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Sample records for 99m diphosphonate uptake

  1. Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L; Tofe, A J

    1976-06-14

    The bone scanning complex, 99mTc-Sn-EHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate concentration. The nuclidic agent 99mTcO4-BUT NOT THE 99MTc-diphosphonate is selectively taken up by the thyroid and this uptake can be blocked by administering sodium perchlorate. Among the connective tissues studied, the tracheal cartilage seems to have the greatest potential to calcify with increasing age of the animal and man. Soft tissue does not retain the bone scanning complex 99mTc-Sn-EHDP but does retain 99mTcO4-. PMID:182328

  2. [99mTc]diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in experimental arthritis: effect of naproxen in the canine carrageenan injection model.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E S; He, S Z; Søballe, K; Kjølseth, D; Henriksen, T B; Hjortdal, V E; Bünger, C

    1992-09-01

    The impact of naproxen treatment on juxta-articular hemodynamics and bone metabolism in experimental juvenile arthritis was studied in the articular carrageenan injection model. Unilateral gonarthritis was induced for 12 weeks in eight dogs receiving naproxen (dosage, 2 mg/kg) and eight controls. Regional blood flow was assessed by the microsphere method, plasma volume by the distribution space of [125I]fibrinogen, and bone metabolism by the 2-h uptake of [99mTc]diphosphonate ([99mTc]DPD). Synovial effusion was less prominent with naproxen treatment as judged by joint fluid volume and pressure. Naproxen reduced the arthritic capsular hyperemia, almost normalized a severe blood flow increase in patella and both juxta-articular epiphyses, ameliorated an expansion of plasma volume in the patella and the distal femoral epiphysis, and normalized an increased [99mTc]DPD uptake in subchondral femoral bone and the tibial cortex. Significantly increased arteriovenous shunting in the arthritic extremity was unaffected by naproxen. The study suggests that long-term cyclooxygenase inhibition offers protection against hemodynamic and metabolic changes in juxta-articular bone secondary to synovial inflammation. PMID:1500978

  3. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  5. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  6. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  7. Delayed skin rash following administration of technetium-99m diphosphonate: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.; Sorenson, J.F.; Eisenberg, B.; Glactz, G.; Owens, D.; Hladik, W.B. III.; Curry, M.C. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors report a case of a 48-yr-old woman who developed a delayed skin rash following intravenous (i.v.) administration of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP). The rash was characterized by skin biopsy, and it was concluded that the reaction was due to the diphosphonate compound. The rash resolved spontaneously without treatment. With most {sup 99m}Tc-based agents, adverse reactions are considered rare and are usually allergic in nature, but the delayed nature of this reaction is more common with diphosphonate compounds than with other radiopharmaceuticals. If a repeat examination is required, alternative agents (such as {sup 99m}Tc-pyrosphosphate) or any other diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered. An intradermal skin test may be helpful to determine the safest alternative bone agent.

  8. Adverse allergic reaction to Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Stephens, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Adverse allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are rare but have been documented in the literature. This report presents data consistent with a definite adverse reaction to the radiopharmaceutical (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP.

  9. Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

  10. SUV measurement of normal vertebrae using SPECT/CT with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Nawata, Shintaro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015. Various SUVs were calculated based on body-weight, lean-body-weight (lbw), Japanese lean-body-weight (jlbw) and Japanese bone-mineral-content (jbmc). SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a wide range of values. Among these, the maximum body-weight based SUV showed the lowest coefficient of variation. The SUVs also showed relatively small intra-subject variability. In addition, all SUVs showed moderate and significant correlation with height. Moreover, lbw-, jlbw-, and jbmc-based SUVs of men were significantly higher than those of women. In conclusions, SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a relatively large inter-individual variability and small intra-individual variability. As a quantitative imaging biomarker, SUVs might require standardization with adequate reference data for the same subject to minimize variability. PMID:27766184

  11. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  12. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  13. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy findings in posttransplant distal limb syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Bannas, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of posttransplant distal limb syndrome (PTDLS) representing a rare complication in kidney transplant recipients characterized by a pain syndrome of the distal extremities. A 68-year-old man with a history of kidney transplantation presented with symmetrical and incapacitating pain in the feet and knees and underwent whole-body Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy for further evaluation. Planar scintigraphy demonstrated marked tracer uptake in the distal femoral and tibial epiphyses, and magnetic resonance imaging showed corresponding osteoedema. Tc-MDP scintigraphy is a valuable tool for evaluation of the etiology of musculoskeletal pain and may demonstrate typical findings in case of PTDLS.

  14. A comparison of skeletal uptakes of three diphosphonates by whole-body retention: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, I; Pearson, D W; Bessent, R G; Tofe, A J; Francis, M D

    1981-10-01

    Twenty normal volunteers had measurements of 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) of three structurally related Tc-99m-labeled phosphonate skeletal imaging agents: (1-hydroxyethylidene) diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP), and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP). The average WBR values, reflecting skeletal uptake, were 18.4, 30.3, and 36.6%, respectively. These results clearly illustrate that slight alterations in diphosphonate molecular structure have a significant effect upon specificity for osseous tissue, and thus may affect skeletal image quality and the usefulness of the WBR technique in diagnosing metabolic bone disease.

  15. Structural Investigation of Technetium-Diphosphonate Complex 99mTc-MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ling; Lin, Jian-guo; Ju, Xue-hai; Gong, Xue-dong; Luo, Shi-neng

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory method has been employed to investigate the structures of the prototypical technetium-labeled diphosphonate complex 99mTc-MDP, where MDP represents methylenediphosphonic acid. A total of 14 trial structures were generated by allowing for the geometric, conformational, charge, and spin isomerism. Based on the optimized structures and calculated energies at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level, two stable isomers were determined for the title complex. And they were further studied systematically in comparison with the experimental structure. The basis sets 6-31G*(LANL2DZ for Tc), 6-31G*(cc-pVDZ-pp for Tc), and DGDZVP have also been employed in combination with the B3LYP functional to study the basis set effect on the geometries of isomers. The optimized structures agree well with the available experimental data, and the bond lengths are more sensitive to the basis set than the bond angles. The charge distributions were studied by the Mulliken population analysis and natural bond orbital analysis. The results reflect a significant ligand-to-metal electron donation.

  16. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Madhavan, Devdas; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma.

  17. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Madhavan, Devdas; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma. PMID:24379534

  18. /sup 99m/Tc-DPD uptake in juvenile hemarthrosis. Scintimetry and autoradiography of the knee in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Noer, I.; Christensen, S.B.; Holm, I.E.; Buenger, C.

    1989-03-01

    The pathogenesis of subchondral bone lesions and growth plate affection in hemophilic arthropathy was studied in puppies by means of repeated regional /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry and contact autoradiography. Unilateral hemarthrosis of the knee was induced by biweekly intraarticular injections of autologous blood for 12 weeks. Hemarthrosis caused an early (2 to 4 weeks) decrease in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate in the juxtaarticular growth plates (ratio 0.7) and a delayed (8 to 10 weeks) increase in epiphyseal uptake (ratio 1.5). In a recovery phase after hemarthrosis, growth plate uptake returned to normal, while the epiphyseal uptake remained elevated for 8 to 10 weeks. By contact autoradiography, the growth plate uptake was localized to the calcification layer at the metaphyseal aspect of the growth plates, while the epiphyseal uptake mainly was seen in the thin subchondral and subsynovial bone layer and around osteophytes. The changes in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate following hemarthrosis for 3 months were reversible and could be ascribed to the presence of synovial inflammation.

  19. Comparison of Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m HSA and Tc-99m HIG uptake in rheumatoid arthritis and its variants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, M; Bernay, I; Basoglu, T; Canturk, F

    1999-12-01

    Tc-99m polyclonal immunoglobulin-G has been shown to be a successful agent in the depiction of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to compare the uptake behaviors of Tc-99m HIG and Tc-99m MDP in RA and variants of rheumatoid arthritis (VRA). Seventeen patients with RA and 8 patients with VRA presenting with active inflammation were included in this study. Ten subjects with well-diagnosed degenerative joint disease constituted the control group. All joints in patients were also imaged with Tc-99m HSA to evaluate the vascularization status of the joints. Tc-99m HIG and HSA scans were obtained at 2, 4 and 24 hours after the injection of 555 MBq Tc-99m HIG and 296 MBq Tc-99m HSA. Conventional bone scans were performed 4 hours after the injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Target-to-background (T/B) ratios were obtained exclusively over the joint regions. Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios of the active joints in RA were significantly higher than those of the non-active joints and the control group (p < 0.05). Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios in active joints showed a progressive increase between 2 and 24 hour images (p < 0.05). In contrast, Tc-99m HSA T/B ratios decreased in all active joints significantly (p < 0.05) except the ankle joint region (p > 0.05). The T/B ratios in Tc-99m MDP bone scans were higher in all active joints than in non-active RA joints and joints of controls but significantly differences were only detected in wrist and elbow joints. All clinically active joints in VRA patients accumulated Tc-99m HIG and HSA, and showed increased Tc-99m MDP uptake. These joints had a very similar Tc-99m HIG retention pattern to the RA joints. The detection rate of active joint inflammation with Tc-99m HIG was much higher than that with Tc-99m MDP. The increasing Tc-99m HIG uptake ratio between 2 and 24 hours in contrast to Tc-99m HSA indicates the presence of other binding mechanisms besides increased vascularity in RA.

  20. Discordant hepatic uptake between Tc-99m sulfur colloid and Tc-99m DISIDA in hypervitaminosis A

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.M.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Davidson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Scintigraphic findings in a patient with biopsy-proven hypervitaminosis A included markedly impaired hepatic uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid but essentially normal uptake of Tc-99m DISIDA. This case presents a potential cause for image discordance with these two agents.

  1. Poor Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake, re-evaluation with Tc-99m MAG3 scintigraphy in Lowe syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Demirel, Koray; Diri, Akif; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2011-01-01

    Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is filtered through the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules as low molecular weight proteins. In Lowe syndrome this mechanism is impaired and so poor DMSA uptake is seen. Poor DMSA uptake was shown in very few studies, but none mentioned normal Tc-99m MAG3 uptake. In this case, the patient had poor DMSA uptake, normal MAG3 uptake and a neurogenic bladder in anterior to the left kidney that attenuates left kidney. PMID:23559713

  2. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  3. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  4. Effect of EHDP on calcium accumulation and technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Buja, L.M.; Tofe, A.J.; Parkey, R.W.; Francis, M.D.; Lewis, S.E.; Kulkarni, P.V.; Bonte, F.J.; Willerson, J.T.

    1981-11-01

    Ethane-l-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) inhibits bone mineral growth. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that EHDP would interfere with the process of calcium uptake and deposition in evolving myocardial infarction and thereby influence other parameters, including technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) uptake and scintigraphic visualization of the infarcts. Permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was produced in beagles. In seven dogs, serum EHDP was maintained at 10-15 ..mu..g/ml for 24 hours by continuous i.v. infusion, and seven control dogs were infused with saline. The Tc-99m PYP was infected 2 hours before sacrifice. EHDP-treated dogs showed a mild decrease (20%) in mean calcium content of infarcted myocardium (102.4 +/- 6.4 ..mu..g (+/- SEM) per gram wet weight (n = 51) vs 126.7 +/- 9.5 (n = 49) (p < 0.05)). These dogs showed a prominent decrease (37%) in mean Tc-99m PYP content of infarcted myocardium (18.2 +/- 1.4 (% dose/g x 10/sup -3/) (n = 46) vs 28.9 +/- 4.3 (n = 46) (p < 0.005)) and a marked decrease (65%) in infarct-to-normal ratio (6.1 +/- 0.9 (n = 6) vs 15.9 +/- 3.7 (n = 6) (p < 0.05)). Positive relationships were demonstrated between myocardial Tc-99m PYP and calcium levels in the EHDP-treated dogs (r = 0.69) and the control dogs (r = 0.77). Infarct size and regional myocardial blood flow changes were similar in the EHDP-treated and control dogs. The average grade (0-4+) of the Tc-99m PYP myocardial scintigrams for infarcts greater than 3.5 g was 2.4 +/- 0.2 for control dogs and 1.1 +/- 0.4 for EHDP-treated dogs (p < 0.05). Thus, EHDP infusion at the dose tested produced a mild decrease in calcium accumulation in canine infarcts; however, it produced a greater reduction in Tc-99m PYP uptake in the infarcts.

  5. Radionuclide evaluation of free vascularized bone graft viability. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Rennie, W.R.J.; Daniel, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    Free vascularized bone grafting is a new technique applied to the reconstructive surgery of long bones affected by aggressive benign or malignant processes, as well as traumatic deficiencies. These bone lesions may be treated by en bloc excision and replacement with fibular segments or osteocutaneous flaps from the groin isolated on their vascular pedicle. Microvascular anastomosis of the pedicle at the recipient site is necessary. Radionuclide bone imaging is unique in the assessment of the free vascularized bone graft because postoperative graft uptake of radiopharmaceutical reflects patent anastomoses and segmental bone viability.

  6. Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine oxine (HM-PAO) uptake in a bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Sameshima, M.; Uwada, O.; Watanabe, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uptake of Tc-99m Hexamethylpropylene-amine Oxine (HM-PAO) was seen in bone metastases from carcinoma of the lung. The uptake was prominent when compared to Tc-99m MDP, I-123 IMP, and Ga-67 citrate. Brain imaging with Tc-99m HM-PAO and N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) is now frequently performed. Uptake of these agents has been reported in brain tumors and melanomas. In this report, uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO in a metastatic lesion in bone is discussed.

  7. Abnormal focal 99mTc-DMSA uptake in the lung--report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Amoui, Mahasti; Halimi Asl, Ali Asghar; Assadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Extrarenal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA is a rare finding, which has been described in some unusual conditions as bone metastasis, aortic aneurysm and hemangioma. The purpose of this report is to present two cases of abnormal 99mTc-DMSA uptake in the lungs, which remained unexplained even after radiologic assessment.

  8. Interobserver variability in the interpretation of myocardial images with Tc-99m-labeled diphosphonate and pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, A.; Acero, A.P.; Cardenas, M.; Huerta, D.; Rodriguez, A.; de Garay, R.

    1980-01-01

    Without prior knowledge of the significant clinical data, six observers have independently evaluated a consecutive series of 250 myocardial scans made with Tc-99m-labeled phosphates: 127 with MDP and 123 with PPi. Of the 226 patients, all having acute precordial chest pain, 169 were shown to have acute myocardial infarction while 57 suffered acute distress from other causes. The six observers, varying in their experience with nuclear medicine, compared the intensity of uptake in the heart with that in bone, and rated their impression of a positive image by a six-category scale - that is, one with five criterion levels. Results were expressed as receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, from which the optimal individual criterion level for each observer was determined. We found very high interobserver variability in the perception of the shades of myocardial concentration, although they were based on strict and apparently objective criteria. This variability has a direct influence on the overall performance of each observer. In every instance, PPi was demonstrated to be a better tracer than MDP for myocardial imaging. The bias of the experience, visual perception, and psychology of the observer at the time of the reading of the images seems to be significant, as is the presence of uncorrected visual defects. These results justify the setting of special programs to evaluateperiodically the performance of every physician who interprets studies, to establish his optimal individual criterion level instead of using a fixed criterion level to decide whether an image is positive.

  9. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in long-term catheterized kidney. Comparison with renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Higashihara, E.; Tokuda, H.; Kishi, H.; Niijima, T.; Okada, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Iio, M.

    1988-04-01

    We studied 23 long-term catheterized kidneys in 14 patients. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc acid (/sup 99m/Tc-DMSA) was measured at one- and two-hour intervals after injection, and the uptake was corrected for variations in renal depth. These values were compared with inulin, creatinine, and para-amino hippurate (PAH) clearances which were measured in each kidney by collecting urine through long-term catheterization. Correlation coefficient was obtained between PAH clearance corrected for the body surface area and the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. The correlation coefficients between the two-hour uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA and the clearance values are not significantly different from those between the one-hour uptake and the clearance values. Corrections of the uptake for variations in renal depth did not improve the correlation coefficients. The results show that /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA is an excellent method to estimate the renal plasma flow and the one-hour uptake without correction for renal depth is clinically sufficient to evaluate the split renal function.

  10. Abdominal and hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Caride, V.J.; Touloukian, R.J.; Ablow, R.C.; Lange, R.C.; Matthews, T.

    1981-04-01

    Abdominal /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) scans were obtained in 15 neonates: 12 with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), two with osteomyelitis, and one with myocarditis. Ten of the babies with NEC had at least one positive scan; of these 10 studies, seven (Group A) showed both diffuse abdominal uptake and localized hepatic activity, two (Group B) showed abdominal uptake and questionable hepatic uptake, and one (Group C) demonstrated diffuse abdominal uptake only. The other two babies with NEC had normal scans (Group D). All NEC patients had normal scans. A patient with myocarditis had hepatic uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-PYP while the abdominal scan in the two infants with osteomyelitis was normal. These preliminary observations suggest that further study of a relationship between abdominal scan findings and the course of NEC is warranted.

  11. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  12. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA: Evidence for glomerular filtration and peritubular uptake

    SciTech Connect

    de Lange, M.J.; Piers, D.A.; Kosterink, J.G.; van Luijk, W.H.; Meijer, S.; de Zeeuw, D.; van der Hem, G.K.

    1989-07-01

    The finding of an enhanced excretion of (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in patients with tubular reabsorption disorders prompted us to investigate the role of filtration in the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA. Our studies in human serum indicated that binding to serum proteins was approximately 90%. Chromatography of human urine and studies in rats showed that the complex was excreted unaltered into the urine. Renal extraction of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in a human volunteer was 5.8%. Continuous infusion of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in 13 individuals with normal renal function gave the following results (mean +/- s.d.): plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 34 +/- 4 ml/min, urinary clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA 12 +/- 3 ml/min. The calculated filtered load of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA closely resembled the urinary clearance, whereas the plasma clearance was about three times faster. This indicates that peritubular uptake accounts for approximately 65% and filtration for approximately 35% of the renal handling of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  13. Regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Chaplin, S.B.; Oberle, P.O.; Hoffman, T.J.; Volkert, W.A.; Holmes, R.A.; Nowotnik, D.P.; Pickett, R.D.; Neirinckx, R.

    1985-05-01

    Tc-99m-propylene amine oxime (Tc-99m-PnAO) is a neutral lipophilic chelate that rapidly and passively enters the cerebral cortex (80% on first pass in baboon brain) and then clears exponentially leaving inadequate activity to perform conventional SPECT brain imaging. When side chains are attached to the PnAO backbone lipophilicity is increased, as well as brain retention. In this work the authors evaluated regional brain uptake and retention of Tc-99m-PnAO and several of its derivatives in rat brain using serial autoradiography (ARG). Autoradiographs of each Tc-99m chelate at 5 sec. post peak brain uptake demonstrate discrete grey to white matter differentiation. White matter tracts are well delineated and the darker areas of grey matter appearing in the midbrain and thalamus, corresponding to areas of high capillary density and high blood flow documented with C-14-iodoantipyrine, are easily distinguished. Within 5 min. of the peak uptake the regional uptake and grey/white differentiation is lost on the Tc-99m-PnAO ARG. In contrast the 5 min. ARG of the more lipophilic Tc-99m, chelate with dimethyl-PnAO (DMPnAO) shows the complete reverse of the 5 sec. ARG, with greater activity in the white matter tracts than in the grey matter. One of the derivatives, tetramethyl-PAO (TMPAO) complexed with Tc-99m is retained in the grey matter of rat brain and shows persistent grey to white localization for at least 60 min., analogous to what has been reported with I-123-IMP. These results suggest that Tc-99m-TMPAO or one of its derivatives may be appropriate for SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow abnormalities.

  14. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics. PMID:25210282

  15. Differential uptake of Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC in renal tubular disorders: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reddy Gorla, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m EC studies are invaluable functional imaging modalities for renal structural and functional assessment. Normally, the relative renal function estimated by the two methods correlates well with each other. We here present two patients with renal tubular acidosis who showed impaired/altered DMSA uptake with normal EC renal dynamic study depicting the pitfall of DMSA imaging in tubular disorders. The two presented cases also depict distinct pattern of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphic findings in patients with proximal and distal renal tubular acidosis, thus highlighting the factors affecting DMSA kinetics.

  16. Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, L.L.; Brittin, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents demonstrate functional asplenia. In the context of fever, left upper quadrant pain, and splenomegaly, the pattern of calcification in the patient's spleen as revealed in ultrasound and CT studies suggested possible abscess and led to unnecessary splenectomy. The nuclear medicine studies did not support this diagnosis. Nuclear medicine physicians should not be misled by splenic findings of sickle cell thalassemia (and possibly of other heterozygous sickle cell disorders) that differ from those of the more familiar homozygous sickle cell anemia.

  17. Statistical parametric mapping demonstrates asymmetric uptake with Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT in normal brain.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Jones, David T; Stead, Matt; Kazemi, Noojan; O'Brien, Terence J; So, Elson L; Blumenfeld, Hal; Mullan, Brian P; Worrell, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate diethylester (ECD) and Tc-99m hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are commonly used for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies of a variety of neurologic disorders. Although these tracers have been very helpful in diagnosing and guiding treatment of neurologic disease, data describing the distribution and laterality of these tracers in normal resting brain are limited. Advances in quantitative functional imaging have demonstrated the value of using resting studies from control populations as a baseline to account for physiologic fluctuations in cerebral perfusion. Here, we report results from 30 resting Tc-99m ECD SPECT scans and 14 resting Tc-99m HMPAO scans of normal volunteers with no history of neurologic disease. Scans were analyzed with regions of interest and with statistical parametric mapping, with comparisons performed laterally (left vs. right), as well as for age, gender, and handedness. The results show regions of significant asymmetry in the normal controls affecting widespread areas in the cerebral hemispheres, but most marked in superior parietotemporal region and frontal lobes. The results have important implications for the use of normal control SPECT images in the evaluation of patients with neurologic disease.

  18. Extrahepatic uptake of 99mTc-phytate: its mechanism and significance in chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Huet, P M; Chartrand, R; Marleau, D

    1980-01-01

    The extrahepatic uptake of 99mTc-phytate was evaluated using scintigrams in 47 patients, including 37 patients with cirrhosis, 7 with presinusoidal portal hypertension, and 3 with idiopathic splenomegaly. In these 47 patients, combined umbilicoportal, hepatic vein, and superior mesenteric artery catheterization was performed. The Kupffer cell uptake of 125Iodinated albumin microaggregates was measured during a single passage through the liver, and this parameter was used as an index of the functional hepatic blood flow. A highly significant negative correlation was found between the extrahepatic uptake of 99mTc-phytate and the hepatic uptake of 125I-albumin microaggregates. However, no correlation was found between the extrahepatic uptake and portal hypertension as evaluated by the porohepatic gradient. The present study strongly suggests that the 99mTc-phytate extrahepatic uptake is mainly due to a failure of the diseased liver to remove colloids and is not related to the degree of portal hypertension. Our data also indicate that 99mTc-phytate liver scan may provide an indirect assessment of the functional hepatic blood supply and might be useful in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases.

  19. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  20. Lung uptake on Tc-99m albumin colloid liver spleen scan and on Ga-67 scan in angiotropic lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kacki, M.H.; Joyce, J.M.; Coupal, J.J.; Ryo, U.Y. )

    1990-03-01

    Lung uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid has been reported in various hepatic and extrahepatic diseases, and lung uptake of gallium-67 may occur in patients with various interstitial lung disease without radiographic abnormality. This may be the first case of Tc-99m albumin colloid and Ga-67 lung uptake in a patient with angiotropic lymphoma of the liver, spleen, and uterus.

  1. Quantitation of renal uptake of technetium-99m DMSA using SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Groshar, D.; Frankel, A.; Iosilevsky, G.; Israel, O.; Moskovitz, B.; Levin, D.R.; Front, D.

    1989-02-01

    Quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) methodology based on calibration with kidney phantoms has been applied for the assessment of renal uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in 25 normals; 16 patients with a single normal kidney; 30 patients with unilateral nephropathy; and 17 patients with bilateral nephropathy. An excellent correlation (r = 0.99, s.e.e. = 152) was found between SPECT measured concentration and actual concentration in kidney phantoms. Kidney uptake at 6 hr after injection in normals was 20.0% +/- 4.6% for the left and 20.8% +/- 4.4% for the right. Patients with unilateral nephropathy had a statistically significant (p less than 0.001) low uptake in the diseased kidney (7.0% +/- 4.7%), but the contralateral kidney uptake did not differ from the normal group (20.0% +/- 7.0%). The method was especially useful in patients with bilateral nephropathy. Significantly (p less than 0.001) decreased uptake was found in both kidneys (5.1% +/- 3.4% for the left and 6.7% +/- 4.2% for the right). The total kidney uptake (right and left) in this group showed to be inversely correlated (r = 0.83) with serum creatinine. The uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA in single normal kidney was higher (p less than 0.001) than in a normal kidney (34.7% +/- 11.9%), however, it was lower than the total absolute uptake (RT + LT = 41.5% +/- 8.8%) in the normal group. The results indicate that SPECT is a reliable and reproducible technique to quantitate absolute kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  2. Pentavalent technetium-99m (V)-DMSA uptake in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.K.; Fataar, A.; Byrne, M.J.; Levitt, N.S.; Matley, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This case report describes {sup 99m}Tc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) accumulation in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA demonstrated uptake in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT). Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed the bilateral pheochromocytomas but did not demonstrate uptake in the MCT.

  3. Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GHA) renal uptake: Influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m-GHA is widely used for renal imaging but little is known about its handling by the kidney. Simultaneous single injection clearances of Tc-99m-GHA and I-125 Iothalamate were performed on 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats divided among six groups: I Control; II Dehydrated; III Mannitol infusion; IV Probenecid; V Alkaline urine (sodium bicarbonate); and VI Acid urine (ammonium chloride). Plasma concentration and urine excretion were followed during 80 minutes post injection. The livers and kidneys were removed and counted 120 minutes post injection. Total clearance of GHA was lower than Iothalamate in controls (0.90 +- 0.24 S.D. ml/min/100gr vs 1.47 +- 0.18, p < 0.005) but clearance of the protein free supernate was higher (1.67 +- 0.28 p=N.S.) raising a possibility of degree of tubular secretion. Unlike Tc-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) acidification of the urine appeared to have no effect on the amount of GHA in the urine (66.1 +- 6.35% Inj. dose vs 67.19 +- 6.05 p=n.s.) and hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1%. Kidney uptake of GHA was 11.16 +- 1.53 (% Inj. dose) in controls. This varied slightly among groups but was markedly reduced by Probenecid blockade (4.08 +- 1.75, p < 0.0005). It appears that liver uptake of GHA is minimal, the non-protein bound fraction is freely filtered and its clearance correlates significantly with the GFR. Importantly renal accumulation of GHA is blocked by probenecid suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by the enzyme system involved in PAH and Hippuran transport. It thus appears that measurement of renal function with GHA represents a different aspect of function than DMSA.

  4. (99m)Tc-DMSA absolute and relative renal uptake in cats: procedure and normal values.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, Eva; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Waelbers, Tim; Vermeire, Simon T; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y

    2011-06-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of technical factors (positioning, background (BG) correction and attenuation correction) on qualitative and quantitative (absolute (AU) and relative (RU) uptake) assessment of feline kidneys with (99m)technetium labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA). Eleven healthy adult cats were included. Influence of BG and depth correction on quantitative assessment was evaluated. Depth correction was based on the geometric mean method (using dorsal and ventral images) and the use of two standards placed over each individual kidney. Visual evaluation showed superiority of dorsal and ventral over lateral positioning due to increased separation of the kidneys permitting region of interest (ROI) placement without overlap. No apparent influence of BG correction was found for RU. However, AU was systematically overestimated without BG correction. Depth correction did not seem to affect RU in most cases, however, in some cats the differences were not negligible. The values for AU without depth correction were lower compared to depth corrected values.

  5. Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in small cell lung cancer: A predictor of response to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bom, H.S.; Kim, Y.C.; Song, H.C.

    1996-05-01

    Patients(pts) with small cell lung cancer(SCLC) often fail to respond to chemotherapy due to multi-drug resistance(MDR). Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) was reported to be a suitable transport substrate of P-glycoprotein, a cytoplasmic membrane protein encoded by the MDR gene. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the degree of MIBI uptake in SCLC or its retention on delayed imaging correlated with response to chemotherapy. 19 pts (M:F=13:6, mean age 60.2 {plus_minus} 10.9) with biopsy-proven SCLC had MIBI SPECT 3 to 7 days before starting chemotherapy. Imaging was acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of 740MBq MIBI using single head rotating gamma camera. Tumor-to-normal lung uptake ratio(T/NL) was measured. Per cent retention(%R) was measured as: %R = (T/NL at 4 hour {divided_by} T/NL at 1 hour) X 100. All patients received VAP chemotherapy (VP-16 100mg/m{sup 2}, adriamycin 40mg/m{sup 2}, cisplatin 25mg/m{sup 2}) every 4 weeks for at least 3 times. Response to chemotherapy was grouped as complete remission(CR), partial remission (PR), and no remission(NR) according to the change of tumor size on chest X-ray and computed tomographic images. Differences in T/NL and %R among the 3 groups were analyzed using ANOVA. These preliminary data indicate that SCLC with a higher MIBI uptake is more likely to respond to chemotherapy than that with a lower uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between the MIBI retention and the response to chemotherapy.

  6. Dystrophic calcification in muscles of legs in calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia syndrome: Accurate evaluation of the extent with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Kumar, Kunal; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old man with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia variant scleroderma who presented with dysphagia, Raynaud's phenomenon and calf pain. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed to identify the extent of the calcification. It revealed extensive dystrophic calcification in the left thigh and bilateral legs which was involving the muscles and was well-delineated on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Calcinosis in scleroderma usually involves the skin but can be found in deeper periarticular tissues. Myopathy is associated with a poor prognosis.

  7. Effect of ischemia and postischemic dysfunction on myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-labeled methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Sinusas, A.J.; Watson, D.D.; Cannon, J.M. Jr.; Beller, G.A. )

    1989-12-01

    The myocardial uptake of a new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial perfusion agent, methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI), and thallium-201 was correlated with microsphere flow in an open chest canine model of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction. Eighteen dogs were given an injection of thallium-201 (0.5 mCi) and Tc-99m MIBI (5 mCi) either after 40 min of partial left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group I, 10 dogs) or during reperfusion after 15 min of left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group II, 8 dogs). Regional dysfunction was documented during injection in both groups by quantitative two-dimensional echocardiography. Regional blood flow was assessed by radiolabeled microspheres. The heart was excised 15 min after radionuclide injection and the left ventricle divided into 96 segments for gamma well counting. Among Group I dogs, central ischemic thallium-201 and Tc-99m MIBI activity (expressed as a percent of the activity in the corresponding nonischemic zone) was comparable, respectively, for endocardial (54 +/- 17% and 52 +/- 17%), mid-wall (71 +/- 20% and 69 +/- 17%) and epicardial (89 +/- 13% and 94 +/- 9%) segments and increased proportionally with flow. There was a good linear correlation among these endocardial segments between flow and both thallium-201 (r = 0.78) and Tc-99m MIBI (r = 0.85) activity. Among Group II dogs, central ischemic endocardial flow (59 +/- 14%) was comparable to thallium-201 (70 +/- 18%) and Tc-99m MIBI (74 +/- 12%) activity. Similarly, relative endocardial flow in the intermediate ischemic region (71 +/- 11%) was comparable to thallium-201 (77 +/- 11%) and Tc-99m MIBI (81 +/- 10%) activity. Thus, myocardial uptake of Tc-99m MIBI and thallium-201 is comparable under conditions of low coronary flow and postischemic dysfunction and closely parallels flow alterations.

  8. Thyroid uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc) pertechnetate during in vivo RBC labeling: incidental diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, K.A.; Ponto, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    Increased thyroid activity was incidentally observed during an in vivo labeled Tc-99m blood pool scan and subsequent evaluation resulted in a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Alternate explanations of abnormal thyroid uptake on in vivo labeled blood pool scans were considered and are discussed briefly.

  9. Quantitative analysis of tight junctions and the uptake of /sup 99m/Tc in human gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Nir, I.; Kohn, S.; Doron, Y.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1986-01-01

    The structural dimensions of capillary tight junctions and the uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate in human gliomas were studied. Quantitative analysis revealed a correlation between the uptake of radionuclides and the length of endothelial tight junctions. It is suggested that brain scintigraphy might be used for the selection of malignant brain tumors with altered tight junctions which might be accessible to chemotherapy with water-soluble agents.

  10. Tc-99m DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of Tc-99m DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of Tc-99m DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) with time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of Tc-99m DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies.

  11. 99mTc DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of 99mTc DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of 99mTc DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) ith time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of 99mTc DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies.

  12. Assessment of Tracer 99mTc(V)-DMSA Uptake as a Measure of Tumor Cell Proliferation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saeedi, Fatma J.; Mathew, Princy M.; Luqmani, Yunus A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether 99mTc(V)-DMSA could be used as a non-invasive measure of cancer cell proliferation. Methods Human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and pII, and prostate cancer PC-3 cell lines were grown to 30, 50 and 100% confluency and pulsed with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in media for 60 min at 37°C. DNA synthesis was analysed by quantification of the S phase using flow cytometry, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation and expression of proliferation markers PCNA and Ki-67 using realtime PCR. One way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Results In all cell lines rates of 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake were inversely related to cell density. This was paralleled by similar trends in S phase proportions, [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation and expression of PCNA and Ki-67. Conclusion Rates of 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake into different types of tumour cells correlate well with cell density that is useful as a non-invasive measure of tumour cellular proliferation in vivo. PMID:23335999

  13. Relationship between Tl-201, Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate and F-18 2-deoxyglucose uptake in ischemically injured dog myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H.; Schwaiger, M.; Schelbert, H.R.; Huang, S.C.; Ellison, D.; Hansen, H.; Selin, C.; Parodi, O.; Phelps, M.E.

    1987-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that enhanced glucose utilization in reperfused myocardium as assessed by F-18 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and positron tomography predicts functional recovery. In this study, we compared segmental uptake of F-18 FDG with that of Tl-201 and Tc-99m (Sn) pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi) as conventional markers of tissue viability in seven dogs after a 3-hour intracoronary balloon occlusion and 20 hours of reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined with microspheres. Regional retention fractions were calculated from tracer tissue concentrations, the arterial input function, and blood flow. Ischemic injury was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and histologic analysis. At 24 hours, blood flow was 22% lower in reperfused than in control myocardium (p less than 0.05). Uptake of Tl-201 was related linearly to blood flow (r = 0.92), while glucose utilization and Tc-99m PPi were 2.9 (p less than 0.01) and 4.7 (p less than 0.05) times higher in reperfused than in control myocardium. Retention fractions of Tc-99m PPi increased with the degree of ischemic injury, while F-18 FDG uptake was highest in segments with mild cell injury. Thus, in ischemically injured myocardium, Tl-201 primarily reflects blood flow. F-18 FDG as a marker of glucose utilization identifies ischemically injured but viable tissue. The admixture of necrotic cells can be determined with Tc-99m PPi. Our results indicate that a dual tracer approach might best characterize the presence and extent of reversibly and of irreversibly injured tissue in a given myocardial region.

  14. Avid thyroid uptake of (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate in children with goitrous cretinism

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Domstad, P.A.; Choy, Y.C.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-07-01

    Three children with goitrous hypothyroidism had thyroid scans with (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate, which showed symmetrically enlarged thyroid glands with uniformly increased activities compared to little activities in the salivary glands and low body background activities. These scan findings, simulating those of Graves' disease, reflect acid trapping of this tracer, analogous to that seen with I-131. Perchlorate discharge test was positive in two patients, indicating an organification defect.

  15. A comparison of bone imaging with Tc-99m DPD and Tc-99m MDP: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Zorn-Bopp, E.; Reuschel, W.; Muenzing, W.; Moser, E.A.; Seiderer, M.

    1982-03-01

    Bone to soft tissue (ST) ratios for both high-uptake bone (sacrum) and low-uptake bone (femoral diaphysis) were obtained with a derivative of phosphonic acid, TC-99m 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD), in 26 normal subjects and 177 patients with malignant disease but without metastases. Tests were run 2 hr after tracer injection. Similar ratios were obtained with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in 220 normal subjects and 451 patients. With MDP, the influence of incubation time (5-10 min in 416 cases, 45 min in 185 cases) on these ratios was determined. DPD was superior to MDP for both ratios. With MDP, prolonged incubation time yielded significantly enhanced ratios; however, the ratios for the DPD were still higher. With either agent and preparation, sacrum-to-ST ratios decreased with increasing subject age, and in patients with malignant disease the ratios tended to be higher than those obtained from normals.

  16. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  17. Relative decreased splenic uptake of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in patients with pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tatum, J.L.; Burke, T.S.; Fratkin, M.J.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.; Goodrich, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    Relative spleen/liver activity ratio was determined from posterior projection images using a photodensitometric method. Ratios from scans of 22 patients with proven pancreatic carcinoma (12 from rectilinear scans and 10 from scintillation camera images) were determined and compared to studies from patients documented as normal and to randomly selected liver/spleen imaging studies which had been previously interpreted as normal. The mean ratio from the pancreatic carcinoma group was significantly lower than the means of the respective normal groups (p(t) less than .0001 for rectilinear scans and p(t) less than .001 for scintigrams). There was no significant difference between the means of the proven normal and randomly selected normal groups or between the two pancreatic carcinoma groups. Splenic vascular alteration is discussed as a possible reason for decreased splenic distribution of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in this patient group.

  18. Augmenting tumor uptake of Tc-99m monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with biological response modifiers: Influence of interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Thakur, M.L.; Wilder, S.

    1994-05-01

    Following the evaluation of radiolabeled MAbs for scintigraphic imaging or therapy, low tumor uptake emerged as one of the most prominent problems. The aim of this investigation was to examine the influence of interferon (IFN)-{alpha}2b in augmenting uptake of Tc-99m labeled antimelanoma MAb 31.3 in nude mice bearing experimental human melanoma. MAb was labeled with Tc-99m by our ascorbic acid mediated reduction technique, analyzed and 20 {mu}g containing 40-120 {mu}Ci Tc-99m were administered i.v., 1 hr following i.m. or i.v. administration of 10K, 20K, or 100K i.u. IFN-{alpha}2b. Animals receiving 0.9% saline similarly served as controls. 4 and 24 hrs later, animals were sacrificed, imaged, and dissected for tissue distribution studies. Tumor blood flow was measured before and after administration of IFN by color Doppler imaging technique, intratumoral temperature was recorded using thermocouples, and tumor histology was performed to visualize tumor lymphocytic infiltration. Although no excessive lymphocytic infiltration was seen within 72 hr post-injection of IFN, and only a modest increase in tumor temperature was noted, a significant increase in blood flow was observed within 45 min. as differentiated by amplitudes at peak systolic and end diastolic cardiac cycles. The best tumor uptake enhancement was noted at 24 hr following i.m. administration of 20K i.u. IFN and measured greater than 300% of the control value (7.2{plus_minus}1.2%/g vs. 2.2{plus_minus}1.4%/g). IFN-{alpha}2b enhances tumor blood flow in experimental tumors and significantly augments the uptake of radiolabeled MAbs.

  19. Technetium-99m-HDP uptake characteristics in equine fractures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, E; Geissbühlerl, U; Doherr, M G; Lang, J

    2006-10-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a very sensitive diagnostic tool to detect elevated bone metabolism. In cases of fractures and fissure fractures, the radiopharmaceutical uptake in the bone is said to be increased within a few hours after the injury. In this retrospective study, the scintigraphic uptake characteristics at the fracture site of 36 horses with radiographically confirmed fractures or fissure fractures were evaluated. Uptake ratios between the fracture region and adjacent normal bone or soft tissue activity respectively were calculated and compared to different anamnestic and radiographic data. The overall sensitivity of bone scintigraphy was 94.4% (34 positive cases out of 36). In the 36 horses, no correlation between the age of the fracture and the radiopharmaceutical uptake was found. However, there seems to be a lack of sensitivity in early detection of equine pelvic fractures when a standing bone scintigraphy examination protocol is used.

  20. Technetium-99m (v) dimercaptosuccinic acid uptake in patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma: Experience in imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Watkinson, J.C.; Lazarus, C.R.; Mistry, R.; Shaheen, O.H.; Maisey, M.N.; Clarke, S.E.

    1989-02-01

    A recently developed imaging agent, technetium-99m (v) dimercaptosuccinic acid (/sup 99m/Tc (v) DMSA), has been used to assess head and neck squamous carcinoma (SCC). We have prospectively studied 62 patients of whom 53 had a histologically proven head and neck SCC. The remaining nine had benign lesions. The results of planar imaging in patients with primary disease yielded an 85% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Planar imaging in patients with cervical lymphadenopathy revealed a 59% sensitivity. Nineteen patients also had single photon emission computed tomography imaging which improved the image quality, spatial resolution and sensitivity of the investigation. Twenty-seven patients were scanned before and after radiotherapy and, of these, 96% showed positive uptake in the salivary glands with no evidence of tumor recurrence. This study has shown /sup 99m/Tc (v) DMSA imaging provides a cheap and rapid method of investigating head and neck SCC and further studies are necessary to evaluate its role in the management of patients with this disease.

  1. Effect of trifluoperazine on Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdülrezzak, Ümmühan; Erdoğan, Zeynep; Silov, Güler; Özdal, Ayşegül; Turhal, Özgül

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an effect of trifluoperazine on Tc-99m  methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) uptake in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NCLC). Materials and Methods: A total of 23 patients with biopsy-proven advanced NCLC who had no previous history of chemo-radiotherapy, underwent baseline dual phase planar, single photon emission computed tomography and whole body Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy performed at 20 and 120 min. After oral administration of trifluoperazine (5 mg, 2 times a day, for 5 days), dual phase Tc-99m MIBI scintigraphy was repeated. For each patient, and for both studies, regions of interest were drawn over the tumor area (T) and over the normal lung area (L) on the contralateral side in transverse slices where tumor was visualized clearly. Then, early and delayed T/L ratios and washout rate (WR) were calculated. Results: Tc-99m MIBI was accumulated in the cancer tissue in all of the patients. Delayed ratio after the oral administration of trifluoperazine (DR2) was significantly higher (P = 0.039) than delayed ratio before trifluoperazine (DR1). We found no significant differences of early ratio before trifluoperazine (ER1) and early ratio after trifluoperazine (ER2), and washout rate before (WR1) and washout rate after trifluoperazine (WR2). Conclusion: In patients with advanced NCLC, trifluoperazine treatment in addition to chemotherapy might be useful. However, our results need to be confirmed in larger series of patients. PMID:27095857

  2. Uptake Difference by Somatostatin Receptors in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Tumor: 99mTc-Octreotide Uptake in the Lung without Uptake in Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Amoui, Mahasti; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic value of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in detecting tumors has been assessed in a number of studies. We present a 30-year-old female with a history of eight months cough and left shoulder pain. Radiologic evaluation showed pulmonary mass and hepatic lesions, which were pathologically diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma. 99mTc-octreotide scan demonstrated that the pulmonary lesion was positive for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), while the liver metastases were SSTR negative. The present case highlights the significance of a differential uptake pattern by somatostatin receptors in SRS in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:27529888

  3. Uptake Difference by Somatostatin Receptors in a Patient with Neuroendocrine Tumor: 99mTc-Octreotide Uptake in the Lung without Uptake in Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Pirayesh, Elahe; Amoui, Mahasti; Assadi, Majid

    2015-10-01

    The diagnostic value of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in detecting tumors has been assessed in a number of studies. We present a 30-year-old female with a history of eight months cough and left shoulder pain. Radiologic evaluation showed pulmonary mass and hepatic lesions, which were pathologically diagnosed as neuroendocrine carcinoma. 99mTc-octreotide scan demonstrated that the pulmonary lesion was positive for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), while the liver metastases were SSTR negative. The present case highlights the significance of a differential uptake pattern by somatostatin receptors in SRS in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:27529888

  4. Co-administration of succinylated gelatine with a (99m)Tc-bombesin analogue, effects on pharmacokinetics and tumor uptake.

    PubMed

    Liolios, Christos C; Xanthopoulos, Stavros; Loudos, George; Varvarigou, Alexandra D; Sivolapenko, Gregory B

    2016-10-01

    The bombesin analogue, [(99m)Tc-GGC]-(Ornithine)3-BN(2-14), (99m)Tc-BN-O, targeting gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPrs) on the surface of tumors, was pre-clinically investigated as potential imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In addition, the improvement of its pharmacokinetic profile (PK) was investigated through the co-administration of a succinylated gelatin plasma expander (Gelofusine), aiming to reduce its kidney accumulation and enhance its tumor-to-normal tissue contrast ratios. Biodistribution data were collected from normal mice and rats, and PC-3 tumor bearing mice, in reference to its PK, metabolism and tumor uptake. Imaging data were also collected from PC-3 tumor bearing mice. Biodistribution and imaging experiments showed that (99m)Tc-BN-O was able to efficiently localize the tumor (5.23 and 7.00% ID/g at 30 and 60min post injection, respectively), while at the same time it was rapidly cleared from the circulation through the kidneys. HPLC analysis of kidney samples, collected at 60min p.i. from normal mice and rats, showed that the majority of radioactivity detected was due to intact peptide i.e. 56% for mice and 73% for rats. Co-administration of (99m)Tc-BN-O with Gelo resulted in the reduction of kidney uptake in both animal models. The integrated area under the curve (AUC30-60 min) from the concentration-time plots of kidneys was decreased in both mice and rats by 25 and 50%, respectively. In PC-3 tumor bearing mice, an increase of tumor uptake (AUCtumor increased by 69%) was also observed with Gelo. An improvement in tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-normal tissue ratios was noted in all cases with the exception of the pancreas, which normally expresses GRPr. The results of this preclinical study may also be extended to other similar peptides, which are utilized in prostate cancer imaging and present similar PK profile. PMID:27497631

  5. Technetium-99m sestamibi uptake in human breast carcinoma cell lines displaying glutathione-associated drug-resistance.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal, L; Ozker, K; Hayward, M; Akansel, G; Griffith, O; Isitman, A T; Hellman, R; Collier, D

    1996-05-01

    An in vitro study was designed to evaluate the uptake of sestamibi (MIBI) in P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and glutathione-associated (GSH) multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. MIBI uptake was studied in various human breast carcinoma cell lines, i.e. in wild-type (MCF7/wt) cells, in adriamycin-resistant (MCF7/adr) cells which express Pgp and in melphalan-resistant (MCF7/mph) cells with increased levels of GSH. The effects of buthiomine sulphoximine (BSO) and verapamil on MIBI uptake were also studied in the MCF7/mph and MCF7/adr cells respectively. The cells were incubated for 1 h with a dose of 0.1 MBq thallium-201 and technetium-99m MIBI. Both MIBI and 201Tl uptakes were higher for MCF7/mph cells than for the other cells studied. The mean MIBI uptake in MCF7/adr cells was significantly lower than that in MCF7/wt cells (1.9%+/-0.5% vs 3. 1%.0.6%; P <0.01). Verapamil treatment increased the MIBI uptake in MCF7/adr cells (to 2.6%.0.3%; P <0.05). Treatment of MCF7/mph cells with BSO resulted in a significant reduction in GSH content (from 243.2+/-81.1 nmol/mg protein to 17.6+/-4.4 nmol/mg protein; P <0. 001). However, MIBI uptake in BSO-treated and untreated MCF7/mph cells was similar (4.43%+/-0.5% and 5.93%+/-1.7%, respectively; P >0. 1). This study suggests that the uptake of MIBI is not diminished by glutathione-associated drug resistance and that MIBI uptake in a tumour sample does not necessarily indicate that a cancer is sensitive to drugs.

  6. [Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renography and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity--I. Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1991-04-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously to male Wistar rats for periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. On the next day, the renography was performed 2 hours following intravenous injection of 99mTc-DMSA and Ccr was measured. On the 7th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower in the treated rats than that in control (32.27 +/- 0.92 vs 39.84 +/- 2.24%; p less than 0.01), but Ccr did not change (0.37 +/- 0.02 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05 ml/min/100 g; NS). On the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th day after single subcutaneous injection of 80 mg of gentamicin, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was measured and the histological examination was done. On the 4th day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower than that on the 1st day (32.32 +/- 3.00 vs 38.91 +/- 1.95%; p less than 0.01) and microscopic examinations revealed that eosinophilic granular degenerations were evident in the renal cortex. The present study suggests that 99mTc-DMSA uptake reduces earlier than Ccr in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and 99mTc-DMSA uptake is a reliable indicator in the evaluation of a renal function in drug-induced nephrotoxicity.

  7. Hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Features of Tumoral Calcinosis in Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Asokumar, Premkumar; Malaikkal, Anjali; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is an uncommon ectopic calcification syndrome. TC is a benign condition characterized by the presence of large calcific soft tissue deposits occurring predominantly in a periarticular location. It generally occurs as a complication of renal dialysis or trauma, and is rarely seen in familial and sporadic cases. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method for diagnosing TC. We report a case of year old female with. She underwent bone scintigraphy to see the sites of involvement, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in soft tissue in bilateral thigh and gluteal region. Hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the pelvis and thigh localized tracer uptake to the calcification in the gluteal and thigh region. PMID:26097427

  8. Hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Features of Tumoral Calcinosis in Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Asokumar, Premkumar; Malaikkal, Anjali; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is an uncommon ectopic calcification syndrome. TC is a benign condition characterized by the presence of large calcific soft tissue deposits occurring predominantly in a periarticular location. It generally occurs as a complication of renal dialysis or trauma, and is rarely seen in familial and sporadic cases. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method for diagnosing TC. We report a case of year old female with. She underwent bone scintigraphy to see the sites of involvement, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in soft tissue in bilateral thigh and gluteal region. Hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the pelvis and thigh localized tracer uptake to the calcification in the gluteal and thigh region.

  9. [Reduction of the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on technetium-99m myocardial SPECT; usefulness and problems of a mask processing method].

    PubMed

    Takaki, A; Okada, K; Urata, J; Matsuda, H; Takao, Y

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a mask processing method for obtaining the true myocardial tracer distribution by eliminating the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake on myocardial SPECT images by using technetium-99m (99mTc) blood flow agents. A SPECT imaging was performed with a two-head SPECT system (GCA-7200A/DI) in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method was applied to the reconstructed and projection images. The phantom consisted of heart, lung, liver and spine. A defect was located in the inferior wall of the left ventricle and other parts of the heart and liver were filled with 99mTc solution. For clinical study 10 patients with difficulty in the interpretation of the inferior wall were selected for the evaluation of usefulness of the mask method. In the phantom study, the mask processing method applied to the reconstructed images was able to remove the overlapped liver from the heart, but was not able to remove the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. Nevertheless, the mask processing method applied to the projection images successfully eliminated not only the overlapped liver but also the influence of the liver uptake to the myocardial uptake. In the clinical study, the liver uptake could be removed from the uptake in the inferior wall in 8 of 10 patients with the mask processing methods. In 2 patients, the overlapped liver uptake could not be eliminated from the uptake in the inferior wall because the distance between the liver and heart was too short. The mask processing method applied to the projection images was thought to be superior to that applied to the reconstruction images in both phantom and clinical studies. The mask processing method, especially applied to the projection images, seems to be useful for the elimination of the liver uptake from the inferior wall of the myocardium on myocardial SPECT images using 99mTc blood flow agents.

  10. Unusual mediastinal lymph node uptake and peritoneopleural fistula demonstrated on Technetium-99m macro-aggregated human serum albumin (Tc-99m MAA) peritoneal scintigraphy in a patient with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tan, C J; Thang, S P; Lam, W W

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal radionuclide scan is an established imaging modality for evaluating peritoneopleural communications. In this case report, unusual mediastinal lymph node radiotracer uptake is seen in a patient with portal hypertension on peritoneal scintigraphy. This was suspected to be due to marked lymphatic enlargement from longstanding portal hypertension since childhood, permitting passage of the large Tc-99m MAA particle. The nodes were morphologically benign on CT. Mediastinal lymph node uptake on peritoneal scintigraphy is rare but should not raise undue clinical concern, particularly in a patient with chronic portal hypertension. Anatomic correlation with SPECT-CT can provide reassurance. PMID:27326945

  11. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  12. High protracted (99m)Tc-HDP uptake in synthetic bone implants - a potentially misleading incidental finding on bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Tabouret-Viaud, Claire; Mainta, Ismini; Boudabbous, Sana; Amzalag, Gaël; Ratib, Osman; Rager, Olivier; Paycha, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old male with bilateral total knee prostheses suffering from bilateral knee pain mainly on the right side and referred for bone scintigraphy. The medical history of the patient revealed an opening wedge high tibial osteotomy performed nine years earlier, with insertion of two blocks of ceramic made of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate in a wedge configuration as synthetic bone substitutes. The porous structure of these implants is analogous to the architecture of cancellous bone and permits fibrovascular and bone ingrowth, promoting the healing process. Planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT showed an intense uptake within those implants in the early phase as well as in the late phase of the bone scan. It also showed bilateral patellofemoral arthritis. A (99m)Tc-labeled antigranulocyte antibody scintigraphy was negative for infection or inflammation. Bilateral patellar resurfacing led to complete symptom regression, confirmed at 10 months follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this scintigraphic pattern with such a high tracer uptake reflecting bone substitute osteointegration has not yet been published. This should be considered in patients with such bone replacement materials that are increasingly used, in order to avoid false diagnosis of inflammation or infection.

  13. Linker modification reduced the renal uptake of technetium-99m-labeled Arg-Ala-Asp-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianquan; Flook, Adam M; Feng, Changjian; Miao, Yubin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biodistribution of (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice to determine whether the replacement of the Lys linker with an Arg linker could decrease the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH. (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH exhibited rapid and high tumor uptake (17.98±4.96% ID/g at 2h post-injection) in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. As compared to (99m)Tc-RAD-Lys-(Arg(11))CCMSH, the replacement of the Lys linker with an Arg linker dramatically decreased the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH by 68%, 62%, 73% and 64% at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24h post-injection, respectively. Flank B16/F1 melanoma lesions were clearly imaged at 2h post-injection using (99m)Tc-RAD-Arg-(Arg(11))CCMSH as an imaging probe.

  14. [Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renography and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity--II. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1991-04-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. At first, Male Wistar rats were given intraperitoneally 1.8 mg/kg/day of cisplatin for periods of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days. On the next day, 99mTc-DMSA uptake and Ccr were measured. Ccr of 5-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (0.13 +/- 0.10 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05 ml/min/100 g; p less than 0.01) but 99mTc-DMSA uptake did not change. 99mTc-DMSA uptake of 7-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (28.57 +/- 7.23 vs 39.84 +/- 2.23%; p less than 0.01). As the second experiment, cisplatin (3.6 mg/kg/day) was given intraperitoneally on the 1st, 2nd, 15th and 16th day. On the 5th, 8th, 11th, 15th, 20th, 23rd, 26th and 30th day, the same measurements were done as the first one. Ccr was lower in cisplatin treated rats on the 5th day than that in control (0.10 +/- 0.03 vs 0.34 +/- 0.05 ml/min/100 g; p less than 0.01), thereafter tended to be recovered to the control level. On the other hand, 99mTc-DMSA uptake was lower than that of control on the 8th, 11th and 15th day (32.40 +/- 3.86, 32.56 +/- 1.19, 35.21 +/- 2.97 vs 39.84 +/- 2.23%, respectively; p less than 0.01). The discrepancy between 99mTc-DMSA uptake and Ccr was observed in the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. 99mTc-DMSA uptake was suggested to be a reliable indicator of a renal function in a different way from Ccr.

  15. Investigations of (99m)Tc-labeled glucarate as a SPECT radiotracer for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and potential tumor uptake mechanism.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lanfang; Xiu, Yan; Li, Yanli; Xu, Xiaobo; Li, Shanqun; Li, Xiao; Pak, Koon Y; Shi, Hongcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng

    2015-07-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the feasibility of (99m)Tc-labeled glucarate ((99m)Tc-GLA) imaging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the potential tumor uptake mechanism. Cell lysates from two NSCLC cell lines, H292 and H1975, were immunoblotted with anti-glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) antibody for Western blotting. Thereafter, the two cell lines were used to examine cellular uptake of (99m)Tc-GLA with or without fructose. SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed on small animals bearing H292 and H1975 tumors. Biodistribution studies were also conducted to achieve accurate tissue uptake of this tracer in two tumor models. Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining and GLUT5, Ki67 and cytokeratin-7 (CK-7) immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis were further investigated on tumor tissues. In Western blotting, H292 cells showed higher levels of GLUT5 compared to the H1975 cells. Meanwhile, the in vitro cell assays indicated GLUT5-dependent uptake of (99m)Tc-GLA in H292 and H1975 cells. The fructose competition assays showed a significant decrease in (99m)Tc-GLA uptake by H292 and H1975 cells when fructose was added. The (99m)Tc-GLA accumulation was as much as two-fold higher in H292 implanted tumors than in H1975 implanted tumors. (99m)Tc-GLA exhibited rapid clearance pharmacokinetics and reasonable uptake in human NSCLC H292 (1.69±0.37 ID%/g) and H1975 (0.89±0.06 ID%/g) implanted tumors at 30min post injection. Finally, the expression of GLUT5, Ki67 and CK-7 on tumor tissues also exhibited positive correlation with the in vitro cell test results and in vivo SPECT/CT imaging results in xenograft tumors. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies demonstrated that the uptake of (99m)Tc-GLA in NSCLC is highly related to GLUT5 expression. Imaging and further IHC results support that (99m)Tc-GLA could be a promising SPECT imaging agent for NSCLC diagnosis and prognosis evaluation. PMID:25890861

  16. The labelling of human serum transferrin with 99mTc and a study concerning uptake of the complex by tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, T A D; Walton, P H

    2002-11-01

    The direct labelling of serum transferrin (sTf) with 99mTc on high-affinity binding sites, producing a complex of excellent stability, is described. The high-affinity binding sites were prepared by pre-treating sTf with 2-mercaptoethanol. For the radiolabelling step, thiourea was used as an exchange ligand and a filtration procedure used to remove 99mTc that had not complexed with the protein. RT112 bladder tumour cells incubated in the presence of labelled sTf showed a rapid initial uptake of 99mTc, reaching a plateau after about 20 min. Radiolabelling was also carried out without a pre-reduction step in an attempt to form a co-ordination complex between 99mTc and the Fe3+-binding site of sTf, analogous to that formed by Fe3+. The tumour cell uptake of sTf labelled without pre-reduction was then examined. In contrast to 59Fe3+ and other radio-metals co-ordinated with the Fe3+-binding site which show a continuous increase in incorporation with time, the uptake of 99mTc rapidly reached a plateau.

  17. Anacardium occidentale bark lectin: purification, immobilization as an affinity model and influence in the uptake of technetium-99M by rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Maria Inês Sucupira; de Mendonça Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Almeida Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2012-10-01

    Lectins, proteins that recognize carbohydrates, have been immobilized on inert supports and used in the screening or purification of glycoproteins. Anacardium occidentale bark infusion has been used as a hypoglycemic agent in Brazil. The toxicity of natural products may be evaluated determining their capability to alter the biodistribution of technetium-99M ((99m)Tc). This work reports the isolation and characterization of a lectin from A. occidentale bark (AnocBL), its evaluation as an affinity support for glycoprotein isolation and lectin effect on the uptake of (99m)Tc by rat adipocytes. AnocBL was isolated from 80 % ammonium sulphate supernatant by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. SDS-PAGE showed a single protein band of 47 kDa. The monossacharide L-arabinose and the glycoproteins fetuin, asialofetuin, ovomucoid, casein, thyroglobulin, peroxidase, fetal bovine serum and IgG inhibited the activity. The lectin activity was stable until 70 °C and at a pH range of 3.0-7.5. AnocBL-Sepharose column bound fetuin indicating that the lectin matrix may be used to obtain glycoconjugates of biotechnological interest. In vitro assay revealed that glucose and insulin increase (99m)Tc uptake by rat adipocytes. AnocBL decreases (99m)Tc uptake, and this effect was not detected in the presence of glucose. Fetuin inhibited AnocBL effect in all insulin concentrations.

  18. Incidental pathologic extracardiac uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in myocardial perfusion imaging: Importance of patient background evaluation.

    PubMed

    González García, B; García Vicente, A M; Palomar Muñoz, A; Poblete García, V M; Jiménez Londoño, G A; Soriano Castrejón, A M

    2015-01-01

    (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT) has an important role in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Despite being its main indication, this study does not only evaluate myocardial perfusion, but much more. Moreover, during the SPECT acquisition, the field area covered includes many important organs of the thorax and abdomen, so extracardiac abnormalities can be observed. The correct etiologic diagnosis of them is only possible if we understand how (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin works and make a comprehensive investigation of the clinical history of the patient. PMID:25937520

  19. Development and Pharmacological Evaluation of New Bone-Targeted (99m)Tc-Radiolabeled Bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Tseligka, Eirini D; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas S; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-07-01

    A novel bisphosphonate, 1-(3-aminopropylamino)ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (3), was coupled to the tridentate chelators di-2-picolylamine, 2-picolylamine-N-acetic acid, iminodiacetic acid, 3-((2-aminoethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-((2-carboxyethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid to form ligands 6, 9, 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Organometallic complexes of the general formula [Re/(99m)Tc(CO)3(κ(3)-L)] were synthesized, where L denotes ligand 6, 9, 11, 15, or 19. The rhenium complexes were prepared at the macroscopic level and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The technetium-99m organometallic complexes were synthesized in high yield and were identified by comparative reversed-phase HPLC with their Re analogues. The (99m)Tc tracers were stable in vitro and exhibited binding to hydroxyapatite. In biodistribution studies, all of the (99m)Tc complexes exhibited high bone uptake superior to that of 25, which is the directly (99m)Tc-labeled bisphosphonate 3, and comparable to that of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). The tracers [(99m)Tc(CO)3(6)] (26), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(9)] (27), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(11)] (28), and [(99m)Tc(CO)3(15)] (29) exhibited higher bone/blood ratios than (99m)Tc-MDP. 26 had the highest bone uptake at 1 h p.i. The new bisphosphonates showed no substantial growth inhibitory capacity in PC-3, Saos-2, and MCF-7 established cancer cell lines at low concentrations. Incubation of 26 with the same cancer cell lines indicated a rapid and saturated uptake. The promising properties of 26-29 indicate their potential for use as bone-imaging agents. PMID:27170456

  20. Intense muscle uptake of Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP in a patient with aplastic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Batte, W.G. Jr.; Yeh, S.D.; Rosenblum, M.K.; Larson, S.M. )

    1991-06-01

    An unusual distribution of Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in several muscle groups is described in a 14-year-old boy with aplastic anemia and normal renal function at the time of imaging. Although the patient did not develop musculo-skeletal signs or symptoms, a subsequent autopsy revealed widespread muscle calcification.

  1. Lung inflammation in coal miners assessed by uptake of 67Ga-citrate and clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Rom, W.N. )

    1992-07-01

    The authors compared the diffuse lung uptake of 67Ga-citrate, an index of inflammatory lung activity, with the lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol, an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability, in a group of 19 West Virginia coal miners whose pulmonary status was compatible with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. 99mTc-DTPA clearance alone and 67Ga-citrate uptake alone were measured in nine and five additional subjects, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine if increased 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance was caused by inflammation at the lung epithelial surfaces. Subjects inhaled approximately 150 microCi (approximately 5.6 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to include (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc-DTPA clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROI. Each subject was intravenously administered 50 miCroCk (1.9 MBq)/kg 67Ga-citrate 48 to 72 h before imaging the body between neck and pelvis. The extent of 67Ga-citrate lung uptake was expressed as the gallium index (GI). Mean radioaerosol clearance half-time (T1/2) for the six nonsmoking coal miners (60.6 +/- 16.0 min) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) than for the nonsmoking control group (123.8 +/- 28.7 min). T1/2 for the 12 smoking miners (18.4 +/- 10.2 min) was shorter than for the smoking control group (33.1 +/- 17.8 min), but the difference did not attain statistical significance.

  2. Uptake mechanism of interstitially injected 99mTc-labeled antimony trisulphide colloid in the popliteal lymph node of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Munz, D L; Senekowitsch, R; Sessler, M J; Möllenstädt, S; Kriegel, H; Hör, G

    1985-02-01

    The right popliteal lymph node was studied in rabbits by well counting, histoautoradiography and electron microscopy, after interstitial injection of 99mTc-labeled antimony trisulphide (Sb2S3) colloid into the right hind pad. The highest radioactivity concentration (96.8%/g) was measured 6 hr following injection. At 24 hr, the concentration had dropped to nearly half of the maximum (51.5%/g). At each time, only a single or a few lymph node sectors were found to contain 99mTc. Initially, the radioactivity distribution pattern in the draining lymph node was stripy. Beginning at 15 min p.i., there was a progressive change from stripy to focal radioactivity distribution pattern. Until 6 hr after injection, the bulk of radioactivity was trapped by macrophages in the lumen and wall of the lymph node sinus system, predominantly in medullary sinuses. Surprisingly, at 24 hr the majority of labeled cells were eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes located in medullary sinuses and medullary cords. Up to 24 hr p.i., no accumulation of radioactivity could be detected in the cortical and paracortical lymph node parenchyma. In conclusion, interstitially injected 99mTc-Sb2S3 colloid is not homogeneously but sectorially distributed in the draining lymph node. Moreover, both macrophages and eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes are involved in the filtration process. PMID:4000979

  3. Nearly total absence of pulmonary perfusion with corresponding technetium-99m MDP and gallium-67 uptake in a patient with mediastinal neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.; Moguilner, G.; Dharan, M.; Siplovitch, L.

    1985-08-01

    A case of unilateral nearly total hypoperfusion of the left lung in a 13-month-old girl is presented. The combination of the lung hypoperfusion and accumulation of the Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in the same area suggested the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal neuroblastoma. Explorative thoracotomy revealed the presence of a neuroblastoma compressing the left lung pedicle. The described scintigraphic appearance in the pediatric age group is suggested as typical of mediastinal neuroblastoma. This pathology should be included in the following gamuts in nuclear medicine: unilateral decrease or absent lung perfusion, unilateral diffuse chest uptake of Ga-67 citrate, and unilateral pulmonary uptake in bone scintigraphy.

  4. Focal 99mTc-DMSA Uptake in Lung Parenchyma Without Structural Alterations on SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Nursal, Gül Nihal; Reyhan, Mehmet; Yapar, Ali Fuat

    2015-11-01

    Static renal scintigraphy with Tc-DMSA is commonly used for the evaluation of renal morphology and function. Extrarenal uptake of Tc-DMSA is a rare finding described previously on sites such as bone metastasis, hemangioma, and splenic amyloidosis. We report a case with Tc-DMSA activity in the lungs.

  5. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid uptake by a malignant fibrous histiocytoma: Phagocytosis by tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Klein, M.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-09-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte imaging, performed on a patient with a calcified mass in the right thigh, demonstrated labeled leukocyte accumulation in this mass. Technetium-99m-sulfur colloid imaging was performed to differentiate labeled leukocyte uptake in heterotopic bone marrow from uptake in a focus of infection. Leukocyte and sulfur colloid images were virtually identical, and the study was interpreted as without evidence of infection. Excision of the mass revealed an angiomatoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma with metaplastic bone formation. While no marrow elements were present in either the tumor or the metaplastic bone, phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells was identified. Phagocytosis of leukocytes by tumor cells may be another cause of white cell accumulation in uninfected neoplasms.

  6. Delayed massive soft tissue uptake of Tc-99m MDP after radiation therapy for cancer of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.T.; Steuart, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    A patient with a history of breast cancer and known lung metastases was referred for a bone scan to investigate the cause of severe neck and right shoulder pain. The bone scan showed massive uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the soft tissue surrounding the right shoulder. A review of the patient`s history indicated that the patient had undergone radiation therapy to the right upper thorax and breast area 14 months previously and an acute radiation dermatitis of the proximal right arm and shoulder had developed. This had long since resolved. Physical examination and plain radiographs of the right shoulder and humerus failed to demonstrated any abnormality. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Validation of a kinetic model for receptor-mediated uptake of Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.; Krohn, K.A.; Woodle, E.S.; Scheibe, P.O.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-NGA is a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical which localizes specifically to the liver. The rate of uptake depends upon: 1) Tc-NGA-receptor affinity, k/sub b/, 2) molar dose, L/sub e/(O), and 3) hepatic blood flow, Q. The authors have proposed a kinetic model which describes hepatic uptake in terms of measurable physiochemical quantities: Q, k/sub b/, R, V/sub e/, V/sub h/ (systemic and liver blood volumes), and V/sub r/ (liver plasma volume). Computer simulations were compared to kinetic data (ROIs: precordium and liver, 420 data pts) resulting from injection into pigs (n=12) of Tc-NGAs of differing k/sub b/(0.6,1.2,1.8 x 10/sup 5/ M/sup -1/sec/sup -1/). Each pig was studied twice using different molar doses (0.5 - 10. x 10/sup -8/mole). Measurements of V/sub e/ (Tc-RBCs) and Q (indocyanine green extraction) were obtained during each study. Weights of excised livers were used to calculate V/sub h/ and r. With exception of the low-dose, low-affinity studies, all data was fit to within a reduced chi-square of 3 by adjustment of 1/sub e/, 1/sub h/, c, ..cap alpha../sub m/ and the sigmas. The authors conclude that this model is a valid description of a receptor-binding process, however competition by endogenous ligand may prevent its use at low molar doses of low-k/sub b/ NGA.

  8. Distant subcutaneous recurrence of a parathyroid carcinoma: abnormal uptakes in the (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Soo; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Lee, Soo Hyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Ju

    2014-05-01

    We report a rare case of distant subcutaneous parathyroid carcinoma recurrence. A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of sustained hypercalcemia despite surgical removal of a parathyroid carcinoma. A focal uptake in the upper mediastinal area was detected in a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan, and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging demonstrated a subcutaneous mass. She underwent tumor resection, and the pathological findings were consistent with a parathyroid carcinoma. The postoperative serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level remained within normal limits. However, a new palpable solitary mass was identified in the upper portion of the left breast 1 year postoperatively. Both a (99m)Tc-sestamibi scan and (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging revealed an abnormal lesion in the upper breast, and subsequent pathology reports confirmed parathyroid carcinoma metastasis. Serum PTH and calcium levels fell within normal ranges after tumor resection. Two subcutaneous recurrent lesions appeared likely due to tumor seeding during the previous endoscopic operation at a local hospital.

  9. Mechanism of localization of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, M K; Kahn, P C

    1976-07-01

    The gross and subcellular localizations of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in myocardial infarcts were studied in a rabbit model. Experiments utilizing double-nuclide labeling were carried out using a useful mapping technique. Concentration of the various chelates decreases in an expected manner from the center of the infarcted area toward its periphery, but it is higher near the epicardial surface than toward the endocardium. Technetium-99m-pyrophosphate is concentrated in the same infarcted areas as 45Ca ion or 32P-pyrophosphate, but to a much greater degree. The uptake is dependent on both the degree of necrosis and residual blood flow. Gel filtration experiments with rabbit serum indicate that 99mTc-tagged pyrophosphate, tetracycline, and diphosphonate are mainly protein-bound, whereas 32P-pyrophosphate is not. Subcellular localization studies show that 99mTc-tetracycline and 99mTc-pyrophosphate are bound primarily to soluble protein, and only a small fraction is associated with nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes. The uptake of technetium chelates in myocardial infarcts may be due to the formation of polynuclear complexes with denatured macromolecules rather than to the deposition of calcium in mitochrondria. PMID:178842

  10. Usefulness of an Automatic Quantitative Method for Measuring Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Using 99mTc Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer Brain Uptake Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Rieko; Ofuji, Asato; Yamashita, Kosuke; Tomimatsu, Taeko; Orita, Shinnichi; Takaki, Akihiro; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ito, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Improved brain uptake ratio (IBUR), employing 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD), is an automatic non-invasive method for quantitatively measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). This method was developed by the reconstruction of the theory and linear regression equation, based on rCBF measurement by H215O positron emission tomography. Clarification of differences in rCBF values obtained by Patlak plot (PP) and IBUR method is important for clinical diagnosis during the transition period between these methods. Our purpose in this study was to demonstrate the relationship between rCBF values obtained by IBUR and PP methods and to evaluate the clinical applicability of IBUR method. Methods: The mean CBF (mCBF) and rCBF values in 15 patients were obtained using the IBUR method and compared with PP method values. Results: Overall, mCBF and rCBF values, obtained using these independent techniques, were found to be correlated (r=0.68). The mCBF values obtained by the IBUR method ranged from 18.9 to 44.9 ml/100g/min, whereas those obtained by the PP method ranged from 34.7 to 48.1 ml/100g/min. The rCBF values obtained by the IBUR method ranged from 16.3 to 60.2 ml/100g/min, whereas those obtained by the PP method were within the range of 26.7-58.8 ml/100g/min. Conclusion: The ranges of mCBF and rCBF values, obtained by the IBUR method, were approximately 60% lower than those obtained by the PP method; therefore, this method can be useful for diagnosing lower flow area. Re-analysis of prior PP data, using the IBUR method, could be potentially useful for the clinical follow-up of rCBF. PMID:27408886

  11. Positive gallium-67 citrate uptake in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Creagh, M.F.; Nunan, T.O.

    1988-04-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone condition with characteristic radiologic features. It is well known that there is increased uptake of Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) and methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in fibrous dysplasia. There are no reports of uptake of Ga-67 citrate by fibrous dysplasia. A case is reported in which positive Ga-67 uptake was seen in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

  12. [A phantom study for the evaluation of the effect of the high uptake in the liver on technetium-99m myocardial perfusion SPECT images].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, H; Masuda, K; Takada, M; Yamamoto, I; Morita, R

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate influences of the high hepatic uptake on parameters such as filtering, attenuation coefficient, and scatter correction at reconstructing of the myocardial SPECT images. Hepatic and cardiac spaces of a myocardial phantom (RH-2, Kyoto Kagaku), were filled with technetium-99m and a three-detector SPECT system (GCA 9300-DI, TOSHIBA) was used. The hepatic activity's influence was estimated from a qualitative percent regional scattering and the effects of attenuation and scatter correction were evaluated by a circumferential profile curve. Percent regional scattering increased in reverse to hepato-cardiac distance (HCD) and in proportion to hepatic to cardiac activity ratio (HCR). This tendency was observed the most significantly in the inferior region, followed by in the lateral, anterior and septal regions, declining in this order. An artifactual defect adjacent to the liver was observed when HCR is three and HCD is zero. However, when the Butterworth filter was used with small filtering-sizes and lower orders in combination with attenuation and scatter correction, the defects were decreased up to 15% at counts in the inferior region. This study showed that the hepatic to cardiac activity ratio, and the hepatocardiac distance should be considered for reconstruction of the SPECT images.

  13. Pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA, (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP--an evaluation of three imaging techniques in patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.E.; Lazarus, C.R.; Wraight, P.; Sampson, C.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nine patients with histologically proven medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were imaged using pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid ((V)DMSA), (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Technetium-99m (V)DMSA demonstrated most of the tumor sites in eight patients with proven metastases, with an overall sensitivity of 95% in lesion detection. Iodine-131 MIBG showed definite uptake in some of the tumor sites in three of the nine patients imaged, with equivocal uptake seen in a further one patient, with sensitivity of only 11% for lesion detection. Technetium-99m MDP demonstrated bony metastases only, in four of the patients imaged yielding a sensitivity of 61%. Technetium-99m (V)DMSA has been demonstrated in this study to be a useful imaging agent in patients with MCT, showing uptake in significantly more lesions and with better imaging qualities than (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and with the ability to detect soft tissue as well as bony metastases.

  14. Substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala linker dramatically decreased the renal uptake of 99mTc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptides.

    PubMed

    Flook, Adam M; Yang, Jianquan; Miao, Yubin

    2014-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the substitution of the Lys linker with the β-Ala could reduce the renal uptake of (99m)Tc-labeled Arg-X-Asp-conjugated and X-Ala-Asp-conjugated α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptides. RSD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (1) {c[Arg-Ser-Asp-dTyr-Asp]-β-Ala-Cys-Cys-Glu-His-dPhe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2}, RTD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (2), RVD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (3), RAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (4), NAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (5), and EAD-β-Ala-(Arg(11))CCMSH (6) peptides were synthesized and evaluated for their melanocortin 1 (MC1) receptor binding affinities in B16/F1 melanoma cells. The biodistribution of their (99m)Tc-conjugates were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The substitution of the Lys linker with β-Ala linker dramatically reduced the renal uptake of all six (99m)Tc-peptides. (99m)Tc-4 exhibited the highest melanoma uptake (15.66 ± 6.19% ID/g) and the lowest kidney uptake (20.18 ± 3.86% ID/g) among these (99m)Tc-peptides at 2 h postinjection. The B16/F1 melanoma lesions could be clearly visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT using (99m)Tc-4 as an imaging probe.

  15. Fully Automated Quantification of the Striatal Uptake Ratio of [99mTc]-TRODAT with SPECT Imaging: Evaluation of the Diagnostic Performance in Parkinson's Disease and the Temporal Regression of Striatal Tracer Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yu-Hua Dean; Chiu, Shao-Chieh; Lu, Chin-Song; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Weng, Yi-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We aimed at improving the existing methods for the fully automatic quantification of striatal uptake of [99mTc]-TRODAT with SPECT imaging. Procedures. A normal [99mTc]-TRODAT template was first formed based on 28 healthy controls. Images from PD patients (n = 365) and nPD subjects (28 healthy controls and 33 essential tremor patients) were spatially normalized to the normal template. We performed an inverse transform on the predefined striatal and reference volumes of interest (VOIs) and applied the transformed VOIs to the original image data to calculate the striatal-to-reference ratio (SRR). The diagnostic performance of the SRR was determined through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results. The SRR measured with our new and automatic method demonstrated excellent diagnostic performance with 92% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 92% accuracy, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94. For the evaluation of the mean SRR and the clinical duration, a quadratic function fit the data with R2 = 0.84. Conclusions. We developed and validated a fully automatic method for the quantification of the SRR in a large study sample. This method has an excellent diagnostic performance and exhibits a strong correlation between the mean SRR and the clinical duration in PD patients. PMID:26366413

  16. [Evaluation of multiple myeloma with bone scintigraphy using Tc 99 diphosphonate. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Solis, O J; Gonzales, R; De Luca, S; McKusick, K A; Potsaid, M S

    1977-04-01

    Bone Scanning using 99m Tc-Diphosphonate is another diagnostic modality in the evaluation of multiple mieloma which allows the identification of bone lesions not demonstrable by conventional radiography. The use of 99m Tc-Diphosphonate is more convenient and less harmful than other radioactive isotopes utilized before. PMID:866897

  17. Effect of background region of interest and time-interval selection on glomerular filtration ratio estimation by percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA in comparison with (51)Cr-EDTA clearance in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Katrien; Vandermeulen, Eva; Saunders, Jimmy H; Dobbeleir, André A; Ham, Hamphrey R; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of glomerular function is a useful part of the diagnostic approach in animals suspected of having renal disease. Time-interval and background region of interest (bg ROI) selection are determining factors when calculating the glomerular filtration ratio (GFR) based on percentage uptake of (99m)technetium-labelled diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA). Therefore, three different time intervals (60-120 s, 120-180 s, 60-180 s) and three different bg ROIs (C-shape, caudolateral, cranial + caudal) were investigated. In addition, global GFRs based on percentage dose uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA for the different time-intervals and bg ROIs were compared with the global GFR based on (51)chromium-ethylene diaminic tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) plasma clearance in nine healthy European domestic shorthair cats. Paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Different time intervals seemed to cause significant variation (P <0.01) in absolute GFR values, regardless of the choice of bg ROI. Significant differences (P <0.01) between bg ROIs were only observed in the 120-180s time interval between the C-shape and cranial + caudal bg ROI, and between the caudolateral and cranial + caudal bg ROI. The caudolateral bg ROI in the 60-180 s time interval showed the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.882) between (99m)Tc-DTPA and (51)Cr-EDTA, although a significant difference (P <0.05) was present between both techniques. PMID:23349527

  18. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Collins, E.D.

    1998-06-30

    A {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating {sup 99m}Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of {sup 99m}Tc includes the general steps of: (a) providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing {sup 99}Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; (b) eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute {sup 99m}Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted {sup 99m}Tc on the ion-exchange column; and (c) eluting the concentrated {sup 99m}Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent. 1 fig.

  19. Technetium-99m generator system

    DOEpatents

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Collins, Emory D.

    1998-01-01

    A .sup.99 Mo/.sup.99m Tc generator system includes a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo. The sorbent column has an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column for concentrating .sup.99m Tc eluted from the sorbent column. A method of preparing a concentrated solution of .sup.99m Tc includes the general steps of: a. providing a sorbent column loaded with a composition containing .sup.99 Mo, the sorbent column having an effluent end in fluid communication with an anion-exchange column; b. eluting the sorbent column with a salt solution to elute .sup.99m Tc from the sorbent and to trap and concentrate the eluted .sup.99m Tc on the ion-exchange column; and c. eluting the concentrated .sup.99m Tc from the ion-exchange column with a solution comprising a reductive complexing agent.

  20. Technetium-99m labelling of the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 by photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Stalteri, M A; Mather, S J

    1996-02-01

    Irradiation of antibody with ultraviolet light leads to reduction of disulphide bonds. Thus irradiation can be used to generate free thiols prior to direct labelling of antibody with technetium-99m, and has a potential advantage over methods using chemical reducing agents such as mercaptoethanol or tin, in that no purification step is needed to remove excess reducing agent. We have used the photoactivation method developed by Sykes et al. to label the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 with 99mTc. The antibody was irradiated at 300 nm using a Rayonet photochemical reactor with eight RMR3000 lamps. In a typical experiment, the antibody solution was injected into a nitrogen-filled borosilicate glass vial and purged with nitrogen. A degassed solution containing stannous fluoride and methylene diphosphonate was then added to the antibody and the vial was irradiated. Following the irradiation, [99mTc]pertechnetate was injected into the vial and the reaction mixture was incubated for 30 min at room temperature before being analysed by size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained using antibody concentrations ranging from 0.5mg/ml to 5mg/ml. Irradiation times as short as 5 min and tin to antibody ratios in the range between 11 and 32 microg tin per mg antibody gave high labelling yields. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained after storage of the photoactivated antibody at -70 degrees C for several weeks. The stability of the 99mTc-labelled photoactivated PR1A3 was similar to that of 99mTc-labelled mercaptoethanol-reduced PR1A3. The mean immunoreactive fraction was 77% for the photoactivation-labelled PR1A3, compared to 93% for PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction. Biodistribution studies were carried out using 99mTc-photoactivation-labelled PR1A3 or PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction in Balb/c mice and in nude mice with MKN-45 human tumour xenografts. There was

  1. Comparison of hypoxia and ouabain effects on the myocardial uptake kinetics of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile and thallium-201

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Effects of hypoxia and ouabain on transcapillary exchange of (99mTc)hexakis (2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile) (SESTAMIBI, also known as MIBI or HEXAMIBI) and 201TI were investigated with indicator-dilution studies using isolated rabbit hearts. Peak myocardial extraction (Emax), permeability-surface area products (PScap), and net myocardial extraction (Enet) were compared among serial injections during constant coronary flows. Overall, measures of transcapillary transport (Emax and PScap) for SESTAMIBI were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than those simultaneously determined for thallium, but estimates of tissue retention (Enet) for SESTAMIBI and thallium were not statistically distinguishable. Hypoxia had no significant effect on mean (+/- s.d.) Emax for SESTAMIBI (0.31 +/- 0.13) or thallium (0.59 +/- 0.11), nor on mean PScap or Enet values. Ouabain (1.5 X 10(-7) M and 1.5 X 10(-6) M) had no effect on SESTAMIBI or thallium Emax (respectively, 0.29 +/- 0.08 and 0.60 +/- 0.05) or on PScap for SESTAMIBI. Thallium PScap was depressed with higher ouabain dose (control, 1.22 +/- 0.40; high ouabain, 1.06 +/- 0.41 ml/min/g; p less than 0.01). Ouabain also caused a significant and progressive increase in average SESTAMIBI Enet (control, 0.23 +/- 0.10 to high ouabain, 0.33 +/- 0.12; p less than 0.05), but depressed thallium Enet (control, 0.38 +/- 0.14 to high ouabain, 0.32 +/- 0.18; p less than 0.01). These results suggest myocardial metabolic and/or functional status have minor influence on transcapillary transport of SESTAMIBI and thallium, but significantly affects cellular retention.

  2. Mechanism of renal concentration of technetium-99m glucoheptonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    Seventy female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the mechanism of tubular localization and the effects of commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance on renal uptake and urinary excretion of technetium-99m glucoheptonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)GHA). The in-vivo protein binding and protein-free plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA also were quantitated. Kidney uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA averaged 11% of the injected dose in control animals. This varied slightly among groups but was significantly reduced by probenecid blockade and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) competition to 4 and 2, respectively. Technetium-99m DMSA was not affected in its renal accumulation by these maneuvers. The total plasma clearance of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA was lower than iodine-125( SVI)iothalamate but the clearance of the protein free supernate was higher, raising a possibility of some tubular secretion. Hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1% injected dose. These data demonstrate that renal accumulation of (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA is blocked by probenecid and PAH suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by enzyme systems similar to those involved in PAH and hippuran transport. It appears that (/sup 99m/Tc)GHA uptake measures a different aspect of kidney function than (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA.

  3. Increased skeletal:renal uptake ratio. [Bone-seekers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, T.H.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with increased skeletal:renal uptake ratios of /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate were studied. Increased uptake was central in metastatic prostate carcinoma, peripheral in hematologic disorders, and heterogeneous in Paget disease and fibrous dysplasia. There was no discernible redistribution of skeletal uptake in patients with renal failure. Absence of both renal and bladder activity was not observed in patients with normal renal function. An increased ratio was always abnormal and frequently indicated diffuse bone disease.

  4. Bone Scan "Hot Spot" at the Superior Lateral Orbital Margin Fronto-zygomatic Suture Uptake Characterized with Tc-99m MDP SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Thang, S P; Tan, A E H; Goh, A S W

    2011-07-01

    Findings of a solitary "hot spot" at the superior lateral orbital margin on bone scan scintigraphy is not uncommonly seen, and is often dismissed as a benign lesion. However, the exact etiology is indeterminate. We present two cases in which hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging was able to characterize and localize this uptake, demonstrating correlation to the right fronto-zygomatic suture.

  5. Comparison of the tumor-seeking agent Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid and the renal imaging agent Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Nakajima, T.; Yomoda, I.; Masuda, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Hata, N.

    1985-03-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, interest has been focused on the design of the (+5) oxidation state Tc-99m(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMSA) as a tumor-seeking agent. Tc-99m(V) DMSA holds a TcO4(3-) core and, like PO4(3-), has excellent characteristics for tumor uptake, but has a different distribution than the well-known renal scanning agent, Tc-99m DMSA. The differences in chemical behavior of Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are discussed. Three cases in which neoplasms were studied with Tc-99m(V) DMSA and Tc-99m DMSA are presented. Tc-99m DMSA and Tc-99m(V) DMSA, having a common ligand and tracer but, with the metal ion core in a different oxidation state, the uptake characteristics are altered markedly.

  6. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-09-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function.

  7. Myocardial infarct imaging in patients with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid. Superiority of technetium-99m pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, K.P.; Milne, N.; Karlsberg, R.P.; Olson, H.G.; Kuperus, J.

    1987-07-01

    Technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m DMSA) has been used successfully for imaging acute myocardial infarction in a canine model. The application in humans, however, has not been previously reported. In order to determine the feasibility of using this agent in clinical studies and to compare the agent to technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi), ten patients with proven myocardial infarction were studied. While imaging of transmural infarctions in humans was achieved using Tc-99m DMSA, scores for the Tc-99m DMSA images (1.8 +/- 0.96) were not as high as for Tc-99m PPi (2.5 +/- 0.45) (P less than 0.05). Discordance among four independent interpreters was greater for images obtained with Tc-99m DMSA. The superiority of Tc-99m PPi was evident whether images were obtained early (within 24 hours) or late (within five days). Although DMSA images were not obscured by rib uptake, they were less sensitive (63%) than Tc-99m PPi (97%). A potential advantage of Tc-99m DMSA in imaging acute myocardial infarction is that radiotracer concentration in the infarct occurs primarily in the early postinfarction period. The longer postinfarction that Tc-99m DMSA imaging was attempted, the lower the concentration of radiotracer. Thus, Tc-99m DMSA would not be expected to have the same persistence pattern as Tc-99m PPi into the remote postinfarction period. The persistent positivity of Tc-99m PPi has made it difficult to diagnose reinfarction.

  8. The new 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging agents: 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-teboroxime

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J. , Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA )

    1991-09-01

    The two new 99m (99mTc) labeled myocardial perfusion agents, 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTc-Teboroxime, are now available for routine clinical application. Both agents allow assessment of ejection fraction by the first-pass technique at rest or during exercise, thus providing additional information not available with thallium-201. 99mTc-Sestamibi has long myocardial residence time, as well as adequate myocardial extraction, providing images of higher count density and superior quality compared with thallium-201. 99mTc-Teboroxime has excellent myocardial uptake characteristics but is cleared very rapidly from the myocardium. Both tracers have shown results similar to those obtained with thallium-201 for detection of coronary artery disease and the assessment of defect reversibility. 99mTc-Sestamibi studies using the rest/stress imaging sequence can be accomplished in approximately 5 hours; studies using dual-isotope imaging (rest thallium-201 and stress 99mTc-Sestamibi injection) can be completed in 1 to 2 hours. Gated stress images can be performed with 99mTc-Sestamibi, providing simultaneous information of myocardial perfusion at stress and resting wall motion or thickening and allowing rapid differentiation of ischemic from infarcted tissue. Because of its slow myocardial clearance and absence of redistribution, 99mTc-Sestamibi allows uncoupling of the time of injection from the time of imaging and thus can be valuable in the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and outcome of thrombolytic therapy. With 99mTc-Teboroxime, rapid serial studies are feasible. Pharmacologic stress and rest studies with 99mTc-Teboroxime single photon emission computed tomography potentially can be completed in under 30 minutes. 73 references.

  9. The twenty-four/four hour ratio (T/F ratio) of Tc-99m MDP uptake in patients with bone metastases and degenerative changes

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, O.; Kleinhaus, U.; Keren, R.; Frankel, A.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Normal and metastatic bone differ in their histological structure. Normal bone is mainly lamellar while metastatic bone formation is made in a large part out of new woven bone. The woven bone has a much larger surface area than the more stable lamellar bone and it is lined with metabolically active osteoblasts. The crystalline structures in the woven bone are smaller and have a larger surface area available for absorption. Uptake of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals continues in new woven bone longer than in the lamellar bone. Bone scintigraphy was performed in 89 patients at four hours and 24 hours using a digital camera. The lesion to non lesion (L/N) ratio was determined using the camera computer. The T/F ratio was calculated: T/F=((L/N)-24)/((L/N)-4). Three groups were investigated. In 15 patients with metastatic bone carcinoma, T/F ratio was 1.46 +- 0.4. In 47 patients with degenerative joint disease the T/F ratio was 1.05 +- 0.06. In 27 patients with treated metastatic bone carcinoma the T/F ratio was 1.12 +- 0.13. The T/F ratio is significantly (p<0.001) different in patients with metastases compared to patients with benign degenerative disease. Chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment cause significant (p<0.001) reduction in the T/F ratio. The T/F ratio may have a potential in differentiating degenerative from neoplastic diseases and in the evaluation of patients with bone metastases undergoing treatment.

  10. Biodistribution of 99mTc Tricarbonyl Glycine Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Beom-Su; Lee, Joo-Sang; Rho, Jong Kook

    2012-01-01

    99mTc tricarbonyl glycine monomers, trimers, and pentamers were synthesized and evaluated for their radiolabeling and in vivo distribution characteristics. We synthesized a 99mTc-tricarbonyl precursor with a low oxidation state (I). 99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3 + was then made to react with monomeric and oligomeric glycine for the development of bifunctional chelating sequences for biomolecules. Labeling yields of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine monomers and oligomers were checked by high-performance liquid chromatography. The labeling yields of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine and glycine oligomers were more than 95%. We evaluated the characteristics of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine oligomers by carrying out a lipophilicity test and an imaging study. The octanol-water partition coefficient of 99mTc tricarbonyl glycine oligomers indicated hydrophilic properties. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of 99mTc-tricarbonyl glycine oligomers showed rapid renal excretion through the kidneys with a low uptake in the liver, especially of 99mTc tricarbonyl triglycine. Furthermore, we verified that the addition of triglycine to prototype biomolecules (AGRGDS and RRPYIL) results in the improvement of radiolabeling yield. From these results, we conclude that triglycine has good characteristics for use as a bifunctional chelating sequence for a 99mTc-tricarbonyl- based biomolecular imaging probe. PMID:24278615

  11. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  12. Technetium-99m antimony colloid for bone-marrow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Martindale, A.A.; Papadimitriou, J.M.; Turner, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was prepared in our laboratory for bone-marrow imaging. Optimal production of colloid particles of size range 1 to 13 nm was achieved by the use of polyvinylpyrrolidone of mol. wt. 44,000. Electron microscopy was used to size the particles. Studies in rabbits showed exclusive concentration in the subendothelial dendritic phagocytes of the bone marrow. Pseudopods from these cells were found to traverse interendothelial junctions and concentrate colloid from the sinusoids. Imaging studies of bone marrow in rabbits showed the superiority of the Tc-99m antimony colloid over the much larger colloidal particle of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Tissue distribution studies in the rat confirmed that bone-marrow uptake of Tc-99m antimony colloid was greater than that of Tc-99m sulfur colloid, although blood clearance was much slower.

  13. Study on 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal accumulation using in vitro cellular model.

    PubMed

    Nový, Zbynĕk; Mandíková, Jana; Trejtnar, Frantisek

    2011-02-01

    Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labelled with technetium-99m belongs to standard renal radiodiagnostics. However, the renal transport mechanisms responsible for their high renal uptake have not been fully explained. In addition, no in vitro experimental study comparing the renal uptake of these radiopharmaceuticals at the cellular level has not been performed. The investigation compared the 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake using primary rat renal cells and evaluated contribution of active and passive transport processes to the renal accumulation. The renal cells were isolated from the rat kidneys by means of the two-phase collagenase perfusion method. The used experimental model showed to be useful tool for such type of investigation. The results documented significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the accumulation of 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 in the rat isolated cells. The found experimental data indicated several times higher uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 than that found in 99mTc-DMSA. 99mTc-MAG3 cellular uptake was substantially decreased when active, energy-dependent processes were inhibited. However, 99mTc-DMSA accumulation in the renal cells demonstrated only a minor dependency on energy. These findings demonstrate a very different character of the membrane transport determining 99mTc-DMSA and 99mTc-MAG3 renal accumulation.

  14. Increased breast density correlates with the proliferation-seeking radiotracer (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA uptake in florid epithelial hyperplasia and in mixed ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma but not in pure invasive ductal carcinoma or in mild epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Papantoniou, Vassilios; Valsamaki, Pipitsa; Sotiropoulou, Evangelia; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Kounadi, Evangelia; Karianos, Theodore; Fothiadaki, Athina; Archontaki, Aikaterini; Syrgiannis, Konstantinos; Ptohis, Nikolaos; Makris, Nikolaos; Limouris, Georgios; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of mammographic breast density (BD) and cell proliferation/focal adhesion kinase activation-seeking radiotracer technetium 99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) uptake in women with different breast histologies, that is, mild epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), florid epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), mixed ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma (DCIS + IDC), and pure IDC. Fifty-five women with histologically confirmed mammary pathologies were submitted preoperatively to mammography and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintimammography. The percentage and intensity of 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake and the percentage of BD were calculated by computer-assisted methods and compared (t-test) between the breast pathologies. In breasts with increased BD, FEH and DCIS + IDC were found. On the contrary, pure IDC and MEH were identified in breasts with significantly lower BD values. In breasts with increased 99mTc(V)-DMSA area and intensity of uptake, FEH was the main lesion found compared to all other histologies. Linear regression analysis between BD and 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake area and intensity revealed significant coefficients of correlation (r  =  .689, p < .001 and r  =  .582, p < .001, respectively). Increased BD correlates with the presence of FEH and mixed DCIS + IDC but not with pure IDC or MEH. Its close relationship to 99mTc(V)-DMSA, which also showed an affinity to FEH, indicates that stromal microenvironment may constitute a specific substrate leading to progression to different subtypes of cancerous lesions originating from different pathways.

  15. Technetium-99m DMSA imaging and the obstructed kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R.; Roland, J.H.; Froideville, J.L.; Kinthaert, J.; Hall, M.; Verboven, M.; Collier, F.

    1986-06-01

    Although several authors have claimed that the function of an obstructed kidney could be overestimated on Tc-99m DMSA imaging, the clinical importance of such an overestimation has not been well documented. Partial obstruction of one ureter was created in a rat, and a relative Tc-99m DMSA uptake was obtained 4 hours after intravenous injection. By puncture of the isolated obstructed kidney, it was shown that the function of that kidney was overestimated by at least 17%.

  16. Comparison of early myocardial technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake to early peaking of creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB as indicators of early reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, M.; Yuzuki, Y.; Arai, H.; Shimizu, K.; Morikawa, M.; Shimono, Y.

    1987-10-01

    The value of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scintigraphy as an indicator of reperfusion 2.8 to 8 hours after the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction was compared with the value of early peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-MB release within 16 hours after the onset of symptoms. In 29 patients who received thrombolytic therapy, recanalization was seen (group 1) and in 7 it was not (group 2). In 23 patients (79%) in group 1 scintigraphic findings were positive and in all 7 in group 2 they were negative. In 15 patients (52%) in group 1 and 1 patient (14%) in group 2, CK reached its peak level within 16 hours. In 20 patients (69%) in group 1 and 3 (43%) in group 2 the CK-MB level reached a peak within 16 hours. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy of positive results of early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy in predicting the reperfusion were 79%, 100% and 83%. These values are significantly higher than or similar to those of early peaking of CK and CK-MB release. In contrast to measurements of enzyme release, reperfusion data for Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy are available immediately after thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, early Tc-99m-PYP scintigraphy (3 to 8 hours after onset of symptoms) is valuable as a noninvasive technique for early diagnosis of reperfusion.

  17. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  18. Congenital renal anomaly: evaluation with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, S.; Kawamura, J.; Tomoyoshi, T.; Yoshida, O.

    1983-05-01

    Technetium 99m-2,3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) preferentially accumulates in the renal cortex, demonstrating functioning cortical mass. We used 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in ten patients with horseshoe kidneys and five patients with unilateral fused kidneys. The results show that 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy reliably establishes the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney and clearly shows the isthmus, which is very essential for proper management. The technique also aids in the definitive assessment of separate kidney function and of total radionuclide uptake is possible using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy.

  19. Tc-99m Labeled carrier for imaging

    DOEpatents

    Henze, Eberhard

    1984-01-01

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by non-covalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  20. TC-99M labeled carrier for imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Henze, E.

    1984-02-14

    Novel radionuclide imaging agents, having particular application for lymphangiography are provided by noncovalently binding Tc-99m to a pharmaceutically acceptable cross-linked polysaccharide. Upon injection of the Tc-99m labeled polysaccharide into the blood stream, optimum contrast can be obtained within one hour.

  1. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  2. Images of liposarcoma using technetium-99m bleomycin and technetium (V)-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Shane, F.I.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Ishii, M.

    1986-12-01

    The effectiveness of Tc-99m bleomycin (BLM) and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are compared with that of Ga-67 citrate, which is currently the most widely used agent. In four patients with lipomatous tumors, the clinical significance of tumor imaging with each of these three agents is discussed and compared. Results indicate that both Tc-99m BLM and Tc(V)-99m DMSA are superior in detecting the extension or localization of liposarcomas.

  3. [The effect of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in the food on the uptake and retention of 99mTc-methylenediphosphonate and 85Sr in the bones in rats].

    PubMed

    Kapitola, J; Jahoda, I; Kobos, L

    1990-05-01

    The effects of vitamin D-free diet with low Ca content on 24 hours' 99mTc-methylendiphosphonate retention (in the whole body and tibia), long-term the whole body 85Sr retention and 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis of femur and tibia in rats (at the same time in certain experiments femur density and weight after incineration were established) were followed. The whole body 99mTc-MDP retention increases significantly as early as the third day of the diet administration, retention in tibia and the whole body is in further 2 experiments increased after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of the diet (density decreases from the first or the second week). The whole body 85Sr retention is significantly increased as early as after 2 days of the diet, the great difference against controls only slowly decreases after discontinuation of low-Ca diet. Further experiment followed 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in femur and tibia samples after 2, 5, 10 and 20 days of diet--catchment increase is significant after 20 days (bone density and ash weight is significantly decreased after 10 and 20 days of diet). Thus retention of both osteotrophic substances in bone is as a result of low Ca diet increased. This reaction is in case with 85Sr expected, in that of 99mTc-MDP it suggests a possible relation of the catchment and mineral component of osseous tissue. Increased retention of both the substances obviously fails to be related to local blood circulation which was in this situation in our previous experiments decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2371530

  4. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  5. Imaging of experimental myocardial infarction with technetium-99m 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsberg, R.P.; Milne, N.; Lyons, K.P.; Aronow, W.S.

    1981-03-01

    We have studied the use of Tc-99m-labeled 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid(Tc-99m DMSA) to scintigraph acute myocardial infaction after coronary occlusion in dogs. Optimal images were obtained 5 hr after injection of radiotracer, with consistent delineation 48 hr after occlusion. Delivery of tracer was dependent on blood flow. Uptake of tracer correlated to extent of infarction as determined by the myocardial depletion of creatine kinase. Myocardial Tc-99m DMSA was protein-bound.

  6. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  7. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  8. Clinical evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renogram

    SciTech Connect

    Van Poppel, H.; Vereecken, R.; Vekemans, K.; Verduyn, H.; Mortelmans, L.; de Roo, M.

    1985-04-01

    Two hundred-two /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renograms for urologic problems were evaluated. Some technical aspects of the examination and the value of the scintigraphic depth estimation are discussed. Pre- and postoperative uptake values in patients with renal surgery and sequential postoperative examinations are considered. The value of DMSA renograms in predicting recovery in obstructive uropathy and in deciding to opt for conservative therapy or nephrectomy is discussed.

  9. Tissular distributions and kinetics of two renal 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals in rat.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, F; Petiet, A; Petegnief, Y; Colas-Linhart, N; Bok, B

    2001-05-01

    A digital radioimager (RI), conventional radioautography (RA), and tracks microradioautography (MRA) were used to assess the biodistributions and kinetics of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic (99mTc-DMSA) and 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3) in rat at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Three groups of male Wistar rats were studied. Using gamma-counting, kidney, liver, spleen and blood kinetics of both tracers were assessed in the three groups. Using RA and RI, renal slices were analyzed in group 1 the animals being sacrified from 2 to 60 min after injection of 99mTc-MAG3, and in group 2 the animals being sacrificed from 0.5 to 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA. Using MRA, renal slices were analyzed for 99mTc-DMSA (group 3). RA films and RI images displayed the variation with time of the cortical and medullary uptakes of the tracers. No regional heterogeneity within the different structures could be seen neither with RA films nor with MRA. The remaining activity in the blood 24 hr after injection of 99mTc-DMSA was evaluated. The tissular distributions of both tracer being homogenous, mean values of cortical uptake seems to be acceptable for dosimetric studies. Our results incite to use of 99mTc-MAG3 instead of 99mTc-DMSA when both tracers may be indicated. PMID:11441950

  10. Biodistribution of 99mTc Labeled Integrin Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hee; Shin, In Soo; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Paik, Chang H.

    2013-01-01

    The selective targeting of an integrin αvβ3 receptor using radioligands may enable the assessment of angiogenesis and integrin αvβ3 receptor status in tumors. The aim of this research was to label a peptidomimetic integrin αvβ3 antagonist (PIA) with 99mTc(CO)3 and to test its receptor targeting properties in nude mice bearing receptor-positive tumors. PIA was reacted with tris-succinimidyl aminotriacetate (TSAT) (20 mM) as a PIA per TSAT. The product, PIA-aminodiacetic acid (ADA), was radiolabeled with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+1, and purified sequentially on a Sep-Pak C-18 cartridge followed by a Sep-Pak QMA anion exchange cartridge. Using gradient C-18 reverse-phase HPLC, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA (retention time, 10.5 min) was confirmed to be > 95%. Biodistribution analysis was performed in nude mice (n = 5 per time point) bearing receptor-positive M21 human melanoma xenografts. The mice were administered 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA intravenously. The animals were euthanized at 0.33, 1, and 2 hr after injection for the biodistribution study. A separate group of mice were also co-injected with 200 μg of PIA and euthanized at 1 hr to quantify tumor uptake. 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA was stable in phosphate buffer for 21 hr, but at 3 and 6 hr, 7.9 and 11.5% of the radioactivity was lost as histidine, respectively. In tumor bearing mice, 99mTc(CO)3-ADA-PIA accumulated rapidly in a receptor-positive tumor with a peak uptake at 20 min, and rapid clearance from blood occurring primarily through the hepatobiliary system. At 20 min, the tumor-toblood ratio was 1.8. At 1 hr, the tumor uptake was 0.47% injected dose (ID)/g, but decreased to 0.12% ID/g when co-injected with an excess amount of PIA, indicating that accumulation was receptor mediated. These results demonstrate successful 99mTc labeling of a peptidomimetic integrin antagonist that accumulated in a tumor via receptor-specific binding. However, tumor uptake was very low because of low blood concentrations

  11. The use of Tc-99m MDP bone scanning in the study of vascularized bone implants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Dee, P.; Lambruschi, P.G.; Hiebert, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The extent to which the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining bone growth in the immature animal was studied by excision and reimplantation of the upper tibia in two groups of puppies. In one group the reimplant was totally devascularized, and in a second group attempts were made to preserve the nutrient vessels to the reimplant. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) was used to assess the effectiveness with which the nutrient circulation was maintained. With one exception the Tc-99m MDP scans proved to be reliable in indicating the potential for continued growth after reimplantation. It was found that the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining longitudinal bone growth in metaphyseal reimplants in immature animals. Complete devascularization results in cessation of growth. The Tc-99m MDP bone scan should prove of critical importance in the assessment of free vascularized transplants of immature bone.

  12. Direct 99m Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wan-Jou; Yen, Chao-Liang; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Kuo-Ting; Lo, Jem-Mau

    2008-03-01

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+ ion in saline, a significant yield of 99m Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which 99m Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical 99m Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, alpha-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [99m Tc(CO)3(OH2)3]+. Retention of bioactivity of the 99m Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  13. Tc-99m tetrofosmin: A new diagnostic tracer for parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kumabe, Tsutomu; Morita, Seiichiro

    1995-10-01

    A 42-year-old woman with hyperparathyroidism had a CT scan that was suggestive of a small nodular lesion in the left lower neck. Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin parathyroid imaging were performed 10 minutes and 2 hours after tracer injection. Early imaging with Tc-99m sestamibi demonstrated thyroid and focal uptake in the left lower neck. On delayed imaging, finding suggested a parathyroid adenoma. Imaging with Tc-99m tetrofosmin demonstrated similar findings. The abnormal parathyroid gland was an adenoma. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Imaging endocarditis with Tc-99m-labeled antibody--an experimental study: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.W.; Dhawan, V.K.; Tanaka, T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Reese, I.C.; Thadepalli, H.

    1982-03-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m-labeled antibacterial antibody (Tc-99m Ab) for detecting bacterial endocarditis were evaluated in an experimental model. Rabbit-produced antistaphylococcal antibody was extracted using Rivanol and chemically labeled with Tc-99m. This Tc-99m Ab was injected intravenously in New Zealand rabbits 24 hr after producing Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis of the aortic valve. Imaging and tissue analyses were performed on the following day. All 11 animals developed S. aureus aortic-valve vegetations and showed increased uptake of Tc-99m Ab at the aortic valve, 118 times higher than at the uninfected tricuspid valve. Although high hepatic radioactivity and anatomic uncertainties interfered with in vivo delineation of these lesions, images of the excised hearts showed all affected valves. Two rabbits inoculated with Escherichia coli did not develop endocarditis and had little uptake of Tc-99m Ab, while six rabbits with enterococcal endocarditis had no uptake of the Tc-99m Ab in their vegetations. The findings suggest potential value of Tc-99m Ab on the rapid diagnosis of endocarditis.

  15. Synthesis, Radiolabeling and Biological Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled Deoxyglucose Derivatives for Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghzadeh, Masoud; Charkhlooiea, Ghorbanali; Johari Daha, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Two deoxyglucose (DG) derivatives, (α,β)-2-deoxy-2-amino(ethylcarbamate)-D-glucose (ECB-DG) and (α,β)-2-deoxy-2-amino(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-D-glucose (DHP-DG), were synthesized and radiolabeled successfully with [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+ complex. [99mTc]-ECB-DG and [99mTc]-DHP-DG complexes were prepared (96% and 93% radiochemical purities respectively) by using 46 mCi of Na99mTcO4 in 1 mL saline. Radio-HPLC analysis of [99mTc]- ECB-DG at pH = 7.4, revealed that labeling with 99mTc leads to formation of one radiochemical species with tR = 381 second. Three radiochemical species, Na99mTcO4, [99mTc]-DHP-DG and [99mTc(H2O)3(CO)3]+ complexes with tR = 342 sec, tR = 567 sec and tR = 1586 sec respectively, were obtained when [99mTc]-DHP-DG complex evaluated by HPLC. Biodistribution of two complexes were studied on normal mice at 10, 30 and 60 min post-injections. Compared to the 18F-FDG, [99mTc]-ECB-DG displayed a 2.8-fold reduction in brain uptake (1.7 ± 0.2 versus 0.61% ± 0.09) ,whereas [99mTc]-DHP-DG just showed 1.9-fold reduction in heart uptake (2.2 ± 0.05 towards 1.16±0.10) at 1 h post-injection. On the basis of our results, it seems that ECB-DG and DHP-DG analogues could be used as brain and heart imaging agent respectively. PMID:24250633

  16. Development of 99mTc-N4-NIM for Molecular Imaging of Tumor Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad S.; Kong, Fan-Lin; Rollo, Alex; Mendez, Richard; Kohanim, Saady; Smith, Daniel Lee; Yang, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The nitro group of 2-nitroimidazole (NIM) enters the tumor cells and is bioreductively activated and fixed in the hypoxia cells. 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (N4) has shown to be a stable chelator for 99mTc. The present study was aimed to develop 99mTc-cyclam-2-nitroimidazole (99mTc-N4-NIM) for tumor hypoxia imaging. N4-NIM precursor was synthesized by reacting N4-oxalate and 1,3-dibromopropane-NIM, yielded 14% (total synthesis). Cell uptake of 99mTc-N4-NIM and 99mTc-N4 was obtained in 13762 rat mammary tumor cells and mesothelioma cells in 6-well plates. Tissue distribution of 99mTc-N4-NIM was evaluated in breast-tumor-bearing rats at 0.5–4 hrs. Tumor oxygen tension was measured using an oxygen probe. Planar imaging was performed in the tumor-bearing rat and rabbit models. Radiochemical purity of 99mTc-N4-NIM was >96% by HPLC. Cell uptake of 99mTc-N4-NIM was higher than 99mTc-N4 in both cell lines. Biodistribution of 99mTc-N4-NIM showed increased tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle count density ratios as a function of time. Oxygen tension in tumor tissue was 6–10 mmHg compared to 40–50 mmHg in normal muscle tissue. Planar imaging studies confirmed that the tumors could be visualized clearly with 99mTc-N4-NIM in animal models. Efficient synthesis of N4-NIM was achieved. 99mTc-N4-NIM is a novel hypoxic probe and may be useful in evaluating cancer therapy. PMID:22719210

  17. Radiolabelling of platelets with technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Sundrehagen, E.; Urdal, P.; Heggli, D.E.; Lindegaard, M.W.; Jacobsen, E. )

    1990-03-01

    A method for labelling of platelets with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is presented. In principle, aminobenzoic acid and tartaric acid are used as reagents, allowing Tc-99m complexes of intermediate chemical stability to be formed. These complexes react rapidly with proteins, such as platelet proteins, when added. We have examined the isolation procedure for the platelets and the labelling procedure using residual aggregational ability and residual content of beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) as indicators of damage to the platelets. In its final version the method allowed a 32.6 +/- 2.7% (mean +/- SD) incorporation of Tc-99m into platelets which again showed a 66 +/- 15% residual aggregational ability, tested by 50 mumol/l of ADP, and a 79 +/- 17% residual content of beta-TG releasable by 10 IU/ml of thrombin. In a pilot clinical study involving 28 patients we found labelled autologous platelets useful in detecting lung embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

  18. Imaging of primary and regionally metastatic lung cancer with Tc-99m SESTAMIBI

    SciTech Connect

    Akansel, G.; Liu, Y.; Uygur, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The significance of pulmonary, hilar, and mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging was retrospectively investigated. SPECT myocardial perfusion images for 34 adult patients (ages: 52-to-82 years) with known lung cancer undergoing preoperative assessment of cardiac status and 29 {open_quotes}control{close_quotes} patients with normal chest radiographs and no history of lung cancer were reviewed. For the 29 patients without lung cancer there was no abnormal pulmonary, hilar, or mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI. For the 34 patients with histologically proven lung cancer, Tc-99m SESTAMIBI uptake was detected in 27 of 34 primary pulmonary lesions (79% sensitivity), 2 of 4 surgically proven hilar metastases, and 1 of 4 mediastinal metastases. The smallest lesion detected was 1.0 cm in diameter and the largest lesion not detected was 5.5 cm in diameter. For squamous cell carcinoma, 20 of 22 primary lesions were detected (91% sensitivity). Tc-99m SESTAMIBI detected 5 of 34 primary pulmonary lesions, 2 of 4 hilar metasteses, and 1 of 4 mediastinal metastases not identified by conventional chest radiographs. CT was superior to Tc-99m SESTAMIBI for detection of primary pulmonary lesions and was similar to Tc-99m SESTAMIBI in the limited number of cases with hilar and mediastinal metastatic involvement. We conclude that abnormal pulmonary, hilar, or mediastinal uptake of Tc-99m SESTAMIBI may be a clinically significant finding which should be correlated with chest radiography or CT.

  19. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

  20. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex. PMID:27181612

  1. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  2. Quantification of technetium-99m lung radioactivity from planar images.

    PubMed

    Forge, N I; Mountford, P J; O'Doherty, M J

    1993-01-01

    Six methods of quantifying technetium-99m lung uptake from planar gamma camera images were evaluated. Camera sensitivities, the broad beam attenuation coefficient and build-up factors were derived from suitable phantom measurements. The accuracy of the methods was evaluated by quantifying the lung uptake of 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) in ten patients and assuming complete trapping by the lung of the known activity of injected MAA particles. Three methods based on published techniques which related the count rate from an image of a lung to that from a lung phantom were the least accurate, producing lung activities which were typically about 70% of the injected activity. Of the other three techniques, the depth-dependent build-up factor method was slightly more accurate than the geometric mean and the depth-independent build-up factor methods, producing average values (+/- SD) of lung activity which were 100% +/- 3%, 106% +/- 3% and 101% +/- 5%, respectively, of the injected activity. To measure lung uptake, all of these latter three methods required an attenuation correction with a flood source transmission scan, and therefore their accuracy was affected by the variation in the activity distribution and attenuation across an image of the thorax. PMID:8420777

  3. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using 99mTc-HMPAO

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with 99mTc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free 99mTc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs. 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  4. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using (99m)Tc-HMPAO.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with (99m)Tc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application.

  5. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using (99m)Tc-HMPAO.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with (99m)Tc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with (99m)Tc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  6. Is Brown Adipose Tissue Visualization Reliable on 99mTc-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Diagnostic SPECT Scintigraphy?

    PubMed Central

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 99mTc-MIBI has been used with great value as a diagnostic technique in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. False-positive scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI. Reviewing consecutive SPECT scans, we evaluated this possibility and assessed how frequently brown adipose tissue (BAT) is seen on 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. Here, we retrospectively reviewed scans of consecutive patients who were evaluated for parathyroid adenomas from March 2015 to June 2015, using dual-phase (early and delayed) planar imaging and SPECT. We identified 60 patients (48 female and 12 male; mean age, 52.25 ± 15.20 years; range, 22–86 years). We detected the presence of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT in 20 of 60 patients (33.33%) in the neck. Although the patients with 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT were younger (mean age, 48.85 ± 15.27 years, range, 26–73 years) than the patients with no 99mTc-MIBI uptake (mean age, 53.95 ± 15.07 years, range, 22–86 years), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.224). The percentage of female patients with BAT detection was higher (17/48 patients; 37.5%) than that of the male population (3/12 patients; 25%), this difference was not also statistically significant (P = 0.85). In patient population referred to 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands, uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in BAT should not be misinterpreted with 99mTc-MIBI-avid-tumors. Fused SPECT/CT images (not SPECT-only) are necessary to distinguish BAT from bone, muscle, thyroid, myocardium, parathyroids, and other structures in the neck and chest. PMID:26765463

  7. Accumulation of 99mTc-low-density lipoprotein in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, J.; Kallio, M.; Nikula, T.; Nikkinen, P.; Liewendahl, K.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Savolainen, S.; Gylling, H.; Hiltunen, J.; Callaway, J.

    1995-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake in gliomas was studied to find out if LDL has potential as a drug carrier of boron, especially for boron neutron capture therapy. Single photon emission tomography (SPET) was performed 2 h and 20 h after intravenous injection of autologous 99mTc-labelled LDL in four patients with untreated and five patients with recurrent glioma. 99mTc-LDL uptake was compared with the uptake of 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA), an established blood pool marker. The intra- and peritumoral distributions of radioactivity in the SPET images were not identical for radiolabelled LDL and HSA. The mean LDL tumour to brain ratio, determined from transversal SPET slices at 20 h post injection, was 1.5 in untreated and 2.2 in recurrent gliomas; the corresponding ratios for HSA were 1.6 and 3.4. The brain to blood ratio remained constant at 2 h and 20 h in both types of tumours. These data are not consistent with highly selective, homogeneous uptake of LDL in gliomas. However, the different tumoral distribution and rate of uptake of 99mTc-LDL, as compared with 99mTc-HSA, indicate that the uptake of LDL is different from that of HSA and that further studies on the mechanism of LDL uptake in glioma are warranted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7841057

  8. 99mTc direct labeling of anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies: quality control and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    De Castiglia, S G; Duran, A; Fiszman, G; Horenstein, A L

    1995-04-01

    The anti-carcinoembryonic B2C114 monoclonal antibody was radiolabeled with 99mTc by a direct method and quality control tested in vitro by instant thin layer chromatography, gel column scanning and cellulose acetate electrophoresis and assessed in vivo for radioimmunodetection on a murine spontaneous mammary carcinoma. The optimal results of percent 99mTc bound to protein were obtained at a dithiothreitol:antibody molar ratio ranging from 800:1 to 1000:1 and at a methylene diphosphonate:stannous fluoride weight ratio of 4.3:1. Although cysteine removed up to 18% of the label during the first 4 h, the stability of the tracer appeared to be excellent in human serum at 37 degrees C and when challenged with DTPA. 99mTc-labeled B2C114 demonstrated good and specific in vivo tumor targeting.

  9. Imaging of glutathione localization in brain with technetium-99M meso-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Toyama, H.; Oda, K.

    1995-05-01

    Previous studies have shown decreasing [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake in accordance with glutathione (GSH) content in diethyl, maleate (DEM) treated mice brain. In order to elucidate the retention mechanism of [Tc-99m] HM-PAO in brain and to visualize the regional localization of GSH in the brain with [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO, the relationship between the tissue GSH content and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO was studied in rats and rabbits. Increasing pre-load of DEM (550 mg/kg body weight), an agent to reduce GSH content by glutathione transferase, led to a decrease in GSH (control 1.972{plus_minus}0.017 vs DEM 1.138{plus_minus}0.106 mM) and uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO to half of the control in the rat brain (control 0.281{plus_minus}0.024 vs DEM 0.153 {plus_minus} 0.009 % dose/g). On the other hand, the DEM did not decrease GSH or the uptake of [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO in the rabbit brain, in which glutathione transferase activity is very low. These results were also demonstrated by images with pin-hole collimated gamma camera. The uptake of [Tc-99m] meso showed variations in the regional distribution, but the d,l-isomer was uniform. [Tc-99m] meso-HM-PAO uptake was well correlated with GSH content in mice brain regions (r=0.800, p<0.02), whereas [Tc-99m]d,l-HM-PAO was not (r=0.017, p>0.5). Both [Tc-99m] mesa HM-PAO uptake and GSH content were especially high at cerebellum (Uptake: 2.598{plus_minus}0.256 % dose/g. GSH: 2.372{plus_minus}0.107 mM) as compared to other areas (Uptake;cerebral cortex 1.797{plus_minus}0.100 brain stem 1.607 {plus_minus}0.112 % dose/g. GSH: cerebral cortex 1.635{plus_minus}0.142 brain stem 1.478{plus_minus}0.141 mM).

  10. Preparation and evaluation of (99m)Tc-DMSA lyophilized kit for renal imaging.

    PubMed

    Jan, Syed Umer; Abbass, Hafiz Ghulam

    2013-05-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been evaluated and used with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) in imaging of kidneys. DMSA lyophilized kits were prepared and radiolabelled with (99m)Tc. Paper and thin-layer chromatography have been employed using various eluent systems for the radiochemical analysis, percentage labeling and binding capacity of (99m)Tc-DMSA. Female albino rabbits were used for this study. Biological data obtained after intravenous injection of radiolabelled DMSA to female albino rabbits revealed 32.42% uptake and long retention time in the kidneys. On the basis of animal biodistribution data, it is suggested that DMSA when labeled with (99m)Tc is useful complex for renal imaging and can be successfully applied as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine. Clinical biodistribution and radiation dosimetry studies are planned in future.

  11. Interrogation of multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) expression in human pancreatic carcinoma cells: correlation of 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake with western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Harpstrite, Scott E; Gu, Hannah; Natarajan, Radhika; Sharma, Vijay

    2014-10-01

    Histopathological studies indicate that ∼63% of pancreatic tumors express multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and its polymorphic variants. However, Pgp expression detected at the mRNA or protein level does not always correlate with functional transport activity. Because Pgp transport activity is affected by specific mutations and the phosphorylation state of the protein, altered or less active forms of Pgp may also be detected by PCR or immunohistochemistry, which do not accurately reflect the status of tumor cell resistance. To interrogate the status of the functional expression of MDR1 Pgp in MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, cellular transport studies using Tc-Sestamibi were performed and correlated with western blot analysis. Biochemical transport assays in human pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, human epidermal carcinoma drug-sensitive KB-3-1 cells, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells (negative controls), and human epidermal carcinoma drug-resistant KB-8-5 cells, human breast carcinoma stably transfected with Pgp MCF-7/MDR1Pgp cells, and liver carcinoma HepG2 cells (positive controls) were performed. Protein levels were determined using a monoclonal antibody C219. Tc-Sestamibi demonstrates accumulation in human pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Uptake profiles are not affected by treatment with LY335979, a Pgp inhibitor, and correlate with western blot analysis. These cellular transport studies indicate an absence of Pgp at a functional level in MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Because major pancreatic tumors originate from the pancreatic duct and Tc-Sestamibi undergoes a dominant hepatobiliary mode of excretion, it would not be a sensitive probe for imaging pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Following interrogation of the functional status of Pgp in other pancreatic carcinoma cells, chemotherapeutic drugs that are also MDR1 substrates could offer alternative therapeutics for treating pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

  12. Technetium-99m APD compared with technetium-99m MDP as a bone scanning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Degrossi, O.J.; Oliveri, P.; Garcia del Rio, H.; Labriola, R.; Artagaveytia, D.; Degrossi, E.B.

    1985-10-01

    The authors have investigated the possibilities of technetium-99m-(-3-aminohydroxypropylidene)-1-1-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)APD) as a bone scanning agent in 14 normal subjects and 28 patients. Similar studies in the same normal subjects and patients were carried out with /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)MDP). The compounds were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by means of an electrolytical method; the free pertechnetate content was always under 1%. The (/sup 99m/Tc)APD T1/2 of the third component of the disappearance plasma curve in six normal subjects was 152 +/- 46 min (mean +/- s.d.), while the 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) was 17.6% +/- 4.6. The (99mTc)MDP value of the 24-hr WBR was 28.6% +/- 3.9. The bone/soft-tissue ratio (B/ST) was investigated in eight control subjects on the eleventh thoracic and the fourth lumbar vertebrae. The B/ST ratios were similar for both APD and MDP studies. In 28 patients with suspected bone metastasis or primary bone disease, bone scintigraphy was carried out; both compounds showed similar findings and the same number of positive results. In five of these patients, the lesion/normal bone ratio was determined with values of 4.6 +/- 2.0 in APD studies and 4.8 +/- 2.3 with MDP. APD was also used in 126 patients; no adverse reactions were observed. The APD dose used i.v. for bone scanning was 200-fold less than those employed by mouth per day, for the treatment of bone disease for long periods. In our experience, APD appears to be an adequate agent for bone scintigraphy.

  13. Incidentally detected diaphragmatic hernia mimicking angina pectoris with Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cınar, Alev; Sadıc, Murat; Demırel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years 99mTechnetium methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (99mTc MIBI) is widely used in the evaluation of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). In this imaging protocol besides the cardiac evaluation, numerous other organs are included in the field of view. 99mTechnetium MIBI is taken up in all metabolically active tissue in the body except for the brain. Extracardiac uptake patterns as benign or serious conditions can be revealed during the MPI. In the imaging protocol, we should be aware of distribution of this radiotracer in order to recognize the abnormal uptake. Here in, we present a large diaphragmatic hernia, seemed as a mirror vision of myocardium that was determined incidentally during the MPI with 99mTc MIBI. PMID:24379540

  14. Effect of Co-Ligands on Chemical and Biological Properties of 99mTc(III) Complexes [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (L = Cl, F, SCN and N3; CDOH2 = Cyclohexanedione Dioxime)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yumin; Ji, Shundong; Tomaselli, Elena; Ernest, Carley; Freiji, Tom; Liu, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction 99mTc-Teboroxime ([99mTcCl(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe]) is a member of the BATO (boronic acid adducts of technetium dioximes) class of 99mTc(III) complexes. This study sought to explore the impact of co-ligands on solution stability, heart uptake and myocardial retention of [99mTc(L)(CDO)(CDOH)2BMe] (99mTc-Teboroxime: L = Cl; 99mTc-Teboroxime(F): L = F; 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN): L = SCN; and 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3): L = N3). Methods Radiotracers 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared by reacting 99mTc-Teboroxime with NaF, NaSCN and NaN3, respectively. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their heart retention and liver clearance kinetics. Results Complexes 99mTc-Teboroxime(L) (L = F, SCN and N3) were prepared in high yield with high radiochemical purity. All new radiotracers were stable for >6 h in the kit matrix. In its HPLC chromatogram, 99mTc-Teboroxime showed one peak at ~15.5 min, which was shorter than that of 99mTc-Teboroxime(F) (~16.4 min). There were two peaks for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN) at 16.5 and 18.3 min. 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) appeared as a single peak at 18.4 min. Their heart retention and liver clearance curves were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-times of fast/slow components were 1.6 ± 0.4/60.7±8.9 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime, 0.8±0.2/101.7±20.7 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(F), 1.2±0.3/84.8±16.6 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(SCN), and 2.9±0.9/51.6±5.0 min for 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3). The 2-min heart uptake followed the order of 99mTc-Teboroxime (3.00±0.37%ID/g) > 99mTc-Teboroxime(N3) (2.66±0.01 %ID/g) ≈ 99mTc-Sestamibi (2.55±0.46 %ID/g) > 99mTcN-MPO (2.38±0.15 %ID/g). 99mTc-Teboroxime remains the best in first-pass extraction. The best image acquisition window is 0 – 5 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine and 0 – 15 min for 99mTc-Teboroximine(N3). Conclusion Co-ligands had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention

  15. Effect of DMSA loading on the renal handling of technetium-99m in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1986-01-01

    The renal handling of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) was studied in rats treated with high doses of nonradioactive DMSA to inhibit the renal uptake mechanism(s). A static scan was obtained 1 hour after the intravenous (iv) injection of 99mTc DMSA and the radioactivity in kidneys and bladder was calculated as a percentage of the injected amount. Total glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow were also determined. Preloading with DMSA caused a fall in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA together with a small increase in the amount excreted into the urinary bladder. Despite a stable GFR, the total amount of 99mTc DMSA handled by the kidneys (i.e., renal plus bladder activity) was reduced. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that peritubular uptake and subsequent intracellular fixation are of importance in the renal accumulation of 99mTc DMSA. On the other hand, the radioactivity excreted into the urine probably stems from non-reabsorbed 99mTc DMSA initially filtered by the glomeruli.

  16. Demonstrating alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver by Tc-99m BIDA scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; DeLand, F.H.; Domstad, P.A.

    1984-08-01

    Six patients with decompensated cirrhosis of the liver underwent Tc-99m BIDA studies. All demonstrated 1) persistently high blood pool activity in the heart, lung, and soft tissue, 2) slow hepatic tracer uptake, 3) prolonged liver-to-bowel transit time, and 4) visualization of an enlarged spleen. Four of the six patients demonstrated evidence of ascites and in one patient there were visible collateral veins of the abdomen. These findings are due primarily to hepatic dysfunction and retaining Tc-99m BIDA in blood pool because of Tc-99m BIDA exclusively hepatic excretion and little or no alternative renal excretion. All six Tc-99m sulfur colloid studies were performed concomitantly. Except for bone marrow uptake and reversal of the normal liver-spleen ratio of radioactivity, the imaging abnormalities observed with Tc-99m BIDA were similar to those seen by Tc-99m SC. It is concluded that with Tc-99m BIDA studies, three of six abnormal findings, as described, suggest a decompensated stage of cirrhosis of the liver.

  17. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher than 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred after 2 hours of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) for 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic

  18. 99mTc MIBI in neurofibromatosis imaging diagnosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Stefănescu, C; Meignan, M; Volkenstein, P; Rusu, V

    1996-01-01

    99mTc MIBI has been shown to accumulate in different cancer cells types, in vitro and malignant tumours in vivo, making evidence of the scintigraphic diagnostic of them. We report two cases of neurofibromatosis type I, which has realised high levels of 99mTc MIBI uptake, primary to all chemo- or radiotherapy. Only certain zones of tumorous localisation have been seen, but a relation with the lesion histology was not really established. In conclusion, 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy may be usefull in the investigation of type I neurofibromatosis.

  19. Unusual Tc-99m MDP and I-123 MIBG images in focal pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.; Lenoir, P.; Delree, M.; Ramet, J.; Piepsz, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with an inflammatory syndrome. Because Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy revealed increased tracer uptake at the upper pole of the right kidney, further studies were oriented towards a diagnosis of renal or adrenal pathology. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulated at the site of the abnormal MDP uptake. The diagnosis of neuroblastoma or allied disorder was excluded on the basis of other investigations and further evaluation, suggesting that the MIBG uptake was a false-positive. Findings on clinical imaging, laboratory findings, Tc-99m DMSA imaging, sonography, and CT scanning were highly suggestive of acute focal pyelonephritis.

  20. Exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile: a comparative study with thallium-201.

    PubMed

    Najm, Y C; Maisey, M N; Clarke, S M; Fogelman, I; Curry, P V; Sowton, E

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease requires comparative validation against thallium-201, the established perfusion imaging agent. We have compared myocardial and lung uptake of both radiotracers following maximal exercise in 52 patients: 40 with angiographically proven coronary disease. Qualitative and quantitative image analysis showed the diagnostic sensitivity of technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile to compare favourably with that of thallium-201 as reflected by the mean number of ischaemic segments identified: 5.6 +/- 2.5 vs 4.8 +/- 2.1 by qualitative analysis, and 5.7 +/- 3.2 vs 5.0 +/- 2.6 segments by quantitative analysis. More reversibly ischaemic segments per patient were identified with technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile than with thallium-201: 3.6 +/- 2.3 vs 1.8 +/- 1.9. There was a higher exercise myocardial to background count ratio with technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile: 3.16:1 vs 2.58:1, and the mean exercise lung uptake normalised to left ventricular uptake ('lung index'), was lower for technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile than for thallium-201 (36 +/- 8% vs 40 +/- 10%). Five of the six patients with abnormal elevation of the thallium-201 exercise lung index also had elevation of the technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile exercise lung index, and all had extensive coronary artery disease. These results indicate that technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile is at least as effective as thallium-201 for detecting exercise induced myocardial ischaemia. However, technetium-99m methoxy isobutylisonitrile provides a better image quality and may be a more sensitive marker of defect reversibility. For both radiotracers lung uptake is increased with extensive coronary artery disease and measurement of this variable provides prognostic information.

  1. Is Brown Adipose Tissue Visualization Reliable on 99mTc-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile Diagnostic SPECT Scintigraphy?

    PubMed

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Farhoudi, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    The 99mTc-MIBI has been used with great value as a diagnostic technique in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. False-positive scans may occur due to misinterpretation of the physiologic distribution of the 99mTc-MIBI. Reviewing consecutive SPECT scans, we evaluated this possibility and assessed how frequently brown adipose tissue (BAT) is seen on 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy. Here, we retrospectively reviewed scans of consecutive patients who were evaluated for parathyroid adenomas from March 2015 to June 2015, using dual-phase (early and delayed) planar imaging and SPECT. We identified 60 patients (48 female and 12 male; mean age, 52.25 ± 15.20 years; range, 22-86 years).We detected the presence of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in BAT in 20 of 60 patients (33.33%) in the neck. Although the patients with T99mc-MIBI uptake in BAT were younger (mean age, 48.85 ± 15.27 years, range, 26-73 years) than the patients with no 99mTc-MIBI uptake (mean age, 53.95 ± 15.07 years, range, 22-86 years), this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.224). The percentage of female patients with BAT detection was higher (17/48 patients; 37.5%) than that of the male population (3/12 patients; 25%), this difference was not also statistically significant (P = 0.85).In patient population referred to 99mTc MIBI scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands, uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in BAT should not be misinterpreted with 99mTc-MIBI-avid-tumors. Fused SPECT/CT images (not SPECT-only) are necessary to distinguish BAT from bone, muscle, thyroid, myocardium, parathyroids, and other structures in the neck and chest. PMID:26765463

  2. Localization of /sup 99m/Tc methylene disphosphonate within synovial fluid in osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.S.; Heyman, S.; Watts, H.

    1984-08-01

    Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99m/Tc phosphate bone scanning agents has been reported in a wide variety of lesions, including malignant effusions. A case of uptake of bone scanning agent within synovial fluid in a joint involved with osteosarcoma is reported.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of the spleen with heat denatured technetium-99m RBC when the splenic reticuloendothelial system seems impaired

    SciTech Connect

    Owunwanne, A.; Halkar, R.; Al-Rasheed, A.; Abubacker, K.C.; Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1988-03-01

    Imaging of the spleen of 10 patients who had been hematologically diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia (SCA) was studied with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid and heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs. In all ten patients, there was faint or nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid. However, with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs, nine spleens were well visualized, and the uptake was homogenous. One spleen had two patchy areas of uptake. The results indicate that when splenic phagocytic function is impaired as reflected by nonvisualization of the spleen with (/sup 99m/Tc)tin colloid, it is still possible to image such a spleen with heat denatured (/sup 99m/Tc)RBCs

  4. Thallium-201-chloride and technetium-99m-MIBI SPECT of primary and metastatic lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kashitani, N; Makihara, S; Maeda, T; Eda, R; Takeyama, H; Hiraki, Y

    1999-01-01

    We compared technetium-99m-MIBI (Tc-99m MIBI) with thallium-201-chloride (Tl-201) SPECT imaging in patients with lung carcinoma. In addition, we compared the imaging characteristics of Tl-201 and Tc-99m MIBI after radiation therapy. Thirty-seven patients with primary lung carcinoma were evaluated with SPECT imaging for metastasis to the mediastinal lymph nodes and brain. Patients were imaged with Tl-201 chloride images 10 and 180 min after injection. Patients were also imaged 10 min after injection of Tc-99m MIBI. The sensitivity of Tl-201 SPECT for the primary lesion and brain metastasis was 97.1% and 70.0% respectively at 10 min and 97.1% and 60.0% at 180 min. The sensitivity of Tc-99m MIBI SPECT was 97.1% (for the identification of the primary lesion) and 50.0% (for the detection of brain metastasis) at 10 min. The uptake ratios (count in tumor/count in normal lung or brain) at 10 min on the Tl-201 SPECT and on the Tc-99m MIBI SPECT were not significantly different for the primary tumor or for brain metastasis. The uptake ratios were better for Tc-99m MIBI than for Tl-201 [2.82 vs. 1.99 (p<0.05)] for mediastinal lymph nodes. Decreasing uptake ratios and retention index with both agents after radiation therapy are concordant to the follow-up clinical course. Tc-99m MIBI SPECT is more sensitive in the detection of metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes than Tl-201 SPECT.

  5. Myocardial redistribution of technetium-99m-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.S.; Solot, G.; Frank, T.L.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Becker, L.C. )

    1990-06-01

    To determine whether technetium-99m-hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (SESTAMIBI) remains fixed in the myocardium following its initial uptake or undergoes time-related redistribution, anesthetized dogs underwent occlusion of the anterior descending coronary artery for 6 min, followed by 3-hr reperfusion. Technetium-99m-SESTAMIBI and thallium-201 (201Tl) were injected intravenously after 1 min occlusion and regional myocardial blood flow was measured with radioactive microspheres. Tomographic imaging of Tc-SESTAMIBI revealed a perfusion defect with slight but definite filling in over 2 hr. Quantitative analysis indicated a significant rise in the nadir and decrease in the width of the defect in circumferential profile curves. After 3-hr of reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI activity in the previously ischemic area was always greater than the activity of microspheres injected during coronary occlusion (mean normalized values, 0.32 versus 0.11, p less than 0.0001). Our results indicate that following transient ischemia and reperfusion, Tc-SESTAMIBI clearly undergoes myocardial redistribution, although more slowly and less completely than {sup 201}Tl.

  6. Role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Arora, Arundeep; Singhal, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; Peepre, Karan

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a progressive disease of unknown etiology. The 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scan is useful in finding the sites of involvement in the skeleton and is helpful in excluding other causes of bony pain. Also a scintigraphic pattern consistent with ECD should alert the physician to evaluate the patient for visceral sites of involvement using fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), as this is known to be fatal at times. PMID:25210284

  7. Planar imaging techniques used with technetium-99m sestamibi to evaluate chronic myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Maisey, M.N.; Mistry, R.; Sowton, E. )

    1990-10-16

    The results of published and some unpublished studies comparing planar imaging performed with 2 radionuclides, thallium-201 (T1-201) and technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi, are reviewed. The average sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in studies involving 594 patients was 85% (range 73 to 96%). The average sensitivity for individual vessels was 65% (range 60 to 70%). The average segmental concordance between T1-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi was 89%. End-diastolic gated perfusion images improved the concordance between Tc-99m sestamibi and angiography in 22 patients from 83.4 to 87%. Semiquantitative analysis increased the concordance between T1-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi from 89 to 91%. Ventricular function derived from gated Tc-99m sestamibi perfusion images showed a significant correlation with echocardiography (n = 62, r = 0.85); with angiography (n = 70, r = 0.91); and with equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (n = 18, r = 0.86). The ratio of lung to left ventricle uptake and the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle uptake was assessed. Eight of 52 patients had an abnormally elevated lung index (greater than 42%) and these patients had the most severe CAD. Six of the 52 patients had an abnormally elevated right ventricular index (greater than 56%) and these patients had more severe CAD.

  8. A kinetic model for 99mTc-DMSA in the rat.

    PubMed

    Maneval, D C; D'Argenio, D Z; Wolf, W

    1990-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic model was developed for the renal imaging agent 99mTc-DMSA in anesthetized rats, which incorporated data from serial measurements of blood and urine simultaneously with dynamic images obtained over an 8-h period. Animals which received a 10 mg/kg dose of unlabeled DMSA immediately before 99mTc-DMSA injection had a significantly reduced kidney accumulation and greater urinary elimination of 99mTc than animals which received the radiopharmaceutical alone. The kidney clearance was also significantly lower in rats receiving unlabeled DMSA, but no significant difference was determined between the urine clearance estimates of the two animal groups. Because the increase in the amount eliminated in the urine was not coupled with a significant change in urine clearance, it would appear that unlabeled DMSA saturated the kidney uptake mechanism(s) of 99mTc-DMSA without modifying the urinary clearance process. This interpretation is consistent with the hypothesis that renal handling of 99mTc-DMSA is governed by both glomerular filtration and peritubular capillary uptake. The simultaneous acquisition of blood, urine and non invasive image data allows for a comprehensive and informative model of the physiological disposition of 99mTc-DMSA.

  9. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a

  10. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun

    2016-05-15

    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.

  11. Imaging of head and neck tumors with technetium(V)-99m DMSA. A new tumor-seeking agent

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Nakashima, T.; Sakahara, H.; Torizuka, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Makimoto, K.; Hata, N.

    1985-12-01

    Tumor scintigraphy, using Tc(V)-99m DMSA was performed on 76 patients with head and neck tumors. In 32 cases, SPECT also was performed. Tc(V)-99m DMSA was found to have a sensitivity of 75% (56 cases), a specificity of 85% (20 cases) and an accuracy of 78% on planar imaging. ECT studies showed accumulation of Tc(V)-99m DMSA in all 25 malignant cases studied. However, in benign tumors, four of seven cases (57%) showed radionuclide uptake. Tc(V)-99m DMSA has superior physical properties to Ga-67 and could be of use in the diagnosis of head and neck tumors.

  12. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, E; Setti, L; Kirienko, M; Antunovic, L; Guglielmo, P; Ciocia, G

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases occur frequently in advanced cancer and this is matter of particular attention, due to the great impact on patient's management and considering that a lot of new emerging therapeutic options have been recently introduced. Imaging bone metastases is essential to localize lesions, to establish their size and number, to study characteristics and changes during therapy. Besides radiological imaging, nuclear medicine modalities can image their features and offer additional information about their metabolic behaviour. They can be classified according to physical characteristics, type of detection, mechanism of uptake, availability for daily use. The physiopathology of metastases formation and the mechanisms of tracer uptake are essential to understand the interpretation of nuclear medicine images. Therefore, radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases can be classified in agents targeting bone (99mTc-phosphonates, 18F-fluoride) and those targeting prostatic cancer cells (18F-fluoromethylcholine, 11C-choline, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose). The modalities using the first group of tracers are planar bone scan, SPECT or SPECT/CT with 99mTc-diphosphonates, and 18F-fluoride PET/CT, while the modalities using the second group include 18F/11C-choline derivatives PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/CT scans with several other radiopharmaceuticals described in the literature, such as 18F/11C-acetate derivatives, 18F-fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT), 18F-anti-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), 18F-2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU) and 68Ga-labeled-prostate specific membrane antigen (PMSA) PET/TC. However, since data on clinical validation for these last novel modalities are not conclusive and/or are not still sufficient in number, at present they can be still considered as promising tools under evaluation. The present paper considers the nuclear modalities today available for the clinical routine. This overview wants

  13. Technetium-99m bis (aminoethanethiol) complexes with amine sidechains--potential brain perfusion imaging agents for SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Efange, S.M.; Kung, H.F.; Billings, J.; Guo, Y.Z.; Blau, M.

    1987-06-01

    In an effort to develop new clinically useful technetium-99m bis(aminoethanethiol) ((/sup 99m/Tc)BAT) complexes for the evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion, two new BAT ligands containing amines in the sidechain were synthesized and subsequently complexed with /sup 99m/Tc to yield the target complexes: (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA and (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA. Each complex was obtained as mixtures of two isomers, syn and anti, which were separated chromatographically. In biodistribution studies, both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)TMPDA showed little uptake in the brain. In contrast, the brain uptake values at 2 and 15 min for (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-anti were 0.99 and 0.26, whereas, the corresponding values for DEA-syn were 2.27, 0.64% dose/organ, respectively. Autoradiographic studies (in rats) using both isomers of (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA show a fixed regional distribution and a higher concentration of radioactivity in the gray matter relative to the white matter. Planar imaging using (/sup 99m/Tc)DEA-syn clearly demonstrates localization of the complex in the brain with a T 1/2 of 41 min, suggesting some potential for use with single photon emission computed tomography.

  14. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic manifestations of hyperparathyroidism in a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Sehgal, Aditi Khurana; Jaiman, Ashish; Sethi, Ravinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the first differential diagnosis when a patient presents with asymptomatic hypercalcemia. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can be as grave as skeletal, cardiovascular, and neuropsychological changes. Skeletal manifestations are relatively common, and patient may present with generalized or focal bone pains, fragility fractures, subperiosteal bone resorption, and osteolytic lesions like brown tumors and salt and pepper appearance of the skull. However, focal osteosclerotic lesions of the skull are rare findings in hyperparathyroidism. Only a few cases of associated osteosclerosis are reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma with coexisting osteolytic and osteosclerotic skull lesions on Tc99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan.

  15. Subacute and chronic bone infections: Diagnosis using In-111, Ga-67 and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikh, W.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Mnaymneh, W.; Hourani, M.; Heal, A.; Duncan, R.C.; Burnett, A.; Ashkar, F.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of subacute or chronic bone infection was examined in 21 orthopedic patients. In-111 WBC imaging was compared with gallium-67 and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate skeletal scintigraphy and bone radiography, all studies being performed within 1 week. In-111 WBC scintigraphy showed no definite advantage over Ga-67 scintigraphy in the identification of chronic bone infection. The two tests had the same sensitivity and similar specificity. Bone radiography had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 67%. A negative Tc-99m MDP bone scintigram ruled out infection, but because of low specific, final evaluation required performance of Ga-67 or In-111 WBC scintigraphy.

  16. SPECT measurements with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in focal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.; Rosen, I.; Elmqvist, D.; Ingvar, D.H.

    1988-12-01

    The ability of SPECT measurements with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO (Ceretec) to find the location of the epileptic focus was studied in patients under consideration for neurosurgical treatment for therapy-resistant focal epilepsy. The location of low (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at interictal measurements, and of high (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at ictal measurements, was compared to the findings of extensive ictal and interictal EEG examinations, and to the results of CT and MRT. While EEG revealed focal epileptic activity in all of the 14 patients, SPECT showed regional abnormalities in 13 (93%). CT and MRT showed abnormal findings in 30%.

  17. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, J.S.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Downing, D.

    1986-03-01

    This retrospective study was done to determine the value of combined bone (technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate) and gallium-67 citrate imaging in selected children with complicated clinical situations. Thirty-one children were evaluated for suspected osteomyelitis by bone scan followed within 4 days by a gallium scan. These 31 children represented a subpopulation in whom the Tc-99m scan is known to be potentially unreliable in diagnosing acute osteomyelitis. Eight children had acute osteomyelitis by strict criteria, while 23 did not. The bone scan successfully identified five of the eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in ten of the other 23. The gallium scan correctly identified all eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in seven of the other 23. The gallium scan was significantly less specific when the suspected lesion was in the extremities compared with central locations; causes of false-positive gallium scans included fracture and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Combined gallium and bone scanning increased accuracy of the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis. Both tests may, however, be abnormal in conditions other than osteomyelitis. These findings emphasize the importance of correlating all imaging studies in detection of osteomyelitis.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc-N-sulfanilamide ferrocene carboxamide as bacterial infections detector.

    PubMed

    Essouissi, Imen; Ghali, Wafa; Saied, Nadia Malek; Saidi, Mouldi

    2010-10-01

    A technetium-99m-labeled derivative from sulfanilamide, further referred to as (99m)Tc-N-SFC, targeting infections in experimental animals, has been synthesized. The biological features of this radioactive agent have also been studied. The N-sulfanilamide ferrocene carboxamide (N-SFC) was chemically synthesized and then labeled with technetium-99m. It has been confirmed through this work that it is stable and obtained with radiolabelling yield (>87%). Radiochemical analyses of (99m)Tc-N-SFC revealed that the molecule was labeled rapidly (within 2 min) and effectively with little free pertechnetate in the preparations containing purified compound. Furthermore, in vitro investigations were conducted and the label's stability in serum was observed up to 24 h of testing. Uptake of the tracer with live and heat/killed bacteria was compared in physiological conditions and was about 69% and 61.9% for the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains, respectively. We concluded that synthesis and labeling of Sulfanilamide derivative with (99m-)Tc by this method is rapid, efficient and safe. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that our radiolabeled compound is accumulated rapidly and significantly (P<.05) at infection sites. The comparison of the (99m)Tc-N-SFC accumulation at sites of S. aureus-infected animals, which is expressed as target-to-non-target ratio, (2.88 ± 0.10) with other radiotracers was discussed. PMID:20870157

  19. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program.

  20. Post-traumatic pulmonary accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R A; Hladik, W B

    1982-02-01

    A case is reported in which accumulation of Tc-99m sulfur colloid in one lung occurred following trauma, although the lung remained clear radiographically. Another trauma case is mentioned in which the uptake was bilateral. The cause of this phenomenon is unclear; several potential mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Evaluation of 99mTc-MAMA-chrysamine G as an in vivo probe for amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, N A; Landman, W J; Jager, P L; de Groot, T J; Dupont, P J; Tooten, P C; Zekarias, B; Gruys, E; Verbruggen, A M

    2001-09-01

    To date, systemic amyloidosis is diagnosed histologically using Congo red staining or in vivo using iodine-123 labelled serum amyloid P component (123I-SAP) scintigraphy. We developed 99mTc-MAMA-CG, a 99mTc-labelled derivative of the lipophilic Congo red analogue chrysamine G (CG), as a possible alternative to 123I-SAP. In vivo 99mTc-MAMA-CG scintigraphy, performed in chickens with spontaneous joint amyloidosis, resulted as soon as 10 min after injection in scintigraphic images showing uptake of activity in amyloid-loaded organs (liver, joints). One of these chickens was studied also with 123I-SAP resulting in scintigraphic images revealing 123I-SAP binding to amyloid deposits in the liver. However, up to 11 h after injection no radioactivity was visible in the amyloid positive joints. In vitro autoradiography, performed on sections of chicken joints with Enterococcus faecalis induced amyloid arthropathy (chjAA), demonstrated the failure of 99mTc-MAMA-CG to bind significantly to amyloid deposits in the presence of 10 microM Congo red The specificity of 99mTc-MAMA-CG localisation was also established by the absence of 99mTc-MAMA-CG binding in non-amyloidotic organs in vitro and in vivo. 99mTc-MAMA-CG did not show any sign of acute toxicity. These findings establish the usefulness of 99mTc-MAMA-CG as a non-invasive in vivo diagnostic probe in chickens with amyloid arthropathy and suggest that it may also be applicable to human amyloidosis.

  2. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of a New Nitroimidazole-99mTc-Complex for Imaging of Hypoxia in Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Qing; Guan, Yanxing; Liu, Shaozheng; Chen, Qingjie; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was specifically designed to develop a new 99mTc compound with 3-amino-4-[2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol)-ethylamino]-4-oxo-butyrate (5-ntm-asp) and to verify whether this compound is feasible to be a radiopharmaceutical for hypoxic tumors. Material/Methods Metronidazole derivative 5-ntm-asp was synthesized and then radio-labeled by Na [99mTcO4], forming 99mTc-5-ntm-asp. Another two complexes of 99mTc-2- and 99mTc-5-nitroimidazole-iminodiacetic acid (99mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA) were also synthesized based on previous studies. Physicochemical properties (stability, lipophilicity, protein binding) of the compounds were compared, and we also assessed the accumulation status of the compounds within A549 cells under both hypoxic and aerobic conditions. Distribution of the complex was also studied in vivo using BALB/c nude mice that were injected with A549 cells. Results Compared with 99mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp was more stable in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and human plasma (P<0.05). Besides that, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp offered lower lipophilicity and protein-binding rate than the two complexes (P<0.05). During assessment of hypoxic uptake status and high hypoxic/aerobic ratio in mice injected with A549 cells, 99mTc-5-ntm-asp exhibited a more favorable profile than 9mTc-2-ntm-IDA and 99mTc-5-ntm-IDA, including uptake ratio of tumor/blood and uptake ratio of tumor/muscle. Conclusions With overall consideration of physicochemical properties and biological uptake behavior, it is feasible to use 99mTc-5-ntm-asp as an imaging agent for tumor hypoxia. PMID:27752036

  3. Efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Tyler, J.L.; Kulkarni, M.V.

    1983-03-01

    We studied the efficacy of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate imaging in patients with equivocal evidence of acute myocardial infarction. Only patients with positive enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had scans with greater than or equal to 2+ focal uptake. None of 26 patients with negative or equivocal enzyme findings (regardless of ECG findings) had greater than 2+ diffuse uptake. These results support the contention that infarct-avid imaging has little clinical utility in patients with equivocal evidence of myocardial infarction.

  4. Failure to visualize acutely injured kidneys with technetium-99m DMSA does not preclude recoverable function

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Akiya, F.; Gregory, M.C.

    1986-03-01

    A 35-yr-old patient developed severe acute tubular necrosis requiring hemodialysis. A (99mTc)dimercaptosuccinic acid scan of the kidneys showed no renal uptake at 4 or 24 hr, but the patient subsequently recovered normal renal function as judged by a normal serum creatinine. Based on this case report and a review of the literature, one cannot assume irreversible loss of function in patients with acute renal failure, based on the absence of radiopharmaceutical uptake by the kidneys.

  5. Size Control of (99m)Tc-tin Colloid Using PVP and Buffer Solution for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particle size is an important characteristic that allows mapping sentinel nodes in lymphoscintigraphy. This investigation aimed to introduce different ways of making a (99m)Tc-tin colloid with a size of tens of nanometers. All agents, tin fluoride, sodium fluoride, poloxamer-188, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), were mixed and labeled with (99m)Tc. Either phosphate or sodium bicarbonate buffers were used to adjust the pH levels. When the buffers were added, the size of the colloids increased. However, as the PVP continued to increase, the size of the colloids was controlled to within tens of nanometers. In all samples, phosphate buffer added PVP (30 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-PPTC-30) and sodium bicarbonate solution added PVP (50 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-BPTC-50) were chosen for in vitro and in vivo studies. (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 (<20 nm) was primarily located in bone marrow and was then secreted through the kidneys, and (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 (>100 nm) mainly accumulated in the liver. When a rabbit was given a toe injection, the node uptake of (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 decreased over time, while (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 increased. Therefore, (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 could be a good candidate radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node detection. The significance of this study is that nano-sized tin colloid can be made very easily and quickly by PVP.

  6. Ectopic Intrathymic Parathyroid adenoma demonstrated on Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT.

    PubMed

    Usmani, S; Oteifa, M; Abu Huda, F; Javaid, A; Amanguno, H G; Al Kandari, F

    2016-05-01

    Intrathymic parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. In this case, Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT successfully localized abnormal tracer uptake in the mediastinum with corresponding low density lesion on CT images suggestive of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma which late on confirmed on histopathology. After the median sternotomy a large intrathymic parathyroid adenoma was identified and excised. With the help of gamma probe the surgeons detect the lesion early and with more confidence as well as reducing the total operation time. Tc-99m Sestamibi SPECT-CT scintigraphy and gamma probe localization is recommended for preoperative and intra operative localization of ectopic parathyroid adenomas.

  7. 99mTc-low density lipoprotein: intracellularly trapped radiotracer for noninvasive imaging of low density lipoprotein metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Goldsmith, S J

    1990-01-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) is the major transport protein for endogenous cholesterol in human plasma. LDL can be radiolabeled with 99mTc using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent. Biodistribution studies of 99mTc-LDL in normal rabbits confirm that 99mTc-LDL acts as an intracellularly "trapped ligand" similar to radioiodinated tyramine cellobiose-LDL (the previously validated trapped radioligand). In addition, studies performed in hypercholesterolemic rabbit models demonstrated the feasibility of imaging hepatic LDL-receptor concentration noninvasively. 99mTc-LDL imaging studies in a number of hypercholesterolemic and hypocholesterolemic patients have proven useful in understanding the abnormal uptake and metabolism of LDL. In patients with hypercholesterolemia (HC), 99mTc-LDL appears to be taken up well by the actively evolving atherosclerotic lesions and xanthomata that contained foam cells and macrophages. In patients with myeloproliferative disease and chronic hypocholesterolemia, 99mTc-LDL images showed intense accumulation of radioactivity in the spleen and bone marrow; this demonstrated extensive proliferation of the macrophage population suggesting that hypocholesterolemia in these patients may be due to increased uptake of LDL uptake by the macrophages. 99mTc-LDL is a powerful tool for the noninvasive exploration of a variety of disorders of lipoprotein metabolism in patients.

  8. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  9. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression.

  10. Radionuclide bone scanning of osteosarcoma: falsely extended uptake patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.

  11. Leukocyte labeling with technetium-99m tin colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.H.; English, D.

    1987-09-01

    Triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma (MP) were used to characterize label distribution in human leukocyte preparations incubated with /sup 99m/Tc tin colloids. Less than 50% of the cell-associated radioactivity was specifically bound to leukocytes when heparinized blood was rotated with stannous fluoride colloid ((Tc)SFC). Labeling efficiency in leukocyte rich plasma (LRP) averaged 44%, of which greater than 90% was specifically bound to leukocytes. MP-gradient analysis also revealed that leukocyte labeling did not occur with stannous chloride colloid, nor when citrate was present during rotation with (Tc)SFC. When citrate was added after labeling to solubilize unbound (Tc)SFC, radiocolloid was removed from the leukocytes, indicating that the mechanism of (Tc)SFC labeling is adherence rather than phagocytosis. Technetium-labeled neutrophils exhibited normal in vitro chemotaxis and no lung uptake in vivo. Technetium-labeled mononuclear leukocytes, on the other hand, exhibited prolonged lung transit in vivo. Neither (Tc)SFC cell preparation showed signs of in vivo reoxidation to pertechnetate.

  12. Technetium-99m production issues in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Green, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine developed when it was realised that a radioisotopic substitution of Iodine-131 for the stable Iodine-127 would follow the same metabolic pathway in the body enabling the thyroid to be imaged and the thyroid uptake measured. The Iodine could be complexed with pharmaceutical substrates to enable other organs to be imaged, but its use was limited and high gamma energy and beta emission restricted the activity of each radiopharmaceutical used, leading to long acquisition times and degraded images. As a pure gamma emitter of 140 keV and with a 6-h half-life, Technetium-99m is a better radionuclide and images a wider range of bodily organs. However, its short half-life also requires it to be eluted from its mother radionuclide, Mo-99, in a generator, delivered weekly from radiopharmaceutical companies who obtain the Mo-99 in liquid form from high-flux research reactors. All went well till around 2007, when the NRU Reactor in Canada was closed and all other reactors went down for various periods for unrelated problems, leading to widespread Mo-99 shortages. Although the reactors have since recovered, they are 48 to 57 years old, and it seems that few governments have made any future provision such as building replacement reactors. PMID:22557795

  13. Preparation, biodistribution and scintigraphic evaluation of (99m)Tc-lincomycin.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Rizvi, Faheem Askari; Roohi, Samina; Hina, Saira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khalid, Muhammad; Iqbal, Munawar

    2015-11-01

    A complex of lincomycin was synthesized with technetium-99m. The synthesis was carried out by using SnCl2.2H2O as reducing agent and ascorbic acid as stabilizer. The effect of various parameters such as amount of ligand/reducing agent, pH value and reaction time on radio labeling process was studied. The characterization of the (99m)Tc-Lincomycin was performed by HPLC and electrophoresis Biodistribution studies were carried out by analyzing the model of bacterial infectious rats (Sprague-Dawley). The uptake of infectious lesions at different time interval was also studied by using scintigraphic technique. The complex showed effective target to non-target ratio for various inflammatory or infectious lesions. The (99m)Tc-Lincomycin effective binding to living bacteria and could be used successfully as an infection imaging agent. PMID:26639473

  14. Use of technetium-99m sulfur colloid as a marker for experimental venous thrombosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Bardfeld, P.A.; Rand, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The binding of technetium-99m sulfur colloid to in vivo thrombi was studied in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. After thrombosis was induced by mechanical traumatization of a right femoral vein segment, technetium-99m sulfur colloid was injected into the peripheral veins of different experimental groups at intervals of 30 min and 1-7 days. Ratios of mean activity in traumatized right femoral vein segment to activity in control segments of left femoral vein (R/L ratios) ranged form 2.97-11.0 for all in situ venous thrombi studied. There was no relation between clot size and R/L ratios. The significant uptake ratios observed by us for venous thrombi up to 1 wk in age suggest that in vivo thrombus detection may be feasible by imaging with a gamma camera after technetium-99m sulfur colloid injection in a peripheral vein.

  15. Use of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid as a marker for experimental venous thrombosis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Bardfeld, P.A.; Rand, J.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The binding of technetium-99m sulfur colloid to in vivo thrombi was studied in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis. After thrombosis was induced by mechanical traumatization of a right femoral vein segment, technetium-99m sulfur colloid was injected into the peripheral veins of different experimental groups at intervals of 30 min and 1 to 7 days. Ratios of mean activity in traumatized right femoral vein segment to activity in control segments of left femoral vein (R/L ratios) ranged from 2.97 to 11.0 for all in situ venous thrombi studied. There was no relation between clot size and R/L ratios. The significant uptake ratios observed by us for venous thrombi up to 1 wk in age suggest that in vivo thrombus detection may be feasible by imaging with a gamma camera after technetium-99m sulfur colloid injection in a peripheral vein.

  16. Hemobilia detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Wholey, M.H.; Ismail-Beigi, F.

    1982-01-01

    Tc-99m labeled red blood cells were successfully used to determine the site of hemorrhage in a 67-year-old man with hemobilia. A false hepatic artery aneurysm was confirmed at angiography and ultimately successfully embolized. The relative merits of using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells for detecting sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are discussed.

  17. Radioactive equilibrium: 99Mo/99mTc decay characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chechev, Valery P; Bé, Marie-Martine

    2014-05-01

    Within the Decay Data Evaluation Project, as an example of a radioactive equilibrium with isomer, the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc equilibrium mixture decay characteristics are examined. The results of a new decay data evaluation are presented for (99)Mo/(99m)Tc decay to nuclear levels in (99)Tc. These evaluated data have been obtained using information published up to 2013.

  18. Sustained availability of 99mTc: possible paths forward.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ

    2013-02-01

    The availability of (99m)Tc for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F (99)Mo) produced using high enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, the use of HEU targets is being phased out and alternative strategies for production of both (99)Mo and (99m)Tc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the (99)Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of (99m)Tc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of (99m)Tc without the use of HEU. In this paper, the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. The international actions in progress toward evolving possible alternative strategies to produce (99)Mo or (99m)Tc are analyzed as well. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide (99)Mo and (99m)Tc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of (99m)Tc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

  19. The effect of drugs on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Braga, A C; Oliveira, M B; Feliciano, G D; Reiniger, I W; Oliveira, J F; Silva, C R; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2000-07-01

    The influence of drugs on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc has been reported. Any drug, which alters the labeling of the tracer, could be expected to modify the disposition of the radiopharmaceuticals. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used for several evaluations in nuclear medicine. We have evaluated the effect of Thuya occidentalis, Peumus boldus and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) extracts on the labeling of RBC and plasma and cellular proteins with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with the drugs. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) solutions and 99mTc were added. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) bound to P and BC was determined. The %ATI on the plasma and cellular proteins was also evaluated by precipitation of P and BC samples with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and isolation of soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in %ATI (from 97.64 to 75.89 percent) in BC with Thuya occidentalis extract. The labeling of RBC and plasma proteins can be decreased in presence of tobacco. This can be due either a direct or indirect effect (reactive oxygen species) of tobacco. The analysis of radioactivity in samples of P and BC isolated from samples of whole blood treated with Peumus boldus showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the Peumus boldus, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. This study shows that extracts of some medicinal plants can affect the radiolabeling of red blood cells with 99mTc using an in vitro technique. PMID:10903389

  20. [A new radiopharmaceutical for bone imaging: experimental study of 99mTc-HEDTMP].

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu; Deng, Houfu; Jiang, Shubin; Luo, Shunzhong; Lei, Yong

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to prepare 99mTc-HEDTMP [N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethlenediamine-1,1,2-tri (methylene phosphonic acid), a new kind of bone seeking compound; to investigate its biological properties; and to explore the possibility of using it as a potential radiopharmaceutical for skeleton scintigraphy. HEDTMP was labeled with 99mTc by "pretinning" method, the radiochemical purity was 97.00% +/- 0.34%. 99mTc-HEDTMP was found to be stable in 5 hours in vitro with the radiochemical purity over 95% even after being diluted by physiological saline with the factor of dilution 100. The plane bone scanning of rabbits showed that 99mTc-HEDTMP was principally absorbed by skeletal system. Skull, spine and legs could be observed clearly, and were more legible than the images of 99mTc-MDP. Mice trial also indicated the high bone seeking of 99mTc-HEDTMP. The skeletal uptake was 11.92% ID/g, 13.19% ID/g, 10.14% ID/g, 10.04% ID/g, 7.71% ID/g separately at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours after the injection. Kidney seemed to be the major excretory organ. The clearance of blood was quick and the retaining amount in non-target organs was small. These results indicate that 99mTc-HEDTMP can be prepared easily, and its biological properties can be compared favorably with the commonly used bone imaging agent, and it is well worth further researching as a promising potential radiopharmaceutical in nuclide diagnosis for skeleton diseases. PMID:20842850

  1. Extracranial metastatic glioblastoma: Appearance on thallium-201-chloride/technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT images

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, P.A.; Schwartz, R.B.; Alexander, E. III; Loeffler, J.S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Nagel, J.S.; Holman, B.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Sequential thallium-201-chloride and technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained in a patient with extracranial metastatic glioblastoma multiforme. Thallium-201 uptake was high (three times the scalp background) in all pathologically confirmed extracranial metastases and moderate (1.6 times scalp background) intracranially, where most biopsy specimens showed gliosis with scattered atypical astrocytes. Technetium-99m-HMPAO uptake was decreased intracranially in the right frontal and parietal lobes which had been irradiated. It was also decreased in one well-encapsulated scalp lesion and high in another scalp mass with less defined borders. Possible mechanisms of tumor uptake of these agents are reviewed.

  2. Detection of esophageal ulcerations with technetium-99m albumin sucralfate

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.S.; Adcock, K.A.; Schmelter, R.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium-99m albumin-sucralfate ((/sup 99m/Tc)Su) can be used to demonstrate peptic ulcer disease in man and animals. We evaluated the usefulness of (/sup 99m/Tc)Su for detecting various grades of esophagitis. (/sup 99m/Tc)Su adhered to the distal esophagus for up to 3 hr in five of six patients with esophageal ulcers but adhered to only two of nine with lesser degrees of esophagitis. No adherence was seen in five patients without esophagitis. Thus, (/sup 99m/Tc)Su may not be useful for detecting any but the most severe grade of esophagitis. Based on these results, we speculate that the previously documented beneficial effects of sucralfate on mild to moderate esophagitis may be due to other mechanisms besides adherence to the ulcerated mucosa.

  3. Distribution of technetium-99m PEG-liposomes during oligofructose-induced laminitis development in horses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Pollitt, Christopher C; Metselaar, Josbert M; Laverman, Peter; van Bloois, Louis; van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Storm, Gert; van Eps, Andrew W

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous liposomes accumulate in lamellar tissue during laminitis development in horses so as to assess their potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery. Polyethylene-glycol (PEG) coated liposomes were prepared according to the film hydration method and labelled using (99m)Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime. Six horses received 10 g/kg oligofructose via nasogastric tube to induce laminitis, and four control horses received water via nasogastric tube. All horses received 300 µmol (99m)Tc-PEG-liposomes (5.5 GBq) plus 5.5 µmol/kg PEG-liposomes by slow intravenous infusion. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 0, 6 and 12 h post-infusion. Technetium-99m liposome uptake was measured in regions of interest over the hoof, fetlock and metacarpus. At the study end-point horses were euthanased, tissue samples collected and tissue liposome levels were calculated as the percentage of the injected dose of (99m)Tc-liposomes per kilogram of tissue. Data were analysed non-parametrically. All horses receiving oligofructose developed clinical and histological signs of laminitis. Technetium-99m liposome uptake in the hoof increased with time in laminitis horses (P = 0.04), but decreased with time in control horses (P = 0.01). Technetium-99m liposome levels in lamellar tissue from laminitis horses were 3.2-fold higher than controls (P = 0.02) and were also higher in laminitis vs. control skin, muscle, jejunum, colon, and kidney (P < 0.05). Liposomes accumulated in lamellar tissue during oligofructose-induced laminitis development and demonstrated potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery in acute laminitis. This study provides further evidence that lamellar inflammation occurs during laminitis development. Liposome accumulation also occurred in the skin, muscle, jejunum, colon and kidneys, suggesting systemic inflammation in this

  4. An Exploratory Study on 99mTc-RGD-BBN Peptide Scintimammography in the Assessment of Breast Malignant Lesions Compared to 99mTc-3P4-RGD2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qianqian; Ma, Qingjie; Chen, Minglong; Chen, Bin; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Bing; Wang, Fan; Sun, Butong; Gao, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to explore the diagnostic performance of single photon emission computed tomography / computerized tomography (SPECT/CT) using a new radiotracer 99mTc-RGD-BBN for breast malignant tumor compared with 99mTc-3P4-RGD2. Methods 6 female patients with breast malignant tumors diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology biopsy (FNAB) who were scheduled to undergo surgery were included in the study. 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 and 99mTc-RGD-BBN were performed with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) at 1 hour after intravenous injection of 299 ± 30 MBq and 293 ± 32 MBq of radiotracers respectively at separate day. The results were evaluated by the Tumor to non-Tumor ratios (T/NT). 99mTc-RGD-BBN and 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT images were interpreted independently by 3 experienced nuclear medicine physicians using a 3-point scale system. All of the samples were analyzed immunohistochemically to evaluate the integrin αvβ3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression. The safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-RGD-BBN were also evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Results No serious adverse events were reported in any of the patients during the study. The effective radiation dose entirely conformed to the relevant standards. A total of 6 palpable malignant lesions were detected using 99mTc-RGD-BBN SPECT/CT with clear uptake. All malignant lesions were also detected using 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 SPECT/CT. The results showed that five malignant lesions were with clear uptake and the other one with barely an uptake. 4 malignant cases were found with both αvβ3 and GRPR expression, 1 case with only GRPR positive expression (integrin αvβ3 negative) and 1 case with only integrin αvβ3 positive expression (GRPR negative). Conclusion 99mTc-RGD-BBN is a safe agent for detecting breast cancer. 99mTc-RGD-BBN may have the potential to make up for the deficiency of 99mTc-3P4-RGD2 in the detection of breast cancer with only GRPR positive

  5. A Tc-99m labeled laminin derived peptide, Tc-99m-YIGSR for thrombus specific imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.

    1994-05-01

    Laminin derived adhesive peptides were studied as potential agents for thrombus specific imaging. Using a novel peptide Tc-99m labeling method studies were performed in vitro using human whole blood clots and platelets, and in vivo scintigraphy in animals with experimental thrombi. Aliquots of 0.1 ml human blood were placed in inclined Petri dishes until clot was well formed. Clots were rinsed 3x with phosphate buffer and 10 {mu}Ci Tc-99m YIGSR II was added. After incubation at room temperature for 1 hr, clots were again washed 3x. Residual activity was measured. Platelets were harvested using routine methods and incubated with Tc-99m YIGSR II, washed and assayed. Blocking experiments using cold YIGSR II showed that the Tc-99m labeled peptide preparation YIGSR II binds specifically and selectively to clot and platelets as compared to control experiments using nonspecific human Tc-99m IgG. Tissue distribution studies showed rapid blood clearance, urinary excretion and to a lesser degree GI tract excretion. Tc-99m YIGSR II was lower in all organs except kidneys compared to Tc-99m 50 H.19, Tc-99m IgG and Tc-99m YIGSR I. Tc-99m-YIGSR II consistently visualized thrombi within 30 min p.i. In vivo scintigraphic (thrombus/contralateral side) ratio was 3:1 and ex vivo direct counting (thrombosed to nonthrombosed vessel segment) was 5.4: 1. Compared to monoclonal antibodies peptide preparations are non- or minimally immunogenic, preparation is probably less expensive and there is also less danger of viral DNA contamination. These considerations and our data indicate that the Tc-99m-YIGSR II peptide has significant potential as a thrombus imaging agent.

  6. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test.

  7. Comparison of technetium-99m-HM-PAO leukocytes with indium-111-oxine leukocytes for localizing intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Mountford, P.J.; Kettle, A.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Coakley, A.J. )

    1990-03-01

    Technetium-99m-HM-PAO (({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO) leukocyte and indium-111-oxine (111In-oxine) leukocyte scanning were carried out simultaneously in 41 patients at 4 hr and 24 hr after reinjection to determine whether the 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc scan could replace the 24-hr {sup 111}In scan for detecting intraabdominal sepsis. Abdominal infection was confirmed in 12 cases. The 4-hr {sup 99}Tc-leukocyte scan, the 4-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan, and the 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scan yielded a sensitivity of 100%, 67%, and 100%, respectively, and a specificity of 62%, 90%, and 86%, respectively. The 24-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scan also produced a sensitivity of 100%, but it was falsely positive in all 29 cases without infection due to physiologic bowel uptake. False-positive 4-hr {sup 99m}Tc-leukocyte scans were also produced by physiologic bowel uptake in seven cases all of whom had true-negative 4-hr and 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans. Because of the high incidence of false-positive 4-hr ({sup 99m}Tc)HM-PAO leukocyte scans, it was concluded that they could not replace 24-hr {sup 111}In-leukocyte scans for detecting intraabdominal sepsis, and that serial {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte scans starting earlier than 4 hr after reinjection must be evaluated.

  8. The Study of 99mTc-Aluminum Oxide Using for Sentinel Lymph Nodes Detection in Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, A. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.; Dergilev, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research of the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes in the experiment. Measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. Average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node - at 1 hour after administration the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower - 1,8% (p <0,05). In all study point average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualize in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reaches a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) for 2 hour study and then its accumulation remains practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% at 24 hours. In the case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node visualized in all animals for 15 minutes when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred at 2 hour of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) to 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic radiopharmaceutical showed

  9. Exploring the Potential of (99m)Tc(CO)3-Labeled Triazolyl Peptides for Tumor Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gaonkar, Raghuvir H; Ganguly, Soumya; Baishya, Rinku; Dewanjee, Saikat; Sinha, Samarendu; Gupta, Amit; Ganguly, Shantanu; Debnath, Mita C

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the authors have reported on (99m)Tc(CO)3-labeled peptides that serve as carriers for biomolecules or radiopharmaceuticals to the tumors. In continuation of that work they report the synthesis of a pentapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Gly-His; pep-1), a hexapeptide (Met-Phe-Phe-Asp-Gly-His; pep-2), and a tetrapeptide (Asp-Gly-Arg-His; pep-3) and the attachment of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole to the β carboxylic function of the aspartic acid unit of pep-2 and pep-3. The pharmacophores were radiolabeled in high yields with [(99m)Tc(CO)3(H2O)3](+) metal aqua ion, characterized for their stability in serum and saline, as well as in His solution, and found to be substantially stable. B16F10 cell line binding studies showed favorable uptake and internalization. In vivo behavior of the radiolabeled triazolyl peptides was assessed in mice bearing induced tumor. The (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3 demonstrated rapid urinary clearance and comparatively better tumor uptake. Imaging studies showed visualization of the tumor using (99m)Tc(CO)3-triazolyl pep-3, but due to high abdominal background, low delineation occurred. Based on the results further experiments will be carried out for targeting tumor with triazolyl peptides. PMID:27093344

  10. Subacute splenic abscess. Appearance on indium-111 leukocyte, gallium-67, and technetium-99m sulfur colloid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ammann, W.; Chiu, B.K.; Wright, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    A case of a 23-year-old man with an encapsulated, anaerobic splenic abscess is reported. Both the In-111 leukocyte and Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans demonstrated an intrasplenic defect. The Ga-67 citrate scan revealed uptake in the rim of the abscess only where the abscess cavity was relatively photon-deficient. The combined Tc-99m sulfur colloid/In-111 leukocyte/Ga-67 scan appearance of a subacute splenic abscess has not been described previously. In cases suspected to be splenic abscesses the combined In-111 leukocyte/Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging is the most useful.

  11. Sustained Availability of Technetium-99m - Possible Paths Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M R A; Dash, A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    The availability of technetium-99m (99mTc) for single-photon imaging in diagnostic nuclear medicine is crucial, and current availability is based on the molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/99mTc generator fabricated from fission-based molybdenum (F 99Mo) produced by use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. The use of HEU targets is being phased out because of risks related to nuclear material proliferation, so alternative strategies for production of both 99Mo and 99mTc are being evaluated intensely. There are evidently no plans for replacement of the limited number of reactors that have primarily provided most of the 99Mo. The uninterrupted, dependable availability of 99mTc is a crucial issue. For these reasons, new options being pursued include both reactor- and accelerator-based strategies to sustain the continued availability of 99mTc without the use of HEU. In this paper the scientific and economic issues for transitioning from HEU to non-HEU are also discussed. In addition, the comparative advantages, disadvantages, technical challenges, present status, future prospects, security concerns, economic viability, and regulatory obstacles are reviewed. In addition, the international actions in progress towards evolving possible alternative strategies to produce 99Mo and/or 99mTc are analyzed. The breadth of technologies and new strategies under development to provide 99Mo and 99mTc reflects both the broad interest in and the importance of the pivotal role of 99mTc in diagnostic nuclear medicine.

  12. 99mTc-labeled Therapeutic Inhaled Amikacin Loaded Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Ho; Cheng, Kenneth T.; Malinin, Vladimir; Li, Zhili; Yao, Zhengsheng; Lee, Sung-Jin; Gould, Christine M.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Chen, Clara; Perkins, Walter R.; Paik, Chang H.

    2014-01-01

    The radiolabeling of the liposome surface can be a useful tool for in vivo tracking of therapeutic drug loaded liposomes. We investigated radiolabeling therapeutic drug (i.e., an antibiotic, amikacin) loaded liposomes with 99mTc, nebulization properties of 99mTc-labeled liposomal amikacin for inhalation (99mTc-LAI), and its stability by size exclusion low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC). LAI was reacted with 99mTc using SnCl2 dissolved in ascorbic acid as a reducing agent for 10 min at room temperature. The labeled products were then purified by anion exchange resin. The purified 99mTc-LAI in 1.5% NaCl solution was incubated at 4oC to assess its stability by LPLC. The purified 99mTc-LAI was subjected to studies with a clinically used nebulizer (PARI eFlow®) and the Anderson Cascade Impactor (ACI). The use of ascorbic acid at 0.91 mM resulted in a quantitative labeling efficiency. The LPLC profile showed that the liposomal peak of LAI detected by a UV monitor at both 200 nm and 254 nm overlapped with the radioactivity peak of 99mTc-LAI, indicating that 99mTc-LAI is suitable for tracing LAI. The ACI study demonstrated that the aerosol droplet size distribution determined gravimetrically was similar to that determined by radioactivity. The liposome surface labeling method using SnCl2 in 0.91mM ascorbic acid produced 99mTc-LAI with a high labeling efficiency and stability that are adequate to evaluate the deposition and clearance of inhaled LAI in the lung by gamma scintigraphy. PMID:23879241

  13. Experimental study of radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose for tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.; Dergilev, A.

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 minutes at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. Radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B 1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 minutes. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D- glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3±0.15MBq and 1.07±0.6MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio- D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  14. Study of potential utility of new radiopharmaceuticals based on technetium-99m labeled derivative of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Chernov, V.; Stasyuk, E.; Rogov, A.; Il'ina, E.; Larionova, L.; Skuridin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: to study the potential utility of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc for cancer imaging in laboratory animals. Materials and method: the study was carried out in cell cultures of normal CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO) and malignant tissues MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7). To evaluate the uptake of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in normal and tumor tissue cells, 25 MBq of 1-thio-D-glucose labeled with 99mTc was added to the vials with 3 million cells and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. After centrifugation of the vials with cells, the supernatant was removed. The radioactivity in vials with normal and tumor cells was then measured. In addition, the study included 40 mice of C57B1/6j lines with tumor lesion of the right femur. For neoplastic lesions, Lewis lung carcinoma model was used. Following anesthesia, mice were injected intravenously with 25 MBq of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose. Planar scintigraphy was performed 15 minutes later in a matrix of 512x512 pixels for 5 min. Results: when measuring the radioactivity of normal and malignant cells after incubation with 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose, it was found that the radioactivity of malignant cells was higher than that of normal cells. The mean values of radioactivity levels in normal and malignant cells were 0.3 ± 0.15 MBq and 1.07 ± 0.6 MBq, respectively. All examined animals had increased accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose at the tumor site. The accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the tumor was on average twice as high as compared to the symmetric region. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose is a prospective radiopharmaceutical for cancer visualization. In addition, high accumulation of 99mTc-1-thio-D-glucose in the culture of cancer cells and in tumor tissue of animals demonstrates tumor tropism of the radiopharmaceutical.

  15. Melanoma-targeting properties of (99m)technetium-labeled cyclic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone peptide analogues.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Cheng, Z; Hoffman, T J; Jurisson, S S; Quinn, T P

    2000-10-15

    Preliminary reports have demonstrated that (99m)technetium (Tc)-labeled cyclic [Cys(3,4,10), D-Phe7]alpha-MSH(3-13) (CCMSH) exhibits high tumor uptake and retention values in a murine melanoma mouse model. In this report, the tumor targeting mechanism of 99mTc-CCMSH was studied and compared with four other radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide analogues: 125I-(Tyr2)-[Nle4, D-Phe7]alpha-MSH [125I-(Tyr2)-NDP]; 99mTc-CGCG-NDP; 99mTc-Gly11-CCMSH; and 99mTc-Nle11-CCMSH. In vitro receptor binding, internalization, and cellular retention of radiolabeled alpha-MSH analogues in B16/F1 murine cell line demonstrated that >70% of the receptor-bound radiolabeled analogues were internalized together with the receptor. Ninety % of the internalized 125I-(Tyr2)-NDP, whereas only 36% of internalized 99mTc-CCMSH, was released from the cells into the medium during a 4-h incubation at 37 degrees C. Two mouse models, C57 mice and severe combined immunodeficient (Scid) mice, inoculated s.c. with B16/F1 murine and TXM-13 human melanoma cells were used for the in vivo studies. Tumor uptake values of 11.32 and 2.39 [% injected dose (ID)/g] for 99mTc-CCMSH at 4 h after injection, resulted in an uptake ratio of tumor:blood of 39.0 and 11.5 in murine melanoma-C57 and human melanoma-Scid mouse models, respectively. Two strategies for decreasing the nonspecific kidney uptake of 99mTc-CCMSH, substitution of Lys11 in CCMSH with Gly11 or Nle11, and lysine coinjection, were evaluated. The biodistribution data for the modified peptides showed that Lys11 replacement dramatically decreased the kidney uptake, whereas the tumor uptakes of 99mTc-Nle11- and 99mTc-Gly11-CCMSH were significantly lower than that of 99mTc-CCMSH. Lysine coinjection significantly decreased the kidney uptake (e.g., from 14.6% ID/g to 4.5% ID/g at 4 h after injection in murine melanoma-C57 mice) without significantly changing the value of tumor uptake of 99mTc-CCMSH. In conclusion, the compact

  16. 99M-Technetium labeled tin colloid radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1976-07-06

    An improved 99m-technetium labeled tin(II) colloid, size-stabilized for reticuloendothelial organ imaging without the use of macromolecular stabilizers and a packaged tin base reagent and an improved method for making it are disclosed.

  17. Subcellular distribution of technetium-99m-N-NOEt in rat myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Uccelli, L.; Giganti, M.; Duatti, A. ||

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subcellular distribution of bis(N-ethoxy N-ethyl)dithiocarbamato, nitrido technetium(V) ({sup 99m}TcN-NOEt) in rat heart by differential centrifugation techniques. Extraction of the activity from homogenized rat heart tissue was also performed to assess whether myocardial retention might induce changes in the chemical identity of the complex. Anesthetized rats were intravenously injected with {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt, the heart tissue was extracted and homogenized and tissue fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The efficiency of organelle separation was determined by assay of each centrifugal fraction using enzyme markers. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and 5{prime}-nucleotidase (5{prime}ND) activities were assayed using standard spectrophotometric methods. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was determined using a p-iodo-nitrotetrazolium-linked assay. Severe cell membrane and organelle disruption were induced by prolonging the homogenization time and their effect on the subcellular distribution of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was studied. The activity from homogenized heart tissue was extracted using the Folch technique and analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Most of the {sup 99}TcN-NOEt activity was found to be associated with the hydrophobic components of the cell. No evidence of specific association of activity with the cytosolic and mitochondrial components was observed. Organelle and membrane cleavage did not cause release of activity into the cytosol. Approximately 90% of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt activity was extracted from ventricular tissue and the chemical nature of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt was not altered by uptake by myocardium. Cell membranes are the most apparent site of localization of {sup 99m}TcN-NOEt in heart tissue. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Efficacy of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT scintigraphy in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Jinglan; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of the orbital somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC ((99m)Tc-TOC) to detect clinical stage of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the response to corticosteroid therapy. The subjects of the experiment were 46 patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and four volunteers without eye disease or GO as the normal group (NG). Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and the left and right lateral position planar imaging of the heads of the all subjects were obtained 4 h after the intravenous injection of 555 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC. The (99m)Tc-TOC SPECT/CT was repeated 3 months later. 35 (35/46) patients were received corticosteroid therapy (prednisolone, 10 mg po tid ) for 3 months, however, the other 11 patients as control groups did not receive any treatment. The treatment effect was evaluated both by the orbital (99m)Tc-TOC uptake and NOSPECS. A significant decrease in the O/OC ratio was observed in 22 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment (1.64 ± 0.13 vs. 1.21 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). There were neither significant difference of the O/OC ratio in 13 GO patients between pre- and post-treatment periods, nor significant difference in the 9 (9/11) patients before and after three months. Orbital (99m)Tc-TOC scintigraphy is a feasible technique to estimate the Graves' ophthalmopathy activity and predict the response to subsequent corticosteroid therapy in GO patients. The technique could be a useful tool for physicians not familiar with CAS determination.

  19. Molybdenum-99/technetium-99m management: race against time.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-11-01

    Molybdenum-99 is a parent of diagnostic nuclear medicine. It decays to technetium-99m, which used in over 30 million investigations per year around the world. Supplies of Tc-99m remained fragile in the last few years, which may occur again in the short and long term. Few suggestions have been registered in this letter to cope inadequate supply of the most wanted radionuclide for patient care.

  20. Deep vein thrombosis detection by 99m TC-MDP scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Moallem, A.; Lichsztral, R.

    1984-08-01

    A new observation is reported wherein 99m Tc-MDP is incorporated into recanalizing thrombophlebitis. In one patient with subacute disease, inflammatory vascularity is appreciated during the first one to two minutes after injection. Both patients showed evidence of late phosphate uptake in their greater saphenous veins two hours later. Intravenous isotope injections may be given in an arm vein: foot injections are not required.

  1. Technetium-99m ECD: a new brain imaging agent: in vivo kinetics and biodistribution studies in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Zimmerman, R E; Picard, M; Stritzke, P; Mena, I; Hellman, R S; Tikofsky, R S; Stabin, M G; Morgan, R A; Goldsmith, S J

    1989-05-01

    Lipophilic neutral 99mTc complexes of diaminedithiol (DADT) ligands cross the brain-blood barrier. A new derivative of DADT family, 99mTc ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) showed high brain uptake in nonhuman primates. We report here the in vivo kinetics and biodistribution results in 16 normal human subjects. Dynamic images of brain obtained for 10 min following an i.v. administration of [99mTc]ECD showed that the maximum 99mTc brain activity reached within 1 min and remained near that level for the next 10 min. The blood clearance of the tracer was very rapid and the activity remaining in blood after 5 min was less than 10%. Within 2 hr 50% of 99mTc activity was excreted in urine. Anterior and posterior total-body images were obtained at 5, 30, 60 min, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hr using a moving table at 20 cm/min. Percent injected dose was calculated for different organs and tissues. The brain uptake was 6.5 +/- 1.9% at 5 min postinjection and remained relatively constant over several hours. Two-compartment analysis of brain time-activity curve showed that 40% of brain activity washed out faster (T 1/2 = 1.3 hr) while the remaining 60% had a slower clearance rate (T 1/2 = 42.3 hr). Some of the tracer was excreted through the hepatobiliary system. Lung uptake and retention of [99mTc]ECD was negligible. Radiation dosimetry is favorable for the administration of up to 20-40 mCi of [99mTc]ECD. These results show that [99mTc]ECD is rapidly extracted and retained by the brain providing favorable conditions for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  2. Technetium-99m ECD: a new brain imaging agent: in vivo kinetics and biodistribution studies in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Picard, M.; Stritzke, P.; Mena, I.; Hellman, R.S.; Tikofsky, R.S.; Stabin, M.G.; Morgan, R.A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1989-05-01

    Lipophilic neutral /sup 99m/Tc complexes of diaminedithiol (DADT) ligands cross the brain-blood barrier. A new derivative of DADT family, /sup 99m/Tc ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) showed high brain uptake in nonhuman primates. We report here the in vivo kinetics and biodistribution results in 16 normal human subjects. Dynamic images of brain obtained for 10 min following an i.v. administration of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD showed that the maximum /sup 99m/Tc brain activity reached within 1 min and remained near that level for the next 10 min. The blood clearance of the tracer was very rapid and the activity remaining in blood after 5 min was less than 10%. Within 2 hr 50% of /sup 99m/Tc activity was excreted in urine. Anterior and posterior total-body images were obtained at 5, 30, 60 min, 2, 4, 24, and 48 hr using a moving table at 20 cm/min. Percent injected dose was calculated for different organs and tissues. The brain uptake was 6.5 +/- 1.9% at 5 min postinjection and remained relatively constant over several hours. Two-compartment analysis of brain time-activity curve showed that 40% of brain activity washed out faster (T 1/2 = 1.3 hr) while the remaining 60% had a slower clearance rate (T 1/2 = 42.3 hr). Some of the tracer was excreted through the hepatobiliary system. Lung uptake and retention of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD was negligible. Radiation dosimetry is favorable for the administration of up to 20-40 mCi of (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD. These results show that (/sup 99m/Tc)ECD is rapidly extracted and retained by the brain providing favorable conditions for single photon emission computed tomography imaging.

  3. Differentiating histologic malignancy of primary brain tumors: Pentavalent Technetium-99m-DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Tsuneo; Otake, Hidenori; Shibasaki, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    This study assessed pentavalent {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake in primary brain tumors and evaluated the relationship between retention and histologic malignancy. SPECT images of the brain were obtained at 30 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of approximately 555 MBq {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA in patients with brain tumors. Sixty studies were performed in 57 patients and 63 lesions were demonstrated: 11 glioblastomas, 13 anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade 3), 11 astrocytomas (Grade 2), 18 meningiomas and 10 schwannomas. Uptake ratios, retention ratio and retention index were calculated and compared with tumor histology and malignancy grade. Approximately 95% of both benign and malignant primary brain tumors were demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA SPECT images. False negative was noted in three cases. The early uptake ratios were closely related to the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor histology or histologic malignancy. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Drug-induced modulation of Tc-99m pyrophosphate tissue distribution: what is involved

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    More than ten years after their introduction, Tc-99m-labeled phosphates and phosphonates (TcP) continue to be of interest to the investigator and to hold promise for new clinical applications in the future. Initially, TcP compounds were valued because of their bone-seeking properties. Emphasis shifted from bone to soft tissue when Bonte et al. introduced Tc-99m-labeled pyrophosphate (TcPPi) for myocardial infarct scanning. Detailed information about TcPPi uptake in ischemic and necrotic myocardial tissue at the subcellular level has accumulated. Therefore, understanding of the mechanism of TcPPi uptake in infarcted myocardium is more detailed than understanding of uptake by bone. A new, and potentially powerful, approach to the use of TcP is being proposed by Carr et al. The authors attempt to modulate favorably the tissue distribution of TcPPi by prior administration of drugs in pharmacological quantities. The authors demonstrate that uptake of TcPPi can be enhanced in the necrotic myocardium, uptake by bone can be reduced, and the lesion-to-blood ratio can be altered favorably when vitamin D/sub 3/ or desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) is administered in pharmacological doses before the TcPPi injection. A short review is presented of background information helpful for interpreting the drug effects on TcPPi uptake in bone or necrotic myocardial tissue.

  5. Myocardial clearance of technetium-99m-teboroxime in reperfused injured canine myocardium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent technical developments using solid-state technology have enabled rapid image acquisition with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and have led to a renewed interest in technetium-99m-teboroxime (Tc-99m-teboroxime) as a myocardial imaging agent. Tc-99m-teboroxime has demonstrated high myocardial extraction, linear myocardial uptake relative to flow even at high flow rates, rapid uptake and clearance kinetics, and differential clearance in the setting of ischemia. However, the myocardial clearance kinetics of Tc-99m-teboroxime in a model of myocardial injury has not been previously reported. Thus, the purposes of this study were to use a canine model of ischemia-reperfusion to (1) compare Tc-99m-teboroxime clearance kinetics in normal and ischemic-reperfused myocardium and (2) assess the utility of Tc-99m-teboroxime clearance kinetics in determining the severity of injury following ischemia-reperfusion. Methods Thirteen dogs underwent left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) occlusion for either 30 min (IR30, n = 6) or 120 min (IR120, n = 7), followed by reperfusion, and finally Tc-99m-teboroxime administration 120 min after reperfusion. Microsphere blood flows were determined at baseline, during occlusion, after reperfusion, and before euthanasia. Post-mortem, area at risk was determined using Evans blue dye, and viability was determined using triphenytetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The hearts were then subdivided into 24 pieces and Tc-99m activity was measured in a well counter. Results TTC-determined infarct area as a percentage of total left ventricular myocardium was 1.1% ± 0.3% for the IR30 group and 7.5% ± 2.9% for the IR120 group (p < 0.05). During coronary occlusion, both the IR30 and IR120 groups demonstrated decreases in percent wall thickening in the ischemia-reperfusion zone (IRZ) as compared with the normal zone (NZ). In the IR30 group, percent wall thickening in the IRZ recovered during the

  6. Rapid preparation method for technetium-99m bicisate.

    PubMed

    Hung, J C; Chowdhury, S; Redfern, M G; Mahoney, D W

    1997-06-01

    The method currently recommended for the preparation of technetium-99m bicisate (99mTc-bicisate) requires a lengthy 30-min incubation at room temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an alternative method to shorten the preparation time. 99mTc-bicisate was prepared with 3.7 GBq (100 mCi) 99mTc according to the manufacturer's instructions, except for the final incubation step, which was replaced with the microwave heating procedure. A standard thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method (i.e., Baker-Flex silica gel IB-F TLC plate with ethyl acetate as mobile phase) was used for the determination of the radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99mTc-bicisate. Our evaluation with different microwave heating processes (300 W with different heating times) demonstrated that as the microwave heating temperature was increased (i.e., 44 masculine-71 masculine C), an increased percentage of samples reached 95% within 5 min post preparation (n=58). The highest RCP value (i.e., 97.4%+/-0.5%, n=10) could be obtained immediately after an 8-s microwave heating time at 300 W (microwave temperature at 69 masculine C), and an average RCP value of 96.4%+/-1.3% (n=90) was maintained throughout the 24-h evaluation period. However, the trend seemed to reverse at higher microwave temperatures (i.e., 76 masculine-90 masculine C), which reconfirmed our initial findings that overheating had no benefit for the preparation of 99mTc-bicisate. To ensure that temperature was the only determining factor, a hot water incubator set at 69 masculine C was used (n=6). Similar RCP results were achieved. In conclusion, the use of a microwave oven at a low heat cycle provides a rapid and efficient way to prepare 99mTc-bicisate.

  7. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-11-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate.

  8. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate imaging in acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1986-10-01

    Technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP) imaging was performed in five patients with acute renal failure associated with nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis. Four patients had phencyclidine intoxication and one had viral pneumonia. During the acute phase, marked uptake of pyrophosphate was seen in all patients in several muscle groups, but always in the thigh adductors. The results show that phencyclidine intoxication can result in diffuse muscle uptake of Tc-PYP without overt evidence of muscle injury. Tc-PYP imaging may provide a clue to the cause of acute renal failure in patients with suspected rhabdomyolysis in whom elevations of serum creatine phosphokinase concentrations are equivocal.

  9. Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Kadanali, A; Varoglu, E; Kerek, M; Tasyaran, M A

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Tc-99m polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) scintigraphy for the diagnosis of brucellosis, and to compare its effectiveness in the diagnosis of osteoarticular involvement in comparison with bone scanning. Of 30 patients with brucellosis, Tc-99m HIG detected osteoarticular involvement in 18 (60%) patients, in whom the sacroiliac joints were affected most commonly (n = 13; 72.2%), with statistically predominant bilateral involvement (p < 0.05). By bone scanning, the rate of osteoarticular involvement was 70% (21 of 30 patients), and the joints affected most commonly were sacroiliac (15 of 21 patients; 71.4%). Although bilateral involvement was observed mostly by bone scanning, there was no significant difference between the rate of bilateral and unilateral involvement. The anatomical distribution of osteoarticular complications, as detected by Tc-99m HIG and bone scintigraphy, did not differ significantly. With Tc-99m HIG, orchitis was detected in two patients and paravertebral abscess in one patient. Since bone scanning did not detect these soft tissue complications, Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy might be useful for the detection of both osteoarticular and soft tissue complications resulting from brucellosis.

  10. Technetium-99m labelling of glycosylated somatostatin-14.

    PubMed

    Du, J; Hiltunen, J; Marquez, M; Nilsson, S; Holmberg, A R

    2001-08-01

    This study presents a technetium-99m labelling method based on organometallic chemistry. It describes the simple mixing of a 99mTc(I)-carbonyl compound [99mTc(OH2)3(CO)3]+ with a histidine-tagged somatostatin-dextran (SMS-Dx-His) conjugate. Somatostatin and histidine was coupled to periodate activated dextran. The linkage was stabilised by reductive amination. The conjugate was then radiolabelled with 99mTc by using the 99mTc(CO)3 core. The labelling efficiency was 65-80% and the radiochemical purity > 95%. In the in vitro cysteine challenge, the result showed that 25% of the radiolabel was released after 1 h incubation at 37 degrees C (cysteine-conjugate at 1000:1 molar ratio). The radiolabelled SMS-Dx-His showed similar HPLC profile as the unlabelled conjugate. This labelling method, employing non reducing conditions, is useful for the labelling of peptides containing disulphide bonds. It should be possible to be used also for labelling with rhenium-188 for therapeutic applications.

  11. Labeling cellular elements of blood with Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Dewanjee, M.K.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop new technique of labeling platelets and white cells with Tc-99m radionuclide. The conditions of labeling canine platelets and white cells with the lipid-soluble Tc-99m HMPAO have been optimized. The function of labeled platelets were evaluated by the determination of platelet survival time and recovery and these values were compared with that of In-111 tropolone labeled platelets. We developed the bilateral femoral catheterization model for the evaluation of platelet-thrombosis on control and heparin-bonded catheters in dogs. We are evaluating platelet thrombosis in the hollow-fiber hemodialyzer with Tc-99m and In-111 labeled platelets. We have developed the flow-loop for in vitro studies and are using a pig model for quantitation of platelet-consumption during hemodialysis. We are currently evaluating the new technique of platelet and white cell-labeling with Tc-99m and testing them in animal models of thrombosis and infection (osteo-myelitis). We are also using the Tc-99m HMPAO labeled mixed white cells in the early diagnosis (3-hour post-injection) of acute and chronic infection in patients and comparing the results with that of IN-111 oxine labeled white cells.

  12. 99mTc-MAMA-chrysamine G, a probe for beta-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dezutter, N A; Dom, R J; de Groot, T J; Bormans, G M; Verbruggen, A M

    1999-11-01

    Chrysamine G (CG), an analogue of Congo red, is known to bind in vitro to the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta 10-43) and to homogenates of several regions of the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We synthesised a conjugate of 2-(acetamido)-CG with a bis-S-trityl protected monoamide-monoaminedithiol (MAMA-Tr(2)) tetraligand, which was efficiently deprotected and labelled with a 75% yield with technetium-99m, to obtain (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. In mice, (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was cleared mainly by the hepatobiliary system, resulting in a fast blood clearance. Brain uptake of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG was low. Co-injection with the blood pool tracer iodine-125 human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA) demonstrated a brain/blood activity ratio for (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG that was significantly higher than that for (125)I-HSA (t test for dependent samples, P<0.02), indicating the ability of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to cross the blood-brain barrier. In vitro autoradiography demonstrated pronounced binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG to beta-amyloid deposits in autopsy sections of the parietal and occipital cortex of an AD patient as compared with controls. Adding 10 microM Congo red during incubation displaced the binding of (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG. Congo red staining and autoradiography identified the same lesions. (99m)Tc-MAMA-CG seems to bind selectively to beta-amyloid deposition in human brain parenchyma and blood vessels in vitro and thus might be a lead compound for further development of a useful tracer agent for the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  14. Quantitative simultaneous 111In/99mTc SPECT-CT of osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Morgan; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A well-established approach for diagnostic imaging of osteomyelitis (OM), a bone infection, is simultaneous SPECT-CT of 99mTc sulfur colloid (SC) and 111In white blood cells (WBC). This method provides essentially perfect spatial registration of the tracers within anatomic sites of interest. Currently, diagnosis is based purely on a visual assessment—where relative discordance between 99mTc and 111In uptake in bone, i.e., high 111In and low 99mTc, suggests OM. To achieve more quantitative images, noise, scatter, and crosstalk between radionuclides must be addressed through reconstruction. Here the authors compare their Monte Carlo-based joint OSEM (MC-JOSEM) algorithm, which reconstructs both radionuclides simultaneously, to a more conventional triple-energy window-based reconstruction (TEW-OSEM), and to iterative reconstruction with no compensation for scatter (NC-OSEM). Methods: The authors created numerical phantoms of the foot and torso. Multiple bone-infection sites were modeled using high-count Monte Carlo simulation. Counts per voxel were then scaled to values appropriate for 111In WBC and 99mTc SC imaging. Ten independent noisy projection image sets were generated by drawing random Poisson deviates from these very low-noise images. Data were reconstructed using the two iterative scatter-compensation methods, TEW-OSEM and MC-JOSEM, as well as the uncorrected method (NC-OSEM). Mean counts in volumes of interest (VOIs) were used to evaluate the bias and precision of each method. Data were also acquired using a phantom, approximately the size of an adult ankle, consisting of regions representing infected and normal bone marrow, within a bone-like attenuator and surrounding soft tissue; each compartment contained a mixture of 111In and 99mTc. Low-noise data were acquired during multiple short scans over 29 h on a Siemens Symbia T6 SPECT-CT with medium-energy collimators. Pure 99mTc and 111In projection datasets were derived by fitting the acquired

  15. Results of hepatobiliary imaging using Tc-99m EHIDA

    SciTech Connect

    Ansari, S.M.; Ahmed, R.; Rok

    1989-05-01

    Tc-99m labelled 2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyliminodiacetic acid (EHIDA) is a non-toxic radiopharmaceutical that was found to undergo rapid biliary excretion in a normal human, with accumulation of radioactivity in the gall bladder and intestine. Images in normal subjects and nonjaundiced patients showed rapid concentration of tracer by the liver and the passage of the same into the intestine within 15 to 40 minutes, with or without visualization of the gall bladder. In the jaundiced patient, the tracer blood clearance was delayed and urinary excretion was increased. Tc-99m EHIDA has been extensively investigated in 1634 patients to evaluate its performance in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary disorders.

  16. [First pass effect by infusing 99mTc-human serum albumin into the hepatic artery].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, T; Kimura, K; Koyanagi, Y; Aoki, T; Kusama, M; Takagi, S; Kakuta, T; Yoshimatsu, A; Ishikawa, M; Yasuda, D

    1988-08-01

    The fundamental principles of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy are thought to be increased local drug concentration and the "first-pass" effect. The concentration in the rest of the body can only be decreased if there is local elimination of the infused drug before reaching the systemic circulation. This is referred to as the "first-pass" effect. In the evaluation of "first-pass" effect, the uptake of liver after infusing 99mTc-human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) in the hepatic artery by injecting the subcutaneously implanted silicon reservoir was compared with that obtained after intravenous administration of 99mTc-HSA. In order to remove the factor of portal infusion, each count of liver up take had been continued for only 24 seconds after starting the liver uptake. The results are as follows: for 24 cases excepting 6 cases with catheter obstruction, the mean i.a./i.v. ratio was 7.92 +/- 3.34 (range 3.25 to 17.25). Although the elimination rate of drugs in the liver varies with each drug, the infusion of intraarterial chemotherapy should be about 8 times more concentrative than intravenous administration on the "first-pass" effect.

  17. On-site preparation of technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuh-Feng; Chuang, Mei-Hua; Chiu, Jainn-Shiun; Cham, Thau-Ming; Chung, Mei-Ing

    2007-04-01

    Technetium-99m labeled human serum albumin (Tc-99m HSA) is an important radiopharmaceutical for clinical applications, such as cardiac function tests or protein-losing gastroenteropathy assessment. However, because of transfusion-induced infectious diseases, the safety of serum products is a serious concern. In this context, serum products acquired from patients themselves are the most ideal tracer. However, the development of rapid separation and easy clinical labeling methods is not yet well established. Under such situation, products from the same ethnic group or country are now recommended by the World Health Organization as an alternative preparation. This article describes the on-site preparation of Tc-99m HSA from locally supplied serum products. Different formulations were prepared and the labeling efficiency and stability were examined. Radio-labeling efficiencies were more than 90% in all preparation protocols, except for one that omitted the stannous solution. The most cost-effective protocol contained HSA 0.1 mg, treated with stannous fluoride 0.2 mg, and mixed with Tc-99m pertechnetate 30 mCi. A biodistribution study was performed in rats using a gamma camera immediately after intravenous administration of radiolabeled HSA. Tissue/organ uptake was obtained by measuring the radioactivity in organs after sacrificing the rats at timed intervals. The biologic half-life was about 32 min, determined from sequential venous blood collections. These data indicate that our preparation of Tc-99m HSA is useful and potentially applicable clinically. In addition, this on-site preparation provides the possibility of labeling a patient's own serum for subsequent clinical application.

  18. Imaging Thromboembolism with Fibrin-Avid 99mTc-Peptide: Evaluation in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Aruva, Mohan R.; Daviau, Judy; Sharma, Shubh S.; Thakur, Mathew L.

    2006-01-01

    A pentapeptide, Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-Pro, with high affinity for α-chain-fibrin was labeled with 99mTc (99mTc-TP850) and evaluated in swine to image experimental venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis [DVT]) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods Scatchard analysis was performed to determine fibrin affinity for TP850 and the number of binding sites (receptors) per milligram of fibrin. DVT was induced in the left jugular vein and PE was induced by introducing a preformed autologous blood clot into the right atrium using a 7-French introducer sheath inserted into the right jugular vein. 99mTc-TP850 was injected at 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, or 120 h later. Animals were imaged for up to 4 h after injection, heparinized, and sacrificed. Lungs were extirpated, radiographed, and imaged, and the PE was removed. Other tissues, including blood and normal lungs, were harvested and, concomitantly, 99mTc was counted for determination of target-to-tissue ratios and the percentage injected dose per gram of tissue. Results The affinity for human fibrin was 10−9 mol/L and there were >1015 receptors per milligram of fibrin. DVT and PE were visualized for up to 4 h after injection with high DVT/blood (7.9–22.6), DVT/muscle (31.1–89.4), PE/blood (1–155), and PE/lung (0.8–245) ratios. Thereafter, the PEs fragmented spontaneously below the spatial resolution of the γ-camera and, despite the high associated radioactivity, could not be localized in vivo. The fragmented clots were detectable by scintigraphy on excised lungs and provided excellent concordance with radiograms. Conclusion 99mTc-TP850 with its modest affinity (10−9 mol/L), rapid blood clearance, and high DVT and PE uptake is a promising agent for imaging vascular thrombosis. PMID:16391200

  19. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of (99m)Tc/Re-tricarbonyl quinolone complexes.

    PubMed

    Kydonaki, Theocharis E; Tsoukas, Evangelos; Mendes, Filipa; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios G; Paulo, António; Papadopoulou, Lefkothea C; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia; Psomas, George

    2016-07-01

    New rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes with the quinolone antimicrobial agents oxolinic acid (Hoxo) and enrofloxacin (Herx) and containing methanol, triphenylphosphine (PPh3) or imidazole (im) as unidentate co-ligands, were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure of complex [Re(CO)3(oxo)(PPh3)]∙0.5MeOH was determined by X-ray crystallography. The deprotonated quinolone ligands are bound bidentately to rhenium(I) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylate oxygen. The binding of the rhenium complexes to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) was monitored by UV spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and competitive studies with ethidium bromide; intercalation was suggested as the most possible mode and the DNA-binding constants of the complexes were calculated. The rhenium complex [Re(CO)3(erx)(im)] was assayed for its topoisomerase IIα inhibition activity and was found to be active at 100μM concentration. The interaction of the rhenium complexes with human or bovine serum albumin was investigated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy (through the tryptophan quenching) and the corresponding binding constants were determined. The tracer complex [(99m)Tc(CO)3(erx)(im)] was synthesized and identified by comparative HPLC analysis with the rhenium analog. The (99m)Tc complex was found to be stable in solution. Upon injection in healthy mice, fast tissue clearance of the (99m)Tc complex was observed, while both renal and hepatobiliary excretion took place. Preliminary studies in human K-562 erythroleukemia cells showed cellular uptake of the (99m)Tc tracer with distribution primarily in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria and less in the nucleus. These preliminary results indicate that the quinolone (99m)Tc/Re complexes show promise to be further evaluated as imaging or therapeutic agents. PMID:26795497

  20. Diphosphonates in the evaluation of metabolic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, I; Smith, M L

    1982-03-01

    The bone scan may be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. However the superiority of the bone scan when compared to radiology in conditions such as renal osteodystrophy, osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism, and osteoporosis requires substantiation with the newer radiopharmaceuticals which have a higher affinity for bone. Two methods of quantitating skeletal uptake of tracer have been assessed to try to remove the subjective aspect of bone scan evaluation. Measurements of bone to soft tissue ratios have proved clinically disappointing, but 24 hour whole body retention of diphosphonate appears to provide a sensitive index of increased bone turnover.

  1. Neuroblastoma: Imaging evaluation by sequential Tc-99m MDP, I-131 MIBG, and Ga-67 citrate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Friedman, A.; Sandler, M.P.; Kedar, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Fourteen children with histopathologically confirmed neuroblastoma underwent sequential correlative imaging studies using I-131 MIBG, Tc-99m MDP, and Ga-67 citrate during various stages of the disease. Of the patients 86% showed I-131 MIBG accumulation in the primary tumoral site, whereas 71% showed Tc-99m MDP and 79% Ga-67 citrate uptake. In 86% at least one of the two latter radiopharmaceuticals concentrated in the primary tumor. The use of all three radiopharmaceuticals raised the detection rate to 93%. Of the osseous or extraosseous metastases 100% were detected by Tc-99m MDP studies. The I-131 MIBG studies were positive in 71% of the osseous metastases and in 70% of the extraosseous metastases. No Ga-67 citrate uptake was demonstrated in osseous metastases, although one extraosseous lung metastasis concentrated this radiopharmaceutical. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging was the best method for diagnosing metastatic spread of the disease and for monitoring the results of treatment. Primary tumor uptake was best indicated by I-131 MIBG. Both Ga-67 citrate and I-131 MIBG were superior to Tc-99m MDP with regard to accurately demonstrating the extent of primary tumors. Only Tc-99m MDP indicated the relationship of these tumors to the kidneys and neighboring osseous structures, providing early screening of kidney compression. Ga-67 citrate study was mainly indicated in tumors with catecholamine depletion, which failed to concentrate the other two radiopharmaceuticals. I-131 MIBG proved especially useful in detecting neuroblastoma with negative Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate studies and also proved to be helpful with those cases in which I-131 MIBG was planned for therapy. The following strategy is suggested for evaluating neuroblastoma.

  2. Poor accumulation of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in sarcoidosis and other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases as compared with gallium-67 citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorne, M.; Sahlstroem, K.A.; Alanko, K.

    1988-02-01

    Forty-two patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were imaged with Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GH). Twenty patients had sarcoidosis, six had fibrosis, six had tuberculosis, nine had lung infiltration, and one had pleural empyema. The main difference between Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH was the much greater uptake of Ga-67 in sarcoidosis than that of Tc-99m GH. Fifteen patients with sarcoidosis had positive Ga-67 scans but only six had positive Tc-99m GH scans. The results in other diffuse infiltrative lung diseases were almost equal with Ga-67 and Tc-99m GH. Although Tc-99m GH is less expensive and simpler to use, it is not an adequate substitute for Ga-67 in diffuse infiltrative lung diseases.

  3. The Role of 99mTc-Annexin V Apoptosis Scintigraphy in Visualizing Early Stage Glucocorticoid-Induced Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Rui; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To validate the ability of 99mTc-Annexin V to visualize early stage of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis by comparing with 99mTc-MDP bone scanning. Methods. Femoral head necrosis was induced in adult New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone. 99mTc-Annexin scintigraphy and 99mTc-MDP scans were performed before and 5, 6, and 8 weeks after methylprednisolone administration. Rabbits were sacrificed at various time points and conducted for TUNEL and H&E staining. Results. All methylprednisolone treated animals developed femoral head necrosis; at 8 weeks postinjection, destruction of bone structure was evident in H&E staining, and apoptosis was confirmed by the TUNEL assay. This was matched by 99mTc-Annexin V images, which showed a significant increase in signal over baseline. Serial 99mTc-Annexin V scans revealed that increased 99mTc-Annexin V uptake could be observed in 5 weeks. In contrast, there was no effect on 99mTc-MDP signal until 8 weeks. The TUNEL assay revealed that bone cell apoptosis occurred at 5 weeks. Conclusion. 99mTc-Annexin V is superior to 99mTc-MDP for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in the rabbit and may be a better strategy for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in patients. PMID:26989689

  4. Synthesis and biodistribution studies of technetium-99m-labeled aminopeptidase N inhibitor conjugates.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Gopal; Hedrick, Andria F; Disch, Bryan C; Ihnat, Michael A; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Gali, Hariprasad

    2012-07-15

    Probestin is a potent aminopeptidase N (APN) inhibitor. Four probestin conjugates containing a tripeptide chelator (N(3)S) and a PEG(2) linker were synthesized and radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The number of -COOH groups on the chelator was altered to increase the excretion of the radiotracer from blood stream via the renal-urinary pathway and to decrease its hepatobiliary uptake. Biodistribution of the radiolabeled conjugates was evaluated in healthy CF-1™ mice at 1h post-injection. The results revealed that the Tc-99m labeled probestin conjugate preferentially (>85% injected dose) excreted via the renal route when an aspartic acid residue was added to the linker (conjugate 4). These results suggest that the pharmacokinetic properties of probestin-based APN-targeted agents could be optimized by adding an appropriate amino acid residue in between the linker and the payload.

  5. Comparison of technetium-99m-HMPAO and technetium-99m-ECD cerebral SPECT images in Alzheimer`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, C.H. van; Lin, C.H.; Smith, E.O.

    1996-11-01

    SPECT has shown increasing promise as a diagnostic tool in Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Recently, a new SPECT brain perfusion agent, {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) has emerged with purported advantages in image quality over the established tracer, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO). This research aimed to compare cerebral images for {sup 99}mTc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD in discriminating patients with AD form control subjects. 51 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Distribution of technetium-99m PEG-liposomes during oligofructose-induced laminitis development in horses.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Pollitt, Christopher C; Metselaar, Josbert M; Laverman, Peter; van Bloois, Louis; van den Hoven, Jolanda M; Storm, Gert; van Eps, Andrew W

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are phospholipid nanoparticles used for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to determine whether intravenous liposomes accumulate in lamellar tissue during laminitis development in horses so as to assess their potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery. Polyethylene-glycol (PEG) coated liposomes were prepared according to the film hydration method and labelled using (99m)Tc-hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime. Six horses received 10 g/kg oligofructose via nasogastric tube to induce laminitis, and four control horses received water via nasogastric tube. All horses received 300 µmol (99m)Tc-PEG-liposomes (5.5 GBq) plus 5.5 µmol/kg PEG-liposomes by slow intravenous infusion. Scintigraphic imaging was performed at 0, 6 and 12 h post-infusion. Technetium-99m liposome uptake was measured in regions of interest over the hoof, fetlock and metacarpus. At the study end-point horses were euthanased, tissue samples collected and tissue liposome levels were calculated as the percentage of the injected dose of (99m)Tc-liposomes per kilogram of tissue. Data were analysed non-parametrically. All horses receiving oligofructose developed clinical and histological signs of laminitis. Technetium-99m liposome uptake in the hoof increased with time in laminitis horses (P = 0.04), but decreased with time in control horses (P = 0.01). Technetium-99m liposome levels in lamellar tissue from laminitis horses were 3.2-fold higher than controls (P = 0.02) and were also higher in laminitis vs. control skin, muscle, jejunum, colon, and kidney (P < 0.05). Liposomes accumulated in lamellar tissue during oligofructose-induced laminitis development and demonstrated potential for targeted lamellar drug delivery in acute laminitis. This study provides further evidence that lamellar inflammation occurs during laminitis development. Liposome accumulation also occurred in the skin, muscle, jejunum, colon and kidneys, suggesting systemic inflammation in this

  7. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  8. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  9. Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Accelerator Generation and Thermal Separation (AGATS) of Technetium-99m is a linear electron accelerator-based technology for producing medical imaging radioisotopes from a separation process that heats, vaporizes and condenses the desired radioisotope. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Clinical experience with technetium-99m teboroxime, a neutral, lipophilic myocardial perfusion imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Seldin, D.W. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) teboroxime is a new technetium-based myocardial perfusion imaging agent (investigational code = SQ30217 (Cardiotec, Squibb Diagnostics)). A member of a class of neutral, lipophilic, technetium-containing complexes known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime (BATO) complexes, this agent is chemically very different from the cationic tracer thallium-201 (Tl-201) and from the cationic technetium complex Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite, Du Pont Imaging Agents). Tc-99m teboroxime has high myocardial extraction, rapid blood clearance, little lung uptake and rapid myocardial washout. A biexponential pattern of myocardial washout is demonstrated in animals and in man. Effective half-lives of the 2 washout components in man are 5.2 minutes and 3.8 hours and represent approximately 66 and 33% of the myocardial activity, respectively. The first half-life for the myocardium is approximately 11 minutes. As the agent washes out of the heart, hepatic uptake occurs, peaking at about 5 minutes after injection. The liver is the major organ of excretion and receives, along with the large bowel, the largest radiation dose. Rapid imaging protocols using standard cameras have achieved good myocardial counts from 3 planar views acquired over a 4- to 5-minute period or for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images acquired over a 10-minute period. An entire stress/rest procedure can be completed in 1 hour. Analysis of data from 155 patients from 4 centers using planar or SPECT imaging showed a sensitivity and specificity for blinded readings of 82 and 91%, respectively, when compared against overall clinical impression. 13 references.

  11. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer. PMID:26961312

  12. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc: Antibody Fragmentation for Molecular Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Victoria; García, María Fernanda; Alonso-Martínez, Luis Michel; Camachoc, Ximena; Goicochea, Enzo; Fernández, Marcelo; Castillo, Abmel Xiques; Díaz-Miqueli, Arlhee; Iznaga-Escobar, Normando; Montaña, René Leyva; Alonso, Omar; Gambini, Juan Pablo; Cabral, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Finally, fast blood clearance nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognise, with high specific affinity, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) which play an important role in the growth process associated with many solid tumors. In this work, the whole antibody was digested with papain in order to generate a Fab fragment, derivatized with NHS-HYNIC-Tfa and radiolabel with technetium-99m (99mTc) as a potential agent of molecular imaging of cancer. Both, whole and fragment radiolabels were in-vivo and in-vitro characterized. Radiolabeling conditions with Tricine as coligand and quality controls were assessed to confirm the integrity of the labeled fragment. Biodistribution and imaging studies in normal and spontaneous adenocarcinoma mice were performed at different times to determine the in-vivo characteristics of the radiolabel fragment. Tumor localization was visualized by conventional gamma camera imaging studies, and the results were compared with the whole antibody. Also, an immunoreactivity assay was carried out for both. The results showed clearly the integrity of the nimotuzumab fragment and the affinity by the receptor was verified. Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC was obtained with high purity and a simple strategy of radiolabeling was performed. Finally, a fast blood clearance was observed in the biodistribution studies increasing the tumor uptake of Fab(nimotuzumab)- HYNIC-99mTc over time, with tumor/muscle ratios of 3.81 ± 0.50, 5.16 ± 1.97 and 6.32 ± 1.98 at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h post injection. Urinary excretion resulted in 32.89 ± 3.91 %ID eliminated at 24 h. Scintigraphy images showed uptake in the tumor and the activity in non-target organs was consistent with the biodistribution data at the same time points. Hence, these preliminary results showed important further characteristic of Fab(nimotuzumab)-HYNIC-99mTc as a molecular imaging agent of cancer.

  13. Calculation of relative glomerular filtration rate and correlation with delayed technetium-99m DMSA imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. Jr.; Kipper, M.; Witztum, K.

    1986-01-01

    The relative renal uptake of Tc-99m DMSA was compared with the relative glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in ten patients with serum creatinines ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 mg/dl. Relative GFR was based on the renal uptake of Tc-99m DTPA determined by two methods: 1) integrating the counts from 1 to 3 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. 2) Totalizing the individual renal counts in a single 15-second frame from 2:45 minutes to 3:00 minutes postinjection and correcting for background. The two methods of determining relative DTPA uptake showed excellent correlation, r = 0.98. Relative DMSA uptake determined at 24 hours post-injection using computer-assisted regions of interest showed excellent correlation with the relative GFR determined by either the integral or single-frame method, r = 0.98. The addition of background subtraction for the DMSA images at 24 hours did not improve the correlation.

  14. 99mTc Labeled Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Analogue (99mTc-GLP1) Scintigraphy in the Management of Patients with Occult Insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sowa-Staszczak, Anna; Trofimiuk-Müldner, Małgorzata; Stefańska, Agnieszka; Tomaszuk, Monika; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Jabrocka-Hybel, Agata; Głowa, Bogusław; Małecki, Maciej; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Kowalska, Aldona; Mikołajczak, Renata; Janota, Barbara; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the utility of [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 scintigraphy in the management of patients with hypoglycemia, particularly in the detection of occult insulinoma. Materials and Methods Forty patients with hypoglycemia and increased/confusing results of serum insulin and C-peptide concentration and negative/inconclusive results of other imaging examinations were enrolled in the study. In all patients GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed to localise potential pancreatic lesions. Results Positive results of GLP-1 scintigraphy were observed in 28 patients. In 18 patients postsurgical histopathological examination confirmed diagnosis of insulinoma. Two patients had contraindications to the surgery, one patient did not want to be operated. One patient, who presented with postprandial hypoglycemia, with positive result of GLP-1 imaging was not qualified for surgery and is in the observational group. Eight patients were lost for follow up, among them 6 patients with positive GLP-1 scintigraphy result. One patient with negative scintigraphy was diagnosed with malignant insulinoma. In two patients with negative scintigraphy Munchausen syndrome was diagnosed (patients were taking insulin). Other seven patients with negative results of 99mTcGLP-1 scintigraphy and postprandial hypoglycemia with C-peptide and insulin levels within the limits of normal ranges are in the observational group. We would like to mention that 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT was also performed in 3 pts with nesidioblastosis (revealing diffuse tracer uptake in two and a focal lesion in one case) and in two patients with malignant insulinoma (with the a focal uptake in the localization of a removed pancreatic headin one case and negative GLP-1 1 scintigraphy in the other patient). Conclusions 99mTc-GLP1-SPECT/CT could be helpful examination in the management of patients with hypoglycemia enabling proper localization of the pancreatic lesion and effective

  15. Novel Bivalent 99mTc-Complex with N-Methyl-Substituted Hydroxamamide as Probe for Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Masashi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of the cerebral vasculature. Recently, the development of molecular imaging probes targeting CAA has been attracting much attention. We previously reported the 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complex with a bivalent benzothiazole scaffold as a binding moiety for amyloid aggregates ([99mTc]BT2) and its utility for CAA-specific imaging. However, the simultaneous generation of two radiolabeled complexes derived from the geometric isomers was observed in the 99mTc-labeling reaction. It was recently reported that the complexation reaction of 99Tc with N-methyl-substituted Ham provided a single 99Tc-Ham complex consisting of two N-methylated Ham ligands with marked stability. In this article, we designed and synthesized a novel N-methylated bivalent 99mTc-Ham complex ([99mTc]MBT2) and evaluated its utility for CAA-specific imaging. N-Methyl substitution of [99mTc]BT2 prevented the generation of its isomer in the 99mTc-labeling reaction. Enhanced in vitro stability of [99mTc]MBT2 as compared with [99mTc]BT2 was observed. [99mTc]MBT2 showed very low brain uptake, which is favorable for CAA-specific imaging. An in vitro inhibition assay using β-amyloid aggregates and in vitro autoradiographic examination of brain sections from a Tg2576 mouse and a CAA patient showed a decline in the binding affinity for amyloid aggregates due to N-methylation of the 99mTc-Ham complex. These results suggest that the scaffold of the 99mTc-Ham complex may play important roles in the in vitro stability and the binding affinity for amyloid aggregates. PMID:27689870

  16. Technetium-99m human immunoglobulin scintigraphy in patients with adhesive capsulitis: a correlative study with bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Senocak, Ozlem; Degirmenci, Berna; Ozdogan, Ozhan; Akalin, Elif; Arslan, Gülhan; Kaner, Burcu; Taşci, Cengiz; Peker, Ozlen

    2002-06-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (AC) is a disorder that is characterized by shoulder pain and progressive limitation of both active and passive shoulder motion. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms of the disease are not well understood, the inflammatory reactions depending on the stage have been demonstrated histologically. The purpose of the study is to investigate the inflammatory changes that can be demonstrated with Tc-99m HIG in AC, and to determine the presence of correlations between scintigraphic findings and the clinical assessment. Twenty-one patients (12 females and 9 males) with a mean age of 50.57+/-8.49 were included in the study. AC was diagnosed according to recognized criteria. The planar X-ray images of the affected shoulders of all patients were normal. The patients were evaluated with the Constant Scoring System, and the functional and pain assessment parts of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons' Form (ASES). Three phase bone scans and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were performed at least two days apart. Bone scan and Tc-99m HIG scintigraphy were evaluated visually and HIG uptake was evaluated in comparison with the contralateral normal shoulder. Bone scan demonstrated hypervascularity in 9 of the 21 patients (43%), whereas increased osteoblastic activity was detected in 19 (90%) in the affected shoulder. Tc-99m HIG uptake was positive in 12 (57%), and negative in 9 (43%) patients. All patients with increased Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder, also had increased osteoblastic activity on Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. A significant correlation was found between HIG uptake and constant, functional and pain scores. The difference between these scores was also statistically significant in patients with HIG positive and negative uptake. This study indicates that there is a good correlation between Tc-99m HIG scan findings and clinical scores. Tc-99m HIG accumulation in the affected shoulder may be related to continuing inflammatory reaction

  17. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  18. Technetium 99m-labeled VQ peptide: a new imaging agent for the early detection of tumors or premalignancies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiyun; Cui, Liyang; Jia, Bing; Liu, Zhaofei; He, Peng; Dong, Chengyan; Jin, Xiaona; Zhao, Huiyun; Li, Fang; Wang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop diagnostic procedures enabling early detection of tumors while at a curable stage. Technetium 99m (99mTc)-labeled VQ peptide (99mTc-HYNIC-VQ) identified through screening phage display peptide libraries against fresh human colonic adenomas was prepared and evaluated for tumor detection. 99mTc-HYNIC-VQ was prepared by a non-SnCl2 method with more than 99% radiochemical purity. The biodistribution in the HT-29 tumor model showed that although the absolute tumor uptake values were relatively low (0.60 ± 0.09, 0.41 ± 0.09, 0.36 ± 0.18, and 0.19 ± 0.08 %ID/g at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours postinjection, respectively), the tumor uptake was higher than that of any of the other organs except for the kidneys at any time point examined, which led to the high tumor to nontarget ratios. The tumors and inflammation were clearly visualized with high contrast. Although the mechanism of accumulation of radiolabeled VQ peptide in tumors and inflammation needs to be further investigated, 99mTc-HYNIC-VQ is a promising imaging agent for the early detection of tumors or premalignancies, at least for screening patients with a high risk of developing cancers.

  19. Imaging human melanoma using a novel Tc-99m-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqin; Xu, Jingli; Yang, Jianquan; Feng, Changjian; Miao, Yubin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the human melanoma targeting property of (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex {hydrazinonicotinamide-8-aminooctanoic acid-Nle-c[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-CONH2} was determined in M21 human melanoma-xenografts to demonstrate its potential for human melanoma imaging. The IC50 value of HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex was 0.48±0.01nM in M21 human melanoma cells (1281receptors/cell). The M21 human melanoma uptake of (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex was 4.03±1.25, 3.26±1.23 and 3.36±1.48%ID/g at 0.5, 2 and 4h post-injection, respectively. Approximately 92% of injected dose cleared out the body via urinary system at 2h post-injection. (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex showed high tumor/blood, tumor/muscle and tumor/skin uptake ratios after 2h post-injection. The M21 human melanoma-xenografted tumor lesions were clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex as an imaging probe at 2h post-injection. Overall, (99m)Tc(EDDA)-HYNIC-AocNle-CycMSHhex exhibited favorable human melanoma imaging property, highlighting its potential as an imaging probe for human metastatic melanoma detection. PMID:27568083

  20. Radionuclide bone scanning in neuroblastoma: skeletal metastases and primary tumor localization of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP

    SciTech Connect

    Podrasky, A.E.; Stark, D.D.; Hattner, R.S.; Gooding, C.A.; Moss, A.A.

    1983-09-01

    Of 42 radionuclide bone scans in 35 children with neuroblastoma, 21 were abnormal for the presence of skeletal metastases. Of the 21 abnormal scans, 16 were corroborated by positive bone-marrow biopsy or clinical data. The false-negative and false-positive rates for bone scanning were 4.8% and 9.5%, respectively. Calcification of the primary tumor was seen on pretreatment computed tomographic (CT) scans in 24 (89%) of 27 cases, while only 13 (48%) of 27 were detectable by plain radiographs. Uptake of /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphate /sup 99m/Tc-MDP) by the primary tumor occurred in 20 of 27 cases, but correlation between tumor uptake and calcification was not statistically significant. All children with markedly elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid exhibited primary tumor uptake. Survival was not affected independently by primary tumor uptake.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of 99mTc-cefuroxime, a potential infection specific imaging agent: a reliable thin layer chromatographic system to delineate impurities from the 99mTc-antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Ghosh, Mayuri; Sett, Sucharita; Das, Malay Kanti; Chandra, Susmita; De, Kakali; Mishra, Mridula; Sinha, Samarendu; Ranjan Sarkar, Bharat; Ganguly, Shantanu

    2012-10-01

    Technetium-99m labelled cefuroxime, a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic and potential bacteria specific infection imaging agent was evaluated. A good radiochemical purity (95%) of the labelled product was obtained after filtering the reaction mixture through a 0.22 μm filter. Scintigraphy study of the purified product showed uptake in infectious lesions 45 min after injection and abscess-to-muscle ratios were found to be 1.80, 1.85 and 1.88 at 45 min, 1.5 hr and 3 hr, respectively. A versatile and reliable chromatographic technique to assess the radiochemical purity of (99m)Tc-cefuroxime has also been described.

  2. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Groshar, D.; Weininger, J.

    1984-07-01

    Red blood cells labeled with 99mTc constitute a suitable intravascular agent for imaging of vascular abnormalities. Hemangiomas are characterized by low perfusion and a high blood pool. This ''perfusion blood-pool mismatch,'' not encountered in other lesions, may help in the specific diagnosis of this tumor. This is particularly so in cavernous hemangiomas of the liver where three-phase 99mTc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy should precede liver biopsy. Red cell scintigraphy also is useful for establishing the vascular nature of hemangiomas of the head and neck and the skin and for diagnosis of venous occlusion. Heat-damaged red blood cells provide a specific spleen imaging agent. This should be used when patients with suspected splenic pathology have equivocal colloid scintigraphy.

  3. Evaluation of a technetium-99m labeled bombesin homodimer for GRPR imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zilin; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Ananias, Hildo J K; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Liu, Shuang; Helfrich, Wijnand; Wang, Fan; de Jong, Igle J; Elsinga, Philip H

    2013-02-01

    Multimerization of peptides can improve the binding characteristics of the tracer by increasing local ligand concentration and decreasing dissociation kinetics. In this study, a new bombesin homodimer was developed based on an ε-aminocaproic acid-bombesin(7-14) (Aca-bombesin(7-14)) fragment, which has been studied for targeting the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in prostate cancer. The bombesin homodimer was conjugated to 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) and labeled with (99m)Tc for SPECT imaging. The in vitro binding affinity to GRPR, cell uptake, internalization and efflux kinetics of the radiolabeled bombesin dimer were investigated in the GRPR-expressing human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Biodistribution and the GRPR-targeting potential were evaluated in PC-3 tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. When compared with the bombesin monomer, the binding affinity of the bombesin dimer is about ten times lower. However, the (99m)Tc labeled bombesin dimer showed a three times higher cellular uptake at 4 h after incubation, but similar internalization and efflux characters in vitro. Tumor uptake and in vivo pharmacokinetics in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice were comparable. The tumor was visible on the dynamic images in the first hour and could be clearly distinguished from non-targeted tissues on the static images after 4 h. The GRPR-targeting ability of the (99m)Tc labeled bombesin dimer was proven in vitro and in vivo. This bombesin homodimer provides a good starting point for further studies on enhancing the tumor targeting activity of bombesin multimers.

  4. Novel Approach to Prepare {sup 99m}Tc-Based Multivalent RGD Peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuang Liu

    2012-10-24

    This project presents a novel approach to prepare the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) peptides. This project will focus on fundamentals of {sup 99m}Tc radiochemistry. The main objective of this project is to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the proposed radiotracers. Once a kit formulation is developed for preparation of the {sup 99m}Tc-bridged multivalent RGD peptides, various tumor-bearing animal models will be used to evaluate their potential for SPECT (single photon-emission computed tomography) imaging of cancer. We have demonstrated that (1) multimerization of cyclic RGD peptides enhances the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} bonding affinity and radiotracer tumor uptake; (2) addition of G{sub 3} or PEG{sub 4} linkers makes it possible for two RGD motifs in 3P-RGD{sub 2} and 3G-RGD{sub 2} to achieve simultaneous integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding; and (3) multimers are actually bivalent (not multivalent), the presence of extra RGD motifs can enhance the tumor retention time of the radiotracer.

  5. Effects of sustained exercise on pulmonary clearance of aerosolized sup 99m Tc-DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    Lorino, A.M.; Meignan, M.; Bouissou, P.; Atlan, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The effects of intensive prolonged exercise on the pulmonary clearance rate of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetate ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary mechanics were studied in seven healthy nonsmoking volunteers. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA clearance and pulmonary mechanics (lung volumes and compliance) were assessed before and after 75 min of constant-load exercise performed on a treadmill, corresponding to 75% of maximal O{sub 2} uptake. Because both clearance measurements were made in similar conditions of pulmonary blood flow, respiratory rate, and tidal volume, changes in clearance rate can be assumed to represent changes of alveolar epithelial permeability. After exercise, total, apical, and basal clearance were significantly increased (P less than 0.01, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively) and the increases in total clearance and tidal volume observed during exercise were significantly correlated (P less than 0.05). In contrast, no significant change was found in pulmonary mechanics. These results show that prolonged intensive exercise induces an increase in epithelial permeability, which appears to be related to the mechanical effects of sustained increased ventilation. Because no change was evidenced in pulmonary volumes or in lung elasticity, our results suggest that this increase may result from alteration of the intercellular tight junctions rather than from a surfactant deficiency.

  6. Adrenal imaging with technetium-99m-labelled low density lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacsohn, J.L.; Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Strauss, H.W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Moore, T.J.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation of adrenal cortical function by external imaging is currently accomplished by injection of radiolabelled analogs of cholesterol. Although the adrenals do utilized exogenous cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis, the cholesterol is delivered to the glands not as free cholesterol but through the uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDL), which are subsequently degraded within the adrenal cortical cells to provide cholesterol. Thus, we sought to assess the use of /sup 99m/Tc-labelled LDL injected into rabbits to obtain external images of the adrenal glands. Adrenal images of all nine rabbits tested were obtained within 18 to 21 hours after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-LDL. Seven of the rabbits were subjected to adrenal cortical suppression with dexamethasone and then all nine rabbits were imaged a second time. In the untreated animals, visualization of the adrenal glands was accompanied by normal serum cortisol concentrations and accumulation of radiolabel in the adrenals, whereas in the dexamethasone-treated animals, lack of visualization of the adrenal glands was correlated with low serum cortisols, and greatly decreased accumulation of the radionuclide in the adrenals. These findings demonstrate for the first time that LDL, when labelled with /sup 99m/Tc, can be used to evaluate adrenal cortical function by external imaging.

  7. The role of Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in predicting clinical response to chemotherapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dirlik, Aysegul; Burak, Zeynep; Goksel, Tuncay; Erinc, Ruya; Karakus, Haydar; Ozcan, Zehra; Veral, Ali; Ozhan, Mustafa

    2002-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in lung cancer. Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) has been demonstrated to be a non-invasive marker to diagnose MDRI related P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) expression in various solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the degree of Tc-99m MIBI uptake and its retention on delayed images and the response to chemotherapy in lung cancer. Twenty-three patients (1 woman and 22 men, age range 40-67 years) with lung cancer (9 small cell and 14 non-small cell) were examined with Tc-99m MIBI imaging before chemotherapy. After i.v. administration of 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI, planar and SPECT imaging at 30 minutes and 2 hours was performed. Tumor to normal lung uptake ratio (T/N) and percent retention were measured. Response to chemotherapy was evaluated according to follow-up CT and grouped as complete responders (CR), partial responders (PR) and non-responders (NR). Clinical follow-up and CT evaluation revealed that 12 patients had partial remission, 4 patients had complete remission and 7 patients had no-remission after chemotherapy. Statistically, there was no significant correlation between early (30 min), delayed (2 hr) T/N ratios and percent retention of Tc-99m MIBI with chemotherapeutic response of the lung cancer among the three groups (p > 0.05). Results of the current study imply that Tc-99m MIBI uptake and the retention index may not correlate with chemotherapy response in lung cancer, so that the accuracy of this method needs to be verified in a larger series with additional investigation at the molecular level.

  8. Sensitivity of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, R.H.; Lee, V.W.; Rubinow, A.; Hood, W.B. Jr.; Cohen, A.S.

    1983-03-01

    To determine the value of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease this procedure was prospectively performed in 20 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven primary amyloidosis. Eleven patients had echocardiographic abnormalities compatible with amyloid cardiomyopathy, 9 of whom had congestive heart failure. Diffuse myocardial pyrophosphate uptake was of equal or greater intensity than that of the ribs in 9 of the 11 patients with echocardiograms suggestive of amyloidosis, but in only 2 of the 9 with normal echocardiograms, despite abnormal electrocardiograms (p less than 0.01). Increased wall thickness measured by M-mode echocardiography correlated with myocardial pyrophosphate uptake (r . 0.68, p less than 0.01). None of 10 control patients with nonamyloid, nonischemic heart disease had a strongly positive myocardial pyrophosphate uptake. Thus, myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scanning is a sensitive and specific test for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in patients with congestive heart failure of obscure origin. It does not appear to be of value for the early detection of cardiac involvement in patients with known primary amyloidosis without echocardiographic abnormalities.

  9. 99mTc-dextran-antibody conjugates. Labelling procedures.

    PubMed

    Márquez, M; Westlin, J E; Nilsson, S; Holmberg, A R

    1996-01-01

    Dextran forms stable chelates with 99mTc, a radionuclide with ideal properties for planar scintigraphic and tomographic imaging. This study investigates some of the factors of importance to the formation of 99mTc-dextran. The complex was used for the technetium labelling of a monoclonal antibody. Two radiolabelling methods were studied: direct dextran labelling with the reductant dissolved in HCI and labelling via a weak 'transfer' chelator (tartaric acid) with the reductant dissolved in ethanol. Different conditions during the labelling reaction were studied. Finally, dextran was coupled to a monoclonal anticytokeratin antibody and the conjugate was subsequently radiolabelled with 99mTc. Gel filtration (GFR) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were compared as methods for estimation of the labelling efficiency. When using 10-500 microM of ligand, 5-100 microM SnCl2 with 10-500 MBq of technetium at pH 7 incubated for 10-15 min, the radiolabelling seemed optimal (70-75% labelling efficiency). It was found that 100 microM tartaric acid used as a weak intermediate chelator with SnCl2 dissolved in ethanol improved the reproducibility of the labelling. The labelling efficiency was not affected by either the presence of oxygen or the addition of an oxygen scavenger during the labelling incubation. In general, TLC showed higher labelling efficiencies than GFR, indicating inadequate separation of the different moieties.

  10. Technetium-99m calcium phytate - optimization of calcium content for liver and spleen scintigraphy: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.; Bellen, J.C.; Baker, R.J.; Cook, D.J.

    1981-02-01

    The addition of ionic calcium to technetium-99m stannous phytate produced an agent with improved splenic uptake. In a series of patients, it was found that molar ratios of 2:1 and 3:1 produced scans of optimal diagnostic quality. Studies in mice showed dose-related changes in the biodistribution. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the addition of calcium produced progressive aggregation of the colloid as the molar ratio was increased. Chemical analysis of sodium phytate was essential to obtain accurate ratios.

  11. Evaluation of hemangiomas with technetium 99m-labeled RBCs: the perfusion-blood pool mismatch

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Joachims, H.; Brown, Y.; Eliachar, I.

    1983-03-18

    A case report is presented of a woman with a tumor mass in the nasopharynx. Early and delayed scintigraphy with Technetium 99m-labeled RBCs showed a large area of increased uptake which was later shown to be a hemangioma by contrast angiography. The perfusion-blood pool mismatch observed in hemangiomas is characteristic of these lesions and has not been described in any other abnormalities. The Tc-RBC using both early and delayed scintigraphy is a simple, noninvasive method for assessing the vascular characteristics of these tumors. (JMT)

  12. Radiotracers for low density lipoprotein biodistribution studies in vivo: technetium-99m low density lipoprotein versus radioiodinated low density lipoprotein preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Paidi, M.; Badimon, J.J.; Le, N.A.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.; Ginsberg, H.N.

    1988-07-01

    In an attempt to characterize the in vivo behavior of (99mTc) low density lipoprotein (LDL), biodistribution studies were performed in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits. In normal rabbits, 24 hr after the injection of (99mTc)LDL, 99mTc activity accumulated mainly in adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and kidney. In HC rabbits, however, there was a marked reduction of 99mTc activity in these organs. In both normal and HC rabbits, less than 17% of 99mTc activity appeared in the 24-hr urine following injection of (99mTc)LDL, suggesting that in vivo, (99mTc)LDL is trapped and accumulated within the tissues. Direct comparison of (99mTc)LDL, 125I-native-LDL and (131I)tyramine cellobiose-LDL (the previously validated trapped radioligand) in normal rabbits, demonstrated that the biodistribution of (99mTc)LDL was similar to that of (131I)tyramine cellobiose-LDL. The adrenal glands, liver, and spleen accumulated significantly greater quantities of 99mTc and 131I activity per gram of tissue than 125I (from native-LDL). In addition, imaging studies in monkeys, showed that the hepatic uptake and retention of (99mTc) LDL was similar to that of (131I)tyramine cellobiose LDL. In contrast, radioiodine from native-LDL was deiodinated in liver with subsequent excretion into the intestine. These results suggest that (99mTc)LDL acts as a trapped ligand in vivo and should therefore, be a good tracer for noninvasive quantitative biodistribution studies of LDL.

  13. Radiotracers for low density lipoprotein biodistribution studies in vivo: technetium-99m low density lipoprotein versus radioiodinated low density lipoprotein preparations.

    PubMed

    Vallabhajosula, S; Paidi, M; Badimon, J J; Le, N A; Goldsmith, S J; Fuster, V; Ginsberg, H N

    1988-07-01

    In an attempt to characterize the in vivo behavior of [99mTc] low density lipoprotein (LDL), biodistribution studies were performed in normal and hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits. In normal rabbits, 24 hr after the injection of [99mTc]LDL, 99mTc activity accumulated mainly in adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and kidney. In HC rabbits, however, there was a marked reduction of 99mTc activity in these organs. In both normal and HC rabbits, less than 17% of 99mTc activity appeared in the 24-hr urine following injection of [99mTc]LDL, suggesting that in vivo, [99mTc]LDL is trapped and accumulated within the tissues. Direct comparison of [99mTc]LDL, 125I-native-LDL and [131I]tyramine cellobiose-LDL (the previously validated trapped radioligand) in normal rabbits, demonstrated that the biodistribution of [99mTc]LDL was similar to that of [131I]tyramine cellobiose-LDL. The adrenal glands, liver, and spleen accumulated significantly greater quantities of 99mTc and 131I activity per gram of tissue than 125I (from native-LDL). In addition, imaging studies in monkeys, showed that the hepatic uptake and retention of [99mTc] LDL was similar to that of [131I]tyramine cellobiose LDL. In contrast, radioiodine from native-LDL was deiodinated in liver with subsequent excretion into the intestine. These results suggest that [99mTc]LDL acts as a trapped ligand in vivo and should therefore, be a good tracer for noninvasive quantitative biodistribution studies of LDL.

  14. The determination of relative renal function in a pediatric population using Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Kuruc, A.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-05-01

    Three methods for evaluating relative renal function in a pediatric population were compared. The clinical and nuclear medicine data of 73 patients were reviewed. Pertinent data included patient age, serum creatinine and the referral diagnosis (reflux, hypertension, obstructive uropathy). Time activity curves for renal regions of interest (ROI) were obtained by renography with Tc-99m DTPA, and deconvolved by an externally detected blood pool curve Furosemide was then administered to evaluate the renal collecting system (if indicated). This was followed by DMSA administration. Relative function was determined in 3 ways: 1) Accumulated renal DTPA activity 60-120 sec. following injection. 2) Amplitude of the tubular phase of the deconvolved renal curve and, 3) Accumulated Tc-99m DMSA activity in renal ROI 4 or 24 hrs. post-injection. Regression analysis revealed: 1) The basic relationship of relative functional data obtained by all three methods was not affected by creatinine, age or other factors. 2) The relationship between the three methods is linear and highly correlated. 3) The DMSA values may be predicted from either method of analyzing the DTPA study using appropriate predictor equations. The authors conclude that Tc-99m DMSA, due to its higher cost and more radiation exposure should not be used for the routine evaluation of relative renal function.

  15. Improving Tumor-Targeting Capability and Pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Labeled Cyclic RGD Dimers with PEG4 Linkers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Shi, Jiyun; Kim, Young-Seung; Zhai, Shizhen; Jia, Bing; Zhao, Huiyun; Liu, Zhaofei; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the synthesis of two cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) conjugates, HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; 2PEG4-dimer = E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2; and PEG4 = 15-amino-4,7,10,13-tetraoxapentadecanoic acid) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (3PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[PEG4-c(RGDfK)]2), and evaluation of their 99mTc complexes [99mTc(HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-2PEG4-dimer: TPPTS = trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3′,3″-trisulfonate) and [99mTc(HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer)(tricine)(TPPTS)] (99mTc-3PEG4-dimer) as novel radiotracers for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression in athymic nude mice bearing U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer xenografts. The integrin αvβ3 binding affinities of RGD peptides were determined by competitive displacement of 125I-c(RGDyK) on U87MG glioma cells. It was found that the two PEG4 linkers between RGD motifs in HYNIC-2PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.8 ± 0.5 nM) and HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer (IC50 = 2.4 ± 0.7 nM) are responsible for their higher integrin αvβ3 binding affinity than that of HYNIC-PEG4-dimer (PEG4-dimer = PEG4-E[c(RGDfK)]2; IC50 = 7.5 ± 2.3 nM). Addition of extra PEG4 linker in HYNIC-3PEG4-dimer has little impact on integrin αvβ3 binding affinity. 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer were prepared in high yield with >95% radiochemical purity and the specific activity of > 10 Ci/μmol. Biodistribution studies clearly demonstrated that PEG4 linkers are particularly useful for improving the tumor uptake and clearance kinetics of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer and 99mTc-3PEG4-dimer from non-cancerous organs. It was also found that there was a linear relationship between the tumor size and radiotracer tumor uptake expressed as %ID (percentage of the injected dose) in U87MG glioma and MDA-MB-435 breast tumor models. The blocking experiment showed that the tumor uptake of 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer is integrin αvβ3-mediated. In the metabolism study, 99mTc-2PEG4-dimer had high metabolic stability during its excretion from renal and hepatobiliary routes

  16. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma. PMID:10376326

  17. Synthesis and biodistribution of neutral lipid-soluble Tc-99m complexes that cross the blood-brain barrier. [Monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.F.; Molnar, M.; Billings, J.; Wicks, R.; Blau, M.

    1984-03-01

    Three Tc-99m-labeled neutral 1,2-dithia-5,8-diazacyclodecane (BAT) chelates that are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) were prepared and evaluated. Biodistribution (i.v.) in rats showed a significant brain uptake (1-3%/whole brain) at 2 min. At 15 min the uptake dropped to about a tenth of the original level, indicating free passage in both directions across the BBB. Gamma camera images of a monkey confirmed the high initial brain uptake. This group of Tc-99m BAT compounds clearly exhibited in vivo stability and the ability to cross the BBB after an i.v. injection. Derivatives containing tertiary amine groups should have prolonged brain retention and might be suitable for SPECT studies of brain perfusion.

  18. Comparison of biokinetics and biliary imaging parameters of four /sup 99m/Tc iminodiacetic acid derivatives in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Bobba, V.V.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.; Kingston, E.; Brown, P.H.; Eklem, M.; Turner, F.E.

    1983-02-01

    The biokinetics (blood clearance, urinary excretion, hepatic peak time, uptake, and excretion t-1/2) and the imaging parameters (the time of appearance of the common bile duct, gallbladder, and duodenum) were determined in 34 normal subjects using /sup 99m/Tc diethyl (EIDA), /sup 99m/Tc dimethyl (HIDA), /sup 99m/Tc paraisopropyl (PIPIDA), and /sup 99m/Tc parabutyl (PBIDA) iminodiacetic acid derivatives. The blood and hepatic clearance of the four agents were significantly different (P less than 0.05) from each other. The 24-hour urinary excretion of PBIDA was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the urinary excretion of the other three agents. There was no difference among the four agents in the time of appearance of the gallbladder and duodenum. The time of appearance of the common bile duct was significantly delayed with PBIDA. The maximum intensity of the common bile duct usually occurred between 20 to 40 minutes with all four agents. However, gallbladder intensity continued to increase up to 3 hours. It is concluded that in the presence of normal liver function, all four /sup 99m/Tc IDA agents show definite differences in biokinetics but these differences do not have a major effect on biliary imaging parameters. If imaging alone is the primary goal, the selection of any one of the four agents will meet the clinican's need satisfactorily.

  19. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

  20. Effect of a second nitroimidazole redox centre on the accumulation of a hypoxia marker: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of 99mTc-labeled bisnitroimidazole propylene amine oxime complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huafan; Zhou, Hao; Li, Zejun; Wang, Xiangyun; Chu, Taiwei

    2012-01-01

    Up to now, most of the hypoxia markers contain only one nitroimidazole redox centre, such as Oxo[[3,3,9,9-tetramethyl-1-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4,8-diazaundecane-2,10-dione dioximato] (3-)-N,N',N″,N″']-technetium ((99m)Tc-1, BMS181321). Introducing a second nitroimidazole redox centre may enhance the hypoxic accumulation of the markers. In the present work, four (99m)Tc-1 (BMS181321, containing one 2-nitroimidazole) analogues, that is, (99m)Tc-2 (containing two 2-nitroimidazoles), (99m)Tc-3 (containing one 4-nitroimidazole), (99m)Tc-4 (containing two 4-nitroimidazoles) and (99m)Tc-5 (containing both a 2-nitroimidazole and a 4-nitroimidazole) were synthesized, and the hypoxic accumulation was evaluated in vitro using murine sarcoma S180 cells. (99m)Tc-3 and (99m)Tc-4 displayed no significant anoxic/normoxic differentials, whereas (99m)Tc-1 (BMS181321), (99m)Tc-2 and (99m)Tc-5 showed high anoxic cellular uptakes. The anoxic uptake of (99m)Tc-2 reached up to 59.0±0.9% at 4h, which was 2.4 times as that of (99m)Tc-1. (99m)Tc-2 displayed high hypoxic accumulation, indicating that introducing a second nitroimidazole redox centre, that is, 2-nitroimidazole, affected the hypoxic accumulation. Consequently, (99m)Tc-2 may serve as a viable candidate for hypoxia marker. This finding may eventually lead to the development of compounds containing multi-redox centres as hypoxia markers.

  1. Use of (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in the diagnosis of primary degenerative dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, H.J.; Snowden, J.S.; Neary, D.; Shields, R.A.; Burjan, A.W.; Prescott, M.C.; Northen, B.; Goulding, P.

    1988-12-01

    The clinical value of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis of dementia due to cerebral atrophy was evaluated by comparing the pattern of distribution (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO in three dementing conditions. Imaging was carried out in 26 patients with suspected Alzheimer's disease, 14 with dementia of the frontal-lobe type, and 13 with progressive supranuclear palsy. Images were evaluated and reported without knowledge of clinical diagnosis with respect to regions of reduced uptake of tracer. Reduced uptake in the posterior cerebral hemispheres was characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, while selective anterior hemisphere abnormalities characterized both dementia of the frontal-lobe type and progressive supranuclear palsy. The latter conditions could be distinguished on the basis of the appearance of integrity of the rim of the frontal cortex. The technique has an important role in the differentiation of degenerative dementias.

  2. Significance of technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid scintigraphy in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Tomoya; Onozawa, Koji; Rikitake, Shuichi; Miyazono, Motoaki; Otsuka, Takateru; Irie, Hiroyuki; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Ikeda, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that a large amount of albumin leaking from the glomerulus in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule and catabolized. Therefore, it is possible the final quantity of urinary protein does not always reflect the amount of leakage of protein from the glomerulus. We experienced two cases without nephrotic range proteinuria thought to involve hypoproteinemia due to the same pathophysiology as NS. On these patients, we performed protein leakage scintigraphy with technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) to exclude a diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy and observed diffuse positive accumulation in the kidneys with more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration. In healthy adults intravenously given 99mTc-HSAD, the same dynamics are observed as in albumin metabolism, and the organ radioactivity of the liver and kidneys after 24 hours is equal. Therefore, we thought it was possible that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration was a characteristic finding of NS. In order to confirm it, the subjects were divided into two groups: the NS group (n = 10) and the non-NS group (n = 7). We defined more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration as Dense Kidney (+). Furthermore, we designed regions of interest in the right and left kidneys and liver on anterior and posterior images, then calculated the kidney-liver ratio. Nine of the ten patients had Dense Kidney (+) in the NS group, compared to none in the non-NS group. And the kidney-liver ratio was significantly higher in the NS group than in the non-NS group on each view in the bilateral kidneys. In conclusion, our results suggest that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration is a characteristic finding of NS.

  3. Significance of Technetium-99m Human Serum Albumin Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid Scintigraphy in Patients with Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Tsuyoshi; Kishi, Tomoya; Onozawa, Koji; Rikitake, Shuichi; Miyazono, Motoaki; Otsuka, Takateru; Irie, Hiroyuki; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Ikeda, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that a large amount of albumin leaking from the glomerulus in nephrotic syndrome (NS) is reabsorbed at the proximal tubule and catabolized. Therefore, it is possible the final quantity of urinary protein does not always reflect the amount of leakage of protein from the glomerulus. We experienced two cases without nephrotic range proteinuria thought to involve hypoproteinemia due to the same pathophysiology as NS. On these patients, we performed protein leakage scintigraphy with technetium-99m human serum albumin diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (99mTc-HSAD) to exclude a diagnosis of protein-losing gastroenteropathy and observed diffuse positive accumulation in the kidneys with more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration. In healthy adults intravenously given 99mTc-HSAD, the same dynamics are observed as in albumin metabolism, and the organ radioactivity of the liver and kidneys after 24 hours is equal. Therefore, we thought it was possible that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration was a characteristic finding of NS. In order to confirm it, the subjects were divided into two groups: the NS group (n = 10) and the non-NS group (n = 7). We defined more intense uptake in the kidney than the liver on the anterior view 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration as Dense Kidney (+). Furthermore, we designed regions of interest in the right and left kidneys and liver on anterior and posterior images, then calculated the kidney-liver ratio. Nine of the ten patients had Dense Kidney (+) in the NS group, compared to none in the non-NS group. And the kidney-liver ratio was significantly higher in the NS group than in the non-NS group on each view in the bilateral kidneys. In conclusion, our results suggest that the renal uptake 24 hours after 99mTc-HSAD administration is a characteristic finding of NS. PMID:25859658

  4. Simultaneous technetium-99m MIBI angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baillet, G.Y.; Mena, I.G.; Kuperus, J.H.; Robertson, J.M.; French, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Resting first-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) was performed with the myocardial perfusion agent technetium-99m MIBI. In 27 patients, it was compared with technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid FPRNA. A significant correlation was present in left (r = 0.93, p less than 0.001) as well as right (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) ventricular ejection fraction measured with both radiopharmaceuticals. In 13 patients, MIBI derived segmental wall motion was compared with contrast ventriculography. A high correlation was present (p less than 0.001), and qualitative agreement was found in 38/52 segments. In 19 patients with myocardial infarction a significant correlation was present between MIBI segmental wall motion and perfusion scores (p less than 0.001). In ten patients with a history of myocardial infarction, 18 myocardial segments demonstrated diseased coronary vessels and impaired wall motion at contrast angiography. These segments were all identified by the MIBI wall motion and perfusion study. We conclude that MIBI is a promising agent for simultaneous evaluation of cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at rest.

  5. Technetium-99m NGA functional hepatic imaging: preliminary clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Vera, D.R.; Woodle, E.S.; Trudeau, W.L.; Porter, B.A.; Ward, R.E.; Krohn, K.A.; O'Grady, L.F.

    1985-11-01

    Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin ( (Tc)NGA) is a radiolabeled ligand to hepatic binding protein, a receptor which resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. This receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical and its kinetic model provide a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver function. Eighteen patients were studied: seven with hepatoma, eight with liver metastases, four with cirrhosis, and one patient with acute fulminant non-A, non-B hepatitis. Technetium-99m NGA liver imaging provided anatomic information of diagnostic quality comparable to that obtained with other routine imaging modalities, including computed tomography, angiography, ultrasound, and (Tc)sulfur colloid scintigraphy. Kinetic modeling of dynamic (Tc)NGA data produced estimates of standardized hepatic blood flow, Q (hepatic blood flow divided by total blood volume), and hepatic binding protein concentration, (HBP). Significant rank correlation was obtained between (HBP) estimates and CTC scores. This correlation supports the hypothesis that (HBP) is a measure of functional hepatocyte mass. The combination of decreased Q and markedly reduced (HBP) may have prognostic significance; all three patients with this combination died of hepatic failure within 6 wk of imaging.

  6. Dissociation of reticuloendothelial cell and hepatocyte functions in alcoholic liver disease: a clinical study with a new Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B.K.; Weir, G.J. Jr.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1981-07-01

    Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scintigrams were abnormal in four patients with hepatic dysfunction due to chronic alcohol abuse. Minimal uptake of radiocolloid in the liver suggested local reticuloendothelial (RE) cell failure. Imaging with a new hepatobiliary agent, Tc-99m-PIPIDA, revealed rapid hepatic accumulation and excretion of radiotracer with adequate visualization of the organ. Scintigraphic findings in these patients indicated a dissociation of hepatocyte and RE cell functions. Demonstration of adequate hepatocyte function with severe RE failure in alcoholic liver disease using a Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent has not been previously reported.

  7. Single vial freeze-dried TRODAT-1 kit: preparation and demonstration of clinical efficacy of [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 in Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Korde, Aruna; Kameswaran, Mythili; Satpati, Drishty; Dev Sarma, Haladhar; Banerjee, Sharmila; Shinto, Ajit; Kamaleshwaran, K K; Samuel, Grace

    2015-02-01

    A single vial freeze-dried kit formulation for preparation of three patients' dose of [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 has been developed for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Kits were evaluated to ascertain the purity, stability and batch to batch variations. Preclinical evaluation was carried out in laboratory animals and clinical imaging was performed in human patients with PD. The labeling yield and purity of [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 was >90%. Swiss mice showed retention of [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 in the mid brain region. Clinical studies showed decreased striatal uptake with increasing severity of PD.

  8. (99m)Technetium Sestamibi-(123)Iodine Scintigraphy Is More Accurate Than (99m)Technetium Sestamibi Alone before Surgery for Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ryhänen, Eeva M; Schildt, Jukka; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Väisänen, Mika; Ahonen, Aapo; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Välimäki, Matti J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Studies comparing outcome of single-(99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-sestamibi) and dual-tracer (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy in combination with (123)I before primary surgery of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are scarce. Methods. We compared (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi in a single-centre retrospective series of 269 PHPT patients. The results were related to laboratory, surgical and histological findings. Results. (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi were positive in 206 (76.6%) and 111 (41.3%) of 269 patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Accuracies for (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi were 63.4% and 34.9%, respectively (96% CI, P < 0.001). Prevalence of multiglandular disease was 15.2%. In multiglandular disease, (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I and (99m)Tc-sestamibi revealed 43.8 and 22.1% of pathological glands, respectively (P < 0.001). Cure rate was similar for patients with (191/206; 92.7%) and without (59 of 63; 93.7%) a positive (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I finding. Duration of targeted surgery (one or two quadrants) was 21 and 15 minutes shorter than bilateral neck exploration, respectively (both P < 0.001). Higher serum calcium (P = 0.014) and PTH (P = 0.055) concentrations and larger tumours (P < 0.001) characterized the 206 patients with a positive preoperative scan who were cured by removal of a single adenoma. Conclusions. (99m)Tc-sestamibi/(123)I scintigraphy is more accurate than (99m)Tc-sestamibi before surgery of PHPT. However, outcome of surgery is not determined by scintigraphy alone.

  9. Optimization of Imaging Parameters for SPECT scans of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 Using Taguchi Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Jay; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Pan, Lung-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans using [99mTc]TRODAT-1 can image dopamine transporters and provide valuable diagnostic information of PD. In this study, we optimized the scanning parameters for [99mTc]TRODAT-1/SPECT using the Taguchi analysis to improve image quality. SPECT scans were performed on forty-five healthy volunteers according to an L9 orthogonal array. Three parameters were considered, including the injection activity, uptake duration, and acquisition time per projection. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated from the striatum/occipital activity ratio as an image quality index. Ten healthy subjects and fifteen PD patients were used to verify the optimal parameters. The estimated optimal parameters were 962 MBq for [99mTc]TRODAT-1 injection, 260 min for uptake duration, and 60 s/projection for data acquisition. The uptake duration and time per projection were the two dominant factors which had an F-value of 18.638 (38%) and 25.933 (53%), respectively. Strong cross interactions existed between the injection activity/uptake duration and injection activity/time per projection. Therefore, under the consideration of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for radiation protection, we can decrease the injection activity to 740 MBq. The image quality remains almost the same for clinical applications. PMID:25790100

  10. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  11. [Renal function study assessed by 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy before and after PNL].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, M; Hioki, T; Okuno, T; Sugimura, Y; Yamakawa, K; Yanagawa, M; Tajima, K; Tochigi, H; Kawamura, J

    1990-01-01

    99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was carried out in 54 patients with unilateral renal stones before and after PNL. Four to 8 weeks after PNL the DMSA renal uptake significantly decreased to 17.2 +/- 6.0% from 18.2 +/- 6.7% before PNL. DMSA renal uptake did not change in the contralateral side. Since in some patients changes in the DMSA renal uptake of 5-7% were observed after PNL not only in the PNL side but also in the contralateral side, the renal function was assessed by the formula: DMSA renal uptake in the PNL side/DMSA renal uptake in the contralateral side, and the change of this ratio was evaluated in 44 patients, in whom the renal DMSA uptake in the PNL side was less than two times that in the contralateral side. The DMSA renal uptake ratio decreased to 95.6 +/- 8.7% from the base line 4-8 weeks after PNL. This change was statistically significant. Some functional risks such as massive bleeding with PNL, the fever after PNL and the number of nephrostomy tract did not affect the decrease in the renal function. In 29 patients in whom renal function was reevaluated one year after PNL, the DMSA renal uptake ratio significantly decreased to 94.2 +/- 9.6% from the base line 4-8 weeks after PNL. But the ratio significantly improved to 99.6 +/- 11.6% about one year after PNL. In two patients with a cold area on the renal image, the renal function of the operated side still remained at about 80% levels from the base line even one year after PNL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The feasibility of imaging myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury using 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei; Johnson, Steven E.; Audi, Said; Zimmer, Michael; Holly, Thomas A; Lee, Daniel; Zhu, Bao; Zhu, Haibo; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    When pathologically externalized, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a potential surrogate marker for detecting tissue injuries. 99mTc-labeled duramycin is a peptide-based imaging agent that binds PE with high affinity and specificity. The goal of the current study was to investigate the clearance kinetics of 99mTc-labeled duramycin in a large animal model (normal pigs) and to assess its uptake in the heart using a pig model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods The clearance and distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin were characterized in sham-operated animals (n = 5). In a closed chest model of myocardial ischemia, coronary occlusion was induced by balloon angioplasty (n = 9). 99mTc-duramycin (10-15 mCi) was injected intravenously at 1 hour after reperfusion. SPECT/CT was acquired at 1 and 3 hours after injection. Cardiac tissues were analyzed for changes associated with acute cellular injuries. Autoradiography and gamma counting was used to determine radioactivity uptake. For the remaining animals, 99mTc-tetrafosamin scan was performed on the second day to identify the infarct site. Results Intravenously injected 99mTc-duramycin cleared from circulation predominantly via the renal/urinary tract with an α-phase half-life of 3.6 ± 0.3 minutes and β-phase half-life of 179.9 ± 64.7 minutes. In control animals, the ratios between normal heart and lung were 1.76 ± 0.21, 1.66 ± 0.22, 1.50 ± 0.20 and 1.75 ± 0.31 at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. The ratios between normal heart and liver were 0.88 ± 0.13, 0.80 ± 0.13, 0.82 ± 0.19 and 0.88 ± 0.14. In vivo visualization of focal radioactivity uptake in the ischemic heart was attainable as early as 30 min post injection. The in vivo ischemic-to-normal uptake ratios were 3.57 ± 0.74 and 3.69 ± 0.91 at 1 and 3 hours post injection, respectively. Ischemic-to-lung ratios were 4.89 ± 0.85 and 4.93 ± 0.57; and ischemic-to-liver ratios were 2.05 ± 0.30 to 3.23 ± 0

  13. Retention of {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate in the human brain after intracarotid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friberg, L.; Lassen, N.A.; Andersen, A.R.; Dam, M.

    1994-01-01

    {sup 99m}{Tc}-bicisate (ECD) was injected as a bolus into the internal carotid artery, and cerebral uptake and retention were recorded with fast-rotating single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) equipment in four patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured tomographically with the {sup 133}Xe inhalation technique. The authors applied a three-compartment kinetic model and algorithms modified from a previous analysis of {sup 99m}{Tc} d,l-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxide (HM-PAO) kinetics. The bicisate brain uptake and retention curve was very similar to that of HM-PAO, and it can be described by a triexponential function including an initial steep component representing the vascular transmitted spike, a second less steep component representing back-diffusion from brain tissue to blood, and a third, very slow component, representing the very slow loss due to incomplete retention of the deesterified hydrophilic metabolites. Computerized curve-fitting on data from three patients gave average kinetic values for the first-passage (unilateral) extraction of E = 0.60 (range, 0.59-0.61); the overall retained fraction of the tracer supplied was R = 0.44 (0.43-0.45), and the conversion/clearance ratio was {alpha} = k{sub 3}/k{sub 2} = 2.59 (2.38-2.77). This {alpha} is higher than that for HM-PAO, and therefore bicisate uptake as a function of blood flow is more linear than in HM-PAO. Less correction for backdiffusion is therefore needed. From 1 to 24 h there was an average loss of hydrophilic tracer of 3.5%/h, but the late distribution images were essentially unchanged over time, pointing to practically the same rate of loss in all regions. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Imaging of human pancreatic cancer xenografts by single-photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIN; TIAN, YE; SUN, FANGFANG; FENG, HONGBO; YANG, CHUN; GONG, XIAOYAN; TAN, GUANG

    2015-01-01

    The elevated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients. Thus, uPAR is a promising candidate as a molecular target for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic cancer. The present study aimed to develop a technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled uPAR-binding peptide for non-invasive single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) assessment of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer xenograft models. A linear high-affinity uPAR peptide antagonist, Hynic-PEG-AE105, was labeled with 99mTc. Human uPAR-positive pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells were inoculated into nude mice. SPECT was performed in the pancreatic cancer xenograft mice models. The results showed that the rate of the 99mTc labeling of Hynic-PEG-AE105 was 97.72±1.73%. The tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 was higher than the control inactive peptide 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105mut at 4 h (3.37±0.11 vs. 1.36±0.18; P<0.001) and 6 h (3.64±0.25 vs. 1.28±0.20; P<0.001) (n=10). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the tumor uptake of 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 and uPAR expression (r=0.791, P=0.006). In conclusion, in the present study, a peptide-based SPECT tracer, 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105, with a high purity and specific radioactivity was synthesized. 99mTc-Hynic-PEG-AE105 is a promising agent for the non-invasive determination of uPAR expression in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26622829

  15. A comparison of infarct identification with technetium-99m pyrophosphate and staining with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo, C.; Devous, M.D. Sr.; Nicod, P.; Buja, L.M.; Parkey, R.W.; Bonte, F.J.; Willerson, J.T.; Lewis, S.E.

    1983-06-01

    The topographic relationship between the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate (PPi) and myocardial infarction delineated by 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was studied in a canine model of permanent coronary occlusion (24-48 hr). Photographs of TTC staining and scintigraphic images of PPi uptake were planimetered for infarct area. In addition, narrow tissue samples (3 X 10 mm) were taken on both sides of the TTC border and counted for PPi uptake. A significant correlation (p less than 0.001) was found between area of PPi uptake and area of myocardium unstained by TTC (r . 0.84 in epicardium and r . 0.91 in endocardium). The slope relating PPi to TTC for all infarcts was 1.01 +/- 0.11, indicating that variations in infarct size were followed equally by the two techniques. Tissue counting showed the ratio of PPi activity just inside the infarct to activity just outside the infarct to be 9.2 +/- 0.6 (mean +/- s.e.m.). Thus, PPi is distributed topographically in a manner identical to the distribution of irreversibly injured myocardium as delineated by TTC.

  16. /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate for quantitation of differential renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Ziessman, H.A.; Balseiro, J.; Fahey, F.H.; Le, T.V.; Dubiansky, V.

    1987-05-01

    Differential renal function was calculated by using /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (Tc-GH) in 51 patients. Computer-acquired background-corrected individual renal function was calculated by using both the 1-3-min uptake counts and the 2-4-hr delayed static counts. The degree of correlation between the two was high (r = .96). An equally high correlation was noted in 16 children who were 12 years old or younger, in 15 patients with renal size disparity greater than 60/40%, and in six patients with abnormal creatinine clearances. Ten patients had a 30-min dynamic /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study followed immediately by the injection of Tc-GH and acquisition of delayed static images 2-4 hr later. A high degree of correlation (r = .99) was seen between the 1-3-min differential function obtained by using Tc-DTPA and the 2-4-hr delayed differential function obtained by using Tc-GH. This study shows that Tc-GH is a clinically useful and valid tool for calculation of differential renal function and that Tc-GH combines many of the best aspects of Tc-DTPA and Tc-DMSA.

  17. Evaluation of bone-marrow scanning with technetium-99m sulfur colloid in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A R; Oseas, R S; Wellman, H N; Doerr, D R; Baehner, R L

    1979-05-01

    Eighty-six technetium-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) bone-marrow scans in 56 pediatric oncology patients were reviewed. The distribution of the sulfur colloid was similar to that in adult bone marrow in normal children older than 10 yr, and involved progressively more marrow of the extremities in normal children under 10 years of age. After irradiation or chemotherapy there was an extension of the Tc-SC to peripheral marrow sites. There was also diminished uptake of the tracer in sites corresponding to irradiated areas. In most patients there was recovery of these defects by 6 mo after completion of therapy. Tumor replacement of the marrow was reflected in the scans, and the extent of the scan defect paralleled the course of the disease. In four patients, despite normal bone scans and radiographs, marrow-scan abnormalities due to tumor replacement were present and confirmed by needle aspiration and/or biopsy. In two other patients, the marrow-scan abnormality preceded radiographic and histologic evidence of tumor metastasis. Two patients who responded clinically showed persistent defects; biopsy in one revealed fibrosis. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid bone-marrow scanning appears to be a sensitive monitor of marrow alteration caused by metastases, irradiation damage, or tissue fibrosis in children receiving treatment for cancer.

  18. Evaluation of kidney repair capacity using 99mTc-DMSA in ischemia/reperfusion injury models.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Wonjung; Jang, Hee-Seong; Belay, Takele; Kim, Jinu; Ha, Yeong Su; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae; Park, Kwon Moo; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative (99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake was studied in different renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) mice models for the assessment of renal repair capacity. Mice models of nephrectomy, uni- and bi-lateral I/R together with sham-operated mice were established. At 1h, 1d, 4d, 1, 2 and 3 wk after I/R, (99m)Tc-DMSA (27.7 ± 1.3 MBq) was injected via tail vein and after 3h post-injection, the mice were scanned for 30 min with pinhole equipped gamma camera. Higher uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was measured in normal kidneys of uni-lateral I/R model and nephrectomized kidney I/R model at 3 wk post-surgery. Comparing the restoration capacities of the affected kidneys of nephrectomy, uni- and bi-lateral I/R models, higher repair capacity was observed in the nephrectomized model followed by bi-lateral then uni-lateral models. The normal kidney may retard the restoration of damaged kidney in uni-lateral I/R model. Moreover, 3 wk after Uni-I/R, the size of injured kidney was significantly smaller than non-ischemic contralateral and sham operated kidneys, while nephrectomy I/R kidneys were significantly enlarged compared to all others at 3 wk post-surgery. Very strong correlation between (99m)Tc-DMSA uptake and weight of dissected kidneys in I/R models was observed. Consistent with (99m)Tc-DMSA uptake results, all histological results indicate that kidney recovery after injury is correlated with the amount of intact tubules and kidney sizes. In summary, our study showed good potentials of (99m)Tc-DMSA scan as a promising non-invasive method for evaluation of kidney restoration after I/R injuries. Interestingly, mice with Bi-I/R injury showed faster repair capacity than those with uni-I/R.

  19. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  20. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

  1. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

  2. Technetium-99m and rhenium-188 complexes with one and two pendant bisphosphonate groups for imaging arterial calcification.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Jayanta Kumar; Berry, David; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sunassee, Kavitha; de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Shanahan, Catherine; Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    The first (99m)Tc and (188)Re complexes containing two pendant bisphosphonate groups have been synthesised, based on the mononuclear M(v) nitride core with two dithiocarbamate ligands each with a pendant bisphosphonate. The structural identity of the (99)Tc and stable rhenium analogues as uncharged, mononuclear nitridobis(dithiocarbamate) complexes was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The (99m)Tc complex showed greater affinity for synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite, and greater stability in biological media, than the well-known but poorly-characterised and inhomogeneous bone imaging agent (99m)Tc-MDP. It gave excellent SPECT images of both bone calcification (mice and rats) and vascular calcification (rat model), but the improved stability and the availability of two pendant bisphosphonate groups conferred no dramatic advantage in imaging over the conventional (99m)Tc-MDP agent in which the bisphosphonate group is bound directly to Tc. The (188)Re complex also showed preferential uptake in bone. These tracers and the biological model of vascular calcification offer the opportunity to study the biological interpretation and clinical potential of radionuclide imaging of vascular calcification and to deliver radionuclide therapy to bone metastases.

  3. A technique using {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for radiotherapy treatment planning for liver cancers or metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Sui; Jacob, Rojymon; Bender, Luvenia W.; Duan, Jun; Spencer, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Radiotherapy or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) requires a sufficient functional liver volume to tolerate the treatment. The current study extended the work of de Graaf et al. (2010) [3] on the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin imaging for presurgery planning to radiotherapy planning for liver cancer or metastases. Patient was immobilized and imaged in an identical position on a single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) system and a radiotherapy simulation CT system. {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT was registered to the planning CT through image registration of noncontrast CT from SPECT-CT system to the radiotherapy planning CT. The voxels with higher uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin were transferred to the planning CT as an avoidance structure in optimizing a 2-arc RapidArc plan for SBRT delivery. Excellent dose coverage to the target and sparing of the healthy remnant liver volume was achieved. This report illustrated a procedure for the use of {sup 99m}Tc-mebrofenin SPECT for optimizing radiotherapy for liver cancers and metastases.

  4. Preparation of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 with high labeling yield in boiling water bath: a new formulation.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    A new formulation for preparation of (99m)Tc-labeled tropane derivative, (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1, which is useful as a potential CNS dopamine transporter imaging agent, was evaluated and characterized. Preparation of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was attained previously by a formulation in which vial has to be autoclaved at 121 °C for 30 min. It is highly desirable to further improve the preparation method by developing a simplified one vial formulation which will be labeled in boiling water bath (95 °C) for 15 min and a high labeling yield will be achieved. A formulation contained 10 μg of TRODAT-1, 20 μg tricine, 40 μg SnCl2 and 20mg manitol was prepared. Labeling was performed at 95 °C for 15 min and radiochemical analysis involved ITLC and HPLC methods. The stability of radioconjugate was checked in the presence of human serum at 37 °C up to 24h. (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was prepared with a radiochemical purity of more than 95% and specific activity of 64.3 MBq/nmol. Biodistribution studies of this new formulation in rats revealed similar regional brain distribution as compared with those obtained with the previous preparation in which brain uptake was high in striatum and striatum to cerebellum ratio was high. Requiring no autoclave facility for labeling, this new formulation will significantly improve the using feasibility of this radiopharmaceutical in clinic.

  5. Compression type stress fracture of femoral neck with equivocal X-ray features diagnosed on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT in a case of trivial hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Vitalkar, Saurabh; Manglunia, Ashmi S.; Kulkarni, Arvind; Puranik, Ameya D.

    2016-01-01

    Stress insufficiency fracture is usually diagnosed clinically and on the basis of routine X-ray imaging findings. However, the absence of any known predisposing factors and negative or occult radiographic findings pose diagnostic challenges. We report the case of an elderly male patient who presented with a chief complaint of trivial left hip pain and with equivocal radiographic findings. Triphasic 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography helped in arriving at the diagnosis of stress insufficiency fracture involving femoral neck. PMID:27385898

  6. Gated technetium-99m methoxy-isobutylisonitrile perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Avery, P G; Hudson, N M; Hubner, P J

    1992-05-01

    Technetium-99m methoxy-isobutylisonitrile, has been shown to be a useful perfusion agent for detecting coronary artery disease. Gated acquisition of perfusion images may remove motion artefact and improve detection. We compared the results of sensitivity and specificity for detecting coronary artery disease using perfusion images from the whole cardiac cycle (ungated) or from end-diastolic (gated) frames in 46 subjects, 31 with significant coronary disease and 15 with normal coronary arteries. There was no significant difference in detection of patients with coronary disease between the ungated and end-diastolic images: 25/31 with the ungated image and 28/31 with the end-diastolic. An improvement was made in detecting defects in the left anterior descending artery territory: 17/20 with the end-diastolic vs 11/20 with the ungated image (P less than 0.05) and in the right coronary artery region: 16/21 vs 10/21 (P less than 0.05), with an overall improvement in detecting regions supplied by stenosed coronary arteries: 45/55 end-diastolic vs 31/55 ungated (P less than 0.01). These results suggest use of the end-diastolic frame can significantly enhance the diagnostic capacity of methoxy-isobutylisonitrile perfusion imaging.

  7. Fractionated elution using the TEKCIS technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Jonathan; De Mil, Rémy; Peyronnet, Damien; Hecquard, Claudine; Agostini, Denis; Lemonnier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The TEKCIS technetium-99m (Tc) generator was designed to allow dry column shipment and automatized conception. A high Tc radioactive concentration is required in a subset of radiopharmacy procedures. Fractionated elution can be a useful tool to meet this requirement, especially when current elution is close to the generator expiration date. The aim of our study was to assess TEKCIS generator elution kinetics and to determine the optimal fractionated elution time to fit with procedures requiring the highest Tc radioactive concentration in clinical use. After duplicate elution at several predetermined elution times, the volume and activity of each eluate were measured. Two optimal time points were selected to perform fractionated elution and repeatability (n=34 and 33) assessed on TEKCIS generators calibrated at 6 or 8 GBq. The complete eluate volume (5 ml) was collected after 60 s of elution. A logarithmic equation was established between eluate volume (v, ml) from elapsed elution time (t, s): v=1.8335ln(t)-2.5965. Using the reciprocal equation, elution times required to obtain some commonly eluted volumes were calculated. Fractionated elutions during 15 and 20 s were selected and an average elution volume from 2.74 to 3.27 ml was collected, with an average elution yield of approximately 90 and 100%, respectively. Our work provides a simple and reliable methodology for the use of fractionated elution with the new TEKCIS generator.

  8. Biological in vitro and in vivo studies of a series of new asymmetrical cationic [99mTc(N)(DTC-Ln)(PNP)]+ complex (DTC-Ln = alicyclic dithiocarbamate and PNP = diphosphinoamine).

    PubMed

    Bolzati, Cristina; Cavazza-Ceccato, Mario; Agostini, Stefania; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Yamamichi, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Shinji; Carta, Davide; Salvarese, Nicola; Bernardini, Daniele; Bandoli, Giuliano

    2010-05-19

    (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 is a cationic mixed compound under clinical investigation as potential myocardial imaging agent. In spite of this, analogously to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents, presents a relatively low first-pass extraction. Thus, modification of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) direct to increase its first-pass extraction keeping unaltered the favorable imaging properties would be desirable. This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel cationic (99m)Tc-nitrido complexes, of general formula [(99m)TcN(DTC-Ln)(PNP)](+) (DTC-Ln= alicyclic dithiocarbamates; PNP = diphosphinoamine), as potential radiotracers for myocardial perfusion imaging. The synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-(N)-complexes were accomplished in two steps. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats and compared with the distribution profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi. The metabolisms of the most promising compounds were evaluated by HPLC methods. Biological studies revealed that most of the complexes have a high initial and persistent heart uptake with rapid clearance from nontarget tissues. Among tested compounds, 2 and 12 showed improved heart uptake with respect to the gold standard (99m)Tc-complexes with favorable heart-to-liver and slightly lower heart-to-lung ratios. Chromatographic profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-radioactivity extracted from tissues and fluids were coincident with the native compound evidencing remarkable in vivo stability of these agents. This study shows that the incorporation of alicyclic dithiocarbamate in the [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP)](+) building block yields to a significant increase of the heart uptake at early injection point suggesting that the first-pass extraction fraction of these novel complexes may be increased with respect to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents keeping almost unaltered the favorable target/nontarget ratios. PMID:20402465

  9. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1: A novel radioligand for apoptosis imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Quanyong . E-mail: lqyn@sh163.net; Zhang Zhiyong; Wang Fang; Lu Hankui; Guo Yuzhi; Zhu Ruisen

    2005-10-07

    To develop a radiopharmaceutical for apoptosis imaging, Annexin B1, a new Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding protein, was directly radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc. This procedure yields up to 96% of radiochemical purity and higher radiolabeling efficiency. The preparation has been found to be sufficiently stable in vitro. Binding assay with human activated platelets indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1 retained its PS binding activity. Biodistribution in mice revealed that {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1 rapidly cleared from the blood and predominantly accumulated in the kidney. The increase in hepatic uptake in anti-Fas antibody treated mice correlated to histologic evidence of fulminant hepatic apoptosis. These data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-Annexin B1 can be used as a novel radiotracer to detect apoptosis in vivo.

  10. Evaluation of 99mTc-LDL for studying lipoprotein metabolism and imaging atherosclerotic lesions in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhajosula, S.; Ginsberg, H.N.; Badimon, J.J.; Brown, C.; Lipszyc, H.; Fuster, V.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1985-05-01

    Radioiodinated low density lipoprotein (LDL) used for studying LDL kinetics is not suitable for nuclear scintigraphy. /sup 99m/Tc-LDL, (Tc-LDL) with ideal physical imaging characteristics is being evaluated for the noninvasive identification of atherosclerotic lesions. LDL was labeled with Tc-99m and purified by gel chromatography (labeling efficiency 28 +- 8%). Human LDL labeled with Tc-99m and I-131 were injected simultaneously into a normal cynomolgus monkey. The plasma decay curves of the two tracers were identical (T1/2:4.5hrs) indicating that Tc-LDL is stable in plasma and is similar to /sup 131/I-LDL. Gamma camera images obtained at 30 min post injection showed that 40% of the activity of both tracers was in the liver. Over the next 4-8 hours, I-131 activity in the liver diminished and appeared in the lower abdomen and thyroid (representing deiodination) while Tc-99m activity in the liver remained stable indicating higher stability of Tc-LDL within hepatocytes. Tc-LDL (rabbit) was injected into normal rabbits and rabbits fed on an atherogenic 0.5% cholesterol diet for 3 months (ATR). 24 hour images showed significant uptake of Tc-LDL in the aorta of ART only. The isolated aorta from ATR showed Tc-LDL uptake in the lesions identified as ''fatty streaks'' by Sudan IV staining. These results suggest that Tc-LDL is stable in vivo and appears to be an efficient agent to identify sites of normal catabolism of LDL as well as uptake of LDL by fatty vascular lesions.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Preclinical Evaluation of (99m)Tc-Labeled Macrobicyclic and Tricyclic Chelators as Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Tracer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Neelam; Chuttani, Krishna; Mishra, Anil K; Singh, Bachcha

    2016-05-01

    The novel tetraaza macrobicyclic chelator 3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-2,10-dione (TBPD) and pentaaza macrotricyclic chelator 9-oxa-3,6,12,15,21-pentaazatricyclo[15,3,2,1]trieicos-1(21),17,19-triene-2,7,11,16-tetradione (OPTT) were synthesized, characterized, and radiolabeled with (99m)Tc to produce (99m)Tc-TBPD and (99m)Tc-OPTT. These radiolabeled complexes were prepared with high radiolabeling yield, radiochemical purity, and good in vitro stability up to 24 h. The labeling efficiency of (99m)Tc-TBPD and (99m)Tc-OPTT was found 98% and 97%. In vitro serum stability of (99m)Tc-TBPD was found to be 95.2%, while that of (99m)Tc-OPTT 94.2% up to 24 h. Blood kinetics experiments of (99m)Tc-labeled complexes showed biphasic pattern of blood clearance. About 99.57 ± 0.89% activity of (99m)Tc-TBPD and 99.42 ± 0.88% activity of (9m)Tc-OPTT were cleared off blood stream at 24 h postadministration. The biological half-life of (99m) Tc-TBPD was observed: t1/2(F) 1 h 5 min and t1/2(S) 12 h and biological half-life of (99m)Tc-OPTT was observed: t1/2(F) 1 h 10 min and t1/2(S) 9 h 50 min, respectively. The biodistribution studies revealed that maximum uptake of (99m)Tc-TBPD was found in liver, concluded that excretory pathway is hepatobiliary, while that of (99m)Tc-OPTT was renal as well as hepatobiliary. The negligible activity observed in stomach confirming the stability of radiolabeled complex in biological milieu. In vitro cytotoxicity study of TBPD and OPTT did not show any considerable antiproliferative activity against cancer cells of human cervical SW756, HeLa, and glioblastoma U-87, U373 cell lines.

  12. Technetium-99m bone scintigraphy and mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M J; Wastie, M L; Bromige, M; Selwyn, P; Smith, A

    1990-06-01

    Radionuclide skeletal scintigraphy has been successfully used in the assessment of mandibular condylar hyperplasia (condylar hyperplasia) causing mandibular asymmetry to identify the presence of continued active growth in the condylar region. This study reviews 14 cases of mandibular asymmetry and concludes that symmetrical radionuclide uptake in the condylar regions on the bone scintigram excludes a continuing asymmetrical growth focus. Unilateral increased radionuclide uptake may often indicate an abnormally active condylar growth focus but false positive results may be encountered in patients with associated temporo-mandibular joint disease. PMID:2383957

  13. (99m)Tc-Galacto-RGD2: a novel 99mTc-labeled cyclic RGD peptide dimer useful for tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shundong; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Zhou, Yang; Shao, Guoqiang; Valenzuela, Francisco; Sowiński, Paweł; Chauhan, Satendra; Pennington, Michael; Liu, Shuang

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to evaluate [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-Galacto-RGD2)(tricine)(TPPTS)] ((99m)Tc-Galacto-RGD2: HYNIC = 6-hydrazinonicotinyl; Galacto-RGD2 = Glu[cyclo[Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys(SAA-PEG2-(1,2,3-triazole)-1-yl-4-methylamide)

  14. Comparison of the Relative Renal Function Calculated with 99mTc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid and 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Tanju; Yalçin, Hülya; Günay, Emel Ceylan; Özen, Aynur; Özer, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the relative renal functions measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) and technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) in children with renal diseases. Relative renal function of 128 children who applied to three hospitals from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean value measured with 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA were 51.58 ± 14.95 and 51.96 ± 14.99 for the right kidney, 47.87 ± 15.27 and 47.94 ± 15.17 for the left kidney, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the relative renal functions (r = 0.963, P < 0.001). In Bland-Altman plots, the mean difference between two methods was 0.7 and the correlation limits were between 10.1 and-10.8. As a result, although 99mTc-DMSA is accepted as the most reliable method for the determination of relative renal function, 99mTc-DTPA can be another choice for the calculation of relative renal function without a complementary DMSA scan particularly in pediatric patients who require renogram curve and GFR calculations. PMID:25538484

  15. 99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroid surgery planned on the basis of a preoperative combined 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-MIBI and ultrasound imaging protocol.

    PubMed

    Casara, D; Rubello, D; Piotto, A; Pelizzo, M R

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to define the accuracy of a preoperative parathyroid imaging protocol based on the combination of technetium-99m pertechnetate/technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTcO4/ 99mTc-MIBI) scan and neck ultrasound (US) in selecting patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) eligible for a limited neck exploration, and (b) to investigate the potential role of the intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) in radio-guided minimally invasive surgery. 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI subtraction scan was performed by means of potassium perchlorate administration with the aim of effecting rapid 99mTcO4 wash-out from the thyroid. Minimally invasive surgery using an IGP was commenced some minutes following the injection of a low, 70 MBq, 99mTc-MIBI dose. Intraoperative PTH (i-PTH) was measured. On the basis of preoperative imaging, 21 pHPT consecutive patients were selected for a limited neck dissection. In 18 of them, a single parathyroid adenoma was found at surgery and IGP allowed performance of parathyroidectomy through a small, 2-2.5 cm, skin incision with a relatively short surgical duration (mean 38 min). i-PTH rapidly normalised in all cases. In two patients, a parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed at surgery; consequently, a wide neck exploration associated with a near-total thyroidectomy was performed. No loco-regional metastatic lesions were found and i-PTH rapidly normalised after carcinoma excision. In one patient, i-PTH remained elevated after removal of the enlarged parathyroid gland which was localised by 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI scan and US. A bilateral exploration was needed to remove a contralateral enlarged parathyroid gland. Combined, 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI scan and US imaging correctly localised a single parathyroid gland in 20/21 patients (95.2%); thus, this protocol appears to be accurate enough for the preoperative selection of pHPT patients eligible for limited neck surgery. Moreover, in these selected patients the IGP seems to be helpful in

  16. Biodistribution of TC-99m sestamibi in rats utilizing whole-body autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, M.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Arora, J.

    1994-05-01

    Current biodistribution models for Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) rely on gross imaging methods via Anger camera or at best, excision of animal tissue and counting tissue samples. These methods do not allow for detection of intra-organ inhomogeneities and small accumulations of activity are often treated as nonspecific background. The goal of this work was to examine the biodistribution of MIBI using whole-body autoradiography to obtain very detailed activity distribution information. Four anesthetized albino rats (300 g {plus_minus}10 g ) were injected into a dorsal metatarsal vein with an average of 333 MBq MIBI. One rat each was sacrificed at 5, 20, 60 and 180 minutes post-injection. Animals were embedded, frozen and slices (50-100 {mu}m thick) were obtained using a PMV-2250 macro-cryo-microtome and autoradiographs were made of slices. Cardiac uptake remained consistently high at all time points. All muscular areas exhibited uptake, including the diaphragm and GI tract wells. Significant MIBI uptake was observed in many different glands, including the submaxillary, suprarenal, thymus, lacrimal, harderian and thyroid. Pancreatic uptake was observed at each time. MIBI cleared from the liver and spleen quickly, with significant activity in the bowel at 5 minutes. High small bowel content activity was observed at all time points. The contents of the distal stomach and colon accumulated activity in all but the 5 minute studies. Clearance from the kidneys occurred between 1 and 3 hours, although kidney activity remained similar to the heart at 3 hours. Bladder activity was observed as early as 20 minutes, with the highest at the 3 hour time point. Very slight testicular uptake was observed in the epidydmis and wall of the scrotal sac. Although these autoradiographs confirm existing kinetics, they provide a unique, high-resolution record of previously unknown MIBI deposition areas such as the pancreas and GI tract lining.

  17. [Dual isotope myocardial scintigraphy (201thallium at rest/99 M technetium tetrofosmin with exercise) in the detection of reversible hypoperfusion].

    PubMed

    Peix González, A; López Díaz, A; Ponce Vicente, F; Maltas Pineda, A M; García Fernández, R; Barrera Sarduy, J D; García Barreto, D

    2000-02-01

    The dual-isotope technique (rest 201Tl and stress 99mTc-sestamibi) is useful to assess myocardial perfusion in coronary disease patients. 99mTc-labeled tetrofosmin is a radiopharmaceutical whose characteristics are similar to sestamibi. Thus, we decided to use it to detect reversible myocardial hypoperfusion in patients with a background of myocardial infarction and ischemia. A sequential dual-isotope scintigraphy (3 mCi rest 201Tl and 25 mCi stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin) with 24-hour 201Tl redistribution (RD) was performed in 20 patients with previously confirmed myocardial infarction and clinical and ergometric signs of ischemia. Each patient also underwent a stress-redistribution protocol with redistribution at 4 and 24 hours post injection with 201Tl scintigraphy within two weeks of the first study. The qualitative uptake analysis showed no significant differences in the number of myocardial segments with severe reduction of tracer uptake on stress that improved at rest or in RD images, even if 24-hour RD images were considered. The quantitative global uptake analysis showed a similar defect reversibility with both protocols; however if 24-hour RD images were considered the uptake improvement was significant only when compared with the rest 201Tl images in dual-isotope scintigraphy protocol (75+/-8% vs. 81+/-9% of peak activity, rest vs. 24-hour RD; p<0.01) and not when compared with the 4-hour RD in the 201Tl scintigraphy. On the other hand, when only the segments with severely reduced uptake (<50% of peak activity) were analyzed, the 24-hour RD improved myocardial uptake significantly (p<0.001 vs. rest and vs 4-hour RD) in both protocols. We conclude that a sequential dual-isotope rest 201Tl/stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin scintigraphy is comparable with stress-redistribution 201Tl scintigraphy to detect reversible myocardial hypoperfusion; however in both cases, the addition of 24-hour images increases its usefulness in severely hypoperfused segments, if the uptake of

  18. Preparation and evaluation of a /sup 99m/Tc-SnF2 colloid kit for leukocyte labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, J.I.; Tatum, J.L.; Fratkin, M.J.; Apostolides, D.L.; Quint, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    Stannous fluoride colloid (SFC) kits for instant radiolabeling with 99mTc were prepared and evaluated for suitability as a leukocyte radiolabeling agent. Technetium-99m labeling for kits stored at -15/degree/C for up to 3 mo was greater than 95% as determined by instant thin layer chromatography while colloid particles of 1-3 microns were measured by electron microscope for these preparations. Canine leukocyte preparations labeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)SFC and characterized by triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma demonstrated an 83% leukocyte association. Analysis of labeled cell preparation for up to 3 hr demonstrated label stability. Labeled leukocytes, when readministered in normal dogs, demonstrated bi-exponential blood clearance with uptake and subsequent clearance from lung. There was increasing uptake of labeled leukocytes by the liver until steady state was achieved. Furthermore, when whole blood samples were analyzed by the triple density gradient method, an increasing monocyte-to-granulocyte ratio was observed to occur with time. By 3 hr 95% of the whole blood activity was associated with the leukocyte fraction. Dogs in which a 24-hr sterile abscess was created demonstrated elevated blood-pool activity as compared to control with localization of the labeled cells at inflammatory sites within 3 hr following cell readministration.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of a 99mTc-SnF2 colloid kit for leukocyte labeling.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, J I; Tatum, J L; Fratkin, M J; Apostolides, D L; Quint, R I

    1989-07-01

    Stannous fluoride colloid (SFC) kits for instant radiolabeling with 99mTc were prepared and evaluated for suitability as a leukocyte radiolabeling agent. Technetium-99m labeling for kits stored at -15 degrees C for up to 3 mo was greater than 95% as determined by instant thin layer chromatography while colloid particles of 1-3 microns were measured by electron microscope for these preparations. Canine leukocyte preparations labeled with [99mTc]SFC and characterized by triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma demonstrated an 83% leukocyte association. Analysis of labeled cell preparation for up to 3 hr demonstrated label stability. Labeled leukocytes, when readministered in normal dogs, demonstrated bi-exponential blood clearance with uptake and subsequent clearance from lung. There was increasing uptake of labeled leukocytes by the liver until steady state was achieved. Furthermore, when whole blood samples were analyzed by the triple density gradient method, an increasing monocyte-to-granulocyte ratio was observed to occur with time. By 3 hr 95% of the whole blood activity was associated with the leukocyte fraction. Dogs in which a 24-hr sterile abscess was created demonstrated elevated blood-pool activity as compared to control with localization of the labeled cells at inflammatory sites within 3 hr following cell readministration.

  20. Effect of captopril on 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renograms in two-kidney, one clip hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Nally, J.V. Jr.; Clarke, H.S. Jr.; Grecos, G.P.; Saunders, M.; Gross, M.L.; Potvin, W.J.; Windham, J.P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to improve on the noninvasive detection of renal artery stenosis, we investigated the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on computer-assisted /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal flow studies in a canine model of two-kidney, one clip hypertension and compared these findings with clearances of inulin and p-aminohippuric acid in the stenotic and contralateral kidney before and after converting enzyme inhibition. The /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renal flow study with the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1.5 mg/kg bolus with 1.5 mg/min infusion) showed an increased sensitivity in the detection of unilateral renal artery stenosis over the use of the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study alone. Captopril induced striking alterations that were most evident in the 15-minute /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA renal flow study, in which all nine curves exhibited severely blunted uptake and excretion of the radionuclide. These changes were reversed during a recovery study without converting enzyme inhibition and were not seen when blood pressure was lowered with nitroprusside to a level similar to that observed during converting enzyme inhibition. The changes shown by the /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA study during converting enzyme inhibition correlated with a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate of the stenotic kidney. Captopril infusion significantly decreased the glomerular filtration rate of the stenotic kidney (16.0 +/- 3.1 vs 11.0 +/- 2.5 mg/min, p less than 0.03) but not of the contralateral kidney (32.4 +/- 2.6 vs 28.4 +/- 2.8 mg/min).

  1. Technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging for detecting prosthetic joint infection in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Wang, Feng; Hou, Yanjie; Lu, Shanshan; Tian, Wei; Xu, Yan; Jin, Chengzhe; Wang, Liming

    2015-05-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is essential to initiate early treatment and achieve a favorable outcome. In this study, we used a rabbit model to assess the feasibility of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V for detecting prosthetic joint infection. Right knee arthroplasty was performed on 24 New Zealand rabbits. After surgery, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was intra-articularly injected to create a model of prosthetic joint infection (the infected group, n = 12). Rabbits in the control group were injected with sterile saline (n = 12). Seven and 21 days after surgery, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging was performed in 6 rabbits of each group. Images were acquired 1 and 4 hours after injection of technetium-99m-labeled annexin V (150 MBq). The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios were calculated for quantitative analysis. Seven days after surgery, increased technetium-99m-labeled annexin V uptake was observed in all cases. However, at 21 days a notable decrease was found in the control group, but not in the infected group. The operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the infected group were 1.84 ± 0.29 in the early phase and 2.19 ± 0.34 in the delay phase, both of which were significantly higher than those of the control group (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02). The receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that the operated-to-normal-knee activity ratios of the delay phase at 21 days was the best indicator, with an accuracy of 80%. In conclusion, technetium-99m-labeled annexin V imaging could effectively distinguish an infected prosthetic joint from an uninfected prosthetic joint in a rabbit model.

  2. The Development of Diphosphonates as Significant Health Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Marion D.; Centner, Rosemary L.

    1978-01-01

    The historical development of the use of diphosphonates in detergents is presented as well as physical chemistry, physiological response, toxicology, and human clinical trials with these compounds. (BB)

  3. Newly designed Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: An agent of high accuracy for the diagnosis of head and neck and soft tissue tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, K.; Ohta, H.; Sakahara, H.; Nakashima, T.; Masuda, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, interest has been focused on the design of (+5) oxidation state Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) as a tumor seeking agent. This Tc(V)-99m DMSA holding a TcO/sup 3-//sub 4/ core, alike PO/sup 3-//sub 4/, with competent characteristics for tumor uptake, had a different distribution behavior from the well-known renal scanning agent; Tc(III)-99m DMSA. Basic studies, carried out in vitro and in vivo with Ehrlich tumor cells or bearing mice, clearly substantiated its great potentiality for clinical use. Therefore, 193 untreated patients with histologically proven diagnosis (132 malignant and 61 benign tumors) were evaluated. In 53 primary head and neck tumor (mainly squamous cell carcinomas and plemorphic adenomas or abscess), its sensitivity and specificity was 78% and 87%, as opposed to Ga-67 citrate of 85% and 51% respectively. In 18 malignant soft tissue tumors, all but one (94%) showed significant uptake of Tc(V)-99m DMSA, while Ga-67 was positive in only 60% of these cases. The specificity of both agents was 74% and 86%, respectively. However in lung and abdominal tumors, lymphomas, melanomas and inflammatory lesions, the sensitivity was poor of less than 40%. Also negative were scans in most thyroid cancers, however, 5 patients with medullary thyroid cancers, were all positive with Tc(V)-99m DMSA and was useful follow patients after surgery. Thus, a different uptake mechanism for this agent could be visualized. The authors conclude that Tc(V)-99m DMSA provided a good basis for its clinical application as a tumor imaging agent, mainly in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, medullary thyroid cancers and soft tissue tumors.

  4. Radio-UHPLC: a tool for rapidly determining the radiochemical purity of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals?

    PubMed

    Kryza, David; Janier, Marc

    2013-08-01

    Determining the radiochemical purity (RCP) of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiopharmaceuticals using the method described in the package insert is a time-consuming process, requiring particular attention in order to achieve accurate RCP results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether radio-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (radio-UHPLC) may be an alternative method for RCP testing of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, (99m)Tc-MAG3 and (99m)Tc-sestamibi. Results obtained using radio-UHPLC were in excellent agreement with the standard method, with total analysis time being reduced to less than 3 min.

  5. [99mTc-MIBI myocardial tomography with intravenous infusion of adenosine triphosphate in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Kumano, S

    1996-02-01

    To evaluate its feasibility, safety and diagnostic accuracy, 99mTc-MIBI myocardial tomography with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion (0.16 mg/kg/min for 5 min) was performed 100 consecutive patients using the stress/rest one day protocol. None of the patients required treatment with aminophylline during the study. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting patients with coronary artery disease were 97% and 71%, respectively. Those for detecting individual coronary lesion (> or = 75% stenosis) were 92% and 89%, respectively. The high hepatic uptake of 99mTc-MIBI causes artifactual perfusion defects in the inferior myocardial wall, particularly on ATP stress images. In order to reduce this artifactual phenomenon, the interval time between injection and stress imaging must be increased. PMID:8721103

  6. Cyclotron production of NCA 99mTc and 99Mo. An alternative non-reactor supply source of instant 99mTc and 99Mo----99mTc generators.

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Solar, M C; Kiefer, P M; Carvacho, O F; Lagunas, C A; Cha, Y P

    1991-01-01

    The direct production of no-carrier-added (NCA) 6.02 h 99mTc and of 66 h 99mMo using proton beams of natural Mo targets was investigated. The major objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of utilizing high-intensity proton accelerators as a supply source of 99mTc and 99Mo for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The excitation functions for the production of the directly-made 99mTc via the 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc (Q = -7.85 MeV) reaction, and of its parent 99Mo via the 100Mo(p, pn) 99Mo (Q = -8.30 MeV) and 100Mo(p, 2p)99mNb(15 s)----99Mo (Q = -11.14 MeV) reactions, were measured in the 68-8 MeV energy range. Single and cumulative yields for 99mTc and 99Mo, and for other Tc, Mo, Zr, Nb and Y radiocontaminants were also determined. The prospects of integrating the use of enriched 100Mo targets with high-intensity, dual beam, H- accelerators was analyzed. The potential of this combined method to replace or complement the current reactor-based supply sources of 99Mo----99mTc generators, is also discussed. Finally, a brief analysis is made on the potential use of this combined technology to support the anticipated expansion of nuclear medicine in developing nations.

  7. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We have shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  8. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We hve shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/Tc/sub 4/-. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  9. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    PubMed

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant.

  10. [Quantification of separate renal function using Tc 99m DTPA and Tc 99m DMSA. Correlations between individual isotopic data and creatinine clearance].

    PubMed

    Chevet, D; Moisan, A; Le Pogamp, P; Le Cloirec, J; Wehbe, B; Herry, J Y

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study (30 controls and 100 renal patients) is to compare one to each other the values of renal function measured with: 1--the DTPA 99mTc , 2--the DMSA 99mTc , and 3--the creatinine clearance. After the control values being established, correlations are done for the whole group (n = 130) between the creatinine clearance, the DTPA 99mTc clearance and the fixation rate of the DMSA 99mTc . The correlations obtained are:--Clcr Versus Cldtpa = 0,91.--Clcr Versus % Dmsa = 0,90. - Cldtpa Versus % Dmsa = 0,93. and indicate the two isotopic tests performed give similar quantitative results than creatinine clearance. Camera and computer allow to measure the separate renal function one by one, the two isotopic test giving similar values for each kidney. The results of these studies give a good concordance with the observed diseases, except for partial renal artery stenosis. The pyelic retention of DMSA 99mTc product, in condition of ureteral compression, gives a potential overestimation of this test and is a matter to debate. The extreme simplicity and facility of DMSA 99mTc procedures make this investigation accessible to any patient and give excellent morphological and functional tests. DTPA 99mTc clearances--global and separate kidney--give a more sensitive approach than DMSA 99mTc does because vascular captation , elimination rates could be focused. DTPA 99mTc procedure is to be used in patients with transplanted kidney, silent IVP kidney, contrast media contraindication or for exploring glomerular clearance without urine collection.

  11. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on the in vivo disposition of the brain imaging radiopharmaceutical 99mTechnetium ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD).

    PubMed

    Oliver, D W; Dormehl, I C; Louw, W; Kilian, E; de Beco, V; Morretti, J L

    2000-08-01

    The brain imaging radiopharmaceutical, 99mTechnetium ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD, 99mTc-bicisate) is the most recent addition to the available set of radiopharmaceuticals for measuring cerebral blood flow. Ideally radiotracers should be trapped in the brain long enough so that their distribution can be quantitated and should demonstrate good spatial resolution. Furthermore, the stability (chemical and metabolic) and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals have in general proved to be a challenge during development and clinical administration. In view of these challenges and background, this study with 99mTc-ECD is presented. The aims of this research program were to develop novel approaches to improve the chemical and metabolic stability and the bioavailability of 99mTc-ECD across the blood brain barrier for cerebral blood flow determinations, using the well known non-human primate in vivo baboon model. These aims were addressed by investigating the influence of cyclodextrin--99mTc-ECD complexation on normal cerebral blood flow patterns, using two different cyclodextrins, i.e., gamma-cyclodextrin (CAS 17465-86-0) and beta-trimethylcyclodextrin (CAS 55216-11-0). The effect of incubation of 99mTc-ECD (with or without cyclodextrin complexation) in plasma, on metabolic esterase action, was also investigated. Possible protection against plasma esterase by acetylcholine (CAS 51-84-3) of 99mTc-ECD was further determined. The current study has shown that cyclodextrin complexation of 99mTc-ECD indeed offers a useful approach to improve the stability of the radiopharmaceutical against peripheral metabolism. The acetylcholine shows also potential to protect 99mTc-ECD. However, it is clear from the current data that the choice of cyclodextrin is of utmost importance, as has been observed from significantly reduced the bioavailability of 99mTc-ECD when complexed with beta-trimethylcyclodextrin. The plasma incubation procedures showed that gamma-cyclodextrin offers

  12. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes.

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and biodistribution studies of (99m)Tc-labeled SBA-16 mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Barros, André Luís Branco; de Oliveira Ferraz, Karina Silva; Dantas, Thais Cristina Soares; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros de

    2015-11-01

    Along with anti-cancer drug delivery researches, many efforts have been done to develop new tracers for diagnostic applications. Based on advances in molecular imaging, nanoparticles can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological process at molecular and cellular level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to synthesize, characterize and radiolabeled mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) for in vivo applications. The nanoparticles were synthesized, functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and then, anchored with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). Particles were physicochemical characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and zeta potential, and were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Results indicate that functionalization process was successfully achieved. Next, functionalized silica nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m showing high radiochemical yields and high radiolabeled stability. These findings allow the use of the particles for in vivo applications. Biodistribution and scintigraphic images were carried out in healthy mice in order to determine the fate of the particles. Results from in vivo experiments showed high uptake by liver, as expected due to phagocytosis. However, particles also showed a significant uptake in the lungs, indicated by high lung-to-non-target tissue ratio. In summary, taking into account the great potential of these silica mesoporous structures to carry molecules this platform could be a good strategy for theranostic purposes. PMID:26249579

  14. Assessment of systolic wall thickening using technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to thallium-201 scintigraphy with re-injection.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, E; Cuocolo, A; Pace, L; Maurea, S; Nappi, A; Imbriaco, M; Morisco, C; Argenziano, L; Salvatore, M

    1995-09-01

    The results of resting planar ECG-gated technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) imaging were compared with those of thallium-201 (Tl) re-injection after exercise-redistribution scintigraphy in 20 patients (19 men, 1 woman, mean age 53 +/- 10 years) with angiographically proven coronary artery disease. Eight normal subjects (seven men, one woman, mean age 50 +/- 8 years) constituted the control group. In these subjects, only resting 99mTc-MIBI imaging was performed. The standardized percent count increase from end-diastole to end-systole was calculated as an index of wall thickening in 13 segments for each study. Regional wall thickening index (WTI) and 99mTc-MIBI uptake were significantly different (P < 0.05) among segments classified as normal, reversible defects, irreversible defects with increased tracer uptake after re-injection (Re+) or irreversible defects with unchanged tracer uptake after re-injection (Re-) on Tl imaging. Furthermore, WTI and 99mTc-MIBI uptake were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Re- segments with moderate reduction of Tl uptake (> or = 50% of peak activity) than in Re- segments with severe reduction of Tl uptake (< 50% of peak activity). A significant relationship between WTI and the results of Tl scintigraphy was observed (rho = 0.71, P < 0.0001). The percentage of Re- segments with severe reduction of WTI was significantly higher compared to Re+ segments (64% vs 3%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, compared with moderate Re- segments, a significantly higher percentage of severe Re- segments showed a severe reduction of WTI (86% vs 48%, P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Plasma protein binding of (99m)Tc-labeled hydrazino nicotinamide derivatized polypeptides and peptides.

    PubMed

    Ono, M; Arano, Y; Mukai, T; Uehara, T; Fujioka, Y; Ogawa, K; Namba, S; Nakayama, M; Saga, T; Konishi, J; Horiuchi, K; Yokoyama, A; Saji, H

    2001-02-01

    6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) constitutes one of the most attractive reagents to prepare (99m)Tc-labeled polypeptides and peptides of various molecular weights in combination with two tricine molecules as coligands. Indeed, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-conjugated IgG showed biodistribution of radioactivity similar to that of (111)In-DTPA-conjugated IgG. However, recent studies indicated significant plasma protein binding when the (99m)Tc labeling procedure was expanded to low molecular weight peptides. In this study, pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-conjugated IgG, Fab and RC160 using tricine were compared with their radioiodinated counterparts to evaluate this (99m)Tc-labeling method. In mice, [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-IgG)(tricine)(2) and [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(2) showed persistent localization of radioactivity in tissues when compared with their (125)I-labeled counterparts. [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-IgG)(tricine)(2) eliminated from the blood at a rate similar to that of (125)I-labeled IgG, while [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(2) showed significantly slower clearance of the radioactivity than (125)I-labeled Fab. On size-exclusion HPLC analyses, little changes were observed in radiochromatograms after incubation of [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-IgG)(tricine)(2) in murine plasma. However, [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(2) and [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(2) demonstrated significant increases in the radioactivity in higher molecular weight fractions in plasma. Formation of higher molecular weight species was reduced when [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(2) was stabilized with nicotinic acid (NIC) to generate [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(NIC). [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(NIC) also demonstrated significantly faster clearance of the radioactivity from the blood than [(99m)Tc](HYNIC-RC160)(tricine)(2). These findings suggested that one of the tricine coligands in (99m)Tc-HYNIC-labeled (poly)peptides would be replaced with plasma proteins to generate higher molecular weight species that

  16. {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals for brain perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, E.; Volkert, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    It is well established that small, neutral, lipophilic technetium complexes can diffuse into the brain and then be trapped intracellularly by a variety of mechanisms. A more detailed understanding of the structural and chemical parameters which promote efficient diffusion into the brain, and which underlie the trapping mechanisms, will be necessary to delineate the clinical relevance of current agents, and to design improved technetium 99 pharmaceuticals. Current technetium 99 brain-perfusion imaging agents do not show ideal characteristics of brain uptake and retention. Furthermore, significant fractions of the technetium 99 complexes are lost between site of injection and the brain. Thus, it is difficult to use these current agents to quantitate regional cerebral blood flow. Nevertheless, these agents are proving extremely valuable for the SPECT evaluation of abnormalities in brain perfusion patients with neurological disorders.

  17. Characterization of technetium-99m-L,L-ECD for brain perfusion imaging, Part 1: Pharmacology of technetium-99m ECD in nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Walovitch, R.C.; Hill, T.C.; Garrity, S.T.; Cheesman, E.H.; Burgess, B.A.; O'Leary, D.H.; Watson, A.D.; Ganey, M.V.; Morgan, R.A.; Williams, S.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (({sup 99m}Tc)ECD) is a neutral, lipophilic complex which rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier. Brain retention and tissue metabolism of ({sup 99m}Tc)ECD is dependent upon the stereochemical configuration of the complex. While both L,L and D,D enantiomers are extracted by the brain, only the L,L but not the D,D form, is metabolized and retained in the monkey brain (4.7% injected dose initially, T 1/2 greater than 24 hr). Dynamic single photon emission computed tomography imaging studies in one monkey indicates {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD to be distributed in a pattern consistent with regional cerebral blood flow for up to 16 hr postinjection. Dual-labeled {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD and ({sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine autoradiography studies performed 1 hr after administration show cortical gray to white matter ratios of both isotopes to be equivalent (approximately 4-5:1). These data suggest that {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-ECD will be useful for the scintigraphic assessment of cerebral perfusion in humans.

  18. Regional radioactivity discrepancy between Tc-99m GSA and Tc-99m phytate liver scans in a patient with massive hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Akaki, Shiro; Saeki, Mototsugu; Iguchi, Toshihiro; Okumura, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuhei; Kuroda, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Hiraki, Yoshio; Uraoka, Toshio; Baba, Nobuyuki; Sakaguchi, Kosaku

    2002-08-01

    A 22-year-old woman with severe acute hepatitis underwent a Tc-99m galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scan. Intense accumulation was observed in the cephalic region of the right hepatic lobe, whereas the accumulation was reduced in the left lobe and the caudal region of the right lobe. A computed tomographic (CT) scan showed that the left lobe and the caudal region of the right posterior segment had atrophied and become hypodense, which were thought to represent postnecrotic scarring after massive hepatic necrosis. The relatively hyperdense region in the right lobe was slightly swollen and was thought to represent regenerating liver tissue or a "potato liver." Compared with the CT, the regions of elevated Tc-99m GSA accumulation correlated well with the areas of regenerating liver tissue, and the regions with reduced accumulation corresponded closely with the areas of postnecrotic scarring. On a Tc-99m phytate scan, unlike the Tc-99m GSA scan, the radiocolloid accumulation was intense in the left lobe and caudal region of the right lobe and reduced in the cephalic region of the right lobe. Together, the Tc-99m GSA scan and the Tc-99m phytate scan formed a set of exact "nega-posi" images. Biopsy specimens obtained during laparoscopy showed a few hepatocyte columns in the postnecrotic scarred left lobe. Severe disruption of the hepatocytes, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration, and obvious Kupffer cell hypertrophy and clustering were also observed.

  19. Technetium-99m labeled RBC imaging in gastrointestinal bleeding from gastric leiomyoma

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, U.A.; Jhingran, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging is becoming increasingly useful in detecting gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding sites. A patient is presented who had massive GI bleeding from an unsuspected gastric leiomyoma in whom a Tc-99m sulfur colloid GI bleed image was negative. The Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging done on the day after sulfur colloid imaging revealed increased gastric activity due to active bleeding from an intragastric leiomyoma. Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging helped in early detection of the bleeding site resulting in its successful treatment. This experience also reinforces the assertion that Tc-99m labeled RBC imaging may be more helpful than Tc-99m sulfur colloid imaging in patients with upper GI or intermittent bleeding.

  20. Possible explanation of appearance of Warthin's tumor on I-123 and Tc-99m-pertechnetate scans

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Weisberger, E.C.

    1981-06-01

    A 71-year old man presented with a parotid mass and a thyroid nodule. An I-123 scan revealed a ''cold'' nodule in the thyroid and uptake of the radioactive iodine in the parotid mass. On a Tc-99m-pertechnetate salivary gland scan, the parotid mass was ''hot'' and did not wash out with sodium perchlorate. At surgery, he was found to have a Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland and an adenomatous goiter. The reasons for the scan appearance of the Warthin's tumor are discussed. Since Warthin's tumors are benign and uptake of radioactive iodine in the extrathyroidal deposits of thyroid carcinoma is rare with the thyroid gland in place, the uptake of iodine by a salivary gland mass probably indicates a benign process.

  1. Glioma residual or recurrence versus radiation necrosis: accuracy of pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT compared to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS): initial results.

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Moustafa, Hosna; Ahmed, Ebaa; El-Toukhy, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    We compared pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) for the detection of residual or recurrent gliomas after surgery and radiotherapy. A total of 24 glioma patients, previously operated upon and treated with radiotherapy, were studied. SPECT was acquired 2-3 h post-administration of 555-740 MBq of Tc-99m (V) DMSA. Lesion to normal (L/N) delayed uptake ratio was calculated as: mean counts of tumor ROI (L)/mean counts of normal mirror symmetric ROI (N). (1)H-MRS was performed using a 1.5-T scanner equipped with a spectroscopy package. SPECT and (1)H-MRS results were compared with pathology or follow-up neuroimaging studies. SPECT and (1)H-MRS showed concordant residue or recurrence in 9/24 (37.5%) patients. Both were true negative in 6/24 (25%) patients. SPECT and (1)H-MRS disagreed in 9 recurrences [7/9 (77.8%) and 2/9 (22.2%) were true positive by SPECT and (1)H-MRS, respectively]. Sensitivity of SPECT and (1)H-MRS in detecting recurrence was 88.8 and 61.1% with accuracies of 91.6 and 70.8%, respectively. A positive association between the delayed L/N ratio and tumor grade was found; the higher the grade, the higher is the L/N ratio (r = 0.62, P = 0.001). Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT is more accurate compared to (1)H-MRS for the detection of tumor residual tissues or recurrence in glioma patients with previous radiotherapy. It allows early and non-invasive differentiation of residual tumor or recurrence from irradiation necrosis.

  2. Early identification of amyloid heart disease by technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy: a study with familial amyloid polyneuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Hongo, M.; Hirayama, J.; Fujii, T.; Yamada, H.; Okubo, S.; Kusama, S.; Ikeda, S.

    1987-03-01

    To determine whether technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) scanning or two-dimensional echocardiography can detect amyloid heart disease in an earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy, 15 patients were examined. Although 10 of the 15 patients had no clinical evidence of congestive heart failure, as well as normal ventricular wall thickness and normal values for left ventricular systolic function, five (50%) of them showed mild or moderate myocardial uptake. On the other hand, none had characteristic highly refractile myocardial echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic images (p less than 0.01), and values for diastolic function were reduced in four of the five and normal in the remaining one. In 85 control subjects, diffuse positive pyrophosphate scans of the heart were found in four (5%) of them (three with dilated cardiomyopathy and one with sarcoidosis), and highly refractile granular sparkling echoes were observed in nine (11%) (five with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, three with aortic stenosis, and one with hypereosinophilic syndrome). We conclude that Tc-99m-PYP scanning is a more sensitive and specific method and may have the potential ability to detect amyloid heart disease in the earlier stage of familial amyloid polyneuropathy than two-dimensional echocardiography.

  3. (99m) Tc-tricabonyl labeling of ofloxacin and its biological evaluation in Staphylococcus aureus as an infection imaging agent.

    PubMed

    Erfani, Mostafa; Doroudi, Alireza; Hadisi, Leila; Andishmand, Ali; Mirshojaei, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Shafiei, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Even in recent decades, one of the major causes of death and unhealthiness in the whole world is infection and inflammation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals is a powerful tool in managing the patients with infectious diseases. In this study, ofloxacin as a second-generation fluoroquinolone has been labeled with [(99m) Tc(CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) core to formulate a suitable infection imaging agent. Ofloxacin was radiolabeled with (99m) Tc using carbonyl core. Radioligand chemical analysis involved HPLC methods. Radioconjugate stability and lipophilicity were determined. Binding with Staphylococcus aureus and biodistribution in infected mice for labeled compound were studied. The radioligand was characterized by HPLC, and its radiochemical purity was more than 90%. In vitro stability studies have shown the complex was stable at least 6 h after labeling at room temperature. The n-octanol/water partition coefficient experiment exhibited logP = 1.52 ± 0.21 for (99m) Tc(CO)3 -ofloxacin. The complex showed specific binding to S. aureus. Biodistribution results showed that radioligand had high accumulation in the infected muscle in a mice (T/NT = 2.02 ± 0.12 at 4 h postinjection). On the basis of stability and infection site uptake ratio, suitability of this complex as a radiotracer for imaging of infections is recognized.

  4. 99mTc-labeled bombesin(7-14)NH2 with favorable properties for SPECT imaging of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiyun; Jia, Bing; Liu, Zhaofei; Yang, Zhi; Yu, Zilin; Chen, Kai; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Fan

    2008-06-01

    In this report, we present the synthesis and evaluation of the (99m)Tc-labeled beta-Ala-BN(7-14)NH2 (ABN = beta-Ala-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-Met-NH2) as a new radiotracer for tumor imaging in the BALB/c nude mice bearing HT-29 human colon cancer xenografts. The gastrin releasing peptide receptor binding affinity of ABN and HYNIC-ABN (6-hydrazinonicotinamide) was assessed via a competitive displacement of (125)I-[Tyr4]BBN bound to the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The IC 50 values were calculated to be 24 +/- 2 nM and 38 +/- 1 nM for ABN and HYNIC-ABN, respectively. HYNIC is the bifunctional coupling agent for (99m)Tc-labeling, while tricine and TPPTS (trisodium triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate) are used as coligands to prepare the ternary ligand complex [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-ABN)(tricine)(TPPTS)] in very high yield and high specific activity. Because of its high hydrophilicity (log P = -2.39 +/- 0.06), [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-ABN)(tricine)(TPPS)] was excreted mainly through the renal route with little radioactivity accumulation in the liver, lungs, stomach, and gastrointestinal tract. The tumor uptake at 30 min postinjection (p.i.) was 1.59 +/- 0.23%ID/g with a steady tumor washout over the 4 h study period. As a result, it had the best T/ B ratios in the blood (2.37 +/- 0.68), liver (1.69 +/- 0.41), and muscle (11.17 +/- 3.32) at 1 h p.i. Most of the injected radioactivity was found in the urine sample at 1 h p.i., and there was no intact [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-ABN)(tricine)(TPPTS)] detectable in the urine, kidney, and liver samples. Its metabolic instability may contribute to its rapid clearance from the liver, lungs, and stomach. Despite the steady radioactivity washout, the tumors could be clearly visualized in planar images of the BALB/c nude mice bearing the HT-29 human colon xenografts at 1 and 4 h p.i. The favorable excretion kinetics from the liver, lungs, stomach, and gastrointestinal tract makes [(99m)Tc(HYNIC-ABN)(tricine)(TPPTS)] a promising SPECT

  5. Calcium balance in children treated with diphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Uttley, W S; Belton, N R; Syme, J; Sheppard, H

    1975-03-01

    Serial mineral balances have been obtained in 3 children undergoing therapy with EHDP (ethane-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate) for diseases involving ectopic calcification. Although clinical outcome was not uniformly satisfactory, all cases showed an overall reduction in calcium balance. This was due to increased faecal excretion of calcium and was most marked after a long duration of therapy. Although these results conflict with reported experience in adults, they are in agreement with published observations of the effects of EHDP on calcium absorption in experimental animals.

  6. 99mTc-DMSA scanning to diagnose pyelonephritic scarring in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, B.A.; Kay, R.; Wasnick, R.J.; Carty, H.

    1983-06-01

    99mTechnetium-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scanning provides superior quality images of renal parenchymal detail, which makes it highly sensitive for the diagnosis of pyelonephritic scarring. Unlike most other imaging techniques, radionuclide scanning is not affected by bowel gas or bony structures overlying the kidneys. This makes it particularly useful in children. Furthermore, renal scarring can be demonstrated by 99mTc-DMSA even before the classic gross anatomic and radiologic changes are present. The use of 99mTc-DMSA scanning in over 300 children has demonstrated its benefits and advantages over standard radiographic techniques.

  7. Pentavalent technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid [Tc-99m (V) DMSA] brain SPECT: does it have a place in predicting survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amr; Mustafa, M; Abd El-Hadi, E; Monier, A; Badwey, A; Saad, E

    2015-01-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99m (V) DMSA) is reported as a useful tool for detection of residual or recurrent gliomas. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 40 patients [21 males and 19 females; mean age 48.6 ± 12.2 years] with GBM were included. Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT was done after surgery and before onset of radiation therapy or chemotherapy (Baseline study), at 4-6 weeks and at 6 months as a follow-up after therapy. The end point of the study was clinical follow-up for 2 years and/or death. 4-6 weeks after therapy, 40 and 60 % had negative and positive Tc-99m (V) DMSA for viable tumor tissues respectively (P = 0.09). At 6 months follow-up, 62.5 % of (V) DMSA negative patients and 12.5 % of the positive subjects were responders (P = 0.001). The median over-all survival (OS) of all patients was 12.3 month [range 5-24 month]. Patients with positive (V) DMSA had worse survival (8.87 month) compared to the negative ones (16.67 month) (P = 0.0001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that Tc-99m (V) DMSA brain SPECT studies at 4-6 weeks and 6-months follow-up were independent prognostic factors for survival [OR 1.069; 95 % CI 1.417-2.174; P = 0.03 and OR 1.055; 95 % CI 0.821-1.186; P = 0.01 respectively]. Stratification of tumors into risk groups based on prognostic parameters may improve outcome by altering or intensifying treatment methods. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid brain SPECT may have an additional prognostic role in patients with GBM which needs further evaluation in larger future series.

  8. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆].

    PubMed

    Faria, D P; Buchpiguel, C A; Marques, F L N

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [(99m)Tc(MIBI)₆]⁺ since impurities such as (99m)Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), (99m)TcO(4)(-) and [(99m)Tc(cysteine)₂]⁻ complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  9. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo.

  10. Diversification of 99Mo/99mTc separation: non–fission reactor production of 99Mo as a strategy for enhancing 99mTc availability.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Maroor R A; Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits of obtaining (99m)Tc from non-fission reactor-produced low-specific-activity (99)Mo. This scenario is based on establishing a diversified chain of facilities for the distribution of (99m)Tc separated from reactor-produced (99)Mo by (n,γ) activation of natural or enriched Mo. Such facilities have expected lower investments than required for the proposed chain of cyclotrons for the production of (99m)Tc. Facilities can receive and process reactor-irradiated Mo targets then used for extraction of (99m)Tc over a period of 2 wk, with 3 extractions on the same day. Estimates suggest that a center receiving 1.85 TBq (50 Ci) of (99)Mo once every 4 d can provide 1.48-3.33 TBq (40-90 Ci) of (99m)Tc daily. This model can use research reactors operating in the United States to supply current (99)Mo needs by applying natural (nat)Mo targets. (99)Mo production capacity can be enhanced by using (98)Mo-enriched targets. The proposed model reduces the loss of (99)Mo by decay and avoids proliferation as well as waste management issues associated with fission-produced (99)Mo. PMID:25537991

  11. Improved SPECT reconstruction of Tc-99m sestamibi distribution in breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David H.; Gagne, George M.; Huda, Walter; Tillapough-Fay, Gwen M.; Hellwig, Bradford J.; Thomas, Deaver F.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes a new image reconstruction method to reduce the presence of image artifacts in scintimammography. SPECT data are mathematically modified prior to conventional image processing, followed by an inverse transform, which permits the tomographic visualization of low signals in the presence of large background intensities observed in scintimammography. Images of Tc-99m sestamibi distribution were obtained in a modeled `breast tissue', with a high activity in the `myocardium' as compared to the `breast tissue' (i.e. 20:1). Image reconstruction with the modified algorithm were qualitatively correct and demonstrated the regions of enhanced uptake (lesions) with no evidence of artifacts from the background counts in the heart. Comparison with MRI demonstrated that the hot regions were properly located and correlated with the MRI data. In contrast, a standard (i.e. Filtered Back Projection) reconstruction resulted in streak artifacts in place of `breast tissue' which rendered them clinically useless. This new approach to scintimammography offers the prospect of significantly reducing image artifacts and improving imaging accuracy.

  12. (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzolato, G.; Dam, M.; Borsato, N.; Saitta, B.; Da Col, C.; Perlotto, N.; Zanco, P.; Ferlin, G.; Battistin, L.

    1988-12-01

    Thirty-six patients affected by Parkinson's disease were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO as a tracer. The scanning procedure was performed 16-24 h after discontinuation of specific therapy. Tracer activity ratios were determined in 10 pairs of cerebellar, cortical, and subcortical regions. Data were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. Most of the regions examined did not show any relevant change between parkinsonian and control subjects. Notably, mean activity in striatal regions were similar in the two groups. Increased activity in caudate-putamen was found in patients who were on chronic DOPA therapy. Side-to-side asymmetries in the basal ganglia increased with the severity of the disease. Significant reductions of tracer uptake, from control values, were observed bilaterally in the parietal cortex. These deficits were more pronounced in patients with mental deterioration and in subjects who had been chronically treated with anticholinergic drugs. Parietal perfusion deficits in parkinsonian patients resemble those described in Alzheimer's dementia. These findings suggest that the heterogeneous alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in parkinsonian patients reflect the multifactorial pathophysiology of the disease.

  13. Diagnosing protein losing enteropathy: A new approach using Tc-99m human immunoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatnagar, A.; Kashyap, R.; Chopra, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    Tc-99m HIG has recently come into prominence as an inflammation seeking radiotracer. The authors describe a novel use of the agent for imaging protein-losing enteropathy. The agent may have certain advantages over Tc-99m HSA, which is currently being used for imaging protein loss. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Spontaneous perforation of the ureter diagnosed on technetium 99m DTPA excretory urography

    SciTech Connect

    Barasch, E.; Kashdan, B.; Rathore, A.

    1988-01-01

    A case of nontraumatic rupture of the ureter secondary to a nonopaque calculus is presented. Because of the inherent high image contrast caused by the leak of technetium 99m-DTPA-labeled urine, the technetium 99m-DTPA excretory urogram is seen as an alternative to the intravenous urogram or contrast-enhanced computed tomography in selected cases of suspected ureteral rupture.

  15. Placental localization in abdominal pregnancy using technetium-99m-labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Payan, J.M.; Jones, J.S.; Buse, M.G. )

    1990-06-01

    In a patient with third trimester abdominal pregnancy with fetal demise, technetium-99m-labeled erythrocytes ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs) localized the placenta preoperatively, after nonvisualization by ultrasonography and arteriography. Extrauterine placental localization by blood-pool imaging may be useful when ultrasound fails.

  16. Diagnostic value of bone marrow imaging with /sup 111/indium-transferrin and /sup 99m/technetium-colloids in myelofibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Vigneron, N.; Poirier, O.; Chomienne, C.; D'Agay, M.F.; Najean, Y.

    1985-03-01

    /sup 111/Indium--transferrin (/sup 111/In) and /sup 99m/Technetium-colloids (/sup 99m/Tc) bone marrow imaging of 55 myelofibrosis (MF) cases has been compared with clinical, histological, and iron-kinetics data. The best correlations are seen between the splenic uptake of /sup 111/In with the spleen/sacrum ratio of /sup 59/Fe at the first hour and also with the splenic erythropoiesis histologically assessed in ten splenectomized patients. Moreover, sacrum uptake of /sup 111/In, when compared with sacrum uptake of /sup 59/Fe and with hematopoietic cellularity of the bone marrow reflects faithfully the hematopoietic cell content of the marrow. Thus, /sup 111/In bone marrow imaging provides a noninvasive and useful tool for the diagnosis of myeloid metaplasia in MF. Ferrokinetic studies still appreciate with better insight the amount of ineffective erythropoiesis or hemolysis and remain therefore of great value when splenectomy is discussed.

  17. Gel chromatographic behavior of Tc-99m-labeled compounds in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, T.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds (Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar, Tc-99m glucoheptonate, Tc-99m DTPA, Tc-99m disofenin) with the chromatographic gels, to determine their relative molecular sizes and molecular structures in aqueous solution, which are based on their biomenbrane transport mechanism and quality control analysis. Each Tc-99m-labeled compound was eluted and analyzed by three different gel chromatrography systems varying buffers: Sephadex G-25, Sephadex LH-20 and Bio-Gel P-4. The best separation between the elution peaks of all compounds except Tc-99m glucoheptonate was achieved on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCL buffer (pH 7.6) (1:1) which could avoid the aromatic interaction with the gels. Tc-99m glucoheptonate was well eluted only on a Bio-Gel P-4 column but its elution peak was not separated from other compounds' peaks. The elution of Tc-99m disofenin was delayed on Sephadex G-25 gel and Bio-Gel P-4 columns in 0.9% NaCl and Tris-HCl buffer(ph 7.6) and on Sephadex LH-20 column in methanol-Tris-HCl buffer, because of the aromatic ring interaction with the gels. The relative molecular size index ( Kav ) calculated from the elution volume of the gel chromatography. Kav of Tc-99m 0/sub 4/-bar(MW=163), Tc-99m DTPA (MW=492.) and TC-99m disofenin (MW=707) on Sephadex G-25 in methanol-0.025OM Tris-HCl buffer(pH 7.6) (1:1), which was the most suitable combination of the gel and the buffer, were 0.976, 0.477 and 0.200, respectively. They inversely correlated with their estimated molecular weight. The interaction of Tc-99m-labeled compounds with the chromatographic gels should be considered in quality control procedure for Tc-99m radiopharamaceuticals.

  18. Fully automatic region of interest selection in glomerular filtration rate estimation from 99mTc-DTPA renogram.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Jia-Yann; Chen, Yung-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a common accepted standard estimation of renal function. Gamma camera-based methods for estimating renal uptake of (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) without blood or urine sampling have been widely used. Of these, the method introduced by Gates has been the most common method. Currently, most of gamma cameras are equipped with a commercial program for GFR determination, a semi-quantitative analysis by manually drawing region of interest (ROI) over each kidney. Then, the GFR value can be computed from the scintigraphic determination of (99m)Tc-DTPA uptake within the kidney automatically. Delineating the kidney area is difficult when applying a fixed threshold value. Moreover, hand-drawn ROIs are tedious, time consuming, and dependent highly on operator skill. Thus, we developed a fully automatic renal ROI estimation system based on the temporal changes in intensity counts, intensity-pair distribution image contrast enhancement method, adaptive thresholding, and morphological operations that can locate the kidney area and obtain the GFR value from a (99m)Tc-DTPA renogram. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, 30 clinical dynamic renograms were introduced. The fully automatic approach failed in one patient with very poor renal function. Four patients had a unilateral kidney, and the others had bilateral kidneys. The automatic contours from the remaining 54 kidneys were compared with the contours of manual drawing. The 54 kidneys were included for area error and boundary error analyses. There was high correlation between two physicians' manual contours and the contours obtained by our approach. For area error analysis, the mean true positive area overlap is 91%, the mean false negative is 13.4%, and the mean false positive is 9.3%. The boundary error is 1.6 pixels. The GFR calculated using this automatic computer-aided approach is reproducible and may be applied to help nuclear medicine physicians in

  19. Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Wainer, E.; Boner, G.; Lubin, E.; Rosenfeld, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was studied in 14 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance during HD was 37.8% +/- 10.1 of creatinine clearance. Mean Tc-99m DTPA clearance in PD was 65.1% +/- 10.3 of creatinine clearance. Tc-99m DTPA, with a larger molecular weight than that of creatinine, is cleared relatively better during PD than during HD. Thus Tc-99m DTPA may be used in the assessment of the effectiveness of different dialytic treatments for substances of similar molecular weight. In addition, our study shows that clearance of DTPA both in HD and PD is sufficiently high to allow the removal of this chelating agent in patients with renal failure.

  20. Labeling of Tannic Acid with Technetium-99m for Diagnosis of Stomach Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I. T.; El-Tawoosy, M.; Talaat, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Tannic acid is a polyphenolic compound that could be labeled with technetium-99m. To produce about 90% yield of  99mTc-tannic acid in acidic media (pH), the conditions required were 150 μg tin chloride, 30 min reaction time, and 200 μg of the substrate. 99mTc-tannic was stable for 6 h. Oral biodistribution of 99mTc-tannic showed that it concentrated in the stomach ulcer to reach about 50% of the total injected dose at 1 h after orall administration. This concentration of 99mTc-tannic in stomach ulcer may be sufficient to radio-image the presence of ulcer in the stomach. PMID:22389852

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and biological evaluation of new biotinylated (99m) Tc/Re-tricarbonyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of three new biotinylated fac-[(99m)Tc/Re(CO)3](+) complexes with the tridentate ligands L1, L2, and L3 are reported. L1-L3 contain the chelators 2-((5-aminopentyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)acetic acid, 2-(2-aminoethylthio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-amino-3-(1-carboxy-2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylthio)propanoic acid, respectively, which are conjugated to biotin's carboxylate via their amine group. The fac-[Re(CO)3(L1-L3)] complexes were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR, where the (N,N,O) coordination for ReL1 and the (N,S,O) coordination for ReL2 and ReL3 were confirmed. The tracer complexes fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)3(L1-L3)] were synthesized in high yield and were found highly stable in 10(-3) M L-histidine and L-cysteine over 24 h. Furthermore, they exhibited high binding affinity (>90%) for avidin. Rat plasma studies showed complete cleavage of biotin from (99m)TcL1 after 1 h and a low percentage of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 with no biotin cleavage metabolites present, over 24 h. Similarly, rat urine analysis showed the presence of intact (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3, while (99m)TcL1 was cleaved. Biodistribution studies of (99m)TcL2 and (99m)TcL3 revealed fast blood and tissue clearance. PMID:26817576

  2. [Identification of viable myocardium in ischemic heart disease with severe left ventricular contractile dysfunction: comparison of myocardial scintigraphy with 99mTc-sestamabi and with 201-thallium].

    PubMed

    Brandao, S; Cagnac, R; Roncalli, J; Lotterie, J A; Elbaz, M; Richez, F; Galinier, M; Carrie, D; Alibelli-Chemarin, M J

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare quantitatively uptake of 99mTc-Sestamibi at rest and that of late redistribution of 201Tl in the same patients with severe ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction, and to correlate the uptake of the tracer to regional ventricular dysfunction studied by ECG grated 99Tc-Sestamini. A double isotope myocardial scintigraphy, 201 Thallium at rest/redistribution and 99Tc-Sestamibi at rest and on exercise, was performed in 28 patients with severe postinfarction ischaemic cardiomyopathy (EF= 29 +/- 4%). Quantitative analysis for each patient and each isotope were performed with respect to the number of hits expressed in percentage of the activity of a normal zone in 17 circumferential profiles distributed in 4 zones, that is to say in 476 segments. A score allowed counting of viable and non-viable segments and evaluation of contractile function of the 17 segments with respect to wall motion and systolic thickening. Total concordance of global uptake of the two isotopes was observed in 430 of the 476 segments (90.3%) (r= 0.814, p< 0.0001), but the 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake was less than 201 Th (71 +/- 23% vs 73 +/- 21%, p= 0.0001). With respect to left ventricular wall motion, uptake of 99mTc-Sestamibi was greater than that of 201Tl in normal or hypokinetic segments but less in akinetic and dyskinetic segments. The difference between the two isotopes was most marked in segments with very severe contractile dysfunction. The authors conclude that the uptake of 99mTc-Sestamibi is correlated with that of late distribution of 201Tl when left ventricular contraction is not too poor and should no longer be considered as only a marker of perfusion but can also be useful in the investigation of myocardial viability.

  3. (99m)Tc-Cyclopentadienyl Tricarbonyl Chelate-Labeled Compounds as Selective Sigma-2 Receptor Ligands for Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Chen, Xin; Jia, Bing; Dong, Chengyan; Steinbach, Jörg; Brust, Peter; Liu, Boli; Jia, Hongmei

    2016-02-11

    We have designed and synthesized a series of cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl rhenium complexes containing a 5,6-dimethoxyisoindoline or a 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline pharmacophore as σ2 receptor ligands. Rhenium compound 20a possessed low nanomolar σ2 receptor affinity (K(i) = 2.97 nM) and moderate subtype selectivity (10-fold). Moreover, it showed high selectivity toward vesicular acetylcholine transporter (2374-fold), dopamine D2L receptor, NMDA receptor, opiate receptor, dopamine transporter, norepinephrine transporter, and serotonin transporter. Its corresponding radiotracer [(99m)Tc]20b showed high uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner in DU145 prostate cells and C6 glioma cells. In addition, this tracer exhibited high tumor uptake (5.92% ID/g at 240 min) and high tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios (21 and 16 at 240 min, respectively) as well as specific binding to σ receptors in nude mice bearing C6 glioma xenografts. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging of [(99m)Tc]20b in the C6 glioma xenograft model demonstrated a clear visualization of the tumor at 180 min after injection.

  4. (99m)Tc-Cyclopentadienyl Tricarbonyl Chelate-Labeled Compounds as Selective Sigma-2 Receptor Ligands for Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Chen, Xin; Jia, Bing; Dong, Chengyan; Steinbach, Jörg; Brust, Peter; Liu, Boli; Jia, Hongmei

    2016-02-11

    We have designed and synthesized a series of cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl rhenium complexes containing a 5,6-dimethoxyisoindoline or a 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline pharmacophore as σ2 receptor ligands. Rhenium compound 20a possessed low nanomolar σ2 receptor affinity (K(i) = 2.97 nM) and moderate subtype selectivity (10-fold). Moreover, it showed high selectivity toward vesicular acetylcholine transporter (2374-fold), dopamine D2L receptor, NMDA receptor, opiate receptor, dopamine transporter, norepinephrine transporter, and serotonin transporter. Its corresponding radiotracer [(99m)Tc]20b showed high uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner in DU145 prostate cells and C6 glioma cells. In addition, this tracer exhibited high tumor uptake (5.92% ID/g at 240 min) and high tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios (21 and 16 at 240 min, respectively) as well as specific binding to σ receptors in nude mice bearing C6 glioma xenografts. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging of [(99m)Tc]20b in the C6 glioma xenograft model demonstrated a clear visualization of the tumor at 180 min after injection. PMID:26741785

  5. [Diagnostic possibilities of static gamma-scintigraphy using 99mTc pyrophosphate and Tc 99m phosphate in children with glomerulo nephritis].

    PubMed

    Mil'ko, V I; Bagdasarova, I V; Moskalenko, N I; Ivanov, D D

    1989-01-01

    Children with nephrotic glomerulonephritis were examined for incorporation of 99mTc-pyrophosphate and 99mTc-phosphone. The relationship was discovered between the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical drug and the sensitivity to glucocorticoids used in the pathogenetic treatment. Accumulation of the drug in the course of the treatment documents the presence of complete, partial remission or the disease activity. It is recommended that static gammascintigraphy should be carried out for early assessment of the efficacy of the treatment and its correction.

  6. ECT imaging with Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid useful to detect lung metastases of osteosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, H.; Ishii, M.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Fujita, T.; Nakajima, T.; Sakahara, H.; Torizuka, K.; Kotoura, Y.; Yokoyama, A.

    1985-01-01

    ECT imaging, using Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMS) was performed in two patients with lung metastasis of osteosarcoma, and the results were compared with those of CT scan. Clear accumulation of Tc(V)-DMS was recognized in all cases in the same area that CT scans demonstrated. Tc(V)-DMS was labeled under optimal pH 8, had very low SnCl/sub 2/ concentrations, an equilibrium between a stable form and a dissociated form of anion TcO/sub 4/(3-) structurally similar to PO/sub 4/(3-), and was postulated for tumor uptake. Considering this proposed mechanism for Tc(V)-DMS uptake by tumor cells, ECT imaging using this tracer could be of use in the early detection of lung metastasis of osteosarcoma.

  7. Isolation, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Syn and Anti Diastereomers of [99mTc]Technetium Depreotide: a Somatostatin Receptor Binding Tumor Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, John E.; Pearson, Daniel A.; Nelson, Carol A.; Lyons, Barbara A.; Zheng, Yongyong; Bartis, Judit; He, Jiafang; Cantorias, Melchor V.; Howell, Robertha C.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    The early and later eluting [99mTcO]depreotide products on RP-HPLC were confirmed to be the anti and syn diastereomers, respectively, based on proton NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy. NMR provided evidence of a folded, conformationally constrained structure for the syn diastereomer. The syn diastereomer is predominant (anti/syn ~ 10:90) in the [99mTcO]depreotide preparation and shows a slightly higher affinity (IC50 = 0.15 nM) for the somatostatin receptor than the anti diastereomer (IC50 = 0.89 nM). Both diastereomers showed higher binding affinities than the free peptide (IC50 = 7.4 nM). Biodistribution studies in AR42J tumor xenograft nude mice also showed higher tumor uptake for syn [99mTcO]depreotide (6.58% ID/g) than for the anti [99mTcO]depreotide (3.38% ID/g). Despite the differences in biological efficacy, the favorable binding affinity, tumor uptake, and tumor-to-background ratio results for both diastereomeric species predict that both are effective for imaging somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in vivo. PMID:17691760

  8. Quantitative analysis of planar technetium-99m-sestamibi myocardial perfusion images using modified background subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, K.; Wackers, F.J.; Mattera, J.A.; Fetterman, R.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Standard interpolative background subtraction, as used for thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), may create artifacts when applied to planar technetium-99m-Sestamibi ({sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi) images, apparently because of the oversubtraction of relatively high extra-cardiac activity. A modified background subtraction algorithm was developed and compared to standard background subtraction in 16 patients who had both exercise-delayed {sup 201}Tl and exercise-rest {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi imaging. Furthermore, a new normal data base was generated. Normal {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi distribution was slightly different compared to {sup 201}Tl. Using standard background subtraction, mean defect reversibility was significantly underestimated by {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi compared to {sup 201}Tl (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus -1.8 +/- 8.4, p less than 0.05). Using the modified background subtraction, mean defect reversibility on {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images was comparable (2.8 +/- 4.9 versus 1.7 +/- 5.2, p = NS). We conclude, that for quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi images a new normal data base, as well as a modification of the interpolative background subtraction method should be employed to obtain quantitative results comparable to those with {sup 201}Tl.

  9. 99mTc-human immunoglobulin (HIG) in AIDS patients: first results.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Salvatori, M; Antoni, M; Ortona, L; Ventura, G; Maiuro, G; Pirronti, T; Marano, P

    1991-01-01

    Scintigraphy with 99mTc labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin was performed in 16 patients with ascertained or suspected AIDS-related infections. 99mTc-HIG lung scanning was compared, in 11 patients, with 67Ga scintigraphy, chest X-ray and high resolution lung CT. 67Ga and 99mTc-HIG were concordantly positive in five cases of BAL-ascertained Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), while one of them was Rx and CT negative. X-ray, 67Ga and 99mTc were concordantly negative in 5 cases. 99mTc-HIG yielded negative results in two cases of Mycobacterium infection, both of which were 67Ga and Rx positive: Mycobacterium avium in diffuse lung involvement and Mycobacterium TBC in excavated infiltrate. 99mTc-HIG was also positive in other 3 AIDS patients: 1 case of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, 1 pulmonary abscess (Staphylococcus and Candida), and 1 sacral abscess; it was negative in 1 case of Kaposi sarcoma (also 201Tl negative). In conclusion, 99mTc-HIG scintigraphy in AIDS patients is feasible, and offers some practical advantages (continuous availability, fast response time, etc.). The initial results seem similar to those of 67Ga in lung scanning (and perhaps more specific for PCP).

  10. Distribution, elimination, and renal handling of (99m)technetium-Demogastrin 1.

    PubMed

    Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznickova, Alice; Laznicek, Milan; Novy, Zbynek; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A; Behe, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Radiolabeled cholecystokinin/gastrin (CCK) receptor-targeting peptides are promising compounds for radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy of certain malignancies. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of a CCK-2 receptor-specific peptide, Demogastrin 1, labeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1), in rats. To investigate the fate of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in the rat, biodistribution and elimination studies in vivo were performed, and elimination parameters in perfused rat liver and kidney were determined. Biodistribution studies showed that (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 was rapidly cleared from the blood and most organs. A significant amount of radioactivity was detected in the CCK-2 receptor-rich organs, such as the stomach. Low radioactivity was found in the CCK-1 receptor-rich organs. Radioactivity in bowels and stomach declined relatively slowly. High and long-term retention of radioactivity in the kidneys was observed. Elimination of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 via the bile was negligible. A high and rapid renal excretion was observed in elimination experiments in vivo. In the perfused kidney, glomerular filtration was found to be the main renal excretion mechanism of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1. Demogastrin 1 was distributed preferentially to the organs expressing CCK-2 receptors. The decisive elimination route of (99m)Tc-Demogastrin 1 in rats was urinary excretion. A high and prolonged renal retention may limit potential clinical use of the compound.

  11. Mo-99/Tc-99m Separation: An Assessment of Technical Options

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, A; Pillai, M R A; Knapp Jr, Russ F

    2013-01-01

    Several strategies for the effective separation of 99mTc from 99Mo have been developed and validated. Due to the success of column chromatographic separation using acidic alumina coupled with high specific activity fission 99Mo (F 99Mo) for production of 99Mo/99mTc generators, however, most technologies until recently have generated little interest. The reduced availability of F 99Mo and consequently the shortage of 99Mo/99mTc column generators in the recent past have resurrected interest in the production of 99Mo as well as 99mTc by alternate routes. Most of these alternative production processes require separation techniques capable of providing clinical grade 99mTc from low specific activity 99Mo or irradiated Mo targets. For this reason there has been renewed interest in alternate separation routes. This paper reviews the reported separation technologies which include column chromatography, solvent extraction, sublimation and gel systems that have been traditionally used for the fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc generator systems. The comparative advantage, disadvantage, and technical challenges toward adapting the emerging requirements are discussed. New developments such as solid-phase column extraction, electrochemical separation, extraction chromatography, supported liquid membrane (SLM) and thermochromatographic techniques are also being evaluated for their potential application in the changed scenario of providing 99mTc from alternate routes. Based on the analysis provided in this review, it appears that some proven separation technologies can be quickly resurrected for the separation of clinical grade 99mTc from macroscopic levels of reactor or cyclotron irradiated molybdenum targets. Furthermore, emerging technologies can be developed further to respond to the expected changing modes of 99mTc production.

  12. Tracheal blood flow and luminal clearance of [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafi, Z.; Corfield, D.R.; Webber, S.E.; Widdicombe, J.G. )

    1992-10-01

    Tracheal blood flow and [sup 99m][Tc]-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) clearance were measured in the sheep trachea in vivo. The tracheal arteries were isolated and perfused. An isolated segment of tracheal lumen was filled with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA, and radioactivity was measured in blood from a catheterized tracheal vein. Infusions at constant pressure of methacholine (n=5), albuterol (n=6), and histamine (n=5) increased arterial inflow and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Phenylephrine (n=9) decreased arterial inflow and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. When the tracheal arteries were initially perfused at constant flow and the flow rate was then changed, 50% increases in flow (n=5) increased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but decreased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Decreases in flow of 50% (n=3) and 100% (n=10) decreased perfusion pressure and venous outflow but increased [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output and concentration. Infusion of the same drugs at constant flow produced significant changes in perfusion pressure but no significant changes in venous outflow or, except for histamine, in [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output. Thus [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA output was inversely related to both mechanically and drug-induced changes in tracheal blood flow but, except for histamine, was not directly affected by the drugs. The results may be due to redistribution of blood between collateral circuits and altered interstitial fluid volume affecting [sup 99m][Tc]-DTPA transport across the interstitium. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Quantitative analysis by digital computer of Tc-99m N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (Tc-99m PMT) hepatogram in diffuse parenchymal liver diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Narabayashi, I.; Ishido, N.; Sugimura, K.; Nabeshima, K.; Sugimura, C.; Matsuo, M.; Kimura, S.; Kajita, A.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m N-pyridoxyl-5 methyltryptophan (Tc-99m PMT) hepatograms were analyzed to provide information about the liver and bile duct. Calculations were based on a 4 compartmental model and included corrections for blood, tissue, liver and bile backgrounds. The time-activity curves for Tc-99m PMT in the cardiac region were described as the sum of 2 exponential functions, while curves for the hepatic region were described as the sum of 3 exponential components. The measured hepatograms were compared with simulated hepatograms and good agreement between the two curves showed that the compartmental model adequately described the blood and bile activities in vivo. Hepatic excretion rates were 0.179 +- 0.028 in 3 normal subjects. 0.102 +- 0.012 in 4 patients of chronic hepatitis and 0.116 +- 0.061 in 6 patients of liver cirrhosis. In the cases of diffuse parenchyal liver diseases, there were lower rate constants for the excretion from the liver to the bile ducts than in normals and the relative distribution values also larger than normal. Prior to the development of this compartmental model, no useful kinetic model had been found which could satisfactorily explain the time-activity curves. Experience in human studies proves this method to be accurate in determining the rate constants for hepatobiliary transport of Tc-99m PMT.

  14. Indications for /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan in children

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, I.

    1987-03-01

    The /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan provides an image of functional renal parenchyma. This static scan has specific indications and cannot be used simply in place of a /sup 99m/technetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scan. The major clinical indications for this investigation are the detection and/or evaluation of a renal scar, the small or absent kidney, an occult duplex system, certain renal masses, systemic hypertension or suspected vasculitis. The physiology of the /sup 99m/technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scan is reviewed briefly.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of three mucoadhesive dosage forms using (99m)Tc-Ofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Archana; Sahoo, Subhashree; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Chakraborti, Chandra Kanti; Samuel, Grace

    2014-07-01

    Preparation of three mucoadhesive formulations was optimized and pharmaceutically evaluated. Ofloxacin was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and radiolabeled complex was characterized by HPLC. (99m)Tc-Ofloxacin was added as a tracer to the formulations namely Oflox C934, Oflox C940 and Oflox HPMC and the formulations were fed orally to rats. Imaging studies were carried out to assess the prolonged gastric retention of the formulations. (99m)Tc-Ofloxacin served as a good tracer for studying the pharmacokinetics of three controlled release mucoadhesive dosage forms by gamma scintigraphy studies.

  16. /sup 99m/Tc-aprotinin: A new tracer for kidney morphology and function

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.; Donadio, C.; Tramonti, G.; Lorusso, P.; Bellitto, L.; Lunghi, F.

    1984-01-01

    Aprotinin (Ap), a low molecular weight polyeptide (6500 dalton), is a protease inhibitor which is electively and stably accumulated in the kidney. In 112 adult patients, with either uni- or bilateral renal disease with different degrees of renal impairment (from normal GFR to advanced renal failure), renal scans were performed by means of Ap labelled with /sup 99m/Tc. Highly satisfactory renal scans were obtained in all patients. In 20 patients with renal failure (serum creatinine 1.8 - 8.5 mg/dl, mean 4.7) a comparison was made of the renal scans obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-Ap and with /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was slightly better than /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, especially in patients with far advanced renal failure. Some aspects of the pharmacokinetics of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap were studied in 72 cases. In 22 of these patients plasma clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was determined by the single injection method using a two-compartment model. In patients with GFR>90 ml/min plasma cl of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was 67.6 +- 8.4 SD ml/min. A good correlation was observed between plasma clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap and GFR (r = 0.74). After i.v. injection /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was stably fixed by the kidney. Renal radioactivity remained stable between the 2nd and the 8th hour after the injection. Urinary excretion of radioactivity measured in 35 patients in the first and in the second 2-hour interval after i.v. injection of /sup 99m/Tc-Ap was negligible in all patients (2.7 +- 1.5 SD percent of the dose in the fist 2 hours; 2.8 +- 1.4 SD between the 2nd and the 4th hour). Conclusions. /sup 99m/Tc-Ap is an excellent agent for renal imaging. It also seems promising for renal function studies.

  17. Technetium-99m-HIDA visualization of an obstructed gallbladder via an accessory hepatic duct

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, D.E.; Donald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and paraisopropyliminodiacetic acid (PIPIDA) scintigraphy after sonographic evaluation of the gallbladder have been advocated recently for the diagnosis of acute obstructive cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Several authors have stated or inferred that gallbladder visualization with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA excludes acute cholecystitis and cystic duct obstruction. We describe a patient with surgically proven cystic duct obstruction whose gallbladder visualized on a /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA scan via an accessory hepatic duct which directly entered the gallbladder.

  18. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  19. Conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, N.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (<20 min) and coveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  20. Production of Molybdenum-99 by (n, ) activation and direct separation of Technetium-99m without column generator fabrication: A viable strategy for enhanced availability of technetium-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp Jr, Russ F; Pillai, M R A

    2012-01-01

    Fission-produced 99Mo (F 99Mo) is traditionally used for fabrication of 99Mo/99mTc adsorption-type column generators. In this paper, several emerging strategies that are being pursued or have been suggested to overcome the continuing shortages of F 99Mo are discussed. To provide an alternative source of 99Mo, the principal focus of this analysis is a detailed discussion of the advantages and strategies for enhanced production of low-specific-activity 99Mo (LSA 99Mo) by direct activation of molybdenum targets in nuclear reactors. In order to enhance the availability of 99Mo, development of an increased network of reactors for production of LSA 99Mo is described, as well as utilization of currently unused reactors. The time spent in manufacturing of 99Mo/99mTc column generators is responsible for the loss of more than 50% of F99Mo produced. Hence, the authors propose a paradigm shift in the use of 99Mo by recovering clinical-grade 99mTc from 99Mo solution as an alternative to use of 99Mo/99mTc column generators, thereby avoiding substantial decreased availability of 99Mo from radioactive decay. Implementation of the suggested strategies would be expected to increase availability of 99mTc to the clinical user community by several folds. Additional important advantages of the use of LSA 99Mo include precluding the need for fission product waste management and phasing out the need for high- and low-enriched uranium as target materials for medical radioisotope production.

  1. 111In-oxine and 99mTc-HMPAO labelling of antigen-loaded dendritic cells: in vivo imaging and influence on motility and actin content.

    PubMed

    Blocklet, Didier; Toungouz, Michel; Kiss, Robert; Lambermont, Micheline; Velu, Thierry; Duriau, Dominique; Goldman, Michel; Goldman, Serge

    2003-03-01

    In cancer vaccination trials, antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) are usually injected intradermally and are expected to rapidly move to a regional lymph node where antigen presentation should occur. In this study we investigated the influence of indium-111 oxine (111In) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labelling on the motility and actin content of antigen-loaded DCs in parallel with in vivo migration in humans. Human autologous monocyte-derived DCs loaded with a tumour antigen were labelled with 111In (0.11, 0.37 or 0.74 MBq/10(7) DCs) or 99mTc-HMPAO (18.5 or 185 MBq/10(7) DCs). 111In labelling was much more stable than 99mTc-HMPAO labelling. Quantitative videomicroscopy showed that the mean distance of displacement of DCs increased in accordance with the 111In activity used for labelling. Monomeric (G) and filamentous (F) actin content of DCs evaluated by quantitative immunofluorescence demonstrated that the ratio of filamentous to globular actin content in labelled DCs increased significantly in accordance with the activity used for labelling with both tracers. Twelve patients enrolled in a phase I/II vaccination trial received injections of 10(7) antigen-loaded DCs labelled with either 0.74 MBq of 111In (group A, n=6/12) or 18.5 MBq of 99mTc-HMPAO (group B, n=6/12) in the proximal part of the legs, one intradermally on one side, one subcutaneously on the opposite side. In three of the six patients of each group, antigen-loaded DCs were incubated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) just before the labelling, in order to initiate the maturation process (subgroup MPL+). Only one MPL+ patient of group A exhibited faint focal uptake in the inguinal region on the late images. Group B presented a more complex pattern of radioactivity distribution (early bladder activity without brain uptake) indicating that 99mTc-HMPAO is not a suitable radiopharmaceutical for labelling of loaded DCs. The activity cleared from DCs as a labelled molecule

  2. Technetium-99m MDP imaging of acute radiation-induced inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, J.V.; Ziessman, H.A.

    1988-06-01

    Tc-99m MDP three-phase bone imaging demonstrated the acute hyperemic inflammatory soft tissue phase of radiation injury to the hand in a patient receiving radiation therapy to bone lesions of multiple myeloma.

  3. Calibration of KRISS reference ionization chamber for key comparison of (99m)Tc measurement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Man; Lee, K B; Lee, S H; Park, Tae Soon

    2012-09-01

    KRISS, as the national metrology institute of Korea, has used a reference ionization chamber system to certify the activity of (99m)Tc aqueous sources, but could only recently participate in a comparison exercise by the BIPM (BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m) to secure the international equivalence of (99m)Tc radioactivity measurement by way of the BIPM transfer instrument (SIRTI). The KRISS ionization chamber system was calibrated about 100 days before the comparison with a (99m)Tc solution source standardized by the 4πβ(LS)-γ(NaI(Tl)) coincidence counting method. During the comparison, beginning with a higher activity mother solution, the KRISS ionization chamber measured its specific activity without a dilution. The activity of a diluted-solution source was measured by the SIRTI at the same time.

  4. Visualization of cutaneous hemangioma with Tc-99m tagged red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.; Vujic, I.; Spicer, K.M.

    1981-10-01

    Scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBCs) was used to evaluate a patient with a large cutaneous hemangioma. The usefulness of this procedure when combined with arteriography is discussed.

  5. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve.

  6. Renal handling of amino acid /sup 99m/technetium chelates

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, M.; Banerjee, S.

    1988-09-01

    Four amino acids--alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, cystine, and cystein--and also one diamine, ethylenediamine, were chelated with /sup 99m/-technetium (/sup 99m/Tc), and their renal excretion patterns were studied in rabbits in the presence and absence of two renal tubular transport inhibitors, probenecid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. From the depression of renal excretion for the first three amino acid chelates, in the presence of the inhibitors, a renal tubular excretory pathway of elimination was suggested for these compounds. The renal excretions of /sup 99m/Tc-cystein and /sup 99m/Tc-ethylenediamine however, remained undepressed under similar experimental conditions. An explanation of these observations was forwarded from the possible chemical structures of these chelates.

  7. Scintigraphy with 99mTc(V)-DMSA in monitoring patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Hamid; Amiriani, Taghi; Mirkarimi, HoneySadat; Besharat, Sima; Semnani, Shahriar; Abedi, Jamshid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Assadi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    The clinical significance of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) scintigraphy in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this prospective paper was to study the above. This study included 54 patients, 22 females and 32 males (mean age: 36.68±11.49; range: 18-63 years) with IBD who came to our clinics for follow-up and were examined clinically by colonoscopy and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy. On the follow-up studies, five patients (9.25%) relapsed, and 49 (90.74%) remained at a steady condition. There was a good correlation between the scintigraphic results and the clinical and colonoscopy data of the patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that 99mTc(V)DMSA scintigraphy can be complementary to colonoscopy for the diagnostic evaluation of IBD.

  8. Limitations and pitfalls of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC (Tektrotyd) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ildikó; Barna, Sandor; Nagy, Gabor; Forgacs, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Tektrotyd kit was developed by Polatom company for 99mTc labeling to make an alternative tracer of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy available. Since 2005, 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide has been used in clinical imaging and achieved high impact in management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Knowing the limitations and pitfalls is essential to provide ac-curate diagnosis. Therefore, the potential pitfalls associated with the use of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC are reviewed on the basis of own experience. Data were analyzed of 310 patients who underwent somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99mTc-Tektrotyd. Pitfalls during radiolabeling process or acquisition can worsen the sensitivity of SRS (somatostatin receptor scintigraphy). Recognizing physi-ological and clinical pitfalls, the diagnostic accuracy will improve. PMID:27479887

  9. .sup.100Mo compounds as accelerator targets for production of .sup.99mTc

    DOEpatents

    Richards, Vernal; Lapi, Suzanne

    2016-09-20

    Methods of synthesizing .sup.100Mo.sub.2C and .sup.99mTcO.sub.4.sup.- are disclosed. Methods of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C generation involve thermally carburizing .sup.100MoO.sub.3. Methods of .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 generation involve proton bombardment of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C in a cyclotron. Yields of .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 can be increased by sintering .sup.100Mo.sub.2C prior to bombardment. The methods also include recycling of .sup.100Mo.sub.2C to form .sup.100MoO.sub.3. SPECT images obtained using .sup.99mTcO.sub.4 generated by the disclosed methods are also presented.

  10. Radioimaging of melanoma using sup 99m Tc-labeled Fab fragment reactive with a high molecular weight melanoma antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Zukiwski, A.A.; Shanken, L.J.; Legha, S.S.; Benjamin, R.S.; Plager, C.E.; Salk, D.F.; Schroff, R.W.; Murray, J.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Twenty patients with metastatic malignant melanoma were studied with 99mTc-labeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) Fab fragment (NR-Ml-05) reactive with a high molecular weight (Mr 240,000) melanoma associated antigen. Patients received 40 mg unlabeled irrelevant MoAb (NR-2AD-IgG) and 7.5 mg unlabeled NR-Ml-05 (whole IgG) prior to infusion of 10 mg 99mTc-labeled (10-25 mCi) NR-Ml-05 Fab. Unlabeled MoAb were given to block nonspecific and specific binding sites. Gamma camera scans and single photon emission computed tomography were performed at 8 and 24 h postadministration. Of 172 preexisting lesions, 136 were imaged for a sensitivity of detection of 79%. Imaging was site and size dependent with the greatest sensitivity for liver lesions (100%) and the least for bowel (0%). Six sites (2 skin, 1 lung, 3 liver) were detected by single photon emission computed tomography that were missed on routine planar images. Forty-one additional unconfirmed sites were seen. Of these, 7 (17%) have been confirmed as tumor after a median follow-up time of 6 months. False positive scans included scar tissue, areas of chronic inflammation, an infected femoral aneurysm, and septic emboli. Nonspecific uptake of radioactivity occurred in kidney, gallbladder, bowel, thyroid, and myocardium. Human anti-mouse antibodies were detected in up to 69% of patients. In summary, radioimaging with {sup 99m}Tc-NR-Ml-05 is a sensitive test, especially for detecting liver lesions. It is safe, simple to administer, and convenient for the patient. Biodistribution and imaging sensitivity differ significantly from studies in which {sup 111}In-labeled anti-melanoma MoAb have been used.

  11. Measurement of lymphatic function with technetium-99m-labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Svensson, W; Glass, D M; Bradley, D; Peters, A M

    1999-05-01

    A reliable method for measuring lymph flow in physiological units would be valuable, especially in conditions in which it is uncertain whether lymph flow is increased or decreased. The requirements of a radiopharmaceutical for such measurement include stable radionuclide labelling and rapid access to lymphatic vessels following tissue injection but no access to blood vessels. A soluble macromolecule is likely to come closest to meeting these requirements. Technetium-99m-labelled human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) was therefore investigated firstly in comparison with 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin (HSA) in patients undergoing routine lymphoscintigraphy and secondly with respect to injection site in a group of volunteers with post-mastectomy oedema (PMO). Subcutaneous injection of 99mTc-HIG into the web space of a distal extremity gave images in which lymphatic vessels were more clearly defined compared with images obtained after injection of 99mTc-HSA. Lymph nodes were also more clearly defined, suggesting specific retention of HIG, possibly through Fc-mediated binding. Peripheral blood sampling showed a delayed arrival in blood of radioactivity after 99mTc-HIG compared with 99mTc-HSA, although ultimately, the blood recovery of 99mTc-HIG was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of 99mTc-HSA. Clearance rates of radioactivity from the injection site were not significantly different, however, between the two agents. In patients with PMO, web space injection of 99mTc-HIG gave excellent images of normal lymphatic vessels, of lymph nodes and of abnormal lymph drainage such as dermal backflow in swollen arms. In contrast, neither lymphatic vessels nor lymph nodes were visualised after injection into the skin of the dorsum of the distal forearm. Although there was no difference in clearance rates from the injection sites between normal and swollen arms with either agent in PMO, clearance was significantly faster following injection into the web space (0.11% per

  12. Technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial imaging: Same-day rest-stress studies and dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Taillefer, R. )

    1990-10-16

    Unlike thallium-201, technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi does not redistribute in the myocardium after injection. Thus, 2 separate injections, 1 at rest and the other at stress (or after dipyridamole), are required to differentiate ischemia from scar. From a physical viewpoint, a 24-hour interval between the 2 injections is preferable for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging. However, same-day studies are more convenient in clinical practice. Results of studies using different Tc-99m sestamibi injection protocols are presented with emphasis on the advantages of a rest-stress injection sequence with a low dose at rest (7 mCi) followed 2 hours later by a higher dose at stress (25 mCi). A prospective study was conducted in a patient population with proven CAD using same-day studies to compare a rest-stress (7 and 25 mCi, respectively) to a stress-rest (7 and 25 mCi) Tc-99m sestamibi injection sequence. There was an agreement in 87.3% of the analyzed segments between the 2 protocols. However, the largest discordance for type of defect applied to 7.4% of the segments judged ischemic in the rest-stress protocol, which were called scars on stress-rest. This study showed that a rest-stress sequence is preferable when using a same-day protocol with a short time interval (less than 2 hours) between the 2 Tc-99m sestamibi injections because the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence. Preliminary studies were performed to evaluate dipyridamole with Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in normal subjects and in patients with CAD. These studies showed that treadmill and dipyridamole Tc-99m sestamibi imaging are comparable and the results are similar to those obtained with thallium-201.

  13. The study of interaction of modified fatty acid with 99mTc in alcoholic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuridin, V. S.; Stasyuk, E. S.; Varlamova, N. V.; Nesterov, E. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Sadkin, V. L.; Rogov, A. S.; Ilina, E. A.; Larionova, L. A.; Sazonova, S. I.; Zelchan, R. V.; Villa, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the results of laboratory research aimed at the development of methods of synthesis of new radiodiagnostic agents based on modified fatty acid labelled with technetium-99m intended for scintigraphic evaluation of myocardial metabolism. In particular, the interaction of substance with 99mTc in alcoholic media and the use of ethanol as solvent in the synthesis of the radiopharmaceutical were studied.

  14. Dose calibrator linearity test: 99mTc versus 18F radioisotopes*

    PubMed Central

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing 18F with 99mTc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and Methods The test was performed with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results Mean deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the 99mTc source as measured with the equipment pre-calibrated to measure 99mTc and 18F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the 18F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion The results of the linearity test using 99mTc were compatible with those obtained with the 18F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in 18F acquisition suggest 99mTc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use 18F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. PMID:25798005

  15. Technetium-99m -- new production and processing strategies to provide adequate levels for SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Osso, J A; Catanoso, M F; Barrio, G; Brambilla, T P; Teodoro, R; Dias, C R B R; Suzuki, K N

    2012-07-01

    The most important radioisotope for use in Nuclear Medicine is (99m)Tc, supplied in the form of a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator. After the supply crisis of (99)Mo starting in 2008 the availability of (99)Mo became a worldwide concern. The purpose of this work is to do a brief story of the availability of (99)Mo in the world followed by an overview of the production routes of (99)Mo and the generators technology.

  16. Dual pathway clearance of /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA from the bronchial mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.D.; Ilowite, J.S.

    1989-05-01

    Many studies have reported clearance rates of 99mTc-DTPA from the alveolar epithelial surface, but few have measured clearance of this solute from the bronchial mucosa. Those that have attempted such measurements have discounted the possibility that 99mTc-DTPA may be removed from the bronchial airways by mucocilliary transport as well as by absorption through the epithelium. This study was designed to better approximate the rate of 99mTc-DTPA absorption across the bronchial epithelium by correcting the measurements of total 99mTc-DTPA clearance for mucus transport. On two separate study days, each normal, nonsmoking subject (n = 8) breathed an aqueous aerosol (2.0 microns MMAD, sigma g = 2.0) containing 99mTc bound to DTPA or human serum ablumin (HSA) (a relatively nonpermeable solute that is cleared only by mucus transport over the period of measured clearance) while seated in front of a gamma camera. Breathing pattern was standardized to produce a similar central deposition of particles on both study days. From measurements of retention versus time over a 1-h period, exponential rate constants (Ktot and Km) were determined for the clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-HSA, respectively. By modeling the airways as a single compartment with two possible routes of clearance, we determined the permeability rate constant, Kp, as Ktot minus Km. Results showed that mucus clearance (Km) accounted for two thirds of the total rate of 99mTc-DTPA clearance (Ktot) (mean Ktot = 0.00985, Km = 0.00698, and Kp = 0.00287/min).

  17. Evaluating {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S.; Tavares, Joao Manuel R. S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) has been widely used as an imaging agent but only recently has been considered for therapeutic applications. This study aims to analyze the potential use of {sup 99m}Tc Auger electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy by evaluating the DNA damage and its probability of correct repair and by studying the cellular kinetics, following {sup 99m}Tc Auger electron irradiation in comparison to iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) beta minus particles and astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) alpha particle irradiation. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the yield of DNA damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and cell kinetic effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) after irradiation with the selected particles. Results: The results obtained with the algorithms used suggested that {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX (all M-shell Coster-Kroning--CK--and super-CK transitions) electrons and Auger MXY (all M-shell Auger transitions) have a therapeutic potential comparable to high linear energy transfer {sup 211}At alpha particles and higher than {sup 131}I beta minus particles. All the other {sup 99m}Tc electrons had a therapeutic potential similar to {sup 131}I beta minus particles. Conclusions: {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY presented a higher probability to induce apoptosis than {sup 131}I beta minus particles and a probability similar to {sup 211}At alpha particles. Based on the results here, {sup 99m}Tc CKMMX electrons and Auger MXY are useful electrons for targeted tumor radiotherapy.

  18. Computed tomography and bone scintigraphy is polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Report of a case. [Tc 99m

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, T.; Iguchi, M.; Shimura, A.; Kruglik, G.D.

    1980-12-01

    A case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia is presented in which the extent of bony lesions was defined on the results of the CT scan and bone scan with 99m Tc polyphosphate in addition to conventional radiography. These diagnostic procedures appear to be of considerable value in defining the extent of a variety of oral-maxillofacial bony lesions. This report describes the comparative findings from 99m Tc polyphosphate bone imaging and computed tomography (CT) in one patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

  19. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol coated liposomes labeled with Tc-99m as a blood pool agent

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.T.; Klipper, R.; Goins, B.

    1994-05-01

    This investigation evaluated Tc-99m liposomes coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a blood pool agent in comparison with Tc-99m liposomes carrying no surface charge (Neutral) and with Tc-99m autologous red cells. Liposomes (135 nm diameter) encapsulating glutathione were labeled with Tc-99m using the lipophilic chelator, HMPAO as previously described. Autologous red cells were labeled using an Ultratag kit. Labeling efficiencies averaged 66%, 52%, and 97% for the PEG liposomes. Neutral liposomes, and red cells, respectively. Rabbits (3-3.5 Kg) were injected IV via ear vein with 2.0 mls of PEG liposomes (2 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=5). Neutral liposomes (1.3 mCi, 17 mg phospholipid/Kg body weight, n=4), or red cells (2.6 mCi, n=2). Gamma camera images were acquired at 5,22, and 45 minutes, and 2,20,and 44 hours post-injection. Blood samples were obtained at each time point to determine clearance kinetics. Circulation half lives of both Tc-99m liposome formulations were longer than Tc-99m red cells (8 hrs), with the half life of PEG liposomes (35 hrs) 1.6 times longer than Neutral liposomes (22 hrs). In vivo stability of the Tc-99m label was excellent for the liposomes with only 3.5-4% bladder activity at 45 minutes compared to 12% bladder activity for the red cells. Excellent blood pool images were obtained for the PEG liposomes in the rabbit. Heart/liver ratios calculated from region of interest analysis of 45 minutes images were 1.9, 1.5, and 1.7 for PEG liposomes, Neutral liposomes and red cells. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Tc-99m PEG liposomes to perform gated cardiac blood pool and rapid gastrointestinal bleeding studies.

  20. Evaluation of focal defects on technetium-99m sulfur colloid scans with new hepatobiliary agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B.K.; Pastakia, B.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1980-08-01

    In 3600 patients evaluated with technetium-99m sulfur colloid for metastatic liver disease, 40 had equivocal scans due to a solitary defect in the inferior margin of the right lobe. In these patients, the authors differentiated the gallbladder fossa from a metastatic focus using one of two new hepatobiliary agents: technetium-99m labeled pyridoxylideneglutamate and paraisopropylacetanilido iminodiacetic acid. The need for laparoscopic biopsy was obviated in a majority (78%) of the patients by identifying the gallbladder fossa.

  1. Performing 18F-FDG PET studies following injections of 99mTc-sestamibi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.; Karp, J. S.

    1999-06-01

    When SPECT studies are followed by PET studies on the same day, substantial 99mTc activity may be present in patients during the PET scans. Degraded PET camera performance results unless the low-energy gamma rays are absorbed by lead shields. Spatial resolution, camera count rates, energy spectra, image contrast and noise, and image quality have been measured for phantoms with varying levels of 99mTc activity, and both with and without thin lead shields placed in front of the detectors. In addition examples of the results of twelve 18F-FDG PET cardiac studies performed within 6 h of 99mTc-sestamibi injections are reported. The presence of 99mTc (140 keV gamma rays) causes light pile-up with 511 keV photons resulting in distorted energy spectra, degraded spatial resolution, increased Compton background and reduced count-rate capability. These effects are avoided using thin lead shields. Studies performed with 99mTc activity in patients but using lead shields are of comparable quality to studies performed without 99mTc or shields. Thin lead shields effectively filter low-energy gamma rays during PET studies leading to improved count-rate capability, contrast and image quality.

  2. Dopamine Transporter Imaging Using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 SPECT in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Felicio, Andre C.; Braga-Neto, Pedro; Batista, Ilza Rosa; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; de Andrade, Daniel Ciampi; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Andrade, Luiz Augusto Franco; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas; Shih, Ming Chi; Bressan, Rodrigo A.; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the decrease in striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) density has been described in North American, European, and Asian Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, studies on this issue are required in the rest of the world. This study examined the diagnostic utility of DAT imaging in Brazilian PD patients. Material/Methods Twenty PD patients (13 males, 7 females, median age: 62 years, median age at disease onset: 56 years, median disease duration: 5 years, and median UPDRS-III score: 29) and 9 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) using 99mTc-TRODAT-1. Results PD patients showed a significant decrease in the striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen DAT densities compared with data from healthy subjects. Striatal 99mTc-TRODAT-1 bindings had the highest diagnostic accuracy compared to those estimates from caudate nucleus and putamen. For the diagnosis of PD, a striatal 99mTc-TRODAT-1 binding cut-off value of 0.90 was associated with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 89%. There was no significant difference between striatal 99mTc-TRODAT-1 binding values provided by different readers, contrary to 99mTc-TRODAT-1 binding estimates in the caudate nucleus. Conclusions Striatal DAT imaging using 99mTc-TRODAT-1 can be considered a marker for differentiating PD patients from healthy individuals, with a good interobserver reproducibility. PMID:25109468

  3. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  4. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m.

    PubMed

    Abreu, P R C; Almeida, M C; Bernardo, R M; Bernardo, L C; Brito, L C; Garcia, E A C; Fonseca, A S; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2006-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with (99m)Tc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with (99m)Tc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with (99m)Tc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract.

  5. A pilot study evaluating 99mTc-anti-TNF-alpha scintigraphy in graves' ophtalmopathy patients with different clinical activity score.

    PubMed

    Rebelo Pinto, E dos S; Lopes, F P P L; de Souza, S A L; da Fonseca, L M B; Vaisman, M; Gutfilen, B; dos Santos Teixeira, P de F

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the preliminary results of the use of 99mTc-anti-TNF-α scintigraphy as a new diagnostic approach to evaluate patients presenting with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Patients (n=25) presenting at different inflammatory stages of GO and 10 healthy volunteers underwent 99mTc-anti-TNF-α scintigraphy. Images were obtained 15 min after the intravenous injection of 370 MBq (10 mCi) 99mTc-anti-TNF-α. Planar images were obtained in a 256×256 matrix (each lasting 5 min) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan lasting 13 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn on the orbit and cerebral hemispheres. The uptake of 99m Tc-anti-TNF-α in these regions was compared and positive scintigraphy established when the ROI was >2.5. In addition, uptake for each positive exam was scored as either slight (2.6-5.1), moderate (5.2-7.6), or high (>7.6). In this pilot study, 69 orbits were evaluated (1 patient had only 1 eye), and 27 had a positive CAS (≥3/7). Scintigraphies were positive in 38 orbits. Comparing the results of the exams with CAS, a high sensitivity and negative predictive values were determined for scintigraphy (96.3% and 96.7%, respectively). However, the specificity and the positive predictive values were 71.4% and 68.4%, respectively, with an accuracy of 81.2%. The exclusion of examinations that were slightly positive from the analysis resulted in an improvement in test accuracy (95.5%). The preliminary results suggest that 99mTc-anti-TNF-α scintigraphy is a promising procedure for the evaluation of active orbital inflammation in GO. PMID:23918686

  6. Evaluation in vitro and in vivo of two labelling techniques of different 99mTc-dextrans for lymphoscintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wingårdh, K; Strand, S E

    1989-01-01

    Five dextrans with different molecular weights and charges were labelled with 99mTc. The labelling methods presented by Henze et al. (1982a) and Ercan et al. (1985) were compared. The labelling efficiency was tested with gel column chromatography scanning (GCS), gel chromatography (GC) combined with the Anthrone test, paper chromatography (PC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The GCS technique always indicated a lower labelling efficiency than the PC and TLC techniques, which was due to a more optimal separation of the radioactive components. Gel chromatography in combination with the Anthrone test made it easy to identify the different radiochemical components in contrast to the other methods. Dextran solutions were injected subcutaneously bilaterally at the xiphoid processes in rabbits. The injection sites were massaged for 30 s. Uptake in the parasternal lymph nodes was registrated with a scintillation camera. The animals were killed and dissected at the end of the study. This investigation shows that the labelling method of Ercan et al. gives the highest labelling efficiency. Furthermore, the final pH (4.5) for the dextran solution makes it more useful for injection. For quality control of 99mTc-labelled dextran we recommend the Anthrone test as a complement to GC because it is a quick and simple method of determining the dextran content.

  7. Value of positive myocardial technetium-99m-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in the noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wizenberg, T.A.; Muz, J.; Sohn, Y.H.; Samlowski, W.; Weissler, A.M.

    1982-04-01

    Ten consecutive patients with tissue-proven amyloidosis, seven of whom presented with congestive heart failure, were found to exhibit intense diffuse uptake of technetium-99m-pyrophosphate (Tc-99m-PYP) on cardiac radionuclide imaging. The patients exhibited echocardiographic and systolic time interval abnormalities suggesting combined restrictive and congestive cardiomyopathic changes. On M-mode echocardiograms, there was symmetrically increased thickness of the interventricular septum and left ventricular (LV) posterior wall in diastole (10 of 10), decreased fractional shortening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine), and decreased percent thickening of the LV minor axis diameter in systole (eight of nine) and LV posterior wall (10 of 10) in systole. Three patients demonstrated enlarged LV end-diastolic diameter. All 10 patients had abnormal PEP/LVET and eight had shortened LVETI. When combined with noninvasive tests of LV performance, positive myocardial pyrophosphate (PYP) scanning provides a new and useful adjunct in the diagnosis of amyloid heart disease.

  8. Correlative 99mTc-Labeled Tropane Derivative Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography and Clinical Assessment in the Staging of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shinto, Ajit S.; Antony, Joppy; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai; Vijayan, Krishnan; Selvan, Arul; Korde, Aruna; Kameshwaran, Mythili; Samuel, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopamine in the striatum. Problems remain in the accurate diagnosis of PD. The diagnosis of idiopathic PD is based on the interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms could be incorrect at the time of initial presentation. In vivo imaging of the dopaminergic system has the potential to improve the diagnosis of PD in its early stages. The imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) with 99mTc-labeled tropane derivative (TRODAT-1) single photon emission computer tomography/computer tomography (SPECT/CT) has been proposed to be a valuable and feasible means of assessment of the integrity of dopamine neurons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential usefulness of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 imaging in the evaluation of patients with PD and classify into different stages of the disease. SPECT imaging with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 was conducted in 16 consecutive PD patients (9 men; 7 women) and in 6 age matched healthy volunteers (4 men; 2 women). The images were obtained 3 h after the intra-venous injection of the tracer. Specific uptake in the striatum and its sub-regions, including the putamen and caudate nucleus was calculated and the ratios of specific striatal binding to nonspecific occipital binding were calculated. ANOVA with Dunnett C post-hoc analysis was conducted using SPSS 20. A stepwise reduction in specific striatal uptake of 99mTc-TRODAT-1 with increasing disease severity between healthy control versus Stage I versus Stage II versus Stage III was found in PD patients (i.e., 3.77 vs. 2.56 vs. 1.57 vs. 0.63, P < 0.05). The changes were magnified by measurement of specific putaminal uptake (1.43 vs. 0.79 vs. 0.54 vs. 0.19, P < 0.05) and specific caudate uptake (1.90 vs. 1.47 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.27, P < 0.05). No remarkable adverse reactions were found in either healthy volunteers or PD patients during or after imaging. 99mTc-TRODAT-1 is accurate and widely available

  9. Correlative (99m)tc-labeled tropane derivative single photon emission computer tomography and clinical assessment in the staging of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Shinto, Ajit S; Antony, Joppy; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai; Vijayan, Krishnan; Selvan, Arul; Korde, Aruna; Kameshwaran, Mythili; Samuel, Grace

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopamine in the striatum. Problems remain in the accurate diagnosis of PD. The diagnosis of idiopathic PD is based on the interpretation of clinical signs and symptoms could be incorrect at the time of initial presentation. In vivo imaging of the dopaminergic system has the potential to improve the diagnosis of PD in its early stages. The imaging of dopamine transporter (DAT) with (99m)Tc-labeled tropane derivative (TRODAT-1) single photon emission computer tomography/computer tomography (SPECT/CT) has been proposed to be a valuable and feasible means of assessment of the integrity of dopamine neurons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential usefulness of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 imaging in the evaluation of patients with PD and classify into different stages of the disease. SPECT imaging with (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 was conducted in 16 consecutive PD patients (9 men; 7 women) and in 6 age matched healthy volunteers (4 men; 2 women). The images were obtained 3 h after the intra-venous injection of the tracer. Specific uptake in the striatum and its sub-regions, including the putamen and caudate nucleus was calculated and the ratios of specific striatal binding to nonspecific occipital binding were calculated. ANOVA with Dunnett C post-hoc analysis was conducted using SPSS 20. A stepwise reduction in specific striatal uptake of (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 with increasing disease severity between healthy control versus Stage I versus Stage II versus Stage III was found in PD patients (i.e., 3.77 vs. 2.56 vs. 1.57 vs. 0.63, P < 0.05). The changes were magnified by measurement of specific putaminal uptake (1.43 vs. 0.79 vs. 0.54 vs. 0.19, P < 0.05) and specific caudate uptake (1.90 vs. 1.47 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.27, P < 0.05). No remarkable adverse reactions were found in either healthy volunteers or PD patients during or after imaging. (99m)Tc-TRODAT-1 is accurate and widely

  10. A large renal pelvic diverticulum, presenting incomplete excretion during tc-99m MAG-3 scintigraphy and tracer accumulation on tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy; a case report.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Bulent; Erselcan, Taner; Ozdemir, Semra; Hasbek, Zekiye; Tosun, H Bayram; Topaktas, Seher

    2004-12-01

    This case report illustrates the dynamic and static renal scintigraphic images of a patient with an unusual large diverticulum of the renal pelvis. The initial diagnosis by intravenous pyelography (IVP) and ultrasonographic (US) examination was a renal pelvic diverticulum of the left kidney, and the patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for exploration of the effect of the pelvic diverticulum on renal functions. We performed dynamic renal scintigraphy with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled mercaptoacetyl triglycine (MAG-3) and static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). In dynamic renal scintigraphy, bilaterally normal concentration function was observed. While right kidney excretion function was normal, an incomplete excretion pattern was seen on the left side. Complete urinary flow obstruction occurred approximately at the 10th minute of the acquisition, which did not seem to respond to the i.v. furosemide application. However, when only the renal cortex was included in the region of interest, the obstructive pattern disappeared. In static renal scintigraphy, a large renal pelvic diverticulum localized antero-medially was clearly visualized in the left-anterior oblique projection, most probably due to accumulation of radiopharmaceutical inside it. This case showed that a renal pelvic diverticulum should be thought of when an incomplete excretion pattern is seen on dynamic renal scintigraphy. Using only a cortical region of interest may also help to distinguish other types of obstructive pattern from diverticulum. Additionally, Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy may show diverticulum localization with antero-oblique projections in addition to routine projections.

  11. Diagnostic value of technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy in detecting thyroid cancer metastases: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alam, M S; Kasagi, K; Misaki, T; Miyamoto, S; Iwata, M; Iida, Y; Konishi, J

    1998-12-01

    Technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) scintigraphy has recently been used in clinical application for detecting thyroid cancer metastases, its role being considered supplementary to serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements and radioactive iodine (131I) whole-body scans (WBS). The present retrospective study was designed to elucidate the role of 99mTc-MIBI scans in localizing metastatic lesions by assessing sensitivity and specificity of the scan results obtained in a group of 68 thyroidectomized thyroid cancer patients. Presence or absence of thyroid cancer was judged with other diagnostic modes including serum Tg measurements, 131I WBS, bone scans, chest x-rays, computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography, histopathology, and evolution of disease during follow-up. All scans were read on lesion basis for detecting neck, lung, and bone metastases and also on region basis, namely head-neck, chest, and abdomen-pelvis-extremities (ab-p-ex) areas. The sensitivity of detection was 94.4% (17/18) for neck, 78.4% (40/51) for lung, and 92.8% (64/69) for skeletal lesions. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 96.3% (26/27) and 97.7% (43/44) for head-neck; 94.7% (71/75) and 50.0% (12/24) for chest; 100.0% (25/25) and 93.1% (54/58) for ab-p-ex regions, respectively. For all scan sites taken together, PPV and NPV were 96.1% (122/127) and 86.5% (109/126), respectively. In conclusion, the present study reveals that 99mTc-MIBI can be proposed as a first-line diagnostic agent for the follow-up protocol of thyroid cancer patients, although the ability to detect small lung metastases is somewhat limited.

  12. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental viral perimyocarditis: sequential study of myocardial uptake and pathologic correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Heidt, P.J.; Wagemaker, G.; Knaan-Shanzer, S.; Van Bekkum, D.W.

    1981-09-01

    Lethally irradiated (9 Gy) CBA/RiJ (H-2/sup q/) of 10 to 14 weeks of age were transplanted with 10g C57BL/Rij (H-2/sup b/) bone marrow cells in mice. Other groups of mice ceived the same number of bone marrow cells, to which graded numbers of spleen cells were added to contaminate the graft with post-thymic immunocompetent lymphocytes. The physical parameters of x-radiation were 300 kV, 10 ma, half value layer, 3.0 mm Cu, dose rate 0.35 Gy/min; focus target distance 70 cm, maximum back scatter (Philips-Muller x-ray machine). The recipient mice were either concentional germ free, or harboring a so-called colonization resistant flora (CRF). The CRF is a mouse-derived anaerobic flora that gives a protective effect against colonizations with exogenous microorganism which might play a role in the development of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). The results of the experiments showed that, if the number of spleen cells that are added to the bone marrow is increased, the resulting mortality attributable to GVHD occurs correspondingly earlier. It was concluded from this data that GVHD can be completely prevented by depleting the graft of immunocompetent lymphocytes if bone marrow from a MHC-identical sibling donor is used.

  13. [Radioisotopic quantification of kidney function using Tc-99m-DMSA. Comparison with creatinine clearance in children with a single kidney].

    PubMed

    Baillet, G; Gagnadoux, M F; Mathonnat, F; de Vernejoul, P; Broyer, M

    1986-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of renal function quantification with Tc 99m-DMSA in children, we compared DMSA renal uptake and creatinine clearance in 16 cases of children with single kidney. The age of the patients ranged from two month to fourteen years. DMSA renal uptake was measured 7 hours after injection and was normalized in percent of the injected activity. A significant correlation was found between creatinine clearance and DMSA uptake (Pearson's r = 0.866, p less than 0.01). Normal creatinine clearance in children (80 to 120 ml/min-1 X 1.73 m-2) allowed determination of normal renal uptake (36 to 60%). This study indicates that in cases of asymmetrical renal impairment renal uptake reflects split renal creatinine clearance. Since the former is much easier to measure, DMSA should play an important role in the evaluation of differential renal function.

  14. Myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi SPECT in the evaluation of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Maddahi, J.; Kiat, H.; Van Train, K.F.; Prigent, F.; Friedman, J.; Garcia, E.V.; Alazraki, N.; DePuey, E.G.; Nichols, K.; Berman, D.S. )

    1990-10-16

    Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi is a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent that offers significant advantages over thallium-201 (Tl-201) for myocardial perfusion imaging. The results of the current clinical trials using acquisition and processing parameters similar to those for Tl-201 and a separate (2-day) injection protocol suggest that Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provide similar information with respect to detection of myocardial perfusion defects, assessment of the pattern of defect reversibility, overall detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT appears to be superior to Tc-99m sestamibi planar imaging because the former provides a higher defect contrast and is more accurate for detection of disease in individual coronary arteries. Research is currently under way addressing optimization of acquisition and processing of Tc-99m sestamibi studies and development of quantitative algorithms for detection and localization of CAD and sizing of transmural and nontransmural myocardial perfusion defects. It is expected that with the implementation of the final results of these new developments, further significant improvement in image quality will be attained, which in turn will further increase the confidence in image interpretation. Development of algorithms for analysis of end-diastolic myocardial images may allow better evaluation of small and nontransmural myocardial defects. Furthermore, gated studies may provide valuable information with respect to regional myocardial wall motion and wall thickening. With the implementation of algorithms for attenuation and scatter correction, the overall specificity of Tc-99m sestamibi SPECT should improve significantly. 32 references.

  15. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments

    PubMed Central

    Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Background South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. Methods A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Results Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that: (1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized; (2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Conclusion Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended. PMID:24089081

  16. Aptamers directly radiolabeled with technetium-99m as a potential agent capable of identifying carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in tumor cells T84.

    PubMed

    Correa, Cristiane Rodrigues; de Barros, André Luís Branco; Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar; de Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2014-04-15

    Aptamers are small oligonucleotides that are selected to bind with high affinity and specificity to a target molecule. Aptamers are emerging as a new class of molecules for radiopharmaceutical development. In this study a new method to radiolabel aptamers with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) was developed. Two aptamers (Apt3 and Apt3-amine) selected against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were used. Labeling was done by the direct method and the developed complex was subjected to quality control tests. Radiochemical purity and stability were monitored by Thin Layer Chromatography. Binding and specificity assays were carried out in the T84 cell line (CEA+) to evaluate tumor affinity and specificity after radiolabeling. Aptamers were successfully labeled with (99m)Tc in high radiochemical yields, showing in vitro stability in presence of plasma and cystein. In binding assays the radiolabeled aptamer Apt3-amine showed the highest affinity to T84 cells. When evaluated with HeLa cells (CEA-), lower uptake was observed, suggesting high specificity for this aptamer. These results suggest that the Apt3-amine aptamer directly labeled with (99m)Tc could be considered a promising agent capable of identifying the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) present in tumor cells.

  17. Imaging the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (Met) and Assessing Tumor Responses to a Met Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Human Xenograft Mouse Models with a [99mTc] (AH-113018) or Cy 5** (AH-112543) Labeled Peptide.

    PubMed

    Jagoda, Elaine M; Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Kalen, Joseph; Riffle, Lisa; Leeder, Avrum; Histed, Stephanie; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen J; Xu, Biying; Szajek, Lawrence P; Elbuluk, Osama; Cecchi, Fabiola; Raffensperger, Kristen; Golla, Meghana; Bottaro, Donald P; Choyke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Developing an imaging agent targeting the hepatocyte growth factor receptor protein (Met) status of cancerous lesions would aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of Met-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A peptide targeting Met labeled with [(99m)Tc] had high affinity in vitro (Kd = 3.3 nM) and detected relative changes in Met in human cancer cell lines. In vivo [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide (AH-113018) was retained in Met-expressing tumors, and high-expressing Met tumors (MKN-45) were easily visualized and quantitated using single-photon emission computed tomography or optical imaging. In further studies, MKN-45 mouse xenografts treated with PHA 665752 (Met TKI) or vehicle were monitored weekly for tumor responses by [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide imaging and measurement of tumor volumes. Tumor uptake of [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide was significantly decreased as early as 1 week after PHA 665752 treatment, corresponding to decreases in tumor volumes. These results were comparable to Cy5**-Met peptide (AH-112543) fluorescence imaging using the same treatment model. [(99m)Tc] or Cy5**-Met peptide tumor uptake was further validated by histologic (necrosis, apoptosis) and immunoassay (total Met, p Met, and plasma shed Met) assessments in imaged and nonimaged cohorts. These data suggest that [(99m)Tc] or Cy5**-Met peptide imaging may have clinical diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic monitoring applications. PMID:26461980

  18. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the (99m)Tc labeled human elastase inhibitor, elafin, in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaschwich, Mark; Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Tjiong, Angelina; Marx, Marlies; Haenisch, Sierk; Wiedow, Oliver; Preuss, Stefanie; Culman, Juraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-04-01

    Elafin is a potent reversible inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory proteases leukocyte elastase and protease 3. It is currently in clinical development for the use in postoperative inflammatory diseases. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled elafin ((99m)Tc-Elafin) in blood and individual organs in rat after bolus intravenous injection using the single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (99m)Tc-Elafin predominantly accumulated in the kidney reaching a maximum of 8.5% ± 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 5 min post injection (p.i) and decreased only slowly during 24 h. In contrast, the initially high radio activity recorded in the other organs rapidly decreased parallel to the radioactivity detected in blood. The blood kinetics fits to a two compartment kinetics model. The radio activity in the dissected kidney was 4.98 ± 1.24%ID/g 24 h p.i, while in other organs, including the brain, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-Elafin was detected. At this time point 30% of the detected radioactivity in the kidney was identified to be not metabolized (99m)Tc-Elafin. In conclusion, the blood and organ-specific kinetic data provide a basis for planning of adequate dosing regimens and the high accumulation of intact elafin in the kidney favors clinical developments targeting inflammatory kidney diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy after kidney transplantation. PMID:26948953

  19. Vesicoureteral Reflux Detected with 99mTc-DTPA Renal Scintigraphy during Evaluation of Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Manevska, Nevena; Stojanoski, Sinisa; Majstorov, Venjamin; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Zdraveska, Nikolina; Kuzmanovska, Dafina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radionuclide techniques, as direct radionuclide cystography and 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy, have been used in evaluation of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and reflux nephropathy (RN) in children. Dynamic 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is reserved for evaluation of differential renal function and obstruction in children, where hydronephrosis is detected by ultrasonography (US) pre- or postnatally. CASE REPORT: Six year old boy was prenatally diagnosed with bilateral hydronephrosis. Postnatal, severe bilateral VUR was detected by voiding urethrocytography. US and 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy performed in the first month of life showed small left kidney that participated with 2% in the global renal function. Bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy has been performed in order to obtain good renal drainage and promote optimal renal growth. Twelve months later, classic antireflux procedure was done. Control 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy, 5 ys after antireflux surgery, revealed persisting radioactivity during the diuretic phase, in the left kidney that indicated antireflux procedure failure with VUR reappearance. CONCLUSION: 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy is the first method of choice for long-term monitoring of individual kidney function in children with VUR and other congenital urinary tract anomalies. Additionally, it can be used as indirect radionuclide cystography when rising of radioactivity in the kidney region, during the diuretic phase can indicate presence of VUR. PMID:27275347

  20. Chemical aspects of labeling sucralfate with /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/

    SciTech Connect

    Billinghurst, M.W.; Abrams, D.N.; Lawson, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Two formulations of (/sup 99m/Tc)sucralfate have been used to image gastric and duodenal ulcers and inflammatory bowel disease. One formulation is a complexation of (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA with sucralfate. The second is prepared by directly labeling sucralfate with (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate in the presence of stannous ion. An in vitro study of the factors affecting the production and stability of these labeled sucralfate preparations was conducted. Both formulations were stable at the acidic pH likely encountered in the stomach. However, at pH greater than 6 the albumin-sucralfate complex began to dissociate while directly labeled sucralfate was stable to a pH of 9. Conversely it was shown that directly labeled sucralfate was more susceptible to loss of /sup 99m/Tc to other chelating species. Sucralfate complexed with (/sup 99m/Tc)HSA was radiochemically stable up to a specific activity of 26 GBq (700 mCi) per gram while directly labeled sucralfate showed decreased 24-hr stability at specific activities greater than 837 mCi (31 GBq) per gram.

  1. Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin scintigraphy – indications other than pulmonary embolism: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sunny J; Babu, Sanjay; Subramanyam, Padma; Shanmuga Sundaram, Palaniswamy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tc-99m macro aggregated albumin (MAA) is synonymous for lung perfusion scintigraphy and is part of the study in the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. We wanted to highlight the utilities of Tc-99m MAA other than pulmonary embolism as a pictorial assay. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy under various indications were included in this pictorial essay. Commercially available TechneScan LyoMAA cold kit from Mallinckrodt Medical B.V., Holland was used. Acquisition protocols for different indications are described in this article. Different clinical indications (e.g., pulmonary artery stenosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome, FEV1 calculation in lung surgery planning, selective internal radiation therapy planning, venography for deep venous thrombosis, left to right cardiac shunts, etc.) where Tc-99m MAA scintigraphy was asked for; how it helped in different clinical scenarios and how it can be used clinically is explained with unique and interesting case examples and images. We also reviewed the literature to look for certain remote indications of MAA imaging for the sake of completion like – (shunt scintigraphy, peritoneopleural communication, etc.) Conclusion: Tc-99m MAA is a very useful radiopharmaceutical, which can be used for many other indications apart from the commonly used indication of lung perfusion scan in pulmonary embolism. It can provide useful clinical information in other indications, which we try to highlight in this article. PMID:24250023

  2. Simulation for the Production of Technetium-99m Using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaita, Courtney; Gentile, Charles; Zelenty, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) is employed to simulate the radioisotope production process that leads to the creation of Technetium-99m (Tc-99m). Tc-99m is a common metastable nuclear isomer used in nuclear medicine tests and is produced from the gamma decay of Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). Mo-99 is commonly produced from the fission of Uranium-235, a complicated process which is only performed at a limited number of facilities. Due to the age of these facilities, coupled with the critical importance of a steady flow of Mo-99, new methods of generating Mo-99 are being investigated. Current experiments demonstrate promising alternatives, one of which consists of the neutron activation of Molybdenum-98 (Mo-98), a naturally occurring element found in nature. Mo-98 has a small cross section (.13 barns), so investigations are also aimed at overcoming this natural obstacle for producing Tc-99m. The neutron activated Mo-98 becomes Mo-99 and subsequently decays into radioactive Tc-99m. The MCNP code is being used to examine the interactions between the particles in each of these situations, thus determining a theoretical threshold to maximize the reaction's efficiency. The simulation results will be applied to ongoing experiments at the PPPL, where the empirical data will be compared to predictions from the MCNP code.

  3. Biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of the (99m)Tc labeled human elastase inhibitor, elafin, in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaschwich, Mark; Lützen, Ulf; Zhao, Yi; Tjiong, Angelina; Marx, Marlies; Haenisch, Sierk; Wiedow, Oliver; Preuss, Stefanie; Culman, Juraj; Zuhayra, Maaz

    2016-04-01

    Elafin is a potent reversible inhibitor of the pro-inflammatory proteases leukocyte elastase and protease 3. It is currently in clinical development for the use in postoperative inflammatory diseases. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc-labeled elafin ((99m)Tc-Elafin) in blood and individual organs in rat after bolus intravenous injection using the single photon emission tomography (SPECT). (99m)Tc-Elafin predominantly accumulated in the kidney reaching a maximum of 8.5% ± 0.1% of the injected dose per gram (ID/g) at 5 min post injection (p.i) and decreased only slowly during 24 h. In contrast, the initially high radio activity recorded in the other organs rapidly decreased parallel to the radioactivity detected in blood. The blood kinetics fits to a two compartment kinetics model. The radio activity in the dissected kidney was 4.98 ± 1.24%ID/g 24 h p.i, while in other organs, including the brain, no accumulation of (99m)Tc-Elafin was detected. At this time point 30% of the detected radioactivity in the kidney was identified to be not metabolized (99m)Tc-Elafin. In conclusion, the blood and organ-specific kinetic data provide a basis for planning of adequate dosing regimens and the high accumulation of intact elafin in the kidney favors clinical developments targeting inflammatory kidney diseases, such as chronic allograft nephropathy after kidney transplantation.

  4. (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) in Evaluation of Osteosarcoma: Comparative Studies with (18)F-FDG PET/CT in Detection of Primary and Malignant Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bandopadhyaya, G P; Gupta, Priyanka; Singh, Archana; Shukla, Jaya; Rastogi, S; Kumar, Rakesh; Malhotra, Arun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the role of (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) and [(18)F]FDG PET-CT in management of patients with osteosarcoma, 22 patients were included in our study. All patients underwent both (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) and whole-body [(18)F]FDG PET-CT scans within an interval of 1 week. 555-740 MBq of (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) was injected i.v. the whole-body planar, SPECT images of primary site and chest were performed after 3-4 hours. [(18)F]FDG PET-CT images were obtained 60 minutes after i.v. injection of 370 MBq of F-18 FDG. Both FDG PET-CT (mean SUV(max) = 7.1) and DMSA (V) scans showed abnormal uptake at primary site in all the 22 patients (100% sensitivity for both). Whole-body PET-CT detected metastasis in 11 pts (lung mets in 10 and lung + bone mets in 1 patient). Whole-body planar DMSA (V) and SPECT detected bone metastasis in one patient, lung mets in 7 patients and LN in 1 patient. HRCT of chest confirmed lung mets in 10 patients and inflammatory lesion in one patient. 7 patients positive for mets on DMSA (V) scan had higher uptake in lung lesions as compared to FDG uptake on PET-CT. Three patients who did not show any DMSA uptake had subcentimeter lung nodule. Resuts of both (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) (whole-body planar and SPECT imaging) and [(18)F]FDG PET-CT were comparable in evaluation of primary site lesions and metastatic lesions greater than 1 cm. Though (99m)Tc-DMSA (V) had higher uptake in the lesions as compared to [(18)F]FDG PET-CT, the only advantage [(18)F]FDG PET-CT had was that it could also detect subcentimeter lesions.

  5. Assessment of cardiac function using myocardial perfusion imaging technique on SPECT with 99mTc sestamibi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, M. R. A.; Nazir, F.; Pawiro, S. A.; Soejoko, D. S.

    2016-03-01

    Suspicion on coronary heart disease can be confirmed by observing the function of left ventricle cardiac muscle with Myocardial Perfusion Imaging techniques. The function perfusion itself is indicated by the uptake of radiopharmaceutical tracer. The 31 patients were studied undergoing the MPI examination on Gatot Soebroto Hospital using 99mTc-sestamibi radiopharmaceutical with stress and rest conditions. Stress was stimulated by physical exercise or pharmacological agent. After two hours, the patient did rest condition on the same day. The difference of uptake percentage between stress and rest conditions will be used to determine the malfunction of perfusion due to ischemic or infarct. Degradation of cardiac function was determined based on the image-based assessment of five segments of left ventricle cardiac. As a result, 8 (25.8%) patients had normal myocardial perfusion and 11 (35.5%) patients suspected for having partial ischemia. Total ischemia occurred to 8 (25.8%) patients with reversible and irreversible ischemia and the remaining 4 (12.9%) patients for partial infarct with characteristic the percentage of perfusion ≤50%. It is concluded that MPI technique of image-based assessment on uptake percentage difference between stress and rest conditions can be employed to predict abnormal perfusion as complementary information to diagnose the cardiac function.

  6. Indium-111-antimyosin antibody imaging for detecting different stages of myocardial infarction: Comparison with technetium-99m-pyrophosphate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yamada, T.; Matsumori, A.; Yoshida, A.; Fujita, T.; Ohtani, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yonekura, Y.; Endo, K.; Konishi, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The diagnostic value of {sup 111}In-antimyosin (AM) imaging for identifying myocardial infarction was evaluated in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate (PPi) imaging. Twenty-four patients with various stages of myocardial infarction, ranging from three days to nine months after the onset of infarction, underwent both AM and PPi scans. Of 26 infarct lesions AM scan identified 22 (85%), while PPi scans detected 10 (38%) (p less than 0.01). When less than a week had passed since the onset both scans demonstrated all infarct lesions. For seven subacute lesions studied within one to two weeks of onset, AM scans detected (100%), while PPi scans identified only 2 (29%). Furthermore, AM scans showed discrete myocardial uptake in 7 (64%) of those studied more than two weeks after onset. The intensity of AM uptake in the infarcts studied more than seven days after onset was less than that in acute infarcts studied within seven days of onset (p less than 0.05). These preliminary data indicate that the abnormal myocardial uptake of AM persists beyond the first two weeks when PPi no longer accumulates. Thus, AM scans can be considered to provide a sensitive diagnosis of subacute as well as acute myocardial necrosis.

  7. Determination of left ventricular ejection fraction in technetium-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile radionuclide angiocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Malcolm H.; Rezaie, Bahman; Weiland, Frederick L.

    1992-06-01

    Abnormal left ventricular function is a diagnostic indication of cardiac disease. Left ventricular function is most commonly quantified by ejection fraction measurements. This paper presents a novel approach for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (L VEF) using the recently introduced myocardial imaging agent, technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-sestamibi). The approach utilizes computer image processing techniques to determine L VEF in equilibrium 99mTc-sestamibi multiple gated radionuclide angiography (RNA). Equilibrium RNA is preferred to first-pass RNA techniques due to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of equilibrium RNA resulting from longer image acquisition times. Data from 23 patients, symptomatic of cardiac disease, indicate that L VEFs determined using this radionuclide technique correlate well with contrast x-ray single plane cineangiography (r equals 0.83, p < 0.0000003).

  8. Evaluation of alternative rapid thin layer chromatography systems for quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Mang'era, Kennedy; Wong, Derek; Douglas, David; Franz, Kellie; Biru, Taddese

    2014-04-01

    Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™ systems were evaluated as ITLC-SG alternatives for 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals. They compare well in accuracy and reproducibility, and are faster and more convenient than ITLC-SG. Tec-Control™ radiochemical purity values for 99mTc-sestamibi were more conservative than ITLC-SG. Full solvent migration was not reproduced for 99mTc-tetrofosmin in Tec-Control™, and for this Whatman 3MM™ is preferred. Developing times were 10-15 min, 7-9 min and ~1min for ITLC-SG, Whatman 3MM™ and Tec-Control™, respectively. Overall, Tec-Control™ strips are preferred due to speed and ease of use.

  9. Technetium-99m-exametazine: Pitfalls in preparation and quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M. )

    1989-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently approved the drug exametazine (Cretec or hexamethylenepropylene-amineoxime) for use in preparation of a {sup 99m}Tc-chelate suitable for human use. This radiopharmaceutical is indicated for detection of altered regional cerebral perfusion in patients with stoke. Unlike the majority of radiopharmaceuticals containing stannous ion (Sn{sup 2+}), which can be prepared by addition of varying volumes and activities of ({sup 99m}Tc)pertechnetate, successful preparation of {sup 99m}Tc-exametazime requires careful control of both volume and activity. The necessity for careful control of the final chemical concentration and radioconcentration is based on the minimal amount of Sn{sup 2+} ion present.

  10. OAT3-mediated extrusion of the 99mTc-ECD metabolite in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Okamura, Toshimitsu; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Okada, Maki; Odaka, Kenichi; Yui, Joji; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-04-01

    After administration of the (99m)Tc complex with N,N'-1,2-ethylenediylbis-L-cysteine diethyl ester ((99m)Tc-ECD), a brain perfusion imaging agent, the radioactive metabolite is trapped in primate brain, but not in mouse and rat. Here, we investigate the involvement of metabolite extrusion by organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), which is highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier in mice, in this species difference. The efflux rate of radioactivity in the cerebrum of Oat3(-/-) mice at later phase was 20% of that of control mice. Thus, organic anion transporters in mouse brain would be involved in the low brain retention of radioactivity after (99m)Tc-ECD administration.

  11. Demonstration of reperfusion after thrombolysis with technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kayden, D.S.; Mattera, J.A.; Zaret, B.L.; Wackers, F.J.

    1988-11-01

    Technetium-99m isonitrile myocardial perfusion imaging was employed in a patient undergoing thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. Technetium-99m isonitrile does not demonstrate significant myocardial redistribution after intravenous injection. The imaging agent was administered in the emergency room, prior to the initiation of thrombolytic therapy. The initial area at risk for infarction was visualized on images obtained after the patient had been effectively treated. Imaging performed 5 days later, after repeat injection of (99mTc)isonitrile, showed a smaller myocardial perfusion defect indicating salvage of myocardium. Thus, this technique offers promise as a noninvasive means of assessing the area at risk, the success of reperfusion, and the presence of salvaged myocardium, early in the course of acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc.

  13. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  14. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  15. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  16. Phantom evaluation of simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m aquisition in single-photon emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Chen, C C; Maunoury, C; Holder, L E; Abraham, T C; Tehan, A

    1996-11-01

    This study investigated downscatter effects in cardiac single-photon emission tomographic studies with simultaneous thallium-201/technetium-99m acquisition, and evaluated a previously proposed subtraction technique for downscatter compensation. Ten studies were carried out with different defect sizes and locations and varying activity distributions using four energy windows: 70+/-10% keV, 140+/-10% keV, 100+/-10% KeV, and 103+/-16% keV. The subtraction technique used the 100- or 103-keV data to remove scattered 99mTc counts from the 70-keV data. The size and contrast of infarcts in the dual-isotope 70-keV image were artificially decreased compared to those in the 140-keV image, caused by scattered 99mTc counts that were comparable to the primary 201Tl counts in the 70-keV window. The subtraction technique produced larger defects and more heterogeneous activity in the myocardial wall in dual-isotope 70-keV images compared to the corresponding 201Tl-only images. These artifacts were caused by the markedly different spatial distributions of scattered 99mTc counts in the 100-keV (or 103-keV) window as compared with the 70-keV window. It is concluded that scattered 99mTc photons may cause overestimation of ischemia and myocardial viability in simultaneous dual-isotope patient studies. The proposed subtraction technique was inaccurate and produced image artifacts. Adequate downscatter compensation methods must be developed before applying simultaneous 201Tl/99mTc acquisition in clinical practice.

  17. In Vivo Detection of Hyperoxia-Induced Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Death Using 99mTc-Duramycin

    PubMed Central

    Audi, Said H.; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Zhao, Ming; Roerig, David L.; Haworth, Steven T.; Clough, Anne V.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: 99mTc-duramycin, DU, is a SPECT biomarker of tissue injury identifying cell death. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of DU imaging to quantify capillary endothelial cell death in rat lung injury resulting from hyperoxia exposure as a model of acute lung injury. Methods: Rats were exposed to room air (normoxic) or >98% O2 for 48 or 60 hours. DU was injected i.v. in anesthetized rats, scintigraphy images were acquired at steady-state, and lung DU uptake was quantified from the images. Post-mortem, the lungs were removed for histological studies. Sequential lung sections were immunostained for caspase activation and endothelial and epithelial cells. Results: Lung DU uptake increased significantly (p < 0.001) by 39% and 146% in 48-hr and 60-hr exposed rats, respectively, compared to normoxic rats. There was strong correlation (r2 = 0.82, p = 0.005) between lung DU uptake and the number of cleaved caspase 3 (CC3) positive cells, and endothelial cells accounted for more than 50% of CC3 positive cells in the hyperoxic lungs. Histology revealed preserved lung morphology through 48 hours. By 60 hours there was evidence of edema, and modest neutrophilic infiltrate. Conclusions: Rat lung DU uptake in vivo increased after just 48 hours of >98% O2 exposure, prior to the onset of any substantial evidence of lung injury. These results suggest that apoptotic endothelial cells are the primary contributors to the enhanced DU lung uptake, and support the utility of DU imaging for detecting early endothelial cell death in vivo. PMID:25218023

  18. Pillared and open-framework uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Adelani, Pius O.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-09-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of uranium trioxide, uranyl acetate, or uranyl nitrate with 1,4-benzenebisphosphonic acid in the presence of very small amount of HF at 200 deg. C results in the formation of three different uranyl diphosphonate compounds, [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 2}OH)]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ubbp-1), [H{sub 3}O]{sub 4}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}F{sub 4}{r_brace}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-2), and {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-3). The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Ubbp-1 consists of UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged by the phosphonate moieties to form a three-dimensional pillared structure. Ubbp-2 is composed of UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged through the phosphonate oxygen atoms into one-dimensional chains that are cross-linked by the phenyl spacers into a pillared structure. The structure of Ubbp-3 is a three-dimensional open-framework with large channels containing water molecules with internal dimensions of approximately 10.9x10.9 A. Ubbp-1 and Ubbp-2 fluoresce at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: Illustration of the three-dimensional open-framework structure of {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} units, pentagonal bipyramids=green, oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, hydrogen=white. Highlights: > The influence of the uranyl salt anions and pH were critically examined in relation to structural variation. > The acetate and nitrate counter ions of uranyl may be acting as structure directing agents. > The use of rigid phenyl spacer yield

  19. Technetium-99m sestamibi in chronic coronary artery disease: The European experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sochor, H. )

    1990-10-16

    Since the introduction of technetium-99m methoxy-isobutyl isonitrile (Tc-99m sestamibi) in Europe, there has been a growing interest in its use. Several European multicenter trials have been conducted to evaluate this new agent in relation to the traditional perfusion marker thallium-201, and other studies are in progress to understand the use of this perfusion marker for the diagnosis of coronary disease, for use in conjunction with pharmacologic vasodilation, for use in the assessment of ventricular function and wall motion and for the assessment of interventions.

  20. Preliminary dosimetry investigation of Tc-99m diagnostic radionuclide by NIPAM gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, You-Ruei; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Yu, Bi-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hau; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

    2013-06-01

    The N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) gel dosimeter was investigated as a suitable material for measuring absorbed doses from radionuclide sources. In this study, NIPAM gel dosimeter was used to evaluate the dose distributions of the Tc-99m radionuclide in NIPAM gel. The accumulated radioactivity range of the Tc-99m NIPAM gel is from approximately 0 MBq to 13.6 MBq (about 0.37 mCi). The NIPAM gel dosimeter with high stability and high-dose linear and non-energy dependent properties can provide various radiopharmaceutical activity intensities in the conduct of dose assessment in nuclear medicine, thereby producing the most promising dose verification tools.

  1. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed.

  2. Renal accumulation of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA in the artificially perfused isolated rat kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Goldraich, N.P.; Alvarenga, A.R.; Goldraich, I.H.; Ramos, O.L.; Sigulem, D.

    1985-12-01

    In order to investigate aspects of the renal handling of /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA, 68 isolated rat kidneys were artificially perfused. The experimental groups were: Group 1 (no. = 32)-oxygenated filtering kidneys; Group 2 (no. = 29)-oxygenated non-filtering kidneys; Group 3 (no. = 7)-anaerobic non-filtering kidneys. The authors conclude that the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA complex is strongly bound to albumin, is not filtered and is removed from perfusion fluid through the renal peritubular capillary route and that this occurs by an active process which depends upon aerobic metabolism. This process has a high capacity and is not inhibited by probenecid.

  3. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m RBC blood pool imaging. Case report and literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyarov, E.V.; Mattay, V.S.; Reba, R.C.

    1988-07-01

    Gallbladder visualization occurred after a Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) cardiac gated blood pool scan. To date, seven cases of gallbladder visualization after the intravenous injection of Tc-99m RBCs have been reported. In the previous six patients the gallbladder was visualized incidentally during a search for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. All of the patients were anemic, six of seven had chronic renal failure, and five of seven had received multiple blood transfusions. When interpreting GI bleeding scans in patients with anemia and renal failure, awareness of the possibility of gallbladder visualization in the delayed images is important to avoid false-positive results. 3 references.

  4. Thallium-201 and technetium-99m-pyrophosphate: myocardial imaging in the coronary care unit

    SciTech Connect

    Wackers, F.J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The editor and contributors have developed a textbook that explains the use of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate for the detection of acute myocardial infarct. Their integrated approach emphasizes the complementary nature of both imaging modalities. One aim of this book is to discuss the technical characteristics of the two myocardial imaging methods. The text has fourteen chapters. Instrumentation, mechanisms of accumulation of thallium 201 and technetium-99m pyrophosphate, acute myocardial infarct, unstable angina pectoris, atypical chest pain, and the interrelationship of the techniques are among the topics discussed. (JMT)

  5. Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Higashi, T; Shindo, J; Everhart, F R; Mori, Y; Kasai, H; Kogure, S; Wakao, H

    1989-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed.

  6. Osteomalacia-inducing renal clear cell carcinoma uncovered by 99mTc-Hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaona; Jing, Hongli; Li, Fang; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-11-01

    Most osteomalacia-causing tumors are small, benign mesenchymal neoplasms, which are commonly located in the extremities or craniofacial regions. An 18-year-old male patient with suspicion of tumor-induced osteomalacia underwent (99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy to search potential culprit tumor. The images showed a large activity in the region of the left kidney. The lesion was resected and a clear cell renal cell carcinoma was found. One year after the left nephrectomy, the patient was tumor-free without symptoms of osteomalacia.

  7. [Study of heart region of interest setting method in the hepatic functional reserve index of (99m)tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic Acid-galactosyl human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Saitou, Toru; Kato, Kyoichi; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In this study we analyzed the influence of region of interest (ROI) selection on the uptake ratio of the liver to the liver plus heart at 15 min (LHL15) during (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) scintigraphy and determined the optimal ROI by evaluating the individual effects of different ROIs in the heart on LHL15. Twenty patients were randomly selected from those who had undergone (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy GSA between April 2008 and June 2009. The liver body (L/B) ratio, liver uptake 15 min (LU15), and LHL15 were analyzed and compared among the following ROIs: entire heart, both ventricles, right ventricle, and left ventricle. There were significant differences in the L/B ratio and LU15 values among the different ROIs. However, LHL15 showed a tendency to shift toward a normal value when the size of the ROI was small (only the right or left ventricle), resulting in a lack of distinction between normal and abnormal LHL15 values. Furthermore, setting the entire heart as the ROI was difficult and reproducibility was low. Our results suggest that the use of both ventricles as the ROI provides optimal LHL15 values during (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy.

  8. Evaluation of 99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14) as an agent for pancreas tumor detection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlesso, F.N.; Fuscaldi, L.L.; Araújo, R.S.; Teixeira, C.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Fernandes, S.O.A.; Cassali, G.D.; Reis, D.C.; Barros, A.L.B.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is important in oncology because of its high mortality rate. Deaths may be avoided if an early diagnosis could be achieved. Several types of tumors overexpress gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr), including pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, a radiolabeled peptide derivative of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) may be useful as a specific imaging probe. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)as an imaging probe for Capan-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Xenographic pancreatic tumor was developed in nude mice and characterized by histopathological analysis. Biodistribution studies and scintigraphic images were carried out in tumor-bearing nude mice. The two methods showed higher uptake by pancreatic tumor when compared to muscle (used as control), and the tumor-to-muscle ratio indicated that99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)uptake was four-fold higher in tumor cells than in other tissues. Scintigraphic images also showed a clear signal at the tumor site. The present data indicate that99mTc-HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7-14)may be useful for the detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26445336

  9. In vivo click reaction between Tc-99m-labeled azadibenzocyclooctyne-MAMA and 2-nitroimidazole-azide for tumor hypoxia targeting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Chu, Taiwei

    2015-10-15

    The bioactivity of nitroimidazole in Tc-99m-labeled 2-nitroimidazole, a traditional solid tumor hypoxia-imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is reduced by the presence of large ligand and metallic radionuclide, exhibiting lower tumor-to-nontumor ratios. In an effort to solve this general problem, a pretargeting strategy based on click chemistry (strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition) was applied. The functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: an azide group linked to 2-nitroimidazole (2NIM-Az) serves for tumor hypoxia-targeting and azadibenzocyclooctyne conjugated with monoamine monoamide dithiol ligand (AM) functions as radiolabeling and binding group to azides in vivo. 2NIM-triazole-MAMA was obtained from in vitro click reaction with a reaction rate constant of 0.98M(-1)s(-1). AM and 2NIM-triazole-MAMA were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The hypoxia-pretargeting biodistribution was studied in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor; (99m)Tc-AM and (99m)Tc-triazole-2NIM were used as blank control and conventional control. Compared to the control groups, the pretargeting experiment exhibits the best radio-uptake and retention in tumor, with higher tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios (up to 8.55 and 1.44 at 8h post-(99m)Tc-complex-injection, respectively). To some extent, the pretargeting strategy protects the bioactivity of nitroimidazole and therefore provides an innovative approach for the development of tumor hypoxia-SPECT imaging agents. PMID:26358160

  10. In vivo click reaction between Tc-99m-labeled azadibenzocyclooctyne-MAMA and 2-nitroimidazole-azide for tumor hypoxia targeting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjing; Chu, Taiwei

    2015-10-15

    The bioactivity of nitroimidazole in Tc-99m-labeled 2-nitroimidazole, a traditional solid tumor hypoxia-imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), is reduced by the presence of large ligand and metallic radionuclide, exhibiting lower tumor-to-nontumor ratios. In an effort to solve this general problem, a pretargeting strategy based on click chemistry (strain-promoted cyclooctyne-azide cycloaddition) was applied. The functional click synthons were synthesized as pretargeting components: an azide group linked to 2-nitroimidazole (2NIM-Az) serves for tumor hypoxia-targeting and azadibenzocyclooctyne conjugated with monoamine monoamide dithiol ligand (AM) functions as radiolabeling and binding group to azides in vivo. 2NIM-triazole-MAMA was obtained from in vitro click reaction with a reaction rate constant of 0.98M(-1)s(-1). AM and 2NIM-triazole-MAMA were radiolabeled with Tc-99m. The hypoxia-pretargeting biodistribution was studied in Kunming mice bearing S180 tumor; (99m)Tc-AM and (99m)Tc-triazole-2NIM were used as blank control and conventional control. Compared to the control groups, the pretargeting experiment exhibits the best radio-uptake and retention in tumor, with higher tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios (up to 8.55 and 1.44 at 8h post-(99m)Tc-complex-injection, respectively). To some extent, the pretargeting strategy protects the bioactivity of nitroimidazole and therefore provides an innovative approach for the development of tumor hypoxia-SPECT imaging agents.

  11. Hot spot(s) of the lung in technetium-99m albumin colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Brandenburg, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Beeler, J.A.; Magoun, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1988-06-01

    The authors replaced /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid for /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid as a radiopharmaceutical for liver-spleen imaging and found two instances of hot spot(s) in the lung. The preparation procedure of albumin colloid is easier and more convenient as compared to that of sulfur colloid. Whereas replacement of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid by /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid is inevitable, it should be emphasized that one should avoid blood withdrawal in the syringe containing albumin colloid to prevent formation of clot(s) during the venous puncture for /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid.

  12. Frostbite and bone scanning: the use of 99mTc-labeled phosphates in demarcating the line of viability in frostbite victims

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, G.; dos Santos, P.A.; Yamaguchi, K.T.; Stroh-Recor, C.; Ibello, R.

    1986-09-01

    Early diagnosis of the extent of bone and soft tissue damage is a very important step in treating a frostbite victim. The diagnostic use of Tc-99m-phosphates in assessing the viability of soft tissue and bone in frostbite was evaluated in the early post-thaw period. Four patients were treated with a combination of warm baths, rehydration, vasodilators, epidural block, fasciotomy, and debridement. Six scans were done to stage involvement. In three of the four cases, final involvement could be determined as early as the third day. When a specific level of soft tissue or bone uptake was determined, future scanning showed either improvement, or no change in three of the four patients. In our experience, Tc-99m-phosphate scans represent an improvement over other diagnostic tests for viability of tissues.

  13. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-10-16

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

  14. Evaluation in the baboon model of (99m)Tc-biguanide as a tracer for renal imaging.

    PubMed

    Neves, M; Dormehl, I; Kilian, E; Louw, W; Lalaoui, K; Pedroso de Lima, J J

    2000-08-01

    Studies in various animal species have recently shown that (99m)Tc-BIG has practical and dosimetric benefits for renal imaging that could probably make it a good alternative to (99m)Tc-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA). In this study, using the baboon experimental model, the biodistribution of (99m)Tc-BIG and (99m)Tc-DMSA are compared. It is demonstrated that early good contrast imaging and more favourable dosimetry is possible with (99m)Tc-BIG compared to (99m)Tc-DMSA, confirming the quoted previous findings with small animals. Time-activity curves for kidneys and other organs support these findings, and MIRDOSE software provided the dosimetry.

  15. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-07-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global ‘99 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35¢/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8¢/mCi to 15.0¢/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S.

  16. Cyclotron Production of (99m)Tc using (100)Mo2C targets.

    PubMed

    Richards, Vernal N; Mebrahtu, Efrem; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2013-10-01

    An investigative study of the (100)Mo (p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction on a medical cyclotron using (100)Mo2C is reported. This is the first report of this compound being used as a target for this reaction. (100)Mo2C, a refractory carbide with high thermal conductivity, properties which underscore its use on a cyclotron, was synthesized using (100)MoO3. Its ease of oxidation back to (100)MoO3 under air at elevated temperatures facilitates the use of thermo-chromatography, a high temperature gas phase separation technique for the separation and isolation of (99m)Tc. Activity yields for (99m)Tc averaged 84% of the calculated theoretical yields. Additionally, the percent recovery of MoO3, the precursor for Mo2C, was consistently high at 85% ensuring a good life cycle for this target material. The produced (99m)Tc was radio-chemically pure and easily labeled MDP for imaging purposes.

  17. Comparison of the radiochemical behaviour and biological efficacy of three 99mTc-HIG preparations.

    PubMed

    Gano, L; Rodrigues, A; Marques, E; Patrício, L

    1994-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the different methodologies used for human polyclonal immunoglobulin (HIG) preparation can affect the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HIG and its binding affinity to infection sites. Three intravenous immunoglobulin preparations, beta-propiolactone treated, hydrochloric acid/pepsin treated, and an unmodified HIG molecule were studied. The HIG preparations were analysed by size-esclusion HPLC. The UV chromatogram profiles obtained showed some percentage of polymeric and dimeric fractions in all of them. The three HIG studied were directly radiolabelled via 2-mercaptoethanol reduction. Lyophilized kits containing 1 mg of HIG and a small amount of MDP(Sn) solution were prepared and then radiolabelled by adding pertechnetate-99m. The radiolabelled products, evaluated by ITLC, showed high radiochemical purity and in vitro stability. Biodistribution studies were performed in mice with an infection in the right thigh induced by the im administration of a single isolate of S. aureus, in order to compare the ability of 99mTc-HIG to detect an infectious focus. This study suggests that any damage during immunoglobulin treatment can influence the in vivo behaviour of 99mTc-HIG.

  18. Detection of an ileal cavernous hemangioma by technetium-99m red blood cell imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, H.; Johnson, J.; Sandler, M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with arteriovenous malformations of the bowel may have multiple symptoms secondary to chronic blood loss. A case of ileal cavernous hemangioma detected by Tc-99m labeled red blood cell imaging in the absence of active gastrointestinal bleeding is presented.

  19. Molybdenum target specifications for cyclotron production of 99mTc based on patient dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Hou, X; Tanguay, J; Buckley, K; Schaffer, P; Bénard, F; Ruth, T J; Celler, A

    2016-01-21

    In response to the recognized fragility of reactor-produced (99)Mo supply, direct production of (99m)Tc via (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction using medical cyclotrons has been investigated. However, due to the existence of other Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes in the target, in parallel with (99m)Tc, other technetium (Tc) radioactive isotopes (impurities) will be produced. They will be incorporated into the labeled radiopharmaceuticals and result in increased patient dose. The isotopic composition of the target and beam energy are main factors that determine production of impurities, thus also dose increases. Therefore, they both must be considered when selecting targets for clinical (99m)Tc production. Although for any given Mo target, the patient dose can be predicted based on complicated calculations of production yields for each Tc radioisotope, it would be very difficult to reverse these calculations to specify target composition based on dosimetry considerations. In this article, a relationship between patient dosimetry and Mo target composition is studied. A simple and easy algorithm for dose estimation, based solely on the knowledge of target composition and beam energy, is described. Using this algorithm, the patient dose increase due to every Mo isotope that could be present in the target is estimated. Most importantly, a technique to determine Mo target composition thresholds that would meet any given dosimetry requirement is proposed.

  20. Acetylsalicylic acid decreases the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99M.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, A S; Frydman, J N G; Rocha, Vanessa C; Bernardo-Filho, M

    2007-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is the most widely used drug as antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory agent and for secondary prevention of thrombotic phenomena in the heart, brain and peripheral circulation. Drugs can modify the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). This work has evaluated the effect of in vivo treatment with acetylsalicylic acid on the in vitro labeling of the blood constituents with 99mTc. Wistar rats were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 mg/kg) of acetylsalicylic acid during 1 hour. At higher dose used (6.0 mg/kg) animals were treated during different period of time (0.25, 1.0 and 4.0 hours). Animals treated with physiologic saline solution were used as control. After the labeled process; plasma (P), blood cells (BC), insoluble (IF-P, IF-BC) and soluble (SF-P, SF-BC) fractions were separated. Afterwards, the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was calculated. The treatment during 1 hour with acetylsalicylic acid at higher dose has significantly (p < 0.05) modified the fixation of 99mTc on blood cells. Considering the results, we suggest that acetylsalicylic acid used at therapeutic doses may interfere with the nuclear medicine procedures related to these blood constituents.

  1. /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy in children with Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Bujanover, Y.; Bar-Meir, S.; Hayman, I.; Baron, J.

    1983-05-01

    /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy in Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) demonstrates intense prolonged homogeneous visualization of the liver, together with delayed visualization of the gall bladder and extrahepatic ducts. Such a cholescintigram has not been described for any other hyperbilirubinemic state. Because it is a noninvasive and easy technique, it is recommended for the evaluation of children suspected of having DJS.

  2. Quantitative simultaneous In-111/Tc-99m planar imaging in a long-bone infection phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuping; Park, Mi-Ae; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    2007-12-01

    In-111-white-blood-cell and Tc-99m-sulfur-colloid dual-radionuclide imaging are frequently utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected osteomyelitis. We have developed a quantitative planar imaging method in which Tc-99m and In-111 scans are acquired simultaneously in accurate spatial registration. Long, thin tubes containing only In-111 or Tc-99m were first imaged in a list mode within a water bath inclined with respect to the water surface; from these, 12 energy spectra corresponding to different Tc/In ratios were synthesized. Triple-energy-window (TEW) parameters for scatter and radionuclide crosstalk correction, including scatter windows and weights, were optimized using 100 noise realizations of each of the spectra (1200 total). A long-bone phantom containing a simulated infection site was then imaged in water with five In/Tc ratios; 100 noise realizations of two conjugate-view images were generated from each acquisition (500 total). Two regions of interest (ROIs) were defined, and the ratio of In/Tc count ratios in these two ROIs was evaluated with and without the TEW scatter correction and geometric mean attenuation compensation. The average bias improved from 17.2% to 5.3%, with comparable precision. TEW corrections with non-optimized but practical energy windows also improved the bias to 6.4%. Compared with subjective visual assessment, quantitation of In-111/Tc-99m ratios may improve diagnostic accuracy and could eventually permit grading of osteomyelitis.

  3. Effect of ketamine, pentobarbital, and morphine on Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.; Dubois, A.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hapatobiliary kinetics of Tc-99m-DISIDA in dogs after administration of anesthetic sedative or narcotic agents. Four groups of six male Beagle dogs were studied as a non-treated control group and after parenteral administration of ketamine (30 mg/kg IM), pentobarbital (25 mg/kg IV) or morphine (1 mg/kg IV). Each animal was injected with 4 mCi Tc-99m-DISIDA and hepatobiliary scintigraphic studies were obtained using a gamma camera with parallel hole multipurpose collimator and an A/sup 3/ MDS computer. The authors determined; peak activity of Tc-99m-DISIDA in the liver, visualization and peak activity of gallbladder, and intestinal visualization of Tc-99m-DISIDA. Total bilirubin, LDH, SGOT and SGPT were not modified significantly after any drug compared to control. The results showed that two commonly used anesthetics and sedatives (ketamine and pentobarbital) have dramatic and opposite effects on extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Furthermore, ketamine, but not pentobarbital, significantly accelerates intrahepatic biliary kinetics. Finally, as expected, morphine delayed extrahepatic biliary kinetics. Thus, studies of biliary kinetics should be interpreted with caution when measurements are made after administration of anesthetic, sedative or narcotic agents.

  4. Changes in biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals due to impurities - Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, A.; Horiuchi, K.

    1981-06-01

    In this review the influence of impurities in RP such as Tc-99m complexes of bleomycin, pyridoxylidene-glutamate, DMSA, phosphate derivatives, and Ga-67 citrate will be further discussed from the point of view of their preparation as a way to understanding the labeling reaction of the useful form of a given RP.

  5. New method for the selective labeling of erythrocytes in whole blood with Tc-99m

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Babich, J.W.; Straub, R.; Richards, P.

    1984-01-27

    Method and kit are described for the preparation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for the reduction of technetium.

  6. A neutral lipophilic technetium-99m complex for regional cerebral blood flow imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Narra, R.K.; Nunn, A.D.; Kuczynski, B.L.; DiRocco, R.J.; Feld, T.; Silva, D.A.; Eckelman, W.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Technetium-99m-DMG-2MP (Chloro(bis(2,3-butanedionedioxime(1-)-0)(2,3- butanedionedioximato (2-)-N,N{prime},N{double prime},N{prime}{double prime},N{double prime}{double prime},N{prime}{double prime}{double prime}) (2-methylpropyl borato (2-))technetium)), also known as SQ 32097 is a member of a family of neutral lipophilic compounds generally known as boronic acid adducts of technetium dioxime complexes (BATOs). After i.v. administration, the concentration of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in various regions of the brain appears to be proportional to blood flow. In rats, 1.1% ID was in the brain at 5 min postinjection when the blood contained less than 3% ID. Over 24 hr excretion was 59% in the feces and 23% in the urine. The activity in monkey brain at 5 min was 2.8% ID and it cleared with a t1/2 of 86 min. Autoradiographs of monkey brain sections showed excellent regional detail with a gray/white ratio of 3.6 at 10 min. The distribution of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP in the monkey brain corresponds to the known cytoarchitectural pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism. The properties of ({sup 99m}Tc)DMG-2MP make it a potentially useful agent for cerebral perfusion imaging in man.

  7. Gallbladder visualization during technetium-99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy for gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    Localization of radionuclide activity in the gallbladder was seen on delayed views following injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells for gastrointestinal bleeding in five patients. The mechanism for this unusual finding probably relates to labeling of heme, the biochemical precursor of bilirubin. All patients had had prior transfusions. All but one had severe renal impairment, probably an important predisposing factor.

  8. Extraosseous localization of technetium-99m MDP in benign cystic teratoma.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C; Leonard, J C

    1986-08-01

    Two cases of primary retroperitoneal benign teratoma, in which Tc-99m MDP localized in the primary tumor are presented. Localization of bone-imaging agents in neuroblastoma has been reported but, extraosseous localization of bone-imaging agents in teratomas has not been confirmed.

  9. Ulcerative colitis and a bleeding polyp detected on Tc-99m-pertechnetate abdominal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.

    1981-10-01

    Two children with rectal bleeding were diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis and a bleeding colonic polyp respectively using abdominal scanning with Tc-99m pertechnetate. Early flow studies are recommended with careful attention paid to the amount of time abnormal areas of activity are seen on the abdominal scan.

  10. Diversification in the Supply Chain of (99)Mo Ensures a Future for (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Cathy S; Schwarz, Sally W

    2014-07-01

    The uncertain availability of (99m)Tc has become a concern for nuclear medicine departments across the globe. An issue for the United States is that currently it is dependent on a supply of (99m)Tc (from (99)Mo) that is derived solely by production outside the United States. Since the United States uses half the world's (99)Mo production, the U.S. (99)Mo supply chain would be greatly enhanced if a producer were located within the United States. The fragility of the old (99)Mo supply chain is being addressed as new facilities are constructed and new processes are developed to produce (99)Mo without highly enriched uranium. The conversion to low-enriched uranium is necessary to minimize the potential misuse of highly enriched uranium in the world for nonpeaceful means. New production facilities, new methods for the production of (99)Mo, and a new generator elution system for the supply of (99m)Tc are currently being pursued. The progress made in all these areas will be discussed, as they all highlight the need to embrace diversity to ensure that we have a robust and reliable supply of (99m)Tc in the future.

  11. Evaluation of Tc-99m leukocyte scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.A.; Marcus, C.S.; Henneman, P.L.; Inkelis, S.H.; Wilson, S.E.

    1987-05-01

    A new /sup 99m/Tc Microlite leukocyte scan was performed in 38 patients to assess its value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Autologous leukocytes are labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by inducing phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc albumin microcolloid particles. The advantages of this test over the standard indium-111 scan include superior imaging capability, a marked reduction (greater than 75%) in the radiation dose, and performance of the test including labeling, in less than 3 hr. Imaging is performed at 5-90 min postinjection of labeled cells. There were 19 male and 19 female patients with ages ranging from 10 to 80 years, in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was indeterminate on clinical examination. Of the 13 of the 38 patients (34%) who came to surgery 12 had acute appendicitis. The WBC scan correctly identified 10 of the 12 cases of appendicitis. There were two false-negative studies. In the nonoperative group of 25 patients admitted for observation, 21 studies were reported as negative and four identified other sites of inflammation. All patients with a negative study have remained asymptomatic on follow-up. With a sensitivity of 83% (10/12) and a specificity of 100% (26/26) the /sup 99m/Tc leukocyte scan provides a rapid and highly accurate method for diagnosis of appendicitis in this preliminary study of patients with equivocal clinical exams.

  12. Diversification in the Supply Chain of (99)Mo Ensures a Future for (99m)Tc.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Cathy S; Schwarz, Sally W

    2014-07-01

    The uncertain availability of (99m)Tc has become a concern for nuclear medicine departments across the globe. An issue for the United States is that currently it is dependent on a supply of (99m)Tc (from (99)Mo) that is derived solely by production outside the United States. Since the United States uses half the world's (99)Mo production, the U.S. (99)Mo supply chain would be greatly enhanced if a producer were located within the United States. The fragility of the old (99)Mo supply chain is being addressed as new facilities are constructed and new processes are developed to produce (99)Mo without highly enriched uranium. The conversion to low-enriched uranium is necessary to minimize the potential misuse of highly enriched uranium in the world for nonpeaceful means. New production facilities, new methods for the production of (99)Mo, and a new generator elution system for the supply of (99m)Tc are currently being pursued. The progress made in all these areas will be discussed, as they all highlight the need to embrace diversity to ensure that we have a robust and reliable supply of (99m)Tc in the future. PMID:24854794

  13. Injection site radioactivity of (99m)Tc-labeled mannosylated dextran for sentinel lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Uehara, Tomoya; Tsushima, Yoshito; Papadopoulos, Minas; Arano, Yasushi

    2015-02-01

    The high and persistent radioactivity at the injection site hinders the accuracy and expansion of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. We investigated the mechanism underlying the undesirable radioactivity after subcutaneous injection of (99m)Tc-labeled mannosylated dextran ((99m)Tc(CO)3-DCM20), a SLN mapping agent targeting mannose receptors on macrophages and dendritic cells, in a mouse model. Biodistribution studies were performed 1 h after subcutaneous injection of (99m)Tc(CO)3-DCM20 from the rear footpad of mice in the presence of varying molar amounts of DCM20 or DC15, a modified dextran without mannose. Biodistribution studies were also conducted after subcutaneous injection of [(125)I]radioiodinated mannosyl-neoglycoalbumin ((125)I-NMA) from the rear footpad. The distribution of fluorescence-labeled DCM20 and DC15 at the injection site was also compared 1 h after subcutaneous injection by immunofluorescent histochemistry. The radioactivity levels of (99m)Tc(CO)3-DCM20 at the injection site and popliteal lymph node, a SLN in this model, decreased with an increase in the molar amounts of DCM20, whereas no significant changes in biodistribution were observed after injection of (99m)Tc(CO)3-DCM20 with varying molar amounts of DC15. (125)I-NMA exhibited rapid elimination of radioactivity from both the popliteal lymph node and the injection site. The fluorescence-labeled DCM20 colocalized well with CD68-positive cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells at the injection site. While partial colocalization was observed between DC15 and CD68-positive cells, the signal intensity was very weak. These findings suggest that specific binding of (99m)Tc(CO)3-DCM20 to the mannose receptor on macrophages and dendritic cells would be responsible for the sustained radioactivity levels at the injection site. These results also imply that discriminated blockage of (99m)Tc(CO)3-DCM20 binding to mannose receptors at the injection sites would reduce the radioactivity at the

  14. Nano Liposomes Labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO, a Novel Agent for Blood Pool Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sadri, Kayvan; Momenypoor, Salimeh; Dabbagh Kakhki, Vahid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin; Aryana, Kamran; Johari Daha, Fariba; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    In-vitro labeling of RBC with (99m)Tc is an intricate procedure and there is always a need for an alternate blood pool imaging agent. The aim of this study was to prepare an effective nano sized liposome (NLs) similar to human RBC for blood pool scintigraphy. This study formulates PEG-NLs and non-PEG-NLs using film method plus high pressure homogenization technique. Biodistribution studies were performed on BALB/C mice 1, 4 and 24 h after tail vein injection of labeled NLs with (99m)Tc hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO). Planar images were acquired using a 256 × 256 matrix following(99m) Tc-HMPAO-NLs injection into ear vein of rabbits 1, 2 and 24 h later. SPECT images were obtained 15 minutes after the injection (64 slices, 30 second/projection). The mean diameter, zeta potential and polydispersity index (PDI) of the PEG-NLs and the NLs were (80.88 ± 0.594 nm, -12.5 ± 0.56 mv, 0.158 ± 0.025) and (94.14 ± 0.114 nm, -35.5 ± 0.67 mv and 0.198 ± 0.007), respectively. (99m)Tc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs showed a significant circulation tracer activity (7.74 ± 1.63%ID/g at 1 h and 4.9 ± 0.77 %ID/g at 4 h), with low liver accumulation (12.07 ± 3.66 %ID/g at 1 h and 14.85 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 4 h). Heart to liver, spleen and background ROIs (region of interests) for (99m) Tc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs were 1.25, 4 and 4.28 respectively at 2 h which changed to 1.06, 1.75 and 2.51 respectively at 24 h. The (99m)Tc-HMPAO-PEG-NLs with a prolonged blood circulation time could be an excellent RBC alternative for scintigraphy and gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. Physical phantom evaluation of simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bang-Hung; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Lee, Jhih-Shian; Jan, Meei-Ling; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Simultaneous dual-isotope imaging from two different energy gamma rays such as 99mTc and 123I is a promising technology in nuclear medicine. Its advantages are to abbreviate the acquisition procedure with an identical geometrical registration of the different isotope images, the same physiological condition without motion artifacts, and help patient throughput and comfort. However, the energy photopeaks of 99mTc and 123I radionuclides are very close. We had developed a new approach for accurate cross-talk and scatter corrections in simultaneous 99mTc/ 123I based on independent components analysis (ICA). Nevertheless, a large number of input energy windows are required as ICA input components, which is not useful in clinical application because commercial cameras have only 3-8 energy windows. The aim of this work was to design a new method through wavelet transformation followed by ICA with multiple energy windows (W_eICA) for cross-talk and scatter correction using a smaller number of energy windows in clinical use. There were three cylinders (A-C) with identical volume of 20 ml. Cylinder A was filled with 99mTc solution of 18.5 MBq, cylinder B with 123I solution of 18.5 MBq, and cylinder C with 99mTc solution of 55.5 MBq. The Image matrix size was 128×128 and pixel size was 3.9 mm. Three kinds of images were acquired by energy window setting. (1) For single-isotope imaging only, energy windows of 20% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc and at 159 keV for 123I were used. (2) In the asymmetric energy window method (AEW), energy window of 15% centered at 140 keV for 99mTc in conjunction with 10% asymmetric energy window in an upper bound at 159 keV for 123I was acquired. (3) Then we set six energy windows with 15 keV width ranging from 83 to 173 keV to form six images as input components of ICA. After the W_eICA method derived 99mTc/ 123I images alone, we compared the images from the W_eICA approach and the AEW method. In the results, the recovery rate of 99mTc was 1

  16. [Influence of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on renal function assessed by 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy: comparative analysis between ESWL and percutaneous nephroureterolithotripsy (PNL)].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, H; Hioki, T; Sakurai, M; Arima, K; Yanagawa, M; Sugimura, Y; Tochigi, H; Kawamura, J; Kinoshita, N; Katoh, H

    1994-12-01

    99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was utilized to investigate the influence of ESWL on renal function in comparison with that of PNL. In the beginning, the reproducibility of renal uptake rate by the scintigraphy was examined in eleven healthy volunteers under both non-diuretic and diuretic states. The renal uptake rate was shown to be sufficiently reproducible in the same person in the two different trials. However, the differences and the standard deviations were shown to be a few percentages, which were not statistically significant. Changes in the repeated renal uptake rate seem to indicate not only changes of renal function with the treatment but also some technical errors. Herein, to investigate changes in renal function of the therapeutic side, the uptake ratio rate (rate of uptake rate in the therapeutic side/uptake rate in the contral lateral side) was utilized instead of uptake rate. Renal scintigraphy was carried out in 48 patients with unilateral renal stones before and after ESWL or PNL monotherapy or the combined ESWL and PNL therapies. Within one week of treatment, the uptake ratio rate significantly decreased in patients with PNL or the combined ESWL and PNL, although DMSA uptake rate in the therapeutic side did not significantly changes. Neither renal uptake rate nor uptake ratio rate significantly changed after ESWL treatment. There was no significant difference in changes of uptake ratio rate between Siemens Lithostars Plus and the improved Dornier HM-3 lithotriptors. This study indicated that ESWL monotherapy did not affect the uptake ratio rate, although PNL monotherapy and the combined ESWL and PNL therapies may affect the uptake ratio rate to some extent.

  17. Use of technetium-99m-HM-PAO in the assessment of patients with dementia and other neuropsychiatric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.W.; Besson, J.A.; Gemmell, H.G.; Sharp, P.F.

    1988-12-01

    One hundred fourteen patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions have been studied using 99mTc-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ninety-one patients had a firm clinical diagnosis while 23 were examined without knowledge of the clinical diagnosis. Of the 91 patients, 51 were suffering from dementia, 25 multi-infarct type and 26 Alzheimer's disease. In 19 of the Alzheimer's patients, a characteristic pattern of decreased perfusion in the parieto-occipital regions was demonstrated while those with multi-infarct type showed varying degrees of irregular uptake in the cerebral cortex. These appearances are similar to those shown with positron emission tomography (PET) and we believe that HM-PAO will provide a widely available method for identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease. Twenty-nine patients were suffering from diseases involving the basal ganglia. Fifteen patients with Parkinson's disease showed no significant abnormality in basal ganglia uptake, while 7 or 8 patients with Huntington's disease who had full examinations showed decreased uptake in the caudate nuclei. Similarly, four of six patients with other basal ganglia diseases showed impaired uptake by basal ganglia, and it is concluded that HM-PAO may be useful for the diagnosis and management of this type of patient. Twenty-three patients received HM-PAO imaging as part of their diagnostic work-up; in 19 of them, detailed follow-up was obtained, which indicated that in 7 cases the result of the HM-PAO scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 9 cases resulted in a change in management. In the remaining 13 cases, the study was found to be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of occult abscesses using sup 99m Tc-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Coons, T.A.; Rhodes, B.A. ); Thakur, M.L. ); Marcus, C.S. ); Ballou, B. )

    1991-01-01

    Acute infections, such as appendicitis and occult infections in AIDS patients, can be diagnosed within two hours by gamma scintigraphy after i.v. administration of {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibodies reactive with human granulocytes. The antibody, murine IgM anti-SSEA-1, is partially reduced using Sn(II) to expose and protect reactive sulfide groups. The antibody is then purified, stannous tartrate and stabilizers are added, and the mixture is lyophilized. To label, sodium pertechnetate is added. After a 15 minute incubation the tracer drug is injected. The rate of accumulation and degree of concentration at the site of infection is presumptively determinative of the severity of the infection. Acceptance criteria and tests for the {sup 99m}Tc labeled antibody product have been established and validated. Greater than 93% of the {sup 99m}Tc is firmly bound to the protein as determined by quantitative HPLC. Radiochemical impurities, colloidal {sup 99m}Tc and free pertechnetate are together less than 4% as determined by thin layer chromatography. The immunoreactive fraction, measured by binding to solid phase antigen, and affinity measured be ELISA, are unchanged by the {sup 99m}Tc-direct labeling process. Two hour blood clearance in rats is within 90% of the value of the {sup 125}I labeled analog. The immunoreactive fraction decreases less than 10% when incubated in human plasma for 24 hours. This method has been compared to other direct labeling methods, and found to give higher radiochemical yields. 5 figs.

  19. Simultaneous administration of 111In-human immunoglobulin and 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leucocytes in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Mairal, L; de Lima, P A; Martin-Comin, J; Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Roca, M; Ricart, Y; Ramos, M

    1995-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled leucocytes and indium-111 polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were simultaneously injected into a group of 27 patients routinely referred for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ten-minute anterior abdomen and tail on detector views were obtained at 30 min, 4 h and 24 h p.i. of both tracers. The diagnosis of IBD was obtained in all cases by endoscopy with biopsy and/or surgery. Images were blindly evaluated by two experienced observers who only knew of the clinical suspicion of IBD. IBD was confirmed in 20 patients (12 with Crohn's disease and eight with ulcerative colitis). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 85% and 96% respectively for labelled leucocytes and 70%, 85% and 74% for IgG. Both IgG and leucocyte scans were normal in six out of seven patients in whom a diagnosis of IBD was excluded; the remaining patient, with ischaemic colitis, was falsely positive with both agents. As far as disease extension is concerned, the IgG study localized 27 diseased segments, whereas 49 were seen with the leucocyte study. Eighty-four segments were normal and 25 showed tracer uptake with both agents. Twenty-four were positive only with the leucocyte study and two were positive only with the IgG study. Agreement between the agents was 80.7%. These results confirm that 111In-human polyclonal scintigraphy is less sensitive than 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy both for the diagnosis of IBD and in the evaluation of disease extension. Nevertheless, if leucocyte labelling is not available, labelled IgG can be used only for diagnostic purposes. PMID:7498228

  20. Anticardiolipin antibodies in HIV infection: association with cerebral perfusion defects as detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT.

    PubMed Central

    Rubbert, A; Bock, E; Schwab, J; Marienhagen, J; Nüsslein, H; Wolf, F; Kalden, J R

    1994-01-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) belong to a heterogeneous group of antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. In patients with rheumatic disorders, their presence has been correlated to the occurrence of thromboembolic complications, thrombocytopenia, abortions and other disease manifestations. Several studies have revealed the detection of mostly high-titre ACA in a significant proportion of HIV-infected patients without any known clinical relationship. In our study, ACA were detected in 17/34 HIV-infected patients, and their presence was significantly associated with the detection of cerebral perfusion abnormalities by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. SPECT scans were classified as normal or as focal or diffuse defects in uptake. Most patients (13/16) with cerebral perfusion defects had elevated ACA titres in contrast to 4/18 patients with normal SPECT findings (P = 0.002). Focal uptake defects were always associated with the presence of ACA. No correlation to clinical features or other laboratory parameters was evident. Our results suggest a possible implication of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cerebral perfusion abnormalities detected by SPECT scanning in HIV-infected patients. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance and to develop possible therapeutic consequences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7994900

  1. Detection of diffuse glomerular lesions in rats: II. Comparison of indium-111 cationic small macromolecules with technetium-99m DTPA

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.D.; Lyons, B.; Roskopf, M.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Whaley, D.

    1986-04-01

    Dextrans with average molecular weights of 5000, 10,000, and 17,500 and inulin were rendered cationic by amination with 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide. After limited coupling with DTPA cyclic dianhydride, they were labeled with 111In. A good correlation was found between their early renal uptake quantitated by camera-computer techniques and their renal clearance from multiple plasma samples in rats with glomerular damage induced by puromycin aminonucleoside and controls. However, there was poor correlation between the early renal uptake of these agents and the clearance of simultaneously injected (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA. The 2-hr organ distribution and urinary excretion of these agents were compared with the corresponding values of DTPA. The differences in clearance between rats with glomerular damage and controls were greater with aminated dextran (mol wt 5000) than with DTPA, confirming previous work with infusions of nonradioactive charged dextrans and neutral inulin. The cationic dextrans appear to reflect the presence or absence of the normal anionic charge of the glomerular membrane as well as changes in filtration rate. Aminated inulin did not differentiate between controls and rats with glomerular disease any better than DTPA, probably because the number of amino groups conjugated was insufficient to produce the charge effect.

  2. 99mTc-IgG-Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Malakizadeh, Hasan; Monavvarsadegh, Gholamhossein; Ilkhani Pak, Hoda; Sadeghi, Azadeh; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The discrimination of inactive inflammatory processes from the active form of the disease is of great importance in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-IgG scan for the detection of severity of disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT). Patients and Methods: Eight known cases of ILD including four cases of Mustard gas (MG) intoxication and four patients with ILD of unknown cause were included in this study. A population of six patients without lung disease was considered as the control group. The patients underwent PFT and high-resolution computed tomography, followed by 99mTc-IgG scan. They were followed up for one year. 99mTc-IgG scan assessment of IgG uptake was accomplished both qualitatively (subjectively) and semiquantitatively. Results: All eight ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-IgG uptake in the lungs, compared to the control patients. The 99mTc-IgG scan scores were higher in the patient group (0.64[95% confidence interval(CI)=0.61-0.69])) than the control group (0.35 (0.35[95% CI=0.28-0.40]), (P<0.05)). In patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was detected between 99mTc-IgG scan and HRCT scores (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.92, P < 0.008). The 99mTc-Human Immunoglobulin (HIG) scores were not significantly correlated with PFT findings (including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC), O2 saturation and age ( P values > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between 99mTc-IgG score and HRCT patterns including ground glass opacity, reticular fibrosis and honeycombing (P value > 0.05). Conclusion: The present results confirmed that 99mTc-IgG scan could be applied to detect the severity of pulmonary involvement, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. This data also showed that the 99mTc-IgG scan might be used as a complement to HRCT in the functional evaluation

  3. Technetium-99m human immunoglobulin (HIG): a new substance for scintigraphic detection of bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Machens, H G; Pallua, N; Becker, M; Mailaender, P; Schaller, E; Brenner, P; Bihl, H; Friedl, W; Berger, A

    1996-01-01

    Technetium (99m-Tc)-labelled, polyclonal human immunoglobulin (HIG) has been described as a new agent to detect local infection and inflammation. In this study, we tested 99m-Tc HIG in 55 patients with suspected chronic (n = 42) and acute (n = 13) skeletal infection. Diagnosis was proven operatively (n = 44) and clinically (n = 11), including microbiological culture tests (n = 46). A gamma camera scan was performed 4 and 24 hours after I.v. injection of 500 MBq 99m-Tc-HIG. 99m-Tc-HIG scanning achieved a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 93%. We found one false negative and five false positive scintigraphic results in 55 patients. No clinical or biochemical side effects were encountered after 99m-Tc-HIG injection. We recommend this technique especially for localisation of low-grade, chronic osteomyelitis. The mechanisms and kinetics of 99m-Tc-HIG, however, are worth investigating more extensively.

  4. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance.

  5. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors.

  6. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed. PMID:22642420

  7. Atypical appearance of an hepatic hemangioma with technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.C.; Gruenewald, S.M.; Antico, V.F. )

    1989-11-01

    Three-phase 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy is an established technique for distinguishing hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions. The most widely recognized feature is the perfusion to blood-pool mismatch characterized by decreased or normal arterial perfusion, with lesion activity which progressively increases over 1-2 hr. Although increased arterial vascularity of hemangiomas has been described, such cases either involved small portions of the lesion only or occurred in lesions not conclusively proven to be hemangiomas. We report a case of an angiography proven hemangioma with increased arterial vascularity involving a significant portion of the lesion as well as intense early blood-pool activity similar to that seen on delayed imaging. This case emphasizes the diverse appearance of hepatic hemangiomas using 99mTc blood cell scintigraphy.

  8. Demonstrating patency of STA-MCA anastomosis with Tc-99m albumin microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Etani, H.; Kimura,