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Sample records for 99mtc labeled gnrh

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of pituitary GnRH receptors: significance of the position of photolabel on the ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolics, K.; Szonyi, E.; Ramachandran, J.

    1988-03-08

    Photoreactive derivatives of GnRH and its analogues were prepared by incorporation of the 2-nitro-4(5)-azidophenylsulfenyl (2,4(5)-NAPS) group into amino acid residues at position 1, 3, 6, or 8 of the decapeptide sequence. The modification of Trp/sup 3/ by the 2,4-NAPS group led to a complete loss of the luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing as well as LH-release-inhibiting activity of the peptide. The (D-Lys(2,4-NAPS))/sup 6/ analog was a very potent agonist that, after covalent attachment by photoaffinity labeling, caused prolonged LH secretion at a submaximal rate. (Orn(2,4-NAPS))/sup 8/-GnRH, a full agonist with a relative potency of 7% of GnRH, after photoaffinity labeling caused prolonged maximal LH release from cultured pituitary cells. In contrast, (Orn(2,5-NAPS))/sup 8/-GnRH, although being equipotent with the 2,4-NAPS isomer in terms of LH releasing ability, was unable to cause prolonged LH release after photoaffinity labeling. Thus, (Orn(2,4-NAPS))/sup 8/GnRH is very effective photolabeling ligand of the functionally significant pituitary GnRH receptor. Based on this compound, a pituitary peptidase resistant derivative, D-Phe/sup 6/, (Orn(2,4-NAPS))/sup 8/-GnRH-(1-9)-ethylamide, was synthesized. This derivative showed high-affinity binding to pituitary membranes with a K/sub d/ comparable to those of other GnRH analogues. A radioiodinated form of this peptide was used for pituitary GnRH-receptor labeling. This derivative labeled 59- and 57-kDa proteins in rat and 58- and 56-kDa proteins in bovine pituitary membrane preparations, respectively. This peptide also labeled pituitary GnRH receptors in the solubilized state and therefore appears to be a suitable ligand for the isolation and further characterization of the receptor.

  2. Evaluating disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 99mtc-glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974

  3. Three-dimensional properties of GnRH neuroterminals in the median eminence of young and old rats1

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Weiling; Mendenhall, John M.; Monita, Monique; Gore, Andrea C.

    2010-01-01

    The decapeptide GnRH that regulates reproduction in all vertebrates is stored in, and secreted from, large dense-core secretory vesicles in nerve terminals in the median eminence. GnRH is released from these terminals with biological rhythms that are critical for the maintenance of normal reproduction. During reproductive aging in female rats, there is a loss of GnRH pulses and a diminution of the GnRH surge. However, information about the specific role of GnRH nerve terminals is lacking, particularly in the context of aging. We sought to gain novel ultrastructural information about GnRH neuroterminals by performing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of GnRH neuroterminals and their surrounding microenvironment in the median eminence of young (4-5 month) and old (22-24 month) ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley female rats. Median eminence tissues were freeze-plunge embedded, and serial ultrathin sections were collected on slot grids for immunogold labeling of GnRH immunoreactivity. Sequential images were used to create 3D models of GnRH terminals. These reconstructions provided novel perspectives into the morphological properties of GnRH terminals, and their neural and glial environment. We also noted that the cytoarchitectural features of the median eminence became disorganized with aging. Quantitative measures showed a significant decrease in the apposition between GnRH terminal membranes and glial cells. Our data suggest reproductive aging in rats is characterized by structural organizational changes to the GnRH terminal microenvironment in the median eminence. PMID:19757493

  4. Hedgehog-PKA Signaling and gnrh3 Regulate the Development of Zebrafish gnrh3 Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Wei; Lou, Show-Wan; Chung, Bon-chu

    2014-01-01

    GnRH neurons secrete GnRH that controls the development of the reproduction system. Despite many studies, the signals controlling the development of GnRH neurons from its progenitors have not been fully established. To understand the development of GnRH neurons, we examined the development of gnrh3-expressing cells using a transgenic zebrafish line that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) and LacZ driven by the gnrh3 promoter. GFP and LacZ expression recapitulated that of gnrh3 in the olfactory region, olfactory bulb and telencephalon. Depletion of gnrh3 by morpholinos led to a reduction of GFP- and gnrh3-expressing cells, while over-expression of gnrh3 mRNA increased the number of these cells. This result indicates a positive feed-forward regulation of gnrh3 cells by gnrh3. The gnrh3 cells were absent in embryos that lack Hedgehog signaling, but their numbers were increased in embryos overexpressing shhb. We manipulated the amounts of kinase that antagonizes the Hedgehog signaling pathway, protein kinase A (PKA), by treating embryos with PKA activator forskolin or by injecting mRNAs encoding its constitutively active catalytic subunit (PKA*) and dominant negative regulatory subunit (PKI) into zebrafish embryos. PKA* misexpression or forskolin treatment decreased GFP cell numbers, while PKI misexpression led to ectopic production of GFP cells. Our data indicate that the Hedgehog-PKA pathway participates in the development of gnrh3-expressing neurons during embryogenesis. PMID:24879419

  5. Differential co-localization with choline acetyltransferase in nervus terminalis suggests functional differences for GnRH isoforms in bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo)

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, John F.; Meredith, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The nervus terminalis (NT) is a vertebrate cranial nerve whose function in adults is unknown. In bonnethead sharks the nerve is anatomically independent of the olfactory system, with two major cell populations within one or more ganglia along its exposed length. Most cells are immunoreactive for either gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or RFamide-like peptides. To define further the cell populations and connectivity, we used double-label immuno-cytochemistry with antisera to different isoforms of GnRH and to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The labeling patterns of two GnRH antisera revealed different populations of GnRH immunoreactive (ir) cell-profiles in the NT ganglion. One antiserum labeled a large group of cells and fibers, which likely contain mammalian GnRH (GnRH-I) as described in previous studies, and which were ChAT immunoreactive. The other antiserum labeled large club-like structures, which were anuclear, and a sparse number of fibers, but with no clear labeling of cell bodies in the ganglion. These club structures were choline acetyltrasferase (ChAT) negative, and preabsorption control tests suggest they may contain chicken-GnRH-II (GnRH-II) or dogfish GnRH. The second major NT ganglion cell-type was immunoreactive for RF-amides, which regulate GnRH release in other vertebrates, and may provide an intraganglionic influence on GnRH release. The immunocytochemical and anatomical differences between the two GnRH immunoreactive profile types indicate possible functional differences for these isoforms in the NT. The club-like structures may be sites of GnRH release into the general circulation since these structures were observed near blood vessels and resembled structures seen in the median eminence of rats. PMID:20950589

  6. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram inhibits GnRH synthesis and spermatogenesis in the male zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants for the treatment of depression. However, SSRIs cause sexual side effects such as anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction, and diminished libido that are thought to be mediated through the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play an important role in the control of reproduction. To elucidate the neuroendocrine mechanisms of SSRI-induced reproductive failure, we examined the neuronal association between 5-HT and GnRH (GnRH2 and GnRH3) systems in the male zebrafish. Double-label immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy followed by three-dimensional construction analysis showed close associations between 5-HT fibers with GnRH3 fibers and preoptic-GnRH3 cell bodies, but there was no association with GnRH2 cell bodies and fibers. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that short-term treatment (2 wk) with low to medium doses (4 and 40 μg/L, respectively) of citalopram significantly decreased mRNA levels of gnrh3, gonadotropins (lhb and fshb) and 5-HT-related genes (tph2 and sert) in the male zebrafish. In addition, short-term citalopram treatment significantly decreased the fluorescence density of 5-HT and GnRH3 fibers compared with controls. Short-term treatment with low, medium, and high (100 μg/L) citalopram doses had no effects on the profiles of different stages of spermatogenesis, while long-term (1 mo) citalopram treatment with medium and high doses significantly inhibited the different stages of spermatogenesis. These results show morphological and functional associations between the 5-HT and the hypophysiotropic GnHR3 system, which involve SSRI-induced reproductive failures.

  7. Molluscan GnRH associated with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Osada, Makoto; Treen, Nicholas

    2013-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neuropeptide that has an essential role in the neural regulation of vertebrate reproduction. Over the past two decades there has been increasing evidence strongly indicating that members of the GnRH superfamily, which includes GnRH, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), corazonin (Crz) and adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptides (ACP), are almost ubiquitous amongst bilateral animals. Moreover GnRH possibly has origins in even more ancient, non-bilateral ancestors. Current knowledge about molluscan GnRH has been accumulated regarding immunological identification, physiological function and sequence analysis. In the present review we summarized a current status of molluscan GnRH research and focus on its role in the reproduction of the molluscs. In cephalopods and gastropods the presence of a GnRH-like peptide was detected with heterologous antibodies and the identified GnRH was suggested to be involved with behavior and reproduction. Reproductive roles for GnRH have been confirmed in both bivalve and cephalopod molluscs. These findings will provide useful insights into the evolution of reproductive endocrinology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kisspeptin Excitation of GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin binding to its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPR54, aka Kiss1R) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons stimulates peptide release and activation of the reproductive axis in mammals. Kisspeptin has pronounced pre- and postsynaptic effects, with the latter dominating the excitability of GnRH neurons. Presynaptically, kisspeptin increases the excitatory drive (both GABA-A and glutamate) to GnRH neurons and postsynaptically, kisspeptin inhibits an A-type and inwardly rectifying K + (Kir 6.2 and GIRK) currents and activates nonselective cation (TRPC) currents to cause long-lasting depolarization and increased action potential firing. The signaling cascades and the multiple intracellular targets of kisspeptin actions in native GnRH neurons are continuing to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current state of knowledge about kisspeptin signaling in GnRH neurons. PMID:23550004

  9. Embryo implantation and GnRH antagonists: embryo implantation: the Rubicon for GnRH antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, E R

    2000-06-01

    When gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was discovered, the agonist and antagonist of GnRH were developed to control the release of FSH and LH by the gonadotrophs. More than 10 years of research were needed to develop a GnRH antagonist free of histamine release. Recent studies have shown that these GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a rise in LH during ovarian stimulation in IVF. However, a decrease in ongoing pregnancies seems to suggest that implantation rates per transferred embryo are reduced in GnRH antagonist-stimulated cycles. In my opinion, these data highlight an area less well known to clinicians: the role of the GnRH antagonist at the cellular level in extrapituitary tissues. There are sufficient data in the literature suggesting that GnRH antagonist is an inhibitor of the cell cycle by decreasing the synthesis of growth factors. Given that, for folliculogenesis, blastomere formation and endometrium development, mitosis is everything; the interaction between the GnRH antagonist and the GnRH receptor (present in all these cells and tissues) may compromise the mitotic programme of these cells. This is the Rubicon for the GnRH antagonist: to demonstrate irrevocably that, at the minimal doses necessary to suppress LH release, it does not affect processes such as implantation, embryo development and folliculogenesis.

  10. Dendritic spine plasticity in gonadatropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons activated at the time of the preovulatory surge.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi; Prescott, Melanie; Ong, ZhiYi; Herde, Michel K; Herbison, Allan E; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2011-12-01

    GnRH neuron activity is dependent on gonadal steroid hormone feedback. Altered synaptic input may be one mechanism by which steroids modify GnRH neuron activity. In other neuronal populations, steroid hormones have been shown to elicit profound effects on dendritic spine density, a measure of excitatory synaptic input. The present study examined gonadal steroid feedback effects on GnRH neuron spine density in female GnRH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice. Immunocytochemical labeling of GFP in this model reveals fine morphological details of GnRH neurons. Spine density and other features were quantified by confocal analysis. Ovariectomy resulted in a significant reduction in somatic spine density (27%, P < 0.05) compared with sham-operated diestrous females. However, dendritic spine density was unaltered. Positive feedback effects of estradiol on spine density were investigated using a protocol to mimic the GnRH/LH surge. Ten GnRH-GFP mice underwent an established protocol, receiving either estradiol benzoate (1 μg per 20 g body weight) or vehicle (n = 5/group) 32 h prior to being killed during the expected surge. Double-label immunofluorescence showed that all estradiol-treated females expressed cFos in a subpopulation of GnRH neurons. Spine density was determined by confocal analysis of activated (cFos-positive, n = 10 neurons/animal) and nonactivated (cFos-negative, n = 10 neurons/animal) GnRH neurons from estradiol-treated animals and for GnRH neurons (n = 20 neurons/animal) from nonsurged controls (all cFos negative). Activated GnRH neurons (cFos positive) showed a dramatic 60% increase in total spine density (0.78 ± 0.06 spines/μm) compared with nonactivated GnRH neurons (0.50 ± 0.01 spines/μm) in estradiol-treated animals (P < 0.001). Both somatic and dendritic spine density was significantly increased. Spine density was not different between nonactivated GnRH neurons from surged animals (0.50 ± 0.01 spines/μm) and GnRH neurons from nonsurged

  11. The hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator: multiple regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Krsmanovic, Lazar Z; Hu, Lian; Leung, Po-Ki; Feng, Hao; Catt, Kevin J

    2009-10-01

    Pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release is an intrinsic property of hypothalamic GnRH neurons. Pulse generation has been attributed to multiple specific mechanisms, including spontaneous electrical activity of GnRH neurons, calcium and cAMP signaling, a GnRH receptor autocrine regulatory component, a GnRH concentration-dependent switch in GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) coupling to specific G proteins, the expression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and steroid receptors, and homologous and heterologous interactions between cell membrane receptors expressed in GnRH neurons. The coexistence of multiple regulatory mechanisms for pulsatile GnRH secretion provides a high degree of redundancy in maintaining this crucial component of the mammalian reproductive process. These studies provide insights into the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in GnRH neuronal function.

  12. Risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in GnRH antagonist versus GnRH agonist protocol: RCT including 1050 first IVF/ICSI cycles.

    PubMed

    Toftager, M; Bogstad, J; Bryndorf, T; Løssl, K; Roskær, J; Holland, T; Prætorius, L; Zedeler, A; Nilas, L; Pinborg, A

    2016-06-01

    Is the risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) similar in a short GnRH antagonist and long GnRH agonist protocol in first cycle IVF/ICSI patients less than 40 years of age?. There is an increased risk of severe OHSS in the long GnRH agonist group compared with the short GnRH antagonist protocol. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: In the most recent Cochrane review, the GnRH antagonist protocol was associated with a similar live birth rate (LBR), a similar on-going pregnancy rate (OPR), and a lower incidence of OHSS (odds ratio (OR) = 0.43 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.57) compared with the traditional GnRH agonist protocol. Previous trials comparing the two protocols mainly included selected patient populations, a limited number of patients and the applied OHSS criteria differed, making direct comparisons difficult. In two recent large meta-analyses, no significant differences in LBR (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.72-1.02) or in the incidence of severe OHSS were reported, while others found a lower LBR (OR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.97) and a reduced risk of severe OHSS using the GnRH antagonist protocol (OR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Phase IV, dual-centre, open-label, RCT including 1050 women allocated to either short GnRH antagonist or long GnRH agonist protocol in a 1:1 ratio and enrolled over a 5-year period using a web-based concealed randomization code. This is a superiority study designed to detect a difference in severe OHSS, the primary outcome, between the two groups with a power of 80% and stratified for age, assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinic and planned fertilization procedure (IVF/ICSI). The secondary aims were to compare rates of mild and moderate OHSS, positive plasma (p)-hCG, on-going pregnancy and live birth between the two arms. None of the women had undergone previous ART treatment. All infertile women referred for their first IVF/ICSI at two public fertility clinics, less than 40 years of age and with no uterine malformations were

  13. LH response to GnRH blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Luteinizing hormone response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... GnRH is a hormone made by the hypothalamus gland. LH is made by the pituitary gland. GnRH causes (stimulates) the pituitary gland to ...

  14. Neurokinin B Causes Acute GnRH Secretion and Repression of GnRH Transcription in GT1–7 GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Glidewell-Kenney, Christine A.; Shao, Paul P.; Iyer, Anita K.; Grove, Anna M. H.; Meadows, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies in human patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) identified mutations in the genes that encode neurokinin B (NKB) and the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R). However, determining the mechanism whereby NKB regulates gonadotropin secretion has been difficult because of conflicting results from in vivo studies investigating the luteinizing hormone (LH) response to senktide, a NK3R agonist. NK3R is expressed in a subset of GnRH neurons and in kisspeptin neurons that are known to regulate GnRH secretion. Thus, one potential source of inconsistency is that NKB could produce opposing direct and indirect effects on GnRH secretion. Here, we employ the GT1-7 cell model to elucidate the direct effects of NKB on GnRH neuron function. We find that GT1-7 cells express NK3R and respond to acute senktide treatment with c-Fos induction and increased GnRH secretion. In contrast, long-term senktide treatment decreased GnRH secretion. Next, we focus on the examination of the mechanism underlying the long-term decrease in secretion and determine that senktide treatment represses transcription of GnRH. We further show that this repression of GnRH transcription may involve enhanced c-Fos protein binding at novel activator protein-1 (AP-1) half-sites identified in enhancer 1 and the promoter, as well as chromatin remodeling at the promoter of the GnRH gene. These data indicate that NKB could directly regulate secretion from NK3R-expressing GnRH neurons. Furthermore, whether the response is inhibitory or stimulatory toward GnRH secretion could depend on the history or length of exposure to NKB because of a repressive effect on GnRH transcription. PMID:23393128

  15. GnRH binding RNA and DNA Spiegelmers: a novel approach toward GnRH antagonism.

    PubMed

    Leva, Susanne; Lichte, Andrea; Burmeister, Jens; Muhn, Peter; Jahnke, Birgit; Fesser, Dirk; Erfurth, Jeannette; Burgstaller, Petra; Klussmann, Sven

    2002-03-01

    Mirror-image oligonucleotide ligands (Spiegelmers) that bind to the pharmacologically relevant target gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH) with high affinity and high specificity have been identified using the Spiegelmer technology. GnRH is a decapeptide that plays an important role in mammalian reproduction and sexual maturation and is associated with several benign and malignant diseases. First, aptamers that bind to D-GnRH with dissociation constants of 50-100 nM were isolated out of RNA and DNA libraries. The respective enantiomers of the DNA and RNA aptamers were synthesized, and their binding to L-GnRH was shown. These Spiegelmers bind to L-GnRH with similar affinity to that of the corresponding aptamers that bind to D-GnRH. We further demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of GnRH-induced Ca(2+) release in Chinese hamster ovary cells that were stably transfected with the human GnRH receptor.

  16. GnRH antagonists may affect endometrial receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Rackow, Beth W.; Kliman, Harvey J.; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2009-01-01

    Study objective HOXA10 is an essential regulator of endometrial receptivity. To determine the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists on endometrial receptivity we assessed endometrial HOXA10 expression in GnRH antagonist, GnRH agonist, and natural cycles. Design Prospective case-control study Setting University academic medical center Patients Nineteen subjects were included: 12 subjects underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) and used either a GnRH antagonist or a GnRH agonist; 7 control subjects underwent natural cycles. Interventions Pipelle endometrial biopsies were obtained 11 days after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration or spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in untreated cycles, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess HOXA10 protein expression in endometrial glands and stroma. Main outcome measure(s) Endometrial HOXA10 protein expression Results HOXA10 expression was significantly decreased in endometrial stromal cells in GnRH antagonist treated cycles compared with GnRH agonist treated cycles or natural cycle controls. There was no significant difference in glandular cell HOXA10 expression among the three groups. Conclusions Use of GnRH antagonists may be associated with impaired HOXA10 expression in endometrial stromal cells, and thus may affect endometrial receptivity. PMID:18410932

  17. Kisspeptin Activates Ankrd 26 Gene Expression in Migrating Embryonic GnRH Neurons.

    PubMed

    Soga, Tomoko; Lim, Wei Ling; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin, a newly discovered neuropeptide, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptins are a large RF-amide family of peptides. The kisspeptin coded by KiSS-1 gene is a 145-amino acid protein that is cleaved to C-terminal peptide kisspeptin-10. G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) has been identified as a kisspeptin receptor, and it is expressed in GnRH neurons and in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) labeled GnRH cells with migratory properties, which express GPR54, served as a model to study the effects of kisspeptin on cell migration. We monitored EGFP-GnRH neuronal migration in brain slide culture of embryonic day 14 transgenic rat by live cell imaging system and studied the effects of kisspeptin-10 (1 nM) treatment for 36 h on GnRH migration. Furthermore, to determine kisspeptin-induced molecular pathways related with apoptosis and cytoskeletal changes during neuronal migration, we studied the expression levels of candidate genes in laser-captured EGFP-GnRH neurons by real-time PCR. We found that there was no change in the expression level of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expression of ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein (ankrd) 26 in EGFP-GnRH neurons was upregulated by the exposure to kisspeptin. These studies suggest that ankrd 26 gene plays an unidentified role in regulating neuronal movement mediated by kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling, which could be a potential pathway to suppress cell migration.

  18. Kisspeptin Activates Ankrd 26 Gene Expression in Migrating Embryonic GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Soga, Tomoko; Lim, Wei Ling; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin, a newly discovered neuropeptide, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptins are a large RF-amide family of peptides. The kisspeptin coded by KiSS-1 gene is a 145-amino acid protein that is cleaved to C-terminal peptide kisspeptin-10. G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) has been identified as a kisspeptin receptor, and it is expressed in GnRH neurons and in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) labeled GnRH cells with migratory properties, which express GPR54, served as a model to study the effects of kisspeptin on cell migration. We monitored EGFP–GnRH neuronal migration in brain slide culture of embryonic day 14 transgenic rat by live cell imaging system and studied the effects of kisspeptin-10 (1 nM) treatment for 36 h on GnRH migration. Furthermore, to determine kisspeptin-induced molecular pathways related with apoptosis and cytoskeletal changes during neuronal migration, we studied the expression levels of candidate genes in laser-captured EGFP–GnRH neurons by real-time PCR. We found that there was no change in the expression level of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expression of ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein (ankrd) 26 in EGFP–GnRH neurons was upregulated by the exposure to kisspeptin. These studies suggest that ankrd 26 gene plays an unidentified role in regulating neuronal movement mediated by kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling, which could be a potential pathway to suppress cell migration. PMID:26973595

  19. Human GnRH deficiency: a unique disease model to unravel the ontogeny of GnRH neurons.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew; Seminara, Stephanie B; Pitteloud, Nelly; Kaiser, Ursula B; Crowley, William F

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary survival of a species is largely a function of its reproductive fitness. In mammals, a sparsely populated and widely dispersed network of hypothalamic neurons, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, serve as the pilot light of reproduction via coordinated secretion of GnRH. Since it first description, human GnRH deficiency has been recognized both clinically and genetically as a heterogeneous disease. A spectrum of different reproductive phenotypes comprised of congenital GnRH deficiency with anosmia (Kallmann syndrome), congenital GnRH deficiency with normal olfaction (normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism), and adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been described. In the last two decades, several genes and pathways which govern GnRH ontogeny have been discovered by studying humans with GnRH deficiency. More importantly, detailed study of these patients has highlighted the emerging theme of oligogenicity and genotypic synergism, and also expanded the phenotypic diversity with the documentation of reversal of GnRH deficiency later in adulthood in some patients. The underlying genetic defect has also helped understand the associated nonreproductive phenotypes seen in some of these patients. These insights now provide practicing clinicians with targeted genetic diagnostic strategies and also impact on clinical management. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Human GnRH Deficiency: A Unique Disease Model to Unravel the Ontogeny of GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Dwyer, Andrew; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Pitteloud, Nelly; Kaiser, Ursula B.; Crowley, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary survival of a species is largely a function of its reproductive fitness. In mammals, a sparsely populated and widely dispersed network of hypothalamic neurons, the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, serve as the pilot light of reproduction via coordinated secretion of GnRH. Since it first description, human GnRH deficiency has been recognized both clinically and genetically as a heterogeneous disease. A spectrum of different reproductive phenotypes comprised of congenital GnRH deficiency with anosmia (Kallmann syndrome), congenital GnRH deficiency with normal olfaction (normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism), and adult-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been described. In the last two decades, several genes and pathways which govern GnRH ontogeny have been discovered by studying humans with GnRH deficiency. More importantly, detailed study of these patients has highlighted the emerging theme of oligogenicity and genotypic synergism, and also expanded the phenotypic diversity with the documentation of reversal of GnRH deficiency later in adulthood in some patients. The underlying genetic defect has also helped understand the associated nonreproductive phenotypes seen in some of these patients. These insights now provide practicing clinicians with targeted genetic diagnostic strategies and also impact on clinical management. PMID:20606386

  1. Real-Time GnRH Gene Transcription in GnRH Promoter-Driven Luciferase-Expressing Transgenic Mice: Effect of Kisspeptin.

    PubMed

    Choe, Han Kyoung; Chun, Sung Kook; Kim, Jeongah; Kim, Doyeon; Kim, Hee-Dae; Kim, Kyungjin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is indispensable for controlling proper pituitary gonadotrope functions; however, the mechanism underlying GnRH pulse generation remains largely unknown. It is important to understand the cellular oscillator in individual GnRH neurons and temporal synchronization among GnRH neurons. In this brief review, we summarize our recent findings on episodic GnRH gene transcription at the single GnRH neuron level and in synchronized multicellular burst in relation to the temporal pattern of GnRH secretion. We also detail the effects of kisspeptin on ultradian rhythmic GnRH gene transcription and secretion. We extend our discussion to the hierarchical interaction between circadian and ultradian rhythms. Taken together, the current review elucidates the genomic control of GnRH pulse generation in hypothalamic neurons.

  2. Six-month gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist depots provide efficacy, safety, convenience, and comfort

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, E David; Phillips, Jason M

    2011-01-01

    Two different 6-month GnRH agonist depot formulations approved for palliative treatment of advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States – leuprolide acetate 45 mg and triptorelin pamoate 22.5 mg – provide patients with efficacy and safety comparable to those of existing 1-, 3-, and 4-month GnRH agonist depots. However, the 6-month formulations can increase patient convenience, comfort, and compliance by reducing the number of physician visits and injections required. At the conclusion of their pivotal trials, the 6-month formulations demonstrated efficacy rates in achieving chemical castration (serum testosterone ≤50 ng/dL) that ranged between 93% and 99%. As with existing GnRH agonist depot formulations, hot flashes represented the most common adverse event reported in trials of 6-month leuprolide acetate or triptorelin. As such, these products may prove useful not only for their labeled indication, but also as adjuncts to other treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. We recommend further research, including head-to-head trials between the 6-month GnRH depots, to refine our understanding of these products. PMID:21847353

  3. Distinct sequence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in dogfish brain provides insight into GnRH evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, D A; Fischer, W H; Ngamvongchon, S; Craig, A G; Nahorniak, C S; Peter, R E; Rivier, J E; Sherwood, N M

    1992-01-01

    In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) belongs to a family of decapeptides characterized by the conservation of residues 1, 2, 4, 9, and 10. In the jawed vertebrates only positions 5, 7, and 8 in the GnRH molecules vary. We have now purified two forms of GnRH from the brains of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The primary structures were established by automated Edman degradation and mass spectral analysis. The distinct structure of the first form (dogfish GnRH) is pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-His-Gly-Trp-Leu-Pro-Gly-NH2 (pGlu represents pyroglutamyl). The second peptide is identical to a form of GnRH originally isolated from chicken brains (chicken GnRH-II; pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-His-Gly-Trp-Tyr- Pro-Gly-NH2) and is widespread throughout the vertebrates. We are aware of no other species of cartilaginous fish in which the primary structures of two forms of GnRH have been determined. The presence of chicken GnRH-II in dogfish supports the idea that chicken GnRH-II is the oldest GnRH to evolve in jawed vertebrates. With the addition of the dogfish GnRH structure to the family, two main structural branches of GnRH can be delineated. The physiological effects of dogfish GnRH included the release of not only gonadotropin but also growth hormone from goldfish pituitary fragments. PMID:1631133

  4. Physiology of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurone: studies from embryonic GnRH neurones.

    PubMed

    Constantin, S

    2011-06-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-secreting neurones are the final output of the central nervous system driving fertility in all mammals. Although it has been known for decades that the efficiency of communication between the hypothalamus and the pituitary depends on the pulsatile profile of GnRH secretion, how GnRH neuronal activity is patterned to generate pulses at the median eminence is unknown. To date, the scattered distribution of the GnRH cell bodies remains the main limitation to assessing the cellular events that could lead to pulsatile GnRH secretion. Taking advantage of the unique developmental feature of GnRH neurones, the nasal explant model allows primary GnRH neurones to be maintained within a micro-network where pulsatile secretion is preserved and where individual cellular activity can be monitored simultaneously across the cell population. This review summarises the data obtained from work using this in vitro model, and brings some insights into GnRH cellular physiology.

  5. Cloning and functional analysis of promoters of three GnRH genes in a cichlid

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahashi, Takashi; Sato, Hideki; Sakuma, Yasuo; Parhar, Ishwar S. . E-mail: ishwar@nms.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Mechanisms regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) types, a key molecule for reproductive physiology, remain unclear. In the present study, we cloned the promoters of GnRH1, GnRH2, and GnRH3 genes in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; and found putative binding sites for glucocorticoid receptors, Sp1, C/EBP, GATA, and Oct-1, but not for androgen receptors in all three GnRH promoters using computer analysis. The presence of binding sites for progesterone receptors in GnRH1, estrogen receptors in GnRH1 and GnRH2, and thyroid hormone receptors in GnRH1 and GnRH3 suggests direct action of steroid hormones on GnRH types. Our observation of SOX and LINE-like sequences exclusively in GnRH1, COUP in GnRH2, and retinoid X receptors in GnRH3 suggests their role in sexual differentiation, midbrain segmentation, and visual cue integration, respectively. Thus, the characteristic binding sites for nuclear receptors and transcription factors support the notion that each GnRH type is regulated differently and has distinct physiological roles.

  6. Identification and expression of GnRH2 and GnRH3 in the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), a hermaphroditic teleost.

    PubMed

    Morin, Scott J; Decatur, Wayne A; Breton, Timothy S; Marquis, Timothy J; Hayes, Mary K; Berlinsky, David L; Sower, Stacia A

    2015-04-01

    We cloned two cDNAs for two gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-II) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), respectively, from the black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Black sea bass are protogynous hermaphroditic teleosts that change from females to males between 2 and 5 years of age. Similar to other GnRH precursors, the precursors of black sea bass GnRH2 and GnRH23 consisted of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide. Our analyses failed to identify GnRH1. GnRH3 precursor transcript was more widely distributed in a variety of tissues compared with GnRH2. Further examination of GnRH expression and gonadal histology was done in black sea bass from three different size groups: small (11.4-44.1 g), medium (179.4-352.2 g) and large (393.8-607.3 g). Interestingly, GnRH3 expression occurred only in the pituitaries of males in the small and medium groups compared with expression of GnRH2. Future functional studies of the sea bass GnRHs will be valuable in elucidating the potential underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms of black sea bass reproduction and may ultimately contribute to management advances in this commercially important fish.

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) variants in a lizard brain: is mammalian GnRH being expressed?

    PubMed

    Montaner, A D; Gonzalez, O; Paz, D A; Affanni, J M; Somoza, G M

    2000-08-01

    In reptiles as in other vertebrates, multiple forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) within a single brain have been identified. In this group the following GnRH molecular variants have been characterized either by direct or indirect methods: chicken GnRH I (cGnRH-I), chicken GnRH II (cGnRH-II), salmon GnRH (sGnRH) and several unidentified GnRH-like forms. In the present study GnRH variants were investigated in brain extracts of the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (= T. merinae) by combining high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) followed by radioimmunoassays (RIA). Two peaks showing GnRH immunoreactivity with the elution position of synthetic mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) and cGnRH-II were detected. Both peaks were further analyzed with different radioimmunoassay systems specific for mGnRH, cGnRH-I, and cGnRH-II. Pooled fractions corresponding to the first eluting peak showed no crossreactivity when analyzed with a cGnRH-I specific assay and logit-log displacement curves were not significantly different from those of synthetic mGnRH with homologous RIA systems. The second peak showed immunological characteristics of cGnRH-II when analyzed with a specific antiserum. The first ir-GnRH peak was selected for further RP-HPLC purification showing similar chromatographic behavior as mGnRH synthetic standard. We demonstrated the absence of cGnRH-I in this lizard using well-characterized antisera.

  8. Estrogen Regulation of Gene Expression in GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Yewade; Wolfe, Andrew; Novaira, Horacio J.; Radovick, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen plays an essential role in the regulation of the female reproductive hormone axis and specifically is a major regulator of GnRH neuronal function in the female brain. GnRH neuronal cell lines were used to explore the direct effects of estradiol on gene expression in GnRH neurons. The presence of estrogen receptor (ER) binding sites was established by a receptor binding assay and estrogen receptor α and β mRNA were identified in GN11 cells and ERβ in GT1-7 cells using RT-PCR analysis of mRNA. ERα was more abundantly expressed in GN11 cells than ERβ as assessed by real time PCR. Additionally, GN11 cells expressed significantly more of both ERα and β than GT1-7 cells. Functional studies in GN11 and GT1-7 demonstrated estrogen down regulation of endogenous mouse GnRH mRNA levels using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Correspondingly, estradiol also reduced secretion of GnRH from both the GN11 and GT1-7 cell lines. Since estradiol has been shown to regulate progesterone receptor (PR) expression; similar studies were performed demonstrating an estradiol mediated increase in PR in both cell lines. Estradiol regulation of ER expression was also explored and these studies indicated that estradiol decreased ERα and ERβ mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner in GN11 and GT1-7 cells. These effects were blocked by the addition of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Both PPT, a specific ERα agonist, and DPN, a specific ERβ agonist, inhibited GnRH gene expression in GN11 cells, but only DPN inhibited GnRH gene expression in GT1-7 cells, consistent with their undetectable levels of ERα expression. These studies characterize a direct inhibitory effect of estradiol on GnRH in GnRH neurons, and a direct stimulatory effect of estradiol on PR gene expression. In addition, the agonist studies indicate there is a functional overlap of ERα and ERβ regulation in GnRH neurons. These studies may give insight into the molecular regulation of estrogen

  9. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in assisted reproduction cycles: oocyte morphology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The selection of developmentally competent human gametes may increase the efficiency of assisted reproduction. Spermatozoa and oocytes are usually assessed according to morphological criteria. Oocyte morphology can be affected by the age, genetic characteristics, and factors related to controlled ovarian stimulation. However, there is a lack of evidence in the literature concerning the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, either agonists or antagonists, on oocyte morphology. The aim of this randomized study was to investigate whether the prevalence of oocyte dysmorphism is influenced by the type of pituitary suppression used in ovarian stimulation. Methods A total of 64 patients in the first intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle were prospectively randomized to receive treatment with either a GnRH agonist with a long-term protocol (n: 32) or a GnRH antagonist with a multi-dose protocol (n: 32). Before being subjected to ICSI, the oocytes at metaphase II from both groups were morphologically analyzed under an inverted light microscope at 400x magnification. The oocytes were classified as follows: normal or with cytoplasmic dysmorphism, extracytoplasmic dysmorphism, or both. The number of dysmorphic oocytes per total number of oocytes was analyzed. Results Out of a total of 681 oocytes, 189 (27.8 %) were morphologically normal, 220 (32.3 %) showed cytoplasmic dysmorphism, 124 (18.2%) showed extracytoplasmic alterations, and 148 (21.7%) exhibited both types of dysmorphism. No significant difference in oocyte dysmorphism was observed between the agonist- and antagonist-treated groups (P ≫ 0.05). Analysis for each dysmorphism revealed that the most common conditions were alterations in polar body shape (31.3%) and the presence of diffuse cytoplasmic granulations (22.8%), refractile bodies (18.5%) and central cytoplasmic granulations (13.6%). There was no significant difference among individual oocyte dysmorphisms in the

  10. GnRH Analogues in the Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alama, Pilar; Bellver, Jose; Vidal, Carmen; Giles, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The GnRH analogue (agonist and antagonist GnRH) changed ovarian stimulation. On the one hand, it improved chances of pregnancy to obtain more oocytes and better embryos. This leads to an ovarian hyper-response, which can be complicated by the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). On the other hand, the GnRH analogue can prevent the incidence of OHSS: GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation, either together or separately, coasting, and the GnRH analogue may prove useful for avoiding OHSS in high-risk patients. We review these topics in this article. PMID:23825982

  11. The interrelationship of estrogen receptor and GnRH in a Basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Sower, Stacia A; Baron, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a vertebrate innovation and seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans. Lampreys are the earliest evolved vertebrates for which there is a demonstrated neuroendocrine system. Lampreys have three hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs; lGnRH-I, -II, and -III) and two and possibly three pituitary GnRH receptors involved in mediating reproductive processes. Estradiol is considered to be a major reproductive steroid in both male and female lampreys. The purpose of this study was to investigate estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the lamprey brain in adult sea lampreys. Expression of ER mRNA was confirmed in the adult lamprey brain using RT-PCR. Using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled probes, ER expression was shown to yield moderate, but distinct reaction products in specific neuronal nuclei of the lamprey brain, including the olfactory lobe, hypothalamus, habenular area, and hindbrain. Expression of ER in the hypothalamic area of the brain provides evidence of potential interaction between estradiol and GnRH(s), and is consistent with previous evidence showing estrogen feedback on GnRH in adult lamprey brain. Earlier studies have reported that there is a close distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; GABA-synthesizing enzyme) and lamprey GnRH in the preoptic region in adult lampreys. The establishment of a direct estradiol-kisspeptin-GABA-GnRH interaction in lamprey has yet to be determined and will require future functional and co-localization studies. The phylogenetic position of lampreys as a basal vertebrate allows lampreys to be a basis for understanding the molecular evolution of the neuroendocrine system that arose in the vertebrates.

  12. The Interrelationship of Estrogen Receptor and GnRH in a Basal Vertebrate, the Sea Lamprey

    PubMed Central

    Sower, Stacia A.; Baron, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a vertebrate innovation and seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans. Lampreys are the earliest evolved vertebrates for which there is a demonstrated neuroendocrine system. Lampreys have three hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs; lGnRH-I, -II, and -III) and two and possibly three pituitary GnRH receptors involved in mediating reproductive processes. Estradiol is considered to be a major reproductive steroid in both male and female lampreys. The purpose of this study was to investigate estrogen receptor (ER) expression in the lamprey brain in adult sea lampreys. Expression of ER mRNA was confirmed in the adult lamprey brain using RT-PCR. Using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled probes, ER expression was shown to yield moderate, but distinct reaction products in specific neuronal nuclei of the lamprey brain, including the olfactory lobe, hypothalamus, habenular area, and hindbrain. Expression of ER in the hypothalamic area of the brain provides evidence of potential interaction between estradiol and GnRH(s), and is consistent with previous evidence showing estrogen feedback on GnRH in adult lamprey brain. Earlier studies have reported that there is a close distribution of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; GABA-synthesizing enzyme) and lamprey GnRH in the preoptic region in adult lampreys. The establishment of a direct estradiol–kisspeptin–GABA–GnRH interaction in lamprey has yet to be determined and will require future functional and co-localization studies. The phylogenetic position of lampreys as a basal vertebrate allows lampreys to be a basis for understanding the molecular evolution of the neuroendocrine system that arose in the vertebrates. PMID:22654815

  13. Deletion of Vax1 from Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons Abolishes GnRH Expression and Leads to Hypogonadism and Infertility.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Hanne M; Trang, Crystal; Gong, Ping; Kimura, Ikuo; Pandolfi, Erica C; Mellon, Pamela L

    2016-03-23

    Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are at the apex of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that regulates mammalian fertility. Herein we demonstrate a critical role for the homeodomain transcription factor ventral anterior homeobox 1 (VAX1) in GnRH neuron maturation and show that Vax1 deletion from GnRH neurons leads to complete infertility in males and females. Specifically, global Vax1 knock-out embryos had normal numbers of GnRH neurons at 13 d of gestation, but no GnRH staining was detected by embryonic day 17. To identify the role of VAX1 specifically in GnRH neuron development,Vax1(flox)mice were generated and lineage tracing performed in Vax1(flox/flox):GnRH(cre):RosaLacZ mice. This identified VAX1 as essential for maintaining expression of Gnrh1 The absence of GnRH staining in adult Vax1(flox/flox):GnRH(cre)mice led to delayed puberty, hypogonadism, and infertility. To address the mechanism by which VAX1 maintains Gnrh1 transcription, the capacity of VAX1 to regulate Gnrh1 transcription was evaluated in the GnRH cell lines GN11 and GT1-7. As determined by luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we found VAX1 to be a direct activator of the GnRH promoter through binding to four ATTA sites in the GnRH enhancer (E1) and proximal promoter (P), and able to compete with the homeoprotein SIX6 for occupation of the identified ATTA sites in the GnRH promoter. We conclude that VAX1 is expressed in GnRH neurons where it is required for GnRH neuron expression of GnRH and maintenance of fertility in mice. Infertility classified as idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is characterized by delayed or absent sexual maturation and low sex steroid levels due to alterations in neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The incidence of IHH is 1-10 cases per 100,000 births. Although extensive efforts have been invested in identifying genes giving rise to IHH, >50% of cases have unknown genetic origins

  14. GnRH pulses--the regulators of human reproduction.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J. C.; Dalkin, A. C.; Haisenleder, D. J.; Griffin, M. L.; Kelch, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    The data reviewed in this chapter provide evidence that the pattern of GnRH secretion appears to be an important factor in regulating gonadotropin subunit gene expression, gonadotropin synthesis and hormone secretion. The data on gonadotropin synthesis were obtained in rodents and hence, must be interpreted with caution when applied to primates. Despite this reservation, the data suggest a similarity of regulatory mechanisms in mammalian species. The data also provide an explanation for the mechanisms whereby a single gonadotropin-releasing hormone can differentially regulate the three gonadotropin genes and allow differential hormone secretion. In overall agreement with this view, the observations during pubertal maturation reveal increasing GnRH pulsatile secretion during puberty with an evolution from predominant FSH to a predominant LH secretion by the gonadotropes. In males, the patterns of GnRH secretion appear to be fairly consistent throughout adult life, but in women cyclic changes occur which perhaps are important in maintaining cyclic ovulation. It is proposed that once pubertal maturation has been established, GnRH is secreted at a relatively fast frequency (one pulse per hour), and an essential feature of repeated ovulatory cycles is the slowing of this GnRH stimulus during the luteal phase: to allow subsequent preferential FSH release. This slowing of GnRH secretion appears to be effected by estradiol and progesterone acting to enhance hypothalamic opioid activity. Similar mechanisms involving increased opioid tone appear to be causally related to the reduced frequency and irregular GnRH stimulus seen in hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. In contrast, some forms of polycystic ovarian disease may reflect abnormalities of the estradiol-progesterone/opioid/GnRH neuron feedback mechanisms, with failure to establish slowing in the peripubertal anovulatory cycles. The resulting persistent GnRH stimulus increases LH with consequent effects of

  15. Insulin Receptor Signaling in the GnRH Neuron Plays a Role in the Abnormal GnRH Pulsatility of Obese Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    DiVall, Sara A.; Herrera, Danny; Sklar, Bonnie; Wu, Sheng; Wondisford, Fredric; Radovick, Sally; Wolfe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Infertility associated with obesity is characterized by abnormal hormone release from reproductive tissues in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. These tissues maintain insulin sensitivity upon peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin receptor signaling may play a role in the dysregulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in obesity, but the interdependence of hormone secretion in the reproductive axis and the multi-hormone and tissue dysfunction in obesity hinders investigations of putative contributing factors to the disrupted GnRH secretion. To determine the role of GnRH insulin receptor signaling in the dysregulation of GnRH secretion in obesity, we created murine models of diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without intact insulin signaling in the GnRH neuron. Obese control female mice were infertile with higher luteinizing hormone levels and higher GnRH pulse amplitude and total pulsatile secretion compared to lean control mice. In contrast, DIO mice with a GnRH specific knockout of insulin receptor had improved fertility, luteinizing hormone levels approaching lean mice, and GnRH pulse amplitude and total secretion similar to lean mice. Pituitary responsiveness was similar between genotypes. These results suggest that in the obese state, insulin receptor signaling in GnRH neurons increases GnRH pulsatile secretion and consequent LH secretion, contributing to reproductive dysfunction. PMID:25780937

  16. Simultaneous 99mtc/111in spect reconstruction using accelerated convolution-based forced detection monte carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamat, Muhammad I.; Farncombe, Troy H.

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneous multi-isotope Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging has a number of applications in cardiac, brain, and cancer imaging. The major concern however, is the significant crosstalk contamination due to photon scatter between the different isotopes. The current study focuses on a method of crosstalk compensation between two isotopes in simultaneous dual isotope SPECT acquisition applied to cancer imaging using 99mTc and 111In. We have developed an iterative image reconstruction technique that simulates the photon down-scatter from one isotope into the acquisition window of a second isotope. Our approach uses an accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) technique for the forward projection step in an iterative reconstruction algorithm. The MC estimated scatter contamination of a radionuclide contained in a given projection view is then used to compensate for the photon contamination in the acquisition window of other nuclide. We use a modified ordered subset-expectation maximization (OS-EM) algorithm named simultaneous ordered subset-expectation maximization (Sim-OSEM), to perform this step. We have undertaken a number of simulation tests and phantom studies to verify this approach. The proposed reconstruction technique was also evaluated by reconstruction of experimentally acquired phantom data. Reconstruction using Sim-OSEM showed very promising results in terms of contrast recovery and uniformity of object background compared to alternative reconstruction methods implementing alternative scatter correction schemes (i.e., triple energy window or separately acquired projection data). In this study the evaluation is based on the quality of reconstructed images and activity estimated using Sim-OSEM. In order to quantitate the possible improvement in spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR) observed in this study, further simulation and experimental studies are required.

  17. 99MTC Alpha-Fetoprotein: A Novel, Specific Agent for the Detection of Human Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    produce recombinant virus . Virus was plaque- purified, then screened for the incorporation of the Domain III coding sequence into the viral genome...by PCR; Polymerase Chain Reaction) and for the ability of recombinant virus to produce secreted protein (Western Blot). Recombinant baculovirus...quantity of vi- rus. Protein was then produced in large batches by infection of SF9 cells with recombinant virus . The medium containing the secreted

  18. Atrazine inhibits pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release without altering GnRH messenger RNA or protein levels in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Foradori, Chad D; Zimmerman, Arthur D; Hinds, Laura R; Zuloaga, Kristen L; Breckenridge, Charles B; Handa, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used pre-emergence/early postemergence herbicide. Previous work has shown that exposure to high doses of ATR in rats results in blunting of the hormone-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and inhibition of pulsatile LH release without significantly reducing pituitary sensitivity to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. Accompanying the reduction in the LH surge was an attenuation of GnRH neuronal activation. These findings suggest that ATR exposure may be acting to inhibit GnRH release. In this study, we examined GnRH directly to determine the effect of high doses of ATR on GnRH pulsatile release, gene expression, and peptide levels in the female rat. Ovariectomized adult female Wistar rats were treated with ATR (200 mg/kg) or vehicle for 4 days via gavage. Following the final treatment, GnRH release was measured from ex vivo hypothalamic explants for 3 h. In another experiment, animals were administered either vehicle or ATR (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) daily for 4 days. Following treatment, in situ hybridization was performed to examine total GnRH mRNA and the primary GnRH heterogeneous nuclear RNA transcript. Finally, GnRH immunoreactivity and total peptide levels were measured in hypothalamic tissue of treated animals. ATR treatment resulted in no changes to GnRH gene expression, peptide levels, or immunoreactivity but a reduction in GnRH pulse frequency and an increased pulse amplitude. These findings suggest that ATR acts to inhibit the secretory dynamics of GnRH pulses without interfering with GnRH mRNA and protein synthesis.

  19. Neuroendocrine control of reproductive aging: roles of GnRH neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weiling; Gore, Andrea C

    2006-03-01

    The process of reproductive senescence in many female mammals, including humans, is characterized by a gradual transition from regular reproductive cycles to irregular cycles to eventual acyclicity, and ultimately a loss of fertility. In the present review, the role of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons is considered in this context. GnRH neurons provide the primary driving force upon the other levels of the reproductive axis. With respect to aging, GnRH cells undergo changes in biosynthesis, processing and release of the GnRH decapeptide. GnRH neurons also exhibit morphologic and ultrastructural alterations that appear to underlie these biosynthetic properties. Thus, functional and morphologic changes in the GnRH neurosecretory system may play causal roles in the transition to acyclicity. In addition, GnRH neurons are regulated by numerous inputs from neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and glia. The relationship among GnRH cells and their inputs at the cell body (thereby affecting GnRH biosynthesis) and the neuroterminal (thereby affecting GnRH neurosecretion) is crucial to the function of the GnRH system, with age-related changes in these relationships contributing to the reproductive senescent process. Therefore, the aging hypothalamus is characterized by changes intrinsic to the GnRH cell, as well as its regulatory inputs, which summate to contribute to a loss of reproductive competence in aging females.

  20. Characteristics of GnRH binding in the gonads and effects of lamprey GnRH-I and -III on reproduction in the adult sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Gazourian, L; Deragon, K L; Chase, C F; Pati, D; Habibi, H R; Sower, S A

    1997-11-01

    In the present study, both lamprey GnRH-I and -III stimulated steroidogenesis and induced ovulation in adult female sea lampreys during their final reproductive stage. One injection of lamprey GnRH-III at 0.1 or 0.2 microg/g lamprey stimulated plasma estradiol levels in lampreys held at each of three water temperatures, 13 degrees , 17 degrees , and 19 degrees , corresponding to increasing stages of maturation. Four successive injections, 3 to 4 days apart, of lamprey GnRH-III at 0.1 or 0.2 microg/g body weight induced ovulation in 100 or 88% of lampreys, respectively, compared to 21% in controls by Day 31. Lamprey GnRH-III also had a direct stimulatory effect on estradiol production in the sea lamprey gonads in vitro. Lamprey GnRH-III at 100 or 1000 ng/ml stimulated estradiol levels in media incubated with either lamprey ovaries or testes. In contrast to a previous finding in which lamprey GnRH-III was more potent than lamprey GnRH-I in inducing spermiation in adult male sea lampreys (Deragon and Sower, 1994), the results from the present study indicate that lamprey GnRH-I and -III are equally potent in inducing ovulation and stimulating steroidogenesis in female sea lampreys. In addition, GnRH binding sites have been demonstrated for the first time in both the testis and the ovary of the adult sea lamprey using an analog of mammalian GnRH ([D-Lys6] mammalian GnRH) as a labeled ligand. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of a high affinity binding site in both the testis and the ovary. In summary, lamprey GnRH-III is biologically active in stimulating the pituitary-gonadal axis in adult female sea lampreys. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of a GnRH binding site in the gonads of an Agnathan. The evidence for a direct stimulatory effect of lamprey GnRH in the gonads, the presence of GnRH binding site, and the absence of GnRH in the plasma suggest that, like other vertebrates including rat, rabbit, teleost fish, and human, there may be a Gn

  1. LH-independent testosterone secretion is mediated by the interaction between GNRH2 and its receptor within porcine testes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Unlike the classical gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH1), the second mammalian isoform (GNRH2) is an ineffective stimulant of gonadotropin release. Species that produce GNRH2 may not maintain a functional GNRH2 receptor (GNRHR2) due to coding errors. A full length GNRHR2 gene has been identified ...

  2. R31C GNRH1 Mutation and Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Maione, Luigi; Albarel, Frederique; Bouchard, Philippe; Gallant, Megan; Flanagan, Colleen A.; Bobe, Regis; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joelle; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria; Brue, Thierry; Millar, Robert P.; Lombes, Marc; Young, Jacques; Guiochon-Mantel, Anne; Bouligand, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Normosmic congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nCHH) is a rare reproductive disease leading to lack of puberty and infertility. Loss-of-function mutations of GNRH1 gene are a very rare cause of autosomal recessive nCHH. R31C GNRH1 is the only missense mutation that affects the conserved GnRH decapeptide sequence. This mutation was identified in a CpG islet in nine nCHH subjects from four unrelated families, giving evidence for a putative “hot spot”. Interestingly, all the nCHH patients carry this mutation in heterozygosis that strikingly contrasts with the recessive inheritance associated with frame shift and non-sense mutations. Therefore, after exclusion of a second genetic event, a comprehensive functional characterization of the mutant R31C GnRH was undertaken. Using different cellular models, we clearly demonstrate a dramatic reduction of the mutant decapeptide capacity to bind GnRH-receptor, to activate MAPK pathway and to trigger inositol phosphate accumulation and intracellular calcium mobilization. In addition it is less able than wild type to induce lh-beta transcription and LH secretion in gonadotrope cells. Finally, the absence of a negative dominance in vitro offers a unique opportunity to discuss the complex in vivo patho-physiology of this form of nCHH. PMID:23936060

  3. A role for GnRH in early brain regionalization and eye development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng; Page, Louise; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2006-09-26

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a highly conserved peptide that is expressed early in brain development in vertebrates. In zebrafish, we detected GnRH mRNA within 2h post fertilization by RT-PCR. To determine if GnRH is involved in development, we used gene knockdown techniques to block translation of gnrh2 or gnrh3 mRNA after which the expression patterns for gene markers were examined at 24h post fertilization with in situ hybridization. First, loss of either GnRH2 or GnRH3 affected regionalization of the brain as shown by a change in expression of fgf8 or pax2.1 genes in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary or diencephalon-midbrain boundary. Second, lack of GnRH2 and/or GnRH3 altered gene markers expressed in the formation of the eye cup (pax2.1, pax6.1, mab21l2 and meis1.1) or eye stalk (fgf8 and pax2.1). Third, knockdown of GnRH2 affected the size and shape of the midbrain and expression of gene markers therein. Results from assays with the TUNEL method and caspase-3 and -9 activity showed the brain and eye changes were unlikely to result from secondary apoptotic cell death before 24h post fertilization. These experiments suggest that GnRH loss-of-function affects early brain and eye formation during development.

  4. The role of GABA in the regulation of GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Miho; Fukuda, Atsuo; Nabekura, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) has long been implicated as one of the major players in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Although GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature adult central nervous system, most mature GnRH neurons show the unusual characteristic of being excited by GABA. While many reports have provided much insight into the contribution of GABA to the activity of GnRH neurons, the precise physiological role of the excitatory action of GABA on GnRH neurons remains elusive. This brief review presents the current knowledge of the role of GABA signaling in GnRH neuronal activity. We also discuss the modulation of GABA signaling by neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and the functional consequence of GABAergic inputs to GnRH neurons in both the physiology and pathology of reproduction. PMID:25506316

  5. Estrogenic Regulation of the GnRH Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Radovick, Sally; Levine, Jon E.; Wolfe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive function is regulated by the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary and the steroid hormones from the gonads. The dynamic changes in the levels of the reproductive hormones regulate secondary sex characteristics, gametogenesis, cellular function, and behavior. Hypothalamic GnRH neurons, with cell bodies located in the basal hypothalamus, represent the final common pathway for neuronally derived signals to the pituitary. As such, they serve as integrators of a dizzying array of signals including sensory inputs mediating information about circadian, seasonal, behavioral, pheromonal, and emotional cues. Additionally, information about peripheral physiological function may also be included in the integrative signal to the GnRH neuron. These signals may communicate information about metabolic status, disease, or infection. Gonadal steroid hormones arguably exert the most important effects on GnRH neuronal function. In both males and females, the gonadal steroid hormones exert negative feedback regulation on axis activity at both the level of the pituitary and the hypothalamus. These negative feedback loops regulate homeostasis of steroid hormone levels. In females, a cyclic reversal of estrogen feedback produces a positive feedback loop at both the hypothalamic and pituitary levels. Central positive feedback results in a dramatic increase in GnRH secretion (Moenter et al., 1992; Xia et al., 1992; Clarke, 1993; Sisk et al., 2001). This is coupled with an increase in pituitary sensitivity to GnRH (Savoy-Moore et al., 1980; Turzillo et al., 1995), which produces the massive surge in secretion of LH that triggers ovulation. While feedback regulation of the axis in males is in part mediated by estrogen receptors (ER), there is not a clear consensus as to the relative role of ER versus AR signaling in males (Lindzey et al., 1998; Wersinger et al., 1999). Therefore, this review will focus on estrogenic signaling

  6. Regulation versus modulation in GnRH receptor function

    SciTech Connect

    Zolman, J.C.; Theodoropoulos, T.J.

    1985-03-01

    Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration after exposure to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicates that an instantaneous increase occurs in the rate of release of LH directly from the anterior pituitary, as measured dynamically during superfusion in vitro. On the other hand, estradiol-17 beta (E2) alone shows no such instantaneous effect on LH release rate (at least for the first four hours), in either physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations. At the same time, brief (ten to 30 minute) exposure of isolated anterior pituitary plasma membranes to physiologic concentrations of E2 significantly alters the binding of a fully biologically active /sup 125/I-GnRH to its plasma membrane receptor protein. In order to characterize the effect of E2 on GnRH binding further, dispersed bovine anterior pituitary cells were preincubated for six hours in the presence or absence of physiologic concentrations of E2 (10(-10)M). Following preincubation in the presence of E2, the cell suspension was incubated for 30 minutes with physiologic concentrations (5 x 10(-11) - 5 x 10(-10)M) of a fully biologically active /sup 125/I-GnRH. The treatment, at least, doubled the number of biologically important high affinity GnRH binding sites (Kd's . 7.5 x -10(-11) - 4.5 x 10(-10)M), and changed the binding capacity of some of the binding sites up to three fold, which altered the cooperativity of GnRH-receptor interaction. Thus, the interaction of E2 with GnRH at the level of GnRH receptor is mandatory for the short-term pituitary effect of E2 on LH release in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Ovarian stimulation in women with high and normal body mass index: GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist.

    PubMed

    Marci, Roberto; Lisi, Franco; Soave, Ilaria; Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Patella, Alfredo; Caserta, Donatella; Moscarini, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    In modern society, obesity has become a major health problem and has been associated with impaired fertility. The aim of this study is to assess the role of obesity in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) stimulated either with GnRH agonists or with GnRH antagonists. Records of 463 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were reviewed. The influence of body mass index (BMI) on treatment outcome was examined, after accounting for differences in stimulation protocols. In the agonist group (286 patients), the total amount of gonadotropins used was significantly higher in patients with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m², when compared to those with a normal BMI. The same result was found in the antagonist group (177 patients). No significant differences were found in length of stimulation, number of oocytes retrieved or number of embryos transferred. In both the antagonist and the agonist group, the number of clinical pregnancies was found to be higher in patients with normal BMI, suggesting that obesity could impair the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotropins. Considering the results obtained and the many theoretical advantages of GnRH antagonists, ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonists is an efficient treatment for both women with normal and high BMI.

  8. GnRH and GnRH receptors in the pathophysiology of the human female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Roberto; Cariboni, Anna Maria; Marelli, Marina Montagnani; Moretti, Roberta Manuela; Andrè, Valentina; Marzagalli, Monica; Limonta, Patrizia

    2016-04-01

    Human reproduction depends on an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been recognized, since its identification in 1971, as the central regulator of the production and release of the pituitary gonadotrophins that, in turn, regulate the gonadal functions and the production of sex steroids. The characteristic peculiar development, distribution and episodic activity of GnRH-producing neurons have solicited an interdisciplinary interest on the etiopathogenesis of several reproductive diseases. The more recent identification of a GnRH/GnRH receptor (GnRHR) system in both the human endometrium and ovary has widened the spectrum of action of the peptide and of its analogues beyond its hypothalamic function. An analysis of research and review articles published in international journals until June 2015 has been carried out to comprehensively summarize both the well established and the most recent knowledge on the physiopathology of the GnRH system in the central and peripheral control of female reproductive functions and diseases. This review focuses on the role of GnRH neurons in the control of the reproductive axis. New knowledge is accumulating on the genetic programme that drives GnRH neuron development to ameliorate the diagnosis and treatment of GnRH deficiency and consequent delayed or absent puberty. Moreover, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the episodic release of GnRH during the onset of puberty and the ovulatory cycle has enabled the pharmacological use of GnRH itself or its synthetic analogues (agonists and antagonists) to either stimulate or to block the gonadotrophin secretion and modulate the functions of the reproductive axis in several reproductive diseases and in assisted reproduction technology. Several inputs from other neuronal populations, as well as metabolic, somatic and age-related signals, may greatly affect the functions of the GnRH pulse generator during

  9. Early-life stress changes expression of GnRH and kisspeptin genes and DNA methylation of GnRH3 promoter in the adult zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Khor, Yee Min; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-02-01

    Early-life stress can cause long-term effects in the adulthood such as alterations in behaviour, brain functions and reproduction. DNA methylation is a mechanism of epigenetic change caused by early-life stress. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered to zebrafish larvae to study its effect on reproductive dysfunction. The level of GnRH2, GnRH3, Kiss1 and Kiss2 mRNAs were measured between different doses of DEX treatment groups in adult zebrafish. Kiss1 and GnRH2 expression were increased in the 200mg/L DEX treated while Kiss2 and GnRH3 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the 2mg/L DEX-treated zebrafish. The up-regulation may be related to programming effect of DEX in the zebrafish larvae, causing overcompensation mechanism to increase the mRNA levels. Furthermore, DEX treatment caused negative impact on the development and maturation of the testes, in particular spermatogenesis. Therefore, immature gonadal development may cause positive feedback by increasing GnRH and Kiss. This indicates that DEX can alter the regulation of GnRH2, GnRH3, Kiss1 and Kiss2 in adult zebrafish, which affects maturation of gonads. Computer analysis of 1.5 kb region upstream of the 5' UTR of Kiss1, Kiss2, GnRH2 and GnRH3 promoter showed that there are putative binding sites of glucocorticoid response element and transcription factors involved in stress response. GnRH3 promoter analysed from pre-optic area, ventral telencephalon and ventral olfactory bulb showed higher methylation at CpG residues located on -1410, -1377 and -1355 between control and 2mg/L DEX-treated groups. Hence, early-life DEX treatment can alter methylation of GnRH3 gene promoter, which subsequently affects gene regulation and reproductive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuronal Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and Astrocytic Gonadotrophin Inhibitory Hormone (GnIH) Immunoreactivity in the Adult Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ferris, J K; Tse, M T; Hamson, D K; Taves, M D; Ma, C; McGuire, N; Arckens, L; Bentley, G E; Galea, L A M; Floresco, S B; Soma, K K

    2015-10-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotrophin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) are neuropeptides secreted by the hypothalamus that regulate reproduction. GnRH receptors are not only present in the anterior pituitary, but also are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus of rats, suggesting that GnRH regulates hippocampal function. GnIH inhibits pituitary gonadotrophin secretion and is also expressed in the hippocampus of a songbird; its role outside of the reproductive axis is not well established. In the present study, we employed immunohistochemistry to examine three forms of GnRH [mammalian GnRH-I (mGnRH-I), chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II) and lamprey GnRH-III (lGnRH-III)] and GnIH in the adult rat hippocampus. No mGnRH-I and cGnRH-II+ cell bodies were present in the hippocampus. Sparse mGnRH-I and cGnRH-II+ fibres were present within the CA1 and CA3 fields of the hippocampus, along the hippocampal fissure, and within the hilus of the dentate gyrus. No lGnRH-III was present in the rodent hippocampus. GnIH-immunoreactivity was present in the hippocampus in cell bodies that resembled astrocytes. Males had more GnIH+ cells in the hilus of the dentate gyrus than females. To confirm the GnIH+ cell body phenotype, we performed double-label immunofluorescence against GnIH, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NeuN. Immunofluorescence revealed that all GnIH+ cell bodies in the hippocampus also contained GFAP, a marker of astrocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that GnRH does not reach GnRH receptors in the rat hippocampus primarily via synaptic release. By contrast, GnIH might be synthesised locally in the rat hippocampus by astrocytes. These data shed light on the sites of action and possible functions of GnRH and GnIH outside of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  11. A Conserved Non-Reproductive GnRH System in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Kusakabe, Takehiro G.; Sakai, Tsubasa; Aoyama, Masato; Kitajima, Yuka; Miyamoto, Yuki; Takigawa, Toru; Daido, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Kentaro; Terashima, Yasuko; Sugiuchi, Yoko; Matassi, Giorgio; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Park, Min Kyun; Satake, Honoo; Tsuda, Motoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates. PMID:22848672

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) in striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), milkfish (Chanos chanos), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): comparison with salmon Gn-RH

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, N.M.; Harvey, B.; Brownstein, M.J.; Eiden, L.E.

    1984-08-01

    Immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) was extracted from brains of striped mullet, milkfish, rainbow trout, and chum salmon with acetone/HCl and petroleum ether. High pressure liquid chromatography and cross-reactivity studies show mullet, milkfish, and trout brains to contain a peptide chromatographically and immunologically identical to synthetic salmon Gn-RH, while the mammalian form of Gn-RH is detectable in none of these fishes. Gn-RH is present in immature 7-month-old and 4-year-old milkfish. A second immunoreactive peptide is separable by HPLC in all the fish studied. This early-eluting form of Gn-RH is unlikely to be a precursor; its cross-reactivity with antisera R-42 and number185 suggests that any modification is in the C-terminal region. Several possible roles for this peptide are advanced.

  13. [Trials to induce ovulation with Berlin-Chemie Gn-RH vet. in prepuberal gilts].

    PubMed

    Brüssow, K P; Bergfeld, J

    1981-01-01

    Combinations of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) with Gn-RH were tested for ovulation-triggering action on 93 prepuberal gilts, aged between 185 and 210 days. The action of PMSG was somewhat inhibited by Gn-RH, when 500 IU of PMSG were given together with 600 micrograms or 900 micrograms of Gn-RH. An infection of 900 micrograms Gn-RH, applied three days from PMSG administration, caused ovulations in 83 per cent of the animals up to the fifth day from PMSG administration on which laparotomy was performed. Smaller intervals of one or two days caused the same effect on 25 or eight per cent of the animals. The presence of a sufficiently high number of graafian follicles suggested pronounced overreaction to all variants of treatment, using PMSG alone or in combination with Gn-RH. The effect of lower Gn-RH doses seems worthwhile another study.

  14. Molecular and cellular properties of GnRH neurons revealed through transgenics in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Herbison, A E; Pape, J R; Simonian, S X; Skynner, M J; Sim, J A

    2001-12-20

    Recent advances in the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) promoter-driven transgenics in the mouse are beginning to open up the once elusive GnRH neuronal phenotype to detailed molecular and cellular investigation. This review highlights progress in the development of GnRH promoter transgenic constructs and the understanding of murine gene sequences required for the correct temporal and spatial targeting of transgenes to the GnRH phenotype in vivo. Strategies enabling the identification of single, living GnRH neurons in the acute brain slice preparation are allowing gene profiling and electrophysiological experiments to be undertaken. Results so far indicate that, like other neurons, GnRH cells express a variety of sodium, potassium and calcium channels as well as GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors which are responsible for determining the membrane properties and firing characteristics of the GnRH neuron. Many of these receptors and channels appear to be expressed heterogeneously within the GnRH phenotype. Furthermore, several display distinct postnatal developmental expression profiles which are likely to be of consequence to the development of synchronized, pulsatile GnRH secretion in the adult animal.

  15. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Campos, Christian; Letelier, Joaquín; Ceriani, Ricardo; Whitlock, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons. PMID:26209533

  16. GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI treatment cycles: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M A F; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Ahmed, Mohamed A S; Elmohamady, Maged

    2015-05-01

    Final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI cycles can be triggered with HCG or a GnRH agonist. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles. Outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) incidence. Searches: were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and databases of abstracts. There was a statistically significant difference against the GnRH agonist for OPR in fresh autologous cycles (n = 1024) with an odd ratio (OR) of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52-0.93). In oocyte-donor cycles (n = 342) there was no evidence of a difference (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.59-1.40). There was a statistically significant difference in favour of GnRH agonist regarding the incidence of OHSS in fresh autologous cycles (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.33) and donor cycles respectively (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27). In conclusion GnRH agonist trigger for final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist cycles is safer but less efficient than HCG.

  17. GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI treatment cycles: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, M.A.F.; Abdelmoty, Hatem I.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.S.; Elmohamady, Maged

    2015-01-01

    Final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI cycles can be triggered with HCG or a GnRH agonist. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles. Outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) incidence. Searches: were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and databases of abstracts. There was a statistically significant difference against the GnRH agonist for OPR in fresh autologous cycles (n = 1024) with an odd ratio (OR) of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52–0.93). In oocyte-donor cycles (n = 342) there was no evidence of a difference (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.59–1.40). There was a statistically significant difference in favour of GnRH agonist regarding the incidence of OHSS in fresh autologous cycles (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01–0.33) and donor cycles respectively (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27). In conclusion GnRH agonist trigger for final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist cycles is safer but less efficient than HCG. PMID:26257931

  18. Targeted Mutagenesis of the Hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reveals No Effects on Reproductive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, Olivia Smith; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zmora, Nilli; Zohar, Yonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gnrh is the major neuropeptide regulator of vertebrate reproduction, triggering a cascade of events in the pituitary-gonadal axis that result in reproductive competence. Previous research in mice and humans has demonstrated that Gnrh/GNRH null mutations result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. The goal of this study was to eliminate gnrh3 (the hypophysiotropic Gnrh form) function in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to determine how ontogeny and reproductive performance are affected, as well as factors downstream of Gnrh3 along the reproductive axis. Using the TALEN technology, we developed a gnrh3-/- zebrafish line that harbors a 62 bp deletion in the gnrh3 gene. Our gnrh3-/- zebrafish line represents the first targeted and heritable mutation of a Gnrh isoform in any organism. Using immunohistochemistry, we verified that gnrh3-/- fish do not possess Gnrh3 peptide in any regions of the brain. However, other than changes in mRNA levels of pituitary gonadotropin genes (fshb, lhb, and cga) during early development, which are corrected by adulthood, there were no changes in ontogeny and reproduction in gnrh3-/- fish. The gnrh3-/- zebrafish are fertile, displaying normal gametogenesis and reproductive performance in males and females. Together with our previous results that Gnrh3 cell ablation causes infertility, these results indicate that a compensatory mechanism is being activated, which is probably primed early on upon Gnrh3 neuron differentiation and possibly confined to Gnrh3 neurons. Potential compensation factors and sensitive windows of time for compensation during development and puberty should be explored. PMID:27355207

  19. BPA Directly Decreases GnRH Neuronal Activity via Noncanonical Pathway.

    PubMed

    Klenke, Ulrike; Constantin, Stephanie; Wray, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral feedback of gonadal estrogen to the hypothalamus is critical for reproduction. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental pollutant with estrogenic actions, can disrupt this feedback and lead to infertility in both humans and animals. GnRH neurons are essential for reproduction, serving as an important link between brain, pituitary, and gonads. Because GnRH neurons express several receptors that bind estrogen, they are potential targets for endocrine disruptors. However, to date, direct effects of BPA on GnRH neurons have not been shown. This study investigated the effects of BPA on GnRH neuronal activity using an explant model in which large numbers of primary GnRH neurons are maintained and express many of the receptors found in vivo. Because oscillations in intracellular calcium have been shown to correlate with electrical activity in GnRH neurons, calcium imaging was used to assay the effects of BPA. Exposure to 50μM BPA significantly decreased GnRH calcium activity. Blockage of γ-aminobutyric acid ergic and glutamatergic input did not abrogate the inhibitory BPA effect, suggesting direct regulation of GnRH neurons by BPA. In addition to estrogen receptor-β, single-cell RT-PCR analysis confirmed that GnRH neurons express G protein-coupled receptor 30 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) and estrogen-related receptor-γ, all potential targets for BPA. Perturbation studies of the signaling pathway revealed that the BPA-mediated inhibition of GnRH neuronal activity occurred independent of estrogen receptors, GPER, or estrogen-related receptor-γ, via a noncanonical pathway. These results provide the first evidence of a direct effect of BPA on GnRH neurons.

  20. Amphioxus: beginning of vertebrate and end of invertebrate type GnRH receptor lineage.

    PubMed

    Tello, Javier A; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2009-06-01

    In vertebrates, activation of the GnRH receptor is necessary to initiate the reproductive cascade. However, little is known about the characteristics of GnRH receptors before the vertebrates evolved. Recently genome sequencing was completed for amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. To understand the GnRH receptors (GnRHR) from this most basal chordate, which is also classified as an invertebrate, we cloned and characterized four GnRHR cDNAs encoded in the amphioxus genome. We found that incubation of GnRH1 (mammalian GnRH) and GnRH2 (chicken GnRH II) with COS7 cells heterologously expressing the amphioxus GnRHRs caused potent intracellular inositol phosphate turnover in two of the receptors. One of the two receptors displayed a clear preference for GnRH1 over GnRH2, a characteristic not previously seen outside the type I mammalian GnRHRs. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the four receptors into two paralogous pairs, with one pair grouping basally with the vertebrate GnRH receptors and the other grouping with the octopus GnRHR-like sequence and the related receptor for insect adipokinetic hormone. Pharmacological studies showed that octopus GnRH-like peptide and adipokinetic hormone induced potent inositol phosphate turnover in one of these other two amphioxus receptors. These data demonstrate the functional conservation of two distinct types of GnRH receptors at the base of chordates. We propose that one receptor type led to vertebrate GnRHRs, whereas the other type, related to the mollusk GnRHR-like receptor, was lost in the vertebrate lineage. This is the first report to suggest that distinct invertebrate and vertebrate GnRHRs are present simultaneously in a basal chordate, amphioxus.

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) modulates auditory processing in the fish brain.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P; Tricas, Timothy C

    2011-04-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) neurons control reproductive activity, but GnRH2 and GnRH3 neurons have widespread projections and function as neuromodulators in the vertebrate brain. While these extra-hypothalamic GnRH forms function as olfactory and visual neuromodulators, their potential effect on processing of auditory information is unknown. To test the hypothesis that GnRH modulates the processing of auditory information in the brain, we used immunohistochemistry to determine seasonal variations in these neuropeptide systems, and in vivo single-neuron recordings to identify neuromodulation in the midbrain torus semicircularis of the soniferous damselfish Abudefduf abdominalis. Our results show abundant GnRH-immunoreactive (-ir) axons in auditory processing regions of the midbrain and hindbrain. The number of extra-hypothalamic GnRH somata and the density of GnRH-ir axons within the auditory torus semicircularis also varied across the year, suggesting seasonal changes in GnRH influence of auditory processing. Exogenous application of GnRH (sGnRH and cGnRHII) caused a primarily inhibitory effect on auditory-evoked single neuron responses in the torus semicircularis. In the majority of neurons, GnRH caused a long-lasting decrease in spike rate in response to both tone bursts and playbacks of complex natural sounds. GnRH also decreased response latency and increased auditory thresholds in a frequency and stimulus type-dependent manner. To our knowledge, these results show for the first time in any vertebrate that GnRH can influence context-specific auditory processing in vivo in the brain, and may function to modulate seasonal auditory-mediated social behaviors.

  2. SAR studies of novel 5-substituted 2-arylindoles as nonpeptidyl GnRH receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Chu, L; Lo, J L; Yang, Y T; Cheng, K; Smith, R G; Fisher, M H; Wyvratt, M J; Goulet, M T

    2001-02-26

    The discovery of the potency-enhancing effect of 5-substitutions on the novel 2-arylindoles as nonpeptidyl GnRH receptor antagonists led to the identification of several analogues with high affinities on the GnRH receptor. The syntheses and SARs of these 5-substituted-2-arylindole analogues are reported.

  3. Regulation of Endogenous Conductances in GnRH neurons by Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha A.; Zhang, Chunguang

    2010-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) regulates the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms, and this ovarian steroid hormone is essential for cyclical GnRH neuronal activity and secretion. E2 has significant actions to modulate the mRNA expression of numerous ion channels in GnRH neurons and/or to enhance (suppress) endogenous conductances (currents) including potassium (KATP, A-type) and calcium low voltage T-type and high voltage L-type currents. Also, it is well documented that E2 can alter the excitability of GnRH neurons via direct action, but the intracellular signaling cascades mediating these actions are not well understood. As an example, KATP channels are critical ion channels needed for maintaining GnRH neurons in a hyperpolarized state for recruiting T-type calcium channels that are important for burst firing in GnRH neurons. E2 modulates the activity of KATP channels via a membrane-initiated signaling pathway in GnRH neurons. Obviously there are other channels, including the small conductance activated K+ (SK) channels, that maybe modulated by this signaling pathway, but the ensemble of mER-, ERα-, and ERβ-mediated effects both pre- and post-synaptic will ultimately dictate the excitability of GnRH neurons. PMID:20816765

  4. Is the flexible GnRH antagonist protocol better suited for fresh eSET cycles?

    PubMed

    Dahdouh, Elias M; Gomes, Francisco L A F; Granger, Louis; Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Faruqi, Faez; Kattygnarath, Tiao-Virirak; St-Michel, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the flexible GnRH antagonist protocol in comparison with the long GnRH agonist protocol in elective single embryo transfer (eSET) practice. It was conducted in a publicly funded in vitro fertilization program. We performed a prospective cohort analysis of data from a private infertility clinic from August 2010 to August 2011. Three hundred fourteen women with normal ovarian reserve and undergoing fresh eSET cycles were included. Sixty-four women underwent follicular stimulation using a flexible GnRH antagonist protocol, and 250 underwent stimulation with a standard long mid-luteal GnRH agonist protocol. Implantation rates (35.9% in the GnRH antagonist group and 29.6% in the GnRH agonist group, P = 0.5) and ongoing pregnancy rates (32.8% in the GnRH antagonist group and 28.8% in the GnRH agonist group, P = 0.5) were equivalent in both groups. The duration of stimulation (9.8 ± 2 days vs. 10.7 ± 1.8 days, P < 0.001) and total FSH dose required (2044 vs. 2775 IU, P < 0.001) were lower in the GnRH antagonist group than in the GnRH agonist group. The number of mature oocytes (6.0 vs. 10.0, P < 0. 001) and number of embryos (5.0 vs. 7.0, P < 0.001) were also lower in GnRH antagonist group. However, the number of embryos cryopreserved was similar in both groups (median 2.0, P = 0.3). In women undergoing in vitro fertilization, the flexible GnRH antagonist protocol yields implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates that are similar to the long GnRH agonist protocol, and requires lower doses of gonadotropins and a shorter duration of treatment. The flexible GnRH antagonist protocol appears to be the protocol of choice for an eSET IVF program.

  5. Ion channels and information processing in GnRH neuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Rachael; Campbell, Rebecca; Suter, Kelly J

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that a majority of action potentials originate from dendrites of GnRH neurons. This localization of the dendrite as the principle site of action potential initiation has sparked considerable interest in the nature of ionic channels throughout GnRH neurons. This paper will review the ionic conductances described within GnRH neurons and their implications for physiological output, such as sensitivity to steroids and diurnal state. To date, a majority of information regarding ionic conductances in GnRH neurons pertains to somata and the first 50-100 µm of dendrite length. Thus, unraveling the tapestry created by the nature and distribution of dendritic conductances in GnRH neurons lies at the forefront of understanding the control of reproductive hormone secretion.

  6. Evidence for Changes in Numbers of Synaptic Inputs onto KNDy and GnRH Neurones during the Preovulatory LH Surge in the Ewe.

    PubMed

    Merkley, C M; Coolen, L M; Goodman, R L; Lehman, M N

    2015-07-01

    Kisspeptin neurones located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and preoptic area (POA) are critical mediators of gonadal steroid feedback onto gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. ARC kisspeptin cells that co-localise neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (Dyn), are collectively referred to as KNDy (Kisspeptin/NKB/Dyn) neurones, and have been shown in mice to also co-express the vesicular glutamate transporter, vGlut2, an established glutamatergic marker. The ARC in rodents has long been known as a site of hormone-induced neuroplasticity, and changes in synaptic inputs to ARC neurones in rodents occur over the oestrous cycle. Based on this evidence, the the present study aimed to examine possible changes across the ovine oestrous cycle in synaptic inputs onto kisspeptin cells in the ARC (KNDy) and POA, and inputs onto GnRH neurones. Gonadal-intact breeding season ewes were perfused using 4% paraformaldehyde during either the luteal or follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, with the latter group killed at the time of the luteinising hormone (LH) surge. Hypothalamic sections were processed for triple-label immunodetection of kisspeptin/vGlut2/synaptophysin or kisspeptin/vGlut2/GnRH. The total numbers of synaptophysin- and vGlut2-positive inputs to ARC KNDy neurones were significantly increased at the time of the LH surge compared to the luteal phase; because these did not contain kisspeptin, they do not arise from KNDy neurones. By contrast to the ARC, the total number of synaptophysin-positive inputs onto POA kisspeptin neurones did not differ between luteal phase and surge animals. The total number of kisspeptin and vGlut2 inputs onto GnRH neurones in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) was also increased during the LH surge, and could be attributed to an increase in the number of KNDy (double-labelled kisspeptin + vGlut2) inputs. Taken together, these results provide novel evidence of synaptic plasticity at the level of inputs onto KNDy and GnRH neurones during

  7. Cumulus Cells Gene Expression Profiling in Terms of Oocyte Maturity in Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation Using GnRH Agonist or GnRH Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Devjak, Rok; Fon Tacer, Klementina; Juvan, Peter; Virant Klun, Irma; Rozman, Damjana; Vrtačnik Bokal, Eda

    2012-01-01

    In in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is established by gonadotropins in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists or antagonists, to prevent premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The aim of our study was to improve the understanding of gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) in terms of ovarian stimulation protocol and oocyte maturity. We applied Affymetrix gene expression profiling in CC of oocytes at different maturation stages using either GnRH agonists or GnRH antagonists. Two analyses were performed: the first involved CC of immature metaphase I (MI) and mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes where 359 genes were differentially expressed, and the second involved the two GnRH analogues where no differentially expressed genes were observed at the entire transcriptome level. A further analysis of 359 differentially genes was performed, focusing on anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and serine protease inhibitor E2 (SERPINE2). Among other differentially expressed genes we observed a marked number of new genes connected to cell adhesion and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glycine and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). No differential expression in CC between the two GnRH analogues supports the findings of clinical studies where no significant difference in live birth rates between both GnRH analogues has been proven. PMID:23082142

  8. Endocannabinoids and prostaglandins both contribute to GnRH neuron-GABAergic afferent local feedback circuits

    PubMed Central

    Glanowska, Katarzyna M.

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons form the final common pathway for central control of fertility. Regulation of GnRH neurons by long-loop gonadal steroid feedback through steroid receptor-expressing afferents such as GABAergic neurons is well studied. Recently, local central feedback circuits regulating GnRH neurons were identified. GnRH neuronal depolarization induces short-term inhibition of their GABAergic afferents via a mechanism dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. GnRH neurons are enveloped in astrocytes, which express mGluRs. GnRH neurons also produce endocannabinoids, which can be induced by mGluR activation. We hypothesized the local GnRH-GABA circuit utilizes glia-derived and/or cannabinoid mechanisms and is altered by steroid milieu. Whole cell voltage-clamp was used to record GABAergic postsynaptic currents (PSCs) from GnRH neurons before and after action potential-like depolarizations were mimicked. In GnRH neurons from ovariectomized (OVX) mice, this depolarization reduced PSC frequency. This suppression was blocked by inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with indomethacin, by a prostaglandin receptor antagonist, or by a specific glial metabolic poison, together suggesting the postulate that prostaglandins, potentially glia-derived, play a role in this circuit. This circuit was also inhibited by a CB1 receptor antagonist or by blockade of endocannabinoid synthesis in GnRH neurons, suggesting an endocannabinoid element, as well. In females, local circuit inhibition persisted in androgen-treated mice but not in estradiol-treated mice or young ovary-intact mice. In contrast, local circuit inhibition was present in gonad-intact males. These data suggest GnRH neurons interact with their afferent neurons using multiple mechanisms and that these local circuits can be modified by both sex and steroid feedback. PMID:21917995

  9. Differential Regulation of GnRH Secretion in the Preoptic Area (POA) and the Median Eminence (ME) in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Glanowska, Katarzyna M.

    2015-01-01

    GnRH release in the median eminence (ME) is the central output for control of reproduction. GnRH processes in the preoptic area (POA) also release GnRH. We examined region-specific regulation of GnRH secretion using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect GnRH release in brain slices from adult male mice. Blocking endoplasmic reticulum calcium reuptake to elevate intracellular calcium evokes GnRH release in both the ME and POA. This release is action potential dependent in the ME but not the POA. Locally applied kisspeptin induced GnRH secretion in both the ME and POA. Local blockade of inositol triphospate-mediated calcium release inhibited kisspeptin-induced GnRH release in the ME, but broad blockade was required in the POA. In contrast, kisspeptin-evoked secretion in the POA was blocked by local gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, but broad gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone application was required in the ME. Although action potentials are required for GnRH release induced by pharmacologically-increased intracellular calcium in the ME and kisspeptin-evoked release requires inositol triphosphate-mediated calcium release, blocking action potentials did not inhibit kisspeptin-induced GnRH release in the ME. Kisspeptin-induced GnRH release was suppressed after blocking both action potentials and plasma membrane Ca2+ channels. This suggests that kisspeptin action in the ME requires both increased intracellular calcium and influx from the outside of the cell but not action potentials. Local interactions among kisspeptin and GnRH processes in the ME could thus stimulate GnRH release without involving perisomatic regions of GnRH neurons. Coupling between action potential generation and hormone release in GnRH neurons is thus likely physiologically labile and may vary with region. PMID:25314270

  10. Dynamic evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Williams, Barry L; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka; Eisthen, Heather L

    2014-10-25

    Elucidating the mechanisms underlying coevolution of ligands and receptors is an important challenge in molecular evolutionary biology. Peptide hormones and their receptors are excellent models for such efforts, given the relative ease of examining evolutionary changes in genes encoding for both molecules. Most vertebrates possess multiple genes for both the decapeptide gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and for the GnRH receptor. The evolutionary history of the receptor family, including ancestral copy number and timing of duplications and deletions, has been the subject of controversy. We report here for the first time sequences of three distinct GnRH receptor genes in salamanders (axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum), which are orthologous to three GnRH receptors from ranid frogs. To understand the origin of these genes within the larger evolutionary context of the gene family, we performed phylogenetic analyses and probabilistic protein homology searches of GnRH receptor genes in vertebrates and their near relatives. Our analyses revealed four points that alter previous views about the evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family. First, the "mammalian" pituitary type GnRH receptor, which is the sole GnRH receptor in humans and previously presumed to be highly derived because it lacks the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain typical of most G-protein coupled receptors, is actually an ancient gene that originated in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Second, unlike previous studies, we classify vertebrate GnRH receptors into five subfamilies. Third, the order of subfamily origins is the inverse of previous proposed models. Fourth, the number of GnRH receptor genes has been dynamic in vertebrates and their ancestors, with multiple duplications and losses. Our results provide a novel evolutionary framework for generating hypotheses concerning the functional importance of structural characteristics of vertebrate GnRH receptors. We show that five

  11. [Cardiovascular risk of androgen deprivation therapy for treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer : Differences between GnRH antagonists and GnRH agonists].

    PubMed

    Tschöpe, C; Kherad, B; Spillmann, F; Schneider, C A; Pieske, B; Krackhardt, F

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have indicated that reduction of testosterone levels in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists can be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The GnRH antagonists have a different mode of action compared with GnRH agonists and may be preferred in ADT for patients with cardiovascular disease. This review article discusses potential mechanisms underlying the development of cardiovascular events associated with ADT when using GnRH agonists and explains the differences in mode of action between GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists. Additionally, relevant studies are presented and practical recommendations for the clinical practice are provided. A literature search was performed. Full publications and abstracts published in the last 10 years up to September 2015 were considered to be eligible. The GnRH antagonists were associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular events compared with GnRH agonists in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT and particularly in patients with cardiovascular risk factors or a history of cardiovascular disease. This decrease may be due to the different mode of action of GnRH antagonists compared with GnRH agonists. Prostate cancer patients with either cardiovascular disease or an increased risk of experiencing a cardiovascular event undergoing ADT should be preferentially treated with GnRH antagonists.

  12. Changes in peripheral blood levels and pulse frequencies of GnRH in patients with hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, M; Takanashi, N; Yaoi, Y

    1998-09-01

    Pituitary dysfunction occasionally results from brain tumors or the surgical resection of brain tumors. The authors examined two patients with hypogonadotropic secondary amenorrhea, who had undergone surgical removal of brain tumors. Changes in immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion are of interest in patients with a gonadotropin and gonadal steroid deficit, because both steroid and pituitary feedback systems are altered by tumors or tumor resection. The authors thus measured GnRH, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels every 15 minutes for 4 hours by radioimmunoassay and investigated qualitative and quantitative changes in the pulsatile patterns of these hormones in two hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients. They also performed similar multiple measurements of GnRH in two normal cycle women in follicular phase and two postmenopausal women. The concentration of plasma GnRH in two hypopituitarism patients was compared with that in two normal cycle women and two postmenopausal women. The study showed that the peripheral blood level of GnRH was significantly lower in two hypopituitarism patients than in both normal cycle and postmenopausal women, and that the pulsatile frequency was not different among these three groups. These findings suggest that alteration of feedback systems results in a decrease in the blood level of GnRH, and that pulses of GnRH maintain normal fluctuation despite the alteration of the hormonal circumstances in two hypogonadotropic hypogonadism patients.

  13. Gliotransmission by Prostaglandin E2: A Prerequisite for GnRH Neuronal Function?

    PubMed Central

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Sharif, Ariane; Baroncini, Marc; Prevot, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a fundamental role in modulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuroendocrine system and in shaping the hypothalamus. In this review, after a brief historical overview, we highlight studies revealing that PGE2 released by glial cells such as astrocytes and tanycytes is intimately involved in the active control of GnRH neuronal activity and neurosecretion. Recent evidence suggests that hypothalamic astrocytes surrounding GnRH neuronal cell bodies may respond to neuronal activity with an activation of the erbB receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, triggering the release of PGE2 as a chemical transmitter from the glia themselves, and, in turn, leading to the feedback regulation of GnRH neuronal activity. At the GnRH neurohemal junction, in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, PGE2 is released by tanycytes in response to cell–cell signaling initiated by glial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Upon its release, PGE2 causes the retraction of the tanycyte end-feet enwrapping the GnRH nerve terminals, enabling them to approach the adjacent pericapillary space and thus likely facilitating neurohormone diffusion from these nerve terminals into the pituitary portal blood. In view of these new insights, we suggest that synaptically associated astrocytes and perijunctional tanycytes are integral modulatory elements of GnRH neuronal function at the cell soma/dendrite and nerve terminal levels, respectively. PMID:22649391

  14. Withdrawal of GnRH agonist decreases oestradiol and VEGF concentrations in high responders.

    PubMed

    Ding, Li-Jun; Wang, Bin; Shen, Xiao-Yue; Yan, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Ning-Yuan; Hu, Ya-Li; Sun, Hai-Xiang

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated whether the withdrawal of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist before triggering ovulation reduces the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in high-risk infertility patients who were treated with gonadotrophins. GnRH agonist was withdrawn for 2 or 3 days when dominant follicles were ≥14 mm in diameter, according to the GnRH agonist long protocol. Non-withdrawal of GnRH agonist was used as control. The serum concentration of oestradiol on the ovulation trigger day was significantly decreased in the GnRH agonist withdrawal group compared with the control group (5750.78 ± 2344.77 pg/ml versus 8076.43 ± 1981.67 pg/ml); however, the number of retrieved oocytes and the fertilization rate were similar between the groups. In addition, the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in plasma on day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration and follicular fluid on the oocyte retrieval day were decreased following GnRH agonist withdrawal. In fresh embryo transfer cycles, rates of clinical pregnancy, implantation and OHSS were not different between the groups. When GnRH agonist withdrawal was followed by total embryos cryopreserved, the rate of OHSS was decreased compared with the control group (0% versus 8.70%). Clinical pregnancy rates in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were comparable between the two groups.

  15. Immunoreactive GnRH Type I Receptors in the Mouse and Sheep Brain

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Asher J.; Navratil, Amy; Mignot, Mallory; Dufourny, Laurence; Cherrington, Brian; Skinner, Donal C.

    2008-01-01

    GnRH has been implicated in an array of functions outside the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Previous investigations have reported extensive GnRH binding in numerous sites and this has been supported by in situ hybridization studies reporting GnRH receptor mRNA distribution. The present study on mice and sheep supports and extends these earlier investigations by revealing the distribution of cells immunoreactive for the GnRH receptor. In addition to sites previously shown to express GnRH receptors such as the hippocampus, amygdala and the arcuate nucleus, the improved resolution afforded by immunocytochemistry detected cells in the mitral cell lay of the olfactory bulb as well as the central grey of the mesencephalon. In addition, GnRH receptor immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus and mesencephalon of the sheep were shown to colocalize with estrogen receptor β. Although GnRH may act at some of these sites to regulate reproductive processes, evidence is accumulating to support an extra-reproductive role for this hypothalamic decapeptide. PMID:18439800

  16. Origins of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates: identification of a novel GnRH in a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Scott I; Nozaki, Masumi; Sower, Stacia A

    2008-08-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding a novel (GnRH), named lamprey GnRH-II, from the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the newly identified lamprey GnRH-II is QHWSHGWFPG. The architecture of the precursor is similar to that reported for other GnRH precursors consisting of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide; however, the gene for lamprey GnRH-II does not have introns in comparison with the gene organization for all other vertebrate GnRHs. Lamprey GnRH-II precursor transcript was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. In situ hybridization of the brain showed expression and localization of the transcript in the hypothalamus, medulla, and olfactory regions, whereas immunohistochemistry using a specific antiserum showed only GnRH-II cell bodies and processes in the preoptic nucleus/hypothalamus areas. Lamprey GnRH-II was shown to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary axis using in vivo and in vitro studies. Lamprey GnRH-II was also shown to activate the inositol phosphate signaling system in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the lamprey GnRH receptor. These studies provide evidence for a novel lamprey GnRH that has a role as a third hypothalamic GnRH. In summary, the newly discovered lamprey GnRH-II offers a new paradigm of the origin of the vertebrate GnRH family. We hypothesize that due to a genome/gene duplication event, an ancestral gene gave rise to two lineages of GnRHs: the gnathostome GnRH and lamprey GnRH-II.

  17. GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist protocols in ovarian stimulation: differential regulation pathway of aromatase expression in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Khalaf, Mohamad; Mittre, Hervé; Levallet, Jérôme; Hanoux, Vincent; Denoual, Christine; Herlicoviez, Michel; Bonnamy, Pierre-Jacques; Benhaim, Annie

    2010-07-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists have been widely used to prevent premature LH surge during ovarian stimulation. However, studies have shown a significantly lower serum oestradiol concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration for cycles using GnRH antagonist. This study compared aromatase gene expression in granulosa lutein cells from 50 women randomly assigned to receive either GnRH agonist (group 1, n=28) or GnRH antagonist (group 2, n=22). The cellular mechanism involved in the observed effects was also investigated. GnRH antagonist treatment significantly affected serum oestradiol concentration (1894+/-138 versus 1074+/-63 pg/ml; P < or = 0.001), follicular-fluid oestradiol concentration in large follicles (18,565+/-2467 versus 10,184+/-1993 pg/ml; P < or = 0.05), aromatase activity (9600+/-1179 versus 5376+/-997 fmol/10(6) cells/h; P < or = 0.05) and mRNA aromatase/mRNA glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (15+/-3 versus 6+/-1; P < 0.05). Protein kinase C (PKC) activity in granulosa lutein cells from the GnRH antagonist group was 2.5-fold higher than in the GnRH agonist group. In-vitro experiments showed that selective down-regulation of PKC was only observed in GnRH-desensitized granulosa lutein cells. This report suggests that, in granulosa lutein cells, the modulation of the FSH-induced protein kinase A pathway by PKC was different in agonist versus antagonist cycles.

  18. Effects of GnRH antagonists vs agonists in domestic carnivores, a review.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C

    2012-12-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the pituitary secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, and thus controls the hormonal and reproductive functions of the gonads. GnRH analogs, which include agonists and antagonists, have been produced by amino acid substitutions within the native GnRH molecule resulting in greater potency and a longer duration of effectiveness. While the initial antagonists produced significant side effects, more recent potent, long-acting, water-soluble, low histamine-release third-generation compounds such as cetrorelix, abarelix, azaline B and acyline have appeared. Differently to GnRH agonists, antagonists competitively block and inhibit GnRH-induced GnRH receptor gene expression leading to an immediate, dose-dependent, pituitary suppression without an initial stimulation of the gonadal axis. The aims of this review are to compare the effects of GnRH agonists vs antagonists and to describe the existing literature concerning new antagonists in domestic carnivores. In male dogs, a single subcutaneous dose of acyline safely and reversibly decreased serum gonadotrophins and testosterone concentrations for 9 days and prevented physiological response of gonadal the axis to agonistic challenge for 14 days. The same protocol reversibly impaired spermiogenesis, spermatocytogenesis and semen quality in both cats and dogs. In females, third-generation GnRH antagonists prevented ovulation and interrupted pregnancy in canids but not in felids. During anestrus, a single acyline injection exhibited limited prevention of the 'flare-up' effect in GnRH agonist-implanted bitches. Although GnRH antagonists appear to have a promising future in domestic carnivores reproduction, the information is still scarce and further work is needed before they can be widely recommended.

  19. Characterization of Gnrh/Gnih elements in the olfacto-retinal system and ovary during zebrafish ovarian maturation.

    PubMed

    Corchuelo, Sheryll; Martinez, Emanuel R M; Butzge, Arno J; Doretto, Lucas B; Valentin, Tanda N; Nakaghi, Laura S O; Somoza, Gustavo M; Nóbrega, Rafael H

    2017-04-08

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is one of the key players of brain-pituitary-gonad axis, exerting overall control over vertebrate reproduction. In zebrafish, two variants were characterized and name as Gnrh2 and Gnrh3. In this species, Gnrh3, the hypohysiotropic form, is expressed by neurons of the olfactory-retinal system, where it is related with food detection, intra/interspecific recognition, visual acuity and retinal processing modulation. Previous studies have reported the presence of Gnrh receptors in the zebrafish retina, but not yet in the zebrafish olfactory epithelium. The current study analyzed the presence of gnrh2 and gnrh3, their receptors (gnrhr 1,2,3 and 4) and gnih (gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) transcripts, as well as the Gnrh3 protein in the olfactory epithelium (OE), olfactory bulb (OB), retina and ovary during zebrafish ovarian maturation. We found an increase of gnrh receptors transcripts in the OE at the final stages of ovarian maturation. In the OE, Gnrh3 protein was detected in the olfactory receptor neurons cilia and in the olfactory nerve fibers. Interestingly, in the OB, we found an inverse expression pattern between gnih and gnrh3. In the retina, gnrhr4 mRNA was found in the nuclei of amacrine, bipolar, and ganglion cells next to Gnrh3 positive fibers. In the ovary, gnrh3, gnrhr2 and gnrhr4 transcripts were found in perinucleolar oocytes, while gnih in oocytes at the cortical alveolus stage. Our results suggested that Gnrh/Gnih elements are involved in the neuromodulation of the sensorial system particularly at the final stages of maturation, playing also a paracrine role in the ovary.

  20. GnRH Effects Outside the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Reproductive Axis

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Donal C.; Albertson, Asher J; Navratil, Amy; Smith, Arik; Mignot, Mallory; Talbott, Heather; Scanlan-Blake, Niamh

    2009-01-01

    GnRH is a hypothalamic decapeptide with an undisputed role as a primary regulator of gonadal function. It exerts this regulation by controlling the release of gonadotropins. However, it is becoming apparent that GnRH may have a variety of other vital roles in normal physiology. Reconsideration of the potential widespread action that this traditional reproductive hormone exerts may lead to the generation of novel therapies and provide insight into seemingly incongruent outcomes from current treatments using GnRH analogues to combat diseases such as prostate cancer. PMID:19187469

  1. Co-localisation of kisspeptin with galanin or neurokinin B in afferents to mouse GnRH neurones.

    PubMed

    Kalló, I; Vida, B; Deli, L; Molnár, C S; Hrabovszky, E; Caraty, A; Ciofi, P; Coen, C W; Liposits, Z

    2012-03-01

    The gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreting neurones, which form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction, are directly targeted by kisspeptin (KP) via the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54. In these multiple labelling studies, we used ovariectomised mice treated with 17β-oestradiol (OVX + E(2)) or vehicle (OVX + oil) to determine: (i) the ultrastructural characteristics of KP-immunoreactive (IR) afferents to GnRH neurones; (ii) their galanin or neurokinin B (NKB) content; and (iii) the co-expression of galanin or NKB with KP in the two major subpopulations of KP neurones located in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V) and the arcuate nucleus (Arc). Electron microscopic investigation of the neuronal juxtapositions revealed axosomatic and axodendritic synapses; these showed symmetrical or asymmetrical characteristics, suggesting a phenotypic diversity of KP afferents. Heterogeneity of afferents was also demonstrated by differential co-expression of neuropeptides; in OVX + E(2) mice, KP afferents to GnRH neurones showed galanin-immunoreactivity with an incidence of 22.50 ± 2.41% and NKB-immunoreactivity with an incidence of 5.61 ± 2.57%. In OVX + oil animals, galanin-immunoreactivity in the KP afferents showed a major reduction, appearing in only 5.78 ± 1.57%. Analysis for co-localisation of galanin or NKB with KP was extended to the perikaryal level in animal models, which showed the highest KP incidence; these were OVX + E(2) females for the RP3V and OVX + oil females for the ARC. In the RP3V of colchicine-treated OVX + E(2) animals, 87.84 ± 2.65% of KP-IR neurones were galanin positive. In the Arc of the colchicine-treated OVX + oil animals, galanin immunoreactivity was detected in only 12.50 ± 1.92% of the KP expressing neurones. By contrast, the incidence of co-localisation with NKB in the Arc of those animals was 98.09 ± 1.30%. In situ hybridisation histochemistry of sections from OVX + E(2

  2. Evidence for changes in numbers of synaptic inpcuts onto KNDy and GnRH neurones during the preovulatory LH surge in the ewe

    PubMed Central

    Merkley, Christina M.; Coolen, Lique M.; Goodman, Robert L.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin neurones located in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and preoptic area (POA) are critical mediators of gonadal steroid feedback onto GnRH neurones. ARC kisspeptin cells that co-localize neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (Dyn), are collectively referred to as KNDy (Kisspeptin/NKB/Dyn) neurones, and have been shown to also co-express the glutamatergic marker, vGlut2, in mice. The ARC in rodents has long been known as a site of hormone-induced neuroplasticity, and changes in synaptic inputs to ARC neurones in rodents occur over the oestrous cycle. Based on this evidence, the goal of this study was to examine possible changes across the ovine oestrous cycle in synaptic inputs onto kisspeptin cells in the ARC (KNDy) and POA, and inputs onto GnRH neurones. Gonadal-intact breeding season ewes were perfused using 4% paraformaldehyde during either the luteal or follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, the latter group sacrificed at the time of the luteinising (LH) surge. Hypothalamic sections were processed for triple-label immunodetection of kisspeptin/vGlut2/synaptophysin or kisspeptin/vGlut2/GnRH. The total numbers of synaptophysin- and vGlut2-positive inputs to ARC KNDy neurones were significantly increased at the time of the LH surge compared to luteal phase; as these did not contain kisspeptin they do not arise from KNDy neurons. In contrast to the ARC, the total number of synaptophysin-positive inputs onto POA kisspeptin neurones did not differ between luteal phase and surge animals. The total number of kisspeptin and vGlut2 inputs onto GnRH neurones in both the POA and mediobasal hypothalamus was also increased during the LH surge. Taken together, these results provide novel evidence of synaptic plasticity at the level of inputs onto KNDy and GnRH neurones during the ovine oestrous cycle, changes which may contribute to the generation of the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge. PMID:25976424

  3. GnRH Episodic Secretion Is Altered by Pharmacological Blockade of Gap Junctions: Possible Involvement of Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Pinet-Charvet, Caroline; Geller, Sarah; Desroziers, Elodie; Ottogalli, Monique; Lomet, Didier; Georgelin, Christine; Tillet, Yves; Franceschini, Isabelle; Vaudin, Pascal; Duittoz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Episodic release of GnRH is essential for reproductive function. In vitro studies have established that this episodic release is an endogenous property of GnRH neurons and that GnRH secretory pulses are associated with synchronization of GnRH neuron activity. The cellular mechanisms by which GnRH neurons synchronize remain largely unknown. There is no clear evidence of physical coupling of GnRH neurons through gap junctions to explain episodic synchronization. However, coupling of glial cells through gap junctions has been shown to regulate neuron activity in their microenvironment. The present study investigated whether glial cell communication through gap junctions plays a role in GnRH neuron activity and secretion in the mouse. Our findings show that Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-expressing glial cells located in the median eminence in close vicinity to GnRH fibers expressed Gja1 encoding connexin-43. To study the impact of glial-gap junction coupling on GnRH neuron activity, an in vitro model of primary cultures from mouse embryo nasal placodes was used. In this model, GnRH neurons possess a glial microenvironment and were able to release GnRH in an episodic manner. Our findings show that in vitro glial cells forming the microenvironment of GnRH neurons expressed connexin-43 and displayed functional gap junctions. Pharmacological blockade of the gap junctions with 50 μM 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid decreased GnRH secretion by reducing pulse frequency and amplitude, suppressed neuronal synchronization and drastically reduced spontaneous electrical activity, all these effects were reversed upon 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid washout.

  4. GnRH neuron firing and response to GABA in vitro depend on acute brain slice thickness and orientation.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Stephanie; Piet, Richard; Iremonger, Karl; Hwa Yeo, Shel; Clarkson, Jenny; Porteous, Robert; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-08-01

    The GnRH neurons exhibit long dendrites and project to the median eminence. The aim of the present study was to generate an acute brain slice preparation that enabled recordings to be undertaken from GnRH neurons maintaining the full extent of their dendrites or axons. A thick, horizontal brain slice was developed, in which it was possible to record from the horizontally oriented GnRH neurons located in the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA). In vivo studies showed that the majority of AHA GnRH neurons projected outside the blood-brain barrier and expressed c-Fos at the time of the GnRH surge. On-cell recordings compared AHA GnRH neurons in the horizontal slice (AHAh) with AHA and preoptic area (POA) GnRH neurons in coronal slices [POA coronal (POAc) and AHA coronal (AHAc), respectively]. AHAh GnRH neurons exhibited tighter burst firing compared with other slice orientations. Although α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) excited GnRH neurons in all preparations, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was excitatory in AHAc and POAc but inhibitory in AHAh slices. GABA(A) receptor postsynaptic currents were the same in AHAh and AHAc slices. Intriguingly, direct activation of GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors respectively stimulated and inhibited GnRH neurons regardless of slice orientation. Subsequent experiments indicated that net GABA effects were determined by differences in the ratio of GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects in "long" and "short" dendrites of GnRH neurons in the different slice orientations. These studies document a new brain slice preparation for recording from GnRH neurons with their extensive dendrites/axons and highlight the importance of GnRH neuron orientation relative to the angle of brain slicing in studying these neurons in vitro.

  5. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pituitary GnRH receptor in a commercial scombroid fish, chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus).

    PubMed

    Lumayno, Sanny David Pacheco; Ohga, Hirofumi; Selvaraj, Sethu; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2017-01-30

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential during pubertal onset, for its regulation of the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins. Its action is mediated by GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) in the pituitary gonadotrophs. Our previous study demonstrated that the chub mackerel brain expresses three GnRH forms (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3), and that only GnRH1 neurons innervate anterior pituitary regions. Furthermore, chub mackerel gnrh1 mRNA exhibited a significant increase at pubertal onset. The present study aimed to isolate the functional GnRHR form involved in chub mackerel puberty. The open reading frame of our cloned receptor encodes 428 amino acids and contains seven transmembrane domains. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated clustering with other teleost-type IIB GnRHRs, mainly those involved in reproduction. Reporter gene assay results showed that all four synthetic peptides (GnRH1, GnRH2, GnRH3, and GnRH analogue) bind to the cloned receptor. Three deduced GnRH ligands stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release from cultured pituitary cells in vitro. Receptor gene expression was mainly detected in the pituitary and showed an increasing trend in the developing gonadal stages of both sexes during the pubertal process; this process was synchronous with previous studies of follicle-stimulating hormone beta (fshβ) and lhβ gene expression in chub mackerel. These results suggest that the cloned receptor is likely involved in the regulation of pubertal onset in this species. Therefore, we have designated the receptor cmGnRHR1.

  6. In vitro regulation of LH biosynthesis and release by GnRH and estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Anterior pituitaries were taken from female rats at random stages of the estrous cycle, enzymatically dispersed, and cultured for 48h in steroid-free ..cap alpha..-modified Eagles medium followed by 24h in fresh medium +/- estradiol (E/sub 2/). The pituitary cells were then incubated in fresh medium containing radiolabeled precursors +/- gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Radioactive precursor incorporation into LH was determined by immuno-precipitation. The dose-dependent effects of E/sub 2/(10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -8/M) on /sup 3/H-glucosamine (/sup 3/H-Gln) and /sup 35/S-methionine (/sup 35/S-Met) incorporation into LH +/- 1 nM GnRH (4h) were investigated. GnRH (10/sup -9/M) and E/sub 2/ (all doses) significantly increased total /sup 3/H-Gln LH. Moreover, E/sub 2/ at 10/sup -9/M and 10/sup -8/M significantly enhanced GnRH stimulated LH glycosylation. In contrast, addition of GnRH and/or E/sub 2/ did not significantly increase /sup 35/S-Met incorporation into LH over a 4h period. The effects of various GnRH concentrations (10/sup -11/ to 10/sup -9/M; 8h) +/- E/sub 2/ (0.05 nM) on /sup 3/H-Gln LH and /sup 35/S-Met LH production were also investigated. In the absence of E/sub 2/, only 10/sup -9/M GnRH was effective in increasing total /sup 3/H-Gln LH and /sup 35/S-Met LH synthesis. However, in the presence of E/sub 2/, all concentrations of GnRH stimulated LH synthesis with /sup 3/H-Gln LH production responding in a dose related manner whereas /sup 35/S-Met LH production was maximally stimulated at all doses of GnRH. In the final series of experiments, pituitary cells previously exposed to estradiol were incubated for 4 h in normal calcium or low calcium medium containing /sup 3/H-Gln or /sup 35/S-Met +/- GnRH. Removal of extracellular calcium completely inhibited GnRH stimulated /sup 3/H-Gln LH and /sup 35/S-Met LH production.

  7. Kisspeptin and GnRH Neuronal Excitability: Molecular Mechanisms Driven by 17β-Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide that signals via a Gαq-coupled receptor, GPR54, in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and is essential for pubertal maturation and fertility. Kisspeptin depolarizes and excites GnRH neurons primarily through the activation of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels and inhibition of K+ channels. The gonadal steroid 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulates not only kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA, but also increases the excitability of the rostral forebrain Kiss1 neurons. In addition, a primary postsynaptic action of E2 on GnRH neurons is to up-regulate the expression of channel transcripts that orchestrate the downstream signaling of kisspeptin in GnRH neurons. These include not only TRPC4 channels, but also low voltage-activated T-type calcium channels and high voltage-activated L-, N- and R-type calcium channel transcripts. Moreover, E2 has direct membrane-initiated actions to alter the excitability of GnRH neurons by enhancing ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel activity, which is critical for maintaining GnRH neurons in a hyperpolarized state for recruitment of T-type calcium channels that are important for burst firing. Therefore, E2 modulates the excitability of GnRH neurons as well as Kiss1 neurons by altering the expression and/or function of ion channels; and kisspeptin provides critical excitatory input to GnRH neurons to facilitate burst firing activity and peptide release. PMID:25612870

  8. Fanconi anemia A is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling molecule required for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) transduction of the GnRH receptor.

    PubMed

    Larder, Rachel; Karali, Dimitra; Nelson, Nancy; Brown, Pamela

    2006-12-01

    GnRH binds its cognate G protein-coupled GnRH receptor (GnRHR) located on pituitary gonadotropes and drives expression of gonadotropin hormones. There are two gonadotropin hormones, comprised of a common alpha- and hormone-specific beta-subunit, which are required for gonadal function. Recently we identified that Fanconi anemia a (Fanca), a DNA damage repair gene, is differentially expressed within the LbetaT2 gonadotrope cell line in response to stimulation with GnRH. FANCA is mutated in more than 60% of cases of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, endocrine tissue cancer susceptibility, and infertility. Here we show that induction of FANCA protein is mediated by the GnRHR and that the protein constitutively adopts a nucleocytoplasmic intracellular distribution pattern. Using inhibitors to block nuclear import and export and a GnRHR antagonist, we demonstrated that GnRH induces nuclear accumulation of FANCA and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-FANCA before exporting back to the cytoplasm using the nuclear export receptor CRM1. Using FANCA point mutations that locate GFP-FANCA to the cytoplasm (H1110P) or functionally uncouple GFP-FANCA (Q1128E) from the wild-type nucleocytoplasmic distribution pattern, we demonstrated that wild-type FANCA was required for GnRH-induced activation of gonadotrope cell markers. Cotransfection of H1110P and Q1128E blocked GnRH activation of the alphaGsu and GnRHR but not the beta-subunit gene promoters. We conclude that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FANCA is required for GnRH transduction of the alphaGSU and GnRHR gene promoters and propose that FANCA functions as a GnRH-induced signal transducer.

  9. Regulation of pituitary GnRH receptor and gonadotropin subunits by IGF1 and GnRH in prepubertal male coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, J Adam; Dickey, Jon T; Swanson, Penny

    2010-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a key somatotropic hormone that may convey growth status to the reproductive endocrine system. This study examined effects of IGF1 alone or in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on pituitary transcripts for GnRH receptor (GnRHR) variants, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), and IGF, as well as secretion of FSH in vitro. Three experiments were conducted with dispersed pituitary cells of prepubertal male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to determine the time course of the response to IGF1, IGF1 concentration response, and GnRH concentration response. IGF1 consistently elevated pituitary transcripts for gnrhr1 and the four gonadotropin subunits (fshb, lhb, cga1, and cga2) by day 10 of culture, while suppressing gh and igf2. Short-term treatment with GnRH (24h) induced minor increases in transcripts for fshb, cga1, and cga2, but suppressed lhb and strongly inhibited gnrhr1 expression. IGF1 significantly increased GnRH-stimulated FSH protein release by the pituitary cells, although not as robustly as previously observed in more reproductively advanced salmon. Our results demonstrate that IGF1 increases steady-state mRNA levels of gnrhr1 and four gonadotropin subunits, and may act alone or with GnRH to increase pituitary FSH release in male coho salmon, over 1year before puberty. These findings suggest that IGF1 may prime pituitary gonadotrope cells of prepubertal salmon to respond to GnRH by stimulating synthesis of GnRHR and FSH during puberty onset. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors of cattle aggregate on the surface of gonadotrophs and are increased by elevated GnRH concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Pandey, Kiran; Nahar, Asrafun; Nakamura, Urara; Rudolf, Faidiban O

    2014-11-30

    The presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (GnRHRs) on gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary (AP) is an important factor for reproduction control. However, little is known regarding GnRHR gene expression in gonadotrophs of cattle owing to the lack of an appropriate anti-GnRHR antibody. Therefore, an anti-GnRHR antibody for immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry assays was developed to characterize GnRHR gene expression in gonadotrophs. The anti-GnRHR antibody could suppress GnRH-induced LH secretion from cultured AP cells of cattle. The GnRHR, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the AP tissue was analyzed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The GnRHRs were aggregated on a limited area of the cell surface of gonadotrophs, possibly localized to lipid rafts. The LH secretion was stimulated with increasing amounts of GnRH; however, excessive concentrations (> 1 nM) resulted in a decrease in LH secretion. A novel method to purify gonadotrophs was developed using the anti-GnRHR antibody and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Flow cytometric analysis using the anti-GnRHR antibody for cultured bovine AP cells, however, failed to support the hypothesis that GnRH induces GnRHR internalization and decreases GnRHR on the surface of GnRHR-positive AP cells. In contrast, immunocytochemistry using primary antibodies for cultured bovine AP cells showed that 10 nM (P < 0.05) and 100 nM (P < 0.01) GnRH, but not 0.01-1 nM GnRH, increased GnRHR in the cytoplasm of LH-positive cells. In conclusion, these data suggested that GnRHRs were aggregated on the surface of gonadotrophs and GnRHR inside gonadotrophs increased with elevated concentrations of GnRH.

  11. Dependence of fertility on kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling at the GnRH neuron.

    PubMed

    Kirilov, Milen; Clarkson, Jenny; Liu, Xinhuai; Roa, Juan; Campos, Pauline; Porteous, Rob; Schütz, Günther; Herbison, Allan E

    2013-01-01

    Signaling between kisspeptin and its receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (Gpr54), is now recognized as being essential for normal fertility. However, the key cellular location of kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling is unknown. Here we create a mouse with a GnRH neuron-specific deletion of Gpr54 to assess the role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Mutant mice are infertile, fail to go through puberty and exhibit markedly reduced gonadal size and follicle-stimulating hormone levels alongside GnRH neurons that are unresponsive to kisspeptin. In an attempt to rescue the infertile phenotype of global Gpr54⁻/⁻ mutants, we use BAC transgenesis to target Gpr54 to the GnRH neurons. This results in mice with normal puberty onset, estrous cyclicity, fecundity and a recovery of kisspeptin's stimulatory action upon GnRH neurons. Using complimentary cell-specific knockout and knockin approaches we demonstrate here that the GnRH neuron is the key site of kisspeptin-Gpr54 signaling for fertility.

  12. GnRH analogues may increase endometrial Hoxa10 promoter methylation and affect endometrial receptivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Yuanzhen; Liu, Teng; Qu, Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRH-as), including GnRH agonists and antagonists, affect endometrial homeobox (Hox) a10 DNA methylation during the implantation window in mice. GnRH analogue mouse models were used and were treated with either human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) and a GnRH agonist or HMG and a GnRH antagonist. Uterus samples were collected 48 h after GnRH analogue treatment or ovulation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to assess Hoxa10 and integrin β3 expression. Scanning electron microscope analyses were conducted to analyze pinopode development. Compared with the natural cycle control mice, mice in the GnRH analogue groups were found to exhibit increased levels of methylation at the Hoxa10 promoter, decreased Hoxa10 mRNA and protein expression and disrupted pinopode development. These findings suggest that GnRH-as may be associated with altered Hoxa10 DNA methylation, thus GnRH-as may affect uterine Hoxa10 expression and endometrial receptivity.

  13. Effects of GnRH treatment on scrotal surface temperatures in bulls.

    PubMed Central

    Gábor, G; Kastelic, J P; Cook, R B; Sasser, R G; Brito, L F; Csik, J V; Coulter, G H; Györkös, I

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to characterize scrotal surface temperature (SST) in bulls treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). In Experiment 1, Angus bulls (n = 10, 18 mo, 597 kg) were given GnRH (400 ng/kg) or saline, IV. Bottom SST increased approximately 1.7 degrees C (P < 0.005) over time (0 to 90 min) at an ambient temperature of 5 degrees C. However, there was no significant effect of GnRH treatment and temperature increases were attributed to stress. When the experiment was repeated at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C, SST was elevated prior to treatment, with no subsequent significant increase. Experiment 2 was conducted with Charolais bulls (n = 6, 12-14 mo, 517 kg) with an emphasis on minimizing stress. Bottom SST increased approximately 2 degrees C (P < 0.05) between 0 and 45 min after GnRH treatment, supporting the hypothesis that GnRH treatment increases SST in bulls. In conclusion, it was apparent that stress, high ambient temperatures, and GnRH treatment can all increase SST in bulls. PMID:11227197

  14. GnRH analogue attenuated apoptosis of rat hippocampal neuron after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chenyu; Xu, Bainan; Huang, Weiquan

    2010-12-01

    The expression and new functions of reproductive hormones in organs beyond hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis have been reported. So far, there is no report about the protective effects of GnRH analogue to hippocampal neurons suffering from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Middle cerebral artery occlusion model together with TUNEL staining were made in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation model together with double staining of Annexin V/PI with flow cytometer were made in vitro to observe the anti-apoptotic effects of GnRH analogue to hippocampal neurons after ischemia-reperfusion injury. The results found that the number of TUNEL positive pyramidal neurons in CA1 region in GnRH analogue experiment group was less than that in control group in vivo; the percentage of apoptotic neurons in GnRH analogue experiment group was less than that in control group in vitro. These findings suggested that pretreatment with certain concentration of GnRH analogue could attenuate apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. GnRH analogue has the protective effects to neurons.

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone: regulation of the GnRH gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vien H Y; Lee, Leo T O; Chow, Billy K C

    2008-11-01

    As the key regulator of reproduction, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is released by neurons in the hypothalamus, and transported via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation to the anterior pituitary to trigger gonadotropin release for gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. To achieve appropriate reproductive function, mammals have precise regulatory mechanisms; one of these is the control of GnRH synthesis and release. In the past, the scarcity of GnRH neurons and their widespread distribution in the brain hindered the study of GnRH gene expression. Until recently, the development of GnRH-expressing cell lines with properties similar to those of in vivo GnRH neurons and also transgenic mice facilitated GnRH gene regulation research. This minireview provides a summary of the molecular mechanisms for the control of GnRH-I and GnRH-II gene expression. These include basal transcription regulation, which involves essential cis-acting elements in the GnRH-I and GnRH-II promoters and interacting transcription factors, and also feedback control by gonadotropins and gonadal sex steroids. Other physiological stimuli, e.g. insulin and melatonin, will also be discussed.

  16. GNRH-agonist or antagonist in the treatment of prostate cancer: a comparision based on oncological results.

    PubMed

    Salciccia, Stefano; Gentilucci, Alessandro; Cattarino, Susanna; Sciarra, Alessandro

    2016-11-18

    On the basis of the trials available, are we ready to consider GnRH antagonists better than agonists? Is there a population of patients who may benefit from antagonists more than agonists?We specifically focused our analysis on the significance of oncological results obtained in phase III trials directly comparing Degarelix with GnRH agonists. Oncological results were evaluated only in 1 trial (CS21) with some subanalysis and they were not the primary endpoints of the study. The follow-up duration was 364 days, and therefore, the number of events (all causes deaths and prostate cancer (PC), Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), Hazard ratio (HR)-related deaths) was very low in both groups and this aspect strongly reduces the significance of overall survival evaluation. In our opinion, the CS21A open-label extension does not consent to obtain useful clinical data and the design of the study loses the possibility to have a longer randomized comparison between degarelix and agonist. Moreover, the fact that the crossover from leuprolide to degarelix was pre-defined at 12 months and not at agonist failure does not allow to gather data also on the effect of sequential treatment.The answer to the question whether we are ready to consider antagonists better than agonists, based on oncological results, is probably no. We have data in terms of testosterone suppression and PSA control rather than overall survival or clinical progression free survival. A PSA progression-free survival is a secondary endpoint that in our opinion is not sufficient. Large prospective comparative trials with long-term follow-up are needed to clarify this critical clinical question.

  17. Lack of functional GABA(B) receptors alters GnRH physiology and sexual dimorphic expression of GnRH and GAD-67 in the brain.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Paolo N; Di Giorgio, Noelia; Bonaventura, María M; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A

    2010-03-01

    GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts through GABA(A/C) and GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)Rs); it is critical for gonadotropin regulation. We studied whether the lack of functional GABA(B)Rs in GABA(B1) knockout (GABA(B1)KO) mice affected the gonadotropin axis physiology. Adult male and female GABA(B1)KO and wild-type (WT) mice were killed to collect blood and tissue samples. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) content in whole hypothalami (HT), olfactory bulbs (OB), and frontoparietal cortexes (CT) were determined (RIA). GnRH expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was evaluated in preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH), medial basal-posterior hypothalamus (MBH-PH), OB, and CT. Pulsatile GnRH secretion from hypothalamic explants was measured by RIA. GABA, glutamate, and taurine contents in HT and CT were determined by HPLC. Glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) mRNA was measured by qRT-PCR in POA-AH, MBH-PH, and CT. Gonadotropin content, serum levels, and secretion from adenohypophyseal cell cultures (ACC) were measured by RIA. GnRH mRNA expression was increased in POA-AH of WT males compared with females; this pattern of expression was inversed in GABA(B1)KO mice. MBH-PH, OB, and CT did not follow this pattern. In GABA(B1)KO females, GnRH pulse frequency was increased and GABA and glutamate contents were augmented. POA-AH GAD-67 mRNA showed the same expression pattern as GnRH mRNA in this area. Gonadotropin pituitary contents and serum levels showed no differences between genotypes. Increased basal LH secretion and decreased GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin response were observed in GABA(B1)KO female ACCs. These results support the hypothesis that the absence of functional GABA(B)Rs alters GnRH physiology and critically affects sexual dimorphic expression of GnRH and GAD-67 in POA-AH.

  18. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  19. Role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gründker, Carsten; Emons, Günter

    2003-01-01

    The expression of GnRH (GnRH-I, LHRH) and its receptor as a part of an autocrine regulatory system of cell proliferation has been demonstrated in a number of human malignant tumors, including cancers of the ovary. The proliferation of human ovarian cancer cell lines is time- and dose-dependently reduced by GnRH and its superagonistic analogs. The classical GnRH receptor signal-transduction mechanisms, known to operate in the pituitary, are not involved in the mediation of antiproliferative effects of GnRH analogs in these cancer cells. The GnRH receptor rather interacts with the mitogenic signal transduction of growth-factor receptors and related oncogene products associated with tyrosine kinase activity via activation of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase resulting in downregulation of cancer cell proliferation. In addition GnRH activates nucleus factor κB (NFκB) and protects the cancer cells from apoptosis. Furthermore GnRH induces activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/activator protein-1 (JNK/AP-1) pathway independent of the known AP-1 activators, protein kinase (PKC) or mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK). Recently it was shown that human ovarian cancer cells express a putative second GnRH receptor specific for GnRH type II (GnRH-II). The proliferation of these cells is dose- and time-dependently reduced by GnRH-II in a greater extent than by GnRH-I (GnRH, LHRH) superagonists. In previous studies we have demonstrated that in ovarian cancer cell lines except for the EFO-27 cell line GnRH-I antagonist Cetrorelix has comparable antiproliferative effects as GnRH-I agonists indicating that the dichotomy of GnRH-I agonists and antagonists might not apply to the GnRH-I system in cancer cells. After GnRH-I receptor knock down the antiproliferative effects of GnRH-I agonist Triptorelin were abrogated while the effects of GnRH-I antagonist Cetrorelix and GnRH-II were still existing. In addition, in the ovarian cancer cell line EFO-27 GnRH-I receptor but not

  20. Phoenixin Activates Immortalized GnRH and Kisspeptin Neurons Through the Novel Receptor GPR173

    PubMed Central

    Treen, Alice K.; Luo, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive function is coordinated by kisspeptin (Kiss) and GnRH neurons. Phoenixin-20 amide (PNX) is a recently described peptide found to increase GnRH-stimulated LH secretion in the pituitary. However, the effects of PNX in the hypothalamus, the putative signaling pathways, and PNX receptor have yet to be identified. The mHypoA-GnRH/GFP and mHypoA-Kiss/GFP-3 cell lines represent populations of GnRH and Kiss neurons, respectively. PNX increased GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) mRNA expression, as well as GnRH secretion, in the mHypoA-GnRH/GFP cell model. In the mHypoA-Kiss/GFP-3 cell line, PNX increased Kiss1 mRNA expression. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β, octamer transcription factor-1 (Oct-1), and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding sites are localized to the 5′ flanking regions of the GnRH, GnRH-R, and Kiss1 genes. PNX decreased C/EBP-β mRNA expression in both cell models and increased Oct-1 mRNA expression in the mHypoA-GnRH/GFP neurons. PNX increased CREB phosphorylation in both cell models and phospho-ERK1/2 in the mHypoA-GnRH/GFP cell model, whereas inhibiting the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway prevented PNX induction of GnRH and Kiss1 mRNA expression. Importantly, we determined that the G protein-coupled receptor, GPR173, was strongly expressed in both GnRH and kisspeptin cell models and small interfering RNA knockdown of GPR173 prevented the PNX-mediated up-regulation of GnRH, GnRH-R, and Kiss1 mRNA expression and the down-regulation of C/EBP-β mRNA expression. PNX also increased GPR173 mRNA expression in the mHypoA-GnRH/GFP cells. Taken together, these studies are the first to implicate that PNX acts through GPR173 to activate the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway through CREB, and potentially C/EBP-β and/or Oct-1 to increase GnRH, GnRH-R, and Kiss1 gene expression, ultimately having a stimulatory effect on reproductive function. PMID:27268078

  1. GnRH Pulse Frequency Control of Fshb Gene Expression Is Mediated via ERK1/2 Regulation of ICER.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Iain R; Ciccone, Nick A; Zhou, Qiongjie; Xu, Shuyun; Khogeer, Ahmad; Carroll, Rona S; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2016-03-01

    The pulsatile release of GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of pituitary FSH and LH. Two transcription factors, cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), have been implicated in the regulation of rat Fshb gene expression. We previously showed that the protein kinase A pathway mediates GnRH-stimulated CREB activation. We hypothesized that CREB and ICER are activated by distinct signaling pathways in response to pulsatile GnRH to modulate Fshb gene expression, which is preferentially stimulated at low vs high pulse frequencies. In the LβT2 gonadotrope-derived cell line, GnRH stimulation increased ICER mRNA and protein. Blockade of ERK activation with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase I/II (MEKI/II) inhibitors significantly attenuated GnRH induction of ICER mRNA and protein, whereas protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase A inhibitors had minimal effects. GnRH also stimulated ICER in primary mouse pituitary cultures, attenuated similarly by a MEKI/II inhibitor. In a perifusion paradigm, MEKI/II inhibition in LβT2 cells stimulated with pulsatile GnRH abrogated ICER induction at high GnRH pulse frequencies, with minimal effect at low frequencies. MEKI/II inhibition reduced GnRH stimulation of Fshb at high and low pulse frequencies, suggesting that the ERK pathway has additional effects on GnRH regulation of Fshb, beyond those mediated by ICER. Indeed, induction of the activating protein 1 proteins, cFos and cJun, positive modulators of Fshb transcription, by pulsatile GnRH was also abrogated by inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Collectively, these studies indicate that the signaling pathways mediating GnRH activation of CREB and ICER are distinct, contributing to the decoding of the pulsatile GnRH to regulate FSHβ expression.

  2. Feedback actions of estradiol on GnRH secretion during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Karsch, F J; Evans, N P

    1996-01-01

    The pattern of GnRH secretion during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle of sheep is characterized by an initial marked change in episodic secretion (increased frequency and decreased amplitude) followed by a massive and sustained discharge-the preovulatory GnRH surge. Studies employing a physiological model for the follicular phase have revealed that estradiol has profound and complex feedback effects on GnRH release during the preovulatory period. These include both quantitative effects on pulses (stimulation of frequency, inhibition of amplitude) and qualitative effects (altering pulse shape, stimulating interpulse secretion), in addition to inducing a preovulatory GnRH surge. In stimulating the surge, estradiol causes a highly characteristic change in the minute-to-minute pattern of GnRH in hypophyseal portal blood. Initially, a strictly episodic pattern gives way to one in which GnRH is consistently elevated between pulses. Then, following enhancement of both pulsatile and interpulse components, GnRh becomes extremely high and variable for the majority of the surge. From this point, a regular and well organized pulse pattern is not apparent. The characteristic time course of GnRH at surge onset provides insight into possible mechanistic changes in the GnRH neurosecretory system. Such changes include quantitative and qualitative alterations in the pulse generating mechanism, recruitment of a surge specific population of GnRH neurones, morphologic alterations in GnRH neurones and neighboring cells, and changes in efficiency or route of delivery of GnRH from its site of release to the portal vasculature. These possibilities, while untested and speculative, provide a conceptual framework for future research.

  3. Rabconnectin-3α is required for the morphological maturation of GnRH neurons and kisspeptin responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Brooke K.; Harbulot, Carole; Csaba, Zsolt; Peineau, Stéphane; Jacquier, Sandrine; de Roux, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    A few hundred hypothalamic neurons form a complex network that controls reproduction in mammals by secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Timely postnatal changes in GnRH secretion are essential for pubertal onset. During the juvenile period, GnRH neurons undergo morphological remodeling, concomitantly achieving an increased responsiveness to kisspeptin, the main secretagogue of GnRH. However, the link between GnRH neuron activity and their morphology remains unknown. Here, we show that brain expression levels of Dmxl2, which encodes the vesicular protein rabconnectin-3α, determine the capacity of GnRH neurons to be activated by kisspeptin and estradiol. We also demonstrate that Dmxl2 expression levels control the pruning of GnRH dendrites, highlighting an unexpected role for a vesicular protein in the maturation of GnRH neuronal network. This effect is mediated by rabconnectin-3α in neurons or glial cells afferent to GnRH neurons. The widespread expression of Dmxl2 in several brain areas raises the intriguing hypothesis that rabconnectin-3α could be involved in the maturation of other neuronal populations. PMID:28209974

  4. Rabconnectin-3α is required for the morphological maturation of GnRH neurons and kisspeptin responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Tata, Brooke K; Harbulot, Carole; Csaba, Zsolt; Peineau, Stéphane; Jacquier, Sandrine; de Roux, Nicolas

    2017-02-17

    A few hundred hypothalamic neurons form a complex network that controls reproduction in mammals by secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Timely postnatal changes in GnRH secretion are essential for pubertal onset. During the juvenile period, GnRH neurons undergo morphological remodeling, concomitantly achieving an increased responsiveness to kisspeptin, the main secretagogue of GnRH. However, the link between GnRH neuron activity and their morphology remains unknown. Here, we show that brain expression levels of Dmxl2, which encodes the vesicular protein rabconnectin-3α, determine the capacity of GnRH neurons to be activated by kisspeptin and estradiol. We also demonstrate that Dmxl2 expression levels control the pruning of GnRH dendrites, highlighting an unexpected role for a vesicular protein in the maturation of GnRH neuronal network. This effect is mediated by rabconnectin-3α in neurons or glial cells afferent to GnRH neurons. The widespread expression of Dmxl2 in several brain areas raises the intriguing hypothesis that rabconnectin-3α could be involved in the maturation of other neuronal populations.

  5. Depolarising and hyperpolarising actions of GABAA receptor activation on GnRH neurons: towards an emerging consensus

    PubMed Central

    Herbison, Allan E.; Moenter, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons represent the final output neurons of a complex neuronal network that controls fertility. It is now appreciated that GABAergic neurons within this network provide an important regulatory influence on GnRH neurons. However, the consequences of direct GABAA receptor activation on adult GnRH neurons have been controversial for nearly a decade now, with both hyperpolarising and depolarising effects reported. This review provides (i) an overview of GABAA receptor function and its investigation using electrophysiological approaches and (ii) re-examines the past and present results relating to GABAergic regulation of the GnRH neuron, with a focus on mouse brain slice data. Although it remains difficult to reconcile the results of the early studies, there is a growing consensus that GABA can act through the GABAA receptor to exert both depolarising and hyperpolarising effects on GnRH neurons. The most recent studies examining the effects of endogenous GABA release on GnRH neurons indicate that the predominant action is that of excitation. However, we are still far from a complete understanding of the effects of GABAA receptor activation upon GnRH neurons. We argue that this will require not only a better understanding of chloride ion homeostasis in individual GnRH neurons, and within subcellular compartments of the GnRH neuron, but also a more integrative view of how multiple neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and intrinsic conductances act together to regulate the activity of these important cells. PMID:21518033

  6. Predominant Suppression of FSHβ-immunoreactivity after Long-Term Treatment of Intact and Castrate Adult Male Rats with the GnRH Agonist Deslorelin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Arik W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Edwards, Brian S.; Murdoch, William J.; Skinner, Donal C.

    2017-01-01

    GnRH agonists are used to treat gonadal steroid-dependent disorders in humans and contracept animals. These agonists are thought to work by desensitizing gonadotropes to GnRH, thereby suppressing FSH and LH secretion. It is not known whether changes occur in the cellular composition of the pituitary gland following chronic GnRH agonist exposure. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a sham, deslorelin, or deslorelin plus testosterone implant for 41.0±0.6 days. In a second experiment, rats were castrated and treated with deslorelin and/or testosterone. Pituitary sections were labeled immunocytochemically for FSHβ and LHβ, or αGSU. Deslorelin suppressed testis weight by two thirds and reduced plasma FSH and LH in intact rats. Deslorelin decreased the percentage of gonadotropes but the effect was specific to the FSHβ-ir cells. Testosterone did not reverse the deslorelin-induced reduction in the overall gonadotrope population. However, in the presence of testosterone, the proportion of gonadotropes that was FSHβ-ir increased in the remaining gonadotropes. There was no effect of treatment on the total LHβ-ir cell population although the loss of FSHβ in bi-hormonal cells increased the proportion of mono-hormonal LHβ-ir gonadotropes. The castration-induced plasma LH and FSH increases were suppressed by deslorelin, testosterone or both. Castration increased both LH-ir and FSH-ir without increasing the overall gonadotrope population; thus increasing the proportion of bi-hormonal cells. Deslorelin suppressed these increases. Testosterone increased FSH-ir in deslorelin-treated castrate rats. Deslorelin did not affect αGSU immunoreactivity, suggesting that the gonadotrope population per se is not eliminated by deslorelin but the ability of gonadotropes to synthesize FSHβ is compromised. We hypothesize that the FSH dominant suppression may be central to the long-term contraceptive efficacy of deslorelin in the male. PMID:22172059

  7. [GnRH analogues for the treatment of fibroids].

    PubMed

    Murillo, Ester Ortiz; Cano, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that are very common in women and may present significant symptoms in 20%-50% of cases. When they require action, their traditional management has been surgery (hysterectomy or fibroidectomy); however medical alternatives have been proposed, given that surgery is associated with a certain morbidity and mortality and involves healthcare costs. Within the pharmacological management of uterine fibroids, GnRH analogues are the best known and most commonly used drugs, although their indications are limited by the side effects associated with long-term treatment. Their primary indication is based on preoperative treatment (to hysterectomy or fibroidectomy) and in selected cases of patients close to menopause or who want more conservative management. These analogues are able to significantly reduce the uterine volume, the size of the fibroid and their accompanying symptoms. Their main disadvantage, however, lies in the reversibility of their effect when treatment is discontinued, along with the side effects associated with hypoestrogenism, such as climacteric symptoms and loss of bone mass. "Add-back" therapies, which associate low-dose estrogens to aGnRH, allow for extended use thanks to decreased side effects without affecting the benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Luteal-long GnRH agonist versus flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocols for overweight and obese patients who underwent ICSI.

    PubMed

    Esinler, I; Bozdag, G; Esinler, D; Lale, K S; Yarali, H

    2015-04-01

    A total of 413 consecutive infertile patients (572 cycles) with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were enrolled into the study. The luteal-long GnRH agonist group (Group I) constituted 211 patients (300 cycles) and the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist group (Group II) constituted 202 patients (272 cycles). The duration of stimulation (d) (10.1 ± 2.5 vs. 9.2 ± 2.0; p < 0.01); the total dose of gonadotrophin used (IU) (3,099.4 ± 2,885.0 vs. 2,684.0 ± 1,046.4; p < 0.05) and the E2 level on the day of hCG (pg/ml) (2,375.8 ± 1,554.6 vs. 1,905.6 ± 1,598.8; p < 0.01) were significantly lower in Group II when compared with Group I. However, the ongoing pregnancy per embryo transfer (37.0% vs. 25.7%; p < 0.05) and the implantation rate (25.7% vs. 15.6%; p < 0.01) were significantly lower in Group II when compared with Group I. In conclusion, we noted that the luteal-long GnRH agonist protocol produced higher implantation rates and higher clinical-ongoing pregnancy rates in overweight and obese patients when compared with the flexible-multidose GnRH antagonist protocol.

  9. Mathematical modeling of perifusion cell culture experiments on GnRH signaling.

    PubMed

    Temamogullari, N Ezgi; Nijhout, H Frederik; C Reed, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The effects of pulsatile GnRH stimulation on anterior pituitary cells are studied using perifusion cell cultures, where constantly moving culture medium over the immobilized cells allows intermittent GnRH delivery. The LH content of the outgoing medium serves as a readout of the GnRH signaling pathway activation in the cells. The challenge lies in relating the LH content of the medium leaving the chamber to the cellular processes producing LH secretion. To investigate this relation we developed and analyzed a mathematical model consisting of coupled partial differential equations describing LH secretion in a perifusion cell culture. We match the mathematical model to three different data sets and give cellular mechanisms that explain the data. Our model illustrates the importance of the negative feedback in the signaling pathway and receptor desensitization. We demonstrate that different LH outcomes in oxytocin and GnRH stimulations might originate from different receptor dynamics and concentration. We analyze the model to understand the influence of parameters, like the velocity of the medium flow or the fraction collection time, on the LH outcomes. We show that slow velocities lead to high LH outcomes. Also, we show that fraction collection times, which do not divide the GnRH pulse period evenly, lead to irregularities in the data. We examine the influence of the rate of binding and dissociation of GnRH on the GnRH movement down the chamber. Our model serves as an important tool that can help in the design of perifusion experiments and the interpretation of results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. ART Outcomes in GnRH Antagonist Protocol (Flexible) and Long GnRH Agonist Protocol during Early Follicular Phase in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Sara; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zafardoust, Simin; Badenush, Bita; Fatemi, Farnaz; Nazari, Fattane; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammadzade, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since increased LH in the early follicular phase in PCOS patients especially in GnRH antagonist protocol could be associated with reduced oocyte quality and pregnancy and impared implantation. The current study was conducted to determine ART outcomes in GnRH antagonist protocol (flexible) and long GnRH agonist protocol and compare them with adding GnRH antagonist in GnRH antagonist (flexible) protocol during early follicular phase in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing ICSI. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 150 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing ICSI were enrolled from 2012 to 2014 and randomly assigned to receive either GnRH antagonist protocol during early and late follicular phase or GnRH antagonist protocol (flexible) or long GnRH agonist protocol. The clinical and laboratory pregnancy in three groups was determined and compared. In this context, the chi-square and Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. Statistical significance was defined as p<0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference with respect to chemical pregnancy and clinical pregnancy between the three groups. Also, other indices such as number and quality of oocytes and embryos were alike. Conclusion: Totally, according to our results, GnRH antagonist protocol during early and late follicular phase and GnRH antagonist protocol (flexible) and long GnRH agonist protocol in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing ICSI are similarly effective and use of each one based on patients' condition and physicians' opinion could be considered. PMID:26913233

  11. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in IVF/ICSI cycles with recombinant LH supplementation: DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Lavorato, Heloisa L; Oliveira, Joao Batista A; Petersen, Claudia G; Vagnini, Laura; Mauri, Ana L; Cavagna, Mario; Baruffi, Ricardo L R; Franco, Jose G

    2012-11-01

    To compare the level of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in the human granulosa cell (GC) layer exposed to an agonist or antagonist of GnRH in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles supplemented with recombinant LH (rLH). Patients without ovulatory dysfunction, aged ≤37 years and in their first ICSI cycle were prospectively randomised to receive either a long GnRH agonist protocol or a multi-dose antagonist protocol. In both groups, recombinant FSH supplemented with rLH was used for ovarian stimulation, and the GCs were collected during oocyte denudation. The GCs were then analysed for DNA fragmentation by TUNEL assay and for apoptosis using the annexin-V assay. The outcomes were given as the percentage of GCs with DNA fragmentation and apoptosis out of the total number of GCs analysed. Comparison of the agonist versus the antagonist group was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. DNA fragmentation: 32 patients were included in either the GnRH agonist group (n=16) or the antagonist group (n=16). The percentage of GCs with positive DNA fragmentation did not differ significantly (P=0.76) between the agonist group (15.5 ± 9.4%) and the antagonist group (18.8 ± 13.3%). Apoptosis: 28 patients were included in either the GnRH agonist group (n=14) or the antagonist group (n=14). The percentage of GCs positive for apoptosis did not differ significantly (P=0.78) between the agonist group (34.6 ± 14.7%) and the antagonist group (36.5 ± 22%). The results suggest that therapy with either an agonist or antagonist of GnRH is associated with comparable levels of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in granulosa cells in ICSI cycles supplemented with rLH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in hypothalamic-pituitary unit of anoestrous and cyclic ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, M O; Łapot, M; Mateusiak, K; Paruszewska, E; Malewski, T; Przekop, F

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to explain how the molecular processes governing the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are reflected by luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in sheep during anoestrous period and during luteal and follicular phases of the oestrous cycle. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analyzed the levels of GnRH and GnRHR in preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk-median eminence (SME), and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP). Radioimmunoassay has also been used to define changes in plasma LH concentrations. The study provides evidence that the levels of GnRH in the whole hypothalamus of anoestrous ewes were lower than that in sheep during the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle (POA: p < 0.001, AH: p < 0.001, VM: p < 0.01, SME: p < 0.001) and not always than in luteal phase animals (POA: p < 0.05, SME: p < 0.05). It has also been demonstrated that the GnRHR amount in the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary unit, as well as LH level, in the blood in anoestrous ewes were significantly lower than those detected in animals of both cyclic groups. Our data suggest that decrease in LH secretion during the long photoperiod in sheep may be due to low translational activity of genes encoding both GnRH and GnRHR.

  13. A small population of hypothalamic neurons govern fertility: the critical role of VAX1 in GnRH neuron development and fertility maintenance.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Hanne M; Mellon, Pamela L

    2016-01-01

    Fertility depends on the correct maturation and function of approximately 800 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brain. GnRH neurons are at the apex of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that regulates fertility. In adulthood, GnRH neurons are scattered throughout the anterior hypothalamic area and project to the median eminence, where GnRH is released into the portal vasculature to stimulate release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. LH and FSH then regulate gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Absence of GnRH neurons or inappropriate GnRH release leads to infertility. Despite the critical role of GnRH neurons in fertility, we still have a limited understanding of the genes responsible for proper GnRH neuron development and function in adulthood. GnRH neurons originate in the olfactory placode then migrate into the brain. Homeodomain transcription factors expressed within GnRH neurons or along their migratory path are candidate genes for inherited infertility. Using a combined in vitro and in vivo approach, we have identified Ventral Anterior Homeobox 1 (Vax1) as a novel homeodomain transcription factor responsible for GnRH neuron maturation and fertility. GnRH neuron counts in Vax1 knock-out embryos revealed Vax1 to be required for the presence of GnRH-expressing cells at embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5), but not at E13.5. To localize the effects of Vax1 on fertility, we generated Vax1(flox) mice and crossed them with Gnrh(cre) mice to specifically delete Vax1 within GnRH neurons. GnRH staining in Vax1(flox/flox):GnRH(cre) mice show a total absence of GnRH expression in the adult. We performed lineage tracing in Vax1(flox/flox):GnRH(cre):RosaLacZ mice which proved GnRH neurons to be alive, but incapable of expressing GnRH. The absence of GnRH leads to delayed puberty, hypogonadism and complete infertility in both sexes. Finally, using the immortalized model GnRH neuron cell lines, GN11 and

  14. Transcriptome analysis of endometrial tissues following GnRH agonist treatment in a mouse adenomyosis model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Lu, Xiaowei; Gu, Ruihuan; Zhang, Di; Sun, Yijuan; Feng, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Adenomyosis is a common, benign gynecological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are one of the medications used in adenomyosis treatment; however, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain endometrial samples from women undergoing such treatment. To overcome this, we generated an adenomyosis mouse model, which we treated with an GnRH agonist to determine its effect on pregnancy outcomes. We also analyzed endometrial gene expression following GnRH agonist treatment to determine the mechanisms that may affect pregnancy outcome in individuals with adenomyosis. Methods Neonatal female mice were divided into a control group, an untreated adenomyosis group, and an adenomyosis group treated with a GnRH agonist (n=6 each). The pregnancy outcome was observed and compared among the groups. Then, three randomly chosen transcriptomes from endometrial tissues from day 4 of pregnancy were analyzed between the adenomyosis group and the GnRH agonist treatment group by RNA sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The litter size was significantly smaller in the adenomyosis group than in the control group (7±0.28 vs 11±0.26; P<0.05). However, the average live litter size was increased (10±0.28 vs 7±0.28; P<0.05) after GnRH agonist treatment. Three hundred and fifty-nine genes were differentially expressed in the GnRH agonist-treated group compared with the untreated group (218 were downregulated and 141 were upregulated). Differentially expressed genes were related to diverse biological processes, including estrogen metabolism, cell cycle, and metabolite biosynthesis. Conclusion GnRH agonist treatment appears to improve the pregnancy outcome of adenomyosis in a mouse model. Besides pituitary down-regulation, other possible mechanisms such as the regulation of cell

  15. Combined ovulation triggering with GnRH agonist and hCG in IVF patients.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Kurdija, Kristijan; Orešković, Slavko; Čehić, Ermin; Pavičić-Baldani, Dinka; Škrgatić, Lana

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the review is to analyse the combination of a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist with a human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) trigger, for final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The concept being a ''dual trigger'' combines a single dose of the GnRH agonist with a reduced or standard dosage of hCG at the time of triggering. The use of a GnRH agonist with a reduced dose of hCG in high responders demonstrated luteal phase support with improved pregnancy rates, similar to those after conventional hCG and a low risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The administration of a GnRH agonist and a standard hCG in normal responders, demonstrated significantly improved live-birth rates and a higher number of embryos of excellent quality, or cryopreserved embryos. The concept of the ''double trigger" represents a combination of a GnRH agonist and a standard hCG, when used 40 and 34 h prior to ovum pick-up, respectively. The use of the ''double trigger" has been successfully offered in the treatment of empty follicle syndrome and in patients with a history of immature oocytes retrieved or with low/poor oocytes yield. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the aforementioned observations prior to clinical implementation.

  16. GnRH signaling, the gonadotrope and endocrine control of fertility.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Stuart P; Navratil, Amy M; Xie, Jianjun; Roberson, Mark S

    2010-07-01

    Mammalian reproductive cycles are controlled by an intricate interplay between the hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads. Central to the function of this axis is the ability of the pituitary gonadotrope to appropriately respond to stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This review focuses on the role of cell signaling and in particular, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities regulated by GnRH that are necessary for normal fertility. Recently, new mouse models making use of conditional gene deletion have shed new light on the relationships between GnRH signaling and fertility in both male and female mice. Within the reproductive axis, GnRH signaling is initiated through discrete membrane compartments in which the receptor resides leading to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs 1/2). As defined by gonadotrope-derived cellular models, the ERKs appear to play a central role in the regulation of a cohort of immediate early genes that regulate the expression of late genes that, in part, define the differentiated character of the gonadotrope. Recent data would suggest that in vivo, conditional, pituitary-specific disruption of ERK signaling by GnRH leads to a gender-specific perturbation of fertility. Double ERK knockout in the anterior pituitary leads to female infertility due to LH biosynthesis deficiency and a failure in ovulation. In contrast, male mice are modestly LH deficient; however, this does not have an appreciable impact on fertility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GnRH signaling, the gonadotrope and endocrine control of fertility

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Stuart P.; Navratil, Amy M.; Xie, Jianjun; Roberson, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive cycles are controlled by an intricate interplay between the hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads. Central to the function of this axis is the ability of the pituitary gonadotrope to appropriately respond to stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This review focuses on the role of cell signaling and in particular, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities regulated by GnRH that are necessary for normal fertility. Recently, new mouse models making use of conditional gene deletion have shed new light on the relationships between GnRH signaling and fertility in both male and female mice. Within the reproductive axis, GnRH signaling is initiated through discrete membrane compartments in which the receptor resides leading to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs 1/2). As defined by gonadotrope-derived cellular models, the ERKs appear to play a central role in the regulation of a cohort of immediate early genes that regulate the expression of late genes that, in part, define the differentiated character of the gonadotrope. Recent data would suggest that in vivo, conditional, pituitary-specific disruption of ERK signaling by GnRH leads to a gender-specific perturbation of fertility. Double ERK knockout in the anterior pituitary leads to female infertility due to LH biosynthesis deficiency and a failure in ovulation. In contrast, male mice are modestly LH deficient; however, this does not have an appreciable impact on fertility. PMID:20451543

  18. Effect of GnRH analogs in postnatal domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Carranza, A; Faya, M; Merlo, M Lopez; Batista, P; Gobello, C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to reproductively assess the clinical and hormonal effects of a GnRH agonist (AG) and an antagonist (AN) administered during the postnatal period in domestic cats. Forty-eight male and female postnatal kittens were randomly assigned to deslorelin acetate 1.6 mg subcutaneous (AG; n = 16), acyline 33 μg/100 g subcutaneous weekly for 3 months (AN; n = 16), or control (CO; n = 16) which remained untreated. The cats were followed up (behavioral observation, physical examination, fecal sexual steroid determinations, mating test, and pregnancy diagnosis) up to puberty. Puberty was delayed (weeks) in the AG animals (62.9 ± 3.5; P < 0.01) but not in the AN (15.5 ± 1.7; P > 0.05) when they were compared with CO kittens (13.4 ± 0.4). Fifteen (15/16) of the AN and CO animals, and only 11 of 16 cats of the AG group were fertile (P > 0.1). No differences were found in body weight (P > 0.1) and measurements (P > 0.1), libido (P > 0.1) and in the appearance of side effects (P > 0.1; except a pyometra in an AG female) among groups. In both AG- and AN-treated males (testosterone; P < 0.01) and females (estradiol-17β; P < 0.01) fecal hormone concentrations were lower than in CO group during the first five postnatal weeks but not later. It is concluded that the neonatal administration of these AG and AN decreased fecal sexual steroids during the first postnatal weeks causing, the agonists but not the antagonist, a significant, reversible delay in puberty appearance.

  19. A small population of hypothalamic neurons govern fertility: the critical role of VAX1 in GnRH neuron development and fertility maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Hanne M.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2017-01-01

    Fertility depends on the correct maturation and function of approximately 800 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brain. GnRH neurons are at the apex of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that regulates fertility. In adulthood, GnRH neurons are scattered throughout the anterior hypothalamic area and project to the median eminence, where GnRH is released into the portal vasculature to stimulate release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary. LH and FSH then regulate gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Absence of GnRH neurons or inappropriate GnRH release leads to infertility. Despite the critical role of GnRH neurons in fertility, we still have a limited understanding of the genes responsible for proper GnRH neuron development and function in adulthood. GnRH neurons originate in the olfactory placode then migrate into the brain. Homeodomain transcription factors expressed within GnRH neurons or along their migratory path are candidate genes for inherited infertility. Using a combined in vitro and in vivo approach, we have identified Ventral Anterior Homeobox 1 (Vax1) as a novel homeodomain transcription factor responsible for GnRH neuron maturation and fertility. GnRH neuron counts in Vax1 knock-out embryos revealed Vax1 to be required for the presence of GnRH-expressing cells at embryonic day 17.5 (E17.5), but not at E13.5. To localize the effects of Vax1 on fertility, we generated Vax1flox mice and crossed them with Gnrhcre mice to specifically delete Vax1 within GnRH neurons. GnRH staining in Vax1flox/flox:GnRHcre mice show a total absence of GnRH expression in the adult. We performed lineage tracing in Vax1flox/flox:GnRHcre:RosaLacZ mice which proved GnRH neurons to be alive, but incapable of expressing GnRH. The absence of GnRH leads to delayed puberty, hypogonadism and complete infertility in both sexes. Finally, using the immortalized model GnRH neuron cell lines, GN11 and GT1-7, we

  20. Regulation of GnRH I receptor gene expression by the GnRH agonist triptorelin, estradiol, and progesterone in the gonadotroph-derived cell line alphaT3-1.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J M; Polack, S; Treeck, O; Diedrich, K; Ortmann, O

    2006-08-01

    The secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) concentration are modulated by ovarian steroids and GnRH. To elucidate whether this regulation is due to alterations at the transcriptional level, we examined the GnRH I-R mRNA expression in the gonadotroph-derived cell line alphaT3-1 treated with different estradiol and progesterone paradigms and the GnRH I agonist triptorelin. alphaT3-1 cells were treated with different steroid paradigms: 1 nM estradiol or 100 nM progesterone for 48 h alone or in combination. Cells were exposed to 10 nM or 100 pM triptorelin for 30 min, 3 h, 9 h, or, in pulsatile way, with a 5-min pulse per hour. The GnRH I-R mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis. GnRH I-R mRNA from cells treated with continuous triptorelin decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Pulsatile triptorelin increased GnRH I-R gene expression. Progesterone alone further enhanced this effect, whereas estradiol and its combination with progesterone diminished it. Continuous combined treatment with estradiol and progesterone lead to a significant decrease of GnRH I-R mRNA by 30% and by 35% for estradiol alone. The addition of 10 nM triptorelin for 30 min or 3 h could not influence that steroid effect. In conclusion, estradiol and progesterone exclusively decreased GnRH I-R mRNA in alphaT3-1 cells no matter whether they are treated additionally with the GnRH I agonist triptorelin. The enhanced sensitivity of gonadotrophs and GnRH I-R upregulation by estradiol is not due to increased GnRH I gene expression because GnRH I-R mRNA is downregulated by estradiol and progesterone. Other pathways of the GnRH I-R signal transduction might be involved.

  1. Comparison of early versus late initiation of GnRH antagonist co-treatment for controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hamdine, O; Macklon, N S; Eijkemans, M J C; Laven, J S E; Cohlen, B J; Verhoeff, A; van Dop, P A; Bernardus, R E; Lambalk, C B; Oosterhuis, G J E; Holleboom, C A G; van den Dool-Maasland, G C; Verburg, H J; van der Heijden, P F M; Blankhart, A; Fauser, B C J M; Broekmans, F J

    2013-12-01

    What is the impact of initiating GnRH antagonist co-treatment for in vitro fertilization (IVF) on cycle day (CD) 2 compared with CD 6 on live birth rate (LBR) per started cycle and on the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR)? Early initiation of GnRH antagonist does not appear to improve clinical outcomes of IVF compared with midfollicular initiation. During ovarian stimulation for IVF, GnRH antagonist co-treatment is usually administered from the midfollicular phase onwards. Earlier initiation may improve the follicular phase hormonal milieu and therefore overall clinical outcomes. This open-label, multicentre randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2009 and July 2011. A web-based program was used for randomization and 617 IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients were included. Recombinant FSH (150-225 IU) was administered daily from CD 2 onwards in both groups. The study group (CD2; n = 308) started GnRH antagonist co-treatment on CD 2, whereas the control group (CD6; n = 309) started on CD 6. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the two groups. A non-significant trend towards a higher LBR per started cycle and CLBR was observed in the CD6 group compared with the CD2 group (LBR: 24.0 versus 21.5%, P = 0.5; CLBR: 29.9 versus 26.7%, P = 0.6). The study was terminated prematurely because no significant difference was observed in clinical outcomes after 617 inclusions. A much larger study population would be needed to detect a small significant difference in favour of either study arm, which raises the question of whether this would be relevant for clinical practice. The present study shows that the additional treatment burden and costs of starting GnRH antagonist on CD 2 instead of on CD 6 are not justified, as early initiation of GnRH antagonist does not improve LBRs. This study was partially supported by a grant from Merck Serono. O.H., M.J.C.E, A.V., P.A.D., R.E.B., G.J.E.O., C.A.G.H., G.C.D.M., H.J.V., P

  2. A Novel Animal Model to Study Hot Flashes: No Effect of GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Albertson, Asher J.; Skinner, Donal C.

    2009-01-01

    Menopausal hot flushes compromise the quality of life for the majority of women. The physiological mechanisms underlying hot flushes remain poorly understood and the absence of an animal model to investigate hot flushes hinders investigations in this field. We have developed the sheep as a model to study peripheral skin temperature changes. Subjecting sheep to fever-inducing treatments with lipopolysaccharide, a significant (P<0.01) change in ear skin temperature was observed. As a strong correlation between luteinizing hormone pulses and hot flushes has previously been reported, we then determined whether intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), at doses sufficient to elevate CSF GnRH concentrations, could modulate ear skin temperature. No effect was observed, suggesting that GnRH per se dose not play a role in the etiology of hot flashes. PMID:19512948

  3. Long-term effects of GnRH agonists on fertility and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S

    2017-04-01

    This review aimed to summarize the present knowledge about the effects of GnRH agonist slow-release implants (GnRH A-SRI) on fertility and behaviour in male and female dogs and cats with special focus on deslorelin. Following an initial stimulation of gonadotropin and testosterone secretion possibly associated with an improved semen quality, GnRH A-SRI induce long-term depression of fertility in male dogs and cats with, however, a large individual variation in onset and duration of efficacy especially in cats. The GnRH A-SRI furthermore interfere with testosterone-dependent/affected behaviour; a significant positive effect in reducing sexual behaviour and libido, hypersexuality, intermale dominance and excessive territorial urine marking has been described. Rates of improvement of the respective behaviour are comparable to those after surgical castration, making GnRH A-SRI a valuable option to predict castration-related effects on behaviour and to identify animals where surgical castration will not be beneficial. No effect has been seen in reducing aggression towards humans indicating the need for behavioural therapy to control this problem. Effects on spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis and behaviour have by now been shown to be fully reversible. Knowledge in females is more limited, and particularly, the initial induction of a possibly fertile oestrus and individual variation in duration of efficacy remain problems in bitches and queens treated for suppression of fertility. However, long-term suppression of oestrous cycle and fertility seems to be possible with induced effects shown to be reversible including restoration of normal fertility after the end of efficacy/GNRH A-SRI removal. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Control of GnRH expression in the olfactory lobe of Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2009-03-01

    In the cephalopod mollusk Octopus vulgaris, the gonadotropic hormone released by the optic gland controls sexual maturity. Several lobes of the central nervous system control the activity of this gland. In one of these lobes, the olfactory lobe, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system has been described. We assume that several inputs converge on the olfactory lobes in order to activate GnRH neurons and that a glutamatergic system mediates the integration of stimuli on these neuropeptidergic neurons. The presence of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor immunoreactivity in the neuropil of olfactory lobes and in the fibers of the optic gland nerve, along with the GnRH nerve endings strongly supports this hypothesis. A distinctive role in the control of GnRH secretion has also been attributed, in vertebrates, to nitric oxide (NO). The lobes and nerves involved in the nervous control of reproduction in Octopus contain nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Using a set of experiments aimed at manipulate a putative l-glutamate/NMDA/NO signal transduction pathway, we have demonstrated, by quantitative real-time PCR, that NMDA enhances the expression of GnRH mRNA in a dose-response manner. The reverting effect of a selective antagonist of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (D-APV), confirms that such an enhancing action is a NMDA receptor-mediated response. Nitric oxide and calcium also play a positive role on GnRH mRNA expression. The results suggest that in Octopusl-glutamate could be a key molecule in the nervous control of sexual maturation.

  5. Two types of burst firing in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zhiguo; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Bertram, Richard; Moenter, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    GnRH neurones fire spontaneous bursts of action potentials, but little is understood about the underlying mechanisms. Here we show evidence for two types of bursting/oscillation driven by different mechanisms. Properties of these different types are clarified using mathematical modeling and a recently developed active-phase/silent-phase correlation technique. The first type of GnRH neurone (1–2%) exhibits slow (~0.05Hz) spontaneous oscillations in membrane potential. Action potential bursts are often observed during oscillation depolarization, but some oscillations were entirely subthreshold. Oscillations persist after blockade of fast sodium channels with TTX and blocking receptors for ionotropic fast synaptic transmission, indicating they are intrinsically generated. In the second type of GnRH neurone, bursts were irregular and TTX caused a stable membrane potential. The two types of bursting cells exhibited distinct active-phase/silent-phase correlation patterns, which is suggestive of distinct mechanisms underlying the rhythms. Further studies of type 1 oscillating cells revealed that the oscillation period was not affected by current or voltage steps, although amplitude was sometimes damped. Oestradiol, an important feedback regulator of GnRH neuronal activity, acutely and markedly altered oscillations, specifically depolarizing the oscillation nadir and initiating or increasing firing. Blocking calcium-activated potassium channels, which are rapidly reduced by oestradiol, had a similar effect on oscillations. Kisspeptin, a potent activator of GnRH neurones, translated the oscillation to more depolarised potentials, without altering period or amplitude. These data show that there are at least two distinct types of GnRH neurone bursting patterns with different underlying mechanisms. PMID:22435872

  6. Altered Expression of Genes Encoding Neurotransmitter Receptors in GnRH Neurons of Proestrous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vastagh, Csaba; Rodolosse, Annie; Solymosi, Norbert; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a key role in the central regulation of reproduction. In proestrous female mice, estradiol triggers the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, however, its impact on the expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in GnRH neurons has not been explored yet. We hypothesized that proestrus is accompanied by substantial changes in the expression profile of genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors in GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact, proestrous, and metestrous female GnRH-GFP transgenic mice, respectively. About 1500 individual GnRH neurons were sampled from both groups and their transcriptome was analyzed using microarray hybridization and real-time PCR. In this study, changes in mRNA expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling were investigated. Differential gene expression was most apparent in GABA-ergic (Gabbr1, Gabra3, Gabrb3, Gabrb2, Gabrg2), glutamatergic (Gria1, Gria2, Grin1, Grin3a, Grm1, Slc17a6), cholinergic (Chrnb2, Chrm4) and dopaminergic (Drd3, Drd4), adrenergic (Adra1b, Adra2a, Adra2c), adenosinergic (Adora2a, Adora2b), glycinergic (Glra), purinergic (P2rx7), and serotonergic (Htr1b) receptors. In concert with these events, expression of genes in the signaling pathways downstream to the receptors, i.e., G-proteins (Gnai1, Gnai2, Gnas), adenylate-cyclases (Adcy3, Adcy5), protein kinase A (Prkaca, Prkacb) protein kinase C (Prkca) and certain transporters (Slc1a4, Slc17a6, Slc6a17) were also changed. The marked differences found in the expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling of GnRH neurons at pro- and metestrous stages of the ovarian cycle indicate the differential contribution of these neurotransmitter systems to the induction of the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, the known prerequisite of the subsequent hormonal cascade inducing ovulation. PMID:27774052

  7. Mechanisms of neuromodulation by a nonhypophysiotropic GnRH system controlling motivation of reproductive behavior in the teleost brain.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hideki; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2011-12-01

    Fine tuning of the nervous system in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cues is necessary for successful reproductive behavior. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) was originally identified as a hypophysiotropic hormone that facilitates the release of gonadotropins from the pituitary. Although later studies reported their presence, the nonhypophysiotropic GnRH systems, which consist of two groups located in the terminal nerve (TN) and the midbrain tegmentum, respectively, has long been overshadowed by the hypophysiotropic GnRH system. By taking advantage of the teleost brains in which all three GnRH systems are well developed, the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of all three groups of GnRH neurons have been studied. However, despite our increasing endocrinological knowledge, we know very little about the manner of information flow by nonhypophysiotropic neuromodulatory GnRH neurons in the brain. In this article, we will review recent advances in the studies of nonhypophysiotropic GnRH neurons from cellular to behavioral levels. We will first discuss general features of the information processing by peptides and then introduce our recent approaches toward the understanding of the excitation-secretion coupling mechanism of single GnRH neuron using our newly developed primary culture system of isolated TN-GnRH3 neurons. We also introduce autocrine/paracrine regulation of TN-GnRH3 neurons by NPFF peptides for synchronization among them. In addition, we highlight recent advances in the neuromodulatory action of GnRH peptide on the information processing of sensory neuronal circuits and reproductive behavior. These multidisciplinary approaches will greatly advance our understanding of the complex action of GnRH peptides in relation to the brain control of reproduction.

  8. Glial-gonadotrophin hormone (GnRH) neurone interactions in the median eminence and the control of GnRH secretion.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, S R; Lomniczi, A; Sandau, U S

    2008-06-01

    A wealth of information now exists showing that glial cells are actively involved in the cell-cell communication process generating and disseminating information within the central nervous system. In the hypothalamus, two types of glial cells, astrocytes and ependymal cells lining the latero-ventral portion of the third ventricle (known as tanycytes), regulate the secretory activity of neuroendocrine neurones. This function, initially described for astrocytes apposing magnocellular neurones, has been more recently characterised for neurones secreting gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH). The available evidence suggests that glial cells of the median eminence regulate GnRH secretion via two related mechanisms. One involves the production of growth factors acting via receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. The other involves plastic rearrangements of glia-GnRH neurone adhesiveness. GnRH axons reach the median eminence, at least in part, directed by basic fibroblast growth factor. Their secretory activity is facilitated by insulin-like growth factor 1 and members of the epidermal growth factor family. A structural complement to these soluble molecules is provided by at least three cell-cell adhesion systems endowed with signalling capabilities. One of them uses the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), another employs the synaptic cell adhesion molecule (SynCAM), and the third one consists of neuronal contactin interacting with glial receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta. It is envisioned that, within the median eminence, soluble factors and adhesion molecules work coordinately to control delivery of GnRH to the portal vasculature.

  9. Current and future applications of GnRH, kisspeptin and neurokinin B analogues.

    PubMed

    Millar, Robert P; Newton, Claire L

    2013-08-01

    Reproductive hormones affect all stages of life from gamete production, fertilization, fetal development and parturition, neonatal development and puberty through to adulthood and senescence. The reproductive hormone cascade has, therefore, been the target for the development of numerous drugs that modulate its activity at many levels. As the central regulator of the cascade, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists have found extensive applications in treating a wide range of hormone-dependent diseases, such as precocious puberty, prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, endometriosis and uterine fibroids, as well as being an essential component of in vitro fertilization protocols. The neuroendocrine peptides that regulate GnRH neurons, kisspeptin and neurokinin B, have also been identified as therapeutic targets, and novel agonists and antagonists are being developed as modulators of the cascade upstream of GnRH. Here, we review the development and applications of analogues of the major neuroendocrine peptide regulators of the reproductive hormone cascade: GnRH, kisspeptin and neurokinin B.

  10. Sirt1-Deficient Mice Have Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism due to Defective GnRH Neuronal Migration

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Gabriele; Wang, Liping; Wang, Chenguang; Jiao, Xuanmiao; Casimiro, Mathew C.; Chen, Ke; Pestell, Timothy G.; Yaman, Ismail; Di Rocco, Agnese; Sun, Xin; Horio, Yoshiyuki; Powell, Michael J.; He, Xiaohong; McBurney, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Hypogonadatropic hypogonadism (HH) can be acquired through energy restriction or may be inherited as congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and its anosmia-associated form, Kallmann's syndrome. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is associated with mutations in a group of genes that impact fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) function. The Sirt1 gene encodes a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent histone deacetylase that links intracellular metabolic stress to gene expression. Herein Sirt1−/− mice are shown to have HH due to failed GnRH neuronal migration. Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) catalytic function induces GnRH neuronal migration via binding and deacetylating cortactin. Sirt1 colocalized with cortactin in GnRH neurons in vitro. Sirt1 colocalization with cortactin was regulated in an FGF8/fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 dependent manner. The profound effect of Sirt1 on the hormonal status of Sirt1−/− mice, mediated via defective GnRH neuronal migration, links energy metabolism directly to the hypogonadal state. Sirt1-cortactin may serve as the distal transducer of neuronal migration mediated by the FGF8 synexpression group of genes that govern HH. PMID:25545407

  11. Receptor-mediated binding and uptake of GnRH agonist and antagonist by pituitary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jennes, L.; Stumpf, W.E.; Conn, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The intracellular pathway of an enzyme resistant GnRH agonist (D- Lys6 -GnRH) conjugated to ferritin or to colloidal gold was followed in cultured pituitary cells. After an initial uniform distribution over the cell surface of gonadotropes, the electrondense marker was internalized, either individually or in small groups. After longer incubation times, the marker appeared in the lysosomal compartment and the Golgi apparatus, where it could be found in the vesicular as well as cisternal portion. In addition, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of the GnRH antagonist D-p-Glu1-D-Phe2-D-Trp3-D- Lys6 -GnRH was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography after 30 and 60 min of incubation to ensure uptake. At both time points, in in vitro as well as in vivo studies, silver grains were localized over cytoplasmic organelles of castration cells, including dilated endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and clear vesicles. No consistent association with cell nuclei, mitochondria, or secretory vesicles could be observed. The results suggest that both agonist and antagonist are binding selectively to the plasma membrane of gonadotropes and subsequently are taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis for degradation or possible action on synthetic processes.

  12. Hypothalamic Programming of Systemic Aging Involving IKKβ/NF-κB and GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo; Li, Juxue; Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Tang, Yizhe; Zhang, Hai; Yin, Ye; Li, Bo; Liu, Gang; Cai, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aging is a result of gradual and overall functional deteriorations across the body; however, it is unknown if an individual tissue works to primarily mediate aging progress and lifespan control. Here we found that the hypothalamus is important for the development of whole-body aging in mice, and the underlying basis involves hypothalamic immunity mediated by IKKβ/NF-κB and related microglia-neuron immune crosstalk. Several interventional models were developed showing that aging retardation and lifespan extension are achieved in mice through preventing against aging-related hypothalamic or brain IKKβ/NF-κB activation. Mechanistic studies further revealed that IKKβ/NF-κB inhibits GnRH to mediate aging-related hypothalamic GnRH decline, and GnRH treatment amends aging-impaired neurogenesis and decelerates aging. In conclusion, the hypothalamus has a programmatic role in aging development via immune-neuroendocrine integration, and immune inhibition or GnRH restoration in the hypothalamus/brain represent two potential strategies for optimizing lifespan and combating aging-related health problems. PMID:23636330

  13. Social Crowding during Development Causes Changes in GnRH1 DNA Methylation.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Sebastian G; Lenkov, Kapa; Williams, Blake; Fernald, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Gestational and developmental cues have important consequences for long-term health, behavior and adaptation to the environment. In addition, social stressors cause plastic molecular changes in the brain that underlie unique behavioral phenotypes that also modulate fitness. In the adult African cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni, growth and social status of males are both directly regulated by social interactions in a dynamic social environment, which causes a suite of plastic changes in circuits, cells and gene transcription in the brain. We hypothesized that a possible mechanism underlying some molecular changes might be DNA methylation, a reversible modification made to cytosine nucleotides that is known to regulate gene function. Here we asked whether changes in DNA methylation of the GnRH1 gene, the central regulator of the reproductive axis, were altered during development of A. burtoni. We measured changes in methylation state of the GnRH1 gene during normal development and following the gestational and developmental stress of social crowding. We found differential DNA methylation within developing juveniles between 14-, 28- and 42-day-old. Following gestational crowding of mouth brooding mothers, we saw differential methylation and transcription of GnRH1 in their offspring. Taken together, our data provides evidence for social control of GnRH1 developmental responses to gestational cues through DNA methylation.

  14. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  15. Functional Significance of GnRH and Kisspeptin, and Their Cognate Receptors in Teleost Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Gopurappilly, Renjitha; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2012-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic transmembrane proteins found in all living organisms. Their versatility and roles in several physiological processes make them the single largest family of drug targets. Comparative genomic studies using various model organisms have provided useful information about target receptors. The similarity of the genetic makeup of teleosts to that of humans and other vertebrates aligns with the study of GPCRs. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents a critical step in the reproductive process through its cognate GnRH receptors (GnRHRs). Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its cognate GPCR, GPR54 (=kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R), have recently been identified as a critical signaling system in the control of reproduction. The Kiss1/Kiss-R system regulates GnRH release, which is vital to pubertal development and vertebrate reproduction. This review highlights the physiological role of kisspeptin-Kiss-R signaling in the reproductive neuroendocrine axis in teleosts through the modulation of GnRH release. Moreover, we also review the recent developments in GnRHR and Kiss-R with respect to their structural variants, signaling mechanisms, ligand interactions, and functional significance. Finally, we discuss the recent progress in identifying many teleost GnRH-GnRHR and kisspeptin-Kiss-R systems and consider their physiological significance in the control of reproduction. PMID:23482509

  16. A Role for Neurokinin B in Pulsatile GnRH Secretion in the Ewe

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Robert L.; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The recent description of infertility in humans with loss-of-function mutations in genes for neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor (NK3R) has focused attention on the importance of this tachykinin in the control of GnRH secretion. In a number of species, NKB neurons in the arcuate nucleus also produce two other neuropeptides implicated in the control of GnRH secretion: 1) kisspeptin, which is also essential for fertility in humans, and 2) dynorphin, an inhibitory endogenous opioid peptide. A number of characteristics of this neuronal population led to the hypothesis that they may be responsible for driving synchronous release of GnRH during episodic secretion of this hormone and there is now considerable evidence to support this hypothesis in sheep and goats. In this article, we briefly review the history of work on the NKB system in sheep and then review the anatomy of NKB signaling in the sheep. We next describe evidence from a number of species that led to development of a model for the role of these neurons in episodic GnRH secretion. Finally, we discuss recent experiments in sheep and goats that tested this hypothesis and led to a modified version of the model, and then broaden our focus to briefly consider the possible roles of NKB in other species and systems. PMID:24008670

  17. Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency not linked to gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in Brazilian kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Faraco, J.; Francke, U.; Toledo, S.

    1994-09-01

    Familial idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency (FIGD) is an autosomal recessive disorder which results in failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics. The origin is a hypothalamic defect resulting in insufficient secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH (also called LHRH, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone) and follicle-stimuating hormone (FSH). FIGD has been determined to be a separate entity from Kallmann syndrome which presents with hypogonadism as well as anosmia. The FIGD phenotype appears to be analogous to the phenotype of the hpg (hypogonadal) mouse. Because the hpg phenotype is the result of a structurally abnormal GnRH gene, we have studied the GnRH gene in individuals from a previously reported Brazilian FIGD family. An informative dimorphic marker in the signal peptide sequence of the GnRH gene allowed assessment of linkage between the disease gene and the GnRH locus in this pedigree. We have concluded that the GnRH locus is not linked to the disease-causing mutation in these hypogonadal individuals. Recent evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a role in the initiation of puberty. We hypothesize that mutations in NPY may result in failure to secrete GnRH. We have characterized three diallelic frequent-cutter restriction fragment length polymorphisms within the human NPY locus, and are currently using these markers to determine if the NPY gene is linked to, and possibly the site of the disease mutation in this kindred.

  18. Ectopic pregnancy risk factors for ART patients undergoing the GnRH antagonist protocol: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, A; Beck-Fruchter, R; Golan, J; Lavee, M; Geslevich, Y; Shalev, E

    2016-03-23

    In-vitro fertilization is a known risk factor for ectopic pregnancies. We sought to establish the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in GnRH antagonist cycles examining patient and stimulation parameters with an emphasis on ovulation trigger. We conducted a retrospective, cohort study of 343 patients undergoing 380 assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles with the GnRH antagonist protocol and achieving a clinical pregnancy from November 2010 through December 2015. Significant risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in the univariate analysis included prior Cesarean section (CS), endometriosis, mechanical factor infertility, longer stimulation, elevated estradiol and progesterone levels, GnRH agonist trigger, higher number of oocytes aspirated, and insemination technique. Independent risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in the multivariate analysis included GnRH agonist trigger, higher number of oocytes aspirated, insemination technique, and prior Cesarean section. Excessive ovarian response, IVF (as opposed to ICSI), prior Cesarean section and GnRH agonist trigger were found to be independent risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Caution should be exercised before incorporating the GnRH agonist trigger for indications other than preventing OHSS. When excessive ovarian response leads to utilization of GnRH agonist trigger, strategies for preventing ectopic pregnancy, such as a freeze all policy or blastocyst transfer, should be considered. Further studies should elucidate whether adjusting the luteal support can reduce the ectopic pregnancy risk.

  19. Morphological Characterization of the Action Potential Initiation Segment in GnRH Neuron Dendrites and Axons of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Herde, Michel K; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-11-01

    GnRH neurons are the final output neurons of the hypothalamic network controlling fertility in mammals. In the present study, we used ankyrin G immunohistochemistry and neurobiotin filling of live GnRH neurons in brain slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic male mice to examine in detail the location of action potential initiation in GnRH neurons with somata residing at different locations in the basal forebrain. We found that the vast majority of GnRH neurons are bipolar in morphology, elaborating a thick (primary) and thinner (secondary) dendrite from opposite poles of the soma. In addition, an axon-like process arising predominantly from a proximal dendrite was observed in a subpopulation of GnRH neurons. Ankyrin G immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of a single action potential initiation zone ∼27 μm in length primarily in the secondary dendrite of GnRH neurons and located 30 to 140 μm distant from the cell soma, depending on the type of process and location of the cell body. In addition to dendrites, the GnRH neurons with cell bodies located close to hypothalamic circumventricular organs often elaborated ankyrin G-positive axon-like structures. Almost all GnRH neurons (>90%) had their action potential initiation site in a process that initially, or ultimately after a hairpin loop, was coursing in the direction of the median eminence. These studies indicate that action potentials are initiated in different dendritic and axonal compartments of the GnRH neuron in a manner that is dependent partly on the neuroanatomical location of the cell body.

  20. The medio-basal hypothalamus as a dynamic and plastic reproduction-related kisspeptin-gnrh-pituitary center in fish.

    PubMed

    Zmora, Nilli; Stubblefield, John; Golan, Matan; Servili, Arianna; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Zohar, Yonathan

    2014-05-01

    Kisspeptin regulates reproductive events, including puberty and ovulation, primarily via GnRH neurons. Prolonged treatment of prepubertal striped bass females with kisspeptin (Kiss) 1 or Kiss2 peptides failed to enhance puberty but suggested a gnrh-independent pituitary control pathway. Kiss2 inhibited, but Kiss1 stimulated, FShβ expression and gonadal development, although hypophysiotropic gnrh1 and gnrh receptor expression remained unchanged. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on brains and pituitaries revealed a differential plasticity between the 2 kisspeptin neurons. The differences were most pronounced at the prespawning phase in 2 regions along the path of gnrh1 axons: the nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT) and the neurohypophysis. Kiss1 neurons appeared in the NLT and innervated the neurohypophysis of prespawning males and females, reaching Lh gonadotropes in the proximal pars distalis. Males, at all reproductive stages, had Kiss2 innervations in the NLT and the neurohypophysis, forming large axonal bundles in the former and intermingling with gnrh1 axons. Unlike in males, only preovulatory females had massive NLT-neurohypophysis staining of kiss2. Kiss2 neurons showed a distinct appearance in the NLT pars ventralis-equivalent region only in spawning zebrafish, indicating that this phenomenon is widespread. These results underscore the NLT as important nuclei for kisspeptin action in 2 facets: 1) kisspeptin-gnrh interaction, both kisspeptins are involved in the regulation of gnrh release, in a stage- and sex-dependent manner, especially at the prespawning phase; and 2) gnrh-independent effect of Kiss peptides on the pituitary, which together with the plastic nature of their neuronal projections to the pituitary implies that a direct gonadotropic regulation is plausible.

  1. The effect of GnRH analogues for pituitary suppression on ovarian response in repeated ovarian stimulation cycles

    PubMed Central

    Cavagna, Mario; Paes de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Daniela; Biaggioni Lopes, Fabio; de Cássia Savio Figueira, Rita; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian stimulation is employed in assisted reproduction techniques in order to obtain as many oocytes as possible. The early rise in oestradiol levels may lead to the premature end of the respective cycle. In order to avoid such an effect, pituitary suppression has been employed. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maintenance or replacement of the type of GnRH analogue (i.e., agonist or antagonist) employed for pituitary suppression in the consecutive intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle would negatively influence oocyte quality and ICSI outcome. Material and methods A retrospective observational study was conducted including 181 women with primary infertility. Patients were divided into four different groups according to the GnRH analogue used for pituitary suppression in the first and consecutive cycle. Results When a GnRH agonist was employed for pituitary suppression in the first cycle, the consecutive cycle showed comparable outcomes when performed with either a GnRH agonist or a GnRH antagonist. When the first cycle was performed with a GnRH antagonist, the use of the GnRH agonist in the successive cycle led to an increased number of oocytes retrieved (7.5% vs. 10.3%, p = 0.032) and the production of a higher number of embryos (4.5% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.036). Conclusions When the first cycle is carried out with a GnRH antagonist, the use of a GnRH agonist in the successive cycle would lead to increased numbers of oocytes collected and embryos produced. PMID:22295031

  2. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  3. Effects of ovarian input on GnRH and LH secretion immediately postovulation in pony mares.

    PubMed

    Greaves, H E; Kalariotes, V; Cleaver, B D; Porter, M B; Sharp, D C

    2001-03-15

    The potential involvement of ovarian factors in regulating GnRH and LH postovulation was studied in ovarian intact (Group 1; n=3) and ovariectomized (OVX; Group 2; n=3) mares (OVX within 12 hr of ovulation). Blood samples were collected every 10 min for 6 hr from jugular vein (JV) and intercavernous sinus (ICS) during estrus and on Day 8 postovulation for LH and GnRH analysis. Additionally, JV samples were collected twice daily (12-hr intervals) for 30 days for LH and progesterone (P4) analysis. A significant treatment x day effect (P<0.0001) describes declining plasma LH concentrations in intact mares, and regression analysis indicated that response curves were not parallel (P<0.001). Plasma LH concentrations remained elevated in OVX mares. LH increased further in OVX mares by Day 8 post-OVX (P<0.06), reflecting the increased (P<0.07) LH episode amplitude. GnRH decreased from estrus to Day 8 in both groups reflecting an effect of sampling period (P<0.03). GnRH episode amplitude declined (P<0.08) from estrus (62.8+/-3.1 pg/mL) to Day 8 (46.3+/-3.1 pg/mL) in OVX mares, but not in control mares (intact estrus, 36.5+/-6.4; intact Day 8, 37.5+/-7.3; OVX estrus, 62.8+/-3.1; OVX Day 8, 46.3+/-3.1 pg/mL). In conclusion, we propose that postovulatory LH decline requires ovarian feedback in mares, and that OVX alters GnRH secretory dynamics such that LH concentrations does not decline postovulation and, in fact, is further elevated with time after OVX.

  4. Characterization of 12 GnRH peptide agonists – a kinetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nederpelt, Indira; Georgi, Victoria; Schiele, Felix; Nowak‐Reppel, Katrin; Fernández‐Montalván, Amaury E.; IJzerman, Adriaan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Drug‐target residence time is an important, yet often overlooked, parameter in drug discovery. Multiple studies have proposed an increased residence time to be beneficial for improved drug efficacy and/or longer duration of action. Currently, there are many drugs on the market targeting the gonadotropin‐releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor for the treatment of hormone‐dependent diseases. Surprisingly, the kinetic receptor‐binding parameters of these analogues have not yet been reported. Therefore, this project focused on determining the receptor‐binding kinetics of 12 GnRH peptide agonists, including many marketed drugs. Experimental Approach A novel radioligand‐binding competition association assay was developed and optimized for the human GnRH receptor with the use of a radiolabelled peptide agonist, [125I]‐triptorelin. In addition to radioligand‐binding studies, a homogeneous time‐resolved FRET Tag‐lite™ method was developed as an alternative assay for the same purpose. Key Results Two novel competition association assays were successfully developed and applied to determine the kinetic receptor‐binding characteristics of 12 high‐affinity GnRH peptide agonists. Results obtained from both methods were highly correlated. Interestingly, the binding kinetics of the peptide agonists were more divergent than their affinities with residence times ranging from 5.6 min (goserelin) to 125 min (deslorelin). Conclusions and Implications Our research provides new insights by incorporating kinetic, next to equilibrium, binding parameters in current research and development that can potentially improve future drug discovery targeting the GnRH receptor. PMID:26398856

  5. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Yanina; Pandolfi, Matías; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Genovese, Griselda; Lo Nostro, Fabiana

    2015-06-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used in agriculture despite its high toxicity towards non-target organisms such as fish. It has been demonstrated that ES can cause negative effects on aquatic animals, including disruption of hormonal systems. However, the alterations produced by this pesticide on the reproductive axis of fish prior to sexual maturity, as well as possible modes of action have hardly been studied. This study aimed at assessing the effect of waterborne exposure to the pesticide ES on the reproductive axis during sexual differentiation of juveniles of the South American freshwater cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. No mortality was observed due to ES subchronic exposure (90 days post-fertilization). Exposure to ES did not affect body weight nor morphometric parameters, indicating that larvae nutritional state was not affected. Timing of sexual differentiation, gonadal morphology and sex ratio were likewise not altered by ES. However, ES acted as an endocrine disrupting chemical in this species as the morphometry of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) producing cells was altered. Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons. Interestingly, in our previous study, exposure before sex differentiation (30 day exposure) caused no alteration to GnRH II and III, and did alter GnRH I and FSH cells. These alterations could lead to changes in circulating hormone levels, especially when fish are exposed for prolonged periods, ultimately impairing reproductive fitness. C. dimerus juveniles can be an interesting biological model to perform toxicological studies with the intent to assess early disruption endpoints in the reproductive axis during development.

  6. Interspecific variation in photo-induced GnRH plasticity among nomadic cardueline finches.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Maria Elena; Sharbaugh, Susan M; Hahn, Thomas P

    2005-01-01

    Changes in response to photoperiod are of fundamental importance to seasonal cycles in avian reproductive development. In this study we present data on photo-induced changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunoreactivity associated with the development of photorefractoriness in males of 3 closely related species of cardueline finch: common redpoll (Carduelis flammea), pine siskin (C. pinus) and white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera). All are nomadic, mid- to high-latitude breeders with varying levels of reproductive flexibility: redpolls are typically seasonal, pine siskins more flexibly seasonal and white-winged crossbills temporally opportunistic. Males were exposed to either long (20L:4D) or short days (5L:19D), beginning in January, and GnRH was assessed via immunocytochemistry 4.5 months later. Plasma LH, testis size, and molt score were also measured. Significant reductions in the number of irGnRH cells detected, cross-sectional cell area and optical density of these cells occurred in both redpolls and siskins on long, as compared with short, days. These decreases in irGnRH, coupled with spontaneous testicular regression and onset of molt were consistent with the development of absolute photorefractoriness on constant long days. In contrast, the tendency for numbers of GnRH immunopositive cells and mean measures of GnRH immunoreactivity (cell area, optical density and axonal fiber density) to decrease were much more moderate in white-winged crossbills held on long versus short days. Although none of the four measures of GnRH immunoreactivity differed significantly between treatments in crossbills, significant shifts in the frequency distribution of irGnRH neurons to include greater numbers of less immunoreactive cells suggested that antigenic GnRH content was reduced in many cells. These photo-induced shifts in optical densities of GnRH cells in long-day, as compared with short-day crossbills followed, to a lesser extent, the pattern in pine

  7. Expression of the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous and luteal phase ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2008-11-01

    Data exists showing that seasonal changes in the innervations of GnRH cells in the hypothalamus and functions of some neural systems affecting GnRH neurons are associated with GnRH release in ewes. Consequently, we put the question as to how the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland is reflected with LH secretion in anestrous and luteal phase ewes. Analysis of GnRH gene expression by RT-PCR in anestrous ewes indicated comparable levels of GnRH mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus. GnRH-R mRNA at different concentrations was found throughout the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. The highest GnRH-R mRNA levels were detected in the stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. During the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in ewes, the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in all structures were significantly higher than in anestrous ewes. Also LH concentrations in blood plasma of luteal phase ewes were significantly higher than those of anestrous ewes. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that low expression of the GnRH and GnRH-R genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, amongst others, may be responsible for a decrease in LH secretion and the anovulatory state in ewes during the long photoperiod.

  8. GnRH regulates trophoblast invasion via RUNX2-mediated MMP2/9 expression

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Zhu, Hua; Klausen, Christian; Ma, Liyang; Wang, Yan-ling; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY HYPOTHESIS We hypothesized that Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 are involved in basal and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cell invasion. STUDY FINDING Our finding indicates that GnRH-induced RUNX2 expression enhances the invasive capacity of EVT cells by modulating the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY GnRH is expressed in first-trimester placenta and exerts pro-invasive effects on EVT cells in vitro. RUNX2 regulates MMP2 and MMP9 expression and is often associated with invasive phenotypes. STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLES/MATERIALS, METHODS First-trimester human placenta (n = 9) was obtained from women undergoing elective termination of pregnancy. The localization of RUNX2, MMP2 and MMP9 in first-trimester human placenta was examined by immunohistochemistry. Primary or immortalized (HTR-8/SVneo) EVT cells were treated alone or in combination with GnRH, GnRH antagonist Antide, MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98095, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, MMP2/9 inhibitor or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting RUNX2, MMP2 and/or MMP9. Protein and mRNA levels were measured by western blot and RT–PCR, respectively. Cell invasiveness was evaluated by transwell Matrigel or collagen I invasion assays. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE RUNX2, MMP2 and MMP9 were detected in the cell column regions of human first-trimester placental villi. GnRH treatment increased RUNX2 mRNA and protein levels in HTR-8/SVneo cells and primary EVTs, and these effects were attenuated by co-treatment with Antide, PD98095 or LY294002. Down-regulation of RUNX2 by siRNA reduced basal and GnRH-induced MMP2/9 expression and cell invasion. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated knockdown of MMP2/9 reduced basal and GnRH-induced cell invasion. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The lack of an in vivo model is the major limitation of our in vitro study. WIDER

  9. Effectiveness of GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol applied during early and late follicular phase compared with GnRH agonist long protocol in non-obese and obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing IVF/ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jei-Won; Kang, Hyuk-Jae; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of GnRH antagonist multiple dose protocol applied during early and late follicular phase (MDP-EL) in comparison with standard GnRH agonist luteal long protocol (LP) in each non-obese and obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women undergoing IVF. Methods Two hundred eleven infertile women with PCOS were recruited and randomized to undergo either GnRH antagonist MDP-EL (antagonist group) or standard GnRH agonist luteal LP (agonist group). IVF cycle outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results Total dose and days of recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) administered were significantly fewer in the antagonist group than in the agonist group. Incidence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was significantly lower in the antagonist group. However, IVF and pregnancy outcomes were similar in the two groups. When all subjects were divided into non-obese and obese subgroups, in non-obese PCOS subgroup, IVF and pregnancy outcomes were comparable in the antagonist and agonist groups but total dose and days of rhFSH were also significantly fewer in the antagonist group. Similar findings were also observed in obese PCOS subgroup. Conclusion GnRH antagonist MDP-EL is at least as effective as GnRH agonist LP and may be a more patient-friendly alternative in controlled ovarian stimulation for PCOS patients undergoing IVF, independent of body mass index. PMID:22563547

  10. Comparison of embryological and clinical outcome in GnRH antagonist vs. GnRH agonist protocols for in vitro fertilization in PCOS non-obese patients. A prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kurzawa, Rafal; Baczkowski, Tomasz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Brelik, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Embryological and clinical efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and agonist stimulation protocols in non-obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were compared. Methods A prospective randomized study. Setting: Medical University Hospital. Patients: 70 infertile PCOS patients; 33 in GnRH antagonist and 37 in GnRH agonist group. Results Similar mature metaphase II oocyte rate (76% vs. 76%) was observed in both protocols. Optimal pronuclear morphology zygotes dominated in both groups (64% vs. 66%). Transferred embryo quality did not differ in both protocols. No significant differences between both protocols were found in delivery rate (p = 0.481), pregnancy rate (p = 0.810), multiple pregnancy rate (p = 0.501), miscarriage rate (p = 0.154), fertilization rate (p = 0.388) and implantation rate (p = 1.000). Duration of stimulation and total follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose were significantly lower in GnRH antagonist protocol (p = 0.0005). Conclusions GnRH antagonist and agonist protocols in non-obese PCOS patients yield similar embryological and clinical outcomes. Shorter duration of treatment and lower FSH requirement in GnRH antagonist group may be financially beneficial and therefore attractive for patients. PMID:18802744

  11. Brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh2 and gnrh3) expression during reproductive development and sex change in black sea bass (Centropristis striata).

    PubMed

    Breton, Timothy S; DiMaggio, Matthew A; Sower, Stacia A; Berlinsky, David L

    2015-03-01

    Teleost fish exhibit diverse reproductive strategies, and some species are capable of changing sex. The influence of many endocrine factors, such as gonadal steroids and neuropeptides, has been studied in relation to sex change, but comparatively less research has focused on gene expression changes within the brain in temperate grouper species with non-haremic social structures. The purpose of the present study was to investigate gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) gene expression patterns during reproductive development and sex change in protogynous (female to male) black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Partial cDNA fragments for cyp19a1b and eef1a (a reference gene) were identified, and included with known gnrh2 and gnrh3 sequences in real time quantitative PCR. Elevated cyp19a1b expression was evident in the olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, optic tectum, and hypothalamus/midbrain region during vitellogenic growth, which may indicate changes in the brain related to neurogenesis or sexual behavior. In contrast, gnrh2 and gnrh3 expression levels were largely similar among gonadal states, and all three genes exhibited stable expression during sex change. Although sex change in black sea bass is not associated with dramatic changes in GnRH or cyp19a1b gene expression among brain regions, these genes may mediate processes at other levels, such as within individual hypothalamic nuclei, or through changes in neuron size, that warrant further research.

  12. Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone and its antagonist on the gene expression of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of follicular phase ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Łapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2011-01-01

    There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamo-pituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamo-anterior pituitary unit.

  13. GnRH agonist reduces estrogen receptor dimerization in GT1-7 cells: evidence for cross-talk between membrane-initiated estrogen and GnRH signaling.

    PubMed

    Chason, Rebecca J; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Gerkowicz, Sabrina A; Dufau, Maria L; Catt, Kevin J; Segars, James H

    2015-03-15

    17β-estradiol (E2), a key participant on the initiation of the LH surge, exerts both positive and negative feedback on GnRH neurons. We sought to investigate potential interactions between estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) in GT1-7 cells. Radioligand binding studies demonstrated a significant decrease in saturation E2 binding in cells treated with GnRH agonist. Conversely, there was a significant reduction in GnRH binding in GT1-7 cells treated with E2. In BRET(1) experiments, ERα-ERα dimerization was suppressed in GT1-7 cells treated with GnRH agonist (p < 0.05). There was no evidence of direct interaction between ERs and GnRH-R. This study provides the first evidence of reduced ERα homodimerization by GnRH agonist. Collectively, these findings demonstrate significant cross-talk between membrane-initiated GnRH and E2 signaling in GT1-7 cells.

  14. Cloning, expression, and polymorphism at the 5'-flanking region of the GnRH gene and their association with laying traits in Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Wan, X P; Lan, J J; Yan, M J; Lian, S Y; Rijal, M; Huang, Z B; Li, A

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a neuropeptide, plays a vital role in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In vertebrates, GnRH is crucial for the onset of sexual development and the entire reproductive process. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors associated with egg-laying traits of Muscovy ducks. The full-length cDNA (474 bp) of Muscovy duck GnRH was obtained and characterised. It encodes 92 amino acids containing a 1-amino acid signal peptide cleavage site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Muscovy duck GnRH has a close relationship with Anas platyrhynchos GnRH. GnRH showed significantly different expression profiles between 4 developmental periods in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The expression of GnRH in the laying period (36 weeks) was higher than at other periods in the three tissues. GnRH was widely expressed in 12 examined tissues of nesting and laying Muscovy ducks. In the hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads, the expression of GnRH was higher than in other tissues. In laying Muscovy ducks, the expression of GnRH in the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, muscular stomach, pancreas, heart, duodenum and spleen was significantly higher than in nesting dusks. Differences were detected in the liver and glandular stomach between laying ducks and nesting ducks. Differences between the kidney and lung were not significant. In the pituitary, the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) genes shared the same expression profiles during 4 time points. Both genes had the highest expression at 36 weeks of age. A mutation (g.206G > A) in the 5'-flanking region was associated with egg-laying performance. Individuals with genotype GG had better egg-laying performance than the individuals with genotype AA. GnRH may be used as a marker gene for laying performance in the Muscovy duck.

  15. Regulation of GNRH production by estrogen and bone morphogenetic proteins in GT1-7 hypothalamic cells.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Fumio; Takeda, Masaya; Mukai, Tomoyuki; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Tomoko; Inagaki, Kenichi; Suzuki, Jiro; Ogura, Toshio; Lawson, Mark A; Makino, Hirofumi

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important regulators in the pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis. We here investigated the effects of BMPs on GNRH production controlled by estrogen using murine GT1-7 hypothalamic neuron cells. GT1-7 cells expressed estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha; ESR1 as listed in MGI Database), ERbeta (ESR2 as listed in MGI Database), BMP receptors, SMADs, and a binding protein follistatin. Treatment with BMP2 and BMP4 had no effect on Gnrh mRNA expression; however, BMP6 and BMP7 significantly increased Gnrh mRNA expression as well as GnRH production by GT1-7 cells. Notably, the reduction of Gnrh expression caused by estradiol (E(2)) was restored by cotreatment with BMP2 and BMP4, whereas it was not affected by BMP6 or BMP7. E(2) activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) signaling but did not activate p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in GT1-7 cells. Inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 reversed the inhibitory effect of estrogen on Gnrh expression, whereas SAPK/JNK inhibition did not affect the E(2) actions. Expression levels of Eralpha and Erbeta were reduced by BMP2 and BMP4, but were increased by BMP6 and BMP7. Treatment with an ER antagonist inhibited the E(2) effects on Gnrh suppression including reduction of E(2)-induced ERK phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of genomic ER actions in Gnrh suppression. BMP2 and BMP4 also suppressed estrogen-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2 and SAPK/JNK signaling, suggesting that BMP2 and BMP4 downregulate estrogen effects by attenuating ER-MAPK signaling. Considering that BMP6 and BMP7 increased the expression of alpha1E-subunit of R-type calcium channel (Cacna1e), which is critical for GNRH secretion, it is possible that BMP6 and BMP7 directly stimulate GNRH release by GT1-7 cells. Collectively, a newly uncovered interaction of BMPs and ER may be involved in

  16. Initial structure-activity relationship of a novel class of nonpeptidyl GnRH receptor antagonists: 2-arylindoles.

    PubMed

    Chu, L; Hutchins, J E; Weber, A E; Lo, J L; Yang, Y T; Cheng, K; Smith, R G; Fisher, M H; Wyvratt, M J; Goulet, M T

    2001-02-26

    A nonpeptidyl GnRH receptor antagonist (1), with a unique 2-arylindole core, was identified through the Merck in-house screening for binding affinity on the rat GnRH receptor. SAR studies directed toward the alkoxy-ethanolamine and 2-aryl groups resulted in a simpler lead structure with improved activity. This compound 50 exhibits a 60-fold improvement in binding activity over our initial lead 1.

  17. GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells: Anatomical localization and characterization by autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Latouche, J.; Crumeyrolle-Arias, M.; Jordan, D.; Kopp, N.; Augendre-Ferrante, B.; Cedard, L.; Haour, F. )

    1989-09-01

    The presence of receptors for GnRH in human ovary has been investigated by quantitative autoradiography. Simultaneous visualization and characterization of specific receptors on frozen sections were obtained on six pairs of human ovaries. Among them only one exhibited a large preovulatory follicle. This dominant follicle exhibited a specific and high affinity binding capacity for {sup 125}I-GnRHa exclusively localized on the granulosa cell layer. Analysis of saturation curve indicates a Kd value of 0.22 nM and Bmax of 9.6 fmol/mg protein. In contrast LH-hCG binding sites were present in all antral follicles. These data demonstrate for the first time the presence of high affinity GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells at a late stage of follicular maturation.

  18. Cellular mechanisms and integrative timing of neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion by kisspeptin.

    PubMed

    Beltramo, Massimiliano; Dardente, Hugues; Cayla, Xavier; Caraty, Alain

    2014-01-25

    The hypothalamus integrates endogenous and exogenous inputs to control the pituitary-gonadal axis. The ultimate hypothalamic influence on reproductive activity is mediated through timely secretion of GnRH in the portal blood, which modulates the release of gonadotropins from the pituitary. In this context neurons expressing the RF-amide neuropeptide kisspeptin present required features to fulfill the role of the long sought-after hypothalamic integrative centre governing the stimulation of GnRH neurons. Here we focus on the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by kisspeptin through its cognate receptor KISS1R and on the potential role of proteins interacting with this receptor. We then review evidence implicating both kisspeptin and RFRP3--another RF-amide neuropeptide--in the temporal orchestration of both the pre-ovulatory LH surge in female rodents and the organization of seasonal breeding in photoperiodic species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hodgkin-Huxley type modelling and parameter estimation of GnRH neurons.

    PubMed

    Csercsik, Dávid; Farkas, Imre; Szederkényi, Gábor; Hrabovszky, Erik; Liposits, Zsolt; Hangos, Katalin M

    2010-06-01

    In this paper a simple one compartment Hodgkin-Huxley type electrophysiological model of GnRH neurons is presented, that is able to reasonably reproduce the most important qualitative features of the firing pattern, such as baseline potential, depolarization amplitudes, sub-baseline hyperpolarization phenomenon and average firing frequency in response to excitatory current. In addition, the same model provides an acceptable numerical fit of voltage clamp (VC) measurement results. The parameters of the model have been estimated using averaged VC traces, and characteristic values of measured current clamp traces originating from GnRH neurons in hypothalamic slices. The resulting parameter values show a good agreement with literature data in most of the cases. Applying parametric changes, which lead to the increase of baseline potential and enhance cell excitability, the model becomes capable of bursting. The effects of various parameters to burst length have been analyzed by simulation.

  20. 2-Arylindoles as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists: optimization of the tryptamine side chain.

    PubMed

    Young, Jonathan R; Huang, Song X; Walsh, Thomas F; Wyvratt, Matthew J; Yang, Yi Tien; Yudkovitz, Joel B; Cui, Jisong; Mount, George R; Ren, Rena Ning; Wu, Tsuei Ju; Shen, Xiaolan; Lyons, Kathryn A; Mao, An Hua; Carlin, Josephine R; Karanam, Bindhu V; Vincent, Stella H; Cheng, Kang; Goulet, Mark T

    2002-03-11

    A series of 2-arylindoles containing novel heteroaromatic substituents on the tryptamine tether, based on compound 1, was prepared and evaluated for their ability to act as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. Successful modifications of 1 included chain length variation (reduction) and replacement of the pyridine with heteroaromatic groups. These alterations culminated in the discovery of compound 27kk which had excellent in vitro potency and oral efficacy in rodents.

  1. GnRH agonist trigger versus hCG trigger in GnRH antagonist in IVF/ICSI cycles: A review article

    PubMed Central

    Alyasin, Ashraf; Mehdinejadiani, Shayesteh; Ghasemi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Routinely, a bolus of 5.000-10.000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is used for the final follicular maturation and ovulation as a standard method. HCG has the same effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) with long half-life. It has the long lutheotrophic effect which increases the risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS). Recently, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) trigger has been used for the induction of final follicular maturation and ovulation with the aim of reducing the OHSS risk. Several studies have shown that the releases of endogenous follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH after administration of GnRH agonist in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are able to precede the final follicular maturation leading to removal of fertile oocyte with normal development of the embryo and ultimately pregnancy. But based on the results of some studies, using GnRH-a trigger leads to defect luteal-phase resulting to reduce the implantation and clinical pregnancy rates and also increase abortion in fresh embryo transfer cycles compared to routine IVF cycle with hCG triggering . Also, in recent years, studies have continued to modify the luteal phase support, so that the fresh embryo transfer is possible too. In this review, we examined the benefits, problems, and also ways to reform GnRH agonist triggering complications. PMID:27738657

  2. Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist.

    PubMed

    Kostanski, J W; Jiang, G; Dani, B A; Murty, S B; Qiu, W; Schrier, B; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, P P

    2001-01-01

    Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats. Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days) or vehicle alone (control group). Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females. All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter) and control (10.6 offspring per litter) were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning. These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist.

  3. Preparation of a peptide vaccine against GnRH by a bioprocess system based on asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue Jun; Gu, Kai; Xu, Jin Shu; Cao, Rong Yue; Li, Ming Hui; Wu, Jie; Li, Tai Ming; Liu, Jing Jing

    2010-07-12

    GnRH is a promising target in hormone-dependent cancer immunotherapy. In our previous study, we have designed and purified a peptide vaccine GhM (GnRH3-hinge-MVP) by use of the bioprocess system based on asparaginase. Active immunization with GhM in the presence of CFA/IFA evoked strong humoral response. In this study, the motif NRLLLTG with high affinity to nanoparticle carrier VLP HBcDelta-SBD was fused to the C terminus of GhM to form a new peptide vaccine GhMNR (GnRH3-hinge-MVP-NRLLLTG). The fusion protein ansB-C-GhMNR was controlled by vigorous T7lac promotor and expressed effectively as inclusion bodies after induction by lactose and then purified by means of cell disruption, washing and cold ethanol fractionation. After hydrolyzed for 72 h, GhMNR was liberated from the fusion partner ansB-C and purified by CM52 cation exchange chromatography. These results suggested that the bioprocess system is suitable for large-scale expression and purification of the peptide vaccine GhMNR, and even some other proteins or peptides which may be important for industrial or laboratory purposes.

  4. Functions of a GnRH receptor heterodimer of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Aoyama, M; Kusakabe, T; Tsuda, M; Satake, H

    2008-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a ten-amino acid peptide hormone that plays pivotal roles in reproduction in vertebrates and octopus. Recently, six GnRH forms (t-GnRH-3-8) and four GnRH receptor subtypes (Ci-GnRHR-1-4) were identified in the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis. In this study, we show the functional modulation of Ci-GnRHR-1 via heterodimerization with the orphan receptor subtype, Ci-GnRHR-4. The dimerization between Ci-GnRHR-1 and R-4 was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis. Binding assays confirmed the binding of t-GnRHs to Ci-GnRHR-1 but not to R-4, and verified no alternation in ligand-binding affinity between Ci-GnRHR-1 homodimer and Ci-GnRHRI&4 heterodimer. The heterodimer was found to stimulate the elevation of intracellular calcium, time-extension of ERK phosphorylation, and up-regulation of cell proliferation, all in a ligand specific manner, compared with the Ci-GnRHR-1 homodimer. In combination, these results indicated that Ci-GnRHR-4 is not an inactive receptor, but a modulatory factor for Ci-GnRHR-1 in C. intestinalis.

  5. Identification and characterization of a reptilian GnRH receptor from the leopard gecko.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, T; Enomoto, M; Park, M K

    2004-02-12

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproductive functions through interactions with its specific receptor. We describe the first molecular cloning and characterization of a full-length GnRH receptor (GnRHR) from the leopard gecko Eublepharis macularius. It has a distinct genomic structure consisting of five exons and four introns, compared with all the other reported GnRHR genes. A native GnRH form, cGnRH-II, stimulated inositol phosphate (IP) production in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the GnRHR, in a dose dependent manner. The mRNA was expressed in all the tissues and organs examined. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the cloned GnRHR belongs to the type 2/nonmammalian I GnRHR. Low-expression levels were observed from the pituitary glands of reproductively active leopard geckos, indicating the possibility that there is at least one more type of GnRHR highly expressed in the pituitary gland for the gonadotropin secretion in this reptile.

  6. SDF and GABA interact to regulate axophilic migration of GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Casoni, Filippo; Ian Hutchins, B.; Donohue, Duncan; Fornaro, Michele; Condie, Brian G.; Wray, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Stromal derived growth factor (SDF-1) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two extracellular cues that regulate the rate of neuronal migration during development and may act synergistically. The molecular mechanisms of this interaction are still unclear. Gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH) neurons are essential for vertebrate reproduction. During development, these neurons emerge from the nasal placode and migrate through the cribriform plate into the brain. Both SDF-1 and GABA have been shown to regulate the rate of GnRH neuronal migration by accelerating and slowing migration, respectively. As such, this system was used to explore the mechanism by which these molecules act to produce coordinated cell movement during development. In the present study, GABA and SDF-1 are shown to exert opposite effects on the speed of cell movement by activating depolarizing or hyperpolarizing signaling pathways, GABA via changes in chloride and SDF-1 via changes in potassium. GABA and SDF-1 were also found to act synergistically to promote linear rather than random movement. The simultaneous activation of these signaling pathways, therefore, results in tight control of cellular speed and improved directionality along the migratory pathway of GnRH neurons. PMID:22976302

  7. Self-assembled nanostructures of long-acting GnRH analogs modified at position 7.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning; Gao, Xing; Lv, Yujian; Cheng, Junping; Zhou, Wenxia; Liu, Keliang

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that GnRH analogs can self-assemble into amyloid fibrils and that the duration of action of GnRH analogs depends on the ability of the amyloid to slowly release active peptides. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the amino acid residues at position 7 of GnRH analogues on peptide self-assembly. It was found that the dominant shape of the nanostructure can be changed when the structures of the residues at position 7 differ significantly from that of leucine in Degarelix. When the backbone length was extended (peptide 9), or the side chain of the residue at position 7 was replaced by an aromatic ring (peptide 6), or the rotation of the amide bond was restricted (peptide 8), the nanostructure changed from fibrils to vesicles. The results also indicate that the increasing hydrophilicity had little influence on the nanostructure morphology. In addition, a suitable release rate was found to play a more important role for the duration of the peptide action by maintaining the equilibrium between the drug concentration and the persistent release time, while the nanostructure shape was found to exert little influence on the duration of the peptide action.

  8. Basal testosterone concentrations after the application of a slow-release GnRH agonist implant are associated with a loss of response to buserelin, a short-term GnRH agonist, in the tom cat.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Georgiev, Plamen; Fasulkov, Ivan; Vodenicharov, Angel; Wehrend, Axel

    2013-07-01

    Slow-release GnRH agonist implants are considered an effective, reversible alternative to surgical castration in male tom cats. Individual differences exist regarding the onset of efficacy and might be delayed in some animals. Single measurements of testosterone (T) might result in basal concentrations also in intact male cats. Consequently, GnRH stimulation tests are performed to measure T increase in intact animals and to differentiate castrated from intact male cats. In this study, five tom cats were treated with a 4.7-mg deslorelin implant and GnRH stimulation tests using buserelin were performed before treatment and at 4-week intervals afterward until Week 20. After the last test in Week 20 all animals were castrated. Four of five animals had basal T after 4 weeks and-in contrast to pretreatment-application of buserelin did not result in any further T increase. In one animal, T was low after implant insertion, but not basal; however, a GnRH stimulation test induced a slight increase of T in Week 8 and 16 only and no response in Weeks 4, 12, and 20. Testicular volume was significantly decreased and penile spines disappeared in all cats. Testicular histology showed mixed atrophy, but also fully elongated spermatids in three of five male cats making infertility questionable. Because of the loss of the stimulatory effect of short-term GnRH application (buserelin), it can be assumed that long-term GnRH agonists also act by some mechanisms of downregulation of pituitary GnRH receptors in the tom cat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing follicular growth as a prerequisite for GnRH treatment of true anestrum in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Ramoun, A A; Serur, B H; Fattouh, El-S M; Darweish, S A; Abou El-Ghait, H A

    2012-05-01

    A total of 140 true anestrous buffalo were divided on the basis of receiving short-term (20 days) nutritional supplementation (N, n=80) or not (WN, n=60). The animals in N group were subdivided into NQ (n=40) where the quantity of the offered diet was increased by 20% and NF (n=40) where the offered diet was supplemented by 3% of dry protected fat. Buffaloes in either NQ or NF were equally allotted on the following treatment regimens: Insulin/GnRH (NQi or NFi, n=10 for each); rbST/GnRH (NQr or NFr, n=10 for each); GnRH alone treated (NQG or NFG, n=10 for each) and saline-treated control (NQc or NFc, n=10 for each). Insulin-treated subgroups (NQi or NFi) received s/c injection of insulin at a dose of 0.25 I.U./kg on Days 21, 22 and 23 while rbST-treated subgroups (NQr or NFr) received single IM injection of rbST (500 mg Sometribove) on Day 21. GnRH was injected at a dose of 0.020 mg buserelin (5 ml Receptal(®)) on Day 24 in all subgroups except NQCand NFC where Day 1 was the first day of the short-term nutritional improvement. Buffalo in the WN (n=60) were equally allotted on the same treatment regimens applied in the first group insulin/GnRH (WNi, n=15), rbST/GnRH (WNr, n=15); GnRH alone treated (WNG, n=15) and saline-treated control (WNC, n=15). Ultrasonic scanning of ovaries was conducted on Day 24 to measure largest follicle diameter (LFD). The results showed increases (P<0.05) in the LFD following nutritional supplementation with insulin or rbST. The recorded EIRs for GnRH pre-treated with nutritional improvement - metabolic hormones combinations (9/10 and 8/10 for NQi and NFi or 8/10 for NQr) were greater (P<0.05) than those pre-treated with either metabolic hormone alone (7/15 for WNi and/or WNr) or nutritional improvement alone (6/10 for NQG and/or NFG) and control as well. The greatest CR was recorded in the NQi group. It could be concluded that pre-GnRH nutritional improvement plus administration of insulin or rbST increases LFD in true anestrous buffalo

  10. Neurotrophic effects of GnRH on neurite outgrowth and neurofilament protein expression in cultured cerebral cortical neurons of rat embryos.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Salinas, Eva

    2008-06-01

    The presence of GnRH receptor in cerebral cortical neurons of rat embryos and adult rats has been described. In this work, we studied the effects of GnRH on outgrowth and length of neurites and cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins expression (NF-68 and NF-200 kDa) by immunoblot of cultured cerebral cortical neurons of rat embryos. Our results show that GnRH increases both outgrowth and length of neurites accompanied by an increase in neurofilaments expression. It is conceivable that GnRH plays a role in neuronal plasticity parallel to its gonadal function.

  11. New considerations for ADT in advanced prostate cancer and the emerging role of GnRH antagonists.

    PubMed

    Shore, N D; Abrahamsson, P-A; Anderson, J; Crawford, E D; Lange, P

    2013-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is first-line treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are the most commonly used ADT but have several theoretical physiologic disadvantages (e.g. initial testosterone surge, potential microsurges upon repeat administration). Testosterone surge delays the intended serologic endpoint of testosterone suppression and may exacerbate clinical symptoms. GnRH antagonists were developed with a view toward overcoming these potential adverse physiologic events. This review evaluates GnRH agonists and antagonists, assessing the potential future role of antagonists in PCa and strategies to minimize ADT adverse events (AEs). Evidence was identified via PubMed search (by GnRH agent and other ADT-related terms), from review article bibliographies, and authors' therapy area knowledge, with articles included by author consensus. Degarelix shows similar efficacy to a GnRH agonist in achieving and maintaining castration, with faster onset and without testosterone surge/microsurges. Phase III data showed that, in the first treatment year, degarelix displayed a lower risk of PSA failure or death (composite endpoint), lower levels of the bone marker serum alkaline phosphatase (in baseline metastatic disease), and fewer musculoskeletal AEs than the agonist leuprolide. Also, crossing over from leuprolide to degarelix after 1 year reduced the risk of PSA failure or death. ADT displays an AE spectrum which can impact quality of life as well as causing significant morbidities. Strategies to improve ADT tolerability have become increasingly important including: a holistic management approach, improved diet and exercise, more specific monitoring to detect and prevent testosterone depletion toxicities, and intermittent ADT allowing hormonal recovery between treatment periods. Clinical studies suggest possible benefits of GnRH antagonists over agonists based on different mechanisms of action. GnRH

  12. Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Burds, Carol; Cheng, Paul; Wray, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A developmental “switch” in chloride transporters occurs in most neurons resulting in GABAA mediated hyperpolarization in the adult. However, several neuronal cell subtypes maintain primarily depolarizing responses to GABAA receptor activation. Among this group are gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH) neurons, which control puberty and reproduction. NKCC1 is the primary chloride accumulator in neurons, expressed at high levels early in development and contributes to depolarization after GABAA receptor activation. In contrast, KCC2 is the primary chloride extruder in neurons, expressed at high levels in the adult and contributes to hyperpolarization after GABAA receptor activation. Anion exchangers (AEs) are also potential modulators of responses to GABAA activation since they accumulate chloride and extrude bicarbonate. To evaluate the mechanism(s) underlying GABAA mediated depolarization, GnRH neurons were analyzed for 1) expression of chloride transporters and AEs in embryonic, pre-pubertal, and adult mice 2) responses to GABAA receptor activation in NKCC1-/- mice and 3) function of AEs in these responses. At all ages, GnRH neurons were immunopositive for NKCC1 and AE2 but not KCC2 or AE3. Using explants, calcium imaging and gramicidin perforated patch clamp techniques we found that GnRH neurons from NKCC1-/- mice retained relatively normal responses to the GABAA agonist muscimol. However, acute pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide eliminated the depolarization/calcium response to muscimol in 40% of GnRH neurons from WT mice. In the remaining GnRH neurons, HCO3- mediated mechanisms accounted for the remaining calcium responses to muscimol. Collectively these data reveal mechanisms responsible for maintaining depolarizing GABAA mediated transmission in GnRH neurons. PMID:26110920

  13. Short term effects of GnRH agonists on plasma fibrinolytic balance in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Agirbasli, Mehmet; Baykan, Oytun A; Tekin, Ali; Sengor, Feridun; Cincin, Altug A; Demir, Muzaffer; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2009-02-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are the cornerstone of metastatic prostate cancer treatment. Cardiovascular effects of GnRH agonists are unclear. In this study, we investigated the short term effects of GnRH agonists on plasma fibrinolytic parameters in patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Eleven patients (mean age 69.3 +/- 6.5) with metastatic prostate cancer and a clinical indication for GnRH agonist therapy were selected. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) antigen (Ag), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) Ag and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) activity levels were measured at baseline and at 4 weeks after the first dose of GnRH agonist, Goserelin Acetate (Zoladex, subcutaneous administration, 10.8 mg). Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels significantly decreased from 36.6 +/- 19.3 to 1.1 +/- 0.3 ng/ml after Goserelin acetate treatment (P = 0.005). Significant changes occurred in the fibrinolytic parameters. GnRH agonists decreased plasma t-PA Ag levels (16.3 +/- 4.9 vs. 12.2 +/- 2.8 ng/ml, P = 0.047) and increased PAI-1/t-PA molar ratio (4.8 +/- 3.6 vs. 6.6 +/- 3.4, P = 0.16), on the other hand, plasma PAI-1 Ag (59.0 +/- 48.5 vs. 56.4 +/- 30.5 ng/ml, P = 0.8), and TAFI levels (130.6 +/- 9.5 vs. 124.2 +/- 26.5% activity, P = 0.3) did not change significantly. This study provides evidence that GnRH agonists may inhibit fibrinolytic system by decreasing t-PA levels.

  14. TTF1, a homeodomain containing transcription factor, contributes to regulating periodic oscillations in GnRH gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Matagne, Valerie; Kim, Jae Geun; Ryu, Byung Jun; Hur, Min Kyu; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Kyungjin; Park, Byong Seo; Damante, Giuseppe; Smiley, Gregory; Lee, Byung Ju; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), a member of the NK family of transcription factors required for basal forebrain morphogenesis, functions in the postnatal hypothalamus as a transcriptional regulator of genes encoding neuromodulators and hypophysiotrophic peptides. One of these peptides is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Here we show that Ttf1 mRNA abundance vary in a diurnal and melatonin-dependent fashion in the preoptic area (POA) of the rat, with maximal Ttf1 expression attained during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle, preceding the nocturnal peak in GnRH mRNA content. GnRH promoter activity oscillates in a circadian manner in GT1-7 cells, and this pattern is enhanced by TTF1 and blunted by siRNA-mediated Ttf1 gene silencing. TTF1 trans-activates GnRH transcription by binding to two sites in the GnRH promoter. Rat GnRH neurons in situ contain key proteins components of the positive (BMAL1, CLOCK) and negative (PER1) limbs of the circadian oscillator, and these proteins repress Ttf1 promoter activity in vitro. In contrast, Ttf1 transcription is activated by CRY1, a clock component required for circadian rhythmicity. In turn, TTF1 represses transcription of Rev-erbα, a heme receptor that controls circadian transcription within the positive limb of the circadian oscillator. These findings suggest that TTF1 is a component of the molecular machinery controlling circadian oscillations in GnRH gene transcription. PMID:22356123

  15. Glucosensing by GnRH Neurons: Inhibition by Androgens and Involvement of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Alison V.

    2011-01-01

    GnRH neurons integrate steroidal and metabolic cues to regulate fertility centrally. Central glucoprivation reduces LH secretion, which is governed by GnRH release, suggesting GnRH neuron activity is modulated by glucose availability. Here we tested whether GnRH neurons can sense changes in extracellular glucose, and whether glucosensing is altered by the steroids dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and/or estradiol (E). Extracellular recordings were made from GnRH neurons in brain slices from ovariectomized (OVX) mice ± DHT and/or E implants. Firing rate was reduced by a switch from 4.5 to 0.2 mm glucose in cells from OVX, OVX+E, and OVX+DHT+E mice, but not OVX+DHT mice. This suggests that androgens reduce the sensitivity of GnRH neurons to changes in extracellular glucose, but E mitigates this effect. Next we investigated potential mechanisms. In the presence of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel antagonist tolbutamide, glucosensing persisted. In contrast, glucosensing was attenuated in the presence of compound C, an antagonist of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), suggesting a role for AMPK in glucosensing. The AMPK activator N1-(b-d-ribofuranosyl)-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR) mimicked the effect of low glucose and was less effective in cells from DHT-treated mice. The effect of DHT to diminish responses to low glucose and AICAR was abolished by blockade of fast synaptic transmission. Both AICAR and low glucose activated a current with a reversal potential near −50 mV, suggesting a nonspecific cation current. These studies indicate that glucosensing is one mechanism by which GnRH neurons sense fuel availability and point to a novel role for AMPK in the central regulation of fertility. PMID:21393446

  16. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has proposed making changes to the food labels that may correct these problems. AMOUNTS PER SERVING The total calories and the calories from fat are listed. These numbers help consumers make decisions about fat intake. The list of nutrients includes ...

  17. Effects of a GnRH administration on testosterone profile, libido and semen parameters of dromedary camel bulls.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2015-10-01

    GnRH treatment has been suggested to increase testosterone levels temporarily and to stimulate libido in stallions, but its use has not fully ascertained in dromedary camels. The aim of this work was to study the effects of administering 100 μg of GnRH on testosterone profile, libido and semen parameters in dromedary camels. The same bulls were used as self-controls and experimental group. Blood samples were collected every 20 min (T0-T12) for 4h, and semen collections were performed over a 2-hour period after T12. GnRH was administered immediately after T0. In GnRH-treated bulls, testosterone levels showed an upward trend, peaking after 140 min, and then slowly decreasing. GnRH administration also led to a decrease in mating time and an increase in spermatozoa concentration. Overall, it seems that administration of 100 μg GnRH might increase testosterone levels temporarily and enhance camel reproduction performance.

  18. Seasonal changes in brain GnRH immunoreactivity and song-control nuclei volumes in an opportunistically breeding songbird.

    PubMed

    MacDougall-Shackleton, S A; Deviche, P J; Crain, R D; Ball, G F; Hahn, T P

    2001-01-01

    White-winged crossbills (Loxia leucoptera) are opportunistic breeders that can nest at almost any time of year if there is sufficient food. Other cardueline finches that have been shown to breed on a strictly seasonal schedule become absolutely refractory to the stimulatory effects of long-day photoperiod, dramatically down-regulate hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and reduce the volume of several song-control nuclei in autumn. This study examined whether changes in photoperiod modify the GnRH and song-control systems in white-winged crossbills. Adult male and female crossbills were captured and held on a naturally changing photoperiod. Brains of male and female birds were collected in May, October, and January. GnRH content was assessed by immunocytochemistry and the volumes of Nissl-defined song-control nuclei (HVc, Area X, and the robust nucleus of the archistriatum) were reconstructed. In contrast to other cardueline finches, GnRH immunoreactivity was relatively stable across the year, exhibiting only modest seasonal variation. The song control system, on the other hand, exhibited large seasonal changes as well as sex differences. Thus, crossbills appear to maintain hypothalamic GnRH content year round, perhaps to facilitate a rapid response to favorable breeding conditions, even on short days. However, song control nuclei are dramatically affected by photoperiod. Future work should examine these systems in crossbills breeding on short days to compare photoperiod-dependent and -independent effects on neural plasticity. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Research development of a new GnRH antagonist (Elagolix) for the treatment of endometriosis: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alessandro, Pontis; Luigi, Nappi; Felice, Sorrentino; Maria, Paoletti Anna; Benedetto, Melis Gian; Stefano, Angioni

    2017-04-01

    Limitated studies have reported the efficacy of GnRH antagonist on endometriosis symptoms. The aim of our study was to review all available trials to investigate the medical treatment of endometriosis with only GnRH antagonists, with special attention to pharmacodynamic activity, safety, and efficacy. Pub Med and Sciencedirect database were searched using terms of "endometriosis treatment", "GnRH antagonist", and "Elagolix". The search was limited to clinical studies published in English. Title and abstract were screened to identify relevant articles. Five studies covering use of GnRH antagonist were found. A phase 1 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and inhibitory effects on gonadotropins and estradiol of single dose and 7 day elagolix administration to healthy premenopausal women; two phase II studies evaluated efficacy in patient with endometriosis. Moreover, there are two Phase III clinical trials just completed. GnRH antagonists may have the advantage of oral administration and lower incidence of adverse events. Currently, only Phase II studies have been published demonstrating promising results in terms of efficacy, safety, and tolerability. From the results of the phase III studies, elagolix may become a valuable addition to the armamentarium of pharmacological agents to treat endometriosis-related pain.

  20. Circulating Estradiol Regulates Brain-Derived Estradiol via Actions at GnRH Receptors to Impact Memory in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Black, Katelyn L.; Daniel, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic estradiol treatment enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in ovariectomized rats. Although these enhancements are traditionally thought to be due to circulating estradiol, recent data suggest these changes are brought on by hippocampus-derived estradiol, the synthesis of which depends on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) activity. The goal of the current work is to test the hypothesis that peripheral estradiol affects hippocampus-dependent memory through brain-derived estradiol regulated via hippocampal GnRH receptor activity. In the first experiment, intracerebroventricular infusion of letrozole, which prevents the synthesis of estradiol, blocked the ability of peripheral estradiol administration in ovariectomized rats to enhance hippocampus-dependent memory in a radial-maze task. In the second experiment, hippocampal infusion of antide, a long-lasting GnRH receptor antagonist, blocked the ability of peripheral estradiol administration in ovariectomized rats to enhance hippocampus-dependent memory. In the third experiment, hippocampal infusion of GnRH enhanced hippocampus-dependent memory, the effects of which were blocked by letrozole infusion. Results indicate that peripheral estradiol-induced enhancement of cognition is mediated by brain-derived estradiol via hippocampal GnRH receptor activity. PMID:28032117

  1. Annual gonadal cycles in birds: modeling the effects of photoperiod on seasonal changes in GnRH-1 secretion.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Alistair

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge of photoperiod control of GnRH-1 secretion and proposes a model in which two processes act together to regulate GnRH1 secretion. Photo-induction controls GnRH1 secretion and is directly related to prevailing photoperiod. Photo-inhibition, a longer term process, acts through GnRH1 synthesis. It progresses each day during daylight hours, but reverses during darkness. Thus, photo-inhibition gradually increases when photoperiods exceed 12h, and reverses under shorter photoperiods. GnRH1 secretion on any particular day is the net result of these two processes acting in tandem. The only difference between species is their sensitivity to photo-inhibition. This can potentially explain differences in timing and duration of breeding seasons between species, why some species become absolutely photorefractory and others relatively photorefractory, why breeding seasons end at the same time at different latitudes within species, and why experimental protocols sometimes produce results that appear counter to what happens naturally.

  2. Pharmacological and toxicological assessment of a potential GnRH vaccine in young-adult male pigs.

    PubMed

    Turkstra, J A; van der Staay, F J; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N; Woelders, H; Meloen, R H; Schuurman, T

    2011-05-12

    Active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is successfully applied to prevent boar taint in pork. In men, GnRH immunization could be an alternative to hormone therapy in patients with prostate cancer. In this study, a new GnRH vaccine formulation (a modified GnRH peptide conjugate formulated with CoVaccine adjuvant) was investigated for its pharmacological efficacy and safety in young-adult male pigs. Immunization resulted in castrate-like plasma testosterone levels in all treated pigs from week 8 until the end of the study, 30 weeks after the first immunization. Testosterone depletion retarded testes growth, reduced the relative weight of the testes and accessory sex organs, and reduced sperm counts and motility. There was no clinically relevant toxicity. Typical vaccination-related adverse reactions, such as swelling at the injection site and fever, were considered acceptable. We conclude that this GnRH vaccine efficiently and rapidly reduced serum testosterone levels, without inducing chronic toxic effects, and therefore could be applicable in both veterinary and human medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The neuroendocrinological and histopathological assessment of normogonadotropic azoospermic patients: the usefulness of the GnRH stimulation test].

    PubMed

    Rosete Rossetti, R; Alvarado García, A; Bustos López, H H; Barrón Vallejo, J; Sinibaldi Gómez, J

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) administration on serum levels of FSH and LH. Also, relate those results with histopathologic findings of testicular biopsies. This was a prospective, clinical trial with a control group. It was done at Department of Reproductive Biology "20 de Noviembre" Hospital, ISSSTE, México City. Fifteen azoospermic, normogonadotropic patients without testicular atrophy and ten normal men use as control group. A GnRH challenge test was made in both groups, two days after we perform a testicular biopsy in patients with azoospermia. There was no significant difference in serum LH concentrations between the two groups, neither before or after GnRH challenge test. There was a statistical difference between serum FSH values of azoospermic patients, than those of control group, the former with higher values than those of the latter. As worst testicular damage was, we found also a higher FSH value on the GnRH challenge test. The GnRH challenge test perform in azoospermic, normogonadotropic patients is very helpful to detect those patients with gonadal damage. As higher the FSH values were, we found that an abnormal testicular biopsy was also more common.

  4. Localization of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone (GnIH), Kisspeptin and GnRH Receptor and Their Possible Roles in Testicular Activities From Birth to Senescence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    ANJUM, SHABANA; KRISHNA, AMITABH; SRIDARAN, RAJAGOPALA; TSUTSUI, KAZUYOSHI

    2013-01-01

    The changes in distribution and concentration of neuropeptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), kisspeptin, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) were evaluated and compared with reproductive parameters, such as cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450 SCC) enzyme activity, androgen receptors (AR) in the testis and serum testosterone levels, from birth to senescence in mice. The results showed the localization of these molecules mainly in the interstitial and germ cells as well as showed significant variations in immunostatining from birth to senescence. It was found that increased staining of testicular GnRH-R coincided with increased steroidogenic activity during pubertal and adult stages, whereas decreased staining coincides with decreased steroidogenic activity during senescence. Similar changes in immunostaining were confirmed by Western/slot blot analysis. Thus, these results suggest a putative role of GnRH during testicular pubertal development and senescence. Treatment with a GnRH agonist ([DTrp6, Pro9-NEt] GnRH) to mice from prepubertal to pubertal period showed a significant increase in steroidogenic activity of the mouse testis and provided further support to the role of GnRH in testicular pubertal maturation. The significant decline in GnRH-R during senescence may be due to a significant increase in GnIH synthesis during senescence causing the decrease in GnRH-R expression. It is considered that significant changes in the levels of GnRH-R may be responsible for changes in steroidogenesis that causes either pubertal activation or senescence in testis of mice. Furthermore, changes in the levels of GnRH-R may be modulated by interactions among GnRH, GnIH, and kisspeptin in the testis. PMID:23027641

  5. GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2009-03-01

    We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes.

  6. Random-start GnRH antagonist for emergency fertility preservation: a self-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Checa, Miguel A; Brassesco, Mario; Sastre, Margalida; Gómez, Manuel; Herrero, Julio; Marque, Laura; Brassesco, Arturo; Espinós, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for emergency fertility preservation, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle. A self-controlled pilot clinical trial (NCT01385332) was performed in an acute-care teaching hospital and in two private reproductive centers in Barcelona, Spain. Eleven egg donors participated in the study. Two random-start gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols were assessed in which ganirelix was initiated on either day 10 (protocol B) or on day 20 (protocol C) of the menstrual cycle and was continued until estradiol levels were below 60 pg/dL. These protocols were compared with a standard protocol (protocol A). The main outcome of interest was the number of metaphase 2 oocytes retrieved. Results from this study show that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was comparable across the different protocols (14.3±4.6 in the standard protocol versus 13.0±9.1 and 13.2±5.2 in protocols B and C, respectively; values expressed as mean ± standard deviation). The mean number of days needed for a GnRH antagonist to lower estradiol levels, as well as the ongoing pregnancy rates, were also similar when protocols B (stimulation in follicular phase) and C (stimulation on luteal phase) were compared with protocol A (standard stimulation). GnRH antagonists can be effectively used for random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with an ovarian response similar to that of standard protocols, and the antagonists appear suitable for emergency fertility preservation in cancer patients.

  7. Random-start GnRH antagonist for emergency fertility preservation: a self-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Miguel A; Brassesco, Mario; Sastre, Margalida; Gómez, Manuel; Herrero, Julio; Marque, Laura; Brassesco, Arturo; Espinós, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for emergency fertility preservation, regardless of the phase of the menstrual cycle. A self-controlled pilot clinical trial (NCT01385332) was performed in an acute-care teaching hospital and in two private reproductive centers in Barcelona, Spain. Eleven egg donors participated in the study. Two random-start gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols were assessed in which ganirelix was initiated on either day 10 (protocol B) or on day 20 (protocol C) of the menstrual cycle and was continued until estradiol levels were below 60 pg/dL. These protocols were compared with a standard protocol (protocol A). The main outcome of interest was the number of metaphase 2 oocytes retrieved. Results from this study show that the number of mature oocytes retrieved was comparable across the different protocols (14.3±4.6 in the standard protocol versus 13.0±9.1 and 13.2±5.2 in protocols B and C, respectively; values expressed as mean ± standard deviation). The mean number of days needed for a GnRH antagonist to lower estradiol levels, as well as the ongoing pregnancy rates, were also similar when protocols B (stimulation in follicular phase) and C (stimulation on luteal phase) were compared with protocol A (standard stimulation). GnRH antagonists can be effectively used for random-start controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with an ovarian response similar to that of standard protocols, and the antagonists appear suitable for emergency fertility preservation in cancer patients. PMID:25709506

  8. [Ovulation induction by pulsatile GnRH therapy in 2014: literature review and synthesis of current practice].

    PubMed

    Gronier, H; Peigné, M; Catteau-Jonard, S; Dewailly, D; Robin, G

    2014-10-01

    The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is an easily treatable form of female infertility. The most common cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. The GnRH pump is a simple and effective treatment to restore fertility of patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea: cumulative pregnancy rate is estimated between 70 and 100% after 6 cycles, compared to a low rate of complications and multiple pregnancies. While only 2.8 cycles are on average required to achieve a pregnancy with a pump, this induction of ovulation stays underused in France. The objective of this paper is to propose a practical manual of pulsatile GnRH, in order to improve the accessibility of pulsatile GnRH for patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  9. Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Precocious Puberty Girls according to Stage of GnRH Agonist Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment on the reproductive function of central precocious puberty (CPP) girls. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the ovarian function by analyzing the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels of CPP girls. Our study included 505 CPP girls subdivided into 5 groups according to the GnRH agonist treatment stage: group A (before treatment, n = 98), group B (3 months after initiation, n = 103), group C (12 months after initiation, n = 101), group D (24 months after initiation, n = 101), and group E (6 months after discontinuation, n = 102). We compared the serum AMH levels of the CPP girls with those of 100 bone age-matched controls (before treatment: n = 55; after discontinuation: n = 45). At baseline, the mean AMH level of the CPP girls was 5.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL. The mean AMH level after 3 months of the GnRH agonist treatment was lower (4.7 ± 3.2 ng/mL, P = 0.047) than that at baseline and recovered after 12 months of treatment. Six months after discontinuation, the AMH levels were similar to those at pre-treatment. Before and after the GnRH agonist treatment, the AMH levels were similar to those of the bone age-matched controls. In the precocious puberty girls, the AMH levels based on the GnRH agonist treatment stage were all within the normal reference range. The results of this study suggest that GnRH agonist treatment has no adverse effects on the reproductive function. PMID:28145651

  10. The postpartum period in dromedary camels: uterine involution, ovarian activity, hormonal changes, and response to GnRH treatment.

    PubMed

    Derar, R; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F A

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the time for complete uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dromedary camels, relative to hormonal changes. A total of six females were examined by ultrasonography twice weekly starting 3d after parturition. GnRH was administered when the follicles reached ≥0.9cm diameter. Blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that the mean intervals for complete involution of the previously gravid horn, non-gravid horn, and cervix were 34.33±3.9, 29.01±0.81, and 28.71±1.51d, respectively. After GnRH treatment (Days 17-34), five of the six camels had ovulated. The corpus luteum was detected by Day 4.1±1.6 after GnRH treatment and lasted for 6±1.1d. Serum progesterone (P4) was basal and increased only after GnRH treatment. Serum estradiol 17-β (E2) peaked twice: when a large follicle was detected and 8.5±2.8d post-GnRH treatment. The serum FSH pattern was biphasic, with two peaks just before the recruitment of small follicles and 4.67±4.1d after GnRH treatment. The five ovulating females were mated; two conceived after the first service and three after the second service. The interval from calving to conception was 78.16±3.71d. It was concluded that in dromedary camels, involution of the uterus is completed by the 5th week postpartum, these camels are highly responsive to early GnRH treatment, and they can be mated between the 5th and 6th week after parturition with encouraging conception rates.

  11. GnRH treatment at artificial insemination in beef cattle fails to increase plasma progesterone concentrations or pregnancy rates.

    PubMed

    Perry, G A; Perry, B L

    2009-03-15

    Treatment with GnRH at the onset of standing estrus increased pregnancy percentages and circulating concentrations of progesterone in repeat breeder dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with GnRH at AI on concentrations of progesterone and conception rates in beef cattle that exhibited estrus. Two hundred ninety-three heifers at four locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol (given GnRH and a CIDR was placed into the vagina, and 7 d later, given PGF(2alpha) and CIDR removed; n=253) or the 14-19 melengestrol acetate (MGA) protocol (MGA fed at 0.5mg/head/d for 14 d, with PGF(2alpha) 19 d after MGA withdrawal n=40) and AI was done after detection of estrus. At Location 1, blood samples were collected on Day 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 after AI (Day 0=AI). Two hundred and fifty postpartum cows at two locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol, and AI was performed after detection of estrus. At AI, cattle were alternately assigned to one of two treatments: (1) treatment with GnRH (100microg) at AI (n=127 heifers and n=108 cows); or (2) non-treated control (n=120 heifers and n=119 cows). Concentrations of progesterone tended to be greater in control heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers on Days 6 (P=0.08), 10 (P=0.07), and 15 (P=0.11). Overall conception rates were 68% and 66% for GnRH treated and control, respectively, and were not different between treatments (P=0.72). In summary, treatment with GnRH at time of AI had no influence on conception rates in cattle that had exhibited estrus.

  12. Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Precocious Puberty Girls according to Stage of GnRH Agonist Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyo Kyoung; Kim, Hye Ryun; Rhie, Young Jun; Lee, Kee Hyoung

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment on the reproductive function of central precocious puberty (CPP) girls. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the ovarian function by analyzing the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels of CPP girls. Our study included 505 CPP girls subdivided into 5 groups according to the GnRH agonist treatment stage: group A (before treatment, n = 98), group B (3 months after initiation, n = 103), group C (12 months after initiation, n = 101), group D (24 months after initiation, n = 101), and group E (6 months after discontinuation, n = 102). We compared the serum AMH levels of the CPP girls with those of 100 bone age-matched controls (before treatment: n = 55; after discontinuation: n = 45). At baseline, the mean AMH level of the CPP girls was 5.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL. The mean AMH level after 3 months of the GnRH agonist treatment was lower (4.7 ± 3.2 ng/mL, P = 0.047) than that at baseline and recovered after 12 months of treatment. Six months after discontinuation, the AMH levels were similar to those at pre-treatment. Before and after the GnRH agonist treatment, the AMH levels were similar to those of the bone age-matched controls. In the precocious puberty girls, the AMH levels based on the GnRH agonist treatment stage were all within the normal reference range. The results of this study suggest that GnRH agonist treatment has no adverse effects on the reproductive function.

  13. New Insights into the Control of Pulsatile GnRH Release: The Role of Kiss1/Neurokinin B Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Víctor M.

    2012-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the ultimate output signal of an intricate network of neuroendocrine factors that, acting on the pituitary, trigger gonadotropin release. In turn, gonadotropins exert their trophic action on the gonads to stimulate the synthesis of sex steroids thus completing the gonadotropic axis through feedback regulatory mechanisms of GnRH release. These feedback loops are predominantly inhibitory in both sexes, leading to tonic pulsatile release of GnRH from puberty onward. However, in the female, rising levels of estradiol along the estrous cycle evoke an additional positive feedback that prompts a surge-like pattern of GnRH release prior to ovulation. Kisspeptins, secreted from hypothalamic Kiss1 neurons, are poised as major conduits to regulate this dual secretory pathway. Kiss1 neurons are diverse in origin, nature, and function, convening distinct neuronal populations in two main hypothalamic nuclei: the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. Recent studies from our group and others point out Kiss1 neurons in the ARC as the plausible generator of GnRH pulses through a system of pulsatile kisspeptin release shaped by the coordinated action of neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn) that are co-expressed in Kiss1 neurons (so-called KNDy neurons). In this review, we aim to document the recent findings and working models directed toward the identification of the Kiss1-dependent mechanisms of GnRH release through a synoptic overview of the state-of-the-art in the field. PMID:22649420

  14. Receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH) as therapeutic targets in triple negative breast cancers (TNBC).

    PubMed

    Kwok, C W; Treeck, O; Buchholz, S; Seitz, S; Ortmann, O; Engel, J B

    2015-09-01

    Triple negative breast cancers express receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in more than 50% of the cases, which can be targeted with peptidic analogs of GnRH, such as triptorelin. The current study investigates cytotoxic activity of triptorelin as a monotherapy and in treatment combinations with chemotherapeutic agents and inhibitors of the PI3K and the ERK pathways in in vitro models of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). GnRH receptor expression of TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 was investigated. Cells were treated with triptorelin, chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, docetaxel, AEZS-112), PI3K/AKT inhibitors (perifosine, AEZS-129), an ERK inhibitor (AEZS-134), and dual PI3K/ERK inhibitor AEZS-136 applied as single agent therapies and in combinations. MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 TNBC cells both expressed receptors for GnRH on messenger (m)RNA and protein level and were found sensitive to triptorelin with a respective median effective concentration (EC50) of 31.21 ± 0.21 and 58.50 ± 19.50. Synergistic effects occurred when triptorelin was combined with cisplatin. In HCC1806 cells, synergy occurred when triptorelin was applied with PI3K/AKT inhibitors perifosine and AEZS-129. In MDA-MB-231 cells, synergy was observed after co-treatment with triptorelin and ERK inhibitor AEZS-134 and dual PI3K/ERK inhibitor AEZS-136. GnRH receptors on TNBC cells can be used for targeted therapy of these cancers with GnRH agonist triptorelin. Treatment combinations based on triptorelin and PI3K and ERK inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin have synergistic effects in in vitro models of TNBC. If confirmed in vivo, clinical trials based on triptorelin and cisplatin could be quickly carried out, as triptorelin is FDA approved for other indications and known to be well tolerated.

  15. Naltrexone effect on pulsatile GnRH therapy for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fulghesu, A M; Ciampelli, M; Belosi, C; Apa, R; Guido, M; Caruso, A; Mancuso, S; Lanzone, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the opioid influence on LH pulsatility in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-term opioid antagonist (naltrexone) treatment in improving the pulsatile GnRH therapy which is successful in this syndrome. Ten obese women affected by PCOS participated in the study. Patients were hospitalized during the early follicular phase and underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g of glucose and a pulse pattern study followed by a GnRH test (100 pg i.v.). All patients were then treated for ovulation induction with pulsatile administration of GnRH (5 microg/bolus every 90 min). Since pregnancies did not occurr in any patient, after spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycles, all patients received naltrexone at a dose of 50 mg/day orally for 8 weeks and during treatment repeated the basal protocol study and the ovulation induction cycle with the same modalities. The naltrexone treatment significantly reduced the insulin response to OGTT and the LH response to GnRH bolus, whereas it did not affect the FSH and LH pulsatility patterns. Concerning the ovulation induction by pulsatile GnRH, naltrexone treatment was able to improve, although not significantly, the ovulation rate (60% pre-treatment vs 90% post-treatment). Furthermore, the maximum diameter of the dominant follicle and the pre-ovulatory estradiol concentration were higher after long-term opioid blockade (follicular diameter 19.5+/-1.76 mm pre-treatment vs 21.6+/-2.19 mm post-treatment, p<0.001; maximum estradiol level 728.7+/-288.5 pmol/l pre-treatment vs 986.4+/-382.1 pmol/l post-treatment, p<0.05). During the naltrexone-pulsatile GnRH co-treatment two pregnancies occurred. In conclusion, our data show that naltrexone-pulsatile GnRH co-treatment is able to improve the ovarian responsiveness to ovulation induction in obese PCOS patients when compared to pulsatile GnRH alone. This action seems to be related to

  16. Central precocious puberty in a girl with Williams syndrome: the result of treatment with GnRH analogue.

    PubMed

    Utine, G Eda; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet; Tuncbilek, Ergul

    2006-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a well-known microdeletion syndrome characterized by specific facial features, retardation in growth and development, typical personality and cardiac defects. Poor growth potential is further affected by central precocious puberty (CPP) which is frequent in these patients. A WS patient with CPP is presented, whose pubertal development and bone age progression were arrested by administration of GnRH analogues. The case is reported to discuss the role of GnRH analogues for management of CPP in patients with WS.

  17. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  18. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua: tissue distributions, early ontogeny and effects of fasting.

    PubMed

    Tuziak, Sarah M; Volkoff, Hélène

    2013-12-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is classically known for its role in regulating teleost fish skin color change for environmental adaptation. Recent evidence suggests that MCH also has appetite-stimulating properties. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide family has dual roles in endocrine control of reproduction and energy status in fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) are a commercially important aquaculture species inhabiting the shores of Atlantic Canada. In this study, we examine MCH and GnRH transcript expression profiles during early development as well as in central and peripheral tissues and quantify juvenile Atlantic cod MCH and GnRH hypothalamic mRNA expressions following food deprivation. MCH and GnRH3 cDNAs are maternally deposited into cod eggs, while MCH has variable expression throughout early development. GnRH2 and GnRH3 mRNAs "turn-on" during mid-segmentation once the brain is fully developed. For both MCH and GnRH, highest expression appears during the exogenous feeding stages, perhaps supporting their functions as appetite regulators during early development. MCH and GnRH transcripts are found in brain regions related to appetite regulation (telencephalon/preoptic area, optic tectum/thalamus, hypothalamus), as well as the pituitary gland and the stomach, suggesting a peripheral function in food intake regulation. Atlantic cod MCH mRNA is upregulated during fasting, while GnRH2 and GnRH3 transcripts do not appear to be influenced by food deprivation. In conclusion, MCH might be involved in stimulating food intake in juvenile Atlantic cod, while GnRHs may play a more significant role in appetite regulation during early development.

  19. Prepubertal development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron activity is altered by sex, age and prenatal androgen exposure.

    PubMed

    Dulka, Eden A; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-09-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate reproduction though pulsatile hormone release. Disruption of GnRH release as measured via LH pulses occurs in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in young hyperandrogenemic girls. In adult prenatally androgenized (PNA) mice, which exhibit many aspects of PCOS, increased LH is associated with increased GnRH neuron action potential firing. How GnRH neuron activity develops over the prepubertal period and whether or not this is altered by sex or prenatal androgen treatment are unknown. We hypothesized GnRH neurons are active before puberty, that this activity is sexually differentiated and altered by PNA. Dams were injected with DHT on d16-18 post copulation to generate PNA mice. Action potential firing of GFP-identified GnRH neurons in brain slices from 1, 2, 3, 4 week-old and adult mice was monitored. GnRH neurons were active at all ages tested. In control females, activity increased with age through 3wks, then decreased to adult levels. In contrast, activity did not change in PNA females, and was reduced at 3wks. Activity was higher in control females than males from 2-3wks. PNA did not affect GnRH neuron firing rate in males at any age. Short-term action potential patterns were also affected by age and PNA treatment. GnRH neurons are thus typically more active during the prepubertal period than adulthood, and PNA reduces prepubertal activity in females. Prepubertal activity may play a role in establishing sexually-differentiated neuronal networks upstream of GnRH neurons; androgen-induced changes during this time may contribute to the adult PNA, and possibly PCOS, phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  20. Possible role of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in the differential regulation of pituitary LHbeta- and FSHbeta-subunit gene expression by pulsatile GnRH stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Purwana, Indri N; Miyazaki, Kohji

    2013-02-01

    The pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), are mainly under the control of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which regulates male and female gonadal function. GnRH is released in a pulsatile manner from the hypothalamus, and the frequency of GnRH pulses determines the dominance of output of LH and FSH from pituitary gonadotrophs. That is, more rapid pulses of GnRH preferentially increase synthesis and secretion of LH, whereas FSH is preferentially stimulated by slower GnRH pulses. The detailed mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was originally identified as a hypothalamic activator of cAMP production in pituitary cells. PACAP is produced within the pituitary gonadotroph as well as in the central nervous system. PACAP stimulates gonadotropin alpha-, LHbeta-, and FSHbeta-subunits as well as receptors for GnRH in the pituitary gonadotropin-secreting cells. In addition, its own receptor, PACAP type I receptor (PAC1R), is also regulated by PACAP in gonadotrophs. GnRH stimulates expression of PACAP as well as PAC1R, and lower frequencies of GnRH pulses preferentially increase PACAP and PAC1R expression in gonadotrophs. Increasing concentrations of PACAP further increase the levels of gonadotropin subunit and that increasing amounts of PAC1R in gonadotrophs potentiates the effects of PACAP or GnRH on gonadotropin subunit expression. In addition, we have observed that GnRH-increased FSHbeta-subunit expression was prevented in the presence of PAC1R antagonist. These observations suggest the involvement of locally produced PACAP and its PAC1R in the differential regulation of specific gonadotropin subunit expression by pulsatile GnRH stimulation. Here, we review the possible involvement of PACAP and its PAC1R in gonadotropin control on the basis of our observations with gonadotroph cell lines.

  1. The effects of a slow release GnRH agonist implant on male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Groeger, Gesa; Wehrend, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Surgical castration is done in male pet rabbits for reproduction control, to reduce inter-male aggression and to control hyper-sexuality, territory marking and aggression against humans. Alternatives to surgical castration are requested because of a relatively great anaesthetic risk in rabbits. Long-term application of a GnRH agonist implant results in a fully reversible "hormonal" castration in male dogs, cats, boars and many other species. Therefore, the present study using New Zealand White hybrid and German Giant rabbits aimed to investigate the effects of a 4.7mg deslorelin implant in peripubertal male rabbits (SG; n=10), as a mean of hormonal castration. Blood samples (for testosterone measurements), body weight and testicular volume were taken on days (D) 0, 14 and 90. Surgical castration was performed on D90 for testicular histology. Age-matched animals following the same protocol without implant administration served as adult controls (n=5, CG), animals castrated on D0 served as juvenile controls (n=7, JG). Following treatment, testosterone concentrations were not reduced compared to CG; basal testosterone concentrations were only measured in JG. Spermatogenesis was not affected in SG and not different from CG. Application of a slow release GnRH agonist implant does not induce hormonal castration in male rabbits over a period of 90 days indicating that it is not a suitable alternative to surgical castration in this species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of fertility in male rats after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Susan S; Selmin, Francesca; Murty, Santos B; Qiu, Wei; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

    2004-03-11

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether male rats whose testosterone levels were suppressed to castration levels (<0.5 ng/mL) for a 1-year period by the sustained delivery of orntide acetate, a GnRH antagonist, would return to fertility (ie, produce offspring) after serum testosterone returned to control levels. Male rats comprising a treatment group (orntide microspheres, dose = 27 mg/kg/y), a vehicle control group, and a control group of proven male breeders were used. For the treatment and vehicle control groups, serum orntide and testosterone levels were monitored at periodic intervals for 14 months from the initiation of treatment. After serum testosterone levels returned to vehicle control levels and orntide serum levels were no longer discernible for the treated group, each of the animals was housed with 2 drug-naive, female, proven breeders. All the breeder females produced offspring with the exception of 1 female housed with a male rat from the treatment group and the 2 females housed with a single male rat from the vehicle control group. The mean size and weight of the litters from each group were not statistically different. Further, fertility of the offspring from each group was assessed. The male and female offspring studied were all shown to be fertile. The results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression in male rats is reversible after cessation of treatment with the GnRH analog, orntide.

  3. Urbilaterian origin of paralogous GnRH and corazonin neuropeptide signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shi; Zandawala, Meet; Beets, Isabel; Baytemur, Esra; Slade, Susan E.; Scrivens, James H.; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproductive maturation in humans and other vertebrates. Homologs of GnRH and its cognate receptor have been identified in invertebrates–for example, the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and corazonin (CRZ) neuropeptide pathways in arthropods. However, the precise evolutionary relationships and origins of these signalling systems remain unknown. Here we have addressed this issue with the first identification of both GnRH-type and CRZ-type signalling systems in a deuterostome–the echinoderm (starfish) Asterias rubens. We have identified a GnRH-like neuropeptide (pQIHYKNPGWGPG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens GnRH-type receptor and a novel neuropeptide (HNTFTMGGQNRWKAG-NH2) that specifically activates an A. rubens CRZ-type receptor. With the discovery of these ligand-receptor pairs, we demonstrate that the vertebrate/deuterostomian GnRH-type and the protostomian AKH systems are orthologous and the origin of a paralogous CRZ-type signalling system can be traced to the common ancestor of the Bilateria (Urbilateria). PMID:27350121

  4. Prostate cancer: what are the news in hormonal therapy? The role of GnRH antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zattoni, Filiberto

    2012-09-01

    The latest EAU guidelines on the evidence based-management of prostate cancer (P.Ca.), with regard to pharmacological androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), reiterate that the primary objective of hormonal therapy is to slow down the progression of the disease to the greatest possible extent. Degarelix a new product for the treatment of hormone-dependent P.Ca. has recently become available in Italy. This product is classified as a GnRH antagonist and provides safe and effective ADT. It completely blocks the synthesis and release of gonadotropins (LH and FSH), thus rapidly reducing the testosterone levels without causing clinical flare. The results of the clinical trials (36 months) demonstrate that degarelix, compared to high-dose leuprorelin (7.5 mg), suppresses levels of testosterone and PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) more rapidly and reduces levels of FSH and musculoskeletal events associated with treatment (pain, muscle weakness, spasms, oedema/joint stiffness, arthralgia, osteoporosis and osteopoenia) to a greater extent. In addition, these results demonstrate a significant increase in the probability of PSA progression-free survival, suggesting a possible delay in the onset of the "castration-resistant" stage. The information available to date supports the use of this new molecule as a valid alternative to GnRH agonists in the treatment of hormone-sensitive P.Ca.

  5. Calcium influx and DREAM protein are required for GnRH gene expression pulse activity.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Gilles M; Boockfor, Fredric R

    2007-03-15

    Recent evidence using GT1-7 cells indicates that GnRH pulsatility depends on exocytotic-release and gene transcription events. To determine whether calcium or DREAM may play a role in linking these processes, we used an L-type Ca(2+)-blocker (nimodipine) and found that not only GnRH gene expression (GnRH-GE) pulse activity was abolished but also that binding of proteins to OCT1BS-a (essential site for GnRH-GE pulses) was reduced. We further found that only EF-hand forms of DREAM were expressed in GT1-7 and that DREAM was part of the complex binding to OCT1BS-a. Finally, microinjection of DREAM antibody into cells abolished GnRH-GE pulses demonstrating its importance in pulsatility. These results reveal that calcium and DREAM may bridge cytoplasmic and nuclear events enabling temporal coordination of intermittent activity. Expression of DREAM in various cell types coupled with the universal role of calcium raise the possibility that these factors may play similar role in other secretory cells.

  6. GnRH dose reduction decreases pituitary LH release and ovulatory response but does not affect corpus luteum (CL) development and function in llamas.

    PubMed

    Silva, M E; Colazo, M G; Ratto, M H

    2012-06-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) is commonly used in llamas to induce ovulation; however, the consequence of reduced doses of GnRH on luteinizing hormone (LH) release, ovulatory response, and subsequent corpus luteum (CL) development and function have apparently not been investigated. Hence, we examined the effect of gradual reduction of gonadorelin acetate (GnRH) dosage on pituitary LH release, ovulatory response, CL development, and plasma progesterone concentrations in llamas. Non-pregnant, non-lactating adult llamas were examined once daily by transrectal ultrasonography, and those with a follicle ≥8 mm in diameter that had grown for three consecutive days were randomly assigned to receive 50 (GnRH50, n = 23), 25 (GnRH25, n = 29), 12.5 (GnRH12.5, n = 29), or 6.25 μg (GnRH6.25, n = 29) of GnRH, or 0.5 mL of PBS (Control group, n = 16) im. In a subset (7 or 8 animals/group), intense blood sampling was done to measure LH concentrations. All females were examined by ultrasonography every 12 h from treatment (Day 0) to Day 2 to determinate ovulation, and thereafter on alternate days until Day 16 to evaluate CL development (9-13 animals/group). Also, blood samples for progesterone determination were taken (9 or 10 animals/group) on alternate days from Days 0-16. Ovulatory response (%) was highest (P < 0.05) in the GnRH50 (82.6), intermediate in the GnRH25 (72.3) and GnRH12.5 (75.9) groups, and lowest in the GnRH6.25 group (48.3). No ovulations were detected in the Control group. Mean peak LH concentrations (ng/mL) were highest (P < 0.05) for GnRH50 (6.2), intermediate for GnRH25 (4.4) and GnRH12.5 (2.9), and lowest for GnRH6.25 (2.2) groups. In addition, based on regression analysis, llamas with an LH peak <4 ng/mL were less likely to ovulate. Llamas given 50 μg of GnRH released more (P < 0.05) pituitary LH and had an LH surge of longer duration than those given 25, 12.5, or 6.25 μg. However, in those that ovulated, neither GnRH treatment nor treatment by

  7. Molecular analysis of the koala reproductive hormones and their receptors: gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone β and luteinising hormone β with localisation of GnRH.

    PubMed

    Busby, E R; Soeta, S; Sherwood, N M; Johnston, S D

    2014-12-01

    During evolution, reproductive hormones and their receptors in the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis have been altered by genetic mechanisms. To understand how the neuroendocrine control of reproduction evolved in mammals, it is important to examine marsupials, the closest group to placental mammals. We hypothesised that at least some of the hormones and receptors found in placental mammals would be present in koala, a marsupial. We examined the expression of koala mRNA for the reproductive molecules. Koala cDNAs were cloned from brain for gonadotrophin-releasing hormones (GnRH1 and GnRH2) or from pituitary for GnRH receptors, types I and II, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)β and luteinising hormone (LH)β, and from gonads for FSH and LH receptors. Deduced proteins were compared by sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis with those of other vertebrates. In conclusion, the koala expressed mRNA for these eight putative reproductive molecules, whereas at least one of these molecules is missing in some species in the amniote lineage, including humans. In addition, GnRH1 and 2 are shown by immunohistochemistry to be expressed as proteins in the brain.

  8. Cumulative live birth rate after GnRH agonist trigger and elective cryopreservation of all embryos in high responders.

    PubMed

    Vlaisavljević, Veljko; Kovačič, Borut; Knez, Jure

    2017-07-01

    Elective embryo cryopreservation after using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols and GnRH agonist triggering is becoming an increasingly important part of medically assisted reproduction. We designed a single-centre retrospective study to assess the cumulative probability of achieving a live birth through consecutive transfers of vitrified-warmed blastocysts after elective embryo cryopreservation in high-responding patients. Hence, 123 women identified to be at high risk for developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were included. They were stimulated using GnRH antagonist protocol, and GnRH agonist was used to trigger final oocyte maturation. All embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst stage and transferred in the subsequent menstrual cycles. Using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, a total of 65.9% (95% CI 57.5 to 74.3) women achieved a live birth after a maximum of six embryo transfer cycles using the 'conservative' approach. Applying the 'optimistic' approach, presuming that women who still had cryopreserved embryos and did not return for embryo transfer had the same chance of achieving a live birth as those returning for transfer, the cumulative live birth rate estimated in six embryo transfer cycles was 76.6% (95% CI 69.1 to 84.1). No cases of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were recorded. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of changes in postnatal nutrition on puberty onset and the expression of hypothalamic GnRH and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Cui, L-L; Li, P; Zhu, Z-Y

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone with multiple and diverse physiologic functions including an important role in energy homeostasis and reproduction. In this study, the adjustment effects of different postnatal nutritional status on puberty onset and the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were examined in 1 day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were randomly assigned into four groups: overnutrition group (Group O), normal group (Group N, control group), and undernutrition groups (Group U and U2). Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and GnRH. With a low level expression of hypothalamic ghrelin, the appearance of puberty onset and secretion peak of GnRH in Group O was earlier than the other groups. Undernutrition delayed puberty onset and the GnRH peak, at the same time, promoted the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin.While, the expression of hypothalamic ghrelin was suppressed at puberty onset.

  10. Novel role for anti-Müllerian hormone in the regulation of GnRH neuron excitability and hormone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Irene; Casoni, Filippo; Liu, Xinhuai; Messina, Andrea; Parkash, Jyoti; Jamin, Soazik P.; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Collier, Francis; Baroncini, Marc; Dewailly, Didier; Pigny, Pascal; Prescott, Mel; Campbell, Rebecca; Herbison, Allan E.; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays crucial roles in sexual differentiation and gonadal functions. However, the possible extragonadal effects of AMH on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that a significant subset of GnRH neurons both in mice and humans express the AMH receptor, and that AMH potently activates the GnRH neuron firing in mice. Combining in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that AMH increases GnRH-dependent LH pulsatility and secretion, supporting a central action of AMH on GnRH neurons. Increased LH pulsatility is an important pathophysiological feature in many cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility, in which circulating AMH levels are also often elevated. However, the origin of this dysregulation remains unknown. Our findings raise the intriguing hypothesis that AMH-dependent regulation of GnRH release could be involved in the pathophysiology of fertility and could hold therapeutic potential for treating PCOS. PMID:26753790

  11. Novel role for anti-Müllerian hormone in the regulation of GnRH neuron excitability and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Irene; Casoni, Filippo; Liu, Xinhuai; Messina, Andrea; Parkash, Jyoti; Jamin, Soazik P; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Collier, Francis; Baroncini, Marc; Dewailly, Didier; Pigny, Pascal; Prescott, Mel; Campbell, Rebecca; Herbison, Allan E; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2016-01-12

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays crucial roles in sexual differentiation and gonadal functions. However, the possible extragonadal effects of AMH on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that a significant subset of GnRH neurons both in mice and humans express the AMH receptor, and that AMH potently activates the GnRH neuron firing in mice. Combining in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that AMH increases GnRH-dependent LH pulsatility and secretion, supporting a central action of AMH on GnRH neurons. Increased LH pulsatility is an important pathophysiological feature in many cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility, in which circulating AMH levels are also often elevated. However, the origin of this dysregulation remains unknown. Our findings raise the intriguing hypothesis that AMH-dependent regulation of GnRH release could be involved in the pathophysiology of fertility and could hold therapeutic potential for treating PCOS.

  12. Foliation-Based Parameter Tuning in a Model of the GnRH Pulse and Surge Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Frederique; Vidal, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a model of the GnRH pulse and surge generator, with the definite aim of constraining the model GnRH output with respect to a physiologically relevant list of specifications. The alternating pulse and surge pattern of secretion results from the interaction between a GnRH secreting system and a regulating system exhibiting slow-fast dynamics. The mechanisms underlying the behavior of the model are reviewed from the study of the Boundary-Layer System according to the dissection method principle. Using singular perturbation theory, we describe the sequence of bifurcations undergone by the regulating (FitzHugh-Nagumo) system, encompassing the rarely investigated case of homoclinic connection. Based on pure dynamical considerations, we restrict the space of parameter search for the regulating system and describe a foliation of this restricted space, whose leaves define constant duration ratios between the surge and the pulsatility phase in the whole system. We propose an algorithm to fix the parameter values also to meet the other prescribed ratios dealing with amplitude and frequency features of the secretion signal. We finally apply these results to illustrate the dynamics of GnRH secretion in the ovine species and the rhesus monkey.

  13. Pulsatile GnRH Is Superior to hCG in Therapeutic Efficacy in Adolescent Boys With Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadodism.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chunxiu; Liu, Ying; Qin, Miao; Wu, Di; Wang, Xiaoling

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of two different treatments that have not been evaluated in peripuberty boys with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of GnRH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment in adolescent boys with HH. Twelve patients received 8-10 μg of GnRH, sc injected every 90 minutes using a pump. Another 22 patients received hCG, injected im as follows: for the first 3 months, 1000 IU of hCG was injected two times per week and then once every other day for the next 3 months. The dose of hCG was increased to 2000 IU after a 6-month treatment and the above cycle was repeated for another 6 months. All patients were treated for 12-14 months and followed up every 3 months. Thirty-five participants were chosen from Beijing Children's Hospital from 2008 to 2014. Twenty-three patients with Kallmann syndrome and 12 with normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The age ranged from 10 to 16 years. Twelve patients were treated with pulsatile pump GnRH (group 1), and 22 patients were treated with im hCG (group 2). One patient was treated successively with hCG and GnRH, which was removed in data analysis. Testicular volume was measured by an orchidometer. The levels of T, LH, and FSH serum were measured with a chemiluminesent immunoassay. Bone age was measured by x-ray. Patients treated with GnRH showed larger testes than those treated with hCG. Patients in both groups showed a significantly increased length of penis and T levels. But the difference of the two groups was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in side effects in both groups. Boys with HH may be effectively treated with GnRH. We suggested that GnRH exhibits higher efficacy in treating adolescent boys with HH than hCG.

  14. High diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous Triptorelin test compared with GnRH test for diagnosing central precocious puberty in girls.

    PubMed

    Freire, Analía Verónica; Escobar, María Eugenia; Gryngarten, Mirta Graciela; Arcari, Andrea Josefina; Ballerini, María Gabriela; Bergadá, Ignacio; Ropelato, María Gabriela

    2013-03-01

    The GnRH test is the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP); however, this compound is not always readily available. Diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous GnRH analogues tests compared to classical GnRH test has not been reported. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Triptorelin test (index test) compared to the GnRH test (reference test) in girls with suspicion of CPP. A prospective, case-control, randomized clinical trial was performed. CPP or precocious thelarche (PT) was diagnosed according to maximal LH response to GnRH test and clinical characteristics during follow-up. Forty-six girls with premature breast development randomly underwent two tests: (i) intravenous GnRH 100 μg, (ii) subcutaneous Triptorelin acetate (0.1 mg/m(2), to a maximum of 0.1 mg) with blood sampling at 0, 3 and 24 h for LH, FSH and estradiol ascertainment. Gonadotrophins and estradiol responses to Triptorelin test were measured by ultrasensitive assays. Clinical features were similar between CPP (n = 33) and PT (n = 13) groups. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, maximal LH response (LH-3 h) under Triptorelin test ≥ 7 IU/l by immunofluorometric assay (IFMA) or ≥ 8 IU/l by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) confirmed the diagnosis of CPP with specificity of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.75-1.00) and sensitivity 0.76 (95% CI: 0.58-0.89). Considering either LH-3 h or maximal estradiol response at 24 h (cut-off value, 295 pm), maintaining the specificity at 1.00, the test sensitivity increased to 0.94 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99) and the diagnostic efficiency to 96%. The Triptorelin test had high accuracy for the differential diagnosis of CPP vs PT in girls providing a valid alternative to the classical GnRH test. This test also allowed a comprehensive evaluation of the pituitary-ovarian axis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. GnRH and oxytocin have nonidentical effects on the cellular LH response by gonadotrophs at pro-oestrus.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J; Youssef, A H; Abbas, M M; Schwartz, J

    1999-11-01

    For full fertility in the female ovulation is necessary, which is dependent on the production of a surge of LH. An understanding of the processes which result in the high levels of LH requires delineation of the activities of individual component cells. In this study the responses of gonadotrophs to two signalling hypothalamic peptides, GnRH and oxytocin, were investigated. A cell immunoblot method was used to identify and distinguish between cells which secrete LH and those which contain LH but do not secrete the glycohormone. Rats were killed on the morning of pro-oestrus, the pituitary collected and the cells dispersed onto a protein-binding membrane for study. Cells were then incubated with GnRH and oxytocin, after which the membranes including the attached cells were stained by immunocytochemistry for LH. GnRH increased the total number of immunopositive cells which were present in a concentration-dependent manner. The most prominent change after 2 h incubation was in the number of secreting cells, whereas after 4 h there was also a marked increase in numbers of nonsecreting cells. Oxytocin also increased the total number of immunopositive cells in a concentration-responsive manner, however the profile of action of oxytocin was different from that observed for GnRH. Oxytocin had a relatively greater effect on numbers of immunopositive nonsecreting cells. Thus, the results reveal the potential for gonadotrophs to be flexibly and appropriately modulated by selected hypothalamic peptides. When cells were preincubated with oxytocin prior to GnRH there was not an additive increase in the numbers of immunopositive cells, suggesting that the two agonists act, in a nonidentical manner, on similar cells. The increase in the total number of immunopositive cells implies that there was a production of LH or post-translational processing, induced by exposure to GnRH or oxytocin. The results confirmed the heterogeneity of gonadotrophs and the existence of functionally

  16. Estrus synchronization and pregnancy rates in beef cattle given CIDR-B, prostaglandin and estradiol, or GnRH.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, M F; Kastelic, J P; Adams, G P; Janzen, E; McCartney, D H; Mapletoft, R J

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine estrous response and pregnancy rate in beef cattle given a controlled internal drug release (CIDR-B) device plus prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) at CIDR-B removal, and estradiol or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). In Experiment I, crossbred beef heifers received a CIDR-B device and 1 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), plus 100 mg progesterone (E + P group; n = 41), 100 micrograms gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH group; n = 42), or no further treatment (Control group; n = 42), on Day 0. On Day 7, CIDR-B devices were removed and heifers were treated with PGF. Heifers in the E + P group were given 1 mg EB, 24 h after PGF, and then inseminated 30 h later. Heifers in the GnRH group were given 100 micrograms GnRH, 54 h after PGF, and concurrently inseminated. Control heifers were inseminated 12 h after onset of estrus. The estrous rate was lower (P < 0.01) in the GnRH group (55%) than in either the E + P (100%) or Control (83%) groups. The mean interval from CIDR-B removal to estrus was shorter (P < 0.01) and less variable (P < 0.01) in the E + P group than in the GnRH or Control groups. Pregnancy rate in the E + P group (76%) was higher (P < 0.01) than in the GnRH (48%) or Control (38%) groups. In Experiment II, 84 cows were treated similarly to the E + P group in Experiment I. Cows received 100 mg progesterone and either 1 mg EB or 5 mg estradiol-17 beta (E-17 beta) on Day 0 and either 1 mg of EB or 1 mg of E-17 beta on Day 8 (24 h after CIDR-B removal), in a 2 x 2 factorial design, and were inseminated 30 h later. There were no differences among groups for estrous rates or conception rates. The mean interval from CIDR-B removal to estrus was 44.2 h, s = 11.2. Conception rates were 67%, 62%, 52%, and 71% in Groups E-17 beta/E-17 beta, E-17 beta/EB, EB/E-17 beta, and EB/EB, respectively. In cattle given a CIDR-B device and estradiol plus progesterone, treatment with either EB or E-17 beta effectively synchronized estrus and

  17. The type of GnRH analogue used during controlled ovarian stimulation influences early embryo developmental kinetics: a time-lapse study.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel; Cruz, María; Humaidan, Peter; Garrido, Nicolás; Pérez-Cano, Inmaculada; Meseguer, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    To explore if the GnRH analogue used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and the ovulation triggering factor (GnRH agonist + hCG triggering versus GnRH antagonist + GnRH agonist triggering) affect embryo development and kinetics. In a retrospective cohort study in the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (IVI) Alicante and the Instituto Universitario-IVI Valencia, Spain, 2817 embryos deriving from 400 couples undergoing oocyte donation were analysed. After controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF/intracytoplamic sperm injection, the timing of embryonic cleavages was assessed by a video time-lapse system. The results were analysed using Student's t test for comparison of timings (hours) and Chi-squared test for comparison of proportions. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Embryos from cycles co-treated with GnRH antagonist + GnRH agonist (n = 2101) cleaved faster than embryos deriving from patients co-treated with GnRH agonist + hCG (n = 716): these differences were significant at the first stages of development but they disappeared as long as the embryo developed. Assessing embryo quality in terms of morphokinetic characteristics, we did not find significant differences between the two groups. By adopting a time-lapse video system, we can suggest that the type of protocol used for controlled ovarian stimulation influences embryo kinetics of development but these variations are not reflected in embryo quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostaglandin E2 release from astrocytes triggers gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron firing via EP2 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Poulain, Pierre; Hanchate, Naresh K; Corfas, Gabriel; Ojeda, Sergio R; Prevot, Vincent

    2011-09-20

    Astrocytes in the hypothalamus release prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in response to cell-cell signaling initiated by neurons and glial cells. Upon release, PGE(2) stimulates the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the neuropeptide that controls reproduction, from hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons. Whether this effect on GnRH secretion is accompanied by changes in the firing behavior of these neurons is unknown. Using patch-clamp recording we demonstrate that PGE(2) exerts a dose-dependent postsynaptic excitatory effect on GnRH neurons. These effects are mimicked by an EP2 receptor agonist and attenuated by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors. The acute blockade of prostaglandin synthesis by indomethacin (INDO) or the selective inhibition of astrocyte metabolism by fluoroacetate (FA) suppresses the spontaneous firing activity of GnRH neurons in brain slices. Similarly, GnRH neuronal activity is reduced in mice with impaired astrocytic PGE(2) release due to defective erbB signaling in astrocytes. These results indicate that astrocyte-to-neuron communication in the hypothalamus is essential for the activity of GnRH neurons and suggest that PGE(2) acts as a gliotransmitter within the GnRH neurosecretory system.

  19. Dysregulation of Semaphorin7A/β1-integrin signaling leads to defective GnRH-1 cell migration, abnormal gonadal development and altered fertility

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Andrea; Ferraris, Nicoletta; Wray, Susan; Cagnoni, Gabriella; Donohue, Duncan E.; Casoni, Filippo; Kramer, Phillip R.; Derijck, Alwin A.; Adolfs, Youri; Fasolo, Aldo; Pasterkamp, Ronald J.; Giacobini, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Reproduction in mammals is dependent on the function of specific neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1). These neurons originate prenatally in the nasal placode and migrate into the forebrain along the olfactory–vomeronasal nerves. Alterations in this migratory process lead to defective GnRH-1 secretion, resulting in heterogeneous genetic disorders such as idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), and other reproductive diseases characterized by the reduction or failure of sexual competence. Combining mouse genetics with in vitro models, we demonstrate that Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A) is essential for the development of the GnRH-1 neuronal system. Loss of Sema7A signaling alters the migration of GnRH-1 neurons, resulting in significantly reduced numbers of these neurons in the adult brain as well as in reduced gonadal size and subfertility. We also show that GnRH-1 cells differentially express the Sema7 receptors β1-integrin and Plexin C1 as a function of their migratory stage, whereas the ligand is robustly expressed along developing olfactory/vomeronasal fibers. Disruption of Sema7A function in vitro inhibits β1-integrin-mediated migration. Analysis of Plexin C1−/− mice did not reveal any difference in the migratory process of GnRH-1 neurons, indicating that Sema7A mainly signals through β1-integrin to regulate GnRH-1 cell motility. In conclusion, we have identified Sema7A as a gene implicated in the normal development of the GnRH-1 system in mice and as a genetic marker for the elucidation of some forms of GnRH-1 deficiency in humans. PMID:21903667

  20. Mutual interaction of kisspeptin, estrogen and bone morphogenetic protein-4 activity in GnRH regulation by GT1-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Terasaka, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Fumio; Tsukamoto, Naoko; Nakamura, Eri; Inagaki, Kenichi; Toma, Kishio; Ogura-Ochi, Kanako; Glidewell-Kenney, Christine; Lawson, Mark A; Makino, Hirofumi

    2013-12-05

    Reproduction is integrated by interaction of neural and hormonal signals converging on hypothalamic neurons for controlling gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Kisspeptin, the peptide product of the kiss1 gene and the endogenous agonist for the GRP54 receptor, plays a key role in the regulation of GnRH secretion. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between kisspeptin, estrogen and BMPs in the regulation of GnRH production by using mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Treatment with kisspeptin increased GnRH mRNA expression and GnRH protein production in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of kiss1 and GPR54 were not changed by kisspeptin stimulation. Kisspeptin induction of GnRH was suppressed by co-treatment with BMPs, with BMP-4 action being the most potent for suppressing the kisspeptin effect. The expression of kisspeptin receptor, GPR54, was suppressed by BMPs, and this effect was reversed in the presence of kisspeptin. It was also revealed that BMP-induced Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and Id-1 expression were suppressed and inhibitory Smad6/7 was induced by kisspeptin. In addition, estrogen induced GPR54 expression, while kisspeptin increased the expression levels of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that the actions of estrogen and kisspeptin are mutually enhanced in GT1-7 cells. Moreover, kisspeptin stimulated MAPKs and AKT signaling, and ERK signaling was functionally involved in the kisspeptin-induced GnRH expression. BMP-4 was found to suppress kisspeptin-induced GnRH expression by reducing ERK signaling activity. Collectively, the results indicate that the axis of kisspeptin-induced GnRH production is bi-directionally controlled, being augmented by an interaction between ERα/β and GPR54 signaling and suppressed by BMP-4 action in GT1-7 neuron cells.

  1. Genomic structure and promoter functional analysis of GnRH3 gene in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jianshe; Liao, Zhi; Lv, Zhenming; Wu, Huifei; Zhu, Aiyi; Wu, Changwen

    2016-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone III (GnRH3) is considered to be a key neurohormone in fish reproduction control. In the present study, the cDNA and genomic sequences of GnRH3 were cloned and characterized from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The cDNA encoded a protein of 99 amino acids with four functional motifs. The full-length genome sequence was composed of 3797 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. Higher identities of amino acid sequences and conserved exon-intron organizations were found between LcGnRH3 and other GnRH3 genes. In addition, some special features of the sequences were detected in partial species. For example, two specific residues (V and A) were found in the family Sciaenidae, and the unique 75-72 bp type of the open reading frame 2 and 3 existed in the family Cyprinidae. Analysis of the 2576 bp promoter fragment of LcGnRH3 showed a number of transcription factor binding sites, such as AP1, CREB, GATA-1, HSF, FOXA2, and FOXL1. Promoter functional analysis using an EGFP reporter fusion in zebrafish larvae presented positive signals in the brain, including the olfactory region, the terminal nerve ganglion, the telencephalon, and the hypothalamus. The expression pattern was generally consistent with the endogenous GnRH3 GFP-expressing transgenic zebrafish lines, but the details were different. These results indicate that the structure and function of LcGnRH3 are generally similar to the other teleost GnRH3 genes, but there exist some distinctions among them.

  2. Transcript and protein profiling identifies signaling, growth arrest, apoptosis, and NF-κB survival signatures following GNRH receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Colette; Sims, Andrew H; Morgan, Kevin; Harrison, Beth; Muir, Morwenna; Bai, Jianing; Faratian, Dana; Millar, Robert P; Langdon, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    GNRH significantly inhibits proliferation of a proportion of cancer cell lines by activating GNRH receptor (GNRHR)-G protein signaling. Therefore, manipulation of GNRHR signaling may have an under-utilized role in treating certain breast and ovarian cancers. However, the precise signaling pathways necessary for the effect and the features of cellular responses remain poorly defined. We used transcriptomic and proteomic profiling approaches to characterize the effects of GNRHR activation in sensitive cells (HEK293-GNRHR, SCL60) in vitro and in vivo, compared to unresponsive HEK293. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated a dynamic response to the GNRH superagonist Triptorelin. Early and mid-phase changes (0.5–1.0 h) comprised mainly transcription factors. Later changes (8–24 h) included a GNRH target gene, CGA, and up- or downregulation of transcripts encoding signaling and cell division machinery. Pathway analysis identified altered MAPK and cell cycle pathways, consistent with occurrence of G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway gene transcripts were differentially expressed between control and Triptorelin-treated SCL60 cultures. Reverse-phase protein and phospho-proteomic array analyses profiled responses in cultured cells and SCL60 xenografts in vivo during Triptorelin anti-proliferation. Increased phosphorylated NF-κB (p65) occurred in SCL60 in vitro, and p-NF-κB and IκBϵ were higher in treated xenografts than controls after 4 days Triptorelin. NF-κB inhibition enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of Triptorelin in SCL60 cultures. This study reveals details of pathways interacting with intense GNRHR signaling, identifies potential anti-proliferative target genes, and implicates the NF-κB survival pathway as a node for enhancing GNRH agonist-induced anti-proliferation. PMID:23202794

  3. Synchronization Using PGF2α and Estradiol With or Without GnRH for Timed Artificial Insemination in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, Jae Kwan; KANG, Hyun Gu; HUR, Tai Young; KIM, Ill Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the use of PGF2α and estradiol benzoate (EB) either with or without GnRH to synchronize estrus in dairy cows for timed artificial insemination (TAI) under field conditions. First, Holstein dairy cows with a corpus luteum (CL) received 500 μg cloprostenol and were then randomly allocated to three groups: no further treatment (control, n=236); treatment with 1 mg EB 56 h after cloprostenol (EB group, n=339); or treatment with 1 mg EB 56 h after cloprostenol followed by treatment with 100 μg gonadorelin 24 h later (EB + GnRH group, n=216). All cows received TAI 80 h after the cloprostenol injection. In a second experiment, Holstein dairy cows with a CL received 500 μg cloprostenol and were then randomly allocated to two groups: treatment with 2 mg EB 36 h later (EB group, n=284) or treatment with 2 mg EB 36 h after cloprostenol followed by 100 μg gonadorelin 24 h later (EB + GnRH group, n=229). All cows received TAI 24 h after the EB injection. Logistic analyses revealed that the odds ratio for the probability of pregnancy when 1 mg EB was administered 56 h following cloprostenol was 1.9 and 2.0 times (P<0.001) higher in the EB (39.5%) and EB + GnRH groups (40.7%), respectively, compared with the control group (25.8%). However, pregnancy rates in cows receiving 2 mg EB 24 h following cloprostenol showed no difference compared with cows treated with EB only (32.4%) or with EB + GnRH (35.8%). These results indicate that a synchronization protocol comprising PGF2α and EB could be used for TAI in dairy herds under field conditions. PMID:23059639

  4. Withania somnifera aqueous extract facilitates the expression and release of GnRH: In vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Kataria, Hardeep; Gupta, Muskan; Lakhman, Sukhwinder; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-10-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has a long history in traditional medicines as an aphrodisiac. It has been known to influence sexual behaviour in animal models but mechanism of action is still unknown. The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which Ashwagandha extract exert its gonadotropic activities. Due to the complexity of neuroendocrine pathways, there are limited in vitro models available despite the strong demand for such systems to study and predict neuroendocrine effects of chemicals or natural products. Immortalized rat hypothalamic GnV-3 cell line was investigated as a model to screen for neuroendocrine effects of Ashwagandha extract. GnV-3 cells were cultured under different media conditions and evaluated after treatment with Ashwagandha water extract, for GnRH expression and release by immunostaining and ELISA respectively. These cells acquired differentiated morphology, characteristic shape displayed by preoptic GnRH neurons in vivo. In addition, GnV-3 cells exhibited upregulation of plasticity related polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and mature dendrite marker microtubule associated protein (MAP2) as well as GnRH expression and release. Chloroform fraction of the extract proved to exhibit all the bioactive properties as it induced differentiation and upregulated GnRH and MAP2 expression in GnV-3 cells, similar to Ashwagandha extract. Withanone and Withaferin A were found to be present in ASH-WEX and chloroform fraction while Withanone came out to be the major constituent of chloroform fraction. The preliminary in vivo studies in adult male animals showed that ASH-WEX was able to upregulate the GnRH levels although non-significantly. Taken together, this data demonstrate significant morphological and physiological changes in GnV-3 cells after treatment with Ashwagandha extract and may suggest the potential beneficial effects of Ashwagandha on reproductive functions in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor neurons fire in synchrony with the female reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Christian; Tong, Tong; Petitjean, Hugues; Blum, Thomas; Peron, Sophie; Mai, Oliver; Schmitz, Frank; Boehm, Ulrich; Leinders-Zufall, Trese

    2015-08-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls mammalian reproduction via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, acting on gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland that express the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). Cells expressing the GnRHR have also been identified in the brain. However, the mechanism by which GnRH acts on these potential target cells remains poorly understood due to the difficulty of visualizing and identifying living GnRHR neurons in the central nervous system. We have developed a mouse strain in which GnRHR neurons express a fluorescent marker, enabling the reliable identification of these cells independent of the hormonal status of the animal. In this study, we analyze the GnRHR neurons of the periventricular hypothalamic nucleus in acute brain slices prepared from adult female mice. Strikingly, we find that the action potential firing pattern of these neurons alternates in synchrony with the estrous cycle, with pronounced burst firing during the preovulatory period. We demonstrate that GnRH stimulation is sufficient to trigger the conversion from tonic to burst firing in GnRHR neurons. Furthermore, we show that this switch in the firing pattern is reversed by a potent GnRHR antagonist. These data suggest that endogenous GnRH acts on GnRHR neurons and triggers burst firing in these cells during late proestrus and estrus. Our data have important clinical implications in that they indicate a novel mode of action for GnRHR agonists and antagonists in neurons of the central nervous system that are not part of the classical hpg axis.

  6. 99MTc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime Imaging for Early Detection of Acute Lung Injury in Rats Exposed to Hyperoxia or Lipopolysaccharide Treatment.

    PubMed

    Audi, Said H; Clough, Anne V; Haworth, Steven T; Medhora, Meetha; Ranji, Mahsa; Densmore, John C; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2016-10-01

    Tc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is a clinical single-photon emission computed tomography biomarker of tissue oxidoreductive state. Our objective was to investigate whether HMPAO lung uptake can serve as a preclinical marker of lung injury in two well-established rat models of human acute lung injury (ALI).Rats were exposed to >95% O2 (hyperoxia) or treated with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with first endpoints obtained 24 h later. HMPAO was administered intravenously before and after treatment with the glutathione-depleting agent diethyl maleate (DEM), scintigraphy images were acquired, and HMPAO lung uptake was quantified from the images. We also measured breathing rates, heart rates, oxygen saturation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and protein, lung homogenate glutathione (GSH) content, and pulmonary vascular endothelial filtration coefficient (Kf).For hyperoxia rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased after 24 h (134%) and 48 h (172%) of exposure. For LPS-treated rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased (188%) 24 h after injury and fell with resolution of injury. DEM reduced HMPAO uptake in hyperoxia and LPS rats by a greater fraction than in normoxia rats. Both hyperoxia exposure (18%) and LPS treatment (26%) increased lung homogenate GSH content, which correlated strongly with HMPAO uptake. Neither of the treatments had an effect on Kf at 24 h. LPS-treated rats appeared healthy but exhibited mild tachypnea, BAL, and histological evidence of inflammation, and increased wet and dry lung weights. These results suggest the potential utility of HMPAO as a tool for detecting ALI at a phase likely to exhibit minimal clinical evidence of injury.

  7. Development of a (68)Ga-peptide tracer for PET GnRH1-imaging.

    PubMed

    Zoghi, Masoumeh; Jalilian, Amir R; Niazi, Ali; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Alirezapour, Behrouz; Ramezanpour, Saeed

    2016-07-01

    Total synthesis, quality control and preclinical evaluation of [(68)Ga]-DOTA-triptorelin ([(68)Ga]-DOTA-TRP) is reported as a possible PET radiotracer for GnRH receptor imaging. DOTA-TRP was totally synthesized in two steps and after characterization went through radiolabelling optimization studies followed by tracer stability. The biodistribution of the tracer in normal male rats and 4T1 tumour-bearing mice was performed in 120 min after i.v. injection. The peptide and the conjugates were synthesized with >95 % chemical purity. [(68)Ga]-DOTA-TRP complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (>99 %, ITLC, HPLC) and specific activity of 1400-2100 MBq/nM at 95 °C using 40-60 μg of the peptide in 5-7 min followed by solid phase purification. The IC50 [nM] DOTA-TRP was comparable to the intact peptide, 0.11 ± 0.01 and 0.22 ± 0.05, respectively. The biodistribution of the tracer demonstrated kidney, stomach, and testes significant uptake, all in accordance with GnRH receptor ligands. Significant tumour uptake was observed in 4T1 tumour-bearing female mice 30-120 min post-injection with tumour:blood and tumour:muscle ratios of 28 and >50 in 60 min, respectively. Kidney is rapidly washed from the tracer. [(68)Ga]-DOTA-TRP can be proposed as a possible tracer for GnRH-R imaging studies.

  8. The GnRH analogue triptorelin confers ovarian radio-protection to adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Camats, N; García, F; Parrilla, J J; Calaf, J; Martín-Mateo, M; Caldés, M Garcia

    2009-10-02

    There is a controversy regarding the effects of the analogues of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in radiotherapy. This has led us to study the possible radio-protection of the ovarian function of a GnRH agonist analogue (GnRHa), triptorelin, in adult, female rats (Rattus norvegicus sp.). The effects of the X-irradiation on the oocytes of ovarian primordial follicles, with and without GnRHa treatment, were compared, directly in the female rats (F(0)) with reproductive parameters, and in the somatic cells of the resulting foetuses (F(1)) with cytogenetical parameters. In order to do this, the ovaries and uteri from 82 females were extracted for the reproductive analysis and 236 foetuses were obtained for cytogenetical analysis. The cytogenetical study was based on the data from 22,151 metaphases analysed. The cytogenetical parameters analysed to assess the existence of chromosomal instability were the number of aberrant metaphases (2234) and the number (2854) and type of structural chromosomal aberrations, including gaps and breaks. Concerning the reproductive analysis of the ovaries and the uteri, the parameters analysed were the number of corpora lutea, implantations, implantation losses and foetuses. Triptorelin confers radio-protection of the ovaries in front of chromosomal instability, which is different, with respect to the single and fractioned dose. The cytogenetical analysis shows a general decrease in most of the parameters of the triptorelin-treated groups, with respect to their controls, and some of these differences were considered to be statistically significant. The reproductive analysis indicates that there is also radio-protection by the agonist, although minor to the cytogenetical one. Only some of the analysed parameters show a statistically significant decrease in the triptorelin-treated groups.

  9. A comparative therapeutic management of anoestrus in buffaloes using insulin and GnRH

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, R. D.; Shukla, S. N.; Shrivastava, O. P.; Kumar, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Anoestrus is one of the most common functional disorders of the reproductive cycle in buffaloes. In spite of technical advancement, there is no single cure for the management of anoestrus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the efficacy of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) and metabolic hormone for the management of true anoestrus in buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The experimental animals were selected on the basis of history, gyneco-clinical examinations and progesterone estimation. Deworming was done with Fenbendazole and thereafter mineral mixture was given @ 50 g per animal per day for 10 days in all the selected buffaloes before the start of treatment. The selected buffaloes were randomly divided into four groups (n=25). In Group I, buffaloes were administered 20 µg of buserelin intramuscularly. Buffaloes of Group II were administered long-acting insulin @ 0.25 IU/Kg body weight subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days. In Group III, buffaloes were treated with a combination of insulin and buserelin in the above-mentioned doses whereas buffaloes of Group IV were kept as untreated control. Results: The higher oestrus induction (64% vs. 28%) was found in Group III and differed significantly (p<0.05) as compared to control group. The conception rate (69.23% vs. 66.66%) was also found higher in Group III but did not differ significantly among the treated groups. The mean time taken for the onset of oestrus was recorded significantly shorter in insulin (8.80±0.69) and GnRH (7.60±0.92 days) alone and as compared to other (Group III, 14.43±0.83 and Group IV, 20.57±1.69 days) groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated better fertility response using Insulin plus Buserelin in true anoestrus buffaloes under field conditions. PMID:27065651

  10. Endocrine effects of GnRH agonist application to early pregnant gilts.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Schneider, Falk; Wollenhaupt, Karin; Tuchscherer, Armin

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that a GnRH agonist application at early pregnancy would alter the pattern of the key reproductive hormones LH and FSH, and subsequently that of estradiol (E2) and especially progesterone (P4), and improve the conditions for embryo survival in early pregnant gilts. Therefore, the endocrine effects of a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) application to gilts (n=11 GnRHa treated, n=9 saline Controls) were studied in blood samples from the Vena cava caudalis. GnRHa injected on Day 12 after insemination induced elevated (P<0.01) LH and FSH levels for at least 180 min. However, subsequent LH concentrations were not altered up to Day 21 of pregnancy. LH pulse number, estimated in 6-h period samples on Days 13, 15 and 17, was not influenced by treatment and pregnancy. LH pulse amplitude was decreased (P<0.05) on Days 13 to 17 in pregnant gilts of both groups, but not in nonpregnant animals. In pregnant GnRHa-treated gilts, the basal LH level was elevated compared with the Controls (P<0.01). Additionally, differences (P<0.05) in basal LH were present between the pregnant and nonpregnant animals. The P4 and E2 secretion pattern was not affected by GnRHa. P4 concentrations increased (P<0.01) from Day 10 to Day 14 regardless of the treatment. P4 revealed a pulse-like pattern, but without a definite relation to the LH pulse characteristics. Also, pregnancy rate (73 vs. 67%) and the number of fetuses (12.8 ± 2.3 vs. 11.6 ± 2.3) were unaffected in the treated and Control gilts, respectively. The present study did not confirm the initial hypothesis that a GnRHa-mediated LH effect could alter ovarian steroid secretion and favorably support early embryo development and pregnancy outcome.

  11. Pesticide Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This training will help ensure that reviewers evaluate labels according to four core principles. It also will help pesticide registrants developing labels understand what EPA expects of pesticide labels, and what the Agency generally finds acceptable.

  12. Retrospective comparison of GnRH agonist trigger with HCG trigger in GnRH antagonist cycles in anticipated high-responders.

    PubMed

    Datta, Adrija Kumar; Eapen, Abey; Birch, Heidi; Kurinchi-Selvan, Anitha; Lockwood, Gillian

    2014-11-01

    All IVF-ICSI cycles carried out between October 2009 and October 2012 using GnRH agonist (GnRHa) ovulation trigger (n = 62) followed by a single dose of HCG plus progesterone and oestradiol in the luteal phase because of anticipated ovarian hypertsimulation were retrospectively compared with historic control cycles using HCG trigger (n = 29) and standard luteal phase support. Women's mean age, body mass index, anti-Müllerian hormone, FSH, LH, starting and total stimulation dose, number of follicles, oocytes, embryos, fertilization, implantation, polycystic ovary syndrome, ICSI, live birth and ongoing pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were similar (GnRHa 40.7% versus HCG 35.0%). For each started cycle, GnRHa resulted in 11.4% higher (statistically non-significant) live birth and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 1.73, CI 0.64 to 4.69), with a similar difference for double-embryo transfers (OR 1.62, CI 0.44 to 6.38) and less need for freezing all embryos (9.7% versus 27.6%; P = 0.04). Incidence of mild-to-moderate OHSS was 16.2% with GnRHa trigger and 31.0% with HCG trigger) and no severe OHSS in the former. The addition of single low-dose HCG in the luteal phase after GnRHa trigger for suspected high-responders reduced the incidence of OHSS with good clinical outcomes, compared with HCG trigger. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of GnRH on Neurite Outgrowth, Neurofilament and Spinophilin Proteins Expression in Cultured Spinal Cord Neurons of Rat Embryos.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma

    2016-10-01

    It has been previously described the presence of GnRH receptor in spinal cord neurons of rat embryos and adult rats. However, the functional role of these receptors has not been studied. In this work, the effect of GnRH on neurite outgrowth and cytoskeletal protein expression in cultured spinal cord neurons of rat embryos was analyzed. Specifically, neurofilaments of 68 and 200 kDa by immunoblot assays and spinophilin mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Results show that GnRH stimulates neurite outgrowth in addition to an increase in neurofilaments and spinophilin expression. These findings suggest that GnRH may play a role as neuromodulator in neuronal plasticity and that could be considered as a potential factor for neuronal regeneration in spinal cord injuries.

  14. GnRH and its receptor (GnRH-R) are expressed in the canine placenta and uterus.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Somi, S; Kowalewski, M P; Kanca, H; Bozkurt, M F; Gram, A; Sabitzer, S; Kucukaslan, I; Ay, S S; Aslan, S

    2015-12-01

    In reproductive tissues, GnRH participates in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation by direct binding to the GnRH-R, which is essential for embryo implantation. However, there is no study on the expression and cellular localization of GnRH and GnRH-R in the canine uterus and placenta. Therefore, bitches were ovariohysterectomized 10 to 12 days after mating (vaginal cytology and progesterone measurement), the uteri were flushed, and if embryos were detectable, bitches were allocated to the embryo positive group (E-pos.; preimplantation, n = 5). Other bitches were operated at later stages and, dependent on the gestational age, either allotted to the post-implantation group (Day 18-25 after mating, n = 9), or the mid-gestation group (Day 30-40 after mating, n = 3). Dogs negative in embryo flushing served as controls (E-neg.; controls, n = 5). Samples of the entire uterine wall were taken from the middle of the horn in E-neg. and E-pos. groups, and from placental and interplacental uterine sites in post-implantation and mid-gestation groups. GnRH-R expression was localized at the mRNA and protein levels by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The expression of GnRH and GnRH-R mRNA was assessed by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, both GnRH and GnRH-R mRNA were expressed in all tissues examined until mid-gestation. Relative expression of GnRH was higher than that of GnRH-R (P < 0.05). During the post-implantation stage, GnRH-R expression was significantly higher in uteroplacental than in interplacental tissues. In the uterus, GnRH-R stained strongly in the surface and glandular epithelial cells, and seemed to be weaker in myometrium and stroma. Placental signals were predominantly localized in fetal trophoblast cells and to a lesser extent in maternal decidual cells. These findings suggest a local regulatory function of GnRH during early canine pregnancy.

  15. Effect of reproductive methods and GnRH administration on long-term protocol in Santa Ines ewes.

    PubMed

    Biehl, Marcos V; Ferraz Junior, Marcos V C; Ferreira, Evandro M; Polizel, Daniel M; Miszura, Alexandre A; Barroso, José P R; Oliveira, Gabriela B; Bertoloni, Analisa V; Pires, Alexandre V

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether reproductive performance of ewes submitted to laparoscopic timed artificial insemination (TAI) would be similar to ante meridiem (AM)/post meridiem (PM) rule and assisted natural mating (NM), and whether GnRH may enhance the pregnancy rate in TAI. In experiment I, 191 non-lactating ewes were synchronized, then TAI was performed either 48 h after progesterone (P4) removal (TAI-48 h) or 12 h after estrus detection (AM/PM); moreover, some ewes were submitted to NM (NM) as control treatment. In experiment II, 247 non-lactating ewes were allocated in five treatments, a control (no-GnRH on protocol) and four treatments arranged in a factorial design 2 × 2. The factors were time and dose of GnRH: ewes that received either 10 μg (TAI-10 μg-36 h) or 25 μg of GnRH (TAI-25 μg-36 h) 36 h after P4 removal and ewes that received either 10 μg (TAI-10 μg-48 h) or 25 μg of GnRH (TAI-25 μg-48 h) at time of insemination, 48 h after P4 removal. In experiment I, pregnancy rate in TAI-48 h was lower (P = 0.03) than AM/PM and NM. Moreover, the probability of pregnancy in TAI-48 h was higher (P = 0.06) in ewes detected in estrus early. In experiment II, the use of GnRH in TAI protocols increased (P < 0.01) pregnancy rate at synchronization, and TAI-25 μ-48 h and TAI-10 μg-36 h treatments increased (P = 0.02) pregnancy rate compered to TAI-10 μg-48 h. We conclude that TAI decreased pregnancy rate compered to NM and AM/PM, which may be improved by GnRH use in TAI to synchronize ovulation.

  16. Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B, and Dynorphin Act in the Arcuate Nucleus to Control Activity of the GnRH Pulse Generator in Ewes

    PubMed Central

    Hileman, Stanley M.; Nestor, Casey C; Porter, Katrina L.; Connors, John M.; Hardy, Steve L.; Millar, Robert P.; Cernea, Maria; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has led to the hypothesis that kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons in the arcuate nucleus play a key role in GnRH pulse generation, with kisspeptin driving GnRH release and neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin acting as start and stop signals, respectively. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by determining the actions, if any, of four neurotransmitters found in KNDy neurons (kisspeptin, NKB, dynorphin, and glutamate) on episodic LH secretion using local administration of agonists and antagonists to receptors for these transmitters in ovariectomized ewes. We also obtained evidence that GnRH-containing afferents contact KNDy neurons, so we tested the role of two components of these afferents: GnRH and orphanin-FQ. Microimplants of a Kiss1r antagonist briefly inhibited LH pulses and microinjections of 2 nmol of this antagonist produced a modest transitory decrease in LH pulse frequency. An antagonist to the NKB receptor also decreased LH pulse frequency, whereas NKB and an antagonist to the receptor for dynorphin both increased pulse frequency. In contrast, antagonists to GnRH receptors, orphanin-FQ receptors, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor had no effect on episodic LH secretion. We thus conclude that the KNDy neuropeptides act in the arcuate nucleus to control episodic GnRH secretion in the ewe, but afferent input from GnRH neurons to this area does not. These data support the proposed roles for NKB and dynorphin within the KNDy neural network and raise the possibility that kisspeptin contributes to the control of GnRH pulse frequency in addition to its established role as an output signal from KNDy neurons that drives GnRH pulses. PMID:23959940

  17. Sequence analysis, tissue distribution and molecular physiology of the GnRH preprogonadotrophin in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Charif, Santiago Elías; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Schmidt, Alejandro Raúl; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel; Dorfman, Verónica Berta

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the regulator of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) axis. GnRH and GAP (GnRH-associated protein) are both encoded by a single preprohormone. Different variants of GnRH have been described. In most mammals, GnRH is secreted in a pulsatile manner that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The South-American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is a rodent with peculiar reproductive features including natural poly-ovulation up to 800 oocytes per estrous cycle, pre-ovulatory follicle formation throughout pregnancy and an ovulatory process which takes place at mid-gestation and adds a considerable number of secondary corpora lutea. Such features should occur under a special modulation of the HHG axis, guided by GnRH. The aim of this study was to sequence hypothalamic GnRH preprogonadotrophin mRNA in the vizcacha, to compare it with evolutionarily related species and to identify its expression, distribution and pulsatile pattern of secretion. The GnRH1variant was detected and showed the highest homology with that of chinchilla, its closest evolutionarily related species. Two isoforms of transcripts were identified, carrying the same coding sequence, but different 5' untranslated regions. This suggests a sensitive equilibrium between RNA stability and translational efficiency. A predominant hypothalamic localization and a pulsatile secretion pattern of one pulse of GnRH every hour were found. The lower homology found for GAP, also among evolutionarily related species, depicts a potentially different bioactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of endotoxin on the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, Dorota

    2010-07-01

    An immune/inflammatory challenge can affect reproduction at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, or gonads. Nonetheless, the major impact is thought to occur within the brain or the pituitary gland. The present study was designed to examine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) genes in the hypothalamic structures where GnRH neurons are located as well as in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of anestrous ewes. We also determined the effect of LPS on luteinizing hormone (LH) release. It was found that i.v. LPS injection significantly decreased GnRH and GnRHR mRNAs levels in the preoptic area (40%, pGnRH reactive pituitary cells to GnRH stimulation. The presence of GnRH mRNA in the median eminence, the hypothalamic structure where GnRH-ergic neurons' terminals are located, suggests that the axonal transport of GnRH mRNA may occur in these neurons. This phenomenon could play an important role in the physiology of GnRH neurons. Our data demonstrate that immune stress could be important inhibitor of this process.

  19. Multiple molecular forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain of an elasmobranch: evidence for IR-lamprey GnRH.

    PubMed

    Calvin, J L; Slater, C H; Bolduc, T G; Laudano, A P; Sower, S A

    1993-01-01

    These studies investigated brains of skate, Raja erinacea (order Rajiformes, class Chondrichthyes), for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptides by chromatograph and immunoreactivity with region-specific antisera raised against mammalian GnRH and lamprey GnRH. The region-specific antibody to lamprey GnRH-I was produced following conjugation to bovine serum albumin using the bis-diazotized benzidine method. This antibody was characterized by assaying a range of increasing dilutions of the known vertebrate GnRHs, as well as analogs to lamprey GnRH-I. Two analogs, lamprey [Phe2]GnRH-I and lamprey [Leu7]GnRH-I, were synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis using a benzhydrylamine resin as the supporting medium and purified by chromatography. This antibody demonstrated less than 0.01% cross-reactivity with all GnRH peptides tested, suggesting a highly specific antibody with a region of amino acids 2-8 that appears essential for binding. In the skate brain, five immunoreactive (IR) GnRH forms were detected, four of which eluted in the same positions as synthetic mammal and chicken GnRH-I (which coelute): lamprey GnRH-I, salmon and chicken GnRH-II, and one that was an unidentified form. A minor peak coeluted with lamprey GnRH-III. The major form in the skate brain is considered to have eluted with synthetic mammalian GnRH. These studies confirm an earlier report of an IR-mammalian GnRH peptide and provide new evidence for IR-lamprey GnRH in the brain of an elasmobranch.

  20. Deep Label Distribution Learning With Label Ambiguity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bin-Bin; Xing, Chao; Xie, Chen-Wei; Wu, Jianxin; Geng, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have achieved excellent recognition performance in various visual recognition tasks. A large labeled training set is one of the most important factors for its success. However, it is difficult to collect sufficient training images with precise labels in some domains such as apparent age estimation, head pose estimation, multi-label classification and semantic segmentation. Fortunately, there is ambiguous information among labels, which makes these tasks different from traditional classification. Based on this observation, we convert the label of each image into a discrete label distribution, and learn the label distribution by minimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence between the predicted and ground-truth label distributions using deep ConvNets. The proposed DLDL (Deep Label Distribution Learning) method effectively utilizes the label ambiguity in both feature learning and classifier learning, which help prevent the network from over-fitting even when the training set is small. Experimental results show that the proposed approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods for age estimation and head pose estimation. At the same time, it also improves recognition performance for multi-label classification and semantic segmentation tasks.

  1. Sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-III (GnRH3) neurons and hormonal sex reversal of male reproductive behavior in Mozambique tilapia.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Asami; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Toyoji; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2011-10-01

    In tilapia, hormone treatment during the period of sexual differentiation can alter the phenotype of the gonads, indicating that endocrine factors can cause gonadal sex reversal. However, the endocrine mechanism underlying sex reversal of reproductive behaviors remains unsolved. In the present study, we detected sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type III (GnRH3) neurons in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Our immunohistochemical observations showed sex differences in the number of GnRH3 immunoreactive neurons in mature tilapia; males had a greater number of GnRH3 neurons in the terminal ganglion than females. Treatment with androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or methyltestosterone), but not that with 17β-estradiol, increased the number of GnRH3 neurons in females to a level similar to that in males. Furthermore, male-specific nest-building behavior was induced in 70% of females treated with 11-KT within two weeks after the onset of the treatment. These results indicate androgen-dependent regulation of GnRH3 neurons and nest-building behavior, suggesting that GnRH3 is importantly involved in sex reversal of male-specific reproductive behavior.

  2. Leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, improves experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: a possible therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Soto, Irene; Salinas, Eva; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Quintanar, J Luis

    2012-10-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a well known hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been reported to possess neurotrophic properties. Leuprolide acetate, a synthetic analogue of GnRH is considered to be a very safe and tolerable drug and it has been used for diverse clinical applications, including the treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, central precocious puberty and in vitro fertilization techniques. The present study was designed to determine whether Leuprolide acetate administration, exerts neurotrophic effects on clinical signs, body weight gain, neurofilaments (NFs) and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression, axonal morphometry and cell infiltration in spinal cord of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rats. In this work, we have found that Leuprolide acetate treatment decreases the severity of clinical signs of locomotion, induces a significantly greater body weight gain, increases the MBP and NFs expression, axonal area and cell infiltration in EAE animals. These results suggest the use of this agonist as a potential therapeutic approach for multiple sclerosis.

  3. Long-term fertility control in female cats with GonaCon™, a GnRH immunocontraceptive.

    PubMed

    Levy, Julie K; Friary, John A; Miller, Lowell A; Tucker, Sylvia J; Fagerstone, Kathleen A

    2011-11-01

    The uncontrolled reproduction of free-roaming feral cats contributes to overpopulation and associated concerns regarding their welfare and impact on public health and the environment. Nonsurgical fertility control that could be administered to feral cats in the field would be a powerful tool for cat population control. The objective was to test the efficacy and duration of activity of a single-dose GnRH immunocontraceptive vaccine (GonaCon™) on the fertility of adult female laboratory cats. Vaccinated cats (n = 15) received a single injection of vaccine containing a GnRH-KLH conjugate (200 μg) emulsified in a mycobacterial and oil adjuvant on study Day 0. Sham-treated cats (n = 5) received a single injection containing all vaccine components except the GnRH-KLH conjugate. A breeding trial started on study Day 120. Vaccinated cats had a longer time to conception (median 39.7 mo) compared to sham-treated cats (4.4 mo; P < 0.001). A total of 93% of vaccinated cats remained infertile for the first year following vaccination, whereas 73, 53, and 40% were infertile for 2, 3, and 4 y, respectively. At study termination (5 y after a single GnRH vaccine was administered), four cats (27%) remained infertile. The GnRH antibody titers declined more rapidly in short-term responding cats with < 2 y of infertility (n = 4), compared to long-term responding cats that experienced fertility control for >2 y (n = 11) (P < 0.05). Non-painful but persistent late-onset granulomatous injection site masses appeared 2 y after initial vaccination in five cats. We concluded that GnRH immunocontraception is an ideal candidate for further development for feral cat control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Histidine residues in the peptide D-Lys(6)-GnRH: potential for copolymerization in polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Alexandra P; Kleffmann, Torsten; Rades, Thomas; McDowell, Arlene

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ethylcyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanoparticles containing the bioactive d-Lys(6)-GnRH were manufactured by an in situ interfacial polymerization process using a w/o-microemulsion template containing the peptide in the dispersed aqueous pseudophase of the microemulsion. Polymeric nanoparticles were characterized using PCS, RP-HPLC (bulk level) and MALDI TOF mass spectrometry (molecular level). The peptide d-Lys(6)-GnRH was reactive with the alkylcyanoacrylate monomer, resulting in some of the peptide copolymerizing with the monomer. MALDI TOF/TOF (tandem) analysis revealed that the histidine residue in position 2 of d-Lys(6)-GnRH interacts covalently in the polymerization process. A reaction mechanism for this nucleophilic interference is suggested. The copolymerization reaction appeared to occur within seconds after the addition of the monomer to the microemulsion. The surface charge of resulting nanoparticles was less negative (-3 mV) compared with the zeta potential of empty nanoparticles (-27.5 mV). The copolymerization yielded high entrapment rates of 95 +/- 4% of peptide, but showed limited release ( approximately 11%) of free peptide over 5 days. A separate experiment demonstrated that the addition of d-Lys(6)-GnRH to preformed empty PECA nanoparticles (ex situ) also yielded fractions of copolymerized peptide suggesting a certain proportion of polymer remains available for copolymerization possibly through an unzipping depolymerization/repolymerization process. Therefore, the reactivity of histidine residues in bioactives needs to be considered whenever using the bioactive in situ or ex situ with polymeric PECA nanoparticles.

  5. A Network Model of the Periodic Synchronization Process in the Dynamics of Calcium Concentration in GnRH Neurons

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical neuroendocrinology is a branch of mathematical neurosciences that is specifically interested in endocrine neurons, which have the uncommon ability of secreting neurohormones into the blood. One of the most striking features of neuroendocrine networks is their ability to exhibit very slow rhythms of neurosecretion, on the order of one or several hours. A prototypical instance is that of the pulsatile secretion pattern of GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone), the master hormone controlling the reproductive function, whose origin remains a puzzle issue since its discovery in the seventies. In this paper, we investigate the question of GnRH neuron synchronization on a mesoscopic scale, and study how synchronized events in calcium dynamics can arise from the average electric activity of individual neurons. We use as reference seminal experiments performed on embryonic GnRH neurons from rhesus monkeys, where calcium imaging series were recorded simultaneously in tens of neurons, and which have clearly shown the occurrence of synchronized calcium peaks associated with GnRH pulses, superposed on asynchronous, yet oscillatory individual background dynamics. We design a network model by coupling 3D individual dynamics of FitzHugh–Nagumo type. Using phase-plane analysis, we constrain the model behavior so that it meets qualitative and quantitative specifications derived from the experiments, including the precise control of the frequency of the synchronization episodes. In particular, we show how the time scales of the model can be tuned to fit the individual and synchronized time scales of the experiments. Finally, we illustrate the ability of the model to reproduce additional experimental observations, such as partial recruitment of cells within the synchronization process or the occurrence of doublets of synchronization. PMID:23574739

  6. Kisspeptin inhibits a slow afterhyperpolarization current via protein kinase C and reduces spike frequency adaptation in GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin signaling via its cognate receptor G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons plays a critical role in regulating pituitary secretion of luteinizing hormone and thus reproductive function. GPR54 is Gq-coupled to activation of phospholipase C and multiple second messenger signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown that kisspeptin potently depolarizes GnRH neurons through the activation of canonical transient receptor potential channels and inhibition of inwardly rectifying K+ channels to generate sustained firing. Since the initial studies showing that kisspeptin has prolonged effects, the question has been why is there very little spike frequency adaption during sustained firing? Presently, we have discovered that kisspeptin reduces spike frequency adaptation and prolongs firing via the inhibition of a calcium-activated slow afterhyperpolarization current (IsAHP). GnRH neurons expressed two distinct IsAHP, a kisspeptin-sensitive and an apamin-sensitive IsAHP. Essentially, kisspeptin inhibited 50% of the IsAHP and apamin inhibited the other 50% of the current. Furthermore, the kisspeptin-mediated inhibition of IsAHP was abrogated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin C, and the PKC activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate mimicked and occluded any further effects of kisspeptin on IsAHP. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors H-89 and the Rp diastereomer of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate had no effect on the kisspeptin-mediated inhibition but were able to abrogate the inhibitory effects of forskolin on the IsAHP, suggesting that PKA is not involved. Therefore, in addition to increasing the firing rate through an overt depolarization, kisspeptin can also facilitate sustained firing through inhibiting an apamin-insensitive IsAHP in GnRH neurons via a PKC. PMID:23548613

  7. 17β-Estradiol Rapidly Increases KATP Activity in GnRH via a Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunguang; Kelly, Martin J.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2010-01-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) both inhibits and excites GnRH neurons via presynaptic as well as postsynaptic mechanisms. Although it has been demonstrated that E2 can alter the excitability of GnRH neurons via direct actions, the intracellular signaling cascades mediating these actions are not well understood. Previously we have shown that the activity of one of the critical ion channels needed for maintaining GnRH neurons in a hyperpolarized state, the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) channel, is augmented by E2 in ovariectomized females. However, the mRNA expression of the KATP channel subunits Kir6.2 and SUR1 are unchanged with in vivo E2 treatment. Therefore, to elucidate the cellular signaling mechanism(s) modulating the channel activity, we did whole-cell patch-clamp recording of enhanced green fluorescent protein-GnRH neurons from ovariectomized female mice to study the acute effects of E2. E2 dose-dependently (EC50 = 0.6 nM) enhanced the diazoxide (channel opener)-activated KATP channel currents by 1.2- to 2.0-fold, which was antagonized by ICI 182,780. E2-BSA was equally as effective as E2, whereas E2 had no effect. The protein kinase A (PKA) activator forskolin mimicked the effects of E2, whereas the PKA inhibitor H89 and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I blocked the effects of E2. Similar to E2, STX, a membrane estrogen receptor (ER) agonist that does not bind to ERα or ERβ, also potentiated the diazoxide-induced KATP channel current by 1.5-fold. Therefore, E2 can potentiate KATP channel activity in GnRH neurons through a membrane ER-activated PKC-PKA signaling pathway. PMID:20660067

  8. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  9. Persistence of infertility in GnRH immunized male rats treated with subdermal implants of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

    PubMed

    Awoniyi, C A; Hurst, B S; Reece, M S; Kim, W K; Schlaff, W D

    1996-10-01

    Male hormonal contraception has been limited to date because two fundamental requirements have not been concurrently satisfied, these are, consistent and dependable azoospermia and infertility coupled with maintenance of libido. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which implants of potent androgen (DHT) will restore androgenization and spermatogenesis in hypogonadotropic infertile male rats. Twenty-five sexually mature male rats of proven fertility were actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce azoospermia. After azoospermia was achieved, GnRH immunized rats received subdermal DHT-filled Silastic implants of 2, 4, 6, or 8 cm, or empty implants (n=5/group). Five untreated control rats received empty capsules. Eight weeks later, fertility was evaluated, sperm number was obtained from the testis, and weights of androgen-dependent organs were measured. The results indicate that immunoneutralization of GnRH induced complete azoospermia, and subsequent treatment with DHT implants of 2 or 4 cm for 8 wk restored accessory organ weights, but did not restore spermatogenesis or fertility. In addition, DHT implants of 6 to 8 cm partially restored spermatogenesis, but not fertility. We conclude that low-dose DHT supplementation of GnRH-immunized rats may be a suitable alternate therapy able to maintain androgenization in the face of persistent azoospermia in the rat. This may be an effective model for development of a male contraceptive.

  10. Photoperiod modulates the reproductive axis of European sea bass through regulation of kiss1 and gnrh2 neuronal expression.

    PubMed

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2017-01-01

    The onset of puberty is characterized by activation of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis. However, the molecular and endocrine mechanism involved in the process of puberty and the influence of environmental conditions, such as photoperiod signalling, are not well understood in fish. In this study, 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to photoperiod manipulation in combination with size-sorting. Two treatment groups, a puberty accelerating photoperiod (AP) group and a continuous light (LL) group, were studied from August to February. Our results indicate that AP and LL are able to entrain the rhythms of both kiss1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels in the brain, while kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA expression does not seem to be directly affected by the photoperiod, at least during testicular growth. It is likely that AP and LL photoperiod regimes affected both plasma Fsh and 11-KT profiles, which might explain, respectively, the phase shift and reduction of testes maturation seen under these conditions. We therefore hypothesize that the unbalanced production of this androgen regulated by circulating Fsh might be limiting the stimulation of germ cell proliferation in European sea bass males. In summary, our study establishes that photoperiod modulates the expression of kiss1 and gnrh2 in the forebrain-midbrain, which may be involved in the translation of the light stimulus to activate the reproductive axis.

  11. Female-Specific Glucose Sensitivity of GnRH1 Neurons Leads to Sexually Dimorphic Inhibition of Reproduction in Medaka.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Masaharu; Kanda, Shinji; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Close interaction exists between energy-consuming reproduction and nutritional status. However, there are differences in costs and priority for reproduction among species and even between sexes, which leads to diversification of interactions between reproduction and nutritional status. Despite such diversified interactions among species and sexes, most of the analysis of the nutritional status-dependent regulation of reproduction has been limited to an endothermic vertebrate, mammalian species of either sex. Therefore, the mechanisms underlying the diversified interactions remain elusive. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of malnutritional status on reproduction at both organismal and cellular levels in an ectothermic vertebrate, a teleost medaka of both sexes. First, we analyzed the effects of malnutrition by fasting on gonadosomatic index, number of spawned/fertilized eggs, and courtship behavior. Fasting strongly suppressed reproduction in females but, surprisingly, not in males. Next, we analyzed the effects of fasting on firing activity of hypothalamic GnRH1 neurons, which form the final common pathway for the control of reproduction. An electrophysiological analysis showed that low glucose, which is induced by fasting, directly suppresses the firing activity of GnRH1 neurons specifically in females through intracellular ATP-sensitive potassium channels and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways. Based on the fact that such suppressions occurred only in females, we conclude that nutritional status-dependent, glucose-sensing in GnRH1 neurons may contribute to the most fitted reproductive regulation for each sex.

  12. Leptin facilitates lordosis behavior through GnRH-1 and progestin receptors in estrogen-primed rats.

    PubMed

    García-Juárez, Marcos; Beyer, Carlos; Soto-Sánchez, Alfonso; Domínguez-Ordoñez, Raymundo; Gómora-Arrati, Porfirio; Lima-Hernández, Francisco Javier; Eguibar, José R; Etgen, Anne M; González-Flores, Oscar

    2011-02-01

    Dose response curves for leptin facilitation of estrous behavior (lordosis and proceptivity) were made by infusing the peptide into the lateral ventricle (icv) of ovariectomized (ovx), ad libitum-fed rats injected 40h previously with 5μg of estradiol benzoate. Leptin doses of 1 and 3μg produced significant lordosis quotient at 60min post-injection, with maximal lordosis being displayed at 120min. Yet the intensity of lordosis was weak, and a high incidence of rejection behaviors was found. Moreover, leptin did not induce significant proceptive behaviors at any dose. The leptin doses of 1 and 3μg were selected for determining whether antide, a GnRH-1 receptor antagonist, or the progestin receptor antagonist RU486 could modify the lordosis response to leptin. Icv injection of either antide or RU486 1h before leptin significantly depressed leptin facilitation of lordosis. The results suggest that leptin stimulates lordosis by releasing GnRH, which in turn activates GnRH-1 and progestin receptors. The physiological role of leptin in the control of estrous behavior remains to be determined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gonadotropin and kisspeptin gene expression, but not GnRH, are impaired in cFOS deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Changchuan; Jonak, Carrie R.; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Coss, Djurdjica

    2015-01-01

    cFOS is a pleiotropic transcription factor, which binds to the AP1 site in the promoter of target genes. In the pituitary gonadotropes, cFOS mediates induction of FSHβ and GnRH receptor genes. Herein, we analyzed reproductive function in the cFOS-deficient mice to determine its role in vivo. In the pituitary cFOS is necessary for gonadotropin subunit expression, while TSHβ is unaffected. Additionally, cFOS null animals have the same sex-steroid levels, although gametogenesis is impeded. In the brain, cFOS is not necessary for GnRH neuronal migration, axon targeting, cell number, or mRNA levels. Conversely, cFOS nulls, particularly females, have decreased Kiss1 neuron numbers and lower Kiss1 mRNA levels. Collectively, our novel findings suggest that cFOS plays a cell-specific role at multiple levels of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, affecting gonadotropes but not thyrotropes in the pituitary, and kisspeptin neurons but not GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus, thereby contributing to the overall control of reproduction. PMID:25958044

  14. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and the risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Nancy L.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Smith, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) accomplished by either a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, GnRH antagonist, or bilateral orchiectomy is a common treatment for prostate cancer, the most common cancer in men. Given that most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will not die as a direct result of their prostate cancer, competing health risks are an important consideration. Several adverse metabolic effects of ADT have recently been described. The potential benefits of ADT in any given clinical setting must therefore be weighed against the potential harms. In October 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a safety announcement warning about increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease due to GnRH agonist treatment, though these effects likely would result from any intervention that causes castrate testosterone levels. This commentary briefly summarizes the existing literature and provides perspective on its application to clinical practice. We advocate the adapted use of existing guidelines designed to manage the risks for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the general population. PMID:21319864

  15. Histologic effect of a postnatal slow-release GnRH agonist on feline gonads.

    PubMed

    Carranza, A; Faya, M; Fernandez, P; Barbeito, C; Gobello, C

    2015-05-01

    In postnatal domestic cats, GnRH agonists suppressed fecal concentrations of sexual steroids and delayed puberty. The aim of this study was to describe the gross and microscopic morphometric effects of a single administration of the GnRH agonist, deslorelin acetate, on the gonads of postnatally treated cats. Twenty-seven postnatal male (n = 14) and female (n = 13) kittens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups within the first 24 hours of birth: deslorelin acetate (1.6 mg, subcutaneous; DA, n = 16) or control that remained untreated (CO, n = 11) and spayed or castrated immediately after the onset of puberty. After surgical removal, the gonads were gross and histologically assessed. Sertoli cells also were examined immunohistochemically. Comparisons between the treatments were carried out by the Student t test. Gross gonadal wet weight and volume as well as gonadosomatic index were significantly lower in the DA than those in the CO males; these same parameters were not different in females. Primordial (461.4 + 3.0 vs. 1074.3 + 117.5; P < 0.01), primary (59.1 + 13.5 vs. 165.4 + 24.6; P < 0.01), and secondary (17.5 + 2.6 vs. 31.17 + 8.1; P < 0.05) follicles per mm(2) were decreased in DA than in CO gonads. Epididymal sperm motility and morphology were normal in all but two DA cats that had too few sperm to be evaluated. Germinal epithelial height (μm; 39.68 + 0.92 vs. 72.7 + 1.2; P < 0.01) and most of their cellular components as well as the Sertoli (cm(3); 0.1 + 0.02 vs. 0.24 + 0.05; P < 0.01) cells were diminished in the DA cats. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist endocrine disruption during the neonatal critical reproductive time window may have a potential as a contraceptive agent in domestic felids.

  16. Developmental expression of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 and three GnRH mRNAs in the teleost fish cobia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, J Shaik; Benninghoff, Abby D; Holt, G Joan; Khan, Izhar A

    2007-02-01

    The cDNAs of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) and three prepro-gonadotropin-releasing hormones, GnRH-I (seabream GnRH), GnRH-II (chicken GnRH-II), and GnRH-III (salmon GnRH) were isolated and cloned from the brain of the teleost fish cobia, Rachycentron canadum. The cobia GPR54 cDNA was 95 and 51-56% identical to those of tilapia and mammalian models respectively. The GnRH cDNA sequences of cobia showed strong identities to those of tilapia, Atlantic croaker, red drum, and the seabass and seabream species. The real-time quantitative RT-PCR methods allowed detection of all three GnRH mRNAs on the first day after hatching (DAH). The GnRH-I mRNA levels, which were the lowest among the three GnRHs, increased gradually with two distinct peaks in larvae at 3 and 4 DAH. On the other hand, GnRH-II and GnRH-III mRNAs were significantly higher in larvae at 2 and 6 DAH compared with those on the preceding days. In addition, significant peaks of all the three GnRH mRNAs were observed in the brains of 26-day-old fish. The finding of higher GnRH-I and GnRH-II mRNAs in males than females at 153 DAH may be related to early puberty observed during the first year in laboratory-reared male cobia. Moreover, this study demonstrates for the first time the expression of GPR54 mRNA during larval development in a vertebrate species. The concomitant expression patterns of GPR54 and GnRH mRNAs during different stages of larval and juvenile developments, and during early puberty in male cobia suggest a potential relationship between GPR54 and multiple GnRHs during these stages of development consistent with the role of GPR54 in controlling GnRH release in mammals. The increase in GPR54 and GnRH mRNAs observed during early puberty in cobia is consistent with a similar change reported in pubertal rats. This finding together with the localization of GPR54 mRNAs on GnRH neurons in fish and mammals suggests that the GPR54-GnRH interactions may be conserved in different vertebrate groups.

  17. Facilitation or inhibition of the oestradiol-induced gonadotrophin surge in the immature female rat by progesterone: effects on pituitary responsiveness to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH self-priming and pituitary mRNAs for the progesterone receptor A and B isoforms.

    PubMed

    Attardi, B; Scott, R; Pfaff, D; Fink, G

    2007-12-01

    Progesterone can either facilitate or inhibit the oestradiol (E(2))-induced gonadotrophin surge. We have previously developed immature female rat models to characterise and investigate the mechanisms of progesterone inhibition or facilitation. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of pituitary responsiveness to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH self-priming under conditions of progesterone-facilitation and progesterone-inhibition, and whether the underlying mechanisms reflect changes in mRNAs encoding the A and B isoforms of the progesterone receptor (PR) in the pituitary gland. Pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, determined by measuring the luteinising hormone (LH) response to one i.v. injection of GnRH, was decreased by 60-80% (P < 0.001) in the progesterone-inhibition model. GnRH self-priming, estimated as the increment in the LH response to the second of two injections of GnRH separated by 60 min, was also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in this model. In the progesterone-facilitation model, the LH response to GnRH injection was increased 2.5-3-fold (P < 0.05), an effect suppressed by the progesterone receptor antagonist, mifepristone. Progesterone-facilitation of LH release and increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were blocked by sheep anti-GnRH serum injected i.v. immediately after insertion of progesterone implants. The PR-B mRNA isoform, measured by solution hybridisation/RNase protection assay, was the predominant form in the pituitary of the immature female rat. PR-B was increased by E(2) and decreased by progesterone in both models. Thus, in immature female rats, progesterone-inhibition of the E(2)-induced LH surge is due to significant reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH as well as in the magnitude of GnRH self-priming. Progesterone-facilitation of the E(2)-induced LH surge is due to increased pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, which is mediated by PR, and depends on endogenous GnRH release. The differences

  18. Subsets of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are activated during a steroid-induced luteinizing hormone surge and mating in mice: a combined retrograde tracing double immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Rajendren, G

    2001-11-09

    The decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in reproduction and is synthesized by GnRH-producing cell bodies in the basal forebrain. Experiments were designed to investigate whether GnRH cells projecting outside the blood brain barrier or those projecting within the brain are activated during the steroid-induced LH surge or mating in female mice. Retrograde uptake of intraperitoneally administered fluorogold (FG) by GnRH cells and double immunostaining for GnRH and Fos was employed for this purpose. The number of GnRH cells with FG uptake was comparable among the surged, mated and control mice. However, the number of Fos-positive GnRH cells was significantly higher in the steroid-induced LH surge group than in the mated mice. The number of Fos+FG-positive GnRH cells was higher and the number of FG-only GnRH cells was lower in mice with a steroid-induced LH surge as compared with the mated mice. This suggests the existence of a subgroup of GnRH cells projecting outside the blood-brain barrier activated during the steroid-induced LH surge but not during mating. The activation of similar proportions of GnRH cells without FG uptake in both the mated and the surge group indicate that nonneuroendocrine GnRH cells are not silent but can be activated by both mating and steroid hormones. Thus, functional subgroups may exist within the GnRH system with considerable overlap in the input to these cells.

  19. Ovarian 17-hydroxyprogesterone hyperresponsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist challenge in women with polycystic ovary syndrome is not mediated by luteinizing hormone hypersecretion: evidence from GnRH agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation testing.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, L; Hall, J E; Potau, N; Carrascosa, A; Prat, N; Taylor, A E

    1996-11-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS: hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea) have been shown to have exaggerated ovarian 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) responses after GnRH agonist stimulation, suggestive of disordered ovarian cytochrome P450c17 alpha activity. However, most hyperandrogenic women also have an exaggerated LH response to both native GnRH and GnRH agonists. To assess whether the known LH hyperresponsiveness in PCOS patients mediates their exaggerated 17-OHP response to GnRH agonist challenge or whether the 17-OHP response can be duplicated by direct stimulation of the ovary with a fixed amount of hCG, 25 PCOS women [age, 20.6 +/- 1.1 yr; body mass index (BMI), 24.9 +/- 1.3 kg/m2] and 5 controls (age, 29.4 +/- 2.3 yr; BMI, 29.2 +/- 3.0) underwent both GnRH agonist (leuprolide acetate) and hCG testing. In addition, 23 normal women (age, 26.5 +/- 1.5 yr; BMI, 27.2 +/- 1.7 kg/m2) underwent hCG testing, and 21 other normal women (age, 19.3 +/- 0.5 yr; BMI, 23.0 +/- 0.8 kg/m2) underwent leuprolide acetate challenge. Blood was sampled before and 24 h after (the previously determined time of the peak response) leuprolide acetate (500 micrograms, sc) and hCG (5000 IU, im) stimulation tests. The tests were administered during the early follicular phase in women who were ovulatory and in randomized order in the subjects receiving both stimuli. Peak serum 17-OHP levels did not differ between leuprolide acetate or hCG stimulation in PCOS patients or controls when measured at 24 h (324.9 +/- 41.9 vs. 360.4 +/- 54.0 in PCOS; 183.2 +/- 19.6 vs. 141.2 +/- 11 ng/dL in controls). Peak 17-OHP levels after hCG challenge and GnRH agonist stimulation were highly correlated (r = 0.82; P < 0.001) in the subjects receiving both stimuli. Although leuprolide acetate elicited a higher estradiol (E2) response than hCG in all subjects, serum E2 levels increased significantly after hCG treatment in both patients and controls (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001). The small, but

  20. GnRH Neuron-Specific Ablation of Gαq/11 Results in Only Partial Inactivation of the Neuroendocrine-Reproductive Axis in Both Male and Female Mice: In Vivo Evidence for Kiss1r-Coupled Gαq/11-Independent GnRH Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Víctor M.; Ahow, Maryse; Pampillo, Macarena; Nash, Connor; Fayazi, Mehri; Calder, Michele; Elbert, Adrienne; Urbanski, Henryk F.; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan; Carroll, Rona S.; Bhattacharya, Moshmi; Tobet, Stuart A.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2015-01-01

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the master regulator of fertility and kisspeptin (KP) is a potent trigger of GnRH secretion from GnRH neurons. KP signals via KISS1R, a Gαq/11-coupled receptor, and mice bearing a global deletion of Kiss1r (Kiss1r−/−) or a GnRH neuron-specific deletion of Kiss1r (Kiss1rd/d) display hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. KISS1R also signals via β-arrestin, and in mice lacking β-arrestin-1 or -2, KP-triggered GnRH secretion is significantly diminished. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that ablation of Gαq/11 in GnRH neurons would diminish but not completely block KP-triggered GnRH secretion and that Gαq/11-independent GnRH secretion would be sufficient to maintain fertility. To test this, Gnaq (encodes Gαq) was selectively inactivated in the GnRH neurons of global Gna11 (encodes Gα11)-null mice by crossing Gnrh-Cre and Gnaqfl/fl;Gna11−/− mice. Experimental Gnaqfl/fl;Gna11−/−;Gnrh-Cre (Gnaqd/d) and control Gnaqfl/fl;Gna11−/− (Gnaqfl/fl) littermate mice were generated and subjected to reproductive profiling. This process revealed that testicular development and spermatogenesis, preputial separation, and anogenital distance in males and day of vaginal opening and of first estrus in females were significantly less affected in Gnaqd/d mice than in previously characterized Kiss1r−/− or Kiss1rd/d mice. Additionally, Gnaqd/d males were subfertile, and although Gnaqd/d females did not ovulate spontaneously, they responded efficiently to a single dose of gonadotropins. Finally, KP stimulation triggered a significant increase in gonadotropins and testosterone levels in Gnaqd/d mice. We therefore conclude that the milder reproductive phenotypes and maintained responsiveness to KP and gonadotropins reflect Gαq/11-independent GnRH secretion and activation of the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis in Gnaqd/d mice. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the master

  1. GnRH Neuron-Specific Ablation of Gαq/11 Results in Only Partial Inactivation of the Neuroendocrine-Reproductive Axis in Both Male and Female Mice: In Vivo Evidence for Kiss1r-Coupled Gαq/11-Independent GnRH Secretion.

    PubMed

    Babwah, Andy V; Navarro, Víctor M; Ahow, Maryse; Pampillo, Macarena; Nash, Connor; Fayazi, Mehri; Calder, Michele; Elbert, Adrienne; Urbanski, Henryk F; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan; Carroll, Rona S; Bhattacharya, Moshmi; Tobet, Stuart A; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2015-09-16

    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the master regulator of fertility and kisspeptin (KP) is a potent trigger of GnRH secretion from GnRH neurons. KP signals via KISS1R, a Gαq/11-coupled receptor, and mice bearing a global deletion of Kiss1r (Kiss1r(-/-)) or a GnRH neuron-specific deletion of Kiss1r (Kiss1r(d/d)) display hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. KISS1R also signals via β-arrestin, and in mice lacking β-arrestin-1 or -2, KP-triggered GnRH secretion is significantly diminished. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that ablation of Gαq/11 in GnRH neurons would diminish but not completely block KP-triggered GnRH secretion and that Gαq/11-independent GnRH secretion would be sufficient to maintain fertility. To test this, Gnaq (encodes Gαq) was selectively inactivated in the GnRH neurons of global Gna11 (encodes Gα11)-null mice by crossing Gnrh-Cre and Gnaq(fl/fl);Gna11(-/-) mice. Experimental Gnaq(fl/fl);Gna11(-/-);Gnrh-Cre (Gnaq(d/d)) and control Gnaq(fl/fl);Gna11(-/-) (Gnaq(fl/fl)) littermate mice were generated and subjected to reproductive profiling. This process revealed that testicular development and spermatogenesis, preputial separation, and anogenital distance in males and day of vaginal opening and of first estrus in females were significantly less affected in Gnaq(d/d) mice than in previously characterized Kiss1r(-/-) or Kiss1r(d/d) mice. Additionally, Gnaq(d/d) males were subfertile, and although Gnaq(d/d) females did not ovulate spontaneously, they responded efficiently to a single dose of gonadotropins. Finally, KP stimulation triggered a significant increase in gonadotropins and testosterone levels in Gnaq(d/d) mice. We therefore conclude that the milder reproductive phenotypes and maintained responsiveness to KP and gonadotropins reflect Gαq/11-independent GnRH secretion and activation of the neuroendocrine-reproductive axis in Gnaq(d/d) mice. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the master regulator of

  2. Efficiency of oestrous synchronization by GnRH, prostaglandins and socio-sexual cues in the North African Maure goats.

    PubMed

    Rekik, M; Ben Othmane, H; Lassoued, N; Sakly, C

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to develop at different seasons, for local North African Maure goats, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard 'S' protocol using progestagens in association with prostaglandins and gonadotropin. In late May, 40 goats were assigned to either the 'S' protocol or to a protocol where oestrus and ovulation were induced by the buck effect in single-injection progesterone-treated goats and provoking early luteolysis using prostaglandin 9 days after exposure to bucks 'B'. During the 72 h after the treatments ended, 15 and 5 goats expressed oestrus in the 'S' and 'B' protocols (p < 0.01). Mean time to oestrus was shorter for 'S' than for 'B' goats. Ovulation rate averaged 2.1 ± 0.22 and 1.60 ± 0.35 for, respectively, 'S' and 'B' goats (p > 0.05). During mid-September, 60 goats were assigned to either 'S' treatment, 'PGF' treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11 days apart or to 'GnRH' treatment where the goats had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with a GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. More 'S' goats were detected in oestrus over the 96-h period after the end of the treatments (88.8, 73.7 and 55% in 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' treatments, respectively; p < 0.05). Mean ovulation rates were 2.3 ± 0.27, 1.33 ± 0.27 and 1.33 ± 0.27 for, respectively, 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' goats (p < 0.001). Despite a similar ovulatory response to 'S' protocol, efficiency of prostaglandin and GnRH-based treatments should be tested in mid-breeding season.

  3. Molecular Cloning and Pharmacological Characterization of Two Novel GnRH Receptors in the Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nerine T.; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; MacDonald, Caryn; Decatur, Wayne A.; Hall, Jeffrey A.; Kavanaugh, Scott I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the identification, expression, binding kinetics, and functional studies of two novel type III lamprey GnRH receptors (lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3) in the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. These novel GnRH receptors share the structural features and amino acid motifs common to other known gnathostome GnRH receptors. The ligand specificity and activation of intracellular signaling studies showed ligands lGnRH-II and -III induced an inositol phosphate (IP) response at lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3, whereas the ligand lGnRH-I did not stimulate an IP response. lGnRH-II was a more potent activator of lGnRH-R-3 than lGnRH-III. Stimulation of lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3 testing all three lGnRH ligands did not elicit a cAMP response. lGnRH-R-2 has a higher binding affinity in response to lGnRH-III than lGnRH-II, whereas lGnRH-R-3 has a higher binding affinity in response to lGnRH-II than IGnRH-III. lGnRH-R-2 precursor transcript was detected in a wide variety of tissues including the pituitary whereas lGnRH-R-3 precursor transcript was not as widely expressed and primarily expressed in the brain and eye of male and female lampreys. From our phylogenetic analysis, we propose that lGnRH-R-1 evolved from a common ancestor of all vertebrate GnRH receptors and lGnRH-R-2 and lGnRH-R-3 likely occurred due to a gene duplication within the lamprey lineage. In summary, we propose from our findings of receptor subtypes in the sea lamprey that the evolutionary recruitment of specific pituitary GnRH receptor subtypes for particular physiological functions seen in later evolved vertebrates was an ancestral character that first arose in a basal vertebrate. PMID:22569788

  4. Control of ovulation with a GnRH agonist after superstimulation of follicular growth in buffalo: fertilization and embryo recovery.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Nelcio A T; Baruselli, Pietro S; Zicarelli, Luigi; Madureira, Edward H; Visintin, Jose A; D'Occhio, Michael J

    2002-12-01

    The potential to use a GnRH agonist bioimplant and injection of exogenous LH to control the time of ovulation in a multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) protocol was examined in buffalo. Mixed-parity buffalo (Bubalus bubalis; 4-15-year-old; 529 +/- 13 kg LW) were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n = 6): Group 1, conventional MOET protocol; Group 2, conventional MOET with 12 h delay in injection of PGF2alpha; Group 3, implanted with GnRH agonist to block the preovulatory surge release of LH; Group 4, implanted with GnRH agonist and injected with exogenous LH (Lutropin, 25 mg) 24 h after 4 days of superstimulation with FSH; Group 5, implanted with GnRH agonist and injected with LH 36 h after superstimulation with FSH. Ovarian follicular growth in all buffaloes was stimulated by treatment with FSH (Folltropin-V, 200 mg) administered over 4 days, and was monitored by ovarian ultrasonography. At the time of estrus, the number of follicles >8 mm was greater (P < 0.05) for buffaloes in Group 2 (12.8) than for buffaloes in Groups 1(8.5), 3 (7.3), 4 (6.1) and 5 (6.8), which did not differ. All buffaloes were mated by Al after spontaneous (Groups 1-3) or induced (Groups 4 and 5) ovulation. The respective number of buffalo that ovulated, number of corpora lutea, ovulation rate (%), and embryos + oocytes recovered were: Group 1 (2, 1.8 +/- 1.6, 18.0 +/- 13.6, 0.2 +/- 0.2); Group 2 (4,6.1 +/- 2.9, 40.5 +/- 17.5, 3.7 +/- 2.1); Group 3 (0, 0, 0, 0); Group4 (6, 4.3 +/- 1.2, 69.3 +/- 14.2, 2.0 +/- 0.9); and Group 5 (1, 2.5 +/- 2.5, 15.5 +/- 15.5, 2.1 +/- 2.1). All buffaloes in Group 4 ovulated after injection of LH and had a relatively high ovulation rate (69%) and embryo recovery (46%). It has been shown that the GnRH agonist-LH protocol can be used to improve the efficiency of MOET in buffalo.

  5. Controversies over the use of GnRH agonists for reduction of chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Oyarzún, M F; Castelo-Branco, C

    2016-12-01

    The increase in cancer incidence in younger people and the significant improvement in long and permanent remission have brought concern about their reproductive future and quality of life. Up to two-thirds of adult female patients undergoing chemotherapy for malignancies eventually develop premature ovarian failure. This condition is related to many complaints including vasomotor symptoms, osteoporosis, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, sexual dysfunction, and infertility. Therefore, protection against iatrogenic infertility and loss of endocrine ovarian function caused by chemotherapy is currently of high priority. Several options have been used for preserving ovarian function. Established methods include cryopreservation of embryos and/or ova, and ovarian transposition, while others such as ovarian tissue preservation are new, yet promising treatments for fertility preservation. The administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonistic analogs (GnRH-a) is still considered experimental. However, the recent evidence is strong to recommend the use of GnRH-a co-treatment during chemotherapy in young women with cancer to protect ovarian function, with promising results regarding fertility preservation. As the use of GnRH-a is non-invasive, highly available and without impact on cancer treatment outcomes, it should be offered to all young female cancer patients to preserve their ovarian function.

  6. Catch-up growth in severe juvenile hypothyroidism: treatment with a GnRH analog.

    PubMed

    Teng, Louisa; Bui, Helen; Bachrach, Laura; Lee, Peter; Gagné, Nancy; Deal, Cheri; Wilson, Darrell M

    2004-03-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that the addition of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog (GnRHa) in addition to L-thyroxine (LT4) replacement may increase adult stature in children with severe longstanding hypothyroidism by prolonging the pubertal growth period. This retrospective chart review compares the height outcome and body mass index in 33 children (21 treated with LT4 alone and 12 treated with LT4 + GnRHa) with severe longstanding hypothyroidism and bone age delay. Seventeen controls and six GnRHa-treated patients were followed to adult height (BA >14 yr [F]/16 yr [M] and/or growth velocity < 2 cm/yr). At diagnosis, GnRHa-treated patients were 1) older and shorter for chronological age, and 2) more advanced in puberty and bone age. Despite these differences, at adult height, both groups had similar improvements in height Z scores, similar height deficits, and comparable adult heights. Changes in BMI Z score were similar for both groups. Our study suggests that the addition of GnRHa to LT4 may improve interval growth without imposing a risk of obesity in children with longstanding severe hypothyroidism.

  7. G Protein-Coupled Receptors Involved in GnRH Regulation: Molecular Insights from Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Sekoni D.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2011-01-01

    In the past two decades, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that several G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-ligand pairs are critical for normal human reproductive development and function. Patients harboring genetic insults in either the receptors or their cognate ligands have presented with reproductive disorders characterized by varying degrees of GnRH deficiency. These disorders include idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and Kallmann Syndrome (KS). Conversely, mutations in some of these ligand-receptor pairs have been associated with accelerated reproductive maturation, manifested as central precocious puberty (CPP). To date, a series of elegant studies have characterized four GPCRs that play important roles in the neuroendocrine control of human reproductive development and function: GnRHR, KISS1R, PROKR2 and NK3R. Furthermore, these studies provide insights into the mechanisms by which mutations in these receptors give rise to reproductive disease phenotypes. This report will review mutations identified in GPCRs involved in the neuroendocrine control of the human reproductive axis with the aims of elucidating structure-function relationships of these GPCRs and identifying correlations between these structure-function relationships and the genotypic-phenotypic characterization of the patients. PMID:21736917

  8. Prenatal Testosterone Treatment Leads to Changes in the Morphology of KNDy Neurons, Their Inputs, and Projections to GnRH Cells in Female Sheep.

    PubMed

    Cernea, Maria; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L; Coolen, Lique M; Lehman, Michael N

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated ewes display a constellation of reproductive defects that closely mirror those seen in PCOS women, including altered hormonal feedback control of GnRH. Kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion, and prenatal T treatment in sheep causes an imbalance of KNDy peptide expression within the ARC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal T exposure, in addition to altering KNDy peptides, leads to changes in the morphology and synaptic inputs of this population, kisspeptin cells of the preoptic area (POA), and GnRH cells. Prenatal T treatment significantly increased the size of KNDy cell somas, whereas POA kisspeptin, GnRH, agouti-related peptide, and proopiomelanocortin neurons were each unchanged in size. Prenatal T treatment also significantly reduced the total number of synaptic inputs onto KNDy neurons and POA kisspeptin neurons; for KNDy neurons, the decrease was partly due to a decrease in KNDy-KNDy synapses, whereas KNDy inputs to POA kisspeptin cells were unaltered. Finally, prenatal T reduced the total number of inputs to GnRH cells in both the POA and medial basal hypothalamus, and this change was in part due to a decreased number of inputs from KNDy neurons. The hypertrophy of KNDy cells in prenatal T sheep resembles that seen in ARC kisspeptin cells of postmenopausal women, and together with changes in their synaptic inputs and projections to GnRH neurons, may contribute to defects in steroidal control of GnRH observed in this animal model.

  9. Kisspeptin is essential for the full preovulatory LH surge and stimulates GnRH release from the isolated ovine median eminence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremy T; Li, Qun; Yap, Kai Sing; Shahab, Muhammad; Roseweir, Antonia K; Millar, Robert P; Clarke, Iain J

    2011-03-01

    Kisspeptins are the product of the Kiss1 gene and potently stimulate GnRH secretion. In sheep, Kiss1 mRNA-expressing cells are found in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and dorsal-lateral preoptic area and both appear to mediate the positive feedback effect of estradiol to generate the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge. To determine the role of kisspeptin in transmitting estrogen-positive feedback in the hypothalamus, we administered the kisspeptin antagonist p-271 to ewes subjected to an estradiol benzoate-induced LH surge. Kisspeptin antagonist treatment significantly attenuated these LH surges. We further examined the response to kisspeptin treatment prior to the LH surge. Kisspeptin significantly stimulated GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal system, but the response to kisspeptin was similar in luteal and late-follicular phase ewes. Kiss1r mRNA expression in GnRH neurons was also similar across the estrous cycle. To examine alternative pathways for kisspeptin stimulation of GnRH neurons, we examined the origin of kisspeptin neuronal fibers in the external zone of the median eminence (ME) using neuronal tracing and immunohistochemical techniques. ARC populations of kisspeptin neurons project fibers to the ME. Finally, we showed kisspeptin stimulates GnRH release from ovine ME-cultured explants. This suggests direct kisspeptin to GnRH terminal-to-terminal communication within the ME. Overall, these data indicate an essential role for kisspeptin in receiving stimulatory estrogen signals and generating the full positive feedback GnRH/LH surge. Kisspeptin neurons of the ARC project to the external zone of the ME and kisspeptin acts upon the GnRH fibers at this level.

  10. A brain site for the antigonadal action of melatonin in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): involvement of the immunoreactive GnRH neuronal system.

    PubMed

    Glass, J D; Knotts, L K

    1987-06-01

    Quantitative assessment of immunocytochemical staining for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was undertaken to determine the effects of an intracranial implant of melatonin on the GnRH neuronal system in the male white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Melatonin-containing pellets stereotaxically placed in the anterior hypothalamic area (AH) caused a 60% reduction in testes weight relative to control mice with melatonin-free pellets in the AH (p less than 0.01). Subcutaneous melatonin-containing implants had little effect on reproductive state (p less than 0.8). Melatonin pellets in the AH increased significantly both the optical density (OD) for immunostaining of cell bodies in the medial preoptic area and AH (p less than 0.04), and the percentage of area covered by GnRH fibers and beads in the median eminence (p less than 0.01). The melatonin-induced increase in OD of the GnRH cell bodies was independent of the distance of the cells from the melatonin implant, and there was little apparent effect of melatonin on the size and morphology of the GnRH cell bodies, or the trajectories of their fiber pathways. These results support the hypothesis that the antigonadal action of melatonin in the brain involves suppression of the release, rather than the synthesis of GnRH. Also, this effect may not be mediated via a direct action of melatonin on GnRH neurons. The finding that the brain site and time course for melatonin's antigonadal action in male. P. leucopus is similar to that found previously in the female is evidence that melatonin may induce gonadal regression, in part, by helping to suppress the tonic secretion of gonadotropins.

  11. FXYD1, a modulator of Na+,K+-ATPase activity, facilitates female sexual development by maintaining GnRH neuronal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Deng, Vivianne; Matagne, Valerie; Ronnekleiv, Oline; Bosch, Martha; Han, Victor; Percy, Alan K.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    The excitatory tone to GnRH neurones is a critical component underlying the pubertal increase in GnRH secretion. However, the homeostatic mechanisms modulating the response of GnRH neurones to excitatory inputs remain poorly understood. A basic mechanism of neuronal homeostasis is the Na+, K+-ATPase-dependent restoration of Na+ and K+ transmembrane gradients after neuronal excitation. This activity is reduced in a mouse model of Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder in which expression of FXYD1, a modulator of Na+, K+-ATPase activity, is increased. We now report that the initiation, but not the completion of puberty, is advanced in girls with RTT, and that in rodents FXYD1 may contribute to the neuroendocrine regulation of female puberty by modulating GnRH neuronal excitability. Fxyd1 mRNA abundance reaches maximal levels in the female rat hypothalamus by the fourth postnatal week of life, i.e., around the time when the mode of GnRH secretion acquires an adult pattern of release. Although Fxyd1 mRNA expression is low in the hypothalamus, about 50% of GnRH neurones contain Fxyd1 transcripts. Whole-cell patch recording of GnRH-EGFP neurones revealed that the neurones of Fxyd1-null female mice respond to somatic current injections with a lower number of action potentials than wild-type cells. Both the age at vaginal opening and at first oestrous were delayed in Fxyd1-/- mice, but adult reproductive capacity was normal. These results suggest that FXYD1 contributes to facilitating the advent of puberty by maintaining GnRH neuronal excitability to incoming transsynaptic stimulatory inputs. PMID:19187398

  12. Temperature affects sexual maturation through the control of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor, GnRH and GTH subunit gene expression in the grass puffer during the spawning season.

    PubMed

    Shahjahan, Md; Kitahashi, Takashi; Ando, Hironori

    2017-03-01

    Water temperature is an environmental factor of primary importance that influences reproductive function in fish. To understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of reproduction by temperature, we examined changes in expression of genes encoding kisspeptin (kiss2), kisspeptin receptor (kiss2r) and three gonadotropin-releasing hormones (gnrh1, gnrh2 and gnrh3) in the brain and genes encoding gonadotropin (GTH) subunits (gpa, fshb and lhb) in the pituitary of grass puffer exposed to a low temperature (14°C), normal temperature (21°C) and high temperature (28°C) for 7days. In addition, the plasma levels of cortisol were examined after exposed to three temperature conditions. The gonadosomatic index was significantly decreased in both low and high temperature conditions. The levels of kiss2 and kiss2r mRNAs were significantly decreased at both low and high temperature conditions compared to normal temperature (control) condition. gnrh1 but not gnrh2 were significantly decreased in both temperature conditions, while gnrh3 showed a decreasing tendency in low temperature. Consequently, the levels of fshb and lhb mRNAs were significantly decreased in both low and high temperature conditions. Interestingly, the plasma levels of cortisol were significantly increased in low temperature but remain unchanged in high temperature, suggesting that the fish were under stress in the low temperature conditions but not in the high temperature conditions. Taken together, the present results indicate that anomalous temperature have an inhibitory effect on reproductive function through suppressing kiss2/kiss2r/gnrh1/fshb and lhb expression and these changes may occur in a normal physiological response as well as in a malfunctional stress response.

  13. Pulsatile GnRH Therapy May Restore Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Testis Axis Function in Patients With Congenital Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency: A Prospective, Self-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junjie; Mao, Jiangfeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Huang, Bingkun; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Cui, Mingxuan; Xiong, Shuyu; Ma, Wanlu; Min, Le; Kaiser, Ursula B; Nie, Min; Wu, Xueyan

    2017-07-01

    The effectiveness of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) therapy in patients with congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CCPHD) has not been investigated because of the limited number of patients, as well as these patients' presumed pituitary hypoplasia, poor gonadotrophic cell reserve, and impaired gonadotrophic response to GnRH. To assess the pituitary response to pulsatile GnRH therapy in men with CCPHD. Prospective, self-controlled, 3-month clinical trial. University endocrine clinic. Men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism caused by CCPHD. Pulsatile GnRH was administered subcutaneously for 3 months. Primary endpoints were total serum testosterone, testicular volume, and luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Secondary endpoints included occurrence of spermatogenesis. A total of 40 men with CCPHD completed the study. Of these, 60% (24 of 40) showed a good response to pulsatile GnRH treatment (response group). At 3 months, their LH and FSH levels increased to within the normal range and their testosterone levels increased to 8.67 ± 4.83 nmol/L. Of the patients in the response group, 33.3% (8 of 24) of them achieved spermatogenesis. The remaining 40% (16 of 40) of patients had a poor response to pulsatile GnRH treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not reveal any correlation between pituitary response and pituitary height and/or integrity of the pituitary stalk. This study suggests that gonadotrophs in patients with CCPHD can exist and be functional-even with MRI evidence of pituitary hypoplasia or dysplasia. Pulsatile GnRH therapy restored pituitary-testis axis function in 60% of patients with CCPHD. These results may directly guide the clinical therapeutic choice.

  14. Conditional Viral Tract Tracing Delineates the Projections of the Distinct Kisspeptin Neuron Populations to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Yip, Siew Hoong; Boehm, Ulrich; Herbison, Allan E; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2015-07-01

    Kisspeptin neurons play an essential role in the regulation of fertility through direct regulation of the GnRH neurons. However, the relative contributions of the two functionally distinct kisspeptin neuron subpopulations to this critical regulation are not fully understood. Here we analyzed the specific projection patterns of kisspeptin neurons originating from either the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle (RP3V) or the arcuate nucleus (ARN) using a cell-specific, viral-mediated tract-tracing approach. We stereotaxically injected a Cre-dependent recombinant adenovirus encoding farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein into the ARN or RP3V of adult male and female mice expressing Cre recombinase in kisspeptin neurons. Fibers from ARN kisspeptin neurons projected widely; however, we did not find any evidence for direct contact with GnRH neuron somata or proximal dendrites in either sex. In contrast, we identified RP3V kisspeptin fibers in close contact with GnRH neuron somata and dendrites in both sexes. Fibers originating from both the RP3V and ARN were observed in close contact with distal GnRH neuron processes in the ARN and in the lateral and internal aspects of the median eminence. Furthermore, GnRH nerve terminals were found in close contact with the proximal dendrites of ARN kisspeptin neurons in the ARN, and ARN kisspeptin fibers were found contacting RP3V kisspeptin neurons in both sexes. Together these data delineate selective zones of kisspeptin neuron inputs to GnRH neurons and demonstrate complex interconnections between the distinct kisspeptin populations and GnRH neurons.

  15. Prenatal Testosterone Treatment Leads to Changes in the Morphology of KNDy Neurons, Their Inputs, and Projections to GnRH Cells in Female Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Cernea, Maria; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated ewes display a constellation of reproductive defects that closely mirror those seen in PCOS women, including altered hormonal feedback control of GnRH. Kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) play a key role in steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion, and prenatal T treatment in sheep causes an imbalance of KNDy peptide expression within the ARC. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal T exposure, in addition to altering KNDy peptides, leads to changes in the morphology and synaptic inputs of this population, kisspeptin cells of the preoptic area (POA), and GnRH cells. Prenatal T treatment significantly increased the size of KNDy cell somas, whereas POA kisspeptin, GnRH, agouti-related peptide, and proopiomelanocortin neurons were each unchanged in size. Prenatal T treatment also significantly reduced the total number of synaptic inputs onto KNDy neurons and POA kisspeptin neurons; for KNDy neurons, the decrease was partly due to a decrease in KNDy-KNDy synapses, whereas KNDy inputs to POA kisspeptin cells were unaltered. Finally, prenatal T reduced the total number of inputs to GnRH cells in both the POA and medial basal hypothalamus, and this change was in part due to a decreased number of inputs from KNDy neurons. The hypertrophy of KNDy cells in prenatal T sheep resembles that seen in ARC kisspeptin cells of postmenopausal women, and together with changes in their synaptic inputs and projections to GnRH neurons, may contribute to defects in steroidal control of GnRH observed in this animal model. PMID:26061725

  16. Effect of short-term and prolonged stress on the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus and GnRHR in the pituitary of ewes during various physiological states.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, M; Łapot, M; Antkowiak, B; Mateusiak, K; Paruszewska, E; Malewski, T; Paluch, M; Przekop, F

    2016-11-01

    Using an ELISA assay, the levels of GnRH and GnRHR were analysed in the preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk/median eminence (SME); and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of non-breeding and breeding sheep subjected to short-term or prolonged stress. The ELISA study was supplemented with an analysis of plasma LH concentration. Short-term footshock stimulation significantly increased GnRH levels in hypothalamus in both seasons. Prolonged stress elevated or decreased GnRH concentrations in the POA and the VM, respectively during anoestrus, and lowered GnRH amount in the POA-hypothalamus of follicular-phase sheep. An up-regulation of GnRHR levels was noted in both, anoestrous and follicular-phase animals. In the non-breeding period, a prolonged stress procedure increased GnRHR biosynthesis in the VM and decreased it in the SME and AP, while in the breeding time the quantities of GnRHR were significantly lower in the whole hypothalamus. In follicular-phase ewes the fluctuations of GnRH and GnRHR levels under short-term and prolonged stress were reflected in the changes of LH secretion, suggesting the existence of a direct relationship between GnRH and GnRH-R biosynthesis and GnRH/LH release in this period. The study showed that stress was capable of modulating the biosynthesis of GnRH and GnRHR; the pattern of changes was dependent upon the animal's physiological state and on the time course of stressor application. The obtained results indicate that the disturbances of gonadotropin secretion under stress conditions in sheep may be due to a dysfunction of GnRH and GnRHR biosynthetic pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  18. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  19. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  20. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  1. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  2. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  3. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  4. The Labelling of Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Describes the impact on chemistry laboratories and teachers in the United Kingdom of the Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances Regulations 1978. These regulations require suppliers to label containers in particular ways. (HM)

  5. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  6. Increased Uterine NK cell numbers and perforin expression during the implantation phase in IVF Cycles with GnRH Antagonist Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bufang; Wang, Jingwen; Xia, Lan; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Xian; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-01-01

    GnRH antagonist negatively affects endometrial receptivity in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. To explore its target molecules, we studied endometria in the window phase of fixed GnRH antagonist, low-dose flexible GnRH antagonist, GnRH agonist long protocol, and untreated control groups. There were 384 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the fixed antagonist group with greater than twofold expression change compared with the control group and 197 DEGs between the fixed antagonist and agonist groups, the majority of which were associated with the natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway. We then analysed the PRF1 and FASLG protein levels. The perforin level were significantly higher in both the antagonist groups than in other two groups, and was higher in the fixed antagonist group. Similarly, the uNK cell numbers were higher in the antagonist groups, and the highest uNK cell number occurred in the fixed group (p < 0.05). No significant differences existed in the Fas ligand levels and apoptosis rates among the three treatment groups, but were higher in the treatment groups than the control group. Together, these data indicate that GnRH antagonist may increase the uNK cell numbers and perforin expression, and this effect may be dose-dependent. PMID:28045093

  7. mRNA Expression of Ion Channels in GnRH Neurons: Subtype-Specific Regulation by 17β-Estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Martha A.; Tonsfeldt, Karen J.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2013-01-01

    Burst firing of neurons optimizes neurotransmitter release. GnRH neurons exhibit burst firing activity and T-type calcium channels, which are vital for burst firing activity, are regulated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in GnRH neurons. To further elucidate ion channel expression and E2 regulation during positive and negative feedback on GnRH neurosecretion, we used single cell RT-PCR and real-time qPCR to quantify channel mRNA expression in GnRH neurons. GFP-GnRH neurons expressed numerous ion channels important for burst firing activity. E2-treatment sufficient to induce an LH surge increased mRNA expression of HCN1 channels, which underlie the pacemaker current, the calcium-permeable CaV1.3, CaV2.2, CaV2.3 channels, and TRPC4 channels, which mediate the kisspeptin excitatory response. E2 also decreased mRNA expression of SK3 channels underlying the medium AHP current. Therefore, E2 exerts fundamental changes in ion channel expression in GnRH neurons, to prime them to respond to incoming stimuli with increased excitability at the time of the surge. PMID:23305677

  8. Direct Actions of Kisspeptins on GnRH Neurons Permit Attainment of Fertility but are Insufficient to Fully Preserve Gonadotropic Axis Activity

    PubMed Central

    León, Silvia; Barroso, Alexia; Vázquez, María J.; García-Galiano, David; Manfredi-Lozano, María; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Heras, Violeta; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Roa, Juan; Schutz, Günther; Kirilov, Milen; Gaytan, Francisco; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins, ligands of the receptor, Gpr54, are potent stimulators of puberty and fertility. Yet, whether direct kisspeptin actions on GnRH neurons are sufficient for the whole repertoire of their reproductive effects remains debatable. To dissect out direct vs. indirect effects of kisspeptins on GnRH neurons in vivo, we report herein the detailed reproductive/gonadotropic characterization of a Gpr54 null mouse line with selective re-introduction of Gpr54 expression only in GnRH cells (Gpr54−/−Tg; rescued). Despite preserved fertility, adult rescued mice displayed abnormalities in gonadal microstructure, with signs of precocious ageing in females and elevated LH levels with normal-to-low testosterone secretion in males. Gpr54−/−Tg rescued mice showed also altered gonadotropin responses to negative feedback withdrawal, while luteinizing hormone responses to various gonadotropic regulators were variably affected, with partially blunted relative (but not absolute) responses to kisspeptin-10, NMDA and the agonist of tachykinin receptors, NK2R. Our data confirm that direct effects of kisspeptins on GnRH cells are sufficient to attain fertility. Yet, such direct actions appear to be insufficient to completely preserve proper functionality of gonadotropic axis, suggesting a role of kisspeptin signaling outside GnRH cells. PMID:26755241

  9. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the amphibian brain and its relationship with the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) system: An overview.

    PubMed

    Jadhao, Arun G; Pinelli, Claudia; D'Aniello, Biagio; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the hypothalamic neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role as a primary factor regulating gonadotropin secretion in reproductive processes in vertebrates. The discovery of the presence of a gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the brains of birds has further contributed to our understanding of the reproduction control by the brain. GnIH plays a key role in inhibition of reproduction and acts on the pituitary gland and GnRH neurons via a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPR147). GnIH decreases gonadotropin synthesis and release, thus inhibiting gonadal development and maintenance. The GnRH and GnIH neuronal peptidergic systems are well reported in mammals and birds, but limited information is available regarding their presence and localization in the brains of other vertebrate species, such as reptiles, amphibians and fishes. The aim of this review is to compile and update information on the localization of GnRH and GnIH neuronal systems, with a particular focus on amphibians, summarizing the neuroanatomical distribution of GnIH and GnRH and emphasizing the discovery of GnIH based on RFamide peptides and GnIH orthologous peptides found in other vertebrates and their functional significance.

  10. Direct Actions of Kisspeptins on GnRH Neurons Permit Attainment of Fertility but are Insufficient to Fully Preserve Gonadotropic Axis Activity.

    PubMed

    León, Silvia; Barroso, Alexia; Vázquez, María J; García-Galiano, David; Manfredi-Lozano, María; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Heras, Violeta; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Roa, Juan; Schutz, Günther; Kirilov, Milen; Gaytan, Francisco; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-12

    Kisspeptins, ligands of the receptor, Gpr54, are potent stimulators of puberty and fertility. Yet, whether direct kisspeptin actions on GnRH neurons are sufficient for the whole repertoire of their reproductive effects remains debatable. To dissect out direct vs. indirect effects of kisspeptins on GnRH neurons in vivo, we report herein the detailed reproductive/gonadotropic characterization of a Gpr54 null mouse line with selective re-introduction of Gpr54 expression only in GnRH cells (Gpr54(-/-)Tg; rescued). Despite preserved fertility, adult rescued mice displayed abnormalities in gonadal microstructure, with signs of precocious ageing in females and elevated LH levels with normal-to-low testosterone secretion in males. Gpr54(-/-)Tg rescued mice showed also altered gonadotropin responses to negative feedback withdrawal, while luteinizing hormone responses to various gonadotropic regulators were variably affected, with partially blunted relative (but not absolute) responses to kisspeptin-10, NMDA and the agonist of tachykinin receptors, NK2R. Our data confirm that direct effects of kisspeptins on GnRH cells are sufficient to attain fertility. Yet, such direct actions appear to be insufficient to completely preserve proper functionality of gonadotropic axis, suggesting a role of kisspeptin signaling outside GnRH cells.

  11. GnRH pulse frequency differentially regulates steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1), dosage-sensitive sex reversal-AHC critical region on the X chromosome gene 1 (DAX1), and serum response factor (SRF): potential mechanism for GnRH pulse frequency regulation of LH beta transcription in the rat.

    PubMed

    Burger, Laura L; Haisenleder, Daniel J; Marshall, John C

    2011-06-01

    The issue of how rapid frequency GnRH pulses selectively stimulate LH transcription is not fully understood. The rat LHβ promoter contains two GnRH-responsive regions: the proximal region has binding elements for SF1, and the distal site contains a CArG box, which binds SRF. This study determined whether GnRH stimulates pituitary SF1, DAX1 (an endogenous SF1 inhibitor), and SRF transcription in vivo, and whether regulation is frequency dependent. Male rats were pulsed with 25 ng GnRH i.v. every 30 min or every 240 min for 1-24 h, and primary transcripts (PTs) and mRNAs were measured by real time PCR. Fast frequency GnRH pulses (every 30 min) increased SF1 PT (threefold) within 1 h, and then declined after 6 h. SF1 mRNA also increased within 1 h and remained elevated through 24 h. Fast frequency GnRH also stimulated a transient increase in DAX1 PT (twofold after 1 h) and mRNA (1.7-fold after 6 h), while SRF mRNA rose briefly at 1 h. Slow frequency pulses did not affect gene expression of SF1, DAX1, or SRF. These findings support a mechanistic link between SF1 in the frequency regulation of LHβ transcription by pulsatile GnRH.

  12. Effects of GABA(A) receptor modulation on the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of follicular-phase ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2009-04-01

    The effect of prolonged, intermittent infusion of GABA(A) receptor agonist (muscimol) or GABA(A) receptor antagonist (bicuculline) into the third cerebral ventricle on the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland was examined in follicular-phase ewes by real-time PCR. The activation or inhibition of GABA(A) receptors in the hypothalamus decreased or increased the expression of GnRH and GnRH-R genes and LH secretion, respectively. The present results indicate that the GABAergic system in the hypothalamus of follicular-phase ewes may suppress, via hypothalamic GABA(A) receptors, the expression of GnRH and GnRH-R genes in this structure. The decrease or increase of GnRH-R mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland and LH secretion in the muscimol- or bicuculline-treated ewes, respectively, is probably a consequence of parallel changes in the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus activating GnRH-R gene expression. It is suggested that GABA acting through the GABA(A) receptor mechanism on the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus may be involved in two processes: the biosynthesis of GnRH and the release of this neurohormone in the hypothalamus.

  13. Behavior of feral horses in response to culling and GnRH immunocontraception

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason I.; Powers, Jenny G.; Garbe, Heidi M.; Oehler, Michael W.; Nett, Terry M.; Baker, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife management actions can alter fundamental behaviors of individuals and groups,which may directly impact their life history parameters in unforeseen ways. This is especially true for highly social animals because changes in one individual’s behavior can cascade throughout its social network. When resources to support populations of social animals are limited and populations become locally overabundant, managers are faced with the daunting challenge of decreasing population size without disrupting core behavioral processes. Increasingly, managers are turning to fertility control technologies to supplement culling in efforts to suppress population growth, but little is quantitatively known about how either of these management tools affects behavior. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is a small neuropeptide that performs an obligatory role in mammalian reproduction and has been formulated into the immunocontraceptive GonaCon-BTM. We investigated the influences of this vaccine on behavior of feral horses (Equus caballus) at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, USA, for a year preceding and a year following nonlethal culling and GnRH-vaccine treatment. We observed horses during the breeding season and found only minimal differences in time budget behaviors of free-ranging female feral horses treated with GnRH and those treated with saline. The differences observed were consistent with the metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation. We observed similar social behaviors between treatment groups, reflecting limited reproductive behavior among control females due to high rates of pregnancy and suppressed reproductive behavior among treated females due to GnRH-inhibited ovarian activity. In the treatment year, band stallion age was the only supported factor influencing herding behavior (P < 0.001), harem-tending behavior (P < 0.001), and agonistic behavior (P = 0.02). There was no difference between the mean body condition of control females (4

  14. Impact of gonadotropin type on progesterone elevation during ovarian stimulation in GnRH antagonist cycles.

    PubMed

    Lawrenz, B; Beligotti, F; Engelmann, N; Gates, D; Fatemi, H M

    2016-11-01

    Does hormonal stimulation with corifollitropin alpha (CFA) only, mimicking a step down protocol, result in lower incidence of progesterone elevation on the day of hCGtrigger as compared to sustained stimulation with recombinant FSH (rFSH)? The current findings support the concept that sustained FSH stimulus contributes to premature progesterone elevation in stimulated IVF cycles. Serum progesterone rise during the follicular phase of ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment seems to be related to a poorer reproductive outcome. However, the mechanism by which the rise in progesterone is caused is not yet fully understood. This study was a post hoc analysis of data from two multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, non-inferiority trials, ENGAGE and PURSUE, conducted from June 2006 to January 2008 and from July 2010 to October 2012 respectively. In the ENGAGE-study, 1506 women, aged 18-36 years, were allocated to either a single injection of 150 mg CFA or daily injections of 200 IU rFSH in the first week of stimulation, using a standard GnRH antagonist protocol. In the PURSUE-study, a total of 1390 women, aged 35-42 years, were allocated to either a single injection of 150 mg of CFA or daily 300 IU of rFSH for the first week, again using a standard GnRH antagonist protocol. In both trials, daily rFSH was continued until three follicles reached >17 mm in size. All women had a body weight of between 50 and 90 kg, regular menstrual cycles and an indication for ovarian stimulation before IVF. The incidence of progesterone elevation on day of hCG-trigger in patients with CFA only or rFSH stimulation, and triggered on Day 8 of stimulation, was analyzed. Of patients with CFA only stimulation, 5.4% (13/239 patients) showed a progesterone elevation above 1.5 ng/ml on day of hCG-trigger, whereas patients with rFSH stimulation had a significant higher incidence of progesterone elevation (18.3%; 62/339 patients) (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis of

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

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  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

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    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

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    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

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  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

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  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

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  7. Serum leptin levels in males with delayed puberty during short-term pulsatile GnRH administration.

    PubMed

    Giusti, M; Guido, R; Valenti, S; Giordano, G

    1999-01-01

    Leptin may be a possible trigger for puberty. In normal males, it has been shown that leptin increases from the pre-pubertal to the early pubertal stage, and then declines in the late pubertal stage. We examined leptin levels in six male adolescents (mean age 16.3+/-0.6 yr; range 14.2-17.6 yr) with delayed puberty (constitutional delay of puberty no.=2; idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism no.=4) during 120 days of subcutaneous pulsatile GnRH administration. A group of subjects in pre-puberty (no.=11), early-puberty (n=10) and mid-puberty (no.=7) were evaluated as controls. Morning blood samples were taken for determination of leptin, testosterone, LH and FSH levels. In delayed puberty subjects blood samples were taken every 30 days after the start of GnRH administration. At each examination BMI and testicular volume were evaluated. A follow-up examination was performed in the 6 patients 1.3-7.5 yr after the end of the 120 days of GnRH therapy. At baseline evaluation in delayed puberty mean leptin levels were 11.3+/-2.0 microg/l (median 11.3 microg/l; range 4.7-17.3 microg/l) and were higher than those found in pre-puberty (p=0.04) and mid-puberty (p=0.001). During GnRH administration there was no change in BMI and leptin levels but there was an increase in gonadotrophin levels, testosterone and testicular volume. One hundred and twenty days after, mean serum leptin were 10.1+/-2.1 microg/l (median 9.1 microg/l; range 3.4-16.8 microg/l). At the end of the study, leptin levels were higher in delayed puberty than in mid-puberty (p=0.002). At the follow-up examination leptin levels were 4.3+/-1.3 microg/l (median 3.4 microg/l; range 1.4-9.1 microg/l) (p=0.03 vs end of 120 days GnRH therapy) while testosterone and BMI were not changed. In conclusion 120-day pulsatile GnRH administration induced in males with delayed puberty physiological-like pubertal changes but not the decline in leptin levels reported during the progression of puberty. Therefore, in males with

  8. Testosterone production in response to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH challenge) depends on social environment and color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Cain, Kristal E; Pryke, Sarah R

    2017-04-01

    Testosterone is an important mediator of behavior, morphology and physiology. A cascade of signals regulates the amount of testosterone (T) circulating in the plasma; in response to stimulus the hypothalamus releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which triggers secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary, stimulating the synthesis and release of T from the gonads. Previous work has shown that changes to the social environment can alter circulating T-levels, which may have important fitness consequences, but it is currently unclear whether these changes are due to alterations in the signal from the brain, or changes in the ability of the pituitary and gonads to respond to this signal. Further, the strength and direction of response to a changing environment may differ according to life-history strategy. Species with genetically determined alternative strategies offer a pathway for examining these differences. Here we use a finch with a genetically determined polymorphism, the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), to determine whether T-levels change in response to social environment. We also use injections of GnRH to determine whether these changes are due to alterations in the ability of the pituitary and gonads to respond to this signal. We found that social environment (presence of females) had a rapid effect on male circulating T-levels, and that this difference was reflected in responsiveness to GnRH. We observed no overall morph differences in T-levels, but we did observe morph differences in the pattern of T secretion across environments, and morph differences in the repeatability of T-levels across time and environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus Accelerates Zebrafish Backbone Calcification and Gonadal Differentiation through Effects on the GnRH and IGF Systems

    PubMed Central

    Avella, Matteo A.; Place, Allen; Du, Shao-Jun; Williams, Ernest; Silvi, Stefania; Zohar, Yonathan; Carnevali, Oliana

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host’s immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host’s development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic species intended for human use. We monitored for the presence of L. rhamnosus during the entire treatment. Zebrafish at 6 days post fertilization (dpf) exhibited elevated gene expression levels for Insulin-like growth factors -I and -II, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors -α and -β, VDR-α and RAR-γ when compared to untreated-10 days old zebrafish. Using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 GFP transgenic zebrafish (GnRH3-GFP), higher GnRH3 expression was found at 6, 8 and 10 dpf upon L. rhamnosus treatment. The same larvae exhibited earlier backbone calcification and gonad maturation. Noteworthy in the gonad development was the presence of first testes differentiation at 3 weeks post fertilization in the treated zebrafish population -which normally occurs at 8 weeks- and a dramatic sex ratio modulation (93% females, 7% males in control vs. 55% females, 45% males in the treated group). We infer that administration of L. rhamnosus stimulated the IGF system, leading to a faster backbone calcification. Moreover we hypothesize a role for administration of L. rhamnosus on GnRH3 modulation during early larval development, which in turn affects gonadal development and sex differentiation. These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application. PMID:23029107

  10. Melatonin-induced changes in kiss/gnrh gene expression patterns in the brain of male sea bass during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, María Victoria; Carrillo, Manuel; Felip, Alicia

    2015-07-01

    Evidence exists that melatonin may drive the seasonal changes in kisspeptin-expressing cells and GnRH/gonadotropin secretion in mammals, thus modulating their reproductive activity. This study established the influence of long-term melatonin administration (as an implant) on growth performance and reproduction of adult male sea bass. Melatonin reduced the fish weight and condition factor, thus affecting the performance of fish. Melatonin also affected gonadogenesis, as shown by a decrease in the gonadosomatic index after 150 days of treatment and the lower percentage of running males during the spermatogenesis and full spermiation stages of this species. Exogenous melatonin also resulted in lower plasma androgen levels during the reproductive period, and showed a significant decrease in serum Lh and Fsh concentration after 30 and 60 days of treatment, respectively. Thus, melatonin elicited seasonal changes in key reproductive hormones that affected testicular maturity. The hypothalamic expression of kiss1 was significantly higher in melatonin-treated fish than in controls after 30 days of treatment, while a significant increase in kiss2 expression was detected on day 90 of treatment. By contrast, melatonin showed a significant decrease in kisspeptin expression in the dorsal brain on day 150 of treatment and also affected the expression of gnrh-1 and gnrh-3 and gnrhr-II-1a and 2b and the fshβ gene in the pituitary. These results suggest that in this species, melatonin evokes changes in the mRNA levels of kisspeptin and gnrh system genes that appear to mirror disturbances in spermatogenesis.

  11. Lactobacillus rhamnosus accelerates zebrafish backbone calcification and gonadal differentiation through effects on the GnRH and IGF systems.

    PubMed

    Avella, Matteo A; Place, Allen; Du, Shao-Jun; Williams, Ernest; Silvi, Stefania; Zohar, Yonathan; Carnevali, Oliana

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous microbiota play essential roles in the host's immune system, physiology, reproduction and nutrient metabolism. We hypothesized that a continuous administration of an exogenous probiotic might also influence the host's development. Thus, we treated zebrafish from birth to sexual maturation (2-months treatment) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic species intended for human use. We monitored for the presence of L. rhamnosus during the entire treatment. Zebrafish at 6 days post fertilization (dpf) exhibited elevated gene expression levels for Insulin-like growth factors -I and -II, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors -α and -β, VDR-α and RAR-γ when compared to untreated-10 days old zebrafish. Using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 GFP transgenic zebrafish (GnRH3-GFP), higher GnRH3 expression was found at 6, 8 and 10 dpf upon L. rhamnosus treatment. The same larvae exhibited earlier backbone calcification and gonad maturation. Noteworthy in the gonad development was the presence of first testes differentiation at 3 weeks post fertilization in the treated zebrafish population -which normally occurs at 8 weeks- and a dramatic sex ratio modulation (93% females, 7% males in control vs. 55% females, 45% males in the treated group). We infer that administration of L. rhamnosus stimulated the IGF system, leading to a faster backbone calcification. Moreover we hypothesize a role for administration of L. rhamnosus on GnRH3 modulation during early larval development, which in turn affects gonadal development and sex differentiation. These findings suggest a significant role of the microbiota composition on the host organism development profile and open new perspectives in the study of probiotics usage and application.

  12. Dynamin Is Required for GnRH Signaling to L-Type Calcium Channels and Activation of ERK

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Brian S.; Dang, An K.; Murtazina, Dilyara A.; Dozier, Melissa G.; Whitesell, Jennifer D.; Khan, Shaihla A.; Cherrington, Brian D.; Amberg, Gregory C.; Clay, Colin M.

    2016-01-01

    We have shown that GnRH-mediated engagement of the cytoskeleton induces cell movement and is necessary for ERK activation. It also has previously been established that a dominant negative form of the mechano-GTPase dynamin (K44A) attenuates GnRH activation of ERK. At present, it is not clear at what level these cellular events might be linked. To explore this, we used live cell imaging in the gonadotrope-derived αT3–1 cell line to determine that dynamin-green fluorescent protein accumulated in GnRH-induced lamellipodia and plasma membrane protrusions. Coincident with translocation of dynamin-green fluorescent protein to the plasma membrane, we demonstrated that dynamin colocalizes with the actin cytoskeleton and the actin binding protein, cortactin at the leading edge of the plasma membrane. We next wanted to assess the physiological significance of these findings by inhibiting dynamin GTPase activity using dynasore. We find that dynasore suppresses activation of ERK, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase, after exposure to GnRH agonist. Furthermore, exposure of αT3–1 cells to dynasore inhibited GnRH-induced cyto-architectural rearrangements. Recently it has been discovered that GnRH induced Ca2+ influx via the L-type Ca2+ channels requires an intact cytoskeleton to mediate ERK phosphorylation. Interestingly, not only does dynasore attenuate GnRH-mediated actin reorganization, it also suppresses Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels visualized in living cells using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Collectively, our data suggest that GnRH-induced membrane remodeling events are mediated in part by the association of dynamin and cortactin engaging the actin cytoskeleton, which then regulates Ca2+ influx via L-type channels to facilitate ERK phosphorylation. PMID:26696122

  13. Reproductive neuropeptides: prevalence of GnRH and KNDy neural signalling components in a model avian, gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nerine T; Tello, Javier A; Bedecarrats, Gregoy Y; Millar, Robert P

    2013-09-01

    Diverse external and internal environmental factors are integrated in the hypothalamus to regulate the reproductive system. This is mediated through the pulsatile secretion of GnRH into the portal system to stimulate pituitary gonadotrophin secretion, which in turn regulates gonadal function. A single subpopulation of neurones termed 'KNDy neurones' located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus co-localise kisspeptin (Kiss), neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (Dyn) and are responsive to negative feedback effects of sex steroids. The co-ordinated secretion from KNDy neurones appears to modulate the pulsatile release of GnRH, acting as a proximate pacemaker. This review briefly describes the neuropeptidergic control of reproduction in the avian class, highlighting the status of reproductive neuropeptide signalling systems homologous to those found in mammalian genomes. Genes encoding the GnRH system are complete in the chicken with similar roles to the mammalian counterparts, whereas genes encoding Kiss signalling components appear missing in the avian lineage, indicating a differing set of hypothalamic signals controlling avian reproduction. Gene sequences encoding both NKB and Dyn signalling components are present in the chicken genome, but expression analysis and functional studies remain to be completed. The focus of this article is to describe the avian complement of neuropeptidergic reproductive hormones and provide insights into the putative mechanisms that regulate reproduction in birds. These postulations highlight differences in reproductive strategies of birds in terms of gonadal steroid feedback systems, integration of metabolic signals and seasonality. Also included are propositions of KNDy neuropeptide gene silencing and plasticity in utilisation of these neuropeptides during avian evolution.

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    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

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  15. Fertility of Angus cross beef heifers after GnRH treatment on day 23 and timing of insemination in 14-day CIDR protocol.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, R K; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2017-02-01

    This study compared artificial insemination pregnancy rate (AI-PR) between 14-day CIDR-GnRH-PGF2α-GnRH and CIDR-PGF2α-GnRH synchronization protocol with two fixed AI times (56 or 72 hr after PGF2α). On day 0, heifers (n = 1311) from nine locations assigned body condition score (BCS: 1, emaciated; 9, obese), reproductive tract score (RTS: 1, immature, acyclic; 5, mature, cyclic) and temperament score (0, calm; and 1, excited) and fitted with a controlled internal drug release (CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone) insert for 14 days. Within herd, heifers were randomly assigned either to no-GnRH group (n = 635) or to GnRH group (n = 676), and heifers in GnRH group received 100 μg of GnRH (gonadorelin hydrochloride, IM) on day 23. All heifers received 25 mg of PGF2α (dinoprost, IM) on day 30 and oestrous detection aids at the same time. Heifers were observed for oestrus thrice daily until AI. Within GnRH groups, heifers were randomly assigned to either AI-56 or AI-72 groups. Heifers in AI-56 group (n = 667) were inseminated at 56 hr (day 32 PM), and heifers in AI-72 group (n = 644) were inseminated at 72 hr (day 33 AM) after PGF2α administration. All heifers were given 100 μg of GnRH concurrently at the time AI. Controlling for BCS (p < .05), RTS (p < .05), oestrous expression (p < .001), temperament (p < .001) and GnRH treatment by time of insemination (p < .001), the AI-PR differed between GnRH treatment [GnRH (Yes - 60.9% (412/676) vs. No - 55.1% (350/635); p < .05)] and insemination time [AI-56 - 54.6% (364/667) vs. AI-72 - 61.8% (398/644); (p < .01)] groups. The GnRH treatment by AI time interaction influenced AI-PR (GnRH56 - 61.0% (208/341); GnRH72 - 60.9% (204/335); No-GnRH56 - 47.9% (156/326); No-GnRH72 - 62.8% (194/309); p < .001). In conclusion, 14-day CIDR synchronization protocol for FTAI required inclusion of GnRH on day 23 if inseminations were to be performed at 56 hr after PGF2α in order to achieve greater AI-PR.

  16. GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation in patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: still a controversy?

    PubMed

    Kol, S; Solt, I

    2008-01-01

    An update on the subject of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) prevention with GnRH agonist ovulation trigger. Review of pertinent English language studies published during the past 4 years. Randomized prospective studies support the notion that agonist trigger completely eliminates OHSS. Conflicting results regarding on going pregnancy rate probably reflect different approaches to luteal phase support. Embryos obtained and frozen after agonist trigger yield good clinical outcome in subsequent thaw cycles. The notion that agonist trigger can eliminate OHSS is strongly supported by randomized controlled trials. Further research is needed to assess optimal luteal support post agonist trigger.

  17. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

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  18. Insight from the lamprey genome: glimpsing early vertebrate development via neuroendocrine-associated genes and shared synteny of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

    PubMed

    Decatur, Wayne A; Hall, Jeffrey A; Smith, Jeramiah J; Li, Weiming; Sower, Stacia A

    2013-10-01

    Study of the ancient lineage of jawless vertebrates is key to understanding the origins of vertebrate biology. The establishment of the neuroendocrine system with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis at its crux is of particular interest. Key neuroendocrine hormones in this system include the pivotal gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) responsible for controlling reproduction via the pituitary. Previous data incorporating several lines of evidence showed all known vertebrate GnRHs were grouped into four paralogous lineages: GnRH1, 2, 3 and 4; with proposed evolutionary paths. Using the currently available lamprey genome assembly, we searched genes of the neuroendocrine system and summarize here the details representing the state of the current lamprey genome assembly. Additionally, we have analyzed in greater detail the evolutionary history of the GnRHs based on the information of the genomic neighborhood of the paralogs in lamprey as compared to other gnathostomes. Significantly, the current evidence suggests that two genome duplication events (both 1R and 2R) that generated the different fish and tetrapod paralogs took place before the divergence of the ancestral agnathans and gnathostome lineages. Syntenic analysis supports this evidence in that the previously-classified type IV GnRHs in lamprey (lGnRH-I and -III) share a common ancestry with GnRH2 and 3, and thus are no longer considered type IV GnRHs. Given the single amino acid difference between lGnRH-II and GnRH2 we propose that a GnRH2-like gene existed before the lamprey/gnathostome split giving rise to lGnRH-II and GnRH2. Furthermore, paralogous type 3 genes (lGnRH-I/III and GnRH3) evolved divergent structure/function in lamprey and gnathostome lineages.

  19. Metformin decreases GnRH- and activin-induced gonadotropin secretion in rat pituitary cells: potential involvement of adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (PRKA).

    PubMed

    Tosca, Lucie; Froment, Pascal; Rame, Christelle; McNeilly, J R; McNeilly, A S; Maillard, Virginie; Dupont, Joelle

    2011-02-01

    Metformin is an insulin sensitizer molecule used for the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance. It modulates the reproductive axis, affecting the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, metformin's mechanism of action in pituitary gonadotropin-secreting cells remains unclear. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (PRKA) is involved in metformin action in various cell types. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on gonadotropin secretion in response to activin and GnRH in primary rat pituitary cells (PRP), and studied PRKA in rat pituitary. In PRP, metformin (10 mM) reduced LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion induced by GnRH (10(-8) M, 3 h), FSH secretion, and mRNA FSHbeta subunit expression induced by activin (10(-8) M, 12 or 24 h). The different subunits of PRKA are expressed in pituitary. In particular, PRKAA1 is detected mainly in gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs, is less abundant in lactotrophs and somatotrophs, and is undetectable in corticotrophs. In PRP, metformin increased phosphorylation of both PRKA and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Metformin decreased activin-induced SMAD2 phosphorylation and GnRH-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 3/1 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. The PRKA inhibitor compound C abolished the effects of metformin on gonadotropin release induced by GnRH and on FSH secretion and Fshb mRNA induced by activin. The adenovirus-mediated production of dominant negative PRKA abolished the effects of metformin on the FSHbeta subunit mRNA and SMAD2 phosphorylation induced by activin and on the MAPK3/1 phosphorylation induced by GnRH. Thus, in rat pituitary cells, metformin decreases gonadotropin secretion and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation induced by GnRH and FSH release, FSHbeta subunit expression, and SMAD2 phosphorylation induced by activin through PRKA activation.

  20. Schistocephalus solidus infections increase gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH3) mRNA levels in the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yi Ta; Tseng, Yung Che; Trombley, Susanne; Hwang, Pung Pung; Schmitz, Monika; Borg, Bertil

    2012-09-01

    Parasites often impair the reproduction of their hosts, one well known case being the cestode Schistocephalus solidus which is a common parasite in three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. One of the possible ways that this could be exerted is by suppression on the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis. In this study, mRNA levels of FSH-β and LH-β and of GnRH2 (cGnRH II) and GnRH3 (sGnRH) were measured via Q-PCR in infected and uninfected fish sampled from the field a few weeks before the onset of breeding. The pituitary mRNA levels of both FSH-β and LH-β were higher in infected males than in uninfected males. Also in females, FSH-β mRNA levels were higher in infected individuals than in others, whereas there was no significant difference found in LH-β expression. Brain mRNA levels of GnRH3 were higher in infected fish than in uninfected fish in both sexes, but no difference was found in GnRH2 mRNA levels. Thus, infection by S. solidus was able to alter the expressions not only of gonadotropins (GtHs), but also of GnRH which has not been observed previously. However, the effects are opposite to what should be expected if the parasite suppressed reproduction via actions on the brain-pituitary level. The gonads are perhaps more likely to be impaired by the parasites in other ways, and changed feedbacks on the BPG axis could then lead to the increases in GtHs and GnRH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synchronisation of the follicular wave with GnRH and PGF2α analogue for a timed breeding programme in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, B M; Al-Bulushi, Samir; Pratap, N

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to develop a hormone protocol that precisely synchronises follicular development for a timed breeding (TB) programme in dromedary camels. To examine the effect of GnRH treatment at four known stages of follicular development, animals were treated with GnRH when the largest follicle of the wave was 4-7, 8-11, 12-17 and 18-27 mm in diameter. Transrectal ultrasonography was carried out daily up to 20 days after treatment. A hormone protocol (FWsynch) for the synchronisation of follicular wave and TB consisting of GnRH-1 (GnRH) on Day 0, PG-1 (PGF2α) on Day 7, GnRH-2 on Day 10 and PG-2 on Day 17 was initiated at four known stages of follicular development. Ovarian structures were monitored by ultrasonography. The FWsynch protocol was initiated at random stages of follicle development and animals were bred by natural mating at a fixed time at the research facility and in field. The pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography. GnRH treatment in animals with a dominant follicle (DF) of ≥ 11 mm in diameter resulted in synchronous new follicular wave emergence, whereas in animals with a DF ≤ 10 mm, the treatment did not alter the development of the existing follicular wave. The FWsynch protocol was effective in synchronising the follicular wave for TB irrespective of the stage of follicular development at the beginning of the protocol. TB using FWsynch protocol resulted in a pregnancy rate of 60.2% in a research facility and 53.6% and 45.6% in normal and infertile camels respectively under field conditions.

  2. Variation in progesterone receptors and GnRH expression in the hypothalamus of the pregnant South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus (Mammalia, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Verónica Berta; Saucedo, Lucía; Di Giorgio, Noelia Paula; Inserra, Pablo Ignacio Felipe; Fraunhoffer, Nicolás; Leopardo, Noelia Paola; Halperín, Julia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Vitullo, Alfredo Daniel

    2013-11-01

    In mammals, elevated levels of progesterone (P4) throughout gestation maintain a negative feedback over the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal (H-H-G) axis, avoiding preovulatory follicular growth and preventing ovulation. Recent studies showed that in the South American plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) folliculogenesis progresses to preovulatory stages during gestation, and an ovulatory process seems to occur at midgestation. The aim of this work was to analyze hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and P4 receptors (PR) expression and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and correlate these with the functional state of the ovary in nonovulating and ovulating females and gestating females with special emphasis in the supposedly ovulating females at midgestation. We investigated P4 and LH serum levels as well as the distribution, localization, and expression of PR and GnRH in the hypothalamus of L. maximus at different time points during gestation and in nongestating, ovulating and nonovulating, females. A significant increment in GnRH, P4, and LH was detected in midpregnant vizcachas with respect to early-pregnant and to ovulating females. PR was also significantly increased in midpregnant animals. PR was detected in neurons of the preoptic and hypothalamic areas. Coexistence of both PR and GnRH in neurons of medial preoptic area and supraoptic nucleus was detected. Midpregnant animals showed increased number of PR immunoreactive cells at median eminence, localized adjacently to GnRH immunoreactive fibers. High expression of hypothalamic GnRH and PR, despite an increased level of P4, was correlated with the presence of antral, preovulatory follicles, and luteinized unruptured follicles at midgestation that suggest a possible role of the H-H-G axis in the modulation of ovulation during gestation in L. maximus.

  3. Developmental GnRH signaling is not required for sexual differentiation of kisspeptin neurons but is needed for maximal Kiss1 gene expression in adult females.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joshua; Tolson, Kristen P; Dhamija, Sangeeta; Kauffman, Alexander S

    2013-09-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, stimulates reproduction. In rodents, one Kiss1 population resides in the hypothalamic anterior ventral periventricular nucleus and neighboring rostral periventricular nucleus (AVPV/PeN). AVPV/PeN Kiss1 neurons are sexually dimorphic (greater in females), yet the mechanisms regulating their development and sexual differentiation remain poorly understood. Neonatal estradiol (E₂) normally defeminizes AVPV/PeN kisspeptin neurons, but emerging evidence suggests that developmental E₂ may also influence feminization of kisspeptin, although exactly when in development this process occurs is unknown. In addition, the obligatory role of GnRH signaling in governing sexual differentiation of Kiss1 or other sexually dimorphic traits remains untested. Here, we assessed whether AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression is permanently impaired in adult hpg (no GnRH or E₂) or C57BL6 mice under different E₂ removal or replacement paradigms. We determined that 1) despite lacking GnRH signaling in development, marked sexual differentiation of Kiss1 still occurs in hpg mice; 2) adult hpg females, who lack lifetime GnRH and E₂ exposure, have reduced AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression compared to wild-type females, even after chronic adulthood E₂ treatment; 3) E₂ exposure to hpg females during the pubertal period does not rescue their submaximal adult Kiss1 levels; and 4) in C57BL6 females, removal of ovarian E2 before the pubertal or juvenile periods does not impair feminization and maximal adult AVPV/PeN Kiss1 expression nor the ability to generate LH surges, indicating that puberty is not a critical period for Kiss1 development. Thus, sexual differentiation still occurs without GnRH, but GnRH or downstream E₂ signaling is needed sometime before juvenile development for complete feminization and maximal Kiss1 expression in adult females.

  4. Does day 3 luteinizing-hormone level predict IVF success in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation with GnRH analogues?

    PubMed

    Orvieto, Raoul; Meltzer, Simion; Rabinson, Jacob; Gemer, Ofer; Anteby, Eyal Y; Nahum, Ravit

    2008-10-01

    To examine whether day 3 LH level or FSH-LH ratio predict IVF outcome, we studied patients with a favorable prognosis a priori undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with GnRH agonist (agonist group; n = 131) or antagonist (antagonist group; n = 137). Although LH level could not predict IVF outcome, patients undergoing COH using the GnRH antagonist or agonist protocols with FSH-LH ratios >2 or >3, respectively, achieved significantly lower pregnancy rates (11.1% vs. 27.7% and 8.3% vs. 31.9%, respectively).

  5. Effect of GnRH and hCG on progesterone concentration and ovarian and luteal blood flow in diestrous mares.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of reproductive hormones (GnRH, hCG, LH and progesterone) on the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian blood flow. Diestrous mares received a single treatment of saline, 100μg gonadorelin (GnRH), or 1500IU hCG 10days after ovulation. Plasma LH and progesterone concentrations, resistance index (RI) for ovarian artery blood-flow, and percentage of corpus luteum (CL) with color-Doppler signals of blood flow were determined immediately before treatment (hour 0) and at hours 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In the GnRH group, LH increased (P<0.0001) between hours 0 and 0.25 and then progressively decreased; concentration of LH was not affected in the saline and hCG groups. Progesterone concentration was not different among groups. In the GnRH group, RI tended (P<0.07) to decrease between hours 0 and 1.5 and increased (P<0.01) between hours 1.5 and 4. In the hCG group, two transient RI decreases (P<0.05) occurred before hour 2. The percentage change from hour 0 in the percentage of CL with blood-flow signals was greater at hour 0.5 in the GnRH group than in the saline group and was intermediate in the hCG group. The similarity among groups in progesterone concentration indicated that changes in progesterone were not involved in the GnRH and hCG stimulation of ovarian vascular perfusion. Effects of treatment might have been mediated through LH; however, since hCG biological activity is primarily LH-like, the differences in timing and degree of ovarian and luteal blood flow changes after GnRH or hCG administration in the present study suggest that GnRH might have a direct effect on ovarian blood vessels and vascular control. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Vasopressin release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system: effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), its analogues and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Boczek-Leszczyk, E; Stempniak, B; Juszczak, M

    2010-08-01

    The influence of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its analogues (i.e., agonist and antagonist) on vasopressin (VP) release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial (H-N) system was studied both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, it was determined whether the possible response of vasopressinergic neurones to these peptides could be modified by melatonin through a cAMP-dependent mechanism. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that the highly selective GnRH agonist (i.e., [Des-Gly(10),D-His(Bzl)(6),Pro-NHEt(9)]-LHRH; histrelin) stimulates the release of VP from the rat H-N system, while native GnRH and its antagonist remain inactive in modifying this process in vitro. Melatonin significantly inhibited basal and histrelin-induced release of VP in vitro, but displayed no significant influence on VP secretion when GnRH or its antagonist were present in a medium. Melatonin fully suppressed forskolin-stimulated VP release from the rat H-N system. On the other hand, addition of forskolin to a medium containing both histrelin and melatonin did not further alter the inhibitory influence of melatonin on the histrelin-dependent release of VP in vitro. After intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of native GnRH or its agonist, blood plasma VP concentration was significantly higher than in control animals, which was accompanied by decreased content of the hormone in the neurohypophysis. Intravenous (i.v.) injection of melatonin did not change, in any subgroup, blood plasma VP concentration, when compared to the vehicle-injected rats. However, the neurohypophysial levels of the hormone were significantly higher after melatonin injection in control, GnRH- and histrelin-infused animals. Our present results suggest that activation of the GnRH receptor in the hypothalamus is involved in stimulation of VP secretion from the rat H-N system. We have also shown that melatonin, at a concentration close to its physiological level in the blood, significantly

  7. Regulative actions of the Chinese drugs for tonifying the kidney on gene expression of the hypothalamic GnRH, pituitary FSH, LH and osteoblastic BGP.

    PubMed

    Cai, Depei; Zhang, Wei

    2005-03-01

    It is found that the drugs for nourishing yin to reduce pathogenic fire can significantly down-regulate, and the drugs for tonifying the kidney to replenish essence can up-regulate mRNA expression of the hypothalamic GnRH, pituitary FSH, LH and osteoblastic BGP, indicating that the Chinese drugs for tonifying the kidney can regulate gene expression of the hypothalamic GnRH, pituitary FSH, LH, and osteoblastic BGP, which is possibly one of the main mechanisms of the Chinese drug for tonifying the kidney, regulating ephebic development process andimproving skeletal development in sexual precocity children.

  8. Effect of stress on the expression of GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the preoptic area-hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland in ewes during follicular phase of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Misztal, Tomasz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Przekop, Franciszek

    2007-01-01

    The RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) technique was used to analyze GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, and GnRH-R mRNA in the stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland of follicular ewes subjected to short (3 h during one day) or prolonged (5 h daily during four consecutive days) footshock stimulation. To analyze relationship between expression of GnRH and GnRH-R genes with LH secretion the blood samples were collected at 10 min intervals to determine LH levels in control and stressed animals. The concentration of GnRH mRNA increased significantly in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus of ewes subjected to short stress. The prolonged stressful stimuli significantly decreased GnRH mRNA levels in all analyzed structures. In short stressed ewes the significant augmentation of mRNA encoding GnRH-R was detected in the preoptic area, entire hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and anterior pituitary gland. The GnRH-R mRNA was significantly reduced in all tested structures of animals subjected to prolonged footshocking except for the preoptic area, where GnRH-R mRNA did not differ from control values. The changes in GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA levels under short or prolonged stress were associated with an increase or decrease of LH concentration in blood plasma, suggesting the existence of a direct relationship between GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA expression with LH secretion. The results indicate that the expression of both GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene, as well as LH secretion in ewes during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, are dependent upon the kind of stress.

  9. Development of semen quality following reversible downregulation of testicular function in male dogs with a GnRH agonist implant.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Ludwig, C; Hoffmann, B

    2012-08-01

    Slow-release GnRH agonist implants have shown to be an effective and reversible alternative to surgical castration. Testicular function is downregulated with an arrest of spermatogenesis on the level of spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes but is fully restored after abolition of downregulation. Aim of this study was to assess the quality of ejaculates after active abolishment of downregulation by implant removal and to follow recrudescence of spermatogenesis. Five dogs - which served as their own controls - were treated with a slow-release implant containing the GnRH agonist azagly-nafarelin. Implants were removed during full downregulation (testosterone <0.1 ng/ml), and attempts to collect ejaculates started from week 4 onwards to week 29. First ejaculates could be obtained between weeks 8 and 12 with the first fully elongated spermatozoa observed in week 10. Volume, %motility and total sperm count increased and %pathomorphology decreased during the course of the study with all ejaculates being in the normal range by week 29. Our data indicate that onset of recrudescence of spermatogenesis coincides with the first testosterone increase after active abolishment of downregulation. Semen quality was fully regained with a significant improvement of %pathomorphology (p < 0.05) and a tendency of improved %motility. However, these observations on an improved semen quality need further validation and no final conclusions can be drawn yet. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Seasonal and individual variation in response to GnRH challenge in male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis).

    PubMed

    Jawor, Jodie M; McGlothlin, Joel W; Casto, Joseph M; Greives, Timothy J; Snajdr, Eric A; Bentley, George E; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2006-11-01

    Concentrations of gonadal steroids such as testosterone (T) often vary widely in natural populations, but the causes and particularly the consistency of this variation is relatively unexplored. In breeding males of a wild population of the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), we investigated seasonal and individual variation in circulating T during two breeding seasons by measuring the responsiveness of the HPG axis to a standardized injection of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Individuals were bled prior to and 30min after injection. Pre- and post-challenge levels of T were measured using EIA. Many subjects were sampled repeatedly across multiple breeding stages. Plasma T concentrations nearly doubled in response to GnRH during early spring, but showed significantly smaller increases in later breeding stages. When controlling for seasonal variation in response to challenge, we also found repeatable differences among individuals, indicating individual consistency in the release of T in response to a standardized stimulus. These seasonal and individual differences may arise from comparable variation in responsiveness of the pituitary or a decline in gonadal sensitivity to downstream gonadotropins. In contrast, pre-challenge T showed almost no seasonal changes and did not differ consistently among individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of individual repeatability of short-term hormonal changes in a wild population. Such repeatability suggests that hormonal plasticity might evolve in response to changing selection pressures.

  11. Developmental Exposure to Ethinylestradiol Affects Reproductive Physiology, the GnRH Neuroendocrine Network and Behaviors in Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Martini, Mariangela; Duittoz, Anne H.; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2), the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR) or pharmacological (PHARMACO) doses [0.1 and 1 μg/kg (body weight)/day respectively], from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs. PMID:26696819

  12. The induction of ovulation by pulsatile administration of GnRH: an appropriate method in hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Christou, Fotini; Pitteloud, Nelly; Gomez, Fulgencio

    2017-03-06

    The induction of ovulation by the means of a pump which assures the pulsatile administration of GnRH is a well-known method that applies to women suffering from amenorrhea of hypothalamic origin. Although a simple and efficient method to establish fertility, it is underused. Twelve patients suffering from this condition, 1 Kallmann syndrome, 4 normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and 7 functional hypothalamic amenorrhea desiring pregnancy were treated. They underwent one or more cycles of pulsatile GnRH, at a frequency of 90 minutes, either by the intravenous or the subcutaneous route. An initial dose of 5 μg per pulse in the intravenous route was administered and of 15 μg per pulse in the subcutaneous route. The treatment was monitored by regular dosing of gonadotropins, estradiol and progesterone, and the development of follicles and ovulation was monitored by intra-vaginal ultrasonography. All the patients had documented ovulation, after a mean of 17 days on pump stimulation. Single ovulation occurred in 30 of 33 treatment cycles, irrespective of the route of administration. Ovulation resulted in 10 pregnancies over 7 patients (2 pregnancies in 3 of them), distributed in the 3 diagnostic categories. For comparison, a patient with PCOS treated similarly, disclosed premature LH surge without ovulation.

  13. Specific mesenchymal/epithelial induction of olfactory receptor, vomeronasal, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, N.E; Lischka, F. W.; Yee, K.K.; Peters, A.Z.; Tucker, E.S.; Meechan, D.W.; Zirlinger, M.; Maynard, T.M.; Burd, G.B.; Dulac, C.; Pevny, L.; LaMantia, A-S.

    2013-01-01

    We asked whether specific mesenchymal/epithelial (M/E) induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons—the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). To assess specificity of M/E-mediated neurogenesis, we compared the influence of frontonasal mesenchyme on frontonasal epithelium, which becomes the OE, with that of the forelimb bud. Despite differences in position, morphogenetic and cytogenic capacity, both mesenchymal tissues support neurogenesis, expression of several signaling molecules and neurogenic transcription factors in the frontonasal epithelium. Only frontonasal mesenchyme, however, supports OE-specific patterning and activity of a subset of signals and factors associated with OE differentiation. Moreover, only appropriate pairing of frontonasal epithelial and mesenchymal partners yields ORNs, VRNs, and GnRH neurons. Accordingly, the position and molecular identity of specialized frontonasal epithelia and mesenchyme early in gestation and subsequent inductive interactions, specifies the genesis and differentiation of peripheral chemosensory and neuroendocrine neurons. PMID:20503368

  14. GnRH stimulation test in precocious puberty: single sample is adequate for diagnosis and dose adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Nurgün; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Özön, Zeynep Alev; Gönç, Nazlı; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin stimulation test is the gold standard to document precocious puberty. However, the test is costly, time-consuming and uncomfortable. The aim of this study was to simplify the intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty and in the assessment of pubertal suppression. Data pertaining to 584 GnRH stimulation tests (314 tests for diagnosis and 270 for assessment of pubertal suppression) were analyzed. Forty-minute post-injection samples had the greatest frequency of "peaking luteinizing hormone (LH)" (p<0.001) in the diagnostic tests when the cut-off value was taken as 5 IU/L for LH, 40th minute sample was found to have 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of precocious puberty, while the sensitivity and specificity of the 20th minute sample was 100% in the assessment of pubertal suppression. LH level at the 40th minute post-injection in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty and at the 20th minute post-injection in the assessment of pubertal suppression is highly sensitive and specific. A single sample at these time points can be used in the diagnosis of early puberty and in the assessment of pubertal suppression. ©Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology, Published by Galenos Publishing.

  15. GnRH Stimulation Test in Precocious Puberty: Single Sample is Adequate for Diagnosis and Dose Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kandemir, Nurgün; Özön, Zeynep Alev; Gönç, Nazlı; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Gonadotropin stimulation test is the gold standard to document precocious puberty. However, the test is costly, time-consuming and uncomfortable. The aim of this study was to simplify the intravenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test in the diagnosis of precocious puberty and in the assessment of pubertal suppression. Methods: Data pertaining to 584 GnRH stimulation tests (314 testsfor diagnosis and 270 for assessment of pubertal suppression) were analyzed. Results: Forty-minute post-injection samples had the greatest frequency of “peaking luteinizing hormone (LH)” (p<0.001) in the diagnostic tests when the cut-off value was taken as 5 IU/L for LH, 40th minute sample was found to have 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the diagnosis of precocious puberty, while the sensitivity and specificity of the 20th minute sample was 100% in the assessment of pubertal suppression. Conclusion: LH level at the 40th minute post-injection in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty and at the 20th minute post-injection in the assessment of pubertal suppression is highly sensitive and specific. A single sample at these time points can be used in the diagnosis of early puberty and in the assessment of pubertal suppression. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21448328

  16. Supression of the steroid-primed luteinizing hormone surge in the female rat by sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate: Relationship to hypothalamic catecholamines and GnRH neuronal activation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In female rodents, hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) has a role in stimulating the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that triggers the ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). NE synthesis from dopamine requires the presence of dopamine--hydroxylase (DH) an...

  17. In vitro and in vivo effects of GABA, muscimol, and bicuculline on lamprey GnRH concentration in the brain of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Root, Adam R; Sanford, Jocelyn D; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Sower, Stacia A

    2004-08-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter with a demonstrated neuroregulatory role in reproduction in most representative species of vertebrate classes via the hypothalamus. The role of GABA on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis in lampreys has not been fully elucidated. Recent immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization studies suggest that there may be a neuroregulatory role of GABA on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in lampreys. To assess possible GABA-GnRH interactions, the effects of GABA and its analogs on lamprey GnRH in vitro and in vivo were studied in adult female sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). In vitro perfusion of GABA and its analogs at increasing concentrations (0.1-100 microM) was performed over a 3-h time course. There was a substantial increase of GnRH-I and GnRH-III following treatment of muscimol at 100 microM. In in vivo studies, GABA or muscimol injected at 200 microg/kg significantly increased lamprey GnRH concentration in the brain 0.5 h after treatment compared to controls in female sea lampreys. No significant change in lamprey GnRH-I or GnRH-III was observed following treatment with bicuculline. These data provide novel physiological data supporting the hypothesis that GABA may influence GnRH in the brain of sea lamprey.

  18. Strategies to improve fertility in post partum Bos indicus cows submitted to a fixed-time insemination protocol with GnRH and PGF2a

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Experiment 1, we evaluated the effects of two lengths of progesterone exposure (CIDR; 7 vs. 14 d) prior to a modified CO-Synch protocol, with or without temporary weaning (TW) before GnRH treatments, on fertility of suckled Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 283) and on calf performance. Timed AI (TAI)...

  19. Comparison between pulsatile GnRH therapy and gonadotropins for ovulation induction in women with both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and polycystic ovarian morphology.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Agathe; Dewailly, Didier; Plouvier, Pauline; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Robin, Geoffroy

    2016-12-01

    Ovulation induction in patients having both functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) has been less studied in the literature. As results remain contradictory, no recommendations have yet been established. To compare pulsatile GnRH therapy versus gonadotropins for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients and to determine if one treatment strikes as superior to the other. A 12-year retrospective study, comparing 55 "FHA-PCOM" patients, treated either with GnRH therapy (38 patients, 93 cycles) or with gonadotropins (17 patients, 53 cycles). Both groups were similar, defined by low serum LH and E2 levels, low BMI, excessive follicle number per ovary and/or high serum AMH level. Ovulation rates were significantly lower with gonadotropins (56.6% versus 78.6%, p = 0.005), with more cancellation and ovarian hyper-responses (14% versus 34% per initiated cycle, p < 0.005). Pregnancy rates were significantly higher with GnRH therapy, whether per initiated cycle (26.9% versus 7.6%, p = 0.005) or per patient (65.8% versus 23.5%, p = 0.007). In our study, GnRH therapy was more successful and safer than gonadotropins, for ovulation induction in "FHA-PCOM" patients. If results were confirmed by prospective studies, it could become a first-line treatment for this population, just as it is for FHA women without PCOM.

  20. Vaccination against GnRH may suppress aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    De Nys, H M; Bertschinger, H J; Turkstra, J A; Colenbrander, B; Palme, R; Human, A M

    2010-03-01

    Aggressive behaviour and musth are constant problems in captive and sometimes in free-ranging African elephant bulls. Aggressive bulls are difficult and musth bulls almost impossible to manage without severely restricting their movement either by leg-chaining or using tranquillisers. This study investigated the relationship between faecal androgen metabolites (FAM) and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) concentrations and aggressive behaviour and tested a GnRH vaccine as a means of down-regulating aggressive behaviour and musth in 1 free-ranging and 5 captive elephant bulls. The bulls were non-aggressive (n=3), aggressive (n=2) or in musth (n=1) at the onset of the study. The bulls were injected with a GnRH vaccine-adjuvant combination 3 or 4 times at 3- to 7-week intervals. Behaviour, FAM and FCM concentrations were measured during every week prior to vaccination until 4 months after the last vaccination. FAM concentrations were positively correlated with aggressive behaviour before the 1st vaccination. Androgen production, as reflected by FAM concentrations, was down-regulated in 3 of the 6 immunised bulls. At least 2 bulls and possibly a 3rd showed behavioural improvement following GnRH vaccination and in all 3 temporal gland secretion ceased. No further aggressive behaviour was observed until the end of the study in any of the bulls. The results of this 1st GnRH immunisation study suggest that it could be a useful method to control aggressive behaviour and musth in African elephant bulls.

  1. Ovulation induction with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or gonadotropins in a case of hypothalamic amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, N A; Markou, K B; Pappas, A P; Protonatariou, A; Vagenakis, G A; Sykiotis, G P; Dimopoulos, P A; Tzingounis, V A

    2001-12-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea is a treatable cause of infertility. Our patient was presented with secondary amenorrhea and diabetes insipidus. Cortisol and prolactin responded normally to a combined insulin tolerance test (ITT) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenge, while thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to TRH was diminished, and no response of growth hormone to ITT was detected. Both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels increased following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. No response of LH to clomiphene citrate challenge was detected. Magnetic resonance imaging findings demonstrated a midline mass occupying the inferior hypothalamus, with posterior lobe not visible and thickened pituitary stalk. Ovulation induction was carried out first with combined human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG/LH/FSH) (150 IU/day) and afterwards with pulsatile GnRH (150 ng/kg/pulse). Ovulation was achieved with both pulsatile GnRH and combine gonadotropin therapy. Slightly better results were achieved with the pulsatile GnRH treatment.

  2. Supression of the steroid-primed luteinizing hormone surge in the female rat by sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate: Relationship to hypothalamic catecholamines and GnRH neuronal activation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In female rodents, hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) has a role in stimulating the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that triggers the ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). NE synthesis from dopamine requires the presence of dopamine--hydroxylase (DH) an...

  3. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    printers in each clinic to print labels .JDI Capt Cutter Research compatible printer, Cost, Time Frame Develop standard training for all clinics...Standardize label content, automate with inkless printers once process is proven c . Place visual reminders for providers and support staff 2. Event

  4. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  5. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  6. Prognostic models for high and low ovarian responses in controlled ovarian stimulation using a GnRH antagonist protocol

    PubMed Central

    Broekmans, Frank J.; Verweij, Pierre J.M.; Eijkemans, Marinus J.C.; Mannaerts, Bernadette M.J.L.; Witjes, Han

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Can predictors of low and high ovarian responses be identified in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in a GnRH antagonist protocol? SUMMARY ANSWER Common prognostic factors for high and low ovarian responses were female age, antral follicle count (AFC) and basal serum FSH and LH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Predictors of ovarian response have been identified in GnRH agonist protocols. With the introduction of GnRH antagonists to prevent premature LH rises during COS, and the gradual shift in use of long GnRH agonist to short GnRH antagonist protocols, there is a need for data on the predictability of ovarian response in GnRH antagonist cycles. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A retrospective analysis of data from the Engage trial and validation with the Xpect trial. Prognostic models were constructed for high (>18 oocytes retrieved) and low (<6 oocytes retrieved) ovarian response. Model building was based on the recombinant FSH (rFSH) arm (n = 747) of the Engage trial. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed in a stepwise fashion (P < 0.15 for entry). Validation based on calibration was performed in patients with equivalent treatment (n = 199) in the Xpect trial. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Infertile women with an indication for COS prior to IVF. The Engage and Xpect trials included patients of similar ethnic origins from North America and Europe who had regular menstrual cycles. The main causes of infertility were male factor, tubal factor and endometriosis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In the Engage trial, 18.3% of patients had a high and 12.7% had a low ovarian response. Age, AFC, serum FSH and serum LH at stimulation Day 1 were prognostic for both high and low ovarian responses. Higher AFC and LH were associated with an increased chance of high ovarian response. Older age and higher FSH correlated with an increased chance of low ovarian response. Region (North America/Europe) and BMI were

  7. Assessment of gonadotrophin suppression in girls treated with GnRH analogue for central precocious puberty; validity of single luteinizing hormone measurement after leuprolide acetate injection.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Huseyin; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Gonc, Nazli E; Ozon, Alev; Kandemir, Nurgun

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous GnRH stimulation test has often been used as gold standard test for the evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the diagnosis of central precocious puberty (CPP) and in the assessment of pubertal suppression. However, this test is time-consuming, costly and uncomfortable for the patients. We aimed to analyse the validity of single LH sample 90 min after GnRH analogue (GnRHa) administration in the evaluation of gonadotrophin suppression during CPP therapy and to determine a cut-off level for LH indicating adequate suppression. Prospective study. One hundred and forty-two patients with CPP were included in this study. Peak LH level during iv GnRH stimulation test after the third dose of GnRHa was compared with LH level 90 min after injection of the 3rd dose of GnRHa. There was a positive correlation between LH level following a GnRHa injection and peak LH during standard iv GnRH stimulation test (r = 0·83; P < 0·0001). A LH value of 2·5 mIU/ml or less 90 min after GnRHa injection was considered to be the cut-off for the determination of pubertal suppression (sensitivity and specificity was 100% and 88%, respectively). In 117 patients, gonadotrophin suppression was existed according to both GnRHa and iv GnRH tests. In 25 patients, gonadotrophin suppression was not found in the GnRHa test. However, 16 of them were suppressed according to the iv GnRH test. Single LH determination 90 min after GnRHa administration using a cut-off level of 2·5 mIU/ml reflects pubertal suppression with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, this test may fail to show pubertal suppression in some cases. Those patients who appear to be inadequately suppressed should be reassessed using standard iv GnRH stimulation test for optimal dose adjustment. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Intraovarian expression of GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA and protein levels in Siberian hamsters during the estrus cycle and photoperiod induced regression/recrudescence

    PubMed Central

    Shahed, Asha; Young, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the key reproductive regulator in vertebrates. While gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle stimulating (FSH), and luteinizing (LH) hormones are primarily produced in the hypothalamus and pituitary, they can be synthesized in the gonads, suggesting an intraovarian GnRH-gonadotropin axis. Because these hormones are critical for follicle maturation and steroidogenesis, we hypothesized that this intraovarian axis may be important in photoperiod-induced ovarian regression/recrudescence in seasonal breeders. Thus, we investigated GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA and protein expression in Siberian hamster ovaries during (1) the estrous cycle; where ovaries from cycling long day hamsters (LD;16L:8D) were collected at proestrus, estrus, diestrus I, and diestrus II and (2) during photoperiod induced regression/ recrudescence; where ovaries were collected from hamsters exposed to 14wks of LD, short days (SD;8L:16D), or 8wks post-transfer to LD after 14wks SD (PT). GnRH-1, LHβ, FSHβ, and common α subunit mRNA expression was observed in cycling ovaries. GnRH-1 expression peaked at diestrus I compared to other stages (p<0.05). FSHβ and LHβ mRNA levels peaked at proestrus and diestrus I (p<0.05), with no change in the α subunit across the cycle (p>0.05). SD exposure decreased ovarian mass and plasma estradiol concentrations (p<0.05) and increased GnRH-1, LHβ, FSHβ, and α subunit mRNA expression as compared to LD and, except for LH, compared to PT (p<0.05). GnRH and gonadotropin protein was also dynamically expressed across the estrous cycle and photoperiod exposure. The presence of cycling intraovarian GnRH-1 and gonadotropin mRNA suggests that these hormones may be locally involved in ovarian maintenance during SD regression and/or could potentially serve to prime ovaries for rapid recrudescence. PMID:20955709

  9. Implication of dopaminergic systems on GnRH and GnRHR genes expression in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, M; Lapot, M; Malewski, T; Mateusiak, K; Misztal, T; Przekop, F

    2008-06-01

    We examined by Real-time PCR how prolonged inhibition of dopaminergic D-2 receptors (DA-2) in the hypothalamus of anestrous ewes by infusion of sulpiride into the third cerebral ventricle affected GnRH and GnRH-R gene expression in discrete parts of this structure and GnRH-R gene expression in the anterior pituitary. Blockaded DA-2 receptors significantly decreased GnRH mRNA levels in the ventromedial hypothalamus but did not evidently affect GnRH mRNA in the preoptic/ anteriorhypothalamicarea. Blockaded DA-2 receptors led to different responses in GnRH-R mRNA in various parts of the hypothalamus; increased GnRH-R mRNA levels in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area, and decreased GnRH-R mRNA amounts in the ventromedial hypothalamus stalk/median eminence. An infusion of sulpiride into the III-rd ventricle increased GnRH mRNA levels in the anterior pituitary gland and LH secretion. It is suggested that the increase of GnRH gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland and LH secretion in sulpiride-treated ewes are related with an increase of biosynthesis GnRH with concomitant decreased biosynthesis of GnRH-R protein in the ventromedial hypothalamus/stalk median eminence allowing to an increase of GnRH release.

  10. Impact of phase of the estrous cycle and season on LH surge profile and fertility in dairy cows treated with different GnRH analogs (gonadorelin vs. buserelin).

    PubMed

    Armengol-Gelonch, R; Mallo, J M; Ponté, D; Jimenez, A; Valenza, A; Souza, A H

    2017-03-15

    Our aim was to assess the GnRH-induced LH surge profile in dairy cows receiving two GnRH products (gonadorelin vs buserelin) given at proestrus or diestrus phase and to investigate whether season could alter LH surge profile in dairy cows. In Experiment 1, dairy cows at 108.2 ± 2.3 DIM, producing 41.5 ± 0.3 kg/day were randomized to receive, during proestrus and diestrus: Ovarelin(®) i.m. (OVA; n = 56; 100 mg of gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate; Ceva Animal Health, France) or Receptal(®) i.m. (REC; n = 52; 10 mcg of buserelin diacetate; MSD, Germany). In Experiment 1, blood samples were collected at hour 0 (just before GnRH treatment) at 30min, 1 h and then hourly until 5 h post-GnRH. In Experiment 2, cows were synchronized with a modified G-6-G protocol and randomized to receive either OVA or REC throughout the synchronization program. In Experiment 1, peak LH concentrations (ng/mL) were not affected by type of GnRH (OVA = 6.2 ± 0.4 vs REC = 6.7 ± 0.4; P = 0.37) or season (Cool = 6.8 ± 0.4 vs Warm = 6.1 ± 0.4; P = 0.22), and there were no interactions between GnRH type and phase of the estrous cycle or season. Interestingly, the area under the curve (AUC) of LH release (ng/ml*time) was significantly lower during warmer months (Cool = 20.3 ± 1.2 vs Warm = 16.9 ± 1.1; P = 0.04). As expected, LH peak was affected by phase of the cycle (proestrus = 8.2 ± 0.4 vs diestrus = 4.7 ± 0.4; P < 0.01). Ovarelin caused LH concentrations to increase faster, reaching highest concentration sooner (h) than REC (1.5 ± 0.1 vs 2.3 ± 0.1; P < 0.01). As a result, cows receiving OVA had greater circulating LH concentrations (ng/mL) at 1 h after GnRH treatment than cows receiving REC (P < 0.01). In contrast, cows treated with REC had longer (P = 0.01) intervals from peak until return to nadir. In Experiment 2, pregnancy per AI (P/AI) was similar for cows receiving either GnRH product during the synchronization

  11. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  12. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (GnRH II) mediates the anorexigenic actions of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Sung; Shimizu, Kanako; Azuma, Morio; Ui, Yuhta; Nakamura, Kouta; Uchiyama, Minoru; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2011-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (GnRH II), which plays a crucial role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates, markedly reduces food intake in goldfish. However, the neurochemical pathways involved in the anorexigenic action of GnRH II and its interaction with other neuropeptides have not yet been identified. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH-related peptides play a major role in feeding control as potent anorexigenic neuropeptides in goldfish. However, our previous study has indicated that the GnRH II-induced anorexigenic action is not blocked by treatment with melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) and CRH receptor antagonists. Therefore, in the present study, we further examined whether the anorexigenic effects of α-MSH and CRH in goldfish could be mediated through the GnRH receptor neuronal pathway. ICV injection of the MC4R agonist, melanotan II (80 pmol/g body weight; BW), significantly reduced food intake, and its anorexigenic effect was suppressed by ICV pre-administration of the GnRH type I receptor antagonist, antide (100 pmol/gBW). The CRH-induced (50 pmol/gBW) anorexigenic action was also blocked by treatment with antide. ICV injection of CRH (50 pmol/gBW) induced a significant increase of the GnRH II mRNA level in the hypothalamus, while ICV injection of melanotan II (80 pmol/gBW) had no effect on the level of GnRH II mRNA. These results indicate that, in goldfish, the anorexigenic actions of α-MSH and CRH are mediated through the GnRH type I receptor-signaling pathway, and that the GnRH II system regulates feeding behavior.

  13. Mining Multi-label Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.

  14. Very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) and Montanide combination enhance the humoral immuno response in a GnRH based vaccine directed to prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Franklin Fuentes; Barranco, Jesús Junco; Fuentes, Eddy Bover; Aguilera, Lesvia Calzada; Sáez, Yovisleydis Lopez; Santana, María Dolores Castro; Vázquez, Eulogio Pimentel; Baker, Roberto Basulto; Acosta, Osvaldo Reyes; Pérez, Hilda Garay; Nieto, Gerardo Guillén

    2012-10-12

    Very small size proteoliposomes (VSSP) constitute a complex of very small size proteoliposomes that includes proteins, lipids, CpG and gangliosides tumor-associated that provides a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. This compound has been described to stimulate the humoral and cellular response, dendritic cells (DC) activation and differentiation of T-helper cells, specially, in immunocompromised patients with cancer status. This work deals with the stimulating capacity of the VSSP to reach a humoral response when they are used as a component in a peptidic vaccine based on the gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). This study was carried out in male Copenhagen rats, which were immunized with 750μg of the GnRH mimetic peptide (GnRHm1-TT) with or without the VSSP. The mixtures were always emulsified with the oil adjuvant Montanide ISA 51. The anti GnRH seroconversion analysis revealed that the group immunized with the peptide GnRHm1-TT/VSSP developed a strong anti GnRH seroconversion. These antibody levels proved to be significant superior to those reached by the use of the GnRHm1-TT peptide solely emulsified in Montanide. Post-mortem analysis on the Testosterone ablation target organs (prostate and testicles) yielded a sudden decrease in their size and weight in respect to the control group. On the other hand, the group submitted to the use of GnRHm1-TT/VSSP, showed a significant difference in the reduction of these target organs in comparison with the group only immunized with GnRHm1-TT adjuvated in Montanide ISA 51. These values turned to be of p=0.023 and p=0.009 in the prostate and testicles respectively. These findings foreground the VSSP as a useful immunopotentiator to be used as part of a GnRH based vaccine to treat prostate cancer.

  15. [Administering GnRH Agonists in the luteal phase of Artificial Cycle Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfers. A prospective randomized study].

    PubMed

    Gogce, M; Benchaib, M; Hadj, S; Bordes, A; du Menildot, P; Lornage, J; Salle, B

    2015-11-01

    Adding GnRH agonists in the luteal phase has recently been said to improve implantation in IVF treatment (increased rates of pregnancy and birth). Adding GnRH agonists could also be beneficial for frozen-thawed embryo transfers. The objective was to compare the administration of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonists during implantation with usual progesterone supplementation in the artificial cycle of frozen-thawed embryo transfers. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in a reproductive medicine center in a university hospital including all women starting an artificial cycle of Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfers (FET). Two hundred and twenty women were randomized from September 2013 to June 2014. In the addition of GnRh agonists' group, two triptorelin injections of 0.1mg were carried out on the 4th day and on the 6th day following the introduction of progesterone. The primary outcome was the ongoing pregnancy rate. The ongoing pregnancy rate was higher (17 % versus 10.6 % P=0.29) when triptorelin was added, although the difference wasn't significant for the population as a whole. The increase proved to be significant in the case of day 2 embryos (34.6 % versus 10.3 % P<0.05) and of vitrified blastocysts (33.3% versus 12.5% P<0.05). The ongoing pregnancy rate for day 2 embryos and vitrified blastocysts significantly increased when GnRH agonists were added during implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the pituitary-gonadal response to GnRH, and adrenal status, in the leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Brown, J L; Goodrowe, K L; Simmons, L G; Armstrong, D L; Wildt, D E

    1988-01-01

    Frequent blood samples were collected to study hormonal responses to GnRH in male and female leopards and tigers. Animals were anaesthetized with ketamine-HCl and blood samples were collected every 5 min for 15 min before and 160 min after i.v. administration of GnRH (1 micrograms/kg body weight) or saline. No differences in serum cortisol concentrations were observed between sexes within species, but mean cortisol was 2-fold greater in leopards than tigers. GnRH induced a rapid rise in LH in all animals (18.3 +/- 0.9 min to peak). Net LH peak height above pretreatment levels was 3-fold greater in males than conspecific females and was also greater in tigers than leopards. Serum FSH increased after GnRH, although the magnitude of response was less than that observed for LH. Basal LH and FSH and GnRH-stimulated FSH concentrations were not influenced by sex or species. Serum testosterone increased within 30-40 min after GnRH in 3/3 leopard and 1/3 tiger males. Basal testosterone was 3-fold greater in tiger than leopard males. LH pulses (1-2 pulses/3 h) were detected in 60% of saline-treated animals, suggesting pulsatile gonadotrophin secretion; however, in males concomitant testosterone pulses were not observed. These results indicate that there are marked sex and species differences in basal and GnRH-stimulated hormonal responses between felids of the genus Panthera which may be related to differences in adrenal activity.

  17. Kisspeptin Activation of TRPC4 Channels in Female GnRH Neurons Requires PIP2 Depletion and cSrc Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin signaling via its Gαq-coupled receptor GPR54 plays a crucial role in modulating GnRH neuronal excitability, which controls pituitary gonadotropins secretion and ultimately reproduction. Kisspeptin potently depolarizes GnRH neurons primarily through the activation of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, but the intracellular signaling cascade has not been elucidated. Presently, we have established that kisspeptin activation of TRPC channels requires multiple membrane and intracellular signaling molecules. First, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis by phospholipase Cβ is required because whole-cell dialysis of Dioctanoylglycerol-PIP2 (DiC8-PIP2) inhibited the kisspeptin activation of TRPC channels, and the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which attenuates PIP2 synthesis, prolonged TRPC channel activation. Using single cell RT-PCR, we identified that the mRNA for the PIP2-interacting TRPC channel subunit, TRPC4α, is expressed in GnRH neurons. Depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate had no effect, indicating that the TRPC channels are not store-operated. Neither removing extracellular Ca2+ nor buffering intracellular Ca2+ with EGTA or BAPTA had any effect on the kisspeptin activation of the TRPC channels. However, the Ca2+ channel blocker Ni2+ inhibited the kisspeptin-induced inward current. Moreover, inhibition of protein kinase C by bisindolylmaleimide-I or calphostin C had no effect, but activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate occluded the kisspeptin-activated current. Finally, inhibition of the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase cSrc by genistein or the pyrazolo-pyrimidine PP2 blocked the activation of TRPC channels by kisspeptin. Therefore, TRPC channels in GnRH neurons are receptor-operated, and kisspeptin activates TRPC channels through PIP2 depletion and cSrc tyrosine kinase activation, which is a novel signaling pathway for

  18. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  19. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4′,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2′,3,4,4′,5′ pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter time points. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly differently from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals. PMID:19362103

  20. Seasonal changes in expression of genes encoding five types of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors and responses to GnRH analog in the pituitary of masu salmon.

    PubMed

    Jodo, Aya; Kitahashi, Takashi; Taniyama, Shinya; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Ando, Hironori

    2005-10-01

    Five types of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) genes, designated as msGnRH-R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, are expressed in the brain and pituitary of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou). In the present study, seasonal changes in the expression of these five genes were examined in the pituitary to elucidate their roles in GnRH action during growth and sexual maturation. In addition, the seasonal variation of these genes in response to GnRH was examined in a GnRH analog (GnRHa) implantation experiment. Pituitary samples were collected 1 week after the implantation every month from immaturity through spawning. The absolute amount of GnRH-R mRNA in single pituitaries was determined by real-time PCR assays. Among the five genes, R4 was predominantly expressed in the pituitaries. In the immature fish, the amount of GnRH-R mRNA varied with seasons and subtypes. In the pre-spawning period, R1 and R4 mRNAs in both sexes and R2 and R3 mRNAs in the females increased 4- to 20-fold and then decreased in the spawning season. The effects of GnRHa treatment were significantly different in both sexes. In the females, GnRHa tended to elevate the expression of all the subtypes of GnRH-R genes in various stages during the experimental period, whereas it had almost no apparent effects in the males. These results indicate that the expression of the five GnRH-R genes is seasonally variable and may be related to the responses of the pituitary hormone genes to GnRH, and the regulation of GnRH-R genes by GnRH is different in both sexes.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  3. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. Methods GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. Results GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple) negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231). After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Conclusions Breast cancers exhibit a range of Gn

  4. Short-term endocrine and metabolic reactions before and after second immunization against GnRH in boars.

    PubMed

    Claus, Rolf; Lacorn, Markus; Danowski, Katrin; Pearce, Michael C; Bauer, Aneka

    2007-06-11

    Immunization of boars against GnRH inhibits synthesis of testicular steroids including androstenone (sex odour). Timing of the second vaccination (anamnestic reaction) should occur as late as possible to maintain anabolic effects of testicular hormones, but early enough to remove androstenone from body fat. Five catheterized boars received the second dose (Improvac) at age 22 weeks. Titre, hormones and parameters reflecting protein turnover were determined in blood. An increased antibody titre and drop of LH and steroids occurred within 5 days. Metabolism adapted after 7 days. Results from this study in conjunction with previous work suggest that after two doses of Improvac given 4 weeks apart, clearance of androstenone from body fat may be achieved as early as 3 weeks after the second vaccination. Thus, it might be possible to extend the duration of anabolic effect in male pig production.

  5. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  6. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign Up for Email Policies ...

  7. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  8. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  9. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  10. Evidence That Dopamine Acts via Kisspeptin to Hold GnRH Pulse Frequency in Check in Anestrous Ewes

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, Matthew J.; Millar, Robert P.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Nestor, Casey C; Whited, Brant; Tseng, Ashlie S.; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has implicated stimulatory kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) as important for seasonal changes in reproductive function in sheep, but earlier studies support a role for inhibitory A15 dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the suppression of GnRH (and LH) pulse frequency in the nonbreeding (anestrous) season. Because A15 neurons project to the ARC, we performed three experiments to test the hypothesis that A15 neurons act via ARC kisspeptin neurons to inhibit LH in anestrus: 1) we used dual immunocytochemistry to determine whether these ARC neurons contain D2 dopamine receptor (D2-R), the receptor responsible for inhibition of LH in anestrus; 2) we tested the ability of local administration of sulpiride, a D2-R antagonist, into the ARC to increase LH secretion in anestrus; and 3) we determined whether an antagonist to the kisspeptin receptor could block the increase in LH secretion induced by sulpiride in anestrus. In experiment 1, 40% of this ARC neuronal subpopulation contained D2-R in breeding season ewes, but this increased to approximately 80% in anestrus. In experiment 2, local microinjection of the two highest doses (10 and 50 nmol) of sulpiride into the ARC significantly increased LH pulse frequency to levels 3 times that seen with vehicle injections. Finally, intracerebroventricular infusion of a kisspeptin receptor antagonist completely blocked the increase in LH pulse frequency induced by systemic administration of sulpiride to anestrous ewes. These results support the hypothesis that DA acts to inhibit GnRH (and LH) secretion in anestrus by suppressing the activity of ARC kisspeptin neurons. PMID:23038740

  11. Effectiveness of the GnRH agonist Deslorelin as a tool to decrease levels of circulating testosterone in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Karagh; Wilson, David A; Burton, Mark; Slaugh, Shayla; Dunning, Jeffery L; Prather, Jonathan F

    2015-10-01

    Songbirds are widely used in studies of the neurobiology underlying learning, memory and performance of the sounds used in vocal communication. Development and activity of neurons in many brain sites implicated in those behaviors are closely related to levels of circulating testosterone. Approaches to understand the effects of testosterone in songbirds are presently limited to testosterone implants, which elevate testosterone levels to supraphysiological values, or castration, which eliminates gonadal production of testosterone. Previous studies in mammals indicate that GnRH agonists may be an effective tool to reduce testosterone within that range of extremes and without invasive surgery. To evaluate the effectiveness of the GnRH agonist Deslorelin as a tool to modulate levels of testosterone in songbirds, we recorded the effects of Deslorelin in adult male zebra finches. We recorded songs, body mass and blood testosterone levels pre-treatment, then we gave each bird a small subcutaneous implant of Deslorelin. We measured blood plasma testosterone levels weekly and recorded song behavior and gross morphology of brain, testes and heart at the end of each experiment. Testosterone levels were reduced at the 5mg/kg dose, and the very slight song changes we observed at that dose were like those reported for castrated zebra finches. As expected, there were no changes in the number of cells in androgen-sensitive brain structures. Suppression of testosterone at the 5mg/kg dose was reversible through implant removal. Thus, Deslorelin is a new tool to transiently suppress testosterone levels without the invasiveness and undesirable aftereffects of surgical castration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropeptidergic control of the optic gland of Octopus vulgaris: FMRF-amide and GnRH immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Di Cosmo, A; Di Cristo, C

    1998-08-17

    In cephalopods, the endocrine optic glands on the optic tract control the maturation of the gonads. The glands are innervated by the optic gland nerve, which originates in the central nervous system. To explore the involvement of neuropeptides in the nervous control of the optic gland of Octopus vulgaris, the presence and distribution of Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRF-amide)-like and gonadotropin releasing homone (GnRH)-like peptides were examined in the central nervous system and optic gland by immunohistochemistry. For GnRH immunodetection, antibodies against four different forms of GnRH were used: cGnRH-I, cGnRH-II, sGnRH, and mGnRH. The optic gland nerve provides direct and indirect signals coming from the centres of integration of chemical, visual, and olfactive stimuli to modulate the glandular activity. In these centres, the subpedunculate area, the olfactory and optic lobes, and FMRF-amide-like and GnRH-like immunoreactivities were detected. The subpedunculate area seems to be the source of the FMRF-amide-like peptide, whereas the posterior olfactory lobule is the source of the GnRH-like peptide. The immunoreactive fibres for both neuropeptides leave their sources and directly enter the optic gland nerve. FMRF-amide- and GnRH-immunoreactive nerve endings are seen on the glandular cells. The evidence of a possible neuropeptidergic control of optic gland activity reinforces the analogies and the functional parallels in the octopus, insect, crustacean, and vertebrate hormonal systems.

  13. Endocrine archeology: do insects retain ancestrally inherited counterparts of the vertebrate releasing hormones GnRH, GHRH, TRH, and CRF?

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold; Lindemans, Marleen; Liu, Feng; De Groef, Bert; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-05-15

    Vertebrate releasing hormones include gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). They are synthesized in the hypothalamus and stimulate the release of pituitary hormones. Here we review the knowledge on hormone releasing systems in the protostomian lineage. We address the question: do insects have peptides that may be phylogenetically related to an ancestral GnRH, GHRH, TRH, and CRF? Such endocrine archeology has become possible thanks to the growing list of fully sequenced genomes as well as to the continuously improving bioinformatic tool set. It has recently been shown that the ecdysozoan (nematodes and arthropods) adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), the lophotrochozoan (annelids and mollusks) GnRHs as well as the protochordate GnRHs are structurally related. The adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptides (APRPs), in locusts encoded by the same gene that contains the AKH-coding region, have been forwarded as the structural counterpart of GHRH of vertebrates. CRF is relatively well conserved in insects, in which it functions as a diuretic hormone. Members of TRH-receptor family seem to have been conserved in some arthropods, but other elements of the thyroid hormone signaling system are not. A challenging idea is that in insects the functions of the thyroid hormones were taken over by juvenile hormone (JH). Our reconstruction suggests that, perhaps, the ancestral releasing hormone precursors played a role in controlling energy metabolism and water balance, and that releasing hormone functions as present in extant vertebrates were probably secondarily acquired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro fertility rate of 129 strain is improved by Buserelin (GnRH) administration prior to superovulation

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, K; Sztein, J M

    2012-01-01

    The 129 mice are well recognized for their low fertility and it is speculated that this lack of fertility may be due to oocyte condition. In this study we investigated superovulation regimens for 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain to improve the oocyte quality and fertility rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Female mice were divided into four groups based on hormone and timing of injection. Group 1 received pregnant mare serum gonatotropin (PMSG) and 48 hours later human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); using the same dose, group 2 received hCG 52 hours post PMSG and group 3, 55 hours post PMSG. Group 4 received Buserelin (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist [GnRH]) followed 24 hours later by PMSG and then hCG 55 hours post PMSG. IVF was performed using 129S1/SvImJ oocytes and sperm; C57BL/6J sperm with 129S1/SvImJ oocytes was used as fertility control. The IVF fertility rate was 1% (Groups 1 & 2), 17% (Group 3) and 55% (Group 4) for 129 oocytes fertilized with 129 sperm. For 129 oocytes fertilized with C57BL/6J sperm, the fertility rate was 5% (Group 1) 10% (Group 2) 40% (Group 3) and 59% (Group 4).-These results suggest that extending the interval time between PMSG and hCG and giving GnRH in addition to the standard PMSG and hCG treatment can improve IVF fertility rate of 129S1/SvImJ strain mice significantly. PMID:23097563

  15. Stimulation of LH, FSH, and luteal blood flow by GnRH during the luteal phase in mares.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Oliveira, F A; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Ginther, O J

    2016-03-01

    A study was performed on the effect of a single dose per mare of 0 (n = 9), 100 (n = 8), or 300 (n = 9) of GnRH on Day 10 (Day 0 = ovulation) on concentrations of LH, FSH, and progesterone (P4) and blood flow to the CL ovary. Hormone concentration and blood flow measurements were performed at hours 0 (hour of treatment), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Blood flow was assessed by spectral Doppler ultrasonography for resistance to blood flow in an ovarian artery before entry into the CL ovary. The percentage of the CL with color Doppler signals of blood flow was estimated from videotapes of real-time color Doppler imaging by an operator who was unaware of mare identity, hour, or treatment dose. Concentrations of LH and FSH increased (P < 0.05) at hour 0.25 and decreased (P < 0.05) over hours 1 to 6; P4 concentration was not altered by treatment. Blood flow resistance decreased between hours 0 and 1, but the decrease was greater (P < 0.05) for the 100-μg dose than for the 300-μg dose. The percentage of CL with blood flow signals increased (P < 0.05) between hours 0 and 1 with no significant difference between the 100- and 300-μg doses. The results supported the hypothesis that GnRH increases LH concentration, vascular perfusion of the CL ovary, and CL blood flow during the luteal phase; however, P4 concentration was not affected.

  16. GnRH receptor gene expression in the developing rat hippocampus: transcriptional regulation and potential roles in neuronal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Schang, Anne-Laure; Ngô-Muller, Valérie; Bleux, Christian; Granger, Anne; Chenut, Marie-Claude; Loudes, Catherine; Magre, Solange; Counis, Raymond; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Laverrière, Jean-Noël

    2011-02-01

    In the pituitary of mammals, the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) plays a primary role in the control of reproductive function. It is further expressed in the hippocampus, where its function, however, is not well defined. By quantitative RT-PCR analyses, we demonstrate herein that the onset of GnRHR gene (Gnrhr) expression in the rat hippocampus was unexpectedly delayed as compared to the pituitary and only occurred after birth. Using a previously described transgenic mouse model bearing the human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter gene under the control of the rat Gnrhr promoter, we established a positive correlation between the temporal pattern of Gnrhr mRNA levels and promoter activity in the hippocampal formation. The gradual appearance of human placental alkaline phosphatase transgene expression occurred simultaneously in the hippocampus and interconnected structures such as the lateral septum and the amygdala, coinciding with the establishment of hippocampo-septal projections. Analysis of transcription factors together with transient transfection assays in hippocampal neurons indicated that the combinatorial code governing the hippocampus-specific expression of the Gnrhr is distinct from the pituitary, likely involving transactivating factors such as NUR77, cyclic AMP response element binding protein, and Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteosarcoma virus oncogene homolog. A silencing transcription factor acting via the -3255/-1135 promoter region of the Gnrhr may be responsible for the transcriptional repression observed around birth. Finally, GnRH directly stimulated via activation of its receptor the expression of several marker genes of neuronal plasticity such as Egr1, synaptophysin, and spinophilin in hippocampal primary cultures, suggesting a role for GnRHR in neuronal plasticity. Further characterization of these mechanisms may help unravel important functions of GnRH/GnRHR signaling in the brain.

  17. Integrated evaluation of scrotal temperature and testosteronemia after GnRH administration in young bulls with low semen production.

    PubMed

    Vencato, J; Cestaro, L; Vazzana, I; Carrer, G; Carlo, E; Dara, S; Stelletta, C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of thermographic monitoring of scrotal surface temperature (SST) as a method to monitor testicular function. Yearling bulls (n = 23) with low semen production were selected. Scrotal surface temperature and serum testosterone (T) concentrations were evaluated before and after administration of 10.5 μg buserelin acetate IV. Thermographic images of scrotum were recorded at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min post-GnRH, while blood sampling was only performed at 60 min post-GnRH. Bulls were divided in two groups: LowTemp bulls (n = 10) had a decreased SST at 60 min; HighTemp bulls (n = 13) had an increased SST. After 60 min, LowTemp bulls had higher T concentrations compared to HighTemp bulls: 14.32 ng/ml ± 0.53 vs 10.30 ± 1.37 ng/ml (mean ± SEM; p < 0.05), respectively. Reproductive performances in both groups improved after GnRH administration, resulting in an increased number of inseminating doses from each collection, which was higher in LowTemp bulls. Pearson correlation test showed a negative relationship between T and SST (r = -0.554). In conclusion, a decreased scrotal surface temperature 60 min after GnRH treatment was associated with improved semen production. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  19. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  20. Routing and Label Space Reduction in Label Switching Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Fernando; Caro, Luis Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas; Papadimitriou, Dimitri

    This chapter is devoted to the analysis and modeling of some problems related to the optimal usage of the label space in label switching networks. Label space problems concerning three different technologies and architectures - namely Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS), Ethernet VLAN-Label Switching (ELS) and All-Optical Label Switching (AOLS) - are discussed in this chapter. Each of these cases yields to different constraints of the general label space reduction problem. We propose a generic optimization model and, then, we describe some adaptations aiming at modeling each particular case. Simulation results are briefly discussed at the end of this chapter.

  1. Nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Larry J; Fortina, Paolo; Park, Jason Y

    2017-03-01

    Important and emerging trends at the interface of luminescence, nucleic acids and nanotechnology are: (i) the conventional luminescence labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. DNA tetrahedron); (ii) the labeling of bulk nucleic acids (e.g. single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. copper nanoclusters); and (iii) the labeling of nucleic acid nanostructures (e.g. origami DNA) with nanostructured luminescent labels (e.g. silver nanoclusters). This review surveys recent advances in these three different approaches to the generation of nanostructured luminescently labeled nucleic acids, and includes both direct and indirect labeling methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of different gonadorelin (GnRH) products used for the first or resynchronized timed artificial insemination on pregnancy rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Poock, S E; Lamberson, W R; Lucy, M C

    2015-09-01

    Different GnRH products are used for timed artificial insemination (AI) in postpartum dairy cows. Previous studies reported greater LH release and increased ovulation percentage for gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate compared with gonadorelin hydrochloride but pregnancies per AI (P/AI) were not evaluated. The objective, therefore, was to compare P/AI for cows treated with either gonadorelin hydrochloride or gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate before the first timed AI or resynchronized timed AI. Holstein cows (n = 3938) in a confinement dairy in northeast Missouri were assigned to weekly cohorts (n = 22) on the basis of calving date. Cows were treated with "Presynch Ovsynch" (PGF2α, 14 days; PGF2α, 14 days; GnRH, 7 days; PGF2α, 56 hours; GnRH, 16 hours; timed AI) so that the first timed AI was 70 to 76 days postpartum. The PGF2α was Lutalyse (5 mL; 25 mg; Zoetis). The GnRH product was either gonadorelin hydrochloride (2 mL; 100 μg; n = 1945) or gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate (2 mL; 100 μg; n = 1993) and alternated weekly for cows assigned to cohorts. There were first timed AI (n = 1790) and resynchronized timed AI (n = 2148) cows within each cohort. The resynchronization began 32 days after timed AI (GnRH, 6 days; ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis, 1 day; and then for nonpregnant cows: PGF2α, 56 hours; GnRH, 16 hours; timed AI). The trial was conducted from January to February 2012 (n = 1203) and July to October 2012 (n = 2735). Cows were fed a total mixed ration, milked thrice daily, and milk tested monthly for volume, somatic cell count (SCC), fat percentage, protein percentage, and milk urea nitrogen. Data were analyzed by fitting the binary response data to a generalized linear mixed model for repeated measures. There was no effect of the GnRH product (treatment) on P/AI (38.4 ± 1.2 vs. 35.7 ± 1.3; gonadorelin diacetate tetrahydrate vs. gonadorelin hydrochloride). Treatment interactions with parity, month of breeding

  3. Direct comparison of the effects of intravenous kisspeptin-10, kisspeptin-54 and GnRH on gonadotrophin secretion in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, C.N.; Abbara, A.; Narayanaswamy, S.; Comninos, A.N.; Ratnasabapathy, R.; Bassett, P.; Mogford, J.T.; Malik, Z.; Calley, J.; Ghatei, M.A.; Bloom, S.R.; Dhillo, W.S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How potently does the novel hypothalamic stimulator of reproduction, kisspeptin, increase gonadotrophin secretion when compared with GnRH in healthy men? SUMMARY ANSWER At the doses tested, intravenous administration of either of two major kisspeptin isoforms, kisspeptin-10 and -54, was associated with similar levels of gonadotrophin secretion in healthy men; however, GnRH was more potent when compared with either kisspeptin isoform. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Kisspeptin-10 and -54 are naturally occurring hormones in the kisspeptin peptide family which potently stimulates endogenous GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus, so have the potential to treat patients with reproductive disorders. Rodent studies suggest that kisspeptin-54 is more potent when compared with kisspepitn-10; however, their effects have not previously been directly compared in humans, or compared with direct pituitary stimulation of gonadotrophin secretion using GnRH. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION A single-blinded placebo controlled physiological study was performed from January to December 2013. Local ethical approval was granted, and five participants were recruited to each dosing group. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Healthy men were administered vehicle, kisspeptin-10, kisspeptin-54 and GnRH intravenously for 3 h on different study days. Each hormone was administered at 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 nmol/kg/h doses (n = 5 subjects per group). Regular blood sampling was conducted throughout the study to measure LH and FSH. Study visits were conducted at least a week apart. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Serum LH and FSH levels were ∼3-fold higher during GnRH infusion when compared with kisspeptin-10 and ∼2-fold higher when compared with kisspeptin-54 [mean area under the curve serum LH during infusion (in hours times international units per litre, h.IU/l): 10.81 ± 1.73, 1.0 nmol/kg/h kisspeptin-10; 14.43 ± 1.27, 1.0 nmol/kg/h kisspeptin-54; 34.06 ± 5.18, 1.0 nmol/kg/h GnRH

  4. Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis following treatment with GnRH analogues

    PubMed Central

    Tornøe, Christoffer W; Agersø, Henrik; Senderovitz, Thomas; Nielsen, Henrik A; Madsen, Henrik; Karlsson, Mats O; Jonsson, E Niclas

    2007-01-01

    Aims To develop a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis describing the changes in luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations following treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triptorelin and the GnRH receptor blocker degarelix. Methods Fifty-eight healthy subjects received single subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of 3.75 mg of triptorelin and 170 prostate cancer patients received multiple subcutaneous doses of degarelix of between 120 and 320 mg. All subjects were pooled for the population PK/PD data analysis. A systematic population PK/PD model-building framework using stochastic differential equations was applied to the data to identify nonlinear dynamic dependencies and to deconvolve the functional feedback interactions of the HPG axis. Results In our final PK/PD model of the HPG axis, the half-life of LH was estimated to be 1.3 h and that of testosterone 7.69 h, which corresponds well with literature values. The estimated potency of LH with respect to testosterone secretion was 5.18 IU l−1, with a maximal stimulation of 77.5 times basal testosterone production. The estimated maximal triptorelin stimulation of the basal LH pool release was 1330 times above basal concentrations, with a potency of 0.047 ng ml−1. The LH pool release was decreased by a maximum of 94.2% by degarelix with an estimated potency of 1.49 ng ml−1. Conclusions Our model of the HPG axis was able to account for the different dynamic responses observed after administration of both GnRH agonists and GnRH receptor blockers, suggesting that the model adequately characterizes the underlying physiology of the endocrine system. PMID:17096678

  5. Different effects of agonistic vs. antagonistic gnrh-analogues (triptorelin vs. cetrorelix) on bone modeling and remodeling in peripubertal female rats.

    PubMed

    Roth, C L; Neu, C; Jarry, H; Schoenau, E

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about the effects of antagonistic GnRH analogues vs. agonists on bone strength, specifically in context of treating precocious puberty. Peripubertal female rats were treated from postnatal day 25 - 36 with either the GnRH agonist triptorelin (TRIP) or the antagonist cetrorelix (CET). Using peripherial quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) we investigated effects on bone parameters. Onset of puberty was retarded by both analogues as measured by prevention of vaginal opening at 36 d of age and reduced uterine weights. In the tibia, cortical content, cortical area related to body weight, and periosteal circumference related to weight were significantly reduced in CET-treated rats - indicating reduced bone modeling and reduced bone strength (cortical circumference related to body weight: CET 0.066 +/- 0.001 vs. TRIP 0.068 +/- 0.001 vs. controls 0.071 +/- 0.001 mm/g, mean +/- SEM, p < 0.05 CET vs. controls; cortical area related to body weight: CET 3.87 +/- 0.46 vs. TRIP 6.80 +/- 0.63 vs. controls 8.07 +/- 1.13, x 10 (-3) mm (2)/g, p < 0.001 CET vs. controls; cortical content: CET 0.316 +/- 0.038 vs. TRIP 0.546 +/- 0.051 vs. controls 0.624 +/- 0.089 mg/mm, p < 0.01 CET vs. controls). In conclusion, although both CET and TRIP inhibit puberty in rats, cortical thinning was only seen in CET-treated rats. This indicates that GnRH antagonist treatment might cause reduced bone strength which is partly comparable to postmenopausal bone loss. When using new GnRH antagonists for treating precocious puberty in humans, parameters for bone strength and mineralization should be monitored.

  6. Regional and subtype-specific loss of GnRH neurons is associated with diminished mating behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Tsai, Yuan-Feen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Yeh, Kuei-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The current study was to examine the relationship between the number of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats. Based on their sexual performance, middle-aged male rats (18-19 months) were assigned to three groups: (i) Group MIE (showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculation), (ii) Group MI (displaying mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation), and (iii) Group NC (showing no copulatory behavior). The brains of these middle-aged animals and of sexually active, young controls were collected and then examined for immunohistochemical localization of GnRH neurons. The numbers of two subtypes of GnRH neurons, smooth (s-GnRH) and irregular (i-GnRH), in the medial septum (MS), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), preoptic area (POA), and anterior hypothalamus (AH), were determined under a light microscope. As compared to young controls, an age-related decrease in the number of s-GnRH neurons was found in the MS of MIE rats. Among three groups of middle-aged rats, Groups MIE and MI had more s-GnRH neurons in the POA and i-GnRH neurons in the OVLT and POA than Group NC. In addition, loss of s-GnRH and i-GnRH neurons in the MS was observed in Groups MI and NC and Group NC, respectively. Our results suggest that a decrease in GnRH neuron subtypes occurring in different brain regions might be critical for the loss of specific components of male rat sexual behavior during aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. mRNA levels of kisspeptins, kisspeptin receptors, and GnRH1 in the brain of chub mackerel during puberty.

    PubMed

    Ohga, Hirofumi; Adachi, Hayato; Matsumori, Kojiro; Kodama, Ryoko; Nyuji, Mitsuo; Selvaraj, Sethu; Kato, Keitaro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2015-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) and its cognate receptor (Kiss1R), implicated in the neuroendocrine control of GnRH secretion in mammals, have been proposed to be the key factors in regulating puberty. However, the mechanisms underlying the initiation of puberty in fish are poorly understood. The chub mackerel Scomber japonicus expresses two forms of Kiss (kiss1 and kiss2) and two Kiss receptor (kissr1 and kissr2) genes in the brain, which exhibit sexually dimorphic changes during the seasonal reproductive cycle. This indicates that the kisspeptin system plays an important role in gonadal recrudescence of chub mackerel; however, the involvement of the kisspeptin system in the pubertal process has not been identified. In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression of kiss1, kiss2, kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 (hypophysiotropic form) in the brain of a chub mackerel during puberty. In male fish, kiss2, kissr1 and kissr2 levels increased significantly at 14weeks post-hatch (wph), synchronously with an increase in type A spermatogonial populations in the testis; kiss2 and gnrh1 levels significantly increased at 22wph, just before the onset of meiosis in the testes. In female fish, kiss2 increased significantly at 14wph, synchronously with an increase in the number of perinucleolar oocytes in the ovary; kiss1 and kiss2 levels significantly increased concomitantly with an increase in the kissr1, kissr2, and gnrh1 levels at 24wph, just before the onset of vitellogenesis in oocytes. The present results suggest positive involvement of the kisspeptin-GnRH system in the pubertal process in the captive reared chub mackerel.

  8. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity. Labels... accuracy including, where applicable, the correct expiration date, control number, storage instructions...

  9. Differential regulation of GnRH ligand and receptor genes in the brain and pituitary of Atlantic cod exposed to different photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Hildahl, Jon; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Norberg, Birgitta; Haug, Trude M; Weltzien, Finn-Arne

    2013-01-01

    The onset of puberty and reproduction are tightly controlled by extrinsic and intrinsic inputs combined with genetically determined biological blueprints. Environmental inputs are then mediated by the brain-pituitary-gonad endocrine axis resulting in a unified output. In fish, one of the primary factors controlling the timing of sexual maturation is light, although how these signals are mediated in the brain and pituitary is not well understood. We therefore aimed to elucidate the molecular basis of the control of reproduction during the first spawning season in two year old female Atlantic cod. To this end, we measured GnRH and GnRH-R variant gene expression in brains and pituitaries collected from cod kept under four different photoperiod regimes: natural light (NL), continuous light (LL) and combined treatment of NL-LL and LL-NL. LL inhibited sexual development and spawning and LL-NL delayed sexual development and spawning. LL inhibited the spawning-related increase in brain GnRH3 and pituitary GnRH-R2a gene expression found under NL conditions, and the expression of these genes were delayed in concert with spawning of LL-NL cod. This study indicates that regulation of brain GnRH3 and pituitary GnRH-R2a genes likely mediates photoperiod induced changes in cod gonadal maturation.

  10. Long-term GnRH analogue treatment is equivalent to laparoscopic laser diathermy in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with severe ovarian dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Muenstermann, U; Kleinstein, J

    2000-12-01

    This prospective, randomized study included 18 polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with severe ovarian dysfunction, who were evaluated by standard clomiphene and FSH stimulation. In this group of patients, a 6 month down-regulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues gave outcomes similar to laparoscopic ovarian laser diathermy with respect to stimulatory outcome and pregnancy rate. Clomiphene stimulation with 50 mg of clomiphene/day and FSH stimulation in a low-dose, step-up protocol with purified FSH did not result in oligofollicular development; thus patients were divided into two subgroups: one subgroup received laparoscopic laser drilling and the other received 6 months of therapy with GnRH analogues plus add-back therapy after diagnostic laparoscopy. Subsequently, three cycles of low-dose, step-up stimulation with recombinant FSH were started. In both groups, approximately 30% of cycles still remained anovulatory. In the down-regulated subgroup, this mainly happened in the first cycle. In each group, ovulation was achieved in 14 cycles, intrauterine insemination was performed, and five pregnancies were obtained. This resulted in a pregnancy rate of 36% per ovulatory cycle in both groups. Overall, 50% of the formerly unreactive patients in both groups overcame childlessness. In achieving this, long-term treatment with GnRH analogues was as successful as laparoscopic laser diathermy.

  11. Use of a single bolus of GnRH agonist triptorelin to trigger ovulation after GnRH antagonist ganirelix treatment in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction, with special reference to the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: preliminary report: short communication.

    PubMed

    Itskovitz-Eldor, J; Kol, S; Mannaerts, B

    2000-09-01

    A new treatment option for patients undergoing ovarian stimulation is the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, with the possibility to trigger a mid-cycle LH surge using a single bolus of GnRH agonist, reducing the risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in high responders and the chance of cycle cancellation. This report describes the use of 0.2 mg triptorelin (Decapeptyl) to trigger ovulation in eight patients who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH (rFSH, Puregon) and concomitant treatment with the GnRH antagonist ganirelix (Orgalutran) for the prevention of premature LH surges. All patients were considered to have an increased risk for developing OHSS (at least 20 follicles > or =11 mm and/or serum oestradiol at least 3000 pg/ml). On the day of triggering the LH surge, the mean number of follicles > or =11 mm was 25.1 +/- 4.5 and the median serum oestradiol concentration was 3675 (range 2980-7670) pg/ml. After GnRH agonist injection, endogenous serum LH and FSH surges were observed with median peak values of 219 and 19 IU/l respectively, measured 4 h after injection. The mean number of oocytes obtained was 23.4 +/- 15.4, of which 83% were mature (metaphase II). None of the patients developed any signs or symptoms of OHSS. So far, four clinical pregnancies have been achieved from the embryos obtained during these cycles, including the first birth following this approach. It is concluded that GnRH agonist effectively triggers an endogenous LH surge for final oocyte maturation after ganirelix treatment in stimulated cycles. Our preliminary results suggest that this regimen may prove effective in triggering ovulation and could be said to prevent OHSS in high responders. The efficacy and safety of such new treatment regimen needs to be established in comparative randomized studies.

  12. The central effect of beta-endorphin and naloxone on the expression of GnRH Gene and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) gene in the hypothalamus, and on GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland in follicular phase ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, M O; Lapot, M; Malewski, T; Mateusiak, K; Misztal, T; Przekop, F

    2008-01-01

    The effect of prolonged intermittent infusion of beta-endorphin or naloxone into the third cerebral ventricle in ewes during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle on the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland was examined by Real time-PCR. Activation of micro opioid receptors decreased GnRH mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and led to complex changes in GnRH-R mRNA: an increase of GnRH-R mRNA in the preoptic area, no change in the anterior hypothalamus and decrease in the ventromedial hypothalamus and stalk/median eminence. In beta-endorphin treated ewes the levels of GnRH-R mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland also decreased significantly. These complex changes in the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA were reflected in the decrease of LH secretion. Blockade of micro opioid receptors affected neither GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA nor LH levels secretion. These results indicate that beta-endorphin displays a suppressive effect on the expression of the GnRH gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, but affects GnRH-R gene expression in a specific manner in the various parts of hypothalamus; altogether these events lead to the decrease in GnRH/LH secretion.

  13. A reduction in long-term spatial memory persists after discontinuation of peripubertal GnRH agonist treatment in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hough, D; Bellingham, M; Haraldsen, I R; McLaughlin, M; Robinson, J E; Solbakk, A K; Evans, N P

    2017-03-01

    Chronic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) administration is used where suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activity is beneficial, such as steroid-dependent cancers, early onset gender dysphoria, central precocious puberty and as a reversible contraceptive in veterinary medicine. GnRH receptors, however, are expressed outside the reproductive axis, e.g. brain areas such as the hippocampus which is crucial for learning and memory processes. Previous work, using an ovine model, has demonstrated that long-term spatial memory is reduced in adult rams (45 weeks of age), following peripubertal blockade of GnRH signaling (GnRHa: goserelin acetate), and this was independent of the associated loss of gonadal steroid signaling. The current study investigated whether this effect is reversed after discontinuation of GnRHa-treatment. The results demonstrate that peripubertal GnRHa-treatment suppressed reproductive function in rams, which was restored after cessation of GnRHa-treatment at 44 weeks of age, as indicated by similar testes size (relative to body weight) in both GnRHa-Recovery and Control rams at 81 weeks of age. Rams in which GnRHa-treatment was discontinued (GnRHa-Recovery) had comparable spatial maze traverse times to Controls, during spatial orientation and learning assessments at 85 and 99 weeks of age. Former GnRHa-treatment altered how quickly the rams progressed beyond a specific point in the spatial maze at 83 and 99 weeks of age, and the direction of this effect depended on gonadal steroid exposure, i.e. GnRHa-Recovery rams progressed quicker during breeding season and slower during non-breeding season, compared to Controls. The long-term spatial memory performance of GnRHa-Recovery rams remained reduced (P<0.05, 1.5-fold slower) after discontinuation of GnRHa, compared to Controls. This result suggests that the time at which puberty normally occurs may represent a critical period of hippocampal plasticity. Perturbing normal

  14. Spike and Neuropeptide-Dependent Mechanisms Control GnRH Neuron Nerve Terminal Ca(2+) over Diverse Time Scales.

    PubMed

    Iremonger, Karl J; Porteous, Robert; Herbison, Allan E

    2017-03-22

    Fast cell-to-cell communication in the brain is achieved by action potential-dependent synaptic release of neurotransmitters. The fast kinetics of transmitter release are determined by transient Ca(2+) elevations in presynaptic nerve terminals. Neuromodulators have previously been shown to regulate transmitter release by inhibiting presynaptic Ca(2+) influx. Few studies to date have demonstrated the opposite, that is, neuromodulators directly driving presynaptic Ca(2+) rises and increases in nerve terminal excitability. Here we use GCaMP Ca(2+) imaging in brain slices from mice to address how nerve terminal Ca(2+) is controlled in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via action potentials and neuromodulators. Single spikes and bursts of action potentials evoked fast, voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel-dependent Ca(2+) elevations. In contrast, brief exposure to the neuropeptide kisspeptin-evoked long-lasting Ca(2+) plateaus that persisted for tens of minutes. Neuropeptide-mediated Ca(2+) elevations were independent of action potentials, requiring Ca(2+) entry via voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and transient receptor potential channels in addition to release from intracellular store mechanisms. Together, these data reveal that neuromodulators can exert powerful and long-lasting regulation of nerve terminal Ca(2+) independently from actions at the soma. Thus, GnRH nerve terminal function is controlled over disparate timescales via both classical spike-dependent and nonclassical neuropeptide-dependent mechanisms.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Nerve terminals are highly specialized regions of a neuron where neurotransmitters and neurohormones are released. Many neuroendocrine neurons release neurohormones in long-duration bursts of secretion. To understand how this is achieved, we have performed live Ca(2+) imaging in the nerve terminals of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. We find that bursts of action potentials and local neuropeptide signals are both capable of

  15. Alteration of gonadotrophin and steroid hormone release, and of ovarian function by a GnRH antagonist in gilts.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, K P; Schneider, F; Nürnberg, G

    2001-04-30

    This study examined the impact of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist Antarelix on LH, FSH, ovarian steroid hormone secretion, follicular development and pituitary response to LHRH in cycling gilts. Oestrous cycle of 24 Landrace gilts was synchronised with Regumate (for 15 days) followed by 800 IU PMSG 24h later. In experiment 1, Antarelix (n=6 gilts) was injected i.v. (0.5mg per injection) twice daily on four consecutive days from day 3 to 6 (day 0=last day of Regumate feeding). Control gilts (n=6) received saline. Blood was sampled daily, and every 20 min for 6h on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. In experiment 2, gilts (n=12) were assigned to the following treatments: Antarelix; Antarelix + 50 microg LHRH on day 4; Antarelix + 150 microg LHRH on day 4 or control, 50 microg LHRH only on day 4. Blood samples were collected daily and every 20 min for 6h on days 2, 4 and 6 to assess LH pulsatility. Ovarian follicular development was evaluated at slaughter. Antarelix suppressed (P<0.05) serum LH concentrations. The amount of LH released on days 4-9 (experiment 1) was 8.80 versus 36.54 ngml(-1) (S.E.M.=6.54). The pattern of FSH, and the preovulatory oestradiol rise was not affected by GnRH antagonist. Suppression of LH resulted in a failure (P<0.05) of postovulatory progesterone secretion. Exogenous LHRH (experiment 2) induced a preovulatory-like LH peak, however in Antarelix treated gilts the LH surge started earlier and its duration was less compared to controls (P<0.01). Furthermore, the amount of LH released from day 4 to 5 was lower (P<0.01) in Antarelix, Antarelix + 50 and Antarelix + 150 treated animals compared to controls. No differences were estimated in the number of LH pulses between days and treatment. Pulsatile FSH was not affected by treatment. Mean basal LH levels were lower (P<0.05) after antagonist treatment compared to controls. Antarelix blocked the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation, but the effects of Antarelix were reduced by exogenous

  16. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  17. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  18. From Labels to Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The author argues that to truly help young students who struggle with reading and writing--including those with identified disabilities or conditions that effect building literacy--teachers should avoid the approach of focusing on a student's deficits and creating labels for him or her (dyslexic, English language learner, and so on). A rush to…

  19. Photoaffinity-labeled Cytokinins

    PubMed Central

    Theiler, Jane B.; Leonard, Nelson J.; Schmitz, Ruth Y.; Skoog, Folke

    1976-01-01

    Two new azidopurine derivatives, 2-azido-N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl)adenine and 2-azido-N6-benzyladenine, have been synthesized as potential photoaffinity labels for probing cytokinin-binding sites. The preparation and the biological activity of these compounds are described. PMID:16659772

  20. In Search of the Molecular Mechanisms Mediating the Inhibitory Effect of the GnRH Antagonist Degarelix on Human Prostate Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Monica; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Patterson, Nathan H.; Chaurand, Pierre; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Degarelix is a gonadrotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR) antagonist used in patients with prostate cancer who need androgen deprivation therapy. GnRHRs have been found in extra-pituitary tissues, including prostate, which may be affected by the GnRH and GnRH analogues used in therapy. The direct effect of degarelix on human prostate cell growth was evaluated. Normal prostate myofibroblast WPMY-1 and epithelial WPE1-NA22 cells, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-1 cells, androgen-independent PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells, as well as VCaP cells derived from a patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer were used. Discriminatory protein and lipid fingerprints of normal, hyperplastic, and cancer cells were generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The investigated cell lines express GNRHR1 and GNRHR2 and their endogenous ligands. Degarelix treatment reduced cell viability in all prostate cell lines tested, with the exception of the PC-3 cells; this can be attributed to increased apoptosis, as indicated by increased caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 levels. WPE1-NA22, BPH-1, LNCaP, and VCaP cell viability was not affected by treatment with the GnRH agonists leuprolide and goserelin. Using MALDI MS, we detected changes in m/z signals that were robust enough to create a complete discriminatory profile induced by degarelix. Transcriptomic analysis of BPH-1 cells provided a global map of genes affected by degarelix and indicated that the biological processes affected were related to cell growth, G-coupled receptors, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, angiogenesis and cell adhesion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (i) the GnRH antagonist degarelix exerts a direct effect on prostate cell growth through apoptosis; (ii) MALDI MS analysis provided a basis to fingerprint degarelix-treated prostate cells; and (iii) the clusters of genes affected by degarelix suggest that

  1. Reproductive outcome with GnRH inclusion at 24 or 36h following a prostaglandin F2α-based protocol for timed AI in ewes.

    PubMed

    Olivera-Muzante, J; Gil, J; Viñoles, C; Fierro, S

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the reproductive performance obtained after a short-interval prostaglandin (PG) F2α-based protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in sheep (Synchrovine®: two injections of PG 7 d apart), including a GnRH analogue at 24 or 36h after the second PG injection. The experiment involved 296 Corriedale ewes (206 multiparous and 90 nulliparous) grazing natural pastures during the breeding season (March-April; UTU "La Carolina", Flores Uruguay, 33° S-57° W). Ewes were assigned to three treatment groups: a) Synchrovine® (Control, n=101): two injections of D-Cloprostenol 75μg, 7 d apart, b) Synchrovine®+GnRH24 (n=98): Synchrovine® plus GnRH (busereline acetate 8.4μg) 24h after the second PG injection, and c) Synchrovine®+GnRH36 (n=97): Synchrovine® plus GnRH 36h after the second PG injection. All ewes were subjected to cervical TAI (Day 0), 44 to 47h after second PG injection, with fresh extended semen pool from six rams. Reproductive performance of ewes having ovulations and ovulation rate on Day 10, estrous cycle length in ewes that returned to estrus and non-return rate to estrus up to Day 22, fertility, prolificacy and fecundity on Day 70 were analyzed. Ewes having ovulations, ovulation rate, estrous cycle length and prolificacy did not differ between groups (P>0.05). However, non-return to estrus, fertility and fecundity was decreased in Synchrovine®+GnRH24 (P<0.05) and similar between Synchrovine® and Synchrovine®+GnRH36 (P>0.05). It was concluded that the reproductive performance obtained by Synchovine® TAI protocol was impaired by GnRH at 24h and not improved by GnRH administered at 36h after the second PG injection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of GnRH vaccination in wild and captive African Elephant bulls (Loxodonta africana) on reproductive organs and semen quality

    PubMed Central

    Young, Debbie; Maree, Liana; van der Horst, Gerhard; Luther, Ilse; Botha, Stephan; Tindall, Brendan; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Ganswindt, André; Bertschinger, Henk J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Although the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), in some isolated habitats in southern Africa, contraception is of major interest due to local overpopulation. GnRH vaccination has been promoted as a non-invasive contraceptive measure for population management of overabundant wildlife. We tested the efficacy of this treatment for fertility control in elephant bulls. Methods In total, 17 male African elephants that were treated with a GnRH vaccine were examined in two groups. In the prospective study group 1 (n = 11 bulls, ages: 8–36 years), semen quality, the testes, seminal vesicles, ampullae and prostate, which were all measured by means of transrectal ultrasound, and faecal androgen metabolite concentrations were monitored over a three-year period. Each bull in the prospective study received 5 ml of Improvac® (1000 μg GnRH conjugate) intramuscularly after the first examination, followed by a booster six weeks later and thereafter every 5–7 months. In a retrospective study group (group 2, n = 6, ages: 19–33 years), one examination was performed on bulls which had been treated with GnRH vaccine for 5–11 years. Results In all bulls of group 1, testicular and accessory sex gland sizes decreased significantly after the third vaccination. In six males examined prior to vaccination and again after more than five vaccinations, the testis size was reduced by 57.5%. Mean testicular height and length decreased from 13.3 ± 2.6 cm x 15.2 ± 2.8 cm at the beginning to 7.6 ± 2.1 cm x 10.2 ± 1.8 cm at the end of the study. Post pubertal bulls (>9 years, n = 6) examined prior to vaccination produced ejaculates with viable spermatozoa (volume: 8–175 ml, sperm concentration: 410-4000x106/ml, total motility: 0–90%), while after 5–8 injections, only 50% of these bulls produced ejaculates with a small number of immotile spermatozoa. The ejaculates of group 2 bulls

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  4. Protein Disulfide Isomerase Chaperone ERP-57 Decreases Plasma Membrane Expression of the Human GnRH Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yánez, Rodrigo Ayala; Conn, P. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Retention of misfolded proteins by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a quality control mechanism involving the participation of endogenous chaperones such as calnexin (CANX) which interact and restrict plasma membrane expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), a G protein coupled receptor. CANX also interacts with ERP-57, a thiol oxidoreductase chaperone present in the ER. CANX along with ERP-57, promotes the formation of disulfide bond bridges in nascent proteins. The human GnRH receptor (hGnRHR) is stabilized by two disulfide bond bridges (Cys14-Cys200 and Cys114-Cys196), that, when broken, its expression at plasma membrane decreases. To determine if the presence of chaperones CANX and ERP-57 exert an influence over membrane routing and second messenger activation, we assessed the effect of various mutants including those with broken bridges (Cys→Ala) along with the wild type hGnRHR. The effect of chaperones on mutants was insignificant, whereas the overexpression of ERP-57 led to a wild type hGnRHR retention which was further enhanced by cotransfection with CANX cDNA disclosing receptor retention by ERP-57 augmented by CANX, suggesting a quality control mechanism. PMID:20029959

  5. Repeated use of the GnRH analogue deslorelin to down-regulate reproduction in male cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, H J; Jago, M; Nöthling, J O; Human, A

    2006-10-01

    The GnRH analogue deslorelin, as a subcutaneous implant, was initially developed in Australia as an ovulation-inducing agent in mares. Its uses, for the suppression of reproduction in the domestic dog and cat and in other species, including humans, have been developed subsequently. Such implants have been used as a contraceptive modality in a variety of wild carnivores, both males and females. This paper describes the use of deslorelin implants as a contraceptive agent for cheetah males maintained in a semi-captive environment and housed in various camps together with females. Annually, male cheetahs were treated for 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 7), 3 (n = 9), 4 (n = 3) or 5 (n = 1) consecutive years with an implant containing 4.7, 5.0 or 6.0 mg of deslorelin. On the first day of treatment and then on an annual basis, blood testosterone concentrations were analysed, testicular measurements were taken, appearance of penile spikes was determined, and semen was collected and evaluated. Pregnancy rates of mated or inseminated females were determined. A dose of 6 mg of deslorelin suppressed reproduction for at least 1 year, whereas with 4.7 and 5 mg of deslorelin, 3 of 17 males had a few non-motile spermatozoa in their ejaculates. All testosterone concentrations were basal at 1 year post-implant and no side effects were observed. We concluded that deslorelin implantation, at a dose of 6 mg, was a safe and reliable method of annual contraception in male cheetahs.

  6. Ovulation synchronization with estradiol benzoate or GnRH in a timed artificial insemination protocol in buffalo cows and heifers during the nonbreeding season.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, N A T; Soares, J G; Souza, D C; Maio, J R G; Sales, J N S; Martins Júnior, B; Macari, R C; D'Occhio, M J; Baruselli, P S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare estradiol benzoate (EB) and GnRH for the induction of ovulation in a TAI protocol in buffalo during the nonbreeding season. In experiment 1, 141 buffaloes (56 cows and 85 heifers) received an intravaginal P4 device (1.0 g) plus EB (2.0-mg, intramuscular [im]) at random stage of the estrous cycle (Day 0). On Day 9, the P4 device was removed, and buffaloes were given PGF2α (0.53-mg im sodium cloprostenol) plus eCG (400-IU im). Buffaloes were then randomly allocated to one of three groups and treated as follows: EB24 (n = 47), EB (1.0 mg im) 24 hours after P4 device removal; EB36 (n = 50), EB 36 hours after P4 device removal; GnRH48 (n = 44), GnRH (10 μg im buserelin acetate) 48 hours after P4 device removal. Ultrasound examinations were performed on Day 0 to ascertain ovarian follicular status, Day 9 to measure follicular diameter, and from Day 11 to Day 14 (every 12 hours for 60 hours) to establish the time of ovulation. There were no significant differences between EB24, EB36, and GnRH48 for diameter of the ovulatory follicle (13.1 ± 0.3, 13.7 ± 0.3, and 13.7 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.26) and ovulation rate (78.7%, 82.0%, and 84.1%; P = 0.93). When compared with heifers, cows had a greater diameter of the dominant follicle on Day 9 (10.3 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2 mm; P = 0.0001), diameter of the ovulatory follicle (14.1 ± 0.3 and 13.1 ± 0.2 mm; P = 0.01), ovulation rate (91.1% and 75.3%; P = 0.02), and interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (76.3 ± 1.3 and 72.5 ± 1.4 hours; P = 0.05). In experiment 2, 511 buffaloes (354 cows and 157 heifers) were assigned to the same treatments described in experiment 1 (EB24, n = 168; EB36, n = 172; and GnRH48, n = 171), and all animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) 64 hours after P4 device removal. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken 30 days after TAI. There were no significant differences between EB24, EB36, and

  7. GnRH antagonist versus long agonist protocols in IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis accounting for patient type.

    PubMed

    Lambalk, C B; Banga, F R; Huirne, J A; Toftager, M; Pinborg, A; Homburg, R; van der Veen, F; van Wely, M

    2017-09-01

    Most reviews of IVF ovarian stimulation protocols have insufficiently accounted for various patient populations, such as ovulatory women, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or women with poor ovarian response, and have included studies in which the agonist or antagonist was not the only variable between the compared study arms. The aim of the current study was to compare GnRH antagonist protocols versus standard long agonist protocols in couples undergoing IVF or ICSI, while accounting for various patient populations and treatment schedules. The Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Review Group specialized register of controlled trials and Pubmed and Embase databases were searched from inception until June 2016. Eligible trials were those that compared GnRH antagonist protocols and standard long GnRH agonist protocols in couples undergoing IVF or ICSI. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were: live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, number of oocytes retrieved and safety with regard to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Separate comparisons were performed for the general IVF population, women with PCOS and women with poor ovarian response. Pre-planned subgroup analyses were performed for various antagonist treatment schedules. We included 50 studies. Of these, 34 studies reported on general IVF patients, 10 studies reported on PCOS patients and 6 studies reported on poor responders. In general IVF patients, ongoing pregnancy rate was significantly lower in the antagonist group compared with the agonist group (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.96). In women with PCOS and in women with poor ovarian response, there was no evidence of a difference in ongoing pregnancy between the antagonist and agonist groups (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.84-1.11 and RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.65-1.17, respectively). Subgroup analyses for various antagonist treatment schedules compared to the long protocol GnRH agonist showed a significantly lower ongoing

  8. The forebrain-midbrain acts as functional endocrine signaling pathway of Kiss2/Gnrh1 system controlling the gonadotroph activity in the teleost fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Espigares, Felipe; Carrillo, Manuel; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Some teleost species, including European sea bass, harbor two different kisspeptin coding genes: kiss1 and kiss2. Both genes are expressed in the brain, but their differential roles in the central control of fish reproduction are only beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we have examined the effects of intracerebroventricular injections of the highly active sea bass peptides Kiss1-15 and Kiss2-12 on spermiating male sea bass. Physiological saline, Kiss1-15, or Kiss2-12 was injected into the third ventricle. To establish the gene expression cascade involved in the action of kisspeptins, the expression of the two sea bass kisspeptin receptor genes (kiss1r and kiss2r) and the three sea bass Gnrh genes (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3) were analyzed in the forebrain-midbrain and the hypothalamus. In addition, the protein levels of hypothalamic and pituitary Gnrh1 were measured. Blood samples were collected at different times after injection to analyze the effects of kisspeptins on the release of gonadotropins (Lh and Fsh) and androgens (testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone). The present results provide the first evidence that the effects of Kiss2 on central regulation of reproductive function involve the neuroendocrine areas of the forebrain-midbrain in teleost fish. The marked effect of Kiss2 on kiss2r and gnrh1 expression in the forebrain-midbrain and on Gnrh1 release suggest that this neuronal system is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotroph activity. This hypothesis was confirmed by a surge of plasma Lh in response to Kiss2, which presumably has a strong stimulatory effect on testosterone release, and thus on sperm quality parameters. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Effect of Administration of Single Dose GnRH Agonist in Luteal Phase on Outcome of ICSI-ET Cycles in Women with Previous History of IVF/ICSI Failure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zafardoust, Simin; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kamali, Koroush; Mokhtar, Sara; Badehnoosh, Bita; Arjmand-Teymouri, Fatemeh; Fatemi, Farnaz; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background GnRH agonist administration in the luteal phase has been suggested to beneficially affect the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer (ET) cycles. This blind randomized controlled study evaluates the effect of GnRH (Gonadotropine Releasing Hormone) agonist administration on ICSI outcome in GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol in women with 2 or more previous IVF/ICSI-ET failures. Methods One hundred IVF failure women who underwent ICSI cycles and stimulated with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol, were included in the study. Women were randomly assigned to intervention (received a single dose injection of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg of Decapeptil) subcutaneously 6 days after oocyte retrieval) and control (did not receive GnRH agonist) groups. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures. Results Although the age of women, the number of embryos transferred in the current cycle and the quality of the transferred embryos were similar in the two groups, there was a significantly higher rate of implantation (Mann Whitney test, p = 0.041) and pregnancy (32.6% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.030, OR = 3.3, 95%CI, 1.08 to 10.4) in the intervention group. Conclusion Our results suggested that, in addition to routine luteal phase support using progesterone, administration of 0.1 mg of Decapeptil 6 days after oocyte retrieval in women with previous history of 2 or more IVF/ICSI failures led to a significant improvement in implantation and pregnancy rates after ICSI following ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol. PMID:25927026

  10. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  11. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  12. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  13. Collective Multi-Label Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    there is one output random variable . We begin by de- scribing this traditional classifier, then we describe its common ex- tension to the multi- label ...dependencies among the output variables . In addition to having feature for each label -term pair, CML main- tains features accounting for label co...over all possible multi- labelings — that is, over all subsets of Y . This method is intuitively appealing: it is easy to explain, and it is informative

  14. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Labels are overlaid on a photo (0003837) of the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA are developing the MSG for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  15. Food Labels Tell the Story!

    MedlinePlus

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  16. Response to GnRH on day 6 of the estrous cycle is diminished as the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increases in Angus, Brangus, and Brahman x Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Germán E; Bridges, G Allen; de Araujo, Jennifer W; Shaw, Mary-Karen V; Schrick, F Neal; Thatcher, William W; Yelich, Joel V

    2008-01-15

    Angus (n=6), Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Brahman, n=6), and Brahman x Angus (3/8 Angus x 5/8 Brahman, n=6) heifers exhibiting estrous cycles at regular intervals were used to determine if the percentage of Bos indicus breeding influenced the secretory patterns of LH in response to a GnRH treatment on Day 6 of the estrous cycle. Heifers were pre-synchronized with a two-injection PGF(2 alpha) protocol (25 mg i.m. Day -14 and 12.5 mg i.m. Day -3 and -2 of experiment). Heifers received 100 microg GnRH i.m. on Day 6 of the subsequent estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH and 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420, and 480 min after GnRH to determine concentrations of serum LH. Estradiol concentrations were determined at -60, -30, and -1 min before GnRH. On Day 6 and 8, ovaries were examined by ultrasonography to determine if ovulation occurred. On Day 13, heifers received 25 mg PGF(2 alpha) i.m. and blood samples were collected daily until either the expression of estrus or Day 20 for heifers not exhibiting estrus to determine progesterone concentrations. There was no effect (P>0.10) of breed on ovulation rate to GnRH as well as size of the largest follicle, mean estradiol, and mean corpus luteum volume at GnRH. Mean LH was greater (P<0.05) for Angus (7.0+/-0.8 ng/mL) compared to Brangus (4.6+/-0.8 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (2.9+/-0.8 ng/mL), which were similar (P>0.10). Mean LH peak-height was similar (P>0.10) for Brangus (13.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) compared to Angus (21.9+/-3.4 ng/mL) and Brahman x Angus (8.0+/-3.4 ng/mL), but was greater (P<0.05) for Angus compared to Brahman x Angus. Interval from GnRH to LH peak was similar (P>0.10) between breeds. As the percentage of Bos indicus breeding increased the amount of LH released in response to GnRH on Day 6 of the estrous cycle decreased.

  17. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  18. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  19. Map labeling and its generalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Doddi, S. |; Marathe, M.V.; Mirzaian, A.; Moret, B.M.E.; Zhu, B. |

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  20. Dynamic changes in social dominance and mPOA GnRH expression in male mice following social opportunity.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Cait M; Romeo, Russell D; Curley, James P

    2017-01-01

    Social competence - the ability of animals to dynamically adjust their social behavior dependent on the current social context - is fundamental to the successful establishment and maintenance of social relationships in group-living species. The social opportunity paradigm, where animals rapidly ascend a social hierarchy following the removal of more dominant individuals, is a well-established approach for studying the neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socially competent behavior. In the current study, we demonstrate that this paradigm can be successfully adapted for studying socially competent behavior in laboratory mice. Replicating our previous reports, we show that male laboratory mice housed in a semi-natural environment form stable linear social hierarchies. Novel to the current study, we find that subdominant male mice immediately respond to the removal of the alpha male from a hierarchy by initiating a dramatic increase in aggressive behavior towards more subordinate individuals. Consequently, subdominants assume the role of the alpha male. Analysis of brain gene expression in individuals 1h following social ascent indicates elevated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA levels in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus compared to individuals that do not experience a social opportunity. Moreover, hormonal analyses indicate that subdominant individuals have increased circulating plasma testosterone levels compared to subordinate individuals. Our findings demonstrate that male mice are able to dynamically and rapidly adjust both behavior and neuroendocrine function in response to changes in social context. Further, we establish the social opportunity paradigm as an ethologically relevant approach for studying social competence and behavioral plasticity in mammals.

  1. Bone Density in Adolescents Treated with a GnRH Agonist and Add-Back Therapy for Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    DiVasta, Amy D.; Laufer, Marc R.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective To evaluate the bone density of adolescents with endometriosis treated with a GnRH-agonist and “add-back” therapy with norethindrone acetate. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Pediatric gynecology clinic at a tertiary care center. Participants 36 adolescents, ages 13 to 21 years, with endometriosis. Main Outcome Measures Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); BMD Z-scores of hip and spine. Results The mean BMD Z-score at the total hip was −0.24 ± 1.0, with a range of −2.4 to 1.7. At this site, 6 subjects had a BMD Z-score between −1.0 and −2.0 SD, while 2 had a Z-score ≤ −2.0 SD. The mean BMD Z-score at the lumbar spine was 0.55 ± 1.1, with a range of −2.8 to 1.4. At the spine, 11 subjects had a BMD Z-score between −1.0 and −2.0 SD, while 3 had a Z-score ≤ −2.0 SD. There was no correlation noted between duration of therapy with the GnRH-agonist plus add-back and BMD at the hip or spine. Conclusion BMD at the hip was normal in most adolescents with endometriosis who were receiving a GnRH-agonist plus add-back therapy with norethindrone acetate. Almost one third of subjects exhibited skeletal deficits at the spine. These data suggest that BMD should be carefully monitored in adolescents receiving treatment with GnRH agonists. PMID:17868896

  2. Bone density in adolescents treated with a GnRH agonist and add-back therapy for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Divasta, Amy D; Laufer, Marc R; Gordon, Catherine M

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the bone density of adolescents with endometriosis treated with a GnRH-agonist and "add-back" therapy with norethindrone acetate. Retrospective chart review. Pediatric gynecology clinic at a tertiary care center. 36 adolescents, ages 13 to 21 years, with endometriosis. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); BMD Z-scores of hip and spine. The mean BMD Z-score at the total hip was -0.24 +/- 1.0, with a range of -2.4 to 1.7. At this site, 6 subjects had a BMD Z-score between -1.0 and -2.0 SD, while 2 had a Z-score < or = -2.0 SD. The mean BMD Z-score at the lumbar spine was 0.55 +/- 1.1, with a range of -2.8 to 1.4. At the spine, 11 subjects had a BMD Z-score between -1.0 and -2.0 SD, while 3 had a Z-score < or = -2.0 SD. There was no correlation noted between duration of therapy with the GnRH-agonist plus add-back and BMD at the hip or spine. BMD at the hip was normal in most adolescents with endometriosis who were receiving a GnRH-agonist plus add-back therapy with norethindrone acetate. Almost one third of subjects exhibited skeletal deficits at the spine. These data suggest that BMD should be carefully monitored in adolescents receiving treatment with GnRH agonists.

  3. Administration of a GnRH analog on day 9 of a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert with timed artificial insemination in lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Giles, R L; Ahola, J K; Whittier, J C; French, J T; Repenning, P E; Kruse, S G; Seidel, G E; Peel, R K

    2013-04-01

    Many estrus synchronization protocols aim to induce a new follicular wave to improve response and enhance pregnancy rate. Our objectives were to determine the effectiveness of GnRH analog administered d 0 and 9 during an extended controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol to produce 2 follicular waves, induce cyclicity in anestrus cows, and evaluate the efficacy of a single 50-mg dose of PGF2α to initiate luteal regression on CIDR removal. Lactating beef cows (n = 779) at 3 locations (n = 247, location 1; n = 395, location 2; n = 137, location 3) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Cows in the 14-d 50 PG treatment received a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) with 100 μg GnRH analog intramuscularly (i.m.) on d 0, 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, and CIDR removal concurrent with 50 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14. Cows in the 14-d 6-h PG treatment were assigned the same protocol as the 14-d 50 PG treatment except that 25 mg PGF2α i.m. was given on d 14 plus 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h later. Cows in the control treatment, 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR (5-d CO-Synch), received a CIDR concurrent with 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. on d 9, CIDR removal concurrent with 25 mg PGF2α i.m. on d 14, and 25 mg PGF2α i.m. 6 ± 1 h after first F2α injection. Cows in all treatments received 100 μg GnRH analog i.m. and timed AI (TAI) 72 ± 3 h after CIDR removal. Pregnancy status to TAI was determined by ultrasonography 37 to 40 d after TAI. Averaged over all locations, pregnancy rates to TAI for 14-d 50 PG, 14-d 6-h PG, and 5-d CO-Synch treatments were 58.2%, 46.8%, and 41.9%, respectively. Pregnancy rates to TAI were greater (P < 0.05) in 14-d 50 PG treatment than 14-d 6-h PGF2α and 5-d CO-Synch treatments. Cycling status at 2 locations (n = 243, location 1; n = 391, location 2) was determined from blood collected on d -7 and 0; cows with serum progesterone concentrations >1 ng/mL at either (or both) bleeding date were considered cyclic. Averaged over the 2 locations, there was a tendency

  4. Expression of GnRH genes is elevated in discrete brain loci of chum salmon before initiation of homing behavior and during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Makino, Keita; Ando, Hironori; Ban, Masatoshi; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Urano, Akihisa

    2010-09-15

    Our previous studies suggested the importance of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) for initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon, although supporting evidence had been not available from oceanic fish. In farmed masu salmon, the amounts of salmon GnRH (sGnRH) mRNAs in the forebrain increased in the pre-pubertal stage from winter through spring, followed by a decrease toward summer. We thus hypothesized that gene expression for GnRHs in oceanic chum salmon changes similarly, and examined this hypothesis using brain samples from winter chum salmon in the Gulf of Alaska and summer fish in the Bering Sea. They were classified into sexually immature and maturing adults, which had maturing gonads and left the Bering Sea for the natal river by the end of summer. The absolute amounts of GnRH mRNAs were determined by real-time PCRs. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the maturing winter adults were significantly larger than those in the maturing summer adults. The amounts of sGnRH and chicken GnRH mRNAs then peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. Such changes were observed in various brain loci including the olfactory bulb, terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, nucleus preopticus parvocellularis anterioris, nucleus preopticus magnocellularis and midbrain tegmentum. These results suggest that sGnRH neurons change their activity for gonadal maturation prior to initiation of homing behavior from the Bering Sea. The present study provides the first evidence to support a possible involvement of neuropeptides in the onset of spawning migration.

  5. Delayed puberty in spontaneously hypertensive rats involves a primary ovarian failure independent of the hypothalamic KiSS-1/GPR54/GnRH system.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, L; Castellano, J M; Romero, M; Tena-Sempere, M; Gaytán, F; Aguilar, E

    2009-06-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats, extensively used as experimental models of essential human hypertension, display important alterations in the neuroendocrine reproductive axis, which manifest as markedly delayed puberty onset in females but whose basis remains largely unknown. We analyze herein in female SH rats: 1) possible alterations in the expression and function of KiSS-1/GPR54 and GnRH/GnRH-receptor systems, 2) the integrity of feedback mechanisms governing the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, and 3) the control of ovarian function by gonadotropins. Our data demonstrate that, despite overtly delayed puberty, no significant decrease in hypothalamic KiSS-1, GPR54, or GnRH mRNA levels was detected in this strain. Likewise, in vivo gonadotropin responses to ovariectomy and systemic kisspeptin-10 or GnRH administration, as well as in vitro gonadotropin responses to GnRH, were fully preserved in SH rats. Moreover, circulating LH levels were grossly conserved during prepubertal maturation, whereas FSH levels were even enhanced from d 20 postpartum onwards. In striking contrast, ovarian weight and hormone (progesterone and testosterone) responses to human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) in vitro were profoundly decreased in SH rats, with impaired follicular development and delayed ovulation at puberty. Such reduced hormonal responses to human CG could not be attributed to changes in LH/CG or FSH-receptor mRNA expression but might be linked to blunted P450scc, 3beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase mRNA levels in ovaries from SH rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that the expression and function of KiSS-1/GPR54 and GnRH/GnRH-receptor systems is normal in SH rats, whereas ovarian development, steroidogenesis, and responsiveness to gonadotropins are strongly compromised.

  6. Clinical Value of Basal Serum Progesterone Prior to Initiate Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation with GnRH Antagonists: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Faulisi, Sonia; Reschini, Marco; Borroni, Raffaella; Paffoni, Alessio; Busnelli, Andrea; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    The routine assessment of day 3 serum progesterone prior to initiation of ovarian hyper-stimulation with the use of GnRH antagonists is under debate. In this study, we evaluated the clinical utility of this policy. Retrospective cohort study of women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with the use of GnRH antagonists aimed at determining the frequency of cases with progesterone levels exceeding the recommended threshold of 1,660 pg/ml and at evaluating whether this assessment may be predictive of pregnancy. Serum progesterone exceeded the recommended threshold in one case (0.3%, 95% CI 0.01-1.5). The median (interquartile range) basal progesterone in women who did (n = 95) and did not (n = 217) become pregnant were 351 (234-476) and 380 (237-531) pg/ml, respectively (p = 0.28). The 90th percentile of the basal progesterone distribution in women who became pregnant was 660 pg/ml. Cases with serum progesterone exceeding this threshold in successful and unsuccessful cycles were 10 (10%) and 30 (14%), respectively (p = 0.47). The capacity of basal progesterone to predict pregnancy was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve = 0.54, 95% CI 0.47-0.61, p = 0.28). No graphically evident threshold emerged. Routine day 3 serum progesterone assessment in IVF cycles with the use of GnRH antagonists is not justified. Further evidence is warranted prior to claiming its systematic use. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Expression of three GnRH receptors in specific tissues in male and female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus at three distinct life stages

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Daukss, Dana M.; Hayes, Mary K.; Marquis, Timothy J.; Morin, Scott J.; Kelleher, Thomas F.; Sower, Stacia A.

    2013-01-01

    Two recently cloned gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (lamprey GnRH-R-2 and lamprey GnRH-R-3) along with lamprey (l) GnRH-R-1 were shown to share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other vertebrate receptors. Here we report on our findings of RNA expression of these three GnRH receptors in the three major life stages (larval, parasitic, and adult phases) of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a basal vertebrate. For each stage, we examined the expression of messenger RNA encoding the receptors in the brain, pituitary, gonad, heart, muscle, liver, eye, intestine, kidney, skin, thyroid, gill, and endostyle by RT-PCR. In adult lampreys, the spatial expression of the three receptors in the brain and pituitary was investigated by in situ hybridization. In general, the receptors were more widely expressed in adult tissues as compared to parasitic-phase tissues and least widely expressed in the larval tissues. There were noted differences in male and female lampreys in the adult and parasitic phases for all three receptors. The data showed the presence of all three receptor transcripts in brain tissues for adult and parasitic phases and all three receptor transcripts were expressed in the adult pituitaries, but not in the parasitic pituitaries. However, in the larval phase, only lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the larval brain and pituitary. In situ hybridization revealed that lGnRH-R-2 and -3 were expressed in the pineal tissue of adult female lampreys while lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the pineal in adult male lampreys, all restricted to the pineal pellucida. In summary, these data provide an initial comparative analysis of expression of three lamprey GnRH receptors suggesting differential regulation within males and females at three different life/reproductive stages. PMID:23754972

  8. Individualized Treatment from Theory to Practice: The Private Case of Adding LH during GnRH Antagonist-based Stimulation Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the proportion of patients whose pituitary glands respond with a sharp decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels when exposed to a conventional dose of 0.25 mg gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in a prospective, single-center, non-randomized, proof-of-concept study. Fifty women eligible for in vitro fertilization (IVF) received recFSH (Gonal-F) from day 2 or 3 of menstrual period. Basal estradiol, progesterone, and LH were measured on the same day and 4–5 days later—immediately before GnRH antagonist 0.25 mg administration, and 24 hours after its administration. Responders were defined as “normal” if 24 hours after the first GnRH antagonist injection, LH level was ≥50% of the pre-injection level and as “over-suppressed” if it was <50% of the pre-injection level. Twelve patients (26% of the total) were “over-suppressed” with a mean LH level of 37% of the level 24 hours earlier. These patients also demonstrated a significant decrease in estradiol rise during the first 24 hours after initial antagonist administration. This effect was reversed for the rest of the stimulation period during which recLH (Luveris, 150 IU/day) was added to the “over-suppressed.” If proven advantageous in terms of pregnancy rate, this approach to individualized treatment would be easy to implement. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials. gov Identifier: NCT01936077. PMID:25452708

  9. Novel Interaction of Class IIb Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) with Class IIa HDAC9 Controls Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neuronal Cell Survival and Movement.

    PubMed

    Salian-Mehta, Smita; Xu, Mei; McKinsey, Timothy A; Tobet, Stuart; Wierman, Margaret E

    2015-05-29

    The impact of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal development is unknown. We identified an increase in many HDACs in GT1-7 (differentiated) compared with NLT (undifferentiated) GnRH neuronal cell lines. Increased HDAC9 mRNA and protein and specific deacetylase activity in GT1-7 cells suggested a functional role. Introduction of HDAC9 in NLT cells protected from serum withdrawal induced apoptosis and impaired basal neuronal cell movement. Conversely, silencing of endogenous HDAC9 in GT1-7 cells increased apoptosis and cell movement. Comparison of WT and mutant HDAC9 constructs demonstrated that the HDAC9 pro-survival effects required combined cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, whereas the effects on cell movement required a cytoplasmic site of action. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a novel interaction of HDAC9 selectively with the Class IIb HDAC6. HDAC6 was also up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, and HDAC6 catalytic activity was significantly increased in GT1-7 compared with NLT cells. HDAC9 interacted with HDAC6 through its second catalytic domain. Silencing of HDAC6, HDAC9, or both, in GT1-7 cells augmented apoptosis compared with controls. HDAC6 and -9 had additive effects to promote cell survival via modulating the BAX/BCL2 pathway. Silencing of HDAC6 resulted in an activation of movement of GT1-7 cells with induction in acetylation of α-tubulin. Inhibition of HDAC6 and HDAC9 together resulted in an additive effect to increase cell movement but did not alter the acetylation of αtubulin. Together, these studies identify a novel interaction of Class IIa HDAC9 with Class IIb HDAC6 to modulate cell movement and survival in GnRH neurons. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Novel Interaction of Class IIb Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) with Class IIa HDAC9 Controls Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neuronal Cell Survival and Movement*

    PubMed Central

    Salian-Mehta, Smita; Xu, Mei; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Tobet, Stuart; Wierman, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal development is unknown. We identified an increase in many HDACs in GT1-7 (differentiated) compared with NLT (undifferentiated) GnRH neuronal cell lines. Increased HDAC9 mRNA and protein and specific deacetylase activity in GT1-7 cells suggested a functional role. Introduction of HDAC9 in NLT cells protected from serum withdrawal induced apoptosis and impaired basal neuronal cell movement. Conversely, silencing of endogenous HDAC9 in GT1-7 cells increased apoptosis and cell movement. Comparison of WT and mutant HDAC9 constructs demonstrated that the HDAC9 pro-survival effects required combined cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, whereas the effects on cell movement required a cytoplasmic site of action. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a novel interaction of HDAC9 selectively with the Class IIb HDAC6. HDAC6 was also up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, and HDAC6 catalytic activity was significantly increased in GT1-7 compared with NLT cells. HDAC9 interacted with HDAC6 through its second catalytic domain. Silencing of HDAC6, HDAC9, or both, in GT1-7 cells augmented apoptosis compared with controls. HDAC6 and -9 had additive effects to promote cell survival via modulating the BAX/BCL2 pathway. Silencing of HDAC6 resulted in an activation of movement of GT1-7 cells with induction in acetylation of α-tubulin. Inhibition of HDAC6 and HDAC9 together resulted in an additive effect to increase cell movement but did not alter the acetylation of αtubulin. Together, these studies identify a novel interaction of Class IIa HDAC9 with Class IIb HDAC6 to modulate cell movement and survival in GnRH neurons. PMID:25873389

  11. Modeling the Male Reproductive Endocrine Axis: Potential Role for a Delay Mechanism in the Inhibitory Action of Gonadal Steroids on GnRH Pulse Frequency.

    PubMed

    Ferasyi, Teuku R; Barrett, P Hugh R; Blache, Dominique; Martin, Graeme B

    2016-05-01

    We developed a compartmental model so we could test mechanistic concepts in the control of the male reproductive endocrine axis. Using SAAM II computer software and a bank of experimental data from male sheep, we began by modeling GnRH-LH feed-forward and LH-T feedback. A key assumption was that the primary control signal comes from a hypothetical neural network (the PULSAR) that emits a digital (pulsatile) signal of variable frequency that drives GnRH secretion in square wave-like pulses. This model produced endocrine profiles that matched experimental observations for the testis-intact animal and for changes in GnRH pulse frequency after castration and T replacement. In the second stage of the model development, we introduced a delay in the negative feedback caused by the aromatization of T to estradiol at the brain level, a concept supported by empirical observations. The simulations showed how changes in the process of aromatization could affect the response of the pulsatile signal to inhibition by steroid feedback. The sensitivity of the PULSAR to estradiol was a critical factor, but the most striking observation was the effect of time delays. With longer delays, there was a reduction in the rate of aromatization and therefore a decrease in local estradiol concentrations, and the outcome was multiple-pulse events in the secretion of GnRH/LH, reflecting experimental observations. In conclusion, our model successfully emulates the GnRH-LH-T-GnRH loop, accommodates a pivotal role for central aromatization in negative feedback, and suggests that time delays in negative feedback are an important aspect of the control of GnRH pulse frequency.

  12. Use of a GnRH vaccine, GonaCon, for prevention and treatment of adrenocortical disease (ACD) in domestic ferrets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lowell A; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Wagner, Robert A; Finkler, Mark

    2013-09-23

    Adrenocortical disease (ACD) is a common problem in surgically sterilized, middle-aged to old ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). The adrenal tissues of these ferrets develop hyperplasia, adenomas, or adenocarcinomas, which produce steroid hormones including estradiol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione. Major clinical signs attributable to overproduction of these hormones are alopecia (hair loss) in both sexes and a swollen vulva in females. Pruritus, muscle atrophy, hind limb weakness, and sexual activity or aggression are also observed in both sexes. Males can develop prostatic cysts, prostatitis, and urethral obstruction. ACD is thought to be linked to continuous and increased LH secretion, due to lack of gonadal hormone feedback in neutered ferrets. This continuous elevated LH acts on adrenal cortex LH receptors, resulting in adrenal hyperplasia or adrenal tumor. This study investigated whether the immunocontraceptive vaccine GonaCon, a GnRH vaccine developed to reduce the fertility of wildlife species and the spread of disease, could prevent or delay onset of ACD and treat alopecia in ferrets with existing ACD. Results showed that GonaCon provided relief from ACD by causing production of antibodies to GnRH, probably suppressing production and/or release of LH. Treatment caused many ACD symptoms to disappear, allowing the ferrets to return to a normal life. The study also found that the probability of developing ACD was significantly reduced in ferrets treated with GonaCon when young (1-3 years old) compared to untreated control animals. GonaCon caused injection site reaction in some animals when administered as an intramuscular injection but caused few side effects when administered subcutaneously. Both intramuscular and subcutaneous vaccination resulted in similar levels of GnRH antibody titers. Subcutaneous vaccination with GonaCon is thus recommended to prevent the onset of ACD and as a possible treatment for ACD-signs in domestic ferrets. Published

  13. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and distribution of feline GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and resequencing of canine GnRHR.

    PubMed

    Samoylov, Alexandre M; Napier, India D; Morrison, Nancy E; Martin, Douglas R; Cox, Nancy R; Samoylova, Tatiana I

    2015-01-15

    GnRH receptors play vital roles in mammalian reproduction via regulation of gonadotropin secretion, which is essential for gametogenesis and production of gonadal steroids. GnRH receptors for more than 20 mammalian species have been sequenced, including human, mouse, and dog. This study reports the molecular cloning and sequencing of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) cDNA from the pituitary gland of the domestic cat, an important species in biomedical research. Feline GnRHR cDNA is composed of 981 nucleotides and encodes a 327 amino acid protein. Unlike the majority of mammalian species sequenced so far, but similar to canine GnRHR, feline GnRHR protein lacks asparagine in position three of the extracellular domain of the protein. At the amino acid level, feline GnRHR exhibits 95.1% identity with canine, 93.8% with human, and 88.9% with mouse GnRHR. Comparative sequence analysis of GnRHRs for multiple mammalian species led to resequencing of canine GnRHR, which differed from that previously published by a single base change that translates to a different amino acid in position 193. This single base change was confirmed in dogs of multiple breeds. Reverse transcriptase PCR analysis of GnRHR messenger RNA in different tissues from four normal cats indicated the presence of amplicons of varying lengths, including full-length as well as shortened GnRHR amplicons, pointing to the existence of truncated GnRHR transcripts in the domestic cat. This study is the first insight into molecular composition and expression of feline GnRHR and promotes better understanding of receptor organization, and distribution in various tissues of this species.

  14. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  15. Comparison of three superovulation protocols with or without GnRH treatment at the time of artificial insemination on ovarian response and embryo quality in Thai native heifers.

    PubMed

    Chankitisakul, Vibuntita; Pitchayapipatkul, Jakkhaphan; Chuawongboon, Phirawit; Rakwongrit, Dumrongrak; Sakhong, Denpong; Boonkum, Wuttigrai; Vongpralub, Thevin

    2017-03-01

    To optimize the superovulation protocol in Thai native cattle, the present research was designed to (1) compare three different protocols designed to induce superstimulation and (2) study the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration at insemination time (to induce ovulation) on ovarian follicular activities in terms of the number of large follicles, corpora lutea (CLs) and unovulated follicles, and the number and quality of ova/embryos recovered in Thai native heifers. Initially, the estrous cycles of animals (n = 36) at unknown stages were synchronized by two prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) injections at an interval of 12 days. Follicular development of heifers was randomly superstimulated with one of three different treatment protocols: treatment A-a total of 100 mg of pituitary-derived FSH (pFSH; Folltropin®-V) administered in eight decreasing doses; treatment B-a single dose of 100 mg pFSH dissolved in 30% (w/v) polyvinylpyrrolidone; or treatment C-ablation of all follicles ≥5 mm with a single dose of pFSH. All heifers received PGF2α 48 h after the initiation of FSH treatment to induce luteolysis from the previous cycle, and they were twice inseminated at 12 and 24 h after the onset of estrus. Heifers in each treatment were assigned to be injected or not with GnRH at the time of first insemination with frozen/thawed semen to induce ovulation. About 7 days after artificial insemination (AI), ova/embryos were collected and classified. The numbers of large follicles at the onset of estrus were not statistically significantly different; meanwhile, the maximum diameters of follicles at the time of first insemination in treatment C were smaller compared with the other treatment groups (p < 0.001). The administration of GnRH at the first insemination time resulted in a greater number of CLs and fewer unovulated follicles at the time of ova/embryo collection (p = 0.001), which subsequently resulted in a higher number of total

  16. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 interacts with activin and GnRH to modulate gonadotrophin secretion in LbetaT2 gonadotrophs.

    PubMed

    Nicol, L; Faure, M-O; McNeilly, J R; Fontaine, J; Taragnat, C; McNeilly, A S

    2008-03-01

    We have shown previously that, in sheep primary pituitary cells, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-4 inhibits FSHbeta mRNA expression and FSH release. In contrast, in mouse LbetaT2 gonadotrophs, others have shown a stimulatory effect of BMPs on basal or activin-stimulated FSHbeta promoter-driven transcription. As a species comparison with our previous results, we used LbetaT2 cells to investigate the effects of BMP-4 on gonadotrophin mRNA and secretion modulated by activin and GnRH. BMP-4 alone had no effect on FSH production, but enhanced the activin+GnRH-induced stimulation of FSHbeta mRNA and FSH secretion, without any effect on follistatin mRNA. BMP-4 reduced LHbeta mRNA up-regulation in response to GnRH (+/-activin) and decreased GnRH receptor expression, which would favour FSH, rather than LH, synthesis and secretion. In contrast to sheep pituitary gonadotrophs, which express only BMP receptor types IA (BMPRIA) and II (BMPRII), LbetaT2 cells also express BMPRIB. Smad1/5 phosphorylation induced by BMP-4, indicating activation of BMP signalling, was the same whether BMP-4 was used alone or combined with activin+/-GnRH. We hypothesized that activin and/or GnRH pathways may be modulated by BMP-4, but neither the activin-stimulated phosphorylation of Smad2/3 nor the GnRH-induced ERK1/2 or cAMP response element-binding phosphorylation were modified. However, the GnRH-induced activation of p38 MAPK was decreased by BMP-4. This was associated with increased FSHbeta mRNA levels and FSH secretion, but decreased LHbeta mRNA levels. These results confirm 1. BMPs as important modulators of activin and/or GnRH-stimulated gonadotrophin synthesis and release and 2. important species differences in these effects, which could relate to differences in BMP receptor expression in gonadotrophs.

  17. Expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and chicken GnRH-II precursor messenger ribonucleic acids in the brain and ovary of goldfish.

    PubMed

    Lin, X W; Peter, R E

    1996-03-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7Leu8]gonadotropin-releasing hormone (salmon GnRH; sGnRH) precursor and the [His5Trp7Tyr8]GnRH (chicken GnRH-II; cGnRH-II) precursor of the goldfish brain were isolated and sequenced using reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH precursor cDNA consists of 540 bp, including an open reading frame of 282 bp, and the cGnRH-II precursor cDNA consists of 682 bp, including an open reading frame of 258 bp. The 94 amino acid-long goldfish sGnRH precursor and 86 amino acid-long goldfish cGnRH-II precursor have the same molecular architecture as GnRH precursors identified to date in other vertebrate species. Using two sets of primers designed to be sense and antisense to the goldfish brain sGnRH precursor cDNA sequence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of total RNA from brain and ovary at gonadal recrudescent, mature ( = prespawning), and postovulatory stages resulted in two predicted sizes of PCR products. The intensities of staining signals of ethidium bromide were similar between brain and ovary samples. The same RT-PCRs were carried out with two sets of primers for cGnRH-II precursor cDNA, resulting in two PCR products of predicted size; however, the ethidium bromide staining signals are much weaker for products amplified from ovarian cDNA than that from brain cDNA. Restriction enzyme analysis verified the expected RT-PCR products. Sequence analysis of ovarian sGnRH precursor cDNA generated by RACE of total RNA from recrudescent ovarian tissue revealed the identical sequence to that of the brain sGnRH cDNA. Northern blot analysis detected a single mRNA transcript of approximately 650 bases for the sGnRH precursor in both the brain and ovary, and 750 bases for the cGnRH-II precursor in the brain. These results demonstrate that two forms of GnRH precursor (sGnRH and cGnRH-II) mRNA are expressed in goldfish brain tissue and that the sGnRH transcript and a

  18. 49 CFR 583.5 - Label requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the fuel economy label required by 15 U.S.C. 2006, or a separate label. A separate label may... case of a label that is included as part of the Monroney price information label or fuel economy label... motor vehicle equipment and that, to the best of the requester's knowledge, the outside supplier is...

  19. Food labels: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J; Fraser, Joy

    2014-03-01

    Foods sold in packages have both front-of-package (FOP) labels and back-of-package (BOP) labels. The aim of this review is to determine the role they play in informing consumers as to the composition of foods in order to help select a healthy diet. Recent literature was evaluated and findings combined with assessments made by the authors of food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research shows that most consumers have difficulty understanding the information provided by both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada. Research has evaluated the merits of alternative designs. FOP labels should be based on a clear and simple design. They should present information on key nutrients (total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium or salt) and also energy value. They should have color and words that indicate "high," "medium," and "low" levels. Labels can also state quantity per serving. The traffic light system is the best example of this design. An extra traffic light indicating the overall health value of the food should be added. A clearer BOP label also is needed. Implementation of a new food labeling system will probably be opposed by the food industry. More research is needed into which food label designs are most effective, especially for persuading consumers to select healthier food. Both FOP and BOP food labels used in the United States and Canada need to be redesigned using a traffic light system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-01-16

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 {approx} 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  1. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 ~ 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  2. Principles of protein labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.

  3. Label Structured Cell Proliferation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    variable as a mass-like quantity. The specific model for the dynamics of life and death processes of a population of cells labeled with CFSE is proposed in... variables = + where < 0 is label degradation velocity. Because we really don’t understand completely the degradation process (there appears to be...little agreement as to what variables on which this velocity might depend) and to allow for generality (other labels that might be used may well

  4. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas

    Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.

  5. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  6. Labeling conventions in isoelectronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Maniak, S.T.; Curtis, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The isoelectronic exposition of atomic structure properties involves labeling ambiguities when more than one level of the same total angular momentum and parity is present, and an energy ordered labeling of these levels can lead to apparent isoelectronic discontinuities. For example, in the recent oscillator strength calculations for S-like ions by Saloman and Kim (Phys. Rev. A 38, 577 (1988)), abrupt changes in the rates were sometimes observed between one isoelectronic element and the next. We suggest an alternative labeling scheme that removes these discontinuities and produces a smooth isoelectronic variation. This alternative labeling offers advantages for data exposition and for semiempirical interpolation and extrapolation.

  7. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  8. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  9. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  10. Longitudinal follow-up of bone density and body composition in children with precocious or early puberty before, during and after cessation of GnRH agonist therapy.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Inge M; Boot, Annemieke M; Krenning, Eric P; Drop, Stenvert L S; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F

    2002-02-01

    We studied bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, and body composition in 47 children with central precocious puberty (n = 36) or early puberty (n = 11) before, during, and after cessation of GnRH agonist. Bone density and body composition were measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and expressed as SD scores. Bone age and biochemical parameters of bone turnover were assessed. Measurements were performed at baseline, after 6 months, and on a yearly basis thereafter. Mean lumbar spine BMD SD scores for chronological age were significantly higher than zero at baseline and decreased during treatment. Lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density and total body BMD did not differ from normal at baseline and showed no significant changes during treatment. In contrast, BMD SD scores for bone age were significantly lower than zero at baseline and at cessation of therapy. Two years after therapy, bone mineral apparent density and BMD SD scores for bone age and chronological age did not differ from normal. Markers of bone turnover decreased during treatment, mainly in the first 6 months. Patients had increased percentage of fat and lean body mass at baseline. After an initial increase of percentage body fat during treatment, percentage body fat decreased and normalized within 1 yr after cessation of treatment. Our longitudinal analysis suggests that peak bone mass or body composition will not be impaired in patients with precocious or early puberty after GnRH agonist therapy.

  11. Serotonin stimulates GnRH secretion through the c-Src-PLC gamma1 pathway in GT1-7 hypothalamic cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Soo; Yumkham, Sanatombi; Choi, Jang Hyun; Son, Gi Hoon; Kim, Kyungjin; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2006-09-01

    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To date, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of serotonin in hormone secretion have remained largely unclear. In this study, we report that serotonin activates phospholipase C (PLC) gamma1 in an Src-dependent manner in hypothalamic GT1-7 cells, and that pretreatment with either 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl) pyrazole [3, 4-d] pyrimidine, an Src-kinase inhibitor, or U73122, a PLC inhibitor, attenuates the serotonin-induced increase in calcium levels. Also, PLC gamma1 binds to c-Src through the Src-homology (SH) 223 domain upon serotonin treatment. Moreover, calcium increase is alleviated in the cells transientlyexpressing SH223 domain-deleted PLC gamma1 or lipase inactive mutant PLC gamma1, as compared with cells transfected with wild-type PLC gamma1. Furthermore, the inhibition of the activities of either PLC or Src results in a significant diminution of the serotonin-induced release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In addition, the results of our small-interfering RNA experiment confirm that endogenous PLC gamma1 is a prerequisite for serotonin-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that serotonin stimulates the release of GnRH through the Src-PLC gamma1 pathway, via the modulation of intracellular calcium levels.

  12. Lesions of the ventral premammillary nucleus disrupt the dynamic changes in Kiss1 and GnRH expression characteristic of the proestrus-estrus transition

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Jose; Lee, Charlotte; Ratra, Dhirender; Franci, Celso R.; Canteras, Newton S.; Elias, Carol F.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that the ventral premammillary nucleus (PMV) plays a key role in the metabolic control of the female reproductive axis. However, whether PMV neurons modulate the reproductive neural circuitry and/or the expression of sexual behaviors has not been determined. Here, we showed that the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the PMV is modulated by changing levels of sex steroids across the estrous cycle. We also showed that sexual behavior, not the high physiologic levels of sex steroids, induces Fos in PMV neurons. Bilateral lesions of the PMV caused no significant changes in proceptive behavior but a high percentage of PMV-lesioned rats failed to exhibit lordosis behavior when exposed to a sexually-experienced male rat (50% vs. 18% in the control group). Notably, lesions of the PMV disrupted the physiologic fluctuations of Kiss1 and GnRH mRNA expression characteristic of the proestrus-to-estrus transition. This neurochemical imbalance may ultimately alter female reproductive behavior. Our findings suggest that the PMV is a component of the neural circuitry that modulates the physiologic fluctuations of key neuroendocrine players (i.e., Kiss1 and GnRH) in the control of the female reproductive physiology. PMID:23518222

  13. Significantly lower pregnancy rates in the presence of progesterone elevation in patients treated with GnRH antagonists and gonadotrophins: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kolibianakis, E M; Venetis, C A; Bontis, J; Tarlatzis, B C

    2012-03-01

    The current meta-analysis aimed to answer the following research question: is progesterone elevation on the day of hCG administration associated with the probability of clinical pregnancy in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF using GnRH antagonists? A literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL electronic databases followed by extensive hand-searching from two independent reviewers was performed to identify relevant studies. Eventually five eligible studies (n=585 patients) were identified. No significant differences were present between patients with and those without progesterone elevation regarding female age, duration of stimulation and total dose of gonadotrophins required. However, patients with progesterone elevation were characterized by higher serum estradiol levels on the day of hCG administration (+956 pg/ml, 95% +248 to +1664, random effects model, p=0.008) and more COCs retrieved (+2.9, 95% CI +1.5 to +4.4, fixed effects model, p < 0.001). Progesterone elevation on the day of hCG administration was associated with a significantly decreased probability of clinical pregnancy per cycle (-9%, 95% CI -17 to -2, fixed model effects, p). In conclusion, in patients treated with GnRH antagonists and gonadotrophins, progesterone elevation on the day of hCG administration is significantly associated with a lower probability of clinical pregnancy.

  14. The carboxy-terminal tail or the intracellular loop 3 is required for β-arrestin-dependent internalization of a mammalian type II GnRH receptor.

    PubMed

    Madziva, Michael T; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Flanagan, Colleen A; Katz, Arieh A

    2015-08-15

    The type II GnRH receptor (GnRH-R2) in contrast to mammalian type I GnRH receptor (GnRH-R1) has a cytosolic carboxy-terminal tail. We investigated the role of β-arrestin 1 in GnRH-R2-mediated signalling and mapped the regions in GnRH-R2 required for recruitment of β-arrestin, employing internalization assays. We show that GnRH-R2 activation of ERK is dependent on β-arrestin and protein kinase C. Appending the tail of GnRH-R2 to GnRH-R1 enabled GRK- and β-arrestin-dependent internalization of the chimaeric receptor. Surprisingly, carboxy-terminally truncated GnRH-R2 retained β-arrestin and GRK-dependent internalization, suggesting that β-arrestin interacts with additional elements of GnRH-R2. Mutating serine and threonine or basic residues of intracellular loop 3 did not abolish β-arrestin 1-dependent internalization but a receptor lacking these basic residues and the carboxy-terminus showed no β-arrestin 1-dependent internalization. Our results suggest that basic residues at the amino-terminal end of intracellular loop 3 or the carboxy-terminal tail are required for β-arrestin dependent internalization.

  15. Comparison of bone mineral loss by combined androgen block agonist versus GnRH in patients with prostate cancer: A 12 month-prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Joung, Jae Young; Kim, Sohee; Rha, Koon Ho; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Kwak, Cheol; Lee, Ji Youl; Jeon, Seong Soo; Hong, Sung Kyu; Jeong, Hyeon; Jo, Moon Ki; You, Dalsan; Jeong, In Gab; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2017-03-06

    The multi-centre, prospective, observational study was designed to examine the efficacy of continuous combined androgen block (CAB) vs. GnRH agonist monotherapy in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) change during 12 months post-androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in Asian prostate cancer patients. Multiple regression analysis and estimated the 10-year probability of major fractures among the patients with Fracture Risk Assessment Tool were conducted to investigate the underlying factors affecting BMD. Paired t-test to evaluate the change of BMD from baseline to 12 month, and two sample t-test to examine the difference of BMD changes were used between two groups. BMD signific