers the advantage of the ability to perform first-pass exercise ventricular function and SPECT myocardial perfusion studies with a single injection of tracer. Regarding the assessment of myocardial viability, results to date suggest a very high

  16. Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K.

    1995-05-01

    Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was studied in rats and rabbits. Increasing pre-load of DEM (550 mg/kg body weight), an agent to reduce GSH content by glutathione transferase, led to a decrease in GSH (control 1.972{plus_minus}0.017 vs DEM 1.138{plus_minus}0.106 mM) and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO to half of the control in the rat brain (control 0.281{plus_minus}0.024 vs DEM 0.153 {plus_minus} 0.009 % dose/g). On the other hand, the DEM did not decrease GSH or the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the rabbit brain, in which glutathione transferase activity is very low. These results were also demonstrated by images with pin-hole collimated gamma camera. The uptake of [Tc-99m] meso showed variations in the regional distribution, but the d,l-isomer was uniform. [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake was well correlated with GSH content in mice brain regions (r=0.800, p<0.02), whereas [Tc-99m]d,l-HM-PAO was not (r=0.017, p>0.5). Both [Tc-99m] mesa HM-PAO uptake and GSH content were especially high at cerebellum (Uptake: 2.598{plus_minus}0.256 % dose/g. GSH: 2.372{plus_minus}0.107 mM) as compared to other areas (Uptake;cerebral cortex 1.797{plus_minus}0.100 brain stem 1.607 {plus_minus}0.112 % dose/g. GSH: cerebral cortex 1.635{plus_minus}0.142 brain stem 1.478{plus_minus}0.141 mM).

  17. Measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow in humans using dynamic cardiac SPECT and 99mTc-tetrofosmin: Method and validation

    DOE PAGES

    Shrestha, Uttam; Sciammarella, Maria; Alhassen, Fares; ...

    2015-12-29

    The objective of this study was to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) in humans using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and dynamic single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Dynamic SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a group of 16 patients. The SPECT data were reconstructed using a 4D-spatiotemporal iterative reconstruction method. The data corresponding to 9 patients were used to determine the flow-extraction curve for 99mTc-tefrofosmin while data from the remaining 7 patients were used for method validation. The nonlinear tracer correction parameters A and B for 99mTc-tefrofosmin were estimated for the 9 patients by fitting the flow-extraction curvemore » K1 = F(1–Aexp(–B/F)) for K1 values estimated with 99mTc-tefrofosmin using SPECT and MBF values estimated with 13N-NH3 using PET. These parameters were then used to calculate MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in three coronary territories (LAD, RCA, and LCX) using SPECT for an independent cohort of 7 patients. The results were then compared with that estimated with 13N-NH3 PET. The flow-dependent permeability surface-area product (PS) for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was also estimated. The estimated flow-extraction parameters for 99mTc-tefrofosmin were found to be A = 0.91 ± 0.11, B = 0.34 ± 0.20 (R2 = 0.49). The range of MBF in LAD, RCA, and LCX was 0.44-3.81 mL/min/g. The MBF between PET and SPECT in the group of independent cohort of 7 patients showed statistically significant correlation, r = 0.71 (P < .001). However, the corresponding CFR correlation was moderate r = 0.39 yet statistically significant (P = .037). The PS for 99mTc-tefrofosmin was (0.019 ± 0.10)*MBF + (0.32 ± 0.16). Dynamic cardiac SPECT using 99mTc-tetrofosmin and a clinical two-headed SPECT/CT scanner can be a useful tool for estimation of MBF.« less

  18. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique.

  19. The role of 99mTc pertechnetate uptake in the evaluation of thyroid function.

    PubMed

    Sucupira, M S; Camargo, E E; Nickoloff, E L; Alderson, P O; Wagner, H N

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the 20 min 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake test, the records of 246 consecutive patients were reviewed. Of these, 192 patients (151 females, 41 males; 10 weeks to 78 years) had at least one year clinical follow-up or a confirmed diagnosis by biopsy or surgery and were included in our study. In these patients, the 99mTc pertechnetate uptake and hormonal values (T3 resin uptake, T4 RIA, T-index) were obtained. These results were then compared to the clinical diagnosis at the time of the uptake and one year later. All patients received an i.v. injection of 5 mCi of 99mTc pertechnetate. Imaging was performed using a pinhole collimator and a scintillation camera interfaced to a computer. Regions of interest for the thyroid and the background were used to calculate the 20 min 99mTc pertechnetate uptake as a percentage of the injected dose. 99mTc uptake and hormonal values were confirmatory in 158 patients (82.3%): 138 were euthyroid, 18 were hyperthyroid and 2 were hypothyroid. In 29 other patients (15.1%) the pertechnetate uptake provided useful additional information and helped to identify Hashimoto's thyroiditis (8 patients); thyroid suppression by exogenous iodide, steroids or T4 (7 patients); overtreated hyperthyroidism (1 patient); persistent hyperthyroidism (5 patients); different stages of Grave's disease (4 patients); and toxic nodular goiter (4 patients). The 99mTc uptake was misleading in 5 euthyroid patients (2.6%). We have found the 99mTc pertechnetate uptake a useful adjunct to measurement of hormonal levels in patients with suspected thyroid disease.

  20. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments.

    PubMed

    Mathurine, Germaine; Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that:(1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized;(2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended.

  1. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments

    PubMed Central

    Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. Methods A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Results Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that: (1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized; (2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Conclusion Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended. PMID:24089081

  2. Evaluation of Tc-99m (V) DMSA binding to human plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bi-Fang; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Chiu, Nan-Tsing; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wang, Mei-Hui; Shen, Lie-Hang

    2008-01-01

    As a critical step toward elucidating the mechanism of localization of Tc-99m (V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), we investigated its binding and transport in blood in comparison with Ga-67 citrate. The studies were performed in vitro by incubating Tc-99m (V) DMSA with blood (one sample at 4 degrees Celcius and another at 37 degrees Celcius) to assess its binding to plasma proteins using ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography and affinity chromatography. A parallel experiment for determining the blood binding of Ga-67 citrate was performed using the same procedures. Using ultrafiltration, dialysis, electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography, labeled plasma samples showed that protein binding for Tc-99m (V) DMSA was 45-54% at 37 degrees Celcius and 73-80% at 4 degrees Celcius. The figures for Ga-67 citrate were 43-53% at 37 degrees Celcius and 75-81% at 4 degrees Celcius. Electrophoresis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA was mostly bound to plasma albumin (36.05 +/- 2.48% at 37 degrees Celcius and 60.04 +/- 1.87% at 4 degrees Celcius), and that the proportion of Ga-67 radioactivity associated with beta-globulin was 34.23 +/- 1.37% at 37 degrees Celcius and 55.71 +/- 3.69% at 4 degrees Celcius. In affinity chromatography experiments, Tc-99m (V) DMSA did not bind to transferrin, unlike Ga-67 citrate. This study demonstrates that, at the radiopharmaceutical tracer level, most Tc-99m (V) DMSA in blood is protein-bound, primarily to albumin, but not to transferrin. In contrast, Ga-67 citrate was bound primarily to transferrin. The knowledge that albumin is the main transport protein of Tc-99m (V) DMSA may contribute to a better understanding of its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics.

  3. Comparison of SPECT using technetium-99m agents and thallium-201 and PET for the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Maddahi, J. )

    1990-10-16

    This report reviews the applications of tomographic imaging with current and new tracers in assessing myocardial perfusion and viability. Multiple studies with thallium-201 (TI-201) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) have demonstrated high sensitivity, high rates of normalcy and high reproducibility. In assessing viability, fixed defects are frequently detected in viable zones in 4-hour studies with TI-201 imaging. Redistribution imaging performed 18 to 72 hours after injection or reinjection of TI-201 before 4-hour redistribution imaging has been shown to improve accuracy of viability assessment. TI-201 SPECT studies are limited by the suboptimal physical properties of TI-201, which result in variable image quality. The 2 new technetium-99m (Tc-99m) - labeled myocardial perfusion tracers offer the ability to inject much higher amounts of radioactivity, making it possible to assess ventricular function as well as myocardial perfusion from the same injection of radiotracer. Tc-99m sestamibi has very slow myocardial clearance, which allows for prolonged imaging time and results in image quality superior to that obtained with TI-201 and Tc-99m teboroxime. The combination of minimal redistribution of Tc-99m sestamibi and high count rates makes gated SPECT imaging feasible, and also permits assessment of patients with acute ischemic syndromes by uncoupling the time of injection from the time of imaging. The combination of high image quality and first-pass exercise capabilities may lead to a choice of this agent over TI-201 for assessment of chronic CAD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Proteinuria, 99mTc-DTPA Scintigraphy, Creatinine-, Cystatin- and Combined-Based Equations in the Assessment of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trimarchi, Hernán; Muryan, Alexis; Toscano, Agostina; Martino, Diana; Forrester, Mariano; Pomeranz, Vanesa; Lombi, Fernando; Young, Pablo; Raña, María Soledad; Karl, Alejandra; Alonso, M.; Dicugno, Mariana; Fitzsimons, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background. Precise estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the identification of markers of progression are important. We compared creatinine, cystatin, and combined CKD-EPI equations with 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy to measure GFR and proteinuria as markers of progression. Methods. Cross-sectional, observational study including 300 subjects. CKD was classified by 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Determinations. Creatinine, 24-hour creatinine clearance, cystatin, Hoek formula, and creatinine, cystatin, and combined CKD-EPI equations. Results. In the global assessment, creatinine CKD-EPI and combined CKD-EPI equations yielded the highest correlations with 99mTc-DTPA: ρ = 0.839, P < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.831, P < 0.0001. Intergroup analysis versus 99mTc-DTPA: control G, creatinine clearance ρ = 0.414, P = 0.013; G3, combined CKD-EPI ρ = 0.5317, P < 0.0001; G4, Hoek ρ = 0.618, P < 0.0001, combined CKD-EPI ρ = 0.4638, P < 0.0001; and G5, creatinine clearance ρ = 0.5414, P < 0.0001, combined CKD-EPI ρ = 0.5288, P < 0.0001. In the global assessment, proteinuria displayed the highest significant correlations with cystatin (ρ = 0.5433, P < 0.0001) and cystatin-based equations (Hoek: ρ = −0.5309, P < 0.0001). When GFR < 60 mL/min: in stage 3, proteinuria-cystatin (ρ = 0.4341, P < 0.0001); proteinuria-Hoek (ρ = −0.4105, P < 0.0001); in stage 4, proteinuria-cystatin (ρ = 0.4877, P < 0.0001); proteinuria-Hoek (ρ = −0.4877, P = 0.0026). Conclusions. At every stage of GFR < 60 mL/min, cystatin-based equations displayed better correlations with 99mTc-DTPA. Proteinuria and cystatin-based equations showed strong associations and high degrees of correlation. PMID:24977136

  5. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  6. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  7. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Zeltchan, R. Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il’ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-02

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with {sup 99m}Tc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  8. Assessment of 99mTc-succimer residual activity using inert nonreactive syringes.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Wendy; Chen, Xinlian; Talley, Katie; Grantham, Vesper

    2015-03-01

    It has been widely reported that (99m)Tc-succimer adsorbs to plastic syringes significantly (up to 50%), often resulting in a lower administered dose than intended or inaccurate dosing. This adsorption rate is especially problematic in the pediatric population. To improve (99m)Tc-succimer dosing, we compared the adsorption of (99m)Tc-succimer with 2 types of syringes: silicone-coated syringes with nonlatex rubber on the plunger and inert nonreactive syringes with no silicone coating and no rubber on the plunger. (99m)Tc-succimer kits were compounded according to the manufacturer's instructions. (99m)Tc-succimer doses (37-185 MBq) were drawn into 3-mL (silicone-coated or inert nonreactive) syringes in a 1-mL volume. Thirty min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h later, the syringes were assayed in a dose calibrator and assayed again after being emptied and rinsed with saline. In addition, we examined the data collected from 129 (99m)Tc-succimer doses administered in a pediatric department, in which 52 were dispensed in silicone-coated syringes and 77 were dispensed in inert nonreactive syringes. The doses were assayed immediately before and after injection. The syringes were flushed with normal saline. The labeling efficiency of the (99m)Tc-succimer kits was more than 95%. Residual activity left in the inert nonreactive syringes was 0.73% (SD, ±0.18%), which was significantly lower than the activity left in the silicone-coated syringes, 20.9% (SD, ±5.6%; P < 0.0001). The extent of adsorption did not change significantly between 30 min and 4 h of incubation. The clinical data showed that the residual activity was 30.6% (SD, ±12.5%) from doses dispensed in silicone-coated syringes and 6.38% (SD, ±2.95%) from doses dispensed in inert nonreactive syringes (P < 0.001). The inert nonreactive syringes had significantly less residual of (99m)Tc-succimer than silicone-based syringes, making it possible to accurately administer calculated doses of (99m)Tc-succimer to pediatric patients.

  9. Accumulation of 99mTc-low-density lipoprotein in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, J.; Kallio, M.; Nikula, T.; Nikkinen, P.; Liewendahl, K.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Savolainen, S.; Gylling, H.; Hiltunen, J.; Callaway, J.

    1995-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake in gliomas was studied to find out if LDL has potential as a drug carrier of boron, especially for boron neutron capture therapy. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) was performed 2 h and 20 h after intravenous injection of autologous 99mTc-labelled LDL in four patients with untreated and five patients with recurrent glioma. 99mTc-LDL uptake was compared with the uptake of 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA), an established blood pool marker. The intra- and peritumoral distributions of radioactivity in the SPET images were not identical for radiolabelled LDL and HSA. The mean LDL tumour to brain ratio, determined from transversal SPET slices at 20 h post injection, was 1.5 in untreated and 2.2 in recurrent gliomas; the corresponding ratios for HSA were 1.6 and 3.4. The brain to blood ratio remained constant at 2 h and 20 h in both types of tumours. These data are not consistent with highly selective, homogeneous uptake of LDL in gliomas. However, the different tumoral distribution and rate of uptake of 99mTc-LDL, as compared with 99mTc-HSA, indicate that the uptake of LDL is different from that of HSA and that further studies on the mechanism of LDL uptake in glioma are warranted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7841057

  10. /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate imaging in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Wellman, H.N.; Park, H.M.; Burney, B.T.

    1982-08-01

    Early /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate (DP) imaging was performed in 122 patients with cold thyroid nodules in an effort to differentiate benign nodules from malignant. Immediately upon completion of the routine 24-hour /sup 123/I uptake and multiview pinhole imaging, /sup 99m/Tc DP was injected intravenously and three serial 3-minute anterior images of the thyroid gland were obtained. Follow-up information was available in 85 patients. All cystic lesions had less /sup 99m/Tc uptake as compared with the uptake in the normal parts of the thyroid. However, 48 of 50 solid nodules had /sup 99m/Tc DP uptake to the same or greater degree than did the normal gland. The other two had mixed pattern on ultrasound examination. Most of the carcinomas (8 of 10) and benign adenomas (15 of 22) had identical appearance on /sup 99m/Tc scans, i.e., uptake in the lesion being the same as in the normal thyroid. It appears that by using this technique it is possible to separate solid nodules from cystic, but not benign from malignant.

  11. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the (99m)Tc labeled human elastase inhibitor, elafin, in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaschwich, Mark; Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Tjiong, Angelina; Marx, Marlies; Haenisch, Sierk; Wiedow, Oliver; Preuss, Stefanie; Culman, Juraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-04-01

    Elafin is a potent reversible inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory proteases leukocyte elastase and protease 3. It is currently in clinical development for the use in postoperative inflammatory diseases. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled elafin ((99m)Tc-Elafin) in blood and individual organs in rat after bolus intravenous injection using the single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (99m)Tc-Elafin predominantly accumulated in the kidney reaching a maximum of 8.5% ± 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 5 min post injection (p.i) and decreased only slowly during 24 h. In contrast, the initially high radio activity recorded in the other organs rapidly decreased parallel to the radioactivity detected in blood. The blood kinetics fits to a two compartment kinetics model. The radio activity in the dissected kidney was 4.98 ± 1.24%ID/g 24 h p.i, while in other organs, including the brain, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-Elafin was detected. At this time point 30% of the detected radioactivity in the kidney was identified to be not metabolized (99m)Tc-Elafin. In conclusion, the blood and organ-specific kinetic data provide a basis for planning of adequate dosing regimens and the high accumulation of intact elafin in the kidney favors clinical developments targeting inflammatory kidney diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy after kidney transplantation.

  12. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  13. Use of 99mTc-doxorubicin scintigraphy in females with breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, F I; Proença, F P P; Ferreira, C G; Ventilari, S C; Rosado de Castro, P H; Moreira, R D; Fonseca, L M B; Gutfilen, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Doxorubicin (Eurofarma, São Paulo, Brazil) is an antitumour agent widely used in the treatment of breast cancer and can be used for tumour tracking when labelled with a radionuclide. Here, we present the results obtained with technetium-99m (99mTc)-doxorubicin, using the direct method, to evaluate its uptake in breast cancer. Methods: Four females with confirmed breast carcinoma diagnosis and breast image reporting and data system Category 5 on mammography underwent whole-body and thorax single-photon emission CT/CT imaging 1 and 3 h after 99mTc-doxorubicin administration. Results: We observed increased uptake in breast carcinoma lesions and elimination via renal and hepatic pathways. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that 99mTc-doxorubicin may be a promising radiopharmaceutical for the evaluation of patients with breast cancer. Further studies are ongoing. Advances in knowledge: To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the use of a directly labelled doxorubicin tracer in humans. 99mTc-doxorubicin could provide information on the response of tumours to doxorubicin. PMID:26111270

  14. Biokinetics and dosimetric studies about 99mTc(V)-DMSA distribution.

    PubMed

    Correia, M B L; Magnata, S S L P; Silva, I M S; Catanho, M T J A; Lima, F F

    2010-05-10

    Research for radiodiagnostic agents should considerate biological critical parameters which will give own contribution on the absorbed dose. The dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labeled with (99m)Tc(V) is a radiopharmaceutical which has well established role in medullar thyroid carcinoma and has been proposed in evaluation of bone metastasis. This work studied the biokinetics and dosimetry of (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA by animal model. The (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA was prepared from a (III)DMSA kit alkalized. Mice (n=5) received (99m)Tc(V)DMSA i.v., they were sacrificed (30 min, 1h, 5h and 12h), the organs excised and the activities measured by a gamma counter. The results were evaluated based on %activity/g and the absorbed dose was estimated (MIRDOSE 3.0 program) by extrapolation of data from animal to human scale. The results showed the majority of organs reached the top uptake at 30 min, the greatest kidney uptake was (4.81 +/- 1.38)% activity/g, while the bone presented its highest uptake at 1h (5.49+/- 0.47)% activity/g, after 1h all the organs had activity exponential decrease. The biokinetic profile of (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA was well established, allowing quantifying of residence time, and the radiation dose estimates were made for this agent. About the absorbed dose, the preliminary results showed higher value to bone, being the soft tissue dose relatively low.

  15. The importance of the incidental thyroid gland uptake during Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Karacavus, S; Ede, H; Sarikaya, S; Delibas, N; Kaya, E; Erbay, A R

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate whether incidental thyroid gland uptake had an important during Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT). In the presented study, 968 consecutive patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of thyroid gland uptake in the raw data of the Tc-99m MIBI SPECT. All of the patients had thyroid gland uptake of the Tc-99m MIBI underwent laboratory evaluation of thyroid function, ultrasonographic imaging, and hystopathological examination. The thyroid gland uptake was detected in 14 of 968 (1.4%) consecutive patients during the evaluation of raw images of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT studies. Among these 14 patients, 4 had subacute thyroiditis, 7 multinodular goiter, 3 Graves disease by ultrasonographic imaging and hystopathological examination. TSH levels of all of these patients were < 0.01 U/ml. Tc-99m MIBI uptake by thyroid gland has been explained with associated clinical thyrotoxicosis. Although the primary goal of myocardial perfusion imaging is the evaluation of myocardial perfusion, the interpretation of myocardial perfusion imaging should not be limited to the heart. Because, it is possible to observe extracardiac radioactivity accumulation, which may then lead to the diagnosis of a noncardiac disease during this detailed examination.

  16. Comparison of technetium-99m and iodine-123 imaging of thyroid nodules: Correlation with pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Kusic, Z.; Becker, D.V.; Saenger, E.L.; Paras, P.; Gartside, P.; Wessler, T.; Spaventi, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Three hundred and sixteen patients with solitary or dominant thyroid nodules were imaged both with technetium-99m- (99mTc) pertechnetate and iodine-123 ({sup 123}I). The images were preferred, but differences were small and in 27%-58% of the cases there was no difference in quality between the two radionuclides. Discrepancies between {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 123}I images were found in 5%-8% of cases, twice as often in multinodular goiters as in single nodules. Cytologic/histologic examination was performed on all nodules but no correlation was found between the pathology and the type of discrepancy. Twelve carcinomas were found (4%) but none in nodules showing a discrepancy. There was great variation among the observers about the preference for radionuclides and about the existence or type of discrepancies. The slightly better overall quality of {sup 123}I scans is probably not of diagnostic significance and does not justify the routine use of {sup 123}I instead of {sup 99m}Tc. Routine reimaging of {sup 99m}Tc hot nodules with radioiodine for cancer detection does not appear to be necessary.

  17. Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin scintigraphy – indications other than pulmonary embolism: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sunny J; Babu, Sanjay; Subramanyam, Padma; Shanmuga Sundaram, Palaniswamy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin (MAA) is synonymous for lung perfusion scintigraphy and is part of the study in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. We wanted to highlight the utilities of Tc-99m MAA other than pulmonary embolism as a pictorial assay. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy under various indications were included in this pictorial essay. Commercially available TechneScan LyoMAA cold kit from Mallinckrodt Medical B.V., Holland was used. Acquisition protocols for different indications are described in this article. Different clinical indications (e.g., pulmonary artery stenosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome, FEV1 calculation in lung surgery planning, selective internal radiation therapy planning, venography for deep venous thrombosis, left to right cardiac shunts, etc.) where Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy was asked for; how it helped in different clinical scenarios and how it can be used clinically is explained with unique and interesting case examples and images. We also reviewed the literature to look for certain remote indications of MAA imaging for the sake of completion like – (shunt scintigraphy, peritoneopleural communication, etc.) Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA is a very useful radiopharmaceutical, which can be used for many other indications apart from the commonly used indication of lung perfusion scan in pulmonary embolism. It can provide useful clinical information in other indications, which we try to highlight in this article. PMID:24250023

  18. Diagnostic Performance of an Expert System for Interpretation of 99mTc MAG3 Scans in Suspected Renal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew; Garcia, Ernest V.; Binongo, Jose Nilo G.; Manatunga, Amita; Halkar, Raghuveer; Folks, Russell D.; Dubovsky, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare diuresis renography scan interpretation generated by a renal expert system with the consensus interpretation of 3 expert readers. Methods The expert system was evaluated in 95 randomly selected furosemide-augmented patient studies (185 kidneys) obtained for suspected obstruction; there were 55 males and 40 females with a mean age ± SD of 58.6 ± 16.5 y. Each subject had a baseline 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) scan followed by furosemide administration and a separate 20-min acquisition. Quantitative parameters were automatically extracted from baseline and furosemide acquisitions and forwarded to the expert system for analysis. Three experts, unaware of clinical information, independently graded each kidney as obstructed/probably obstructed, equivocal, and probably nonobstructed/nonobstructed; experts resolved differences by a consensus reading. These 3 expert categories were compared with the obstructed, equivocal, and nonobstructed interpretations provided by the expert system. Agreement was assessed using weighted κ, and the predictive accuracy of the expert system compared with expert readers was assessed by the area under receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve) curves. Results The expert system agreed with the consensus reading in 84% (101/120) of nonobstructed kidneys, in 92% (33/36) of obstructed kidneys, and in 45% (13/29) of equivocal kidneys. The weighted κ between the expert system and the consensus reading was 0.72 and was comparable with the weighted κ between experts. There was no significant difference in the areas under the ROC curves when the expert system was compared with each expert using the other 2 experts as the gold standard. Conclusion The renal expert system showed good agreement with the expert interpretation and could be a useful educational and decision support tool to assist physicians in the diagnosis of renal obstruction. To better mirror the clinical setting, algorithms

  19. Diagnostic performance of an expert system for interpretation of 99mTc MAG3 scans in suspected renal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Garcia, Ernest V; Binongo, Jose Nilo G; Manatunga, Amita; Halkar, Raghuveer; Folks, Russell D; Dubovsky, Eva

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare diuresis renography scan interpretation generated by a renal expert system with the consensus interpretation of 3 expert readers. The expert system was evaluated in 95 randomly selected furosemide-augmented patient studies (185 kidneys) obtained for suspected obstruction; there were 55 males and 40 females with a mean age +/- SD of 58.6 +/- 16.5 y. Each subject had a baseline (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG3) scan followed by furosemide administration and a separate 20-min acquisition. Quantitative parameters were automatically extracted from baseline and furosemide acquisitions and forwarded to the expert system for analysis. Three experts, unaware of clinical information, independently graded each kidney as obstructed/probably obstructed, equivocal, and probably nonobstructed/nonobstructed; experts resolved differences by a consensus reading. These 3 expert categories were compared with the obstructed, equivocal, and nonobstructed interpretations provided by the expert system. Agreement was assessed using weighted kappa, and the predictive accuracy of the expert system compared with expert readers was assessed by the area under receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve) curves. The expert system agreed with the consensus reading in 84% (101/120) of nonobstructed kidneys, in 92% (33/36) of obstructed kidneys, and in 45% (13/29) of equivocal kidneys. The weighted kappa between the expert system and the consensus reading was 0.72 and was comparable with the weighted kappa between experts. There was no significant difference in the areas under the ROC curves when the expert system was compared with each expert using the other 2 experts as the gold standard. The renal expert system showed good agreement with the expert interpretation and could be a useful educational and decision support tool to assist physicians in the diagnosis of renal obstruction. To better mirror the clinical setting, algorithms to

  20. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-05: Radiation Dosimetry of 99mTc-IDA-D-[c(RGDfK)]2, a SPECT Agent for Angiogenesis Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tc-99m labeled IDA-D-[c(RGDfK){sub 2} ( {sup 99m}Tc-RGD) is a recently developed radiotracer for gamma camera or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and promising agent for the visualization of angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the internal radiation dosimetry of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD in humans. Methods: Six normal controls (F:M=4:2; 68.3±3.2 years; 56.5±10.7 kg) were participated in this study. Simultaneous anterior and posterior scans of whole-body were performed using dual head gamma camera system. Before the emission scan, transmission scan was performed just before injection of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD using Co-57 flood source. After an intravenous injection of 388.7±29.3 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-RGD, six serial emission scans were performed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours post-injection. The anterior and posterior images were geometrically averaged and attenuation correction was applied using transmission scan image. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on liver, gallbladder, kidneys, urinary bladder, spleen, brain, and large intestine. Time activity curves were obtained from serial emission scan and ROIs. The number of disintegrations per unit activity administered (residence time) were calculated from the area under the curve of time activity curves and injected dose of each patient. Finally, the radiation dose for each organ and effective doses were obtained using OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software and residence time. Results: High radiation doses were reported on renal and biliary excretion tracks such as urinary bladder wall, upper large intestine, kidneys, liver and gallbladder wall and their doses were 19.15±6.84, 19.28±4.78, 15.67±0.90, 9.13±1.71 and 9.09±2.03 µGy/MBq, respectively. The effective dose and effective dose equivalent were 5.08±0.53 and 7.11±0.58 µSv/MBq, respectively. Conclusion: We evaluated the radiation dose of 99mTc-RGD, which has an acceptable effective radiation dose compare to the other Tc-99m labeled radio-tracers.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of a (99m)Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine complex as a potential probe for in vivo visualization of tumor cell proliferation with SPECT.

    PubMed

    Celen, Sofie; de Groot, Tjibbe; Balzarini, Jan; Vunckx, Kathleen; Terwinghe, Christelle; Vermaelen, Peter; Van Berckelaer, Lizette; Vanbilloen, Hubert; Nuyts, Johan; Mortelmans, Luc; Verbruggen, Alfons; Bormans, Guy

    2007-04-01

    Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) catalyzes phosphorylation of thymidine to its monophosphate. TK1 activity is closely related with DNA synthesis, and thymidine analogs derivatized with bulky carboranylalkyl groups at the N-3 position were reported to be good substrates for TK1. Accordingly, we have synthesized (99m)Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine and evaluated it as a potential tumor tracer. The bis(S-trityl)-protected MAMA-propyl-thymidine precursor (3-N-[S-trityl-2-mercaptoethyl]-N-[N'-(S-trityl-2-mercaptoethyl)amidoacetyl]-aminopropyl-thymidine) was prepared in three steps, and its structure was confirmed with (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry. Deprotection of the thiols and labeling with (99m)Tc were done in a two-step, one-pot procedure, yielding (99m)Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine, which was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, radio-LC-MS analysis (ESI+) and electrophoresis, and its log P was determined. The biodistribution in normal mice was evaluated, and its biodistribution in a radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor mouse was compared with that of 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F] fluorothymidine [(18)F]FLT. (99m)Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine was obtained with a radiochemical yield of 70%. Electrophoresis indicated that the complex is uncharged, and its log P was 1.0. The molecular ion mass of the Tc complex was 589 Da, which is compatible with the hypothesized N(2)S(2)-oxotechnetium structure. Tissue distribution showed fast clearance from plasma primarily by the hepatobiliary pathway. Whole-body planar imaging after injection of (99m)Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine in an RIF tumor-bearing mouse showed high uptake in the liver and the intestines. No uptake was observed in the tumor, in contrast to the clear uptake observed for [(18)F] FLT visualized with muPET. Although it has been reported that TK1 accepts large substituents at the N-3 position of the thymine ring, the results of this study show that (99m)Tc-MAMA-propyl-thymidine cannot be used as a single photon emission

  2. Emission computed tomography with technetium-99m pyrophosphate for delineating location and size of acute myocardial infarction in man.

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, S; Kadota, K; Kambara, H; Suzuki, Y; Nohara, R; Murakami, T; Kawai, C; Tamaki, N; Torizuka, K

    1984-01-01

    Emission computed tomography with technetium-99m pyrophosphate was used to delineate the location and estimate the size of myocardial infarcts in 20 patients with documented acute myocardial infarction. Tomography was performed after planar imaging within 2-5 days after the onset of infarction. A series of transaxial, frontal, and sagittal tomograms were reconstructed from 32 views imaged from the left side of the patient's chest with a rotating gammacamera. Infarct volume was measured from the tomographic images by computerised planimetry and was compared with the cumulative release of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme. The planar images showed discrete myocardial uptake in 13 of the 20 patients and diffuse uptake throughout the cardiac region in the remaining seven. In contrast, the tomographic images clearly delineated discrete myocardial uptake by avoiding confusion of myocardial activity with that of surrounding structures, particularly bones, in all patients. For the 10 patients whose infarct size was assessed by analysis of the creatine kinase MB curve there was a close correlation between infarct volume estimated by tomography and by cumulative creatine kinase MB release. Thus emission computed tomography can provide a three dimensional map of technetium-99m pyrophosphate distribution within the heart and is thus able accurately to localise and estimate the size of myocardial infarcts in man. Images PMID:6331479

  3. Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.

    1988-11-01

    Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Mitochondrial Cardiomyopathy with a Unique 99mTc-MIBI/123I-BMIPP Mismatch Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Ryosuke; Onoue, Noriko; Rikimaru, Hiroya; Tsukita, Kenichi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro; Ishizuka, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A 42-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to chest pain, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural hearing loss. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis. He was diagnosed with mitochondrial disease and a c.A3243G mutation was identified in his mitochondrial DNA. This case of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy demonstrated a low uptake of 123I-BMIPP, while the uptake of 99mTc-MIBI was preserved. In contrast, previous reports have noted the increased uptake of123I-BMIPP and the decreased uptake of 99mTc-MIBI. This is the first study to show this unique 99mTc-MIBI/123I-BMIPP mismatch pattern. We also discuss the relationships among the cardiac scintigraphy, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathology findings. PMID:28154277

  5. Evaluation of alternative rapid thin layer chromatography systems for quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mang'era, Kennedy; Wong, Derek; Douglas, David; Franz, Kellie; Biru, Taddese

    2014-04-01

    Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™ systems were evaluated as ITLC-SG alternatives for 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals. They compare well in accuracy and reproducibility, and are faster and more convenient than ITLC-SG. Tec-Control™ radiochemical purity values for 99mTc-sestamibi were more conservative than ITLC-SG. Full solvent migration was not reproduced for 99mTc-tetrofosmin in Tec-Control™, and for this Whatman 3MM™ is preferred. Developing times were 10-15 min, 7-9 min and ~1min for ITLC-SG, Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™, respectively. Overall, Tec-Control™ strips are preferred due to speed and ease of use.

  6. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc.

  7. 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion SPECT/CT in the diagnosis of brain death.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Weiberg, Desiree

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a case of brain death (BD) evaluated by 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A 16-year-old boy with a history of rapid unexpected brain herniation due to pilocytic astrocytoma underwent 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT for evaluation of brain death in the context of organ donation. Flow images demonstrated lack of blood flow to the brain, and delayed images showed absence of demonstrable radionuclide activity within the brain. SPECT/CT confirmed absence of tracer accumulation, and was deemed helpful for evaluation of the brain stem. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT/CT is a valuable tool enabling imaging-based confirmation of BD.

  8. Quality audit programme for (99m)Tc and (131)I radioactivity measurements with radionuclide calibrators.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leena; Anuradha, R; Kulkarni, D B

    2008-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy has increased over the years with (99m)Tc and (131)I being most widely used. Quality audit programmes for radioactivity measurements of (131)I have been ongoing and the 12th audit was recently conducted among seventy nuclear medicine centres (NMC) in India. An audit for the activity measurements of (99m)Tc was conducted for the first time among ten NMCs in Mumbai, India. These programmes for radioactivity measurements have become very important to establish traceability of measurements to national and international standards and ensure accurate calibration of radionuclide calibrators. The results of both the audits are very encouraging. Ninety-four percent of the NMCs for (131)I activity measurements were within a window of +/-10% and for (99m)Tc one NMC was deviating more than +/-10%. The methodology adopted for the audit and results are discussed in detail in this paper.

  9. The role of technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy in acute acalculous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Berkowitz, D.; Fox, M.S.; Gliedman, M.L.; Rosenblatt, R.; Sugarman, L.A.; Freeman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Technetium-99m iminodiacetic acid (IDA) cholescintigraphy was performed in 15 patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Fourteen of the 15 patients with acute disease had positive findings, indicating the presence of cystic duct or common duct obstruction. One case in which the gallbladder was visualized failed to respond to sincalide stimulation; this was classified as a suggestive finding of disease. The diagnostic accuracy of /sup 99m/Tc-IDA cholescintigraphy was far superior to the other imaging studies used (8 sonograms, 1 intravenous cholangiogram, 3 oral cholecystograms, 1 percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram). The /sup 99m/Tc-IDA study is recommended as the imaging procedure of choice for examining patients with suspected acute acalculous cholecystitis.

  10. Diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in infants and children with Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, R.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Lilly, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    Thirteen infants and children from 42 days to 14 years old with hepatobiliary disease underwent Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA hepatobiliary imaging. Five patients had biliary atresia, four had biliary hypoplasia, two had neonatal hepatitis, and there were single examples of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and congenital hepatic fibrosis. Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging accurately differentiated biliary atresia (complete bile duct obstruction) from other forms of childhood hepatobiliary disease by demonstrating no intestinal radioactivity in the former and the presence of intestinal radioactivity in the latter. In addition, two of four patients with biliary hypoplasia had nonhomogeneous parenchymal transit, and the one patient with congenital hepatic fibrosis showed possible intrahepatic cysts. In conclusion, these preliminary data indicate that Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA provides information not previously available with I-131-rose bengal; this information is likely to be useful in the noninvasive evaluation of childhood hepatobiliary disease.

  11. Chocolate intake associated with failed labeling of (99m)Tc red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Bustani, Hussam; Colavolpe, Cecile; Imbert-Joscht, Isabelle; Havlik, Patrick; Pisano, Pascale; Guillet, Benjamin Alain

    2009-06-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) labeled in vivo with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate are used worldwide in nuclear medicine departments. Here, we present a case of (99m)Tc-RBC labeling failure associated with chocolate intake in a 25-y-old woman, resulting in uninterpretable images. Because of this clinical observation, we performed in vitro RBC labeling on blood samples from volunteers after they consumed chocolate. Chocolate intake inhibited the labeling rate, compared with the control condition, and significantly increased the (99m)Tc free fraction (34.1% +/- 11.3% vs. 14.0% +/- 1.2%). We cannot explain how this interaction could occur, but cacao components are known to modulate red cell and plasma oxidoreductive status and to modify red cell membrane permeability and plasticity. Therefore, for patients who can be considered likely to consume chocolate, such as young patients, we recommend that they limit their consumption of chocolate for 12 h before RBC labeling.

  12. Synthesis of 99mTc-nimotuzumab with tricarbonyl ion: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maria Fernanda; Camacho, Ximena; Calzada, Victoria; Fernandez, Marcelo; Porcal, Williams; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays an important role in carcinogenesis. CIMAher® (Nimotuzumab), is a humanized monoclonal antibody, which recognizes EGFR with high affinity. The aim of this work was to perform the direct labeling of Nimotuzumab with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+ as precursor and to evaluate its labeling conditions, in vitro and in vivo stability and biodistrution in normal C57 BL/6J mice. 99mTc(CO3)-Nimotuzumab labeling yields were up to 90%. More than 90% of the complex remained intact after 24 h of incubation with L-Histidine (1/300 molar ratio). Biodistribution studies in normal mice were also performed. Inmunoreactivity was confirmed by cell binding assays with A431cells. These results encourage the evaluation of the potential role of 99mTc(CO)3-Nimotuzumab as a novel tumor-avid radiotracer for targeting in vivo EGFR expression.

  13. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.; Lange, R.C.; Matthews, T.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while the abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.

  14. SPECT measurements with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in focal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.; Rosen, I.; Elmqvist, D.; Ingvar, D.H.

    1988-12-01

    The ability of SPECT measurements with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO (Ceretec) to find the location of the epileptic focus was studied in patients under consideration for neurosurgical treatment for therapy-resistant focal epilepsy. The location of low (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at interictal measurements, and of high (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at ictal measurements, was compared to the findings of extensive ictal and interictal EEG examinations, and to the results of CT and MRT. While EEG revealed focal epileptic activity in all of the 14 patients, SPECT showed regional abnormalities in 13 (93%). CT and MRT showed abnormal findings in 30%.

  15. OAT3-mediated extrusion of the 99mTc-ECD metabolite in the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Okamura, Toshimitsu; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Okada, Maki; Odaka, Kenichi; Yui, Joji; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-01-01

    After administration of the 99mTc complex with N,N'-1,2-ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl ester (99mTc-ECD), a brain perfusion imaging agent, the radioactive metabolite is trapped in primate brain, but not in mouse and rat. Here, we investigate the involvement of metabolite extrusion by organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), which is highly expressed at the blood–brain barrier in mice, in this species difference. The efflux rate of radioactivity in the cerebrum of Oat3−/− mice at later phase was 20% of that of control mice. Thus, organic anion transporters in mouse brain would be involved in the low brain retention of radioactivity after 99mTc-ECD administration. PMID:24496177

  16. Assessment of Using 99Mo and 99mTc Isotopes in Kuwait Medical Sector

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the state of Kuwait currently depends on importing the radioisotope molybdenum (Mo) in its isotopic form (99Mo) to fulfill its demands. The present study was conducted on all nuclear medicine departments in the state of Kuwait. Daily, weekly, and monthly data were analyzed to statistically determine the current and future demands for the isotope 99mTc. This analysis was performed by collecting and analyzing data on MOH consumption of 99mTc for different diagnostic applications. The overall results indicate a partial decrease of 1.012% in the overall total demand for 99mTc up to the year 2018 for the state of Kuwait. PMID:26910031

  17. Abdominal masses in children: multiorgan imaging with /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Cohen, M.; Moran, D.P.

    1982-07-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (/sup 99m/Tc MDP) imaging was performed in 29 consecutive children with abdominal masses. Dynamic images of the inferior vena cava were obtained by injecting the radiotracer in the feet. Serial renal images were obtained for the next 30 min. Routine bone imaging was performed at about 3 hr. The radionuclide studies of the inferior vena cava accurately diagnosed total obstruction and displacement to the left but not partial obstruction and displacement to the right. The abnormalities on early renal imaging included displacement (14), distortion (seven), obstruction (eight), and nonvisualization (one). All patients with Wilms tumor (eight) had either nonvisualized or distorted renal parenchyma. Patients with neuroblastoma (17) and other tumors (four) had displacement and obstruction. Soft-tissue accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc MDP was noted in two Wilms tumors and 12 neuroblastomas.

  18. Technetium-99m-exametazine: Pitfalls in preparation and quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M. )

    1989-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently approved the drug exametazine (Cretec or hexamethylenepropylene-amineoxime) for use in preparation of a {sup 99m}Tc-chelate suitable for human use. This radiopharmaceutical is indicated for detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in patients with stoke. Unlike the majority of radiopharmaceuticals containing stannous ion (Sn{sup 2+}), which can be prepared by addition of varying volumes and activities of ({sup 99m}Tc)pertechnetate, successful preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime requires careful control of both volume and activity. The necessity for careful control of the final chemical concentration and radioconcentration is based on the minimal amount of Sn{sup 2+} ion present.

  19. Osteomalacia-inducing renal clear cell carcinoma uncovered by 99mTc-Hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaona; Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-11-01

    Most osteomalacia-causing tumors are small, benign mesenchymal neoplasms, which are commonly located in the extremities or craniofacial regions. An 18-year-old male patient with suspicion of tumor-induced osteomalacia underwent (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy to search potential culprit tumor. The images showed a large activity in the region of the left kidney. The lesion was resected and a clear cell renal cell carcinoma was found. One year after the left nephrectomy, the patient was tumor-free without symptoms of osteomalacia.

  20. 99mTc Labeled Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Analogue (99mTc-GLP1) Scintigraphy in the Management of Patients with Occult Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Trofimiuk-Müldner, Małgorzata; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Tomaszuk, Monika; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Głowa, Bogusław; Małecki, Maciej; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kowalska, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Janota, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the utility of [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 scintigraphy in the management of patients with hypoglycemia, particularly in the detection of occult insulinoma. Materials and Methods Forty patients with hypoglycemia and increased/confusing results of serum insulin and C-peptide concentration and negative/inconclusive results of other imaging examinations were enrolled in the study. In all patients GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed to localise potential pancreatic lesions. Results Positive results of GLP-1 scintigraphy were observed in 28 patients. In 18 patients postsurgical histopathological examination confirmed diagnosis of insulinoma. Two patients had contraindications to the surgery, one patient did not want to be operated. One patient, who presented with postprandial hypoglycemia, with positive result of GLP-1 imaging was not qualified for surgery and is in the observational group. Eight patients were lost for follow up, among them 6 patients with positive GLP-1 scintigraphy result. One patient with negative scintigraphy was diagnosed with malignant insulinoma. In two patients with negative scintigraphy Munchausen syndrome was diagnosed (patients were taking insulin). Other seven patients with negative results of 99mTcGLP-1 scintigraphy and postprandial hypoglycemia with C-peptide and insulin levels within the limits of normal ranges are in the observational group. We would like to mention that 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT was also performed in 3 pts with nesidioblastosis (revealing diffuse tracer uptake in two and a focal lesion in one case) and in two patients with malignant insulinoma (with the a focal uptake in the localization of a removed pancreatic headin one case and negative GLP-1 1 scintigraphy in the other patient). Conclusions 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT could be helpful examination in the management of patients with hypoglycemia enabling proper localization of the pancreatic lesion and effective

  1. Subcellular distribution of technetium-99m-N-NOEt in rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Uccelli, L.; Giganti, M.; Duatti, A. ||

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subcellular distribution of bis(N-ethoxy N-ethyl)dithiocarbamato, nitrido technetium(V) ({sup 99m}TcN-NOEt) in rat heart by differential centrifugation techniques. Extraction of the activity from homogenized rat heart tissue was also performed to assess whether myocardial retention might induce changes in the chemical identity of the complex. Anesthetized rats were intravenously injected with {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt, the heart tissue was extracted and homogenized and tissue fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The efficiency of organelle separation was determined by assay of each centrifugal fraction using enzyme markers. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 5{prime}-nucleotidase (5{prime}ND) activities were assayed using standard spectrophotometric methods. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was determined using a p-iodo-nitrotetrazolium-linked assay. Severe cell membrane and organelle disruption were induced by prolonging the homogenization time and their effect on the subcellular distribution of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was studied. The activity from homogenized heart tissue was extracted using the Folch technique and analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Most of the {sup 99}TcN-NOEt activity was found to be associated with the hydrophobic components of the cell. No evidence of specific association of activity with the cytosolic and mitochondrial components was observed. Organelle and membrane cleavage did not cause release of activity into the cytosol. Approximately 90% of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt activity was extracted from ventricular tissue and the chemical nature of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was not altered by uptake by myocardium. Cell membranes are the most apparent site of localization of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt in heart tissue. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Radiochemical studies of 99mTc complexes of modified cysteine ligands and bifunctional chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Pillai, M R; Kothari, K; Banerjee, S; Samuel, G; Suresh, M; Sarma, H D; Jurisson, S

    1999-07-01

    The synthesis of four novel ligands using the amino-acid cysteine and its ethyl carboxylate derivative is described. The synthetic method involves a two-step procedure, wherein the intermediate Schiff base formed by the condensation of the amino group of the cysteine substrate and salicylaldehyde is reduced to give the target ligands. The intermediates and the final products were characterized by high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Complexation studies of the ligands with 99mTc were optimized using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent under varying reaction conditions. The complexes were characterized using standard quality control techniques such as thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, and paper chromatography. Lipophilicities of the complexes were estimated by solvent extraction into chloroform. Substantial changes in net charge and lipophilicity of the 99mTc complexes were observed on substituting the carboxylic acid functionality in ligands I and II with the ethyl carboxylate groups (ligands II and IV). All the ligands formed 99mTc complexes in high yield. Whereas the complexes with ligands I and II were observed to be hydrophilic in nature and not extractable into CHCl3, ligands III and IV resulted in neutral and lipophilic 99mTc complexes. The 99mTc complex with ligand II was not stable and on storage formed a hydrophilic and nonextractable species. The biodistribution of the complexes of ligands I and II showed that they cleared predominantly through the kidneys, whereas the complexes with ligands III and IV were excreted primarily through the hepatobiliary system. No significant brain uptake was observed with the 99mTc complexes with ligands III and IV despite their favorable properties of neutrality, lipophilicity, and conversion into a hydrophilic species. These ligands offer potential for use as bifunctional chelating agents.

  3. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Kovach, M.B.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL) are a major source of cholesterol for adrenal cortical steroid hormones synthesis. To test whether LDL labelled with Tc-99m could be used to assess adrenal cortical function, the authors prepared Tc-99m-LDL by dithionite reduction of Tc0/sub 4//sup -/ in the presence of LDL. About 80% of the Tc-LDL bonds were covalent. Purified Tc-99m-LDL was injected intravenously into 16 rabbits (4 t 8mCi/rabbit). External imaging was carried out 16 to 18 hrs later, at which time the adrenals were visualized clearly; the animals were sacrificed, the organs dissected out, weighed, and counted. The biodistribution demonstrated that 0.8l +- 0.19% of the injected radioactivity was taken up per gm of whole adrenal gland. This compared with an uptake of 0.19 +- 0.02% per gm by liver, 0.22 +- 0.04% per gm by spleen, and 0.11 +- 0.02% per gm by kidney. To verify that they were indeed imaging the adrenals, additional rabbits were tested with dexamethasone. First they were injected with Tc-99m-LDL; 28 hrs later the adrenals were again well visualized. Then the rabbits were given dexamethasone for 5 days to suppress adrenal cortical function. The adequacy of suppression was monitored by serum cortisol measurements. When Tc-99m-LDL was injected again, the adrenals could not be seen 18 hrs later. Counts of the adrenals from the suppressed rabbits were at background levels. These data indicate that Tc-99m-LDL is a useful radiopharmaceutical for evaluating adrenal cortical function.

  4. Myocardial uptake and kinetic properties of technetium-99m-Q3 in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gerson, M.C.; Millard, R.W.; McGoron, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    We postulated that {sup 99m}Tc-Q3, a cationic imaging agent, produces myocardial activity related to myocardial blood flow during myocardial ischemia and pharmacologic coronary artery vasodilation, and shows little or no myocardial redistribution over 4 hr after intravenous injection. In six Group 1 dogs, the chest was opened, the left circumflex coronary artery was acutely ligated, and dipyridamole (0.32, 0.56 or 0.84 mg/kg) was infused into the right atrium, followed by 10 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres. The animals were euthanized and 357 myocardial samples were assayed in a well counter for {sup 99m}Tc activity. One week later, radiolabeled microsphere activity was counted and myocardial blood flow calculated. In nine Group 2 dogs, a variable occluder was placed around the left circumflex coronary artery and an ischemic level of circumflex blood flow was maintained constant over 4 hr as measured by an ultrasonic flow meter. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) was then infused into the right atrium followed by 10mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-Q3. Gamma camera images were acquired at 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following k{sup 99m}Tc-Q3 injection. Microsphere blood flow and endocardial biopsies (n - 6 dogs) were performed at 30, 60, 120 and 240 min following {sup 99m}TcQ3 injection. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Potential Ways to Address Shortage Situations of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Filzen, Leah M; Ellingson, Lacey R; Paulsen, Andrew M; Hung, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    (99m)Tc, the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine, is produced in a nuclear reactor from the decay of (99)Mo. There are only a few aging nuclear reactors around the world that produce (99)Mo, and one of the major contributors, the National Research Universal (Canada), ceased production on October 31, 2016. The National Research Universal produced approximately 40% of the world's (99)Mo supply, so with its shut down, shortages of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc are expected. Methods: Nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine departments throughout the United States were contacted and asked to provide their strategies for coping with a shortage of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. Each of these strategies was evaluated on the basis of its effectiveness for conserving (99m)Tc while still meeting the needs of the patients. Results: From the responses, the following 6 categories of strategies, in order of importance, were compiled: contractual agreements with commercial nuclear pharmacies, alternative imaging protocols, changes in imaging schedules, software use, generator management, and reduction of ordered doses or elimination of backup doses. Conclusion: The supply chain of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc is quite fragile; therefore, being aware of the most appropriate coping strategies is crucial. It is essential to build a strong collaboration between the nuclear pharmacy and nuclear medicine department during a shortage situation. With both nuclear medicine departments and nuclear pharmacies implementing viable strategies, such as the ones proposed, the amount of (99m)Tc available during a shortage situation can be maximized. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. Tc-99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) Renal Scintigraphy in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Wook; Bin, Ki Tae; Jeong, Min Soo; Shong, Min Ho; Shin, Young Tai; Ro, Heung Kyu

    1995-01-01

    Objectives Recently, several authors reported that Tc-99m DMSA renal scan frequently showed cortical defects of the involved kidneys even in the patients with acute pyelonephritis who did not show abnormal findings in the ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography IVP). Methods In order to evaluate the utilities of Tc-99m DMSA renal scan and the clinical meanig of cortical defects in the Tc-99m DMSA renal scan of the patients with acute pyelonephritis, ninety two patients with acute pyelonephritis, from March 1991 to February 1994 in Chungnam National University Hospital(CNUH), were included in this study. Patients were subdivided as Group A:Patients showing normal Tc-99m DMSA renal scan(n=42) and Group B:Patients with definit cortical defects on the Tc-99m DMSA renal scan(n=50). We compared clinical characteristics such as age and sex, recurrency, duration of fever, bacterial culture study, incidence of renal insufficiency and the results of renal ultrasonography and intravenous pyelography between the two groups. Results Fifty four percents of 92 patients with acute pyelonephritis showed a significantly longer febrile period after admission, higher positive rates on the urine and blood culture studies and higher incidence of renal insufficiency than those of the Group A patients. Sixty nine percents of Group B patients showed normal results in ultrasonography or IVP study. Conclusions Tc-99m DMSA renal scan was a more sensitive imaging test than ultrasonography in kidneys and IVP to detect pyelonephritis lesions and may be useful to predict the patient group with a severe disease course. These patients may need more careful management and further studies to evaluate the possibility of complications. PMID:7626556

  7. Distribution of technetium-99m PEG-liposomes during oligofructose-induced laminitis development in horses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Pollitt, Christopher C; Metselaar, Josbert M; Laverman, Peter; van Bloois, Louis; van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Storm, Gert; van Eps, Andrew W

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous liposomes accumulate in lamellar tissue during laminitis development in horses so as to assess their potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery. Polyethylene-glycol (PEG) coated liposomes were prepared according to the film hydration method and labelled using (99m)Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime. Six horses received 10 g/kg oligofructose via nasogastric tube to induce laminitis, and four control horses received water via nasogastric tube. All horses received 300 µmol (99m)Tc-PEG-liposomes (5.5 GBq) plus 5.5 µmol/kg PEG-liposomes by slow intravenous infusion. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 0, 6 and 12 h post-infusion. Technetium-99m liposome uptake was measured in regions of interest over the hoof, fetlock and metacarpus. At the study end-point horses were euthanased, tissue samples collected and tissue liposome levels were calculated as the percentage of the injected dose of (99m)Tc-liposomes per kilogram of tissue. Data were analysed non-parametrically. All horses receiving oligofructose developed clinical and histological signs of laminitis. Technetium-99m liposome uptake in the hoof increased with time in laminitis horses (P = 0.04), but decreased with time in control horses (P = 0.01). Technetium-99m liposome levels in lamellar tissue from laminitis horses were 3.2-fold higher than controls (P = 0.02) and were also higher in laminitis vs. control skin, muscle, jejunum, colon, and kidney (P < 0.05). Liposomes accumulated in lamellar tissue during oligofructose-induced laminitis development and demonstrated potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery in acute laminitis. This study provides further evidence that lamellar inflammation occurs during laminitis development. Liposome accumulation also occurred in the skin, muscle, jejunum, colon and kidneys, suggesting systemic inflammation in this

  8. 99mTc-stannous colloid white cell scintigraphy in childhood inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Kenneth; Porn, Ute; Howman-Giles, Robert; O'Loughlin, Edward; Uren, Roger; Gaskin, Kevin; Dorney, Stuart; Kamath, Ramanand

    2004-02-01

    99mTc-Labeled white cell scintigraphy (WCS) has been used for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in adults, but data on children are limited. The most common agent used is (99m) Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO); however, this agent has limitations. In a retrospective study, we assessed the use of (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS for the initial evaluation of children with suspected IBD. Diagnostic, endoscopic, and contrast radiography results were retrospectively collected from the medical records. Two experienced nuclear physicians unaware of the patient data interpreted the WCS results, with agreement reached by consensus. Statistical analysis was performed on the ability of WCS to detect active disease and localize it topographically and on a comparison of diagnostic methods, using a combination of clinical features and endoscopy as the reference standard. Between 1996 and 1999, 64 patients (35 male and 29 female; mean age, 12.5 y; age range, 2-19 y) had WCS performed, with IBD subsequently diagnosed in 34 patients. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid WCS had an 88% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 8.8 likelihood ratio for initial investigation of IBD. Agreement was poor for topographic localization of disease. Small-bowel series had a 75% sensitivity, 50% specificity, and 1.5 likelihood ratio for detecting endoscopic disease of the terminal ileum and proximal colon. Our results confirm that WCS is a useful imaging technique for the initial evaluation of patients with suspected IBD. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid had results at least comparable to those of other WCS agents, and in children, (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS should be preferred in view of lower cost, shorter preparation time, and the smaller blood volumes required.

  9. Efficacy of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT scintigraphy in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Jinglan; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of the orbital somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-TOC) to detect clinical stage of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the response to corticosteroid therapy. The subjects of the experiment were 46 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and four volunteers without eye disease or GO as the normal group (NG). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and the left and right lateral position planar imaging of the heads of the all subjects were obtained 4 h after the intravenous injection of 555 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC. The (99m)Tc-TOC SPECT/CT was repeated 3 months later. 35 (35/46) patients were received corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone, 10 mg po tid ) for 3 months, however, the other 11 patients as control groups did not receive any treatment. The treatment effect was evaluated both by the orbital (99m)Tc-TOC uptake and NOSPECS. A significant decrease in the O/OC ratio was observed in 22 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment (1.64 ± 0.13 vs. 1.21 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). There were neither significant difference of the O/OC ratio in 13 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment periods, nor significant difference in the 9 (9/11) patients before and after three months. Orbital (99m)Tc-TOC scintigraphy is a feasible technique to estimate the Graves' ophthalmopathy activity and predict the response to subsequent corticosteroid therapy in GO patients. The technique could be a useful tool for physicians not familiar with CAS determination.

  10. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed.

  11. (99m)Tc-prulifloxacin in artificially infected animals. Radiosynthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shah, S Q; Khan, A U; Khan, M R

    2011-01-01

    The radiosynthesis of 99mTc-Prulifloxacin ((99m)Tc-PRN) was assessed in terms of stability, binding with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), biodistribution in rats (RT) and scintigraphic profile in rabbits (RB). ANIMALS, MATERIAL, METHODS: 99mTc-PRN was synthesized by mixing 25 µg of stannous fluoride (SnF2) with 18.5 MBq of sodium pertechnetate. Thereafter, 0.5 mg of the prufloxacin (PRN) was added to the reaction mixture and the pH was set at 5.1 with 0.01 mol/l HCl. The reaction mixture was incubated at room temperature. The same process was repeated by increasing the concentration of the stannous fluoride from 25 to 250 µg, sodium pertechnetate from 18,5 to 185 MBq and the PRN from 0.5 to 5 mg. The radiochemical stability of the 99mTc-PRN was investigated in higher concentration of the cystein. In-vitro binding investigation was performed using living and heat killed S. aureus to verify specificity of the 99mTc-PRN. Biodistribution was evaluated in artificially infected rats and scintigraphic precision in rabbits at different interval. The 99mTc-RPN prepared by mixing 2 mg of PRN, 74 MBq sodium pertechnetate, 100 µg stannous fluoride at pH 5.4, appeared to be more than 90% stable with a maximum radiochemical yield of 98.15 ± 0.25% at 30 min. The 99mTc-PRN showed higher stability in serum and satisfactory in-vitro binding to living as compared to heat killed S. aureus. 14.25 ± 0.15% of the injected dose was accumulated in the infected muscle of the model RT. Infected to normal muscle ratio was 5.12 and inflamed to normal muscle was 1.2. The biodistribution was validated by the scintigraphic localization of infection in rabbits. This investigation of 99mTc-PRN confirmed its momentous radiochemical immovability in saline, serum, preferential in-vitro binding to living bacteria, higher uptake in the infected muscle of model RT and precise localization in the infected muscle of model RB.

  12. A rapid radiochemical purity testing method for 99mTc-tetrofosmin.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Laura A; Dick, Michael D; Mahoney, Douglas W; Olson, Joseph P; Werner, Gregory L; Hung, Joseph C

    2010-06-01

    The standard radiochemical purity (RCP) testing method for (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin as described in the package insert requires extensive time (20-30 min) and considerable skill to achieve accurate results. Additionally, the instant thin-layer chromatography strip impregnated with silica gel (2x20 cm) used in the standard method will not be commercially available in the future. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a method developed by our laboratory for RCP testing of (99m)Tc-sestamibi could also be used as an alternative method for the RCP assay of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin. The alternative RCP testing system consisted of a precut paper strip (1x8.5 cm) from solvent saturation pads (Pall Corp.) as the stationary phase, with 1:1 chloroform:tetrahydrofuran used as the mobile phase. To validate the reliability of the alternative method, RCP values from 17 kit preparations were compared with the 2 methods. Kits were reconstituted according to the package insert instructions, and 4 additions of (99m)Tc-sodium pertechnetate were purposely added to create trials with RCP values below the accepted limit of 90% purity. Two hundred four trials (100 of which were replicated) were run from the 17 kit preparations. Sixty-four (31%) of the 204 trials were below 90% purity based on the standard method. The overall agreement between the standard and alternative methods was 94% (192/204). The sensitivity of the alternative method for unacceptable RCP limits was 86% (55/64), and the specificity for acceptable RCP values was 98% (137/140). The agreement between the replicated trials of the alternative method was 99% (99/100), and for the standard method it was 92% (92/100). The standard method proved to be a much slower method and requires much more precision and attention. The alternative method is much faster, is easier, requires less attention to the solvent-development process, and can be used for RCP testing of both (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. Furthermore, the

  13. Thallium-201 and technetium-99m-pyrophosphate: myocardial imaging in the coronary care unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The editor and contributors have developed a textbook that explains the use of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate for the detection of acute myocardial infarct. Their integrated approach emphasizes the complementary nature of both imaging modalities. One aim of this book is to discuss the technical characteristics of the two myocardial imaging methods. The text has fourteen chapters. Instrumentation, mechanisms of accumulation of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate, acute myocardial infarct, unstable angina pectoris, atypical chest pain, and the interrelationship of the techniques are among the topics discussed. (JMT)

  14. Extraskeletal uptake of technetium-99m-MDP in sites of heparin administration.

    PubMed

    Challa, S; Miller, J H

    1998-05-01

    A 19-yr-old woman with juvenile diabetes and protein C deficiency was referred for a bone scan to rule out osteomyelitis of the right tibia. The bone scan did not reveal evidence of osteomyelitis. There was, however, extraskeletal uptake of the 99mTc bone tracer in the anterior abdominal wall confined to the sites of subcutaneous heparin administration. This case is presented because of its interesting scintigraphic findings and to discuss the association of protein C deficiency and heparin administration as a cause of extraskeletal 99mTc bone tracer accumulation.

  15. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; and smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  16. A computerized compact module for separation of (99m)Tc-radionuclide from molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; De, Anirban; Saha Das, Sujata; Kuniyil, Remashan; Bhaskar, Partha; Pal, Sasanka Shekhar; Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Das, Malay Kanti

    2012-11-01

    An automated closed cycle module for the separation and recovery of various isotopes, radioactive or non-radioactive, using solvent extraction and column chromatography techniques, and in particular, for separation and recovery of (99m)Tc from low-medium specific activity (99)Mo, is described. The module may also be applicable for separation of (99m)Tc produced in a cyclotron. The module is safe and reliable to avoid human interference and hazards posed by handling of radioactive and hazardous chemicals. The entire system of automation includes a user-friendly PC based graphical user interface (GUI) that actually supervises the process via an embedded system based electronic controller.

  17. Renal accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA in the artificially perfused isolated rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Goldraich, N.P.; Alvarenga, A.R.; Goldraich, I.H.; Ramos, O.L.; Sigulem, D.

    1985-12-01

    In order to investigate aspects of the renal handling of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, 68 isolated rat kidneys were artificially perfused. The experimental groups were: Group 1 (no. = 32)-oxygenated filtering kidneys; Group 2 (no. = 29)-oxygenated non-filtering kidneys; Group 3 (no. = 7)-anaerobic non-filtering kidneys. The authors conclude that the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA complex is strongly bound to albumin, is not filtered and is removed from perfusion fluid through the renal peritubular capillary route and that this occurs by an active process which depends upon aerobic metabolism. This process has a high capacity and is not inhibited by probenecid.

  18. Technetium-99m sestamibi in chronic coronary artery disease: The European experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H. )

    1990-10-16

    Since the introduction of technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) in Europe, there has been a growing interest in its use. Several European multicenter trials have been conducted to evaluate this new agent in relation to the traditional perfusion marker thallium-201, and other studies are in progress to understand the use of this perfusion marker for the diagnosis of coronary disease, for use in conjunction with pharmacologic vasodilation, for use in the assessment of ventricular function and wall motion and for the assessment of interventions.

  19. Extrarenal abnormalities in Tc-99m-DTPA renal blood flow studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    The authors observed extrarenal abnormalities during renal flow scintigraphy and retrospectively reviewed 90 patient studies to determine the types and frequencies of such abnormal findings. For each routine Tc-99m-DTPA renal flow study, they obtained nine 2-second sequential images, which included the heart, abdominal aorta, spleen and kidneys. Eighty abnormalities, observed in 62 patients, were divided into three categories: aortic, 37 cases; splenic, 40 cases; and miscellaneous, 3 cases. Other correlative studies including Tc-99m sulfur colloid-spleen scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), CT, aortography, and surgical and/or autopsy findings were available for corroboration in 56 of 80 lesions.

  20. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m RBC blood pool imaging. Case report and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyarov, E.V.; Mattay, V.S.; Reba, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Gallbladder visualization occurred after a Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) cardiac gated blood pool scan. To date, seven cases of gallbladder visualization after the intravenous injection of Tc-99m RBCs have been reported. In the previous six patients the gallbladder was visualized incidentally during a search for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. All of the patients were anemic, six of seven had chronic renal failure, and five of seven had received multiple blood transfusions. When interpreting GI bleeding scans in patients with anemia and renal failure, awareness of the possibility of gallbladder visualization in the delayed images is important to avoid false-positive results. 3 references.

  1. Validation of alternative methods of preparing 99mTc-MAG3.

    PubMed

    Seetharaman, Shankar; Sosabowski, Michael H; Ballinger, James R

    2007-11-01

    Parameters in the preparation of 99mTc-mertiatide (99mTc-MAG3) were investigated to determine the importance of total activity, activity concentration, boiling time, and delay before boiling for the radiochemical purity (RCP) and stability of the product. Satisfactory RCP results (>90%) were obtained over a range of concentrations including a dilute preparation for paediatric use. RCP was not affected by the time between the addition of pertechnetate and boiling, but low RCP (<60%) resulted when the kit was boiled for less than 10 min.

  2. Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, T.; Shindo, J.; Everhart, F.R.; Mori, Y.; Kasai, H.; Kogure, S.; Wakao, H. )

    1989-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed.

  3. Failure to diagnose cardiac treatment rejection with Tc99m-PYP images

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Goris, M.L.; Mason, J.W.; Reitz, B.A.

    1981-08-01

    The possibility of diagnosing transplant rejection using Tc-99m-PYP imaging was examined in 12 cardiac transplant recipients. Two patients were studied on two occasions. The presence or absence of active rejection was established by endomyocardial biopsy. The intensity and pattern of myocardial uptake of the tracer did not differ significantly in the two patients studied at the time of rejection compared to the remainder. It is concluded that a single Tc-99m-PYP study cannot be used to diagnose cardiac transplant rejection.

  4. Incidental detection of superior sternal cleft on Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    PubMed Central

    Aland, Nusrat IJ; Pawar, Shwetal Uday; Tilve, Gundu Hari

    2013-01-01

    A sternal cleft is an extremely rare developmental anomaly, which results from failure of fusion of sternal bars which contribute to the formation of the sternum. Most cases are diagnosed in early childhood, where it is associated with serious other midline defects. A sternal cleft is seen as a photopenic area on technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan and can be confused with other conditions. We report an extremely rare case of isolated upper sternal cleft in a 45-years-old male, found incidentally on Tc-99m MDP bone scan. PMID:24163521

  5. Unusual Tc-99m MDP and I-123 MIBG images in focal pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.; Lenoir, P.; Delree, M.; Ramet, J.; Piepsz, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with an inflammatory syndrome. Because Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy revealed increased tracer uptake at the upper pole of the right kidney, further studies were oriented towards a diagnosis of renal or adrenal pathology. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulated at the site of the abnormal MDP uptake. The diagnosis of neuroblastoma or allied disorder was excluded on the basis of other investigations and further evaluation, suggesting that the MIBG uptake was a false-positive. Findings on clinical imaging, laboratory findings, Tc-99m DMSA imaging, sonography, and CT scanning were highly suggestive of acute focal pyelonephritis.

  6. Chemistry and biology of Tc-99m renal function radiopharmaceuticals. Final report, May 1, 1982-January 15, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported on research conducted during the period May 1, 1982 to January 15, 1983. The chemistry and biology of two possible renal function radiopharmaceuticals, Tc-99m N, N'-bis (mercaptoacetyl)-2,3-diamino-propanoate (Tc-99m CO/sub 2/DADS, 1(X=OH)) and the Tc-99m complex of penicillamine. (ACR)

  7. Quantitative simultaneous 111In/99mTc SPECT-CT of osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Morgan; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A well-established approach for diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis (OM), a bone infection, is simultaneous SPECT-CT of 99mTc sulfur colloid (SC) and 111In white blood cells (WBC). This method provides essentially perfect spatial registration of the tracers within anatomic sites of interest. Currently, diagnosis is based purely on a visual assessment—where relative discordance between 99mTc and 111In uptake in bone, i.e., high 111In and low 99mTc, suggests OM. To achieve more quantitative images, noise, scatter, and crosstalk between radionuclides must be addressed through reconstruction. Here the authors compare their Monte Carlo-based joint OSEM (MC-JOSEM) algorithm, which reconstructs both radionuclides simultaneously, to a more conventional triple-energy window-based reconstruction (TEW-OSEM), and to iterative reconstruction with no compensation for scatter (NC-OSEM). Methods: The authors created numerical phantoms of the foot and torso. Multiple bone-infection sites were modeled using high-count Monte Carlo simulation. Counts per voxel were then scaled to values appropriate for 111In WBC and 99mTc SC imaging. Ten independent noisy projection image sets were generated by drawing random Poisson deviates from these very low-noise images. Data were reconstructed using the two iterative scatter-compensation methods, TEW-OSEM and MC-JOSEM, as well as the uncorrected method (NC-OSEM). Mean counts in volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to evaluate the bias and precision of each method. Data were also acquired using a phantom, approximately the size of an adult ankle, consisting of regions representing infected and normal bone marrow, within a bone-like attenuator and surrounding soft tissue; each compartment contained a mixture of 111In and 99mTc. Low-noise data were acquired during multiple short scans over 29 h on a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT-CT with medium-energy collimators. Pure 99mTc and 111In projection datasets were derived by fitting the acquired

  8. Quantitative simultaneous 111In∕99mTc SPECT-CT of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Cervo, Morgan; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C

    2013-08-01

    A well-established approach for diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis (OM), a bone infection, is simultaneous SPECT-CT of 99mTc sulfur colloid (SC) and 111In white blood cells (WBC). This method provides essentially perfect spatial registration of the tracers within anatomic sites of interest. Currently, diagnosis is based purely on a visual assessment-where relative discordance between 99mTc and 111In uptake in bone, i.e., high 111In and low 99mTc, suggests OM. To achieve more quantitative images, noise, scatter, and crosstalk between radionuclides must be addressed through reconstruction. Here the authors compare their Monte Carlo-based joint OSEM (MC-JOSEM) algorithm, which reconstructs both radionuclides simultaneously, to a more conventional triple-energy window-based reconstruction (TEW-OSEM), and to iterative reconstruction with no compensation for scatter (NC-OSEM). The authors created numerical phantoms of the foot and torso. Multiple bone-infection sites were modeled using high-count Monte Carlo simulation. Counts per voxel were then scaled to values appropriate for 111In WBC and 99mTc SC imaging. Ten independent noisy projection image sets were generated by drawing random Poisson deviates from these very low-noise images. Data were reconstructed using the two iterative scatter-compensation methods, TEW-OSEM and MC-JOSEM, as well as the uncorrected method (NC-OSEM). Mean counts in volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to evaluate the bias and precision of each method. Data were also acquired using a phantom, approximately the size of an adult ankle, consisting of regions representing infected and normal bone marrow, within a bone-like attenuator and surrounding soft tissue; each compartment contained a mixture of 111In and 99mTc. Low-noise data were acquired during multiple short scans over 29 h on a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT-CT with medium-energy collimators. Pure 99mTc and 111In projection datasets were derived by fitting the acquired projections to the sum

  9. Intraarticular and intravenous administration of (99M)Tc-HMPAO-labeled human mesenchymal stem cells ((99M)TC-AH-MSCS): In vivo imaging and biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Montellano, Antonio Jesús; Martínez, Teresa; Martínez, Carlos M; Revilla-Nuin, Beatriz; Roldán, Marta; Mora, Cristina Fuente; López-Lucas, Maria Dolores; Fuente, Teodomiro

    2017-03-01

    Therapeutic application of intravenous administered (IV) human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ahMSCs) appears to have as main drawback the massive retention of cells in the lung parenchyma, questioning the suitability of this via of administration. Intraarticular administration (IAR) could be considered as an alternative route for therapy in degenerative and traumatic joint lesions. Our work is outlined as a comparative study of biodistribution of (99m)Tc-ahMSCs after IV and IAR administration, via scintigraphic study in an animal model. Isolated primary culture of adult human mesenchymal stem cells was labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for scintigraphic study of in vivo distribution after intravenous and intra-articular (knee) administration in rabbits. IV administration of radiolabeled ahMSCs showed the bulk of radioactivity in the lung parenchyma while IAR images showed activity mainly in the injected cavity and complete absence of uptake in pulmonary bed. Our study shows that IAR administration overcomes the limitations of IV injection, in particular, those related to cells destruction in the lung parenchyma. After IAR administration, cells remain within the joint cavity, as expected given its size and adhesion properties. Intra-articular administration of adult human mesenchymal stem cells could be a suitable route for therapeutic effect in joint lesions. Local administration of adult human mesenchymal stem cells could improve their therapeutic effects, minimizing side effects in patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Scintigraphic head-to-head comparison between 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-LeukoScan in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stokkel, Marcel P M; Reigman, HennaI E; Pauwels, Ernest K J

    2002-02-01

    Scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled white blood cells (WBCs) is routinely used in our hospital for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The main disadvantages of this diagnostic tool are its time-consuming nature and the handling of blood itself. 99mTc-LeukoScan is a relatively new, easily prepared agent that is used for the detection of osteomyelitis. To assess its value in IBD, a scintigraphic head-to-head comparison was performed between 99mTc-LeukoScan and 99mTc-WBCs. 99mTc-LeukoScan scintigraphy was performed in six patients with clinically active IBD and increased uptake on 99mTc-WBC images. The interval between the scintigraphic studies ranged from 2 to 7 days, and endoscopy was subsequently performed to confirm active IBD. In three out of six patients with increased uptake on the 99mTc-WBC scans, 99mTc-LeukoScan images showed very discreet activity in the bowel, but the sites did not correspond with the inflammation sites seen on 99mTc-WBC scintigraphy and found at endoscopy. In the other three patients, 99mTc-LeukoScan scintigraphy revealed a physiological distribution but no abnormalities. In conclusion, 99mTc-LeukoScan is not an alternative agent for the assessment of IBD. A prospective study is not justified owing to the false-negative results.

  11. Radionuclide studies of chronic schistosomal uropathy. [/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; /sup 131/I-hippuran

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Lamki, N.

    1981-08-01

    Fifty patients with chronic urinary tract schistosomiasis were studied with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA. All had a flow study, sequential analog imaging, and digital imaging for 25 to 35 min (20-sec frames). Time-activity curves (DTPA renograms) were extracted; 12 patients had /sup 131/I-Hippuran probe renograms as well. Renal changes included diminished perfusion and structural abnormalities ranging from minor calyceal dilatation to overt hydronephrosis. Ureteral changes included dilatation, tortuosity, and kinking. Marked distortion of the ureterovesical junction was seen in some patients due to periureteral and perivesicular fibrosis, which is a major factor in upper urinary tract damage. Renograms showed varying obstruction and parenchymal damage. Nuclear medicine complements excretory urography and is sometimes preferable for visualization of the ureters. After the initial urogram, sequential DTPA scanning and renography are sufficient for follow-up.

  12. Hot spot(s) of the lung in technetium-99m albumin colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Brandenburg, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Beeler, J.A.; Magoun, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1988-06-01

    The authors replaced /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid for /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid as a radiopharmaceutical for liver-spleen imaging and found two instances of hot spot(s) in the lung. The preparation procedure of albumin colloid is easier and more convenient as compared to that of sulfur colloid. Whereas replacement of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid by /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid is inevitable, it should be emphasized that one should avoid blood withdrawal in the syringe containing albumin colloid to prevent formation of clot(s) during the venous puncture for /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid.

  13. [The diagnostic value of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and computed tomography for bone metastases of breast cancer: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanxia; Kuang, Anren

    2014-06-01

    According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we searched for relevant original articles in some big Chinese and English databases. The qualities of the studies were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool. A software program, Meta-disc, was used to obtain the pooled estimates and heterogeneity test for sensitivity, specificity, SROC curve, and so on. Finally the 17 article were included. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), Q*, SROC area under curve for 99mTc-MDP bone scan and computed tomography (CT) were 0. 87 and 0.99, 0.81 and 0.98, 3.88 and 13.86, 0.2 and 0.03, 27.73 and 612.17, 0.8418 and 0.9732, 0.9097 and 0.9952, respectively. On a per-focus basis, the pooled SEN, SPE, LR+, LR-, DOR, Q*, SROC area under curve for 99mTc-MDP bone scan was 0.86, 0.97, 13.32, 0.16, 102.4, 0.8944, 0.9528, respectively. For CT, only 1 article were included. This paper demonstrate: whether 99mTc-MDP or CT both have high diagnostic efficiency for bone metastase of breast cancer.

  14. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  15. Gallstone ileus diagnosed by technetium-99m dimethyliminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Elkin, C.M.; Weissmann, H.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-02-01

    Tc-99m IDA cholescintigraphy frequently provides information regarding nonbiliary pathology, such as small bowel obstruction. The cholescintigraphic finding of functional cystic duct obstruction concomitant with persistent small bowel dilatation and lack of progression of labeled bile suggests the diagnosis of gallstone ileus.

  16. Use of /sup 99m/technetium in the diagnosis of patent processus vaginalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegelbaum, M.; Kovach, C.; Siegel, S.

    1988-03-01

    We report 2 cases of scrotal swelling after placement of peritoneal catheters. /sup 99m/Technetium intraperitoneal scanning was used to identify a patent processus vaginalis in each case. This simple, rapid, and nontoxic method can be used routinely to screen patients for a subclinical hernia before institution of intraperitoneal therapy

  17. Diversification in the Supply Chain of (99)Mo Ensures a Future for (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Cathy S; Schwarz, Sally W

    2014-07-01

    The uncertain availability of (99m)Tc has become a concern for nuclear medicine departments across the globe. An issue for the United States is that currently it is dependent on a supply of (99m)Tc (from (99)Mo) that is derived solely by production outside the United States. Since the United States uses half the world's (99)Mo production, the U.S. (99)Mo supply chain would be greatly enhanced if a producer were located within the United States. The fragility of the old (99)Mo supply chain is being addressed as new facilities are constructed and new processes are developed to produce (99)Mo without highly enriched uranium. The conversion to low-enriched uranium is necessary to minimize the potential misuse of highly enriched uranium in the world for nonpeaceful means. New production facilities, new methods for the production of (99)Mo, and a new generator elution system for the supply of (99m)Tc are currently being pursued. The progress made in all these areas will be discussed, as they all highlight the need to embrace diversity to ensure that we have a robust and reliable supply of (99m)Tc in the future. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  19. 99mTc-bioorthogonal click chemistry reagent for in vivo pretargeted imaging

    PubMed Central

    García, María Fernanda; Zhang, Xiuli; Shah, Manankumar; Newton-Northup, Jessica; Cabral, Pablo; Cerecetto, Hugo; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Metal-free click chemistry has become an important tool for pretargeted approaches in the molecular imaging field. The application of bioorthogonal click chemistry between a pretargeted trans-cyclooctene (TCO) derivatized monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a 99mTc-modified 1,2,4,5-tetrazine for tumor imaging was examined in vitro and in vivo. The HYNIC tetrazine compound was synthesized and structurally characterized, confirming its identity. Radiolabeling studies demonstrated that the HYNIC tetrazine was labeled with 99mTc at an efficiency of >95% and was radiochemically stable. 99mTc-HYNIC tetrazine reacted with the TCO-CC49 mAb in vitro demonstrating its selective reactivity. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed non-specific liver and GI uptake due to the hydrophobic property of the compound, however pretargeted SPECT imaging studies demonstrated tumor visualization confirming the success of the cycloaddition reaction in vivo. These results demonstrated the potential of 99mTc- HYNIC-tetrazine for tumor imaging with pretargeted mAbs. PMID:26875936

  20. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

  1. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, X.; Tanguay, J.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Bénard, F.; Ruth, T. J.; Celler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced 99Mo supply, direct production of 99mTc via 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with 99mTc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical 99mTc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  2. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy in a case of Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mudalsha, Ravina; Jacob, MJ; Jora, Charu; Pandit, AG

    2011-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis is a form of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, also known as Touraine-Solente-Gole syndrome. It is a rare disease. In this report, we present the case of a 29-year-old man with this rare disorder, having significant findings on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan. PMID:21969783

  4. (99m)Tc-bioorthogonal click chemistry reagent for in vivo pretargeted imaging.

    PubMed

    García, María Fernanda; Zhang, Xiuli; Shah, Manankumar; Newton-Northup, Jessica; Cabral, Pablo; Cerecetto, Hugo; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Metal-free click chemistry has become an important tool for pretargeted approaches in the molecular imaging field. The application of bioorthogonal click chemistry between a pretargeted trans-cyclooctene (TCO) derivatized monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a (99m)Tc-modified 1,2,4,5-tetrazine for tumor imaging was examined in vitro and in vivo. The HYNIC tetrazine compound was synthesized and structurally characterized, confirming its identity. Radiolabeling studies demonstrated that the HYNIC tetrazine was labeled with (99m)Tc at an efficiency of >95% and was radiochemically stable. (99m)Tc-HYNIC tetrazine reacted with the TCO-CC49 mAb in vitro demonstrating its selective reactivity. In vivo biodistribution studies revealed non-specific liver and GI uptake due to the hydrophobic property of the compound, however pretargeted SPECT imaging studies demonstrated tumor visualization confirming the success of the cycloaddition reaction in vivo. These results demonstrated the potential of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-tetrazine for tumor imaging with pretargeted mAbs.

  5. Pharmacologic alterations in Tc-99m binding by red blood cells: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Wexler, J.P.; Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1983-05-01

    The effect of two antihypertensive agents (captopril and prazosin) and of digoxin on the efficiency of Tc-99m binding to RBCs was evaluated in the rat. RBCs were labeled with Tc-99m in vivo in six groups of rats: I-normotensive controls Wistar rat (WR), II-prazosin treated WR, III-spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), IV-prazosin-treated SHR, V-digoxin-treated WR, and VI-captopril-treated WR. The percentage of intravascular Tc-99m bound to RBC (%T) and the percentage of injected dose remaining intravascular 5 min after injection (%i.v.) were determined. Mean %T was 94.2, 83.8, 94.9, 86.1, 79.7, and 93.3 for groups I-VI respectively. Mean %I.V. was 96.4, 74.6, 94.9, 79.0, 74.4, and 87.4 for groups I-VI respectively. The findings demonstrate a significant reduction of RBC tagging with Tc-99m in rats treated with prazosin and digoxin but not with captopril. The data suggest a potential interference by patient medication with the performance of blood-pool studies.

  6. Technetium-99m-MIBI and thallium-201 uptake in pulmonary actinomycosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aktolun, C.; Demirel, D.; Kir, M.; Bayhan, H.; Maden, H.A. )

    1991-07-01

    A patient with pulmonary actinomycosis who unexpectedly showed focal uptake of technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201 is presented. The appearance of the lesion on the chest radiograph and x-ray CT scan resembled a mediastinal tumor. The diagnosis of pulmonary actinomycosis was achieved by histopathologic examination of the surgically removed mass.

  7. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with the absence of technetium-99m MDP uptake of lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Turktas, H.; Ozturk, C.; Guven, M.; Ugur, P.; Erzen, C.

    1988-12-01

    The authors report a patient with alveolar microlithiasis who was treated for miliary tuberculosis eight years earlier and whose Tc-99m MDP scan revealed absent lung uptake. Diagnosis was established by bronchoalveolar lavage. Both the roentgenogram and computed tomography of the chest confirmed alveolar microlithiasis.

  8. Role of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in the Management of Children with Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Das, Rashmi Ranajn; Malhotra, Arun; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Sahoo, Manas Kumar; Dwivedi, Sadanand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Report. There is a paucity of data on correlation of various imaging modalities with clinical findings in craniosynostosis. Moreover, no study has specifically reported the role of 99mTc-ECD SPECT in a large number of subjects with craniosynostosis. Materials and Methods. We prospectively analyzed a cohort of 85 patients with craniosynostosis from year 2007 to 2012. All patients underwent evaluation with 99mTc-ECD SPECT and the results were correlated with radiological and surgical findings. Results. 99mTc-ECD SPECT revealed regional perfusion abnormalities in