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Sample records for 99mtc pertechnetate standardization

  1. 99mtc-Ubiquicidin [29–41], a Promising Radiopharmaceutical to Differentiate Orthopedic Implant Infections from Sterile Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Beiki, Davood; Yousefi, Gholamali; Fallahi, Babak; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Erfani, Mostafa; Eftekhari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquicidin (UBI) [29-41] is a synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptide that preferentially binds to bacterial cell membrane at the site of infection. We aimed to assess diagnostic value of 99mTc-UBI [29-41] as a radiopharmaceutical in differentiation of bacterial infection from sterile inflammation in suspected orthopedic implants. Nine patients suspected for orthopedic implant infection, all males with the mean age of 41.6 ± 20.9 years, were studied. A dose of 10 MBq/Kg (range : 555-740 MBq) 99mTc-UBI [29-41] was injected intravenously. A dynamic study followed by static whole body imaging at 30, 60 and 120 min post-radiotracer injection was acquired. Periprosthetic tissue culture was considered the closest test to a gold standard for diagnosing infections and scintigraphic scans were categorized as true- or false-positive and true- or false-negative, considering the bacterial culture as the gold standard. No adverse reaction was observed during or after the radiotracer injection days. There were five true positive, four true negative and no false positive and false negative scans. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were all calculated as 100%. We found a high diagnostic accuracy for 99mTc-UBI [29-41] scintigraphy in differentiation of bacterial infection from sterile inflammation in suspected orthopedic implants. Therefore, 99mTc-UBI [29-41] scintigraphy might be potentially recommended as a safe and promising imaging modality in these settings. However, further studies on a larger number of patients and different pathologies are still needed. PMID:24250609

  2. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Results: Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of Tc-99m is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (Tc-99m) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. Conclusions: The online filtration of Tc-99m from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. PMID:24163509

  3. Incidental Warthin Tumor on Pertechnetate Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Shetkar, Shubhangi; Joshi, Prathamesh; Kasaliwal, Sanket; Chaudhari, Shrikant

    2016-09-01

    A 30-year-old woman underwent Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy for evaluation of thyrotoxicosis. The scintigraphy revealed hypervascular thyroid gland with markedly increased trapping function in both the lobes suggesting diagnosis of Graves disease. Incidentally, a hypervascular and pertechnetate avid focus was seen along the lateral margin of the right parotid gland. Pertechnetate avidity and site of uptake suggested possibility of Warthin tumor. Clinical examination and ultrasonography revealed a well-defined lesion in the superficial lobe of the right parotid gland favoring diagnosis of benign lesion. Postsurgery specimen confirmed diagnosis of Warthin tumor. PMID:27405035

  4. The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, James B.; Catlow, Stanley A.

    2014-02-01

    An analytical method is required to distinguish between the pertechnetate and non-pertechnetate forms of technetium; currently, the methods available only report the total technetium present in a sample. The overall objective of this effort is to develop a method for routinely analyzing Hanford tank waste for technetium in the pertechnetate and the non-pertechnetate forms. A phased approach will be deployed to accomplish this objective: Phase I Comparison of existing technetium analysis methods with modification; Phase II Demonstration of modified methods using non-pertechnetate spiked simulants; and, Phase III Demonstration of chosen method on Hanford tank sample containing non-pertechnetate. This report describes the Phase I work, providing a comparison of Aliquat 336 and TEVA(R)1 in the removal of pertechnetate and discussing the subsequent analysis for technetium in both alkaline and acidic environments without oxidation. The effort was executed under LAB-PLN-13-00004, The Determination of Pertechnetate and Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tanks Phase I.

  5. Biochemical Effects of Technetium-99-Pertechnetate on Microorganisms 1

    PubMed Central

    Gearing, Patrick; Van Baalen, Chase; Parker, Patrick L.

    1975-01-01

    The biochemical effects of technetium-99 as pertechnetate (TcO4−) were investigated in a variety of microorganisms (a nonsulfur purple bacterium, five blue-green algae, a protozoan, a diatom, two heterotrophic bacteria, a red alga and two green algae). Sensitivity to pertechnetate as measured by growth ranged from marked inhibition at 1 μg Tc/ml (nonsulfur purple bacterium) to no effect at 600 μg Tc ml (both green algae). No correlation between organism type and growth susceptibility to pertechnetate was apparent. The blue-green alga, Agmenellum quadruplicatum strain PR-6, bound technetium-99 to a level of 3 μg/mg dry weight cells (from medium containing 1.5 mm pertechnetate) in the light, but little or none in the dark; cell death occurred only with uptake. Addition of TcO4− to the medium caused a rapid but temporary increase in ATP levels of PR-6 (in the light only) and Tetrahymena pyriformis strain WH14. Respiration of organisms WH14 and Bacillus subtilis and photosynthesis of organism PR-6 were immediately slowed by the introduction of pertechnetate. Technetium as pertechnetate has a possible biochemical effect on cells, unrelated to its radioactivity or to a general oxidation effect. PMID:16659059

  6. Identification of Non-Pertechnetate Species In Hanford Tank Waste, Their Synthesis, Characterization, And Fundamental Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth R. Ashely; Norman Schroeder; Jose A. Olivares; Brian Scott

    2004-12-10

    This proposal had three major goals: (1) develop capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry as a characterization technique, (2) separate a non-pertechnetate fraction from a waste sample and identify the non-pertechnetate species in it by CEMS, and (3) synthesize and characterize bulk quantities of the identified non-pertechnetate species and study their ligand substitution and redox chemistry.

  7. Non-Pertechnetate Technetium Sensor Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Heineman, William R.; Rapko, Brian M.; Branch, Shirmir D.

    2014-09-01

    There remain several significant uncertainties in the understanding and modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford waste tanks, glass, and low-temperature waste forms. A significant (2% to 25%) fraction of the 99Tc in the water-soluble portion of the tank waste may be present as a non-pertechnetate species that has not been identified and, based on experimentation to date, cannot be effectively separated from the wastes. This task will provide a sensor specifically tuned to detect the Tc(I)-carbonyl species believed to constitute the main fraction of the non-pertechnetate form of technetium. By direct measurement of the non-pertechnetate species, such a sensor will help reduce the uncertainties in the modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford tanks and waste forms. This report summarizes work done in FY 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Progress made in FY 2014 was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management and is summarized in this report.

  8. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide and subsequently (99mTc)pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both /sup 123/I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid.

  9. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We have shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  10. Decomposition of Tc-99m pyrophosphate by peroxides in pertechnetate used in preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Der, M.; Ballinger, J.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1981-07-01

    We describe an investigation of the stability of Tc-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi). We hve shown that addition of exogenous hydrogen peroxide to Tc-99m PPi can initiate the oxidation of the complex, giving rise to 95% unbound pertechnetate. The presence of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in the sodium pertechnetate used in the preparation of Tc-99m PPi has been thought to influence its stability. We have prepared it using pertechnetate solutions of different specific activities. After preparation, an alumina column was used to detect free /sup 99m/Tc/sub 4/-. The Tc-99m PPi and Na/sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ solutions were then assayed by iodometric titration for hydrogen peroxide, which was detected in the pertechnetate solutions. The higher the specific activity of the solution used for the tracer preparation, the faster was the production of free pertechnetate.

  11. Oxidation, characterization, and separation of non-pertechnetate species in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, N.C.

    1997-10-01

    Under DOE`s privatization initiative, Lockheed Martin and British Nuclear Fuels Limited are preparing to stabilize the caustic tank waste generated from plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of Hanford tank waste will separate it into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The scope of the technetium problem is indicated by its inventory in the waste: {approximately}2000 kg. Technetium would normally exist as the pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, in aqueous solution. However, evidence obtained at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) indicates that the combination of radiolysis, heat, organic complexants, and time may have reduced and complexed a significant fraction of the technetium in the tank waste. These species are in a form that is not amenable to current separation techniques based on pertechnetate removal. Thus, it is crucial that methods be developed to set technetium to pertechnetate so these technologies can meet the required technetium decontamination factor. If this is not possible, then alternative separation processes will need to be developed to remove these non-pertechnetate species from the waste. The simplest, most cost-effective approach to this problem is to convert the non-pertechnetate species to pertechnetate. Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical oxidation methods, as well as hydrothermal treatment, are being applied to Hanford waste samples to ensure that the method works on the unknown technetium species in the waste. The degree of oxidation will be measured by determining the technetium distribution coefficient, {sup Tc}K{sub d}, between the waste and Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin, and comparing it to the true pertechnetate K{sub d} value for the waste matrix. Other species in the waste, including all the organic material, could be oxidized by these methods, thus selective oxidation is desirable to minimize the cost, time, and secondary waste generation.

  12. Tissue pertechnetate and iodinated contrast material ischemic stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Coss, D.T.; Jacobson, R.L.; Meyer, M.W.

    1980-11-01

    Isotope uptake during static radionuclide scanning and contrast enhancement during CT scanning, which may result from similar pathophysiologic mechanisms after ischemic infarction, were investigated in an animal model. Infarction was produced by transorbital occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in cats killed one, 2, 4, 8, or 16 days later. Sodium pertechnetate containing technetium-99m and 30% methylglucamine iothalamate labeled with I-125 were administered intravenously 60 and 15 min respectively prior to sacrifice. A coronal section through the infarct was parceled into 30 portions which were assayed for concentration of each isotope. Adjacent brain was prepared for histopathologic correlation. Concentrations of the 2 materials were highest in infarcted brain at 4 and 8 days. Strong positive correlation was found between tissue concentrations of the 2 materials in all brain samples. Elevated tissue levels correlated with necrosis, macrophage infiltration, and vascular hyperplasia. The results support the probability that radionuclide scan positivity and CT contrast enhancement reflect the same pathophysiologic development, probably extravasation of the respective labels, after schemic stroke.

  13. Pulmonary clearance rate of two chemically different forms of inhaled pertechnetate.

    PubMed

    Walker, P S; Conway, J H; Fleming, J S; Bondesson, E; Borgström, L

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to image the pulmonary deposition site of radiolabeled aerosols delivered by dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been limited by the rapid pulmonary clearance of radiolabel. To determine whether aqueous solubility of the radiolabel is a significant factor, the pulmonary clearance rates of two chemically different forms of 99mTc were calculated. A dry powder formulation of terbutaline sulphate was radiolabeled for inhalation by Turbuhaler (AstraZeneca) using the water-soluble salt sodium pertechnetate and the water-insoluble salt tetraphenylarsonium pertechnetate. A pilot study was conducted during which two control subjects each inhaled the two radiolabeled aerosols on separate days. Intrasubject clearance rates for the two species were very similar. It was therefore concluded that water insolubility of the pertechnetate salt alone was not enough to extend the lung residency time of the radiolabel. PMID:11681652

  14. Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Higashi, T; Shindo, J; Everhart, F R; Mori, Y; Kasai, H; Kogure, S; Wakao, H

    1989-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed.

  15. Ulcerative colitis and a bleeding polyp detected on Tc-99m-pertechnetate abdominal scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Howman-Giles, R.

    1981-10-01

    Two children with rectal bleeding were diagnosed as having ulcerative colitis and a bleeding colonic polyp respectively using abdominal scanning with Tc-99m pertechnetate. Early flow studies are recommended with careful attention paid to the amount of time abnormal areas of activity are seen on the abdominal scan.

  16. Removal of pertechnetate from simulated nuclear waste streams using supported zerovalent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Darab, John; Amonette, Alexandra; Burke, Deborah; Orr, Robert; Ponder, Sherman; Schrick, Bettina; Mallouk, Thomas; Lukens, Wayne; Caulder, Dana; Shuh, David

    2007-07-11

    The application of nanoparticles of predominantly zerovalent iron (nanoiron), either unsupported or supported, to the separation and reduction of pertechnetate anions (TcO4-) from complex waste mixtures was investigated as an alternative approach to current waste-processing schemes. Although applicable to pertechnetate-containing waste streams in general, the research discussed here was directed at two specific potential applications at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site: (1) the direct removal of pertechnetate from highly alkaline solutions, typical of those found in Hanford tank waste, and (2) the removal of dilute pertechnetate from near-neutral solutions, typical of the eluate streams from commercial organic ion-exchange resins that may be used to remediate Hanford tank wastes. It was envisioned that both applications would involve the subsequent encapsulation of the loaded sorbent material into a separate waste form. A high surface area (>200 M2/g) base-stable, nanocrystalline zirconia was used as a support for nanoiron for tests with highly alkaline solutions, while a silica gel support was used for tests with near-neutral solutions. It was shown that after 24 h of contact time, the high surface area zirconia supported nanoiron sorbent removed about 50percent (K-d = 370 L/kg) of the pertechnetate from a pH 14 tank waste simulant containing 0.51 mM TCO4- and large concentrations of Na+, OH-, NO3-, and CO32- for a phase ratio of 360 L simulant per kg of sorbent. It was also shown that after 18 h of contact time, the silica-supported nanoiron removed>95percent pertechnetate from a neutral pH eluate simulant containing 0.076 mM TcO4_ for a phase ratio of 290 L/kg. It was determined that in all cases, nanoiron reduced the Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), or possibly to Tc(V), through a redox reaction. Finally, it was demonstrated that a mixture of 20 mass percent of the solid reaction products obtained from contacting zirconia- supported nanoiron with an alkaline

  17. Incorporation of Pertechnetate and Perrhenate into Corroded Steel Surfaces Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heald, Steve M.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-04-01

    Batch reaction experiments and solid-phase characterization analyses were completed to examine the uptake of dissolved perrhenate [Re(VII)] or pertechnetate [Tc(VII)] by A-516 steel coupons that corroded in simulated groundwater solutions or dilute water. The goal was to identify the mechanism(s) that control the uptake of 99Tc by corrosion products on carbon steel in the presence of dilute solutions. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) was used to study the oxidation states of Re and Tc incorporated into the corroded steel coupon surfaces. X-ray fluorescence maps showed that the corroded coupons contain localized regions enriched in Re or Tc. The Re L3 near edge XAS results for the coupons reacted with Re-spiked waters were consistent with all sorbed Re being present as perrhenate and not significantly reduced to Re(IV). Linear combination fits of the EXAFS signals for the perrhenate and ReIVO2 standards indicate that Re sorbed to the steel coupons corroded in simulated J-13 (a relatively dilute Na-HCO3-CO3 groundwater) and even more dilute waters consists of a maximum of 5 and 10% Re(IV), respectively. The fluorescence results also showed that the Re concentrations increased with increasing time of exposure to the x-ray beam time, which suggests that the perrhenate ions are only weakly bonded to the matrix of the corrosion product. In contrast to the Re results, the Tc K edge XAFS results for the coupons reacted in 99Tc-spiked waters indicate that most of the sorbed Tc had been reduced to Tc(IV). The shape of the near edge and extended fine structure is similar to the Tc(IV)-hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and not the TcO2-nH2O standard. Differences were noted in the XAS results for steel coupons reacted with waters spiked with 0.001 versus 0.1 mmol/L 99Tc in that much more of the sorbed Tc from 0.001 mmol/L 99Tc experiments was in the form of pertechnetate. Comparison of the XAS results for coupons reacted with 0.001 mmol/L 99Tc-spiked dilute

  18. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.

    2004-03-29

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  19. Identification of Non-Pertechnetate Species in Hanford Tank Waste, Their Synthesis, Characterization, and Fundamental Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Norman C.; Ashley, Kenneth R.; Olivares, Jose A.

    2004-06-15

    Technetium, as pertechnetate (TcO4 -), is a mobile species in the environment. This characteristic, along with its long half-life, (99Tc, t1/2 = 213,000 a) makes technetium a major contributor to the long-term hazard associated with low level waste (LLW) disposal. Technetium partitioning from the nuclear waste at DOE sites may be required so that the LLW forms meet DOE performance assessment criteria. Technetium separations assume that technetium exists as TcO4 - in the waste. However, years of thermal, chemical, and radiolytic digestion in the presence of organic material, has transformed much of the TcO4 - into unidentified, stable, reduced, technetium complexes. To successfully partition technetium from tank wastes, it will be necessary to either remove these technetium species with a new process, or reoxidize them to TcO4 - so that conventional pertechnetate separation schemes will be successful.

  20. Avid thyroid uptake of (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate in children with goitrous cretinism

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Domstad, P.A.; Choy, Y.C.; DeLand, F.H.

    1981-07-01

    Three children with goitrous hypothyroidism had thyroid scans with (Tc-99m) sodium pertechnetate, which showed symmetrically enlarged thyroid glands with uniformly increased activities compared to little activities in the salivary glands and low body background activities. These scan findings, simulating those of Graves' disease, reflect acid trapping of this tracer, analogous to that seen with I-131. Perchlorate discharge test was positive in two patients, indicating an organification defect.

  1. Evaluating disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 99mtc-glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974

  2. Extraction of pertechnetate and perrhenate from water with deep-cavity [CpFe(arene)](+)-derivatized cyclotriveratrylenes.

    PubMed

    Gawenis, James A; Holman, K Travis; Atwood, Jerry L; Jurisson, Silvia S

    2002-11-18

    Technetium-99 (beta-, t(1/2) = 2.15 x 10(5) years) is produced in a 6% fission yield from fission reactors. Technetium-99 continues to be of major concern at various nuclear sites because of its mobility in its most common chemical form during the reprocessing cycle and in the environment. Under these oxic aqueous environments the chemical form of Tc is typically Tc(VII)O4-, which is difficult to remove. Methods for pertechnetate removal to date have mixed results and pose further environmental concerns. Utilization of new cyclotriveratrylene host materials for the extraction of pertechnetate from 0.9% saline into nitromethane has shown high selectivity and efficiency. A deep-cavity host, tris[cyclopentadienyliron(II) arene]cyclotriguiasylene (2), has shown >95% extraction of pertechnetate and perrhenate into nitromethane from saline in the presence of competing anions, outperforming previously reported materials.

  3. Sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m antral scan in the diagnosis of retained gastric antrum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; P'eng, F.K.; Yeh, P.H.

    1984-03-01

    Retained gastric antrum (RGA) is a major factor in recurrent peptic ulcer. We studied 121 patients with proven anastomotic ulcers following subtotal gastrectomy and Billroth II reconstruction with sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m to determine the presence of RGA. Of the patients, 59 required surgery, 22 had RGA, and 16 had a positive scan for RGA. This noninvasive examination has 100% specificity. If RGA is identified before operation, minimal time is wasted in exploration of the abdomen, which is especially important in dealing with emergency cases. When an antral scan is negative for RGA, the surgeon is still advised to search for this condition.

  4. Reduction And Sequestration Of Pertechnetate To Technetium Dioxide And Protection From Reoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J. B.; Johnson, J. M.; Moore, R. C.; Hagerty, K.; Rhodes, R. N.; Huber, H. J.; Moore, W. P.

    2012-11-07

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(lI)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(ll)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II) apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(lI)apatite exhibited a direct correlation with the pH of the technetium-spiked simulant media.

  5. REDUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE AND PROTECTION FROM RE-OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; JOHNSON JM; MOORE WP; HAGERTY KJ; RHODES RN; MOORE RC

    2012-07-11

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-I0S simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period of time (6 weeks). Previous work indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table 1 shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit.

  6. Raman Analysis of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate in Alkali Salts and Borosilicate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Gassman, Paul L.; McCloy, John S.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2014-01-03

    Sodium borosilicate glasses containing various concentrations of rhenium or technetium were fabricated, and their vibrational spectra studied using a Raman microscope. Spectra were interpreted with reference to new high resolution measurements of alkali pertechnetates and perrhenates NaReO4, KReO4, NaTcO4, and KTcO4. At low concentrations of ReO4- or TcO4-, glass spectra show weak peaks superimposed on a dominant spectrum of glass characteristic of silicate and borate network vibrations. At high concentrations, sharp peaks characteristic of crystal field splitting and C4h symmetry dominate the spectra of glasses, indicating alkali nearby tetrahedral Re or Tc. Often peaks indicative of both the K and Na pertechnetates/ perrhenates are evident in the Raman spectrum, with the latter being favored at high additions of the source chemical, since Na is more prevalent in the glass and ion exchange takes place. These results have significance to immobilization of nuclear waste containing radioactive 99Tc in glass for ultimate disposal.

  7. Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, William R.

    2004-12-01

    New film materials for pertechnetate: A new film material comprised of quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) cross-linked with 1,10-diiododecane has been developed for use in the spectroelectrochemical sensor. Films were prepared in a one-pot synthesis by stirring poly(4-vinylpyridine), cross-linker and methyl iodide in 1-butanol for 1 h, after which the solution was spin-coating onto ITO-glass. Film thickness was varied either by changing the spin rate or by dilution of the original precursor solution. The thinnest film prepared was 30 nm; the thickest 930 nm. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to study the dynamics of film changes on soaking in aqueous salt solution and on preconcentrating model analyte ferrocyanide. The results document that, on hydration, films expanded by almost 90% in 0.1 M KNO3, then contracted slightly when ferrocyanide solution was introduced probably due to electrostatic cross-linking. IR spectroscopy was used to determine the extent of quaternization of the film. For a polymer solution stirred for 1 h, films were about 20% quaternized. This can be increased to {approx}30% by adding more solvent to the precursor solution and stirring for an additional hour. Solubility of the partially cross-linked material was a factor that limited the quaternization process. Use of a more appropriate solvent may enable greater quaternization. A more quaternized film should preconcentrate more pertechnetate by virtue of having a higher density of charged binding sites. Film ruggedness is critical. To investigate this, films on ITO-glass were soaked in methanol and butanol overnight, in 0.1M KNO3, and in 0.1M KNO3 adjusted to pH 12 and pH 2 for 30 days. Each film was then tested as a spectroelectrochemical sensor for model analyte ferrocyanide. The results showed only the pH 2 conditioned sensor behaved abnormally. The film soaked in pH 2 electrolyte delaminated but did not dissolve. Delamination was most likely due to the acid digestion of the ITO layer of

  8. Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Pertechnetate Applicable to Hanford and Other DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.

    2009-09-28

    During the period of this grant several significant milestones have been passed pursuant to designing a fluorescence sensor for pertechnetate (TcO4-). They are as follows: Fluorescence spectroelectrochemistry and less than picomolar limit of detection for a model non-radioactive analyte have been demonstrated. The spectroelectrochemical sensor and associated instrumentation for fluorescence mode of operation have been made, are portable, and easily transported to and used at DOE sites. The sensor has sufficient selectivity for its application to complex samples, even including tank waste, that exist at DOE sites such as the Hanford Site. Pertechnetate has been preconcentrated in sensor films and electrochemically reduced. This is the first critical step in operation of a spectroelectrochemical sensor for TcO4-. New Tc complexes have been made that fluoresce and these complexes have been preconcentrated and electrochemically modulated in a sensor film leading to fluorescence modulation, which is the second critical step in operation of the spectroelectrochemical sensor for TcO4-. We have determined that fluorescence offers a means of dramatically improving the limit of detection. Based on measurements on our new fluorescent complexes of Tc, we estimate the limit of detection for the sensor to be 5 x 10-12M. In related work, we have shown that the sensitivity of the spectroelectrochemical sensor for some metal cations can be improved by forming a metal complex with better optical and electrochemical properties. In addition, some heavy metals can be detected with the spectroelectrochemical sensor by depositing them directly as metals on the sensor surface.

  9. Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L; Tofe, A J

    1976-06-14

    The bone scanning complex, 99mTc-Sn-EHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate concentration. The nuclidic agent 99mTcO4-BUT NOT THE 99MTc-diphosphonate is selectively taken up by the thyroid and this uptake can be blocked by administering sodium perchlorate. Among the connective tissues studied, the tracheal cartilage seems to have the greatest potential to calcify with increasing age of the animal and man. Soft tissue does not retain the bone scanning complex 99mTc-Sn-EHDP but does retain 99mTcO4-. PMID:182328

  10. Protocol for Identifying the Presence of and Understanding the Nature of Soluble, Non-pertechnetate Technetium in Hanford Tank Supernatants

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-02-27

    The objective of this report is to propose a method to evaluate the presence and extent of soluble, non-pertechnetate Tc in Hanford tank supernatants as well as methods that might be used to gain insight as to the nature of the specie(s) that make up this fraction. This study will then provide a recommendation as to the preferred approach for identifying and quantifying the presence of Hanford tank supernatant-soluble, non-pertechnetate, technetium. The recommendation will also describe an approach to address the issue of whether inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, which is useful as a monitoring tool for Tc, may be confounded by the presence of other mass 99 species.

  11. Scintigraphic detection of occult hemorrhage using RBCs labeled in vitro with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, S.R.; Kolina, J.S.; Kaplan, K.A.; McAuley, R.J.; Lull, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    Scintigraphy with RBCs labeled with technetium Tc 99m sodium pertechnetate effectively located the source of hemorrhage in a patient receiving long-term anticoagulant therapy. (The patient was initially seen with a large hematoma on the flank.) More important, the procedure was used to monitor activity in this otherwise-occult bleeding site. Scintigraphic studies may be useful in the management of these difficult clinical problems.

  12. Spectroelectrochemical Sensor for Technetium: Preconcentration and Quantification of Pertechnetate in Polymer-Modified Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, David J.; Stegemiller, Michael L.; Conklin, Sean; Paddock, Jean R.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Ridgway, Thomas H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hubler, Timothy L.

    2004-08-18

    A remote spectroelectrochemical sensor and instrumentation package is being developed for the detection of technetium as aqueous pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) in the vadose zone and associated groundwater. This sensor would be used to monitor the integrity of low-level and high-level nuclear waste containment at U.S. Department of Energy sites. Electrochemical studies of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} reduction at bare indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrodes (OTEs) show a poorly formed reduction wave for cyclic voltammetry and precipitation of technetium oxide (TcO{sub 2}) on the electrode surface. Similar experiments at ITO OTEs coated with thin films containing cationic polymers show partitioning of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} into the films. Three films were investigated: poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC) and quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine) (QPVP), both immodilized in porous glass by the sol-gel process, and poly(vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium chloride) (PVTAC) copolymerized with poly(vinylalcohol). The largest enhancement in the cyclic voltammetry reduction wave for TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was for QPVP. The electrochemical mechanism changes to favor formation of a relatively long-lived soluble species that ultimately converts to TcO{sub 2}. The electrodeposition of technetium oxide in these films was shown to be a method for the quantitative spectroelectrochemical determination of TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and has been verified using radiochemistry dose measurements and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Effect of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate on bacterial survival in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Stathis, V.J.; Miller, C.M.; Doerr, G.F.; Coffey, J.L.; Hladik, W.B.

    1983-04-01

    Survival of Staphylococcus epidermidis (10(2) organisms/ml) in solutions containing various levels of radioactivity was assessed. Six test preparations contained nonbacteriostatic 0.9% sodium chloride solution; four of these contained technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate (99mTcO-4) in various quantities (80, 250, 500, and 750 mCi). A fifth contained technetium that had decayed to an essentially nonradioactive form, and a sixth contained 0.9% sodium chloride solution only. Each of the six 20-ml solutions was inoculated with 2 ml of single-strength trypticase soy broth (TSB) containing 10(3) organisms/ml. At various times up to 12 hours after inoculation, 1-ml aliquots of each test solution were withdrawn and passed through 0.22-micron filters, thereby preventing further irradiation of the filtered organisms. The filters were incubated in single-strength TSB at 37 degrees C, and samples were examined for turbidity at 24, 48, and 72 hours. After 24 hours, 25 of the 36 sample tubes showed turbidity; after 48 hours, the turbid samples totaled 28. Bacteria in the two nonradioactive solutions remained viable throughout the 12-hour sampling period. Accumulated doses of radiation obtained in the 250-, 500-, and 750-mCi samples inhibited bacterial growth. To be a valid quality-control measure, sterility monitoring of prepared radiopharmaceutical dosage forms may need to be performed concurrently with their preparation.

  14. Control of pertechnetate sorption on activated carbon by surface functional groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen; Yeredla, Rakesh; Xu, Huifang; Abrecht, Mike

    2007-01-15

    The isotope 99Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO4-). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (Kd) varying from 9.5 x 10(5) to 3.2 x 10(3) ml/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with Kd remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10(3)-1.8 x 10(3) ml/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified as carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups, A, B, and C, in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO4- can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during materials processing.

  15. Three-Component Spectroelectrochemical Sensor Module for the Detection of Pertechnetate (TcO4-)

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sayandev; Bryan, Samuel A.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2013-07-01

    This review looks at the advancements in the development of a sensor for technetium (Tc) that is applicable to characterizing and monitoring the vadose zone and associated subsurface water. Subsurface contamination by Tc is of particular concern for two reasons: the extremely long lifetime of its most common isotope 99Tc (half-life = 2 x 105 years) and the fast migration in soils of pertechnetate (TcO4–) which is considered to be the dominant 99Tc species in ground water. TcO4– does not have a characteristic spectral signature which prevents its rapid, sensitive, and economic in-situ detection. To address this problem, a novel spectroelectrochemical sensor has been designed that combines three modes of selectivity (electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning) into a single sensor to substantially improve specificity which is critical in the specific detection of an analyte in the presence of potential interfering species. The sensor consists of a basic spectroelectrochemical configuration: a waveguide with an optically transparent electrode (OTE) that is coated with a thin chemically-selective film that preconcnetrates the analyte. The key to adapting this generic sensor to detect TcO4– and Tc complexes lies in the development of chemically-selective films that preconcentrate the analyte and, when necessary, chemically convert it into a complex with electrochemical and spectroscopic properties appropriate for sensing. This review focuses on the general concept of the sensor and the rationale for the selection of the specific components of choice, the development and characterization of the sensor for the different detection modules, the synthesis and characterization of complexes relevant in the detection of technetium, and the progress in the utilization of the sensor module for the effective detection of these complexes.

  16. Electronic interaction chromatography on porous graphitic carbon. Separation of [99mTc]pertechnetate and perrhenate anions.

    PubMed

    Lim, C K

    1989-03-01

    The oxo anions of technetium-99m and rhenium, pertechnetate (TcO4-) and perrhenate (ReO4-), have been separated by high performance liquid chromatography on porous graphitic carbon with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid or salt solutions as eluent. Chromatographic retention was a result of electronic interaction between the lone pair electrons of the anions and the delocalised pi-electron clouds of the porous graphitic carbon. Retention and resolution can be controlled by the concentration and/or species of eluents which can compete with the solutes for electronic interaction being used for elution.

  17. Reduction And Stabilization (Immobilization) Of Pertechnetate To An Immobile Reduced Technetium Species Using Tin(II) Apatite

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J. B.

    2012-11-02

    Synthetic tin(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 to a non-mobile oxidation state and sequesters the technetium, preventing re-oxidization to mobile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions. Previous work indicated technetium reacted Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index of 12.8 in Cast Stone. An effect by pH is observed on the distribution coefficient, the highest distribution coefficient being l70,900 observed at pH levels of 2.5 to 10.2. The tin apatite was resistant to releasing technetium under test conditions.

  18. Investigation and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems for the removal of pertechnetate from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gansle, Kristina Marie Rohal

    1998-11-01

    The solvent extraction behavior of perrhenate (ReO 4-) and pertechnetate (TcO4- ) from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants was examined using the anion-exchange reagent Aliquat-336 nitrate. The extraction tendencies of ReO 4- followed those of TcO4- from both acidic and basic media, demonstrating that ReO4 - was a suitable nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4 -. For ICP-AES analysis of Re in high salt solutions, a V-groove nebulizer and 1:1 dilution of the sample and standards with 0.1% Triton X-100 surfactant reduced deposition of solids within the sample introduction system, thus minimizing memory effects. A new approach to waste remediation technology, Redox-Recyclable Extraction and Recovery (R2ER), was also studied. The redox-active species 1,1',3,3'-tetrakis(2-methyl-2-hexyl)ferrocene (HEP) was oxidized to its cationic form for extraction of TcO4 - or ReO4- from aqueous waste and reduced to its neutral form for recovery of the anion. The thermodynamics of liquid-liquid interfacial electron transfer for the oxidation/activation of HEP were shown to be controlled by three factors: the reduction potentials of the redox-active species in the aqueous and organic phases and the transfer of an ion across the liquid-liquid interface. The deactivation/reduction rate of HEP+NO3- by iron was affected by organic solvent diluent and improved by treating the iron with hexanes and 1 M HCl. The volume of solid secondary-waste in the R2ER cycle was reduced by a factor of 3000. In complete extraction/recovery cycles, HEP+NO3- in 2-nonanone removed greater than 99% TcO4- from the 101-SY, 103-SY, 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH/1.5 M NaNO3 Hanford Tank waste simulants. Another redox-active extractant, bis(hydridotris(1-pyrazolyl)borato)iron(III) nitrate (FeTp2+NO3-), was also selective for ReO4- remediation from simulated aqueous waste. Organic solutions of the alkyl substituted ferricenium extractants were not stable in the presence of nucleophilic anions and/or reducing agents. HEP+NO3

  19. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ; MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

    2012-06-29

    This effort falls under the technetium management initiative and will provide data for those who will make decisions regarding the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort is to challenge Purolite{reg_sign} A530E against a double-shell tank simulant from tank 241-AN-105 spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is commercially available and is currently being used at the 200 West Pump and Treat Groundwater Treatment Plant to remove pertechnetate. It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix. Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin. Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine).

  20. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ, MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

    2012-04-17

    This report documents the laboratory testing and analyses as directed under the test plan, LAB-PLN-11-00010, Evaluation of Technetium Ion Exchange Material against Hanford Double Shell Tank Supernate Simulate with Pertechnetate. Technetium (Tc-99) is a major fission product from nuclear reactors, and because it has few applications outside of scientific research, most of the technetium will ultimately be disposed of as nuclear waste. The radioactive decay of Tc-99 to ruthenium 99 (Ru-99) produces a low energy {beta}{sup -} particle (0.1 MeV max). However, due to its fairly long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 2.13E05 years), Tc-99 is a major source of radiation in low-level waste (UCRL-JRNL-212334, Current Status of the Thermodynamic Data for Technetium and its Compounds and Aqueous Species). Technetium forms the soluble oxy anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup -} under aerobic conditions. This anion is very mobile in groundwater and poses a health risk (ANL, Radiological and Chemical Fact Sheets to Support Health Risk Analyses for Contaminated Areas). It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix (RPP-RPT-23199, The Removal of Technetium-99 from the Effluent Treatment Facility Basin 44 Waste Using Purolite A-530E, Reillex HPQ, and Sybron IONAC SR-7 Ion Exchange Resins). Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin (Gu, B. et. ai, Development of Novel Bifunctional Anion-Exchange Resins with Improved Selectivity for Pertechnetate Sorption from Contaminated Groundwater). Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (ANSI/ASN-16.1-2003, Measurement of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short-term Test Procedure) as reported in RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This effort falls under

  1. Parathyroid imaging with pertechnetate plus perchlorate/MIBI subtraction scintigraphy: a fast and effective technique.

    PubMed

    Rubello, D; Saladini, G; Casara, D; Borsato, N; Toniato, A; Piotto, A; Bernante, P; Pelizzo, M R

    2000-07-01

    We set up a modified technetium-99m (Tc-99m) pertechnetate/Tc-99m MIBI (Tc-MIBI) subtraction scintigraphy for parathyroid imaging by introducing the use of potassium perchlorate (KCLO4). Initially, the effect of KCLO4 on technetium thyroid wash-out was evaluated in five healthy volunteers: 40-minute dynamic studies of the thyroid were obtained 20 minutes after the injection of technetium 150 MBq (4 mCi), both in baseline conditions and after the oral administration of 400 mg KCLO4. After an average latency time of 10.5 minutes, KCLO4 administration resulted in fast and relevant technetium thyroid wash-out with a mean half-time of 16.2 minutes (the half-time was 142.8 minutes in baseline conditions), and a 40-minute reduction of thyroid activity of 78% (it was 14% in baseline conditions). Based on these findings, a new Tc-MIBI subtraction procedure was established as follows: 1) 150 MBq technetium (4 mCi) injection; 2) 400 mg KCLO4 administered orally; 3) patient neck immobilization; 4) acquisition of a 5-minute technetium thyroid scan; 5) 500 MBq MIBI (13.5 mCi) injection; 6) acquisition of a sequence of seven MIBI images, each lasting 5 minutes; and 7) processing (image realignment when necessary, background subtraction, normalization of MIBI images to the maximum pixel count of the technetium image, and subtraction of the technetium image from the MIBI images). In addition, high-resolution neck ultrasound (US) was performed in all cases on the same day as the scintigraphic evaluation. Eighteen consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were enrolled in the study. Tc-MIBI scintigraphy revealed a single adenoma in all cases and US showed this finding in 15 of 18 cases (83.3%). Furthermore, in three patients, a thyroid nodule associated with hyperparathyroidism was detected by technetium thyroid scans and neck US. In all patients, the parathyroid adenoma was easily identified on both the 20- to 40-minute MIBI and subtracted (MIBI-Tc) images. Regarding the

  2. LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REDUCTION AND STABILIZATION (IMMOBILIZATION) OF PERTECHNETATE TO TECHNETIUM DIOXIDE USING TIN(II)APATITE

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY K; MOORE WP; RHODES RN; JOHNSON JM; MOORE RC

    2012-06-01

    This effort is part of the technetium management initiative and provides data for the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge tin(II)apatite (Sn(II)apatite) against double-shell tank 241-AN-105 simulant spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Sn(II)apatite used in this effort was synthesized on site using a recipe developed at and provided by Sandia National Laboratories; the synthesis provides a high quality product while requiring minimal laboratory effort. The Sn(II)apatite reduces pertechnetate from the mobile +7 oxidation state to the non-mobile +4 oxidation state. It also sequesters the technetium and does not allow for re-oxidization to the mo bile +7 state under acidic or oxygenated conditions within the tested period oftime (6 weeks). Previous work (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine) indicated that the Sn(II)apatite can achieve an ANSI leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.8. The technetium distribution coefficient for Sn(II)apatite exhibits a direct correlation with the pH of the contaminated media. Table A shows Sn(II)apatite distribution coefficients as a function of pH. The asterisked numbers indicate that the lower detection limit of the analytical instrument was used to calculate the distribution coefficient as the concentration of technetium left in solution was less than the detection limit. The loaded sample (200 mg of Sn(II)apatite loaded with O.311 mg of Tc-99) was subjected to different molarities of nitric acid to determine if the Sn(II)apatite would release the sequestered technetium. The acid was allowed to contact for 1 minute with gentle shaking ('1st wash'); the aqueous solution was then filtered, and the filtrate was analyzed for Tc-99. Table B shows the results ofthe nitric acid exposure. Another portion of acid was added, shaken for a minute, and filtered ('2nd wash'). The technetium-loaded Sn

  3. Possible explanation of appearance of Warthin's tumor on I-123 and Tc-99m-pertechnetate scans

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Weisberger, E.C.

    1981-06-01

    A 71-year old man presented with a parotid mass and a thyroid nodule. An I-123 scan revealed a ''cold'' nodule in the thyroid and uptake of the radioactive iodine in the parotid mass. On a Tc-99m-pertechnetate salivary gland scan, the parotid mass was ''hot'' and did not wash out with sodium perchlorate. At surgery, he was found to have a Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland and an adenomatous goiter. The reasons for the scan appearance of the Warthin's tumor are discussed. Since Warthin's tumors are benign and uptake of radioactive iodine in the extrathyroidal deposits of thyroid carcinoma is rare with the thyroid gland in place, the uptake of iodine by a salivary gland mass probably indicates a benign process.

  4. Comparison of shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and technetium-99m-pertechnetate in a group of dogs with experimentally-induced chronic biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Yen, C.K.; Komtebedde, J.; Breznock, E.; Fisher, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been previously validated relative to portal vein macroaggregated albumin injections using an experimental model of cirrhosis. Transcolonic technetium-99m-pertechnetate (TcO4-) has been proposed as an alternative tracer to IMP to study portal circulation in cirrhotic patients. We compared shunt fraction estimates from paired transcolonic IMP and TcO4- studies performed on a group of dogs before and after common bile duct ligation surgery. Pertechnetate over-estimated shunt fraction in 6/7 postoperative studies relative to IMP. A good correlation between the two methods was demonstrated, however, the slope of the regression line was substantially less than 1.0 with TcO4- values reaching 100% at IMP shunt values of approximately 60%. This apparent inability to accurately assess high shunt flows may limit the quantitative aspects of TcO4- studies on patients with severe portosystemic shunting.

  5. Perrhenate uptake by iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides: an analogue for pertechnetate incorporation in Hanford waste tank sludges.

    PubMed

    Wakoff, Bradley; Nagy, Kathryn L

    2004-03-15

    Perrhenate (ReO4-), a nonradioactive surrogate for pertechnetate (99TcO4-), was partitioned during precipitation and aging of iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide solids from aqueous simulants of high-level nuclear waste stored at Hanford, WA. Neutralization of acidic metal nitrate solutions (Al/Fe mole ratio 0.25 and 13.5; 40 ppm Re) to a final pH > 13, followed by aging at 90 degrees C for up to 18 weeks, resulted in substantial amounts of reversibly sorbed Re (approximately 1-10 ppm). Irreversibly sorbed Re increased in the Fe-dominated system with aging, reaching a final value of approximately 83 ppb after 168 h, in a mixture of hematite with minor goethite. Irreversibly sorbed Re in the Al-dominated system generally decreased with time to approximately 30 ppb after 18 weeks in solids dominated by boehmite. Increasing the total amount of Re to 1000 ppm increased the extent of irreversible sorption. The presence of 100 ppm Si prevented transformation of and irreversible Re uptake by ferrihydrite in Fe-dominated systems. In Al-dominated systems, 200 ppm Ni prevented hematite formation but did not affect perrhenate uptake. Results suggest that 5% of the 99Tc inventory in the Hanford waste tanks may be associated with the sludges, and approximately 0.5% incorporated into the solids under oxidizing conditions. PMID:15074687

  6. Effect of oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa on the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreno, S R F; Silva, A L C; Diré, G; Honeycut, H; Carvalho, J J; Nascimento, A L; Pereira, M; Rocha, E K; Oliveira-Timóteo, M; Arnobio, A; Olej, B; Bernardo-Filho, M; Caldas, L Q A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the oral ingestion of an extract of the herb Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) on the biodistribution of the radiobiocomplex sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. The animals (male Wistar rats, 2 months old, 180-220 g), were treated (1 mL) with an U. tomentosa extract (32 mg/mL, N = 5) or 0.9% NaCl solution (control, N = 5) for 7 days. After this period, Na99mTcO4 (3.7 MBq, 0.3 mL) was injected through the ocular plexus and after 10 min the rats were killed, the organs isolated and counted in a well-gamma counter. A significant (P < 0.05) alteration in Na99mTcO4 uptake i) from 0.57 +/- 0.008 to 0.39 +/- 0.06 %ATI/organ (P < 0.05) and from 0.57 +/- 0.17 to 0.39 +/- 0.14 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) was observed in the heart, ii) from 0.07 +/- 0.02 to 0.19 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g in the pancreas, and iii) from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.07 %ATI/g (P < 0.05) in muscle after treatment with this extract. Although these results were obtained with animals, caution is advisable in the interpretation of the nuclear medicine examination when the patient is using this herb. This finding is probably an example of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, a fact that could lead to misdiagnosis of the examination in clinical practice with unexpected consequences for the patient.

  7. Characterization of trans-dioxotechnetium(V) and technetium(II)phosphine excited states and spectroelectrochemical detection of pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Del Negro, Andy S.; Wang, Zheming; Hubler, Timothy L.; Heineman, William R.; Seliskar, Carl J.; Sullivan, Brian P.

    2006-06-01

    We report the first examples of excited-state luminescence from technetium complexes. We have examined a series of trans-dioxo complexes of Tc(V) and a Tc(I/II) phosphine complex and compare their respective photophysical properties with the corresponding rhenium analogues. When excited with a 415 nm laser, the Tc(V) complexes luminesce in the 700-800 nm range and have excited state lifetimes in the range of several microseconds at room temperature. The low-temperature luminescence spectra of the technetium complexes have also been investigated. Distinct vibrational band progressions are resolved in the low-temperature luminescence spectra. Excited state lifetimes at 5 K vary between tens of microseconds to several milliseconds for the dioxo-technetium complexes. In addition, a previously known Tc(I) complex, [Tc(DMPE) 3]+ which has been used as a radiography imaging agent has been demonstrated in our labs to fluoresce in the visible wavelength region upon a one-electron reversible oxidation to form the Tc(II), [Tc(DMPE)3]2+ complex in aqueous solution. The luminescence of [Tc(DMPE)3]2+ was observed by illuminating the solution complex with a 404 nm excitation while performing the reversible electrochemical experiment. In a recent application, we have focused on making thin chemically-selective films for sensing radioactive technetium compounds and in this effort have developed a fluorescence-based spectroelectrochemical sensor. Characterization of the new dioxo-technetium(V) and technetium(II)phosphine excited states as well as application of the respective chromophores for use in a spectroelectrochemical sensor for pertechnetate will be discussed.

  8. Estimation of 24-hour thyroid uptake of I-131 sodium iodide using a 5-minute uptake of technetium-99m pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.J.; Croft, B.Y.; Brookeman, V.A.; Teates, C.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the 24-hour sodium iodide thyroid uptake based on a 5-minute Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake using the equation: Estimated Iodide Uptake = 17.72*In(Pertechnetate Uptake) + 30.40. This estimation has a correlation coefficient of 0.90. It is based on a data pool of 44 patients who underwent I-131 and Tc-99m studies within 2 weeks of each other from 1978-1988, with established diagnoses as follows: 12 euthyroid, 6 hyperthyroid with multinodular goiters, 15 hyperthyroid with diffuse goiters, 4 with subacute thyroiditis, and 7 unknown. The population consisted of 30 women and 14 men with a mean age of 52.0 +/- 17.5 years; this sample was screened for use of thyroid hormone, propylthiouracil, and radiographic contrast. The authors believe this estimation method is of value whenever a 24-hour iodide uptake is desired, and where speed and minimizing radiation dose are factors. This method is strongly recommended for thyroid uptake evaluation before I-131 therapy.

  9. The effect of "Zusanli" (ST. 36) acupuncture on the bio-availability of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy; Moreno, Silvana F R; Santos-Filho, Sebastião; Rogers, Philip A M; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antônio Mello

    2006-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli point (ST.36) on the bioavailability of radio-pharmaceutical 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats was investigated. Ten healthy rats were allocated into two groups of five. Group 1 (n=5) was treated by acupuncture by inserting stainless steel needles bilaterally at ST.36; Group 2 was the untreated control. Ocular plexus administration of 0.3ml of Na99mTcO4 (3.7MBq) was carried out 10 minutes after every needle insertion. The rats were killed 25 minutes later. The organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well gamma counter, and the percentage of injected radio-pharmaceutical dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) was assessed for each organ. The %ID/g varied significantly (p<0.05) between Group 1 and Group 2 in pancreas (0.91 +/- 0.17 vs 0.15 +/- 0.03), stomach (7.97 +/- 0.68 vs 3.51 +/- 0.22), spleen (0.97 +/- 0.11 vs 0.41 +/- 0.14), brain (0.19 +/- 0.09 vs 0.09 +/- 0.04), kidneys (0.91 +/- 0.17 vs 0.15 +/- 0.03), heart (0.81 +/- 0.17 vs 0.31 +/- 0.02) and testis (0.46 +/- 0.04 vs 0.14 +/- 0.03). These findings suggest that the effect of acupuncture at ST.36 modulated organs and tissues responses in rats. Using Chinese theories of Zang-Fu and Five Phases, we suggest that the relationship between acupoints and organs may be related to neuromodulation mechanisms such as somatovisceral reflex responses, which play an important role in the autonomic nervous system. These results also suggest that the effect of acupuncture on the bio-availability of radio-pharmaceuticals may help our understanding of the action of acupuncture points on various organs and tissues. PMID:17063829

  10. The effect of "Zusanli" (ST. 36) acupuncture on the bio-availability of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy; Moreno, Silvana F R; Santos-Filho, Sebastião; Rogers, Philip A M; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antônio Mello

    2006-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture stimulation at Zusanli point (ST.36) on the bioavailability of radio-pharmaceutical 99mTc-sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats was investigated. Ten healthy rats were allocated into two groups of five. Group 1 (n=5) was treated by acupuncture by inserting stainless steel needles bilaterally at ST.36; Group 2 was the untreated control. Ocular plexus administration of 0.3ml of Na99mTcO4 (3.7MBq) was carried out 10 minutes after every needle insertion. The rats were killed 25 minutes later. The organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well gamma counter, and the percentage of injected radio-pharmaceutical dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) was assessed for each organ. The %ID/g varied significantly (p<0.05) between Group 1 and Group 2 in pancreas (0.91 +/- 0.17 vs 0.15 +/- 0.03), stomach (7.97 +/- 0.68 vs 3.51 +/- 0.22), spleen (0.97 +/- 0.11 vs 0.41 +/- 0.14), brain (0.19 +/- 0.09 vs 0.09 +/- 0.04), kidneys (0.91 +/- 0.17 vs 0.15 +/- 0.03), heart (0.81 +/- 0.17 vs 0.31 +/- 0.02) and testis (0.46 +/- 0.04 vs 0.14 +/- 0.03). These findings suggest that the effect of acupuncture at ST.36 modulated organs and tissues responses in rats. Using Chinese theories of Zang-Fu and Five Phases, we suggest that the relationship between acupoints and organs may be related to neuromodulation mechanisms such as somatovisceral reflex responses, which play an important role in the autonomic nervous system. These results also suggest that the effect of acupuncture on the bio-availability of radio-pharmaceuticals may help our understanding of the action of acupuncture points on various organs and tissues.

  11. Development of a Chemistry-Based, Predictive Method for Determining the Amount of Non-Pertechnetate Technetium in the Hanford Tanks: FY 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Bryant, Janet L.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Houchin, Joy Y.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Smith, Frances N.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-01-30

    This report describes investigations directed toward understanding the extent of the presence of highly alkaline soluble, non-pertechnetate technetium (n-Tc) in the Hanford Tank supernatants. The goals of this report are to: a) present a review of the available literature relevant to the speciation of technetium in the Hanford tank supernatants, b) attempt to establish a chemically logical correlation between available Hanford tank measurements and the presence of supernatant soluble n-Tc, c) use existing measurement data to estimate the amount of n-Tc in the Hanford tank supernatants, and d) report on any likely, process-friendly methods to eventually sequester soluble n-Tc from Hanford tank supernatants.

  12. 99MTc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime Imaging for Early Detection of Acute Lung Injury in Rats Exposed to Hyperoxia or Lipopolysaccharide Treatment.

    PubMed

    Audi, Said H; Clough, Anne V; Haworth, Steven T; Medhora, Meetha; Ranji, Mahsa; Densmore, John C; Jacobs, Elizabeth R

    2016-10-01

    Tc-Hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is a clinical single-photon emission computed tomography biomarker of tissue oxidoreductive state. Our objective was to investigate whether HMPAO lung uptake can serve as a preclinical marker of lung injury in two well-established rat models of human acute lung injury (ALI).Rats were exposed to >95% O2 (hyperoxia) or treated with intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with first endpoints obtained 24 h later. HMPAO was administered intravenously before and after treatment with the glutathione-depleting agent diethyl maleate (DEM), scintigraphy images were acquired, and HMPAO lung uptake was quantified from the images. We also measured breathing rates, heart rates, oxygen saturation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell counts and protein, lung homogenate glutathione (GSH) content, and pulmonary vascular endothelial filtration coefficient (Kf).For hyperoxia rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased after 24 h (134%) and 48 h (172%) of exposure. For LPS-treated rats, HMPAO lung uptake increased (188%) 24 h after injury and fell with resolution of injury. DEM reduced HMPAO uptake in hyperoxia and LPS rats by a greater fraction than in normoxia rats. Both hyperoxia exposure (18%) and LPS treatment (26%) increased lung homogenate GSH content, which correlated strongly with HMPAO uptake. Neither of the treatments had an effect on Kf at 24 h. LPS-treated rats appeared healthy but exhibited mild tachypnea, BAL, and histological evidence of inflammation, and increased wet and dry lung weights. These results suggest the potential utility of HMPAO as a tool for detecting ALI at a phase likely to exhibit minimal clinical evidence of injury.

  13. Preoperative Diagnostic Strategy for Parotid Gland Tumors Using Diffusion-Weighted MRI and Technetium-99m Pertechnetate Scintigraphy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Koyasu, Sho; Shinohara, Shogo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hino, Megumu; Naito, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for diagnosis of a parotid gland tumor is widely used but its sensitivity is low and non-diagnostic rate is relatively high. In contrast, core needle biopsy (CNB) has a higher sensitivity and lower rate of sampling errors but has a higher risk of injury to adjacent organs such as facial nerve than FNAC. Screening of patients with parotid gland tumors to identify cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and Warthin tumor (WT) may allow CNB to be confined to patients without PA and WT. We established an algorithm for preoperative diagnosis and management of parotid gland tumor using diffusion-weighted MRI and 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy. This algorithm was developed with the goal of maximal reduction of the number of patients in whom CNB is required. The purpose of the study is to validate our algorithm prospectively. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 71 cases who were newly diagnosed with parotid gland tumor and 53 cases were enrolled in the study. In the algorithm, PA (high apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mean≥1.5×10−3 mm2/s) and non-PA (low ADCmean<1.5×10−3 mm2/s) cases are first distinguished based on the ADCmean on diffusion-weighed MRI. Second, among suspected non-PA cases, WT and non-WT are distinguished using technetium-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy. CNB is then performed only in probable non-PA and non-WT cases. Results Although CNB was only required in 40% (21/53) of all cases, we made a preoperative histopathological diagnosis with an accuracy of 87% (46/53) and we correctly diagnosed whether a tumor was benign or malignant with an accuracy of 96% (51/53). Preoperative surgical planning had to be changed during surgery in only one case (2%) Conclusions Our algorithm is valuable in terms of clinical practice with highly potential for preoperative diagnosis and with less risk of CNB procedure. PMID:26849569

  14. Reduction of pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid: Formation of [TcNO(AHA)2(H2O)]+ and implications for the UREX process.

    SciTech Connect

    1Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Nuclear Science and Technology Division, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, 89154-4006; Gong, Cynthia-May S; Poineau, Frederic; Lukens, Wayne W; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2008-02-26

    Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry with the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a the d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but may be augmented by products of reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex (1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent; titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4.5 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The formation of 1 may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  15. Reduction of Pertechnetate By Acetohydroxamic Acid: Formation of [tc**II(NO)(AHA)(2)(H(2)O)]**+ And Implications for the UREX Process

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.-M.S.; Lukens, W.W.; Poineau, F.; Czerwinski, K.R.

    2009-05-18

    Reductive nitrosylation and complexation of ammonium pertechnetate by acetohydroxamic acid has been achieved in aqueous nitric and perchloric acid solutions. The kinetics of the reaction depend on the relative concentrations of the reaction components and are accelerated at higher temperatures. The reaction does not occur unless conditions are acidic. Analysis of the X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic data is consistent with a pseudo-octahedral geometry and the linear Tc-N-O bond typical of technetium nitrosyl compounds, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy is consistent with a d{sup 5} Tc(II) nitrosyl complex. The nitrosyl source is generally AHA, but it may be augmented by some products of the reaction with nitric acid. The resulting low-valency trans-aquonitrosyl(diacetohydroxamic)-technetium(II) complex ([Tc{sup II}(NO)(AHA){sub 2}H{sub 2}O]{sup +}, 1) is highly soluble in water, extremely hydrophilic, and is not extracted by tri-n-butylphosphate in a dodecane diluent. Its extraction properties are not pH-dependent: potentiometric-spectrophotometric titration studies indicate a single species from pH 4 down to -0.6 (calculated). This molecule is resistant to oxidation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, even at high pH, and can undergo substitution to form other technetium nitrosyl complexes. The potential formation of 1 during reprocessing may strongly impact the fate of technetium in the nuclear fuel cycle.

  16. A classical force field for tetrahedral oxyanions developed using hydration properties: The examples of pertechnetate (TcO4(-)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)).

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher D; Carbone, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive pertechnetate, (99)TcO4(-), is one of the most problematic ionic species in the context of the clean up and storage of nuclear waste. Molecular simulations can be used to understand the behavior of TcO4(-) in dilute aqueous solutions, providing reliable potentials are available. This work outlines the development of a new potential model for TcO4(-) and competing SO4(2-), optimized using their hydration properties, such as the Gibbs hydration free energy (calculated using Bennett's acceptance ratio method). The findings show that the TcO4(-) oxyanion has a very low hydration free energy (-202 kJ mol(-1)) compared to other anions (Cl(-), I(-), SO4(2-)) leading to fast water exchange dynamics and explaining its observed high mobility in the aqueous environment. Its hydrated structure, investigated using ion-water radial distribution functions, shows that it is unique amongst the other anions in that it does not possess well-defined hydration shells. Since contaminants and ubiquitous species in the aqueous environment are often present as tetrahedral oxyanions, it is proposed that the approach could easily be extended to a whole host of other species.

  17. A classical force field for tetrahedral oxyanions developed using hydration properties: The examples of pertechnetate (TcO4-) and sulfate (SO42-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher D.; Carbone, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive pertechnetate, 99TcO4-, is one of the most problematic ionic species in the context of the clean up and storage of nuclear waste. Molecular simulations can be used to understand the behavior of TcO4- in dilute aqueous solutions, providing reliable potentials are available. This work outlines the development of a new potential model for TcO 4- and competing SO42-, optimized using their hydration properties, such as the Gibbs hydration free energy (calculated using Bennett's acceptance ratio method). The findings show that the TcO4- oxyanion has a very low hydration free energy (-202 kJ mol-1) compared to other anions (Cl-, I-, SO42-) leading to fast water exchange dynamics and explaining its observed high mobility in the aqueous environment. Its hydrated structure, investigated using ion-water radial distribution functions, shows that it is unique amongst the other anions in that it does not possess well-defined hydration shells. Since contaminants and ubiquitous species in the aqueous environment are often present as tetrahedral oxyanions, it is proposed that the approach could easily be extended to a whole host of other species.

  18. A classical force field for tetrahedral oxyanions developed using hydration properties: The examples of pertechnetate (TcO4(-)) and sulfate (SO4(2-)).

    PubMed

    Williams, Christopher D; Carbone, Paola

    2015-11-01

    Radioactive pertechnetate, (99)TcO4(-), is one of the most problematic ionic species in the context of the clean up and storage of nuclear waste. Molecular simulations can be used to understand the behavior of TcO4(-) in dilute aqueous solutions, providing reliable potentials are available. This work outlines the development of a new potential model for TcO4(-) and competing SO4(2-), optimized using their hydration properties, such as the Gibbs hydration free energy (calculated using Bennett's acceptance ratio method). The findings show that the TcO4(-) oxyanion has a very low hydration free energy (-202 kJ mol(-1)) compared to other anions (Cl(-), I(-), SO4(2-)) leading to fast water exchange dynamics and explaining its observed high mobility in the aqueous environment. Its hydrated structure, investigated using ion-water radial distribution functions, shows that it is unique amongst the other anions in that it does not possess well-defined hydration shells. Since contaminants and ubiquitous species in the aqueous environment are often present as tetrahedral oxyanions, it is proposed that the approach could easily be extended to a whole host of other species. PMID:26547171

  19. Competitive Reduction of Pertechnetate (99TcO4- ) by Dissimilatory Metal Reducing Bacteria and Biogenic Fe(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Plymale, Andrew E.; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Heald, Steve M.; Moore, Dean A.; Kennedy, David W.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Chongmin; Resch, Charles T.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

    2011-01-06

    The fate of pertechnetate (99Tc(VII)O4-) during bioreduction was investigated in the presence of 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh) and various dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) (Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Shewanella) in comparison with TcO4- bioreduction in the absence of Fh. In the presence of Fh, Tc was present primarily as a fine-grained Tc(IV)/Fe precipitate that was distinct from the Tc(IV)O2·nH2O solids produced by direct biological Tc(VII) reduction. Aqueous Tc concentrations (<0.2 μm) in the bioreduced Fh suspensions (1.7 to 3.2 × 10-9 mol L-1) were over 1 order of magnitude lower than when TcO4- was biologically reduced in the absence of Fh (4.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-7 mol L-1). EXAFS analyses of the bioreduced Fh-Tc products were consistent with variable chain length Tc-O octahedra bonded to Fe-O octahedra associated with the surface of the residual or secondary Fe(III) oxide. In contrast, biogenic TcO2·nH2O had significantly more Tc-Tc second neighbors and a distinct long-range order consistent with small particle polymers of TcO2. In Fe-rich subsurface sediments, the reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) may predominate over direct microbial pathways, potentially leading to lower concentrations of aqueous 99Tc(IV).

  20. Reductive sequestration of pertechnetate (⁹⁹TcO₄⁻) by nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) transformed by abiotic sulfide.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dimin; Anitori, Roberto P; Tebo, Bradley M; Tratnyek, Paul G; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Engelhard, Mark H; Bowden, Mark E; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W

    2013-05-21

    Under anoxic conditions, soluble pertechnetate (⁹⁹TcO₄⁻) can be reduced to less soluble TcO₂·nH₂O, but the oxide is highly susceptible to reoxidation. Here we investigate an alternative strategy for remediation of Tc-contaminated groundwater whereby sequestration as Tc sulfide is favored by sulfidic conditions stimulated by nano zerovalent iron (nZVI). nZVI was pre-exposed to increasing concentrations of sulfide in simulated Hanford groundwater for 24 h to mimic the onset of aquifer biotic sulfate reduction. Solid-phase characterizations of the sulfidated nZVI confirmed the formation of nanocrystalline FeS phases, but higher S/Fe ratios (>0.112) did not result in the formation of significantly more FeS. The kinetics of Tc sequestration by these materials showed faster Tc removal rates with increasing S/Fe between 0 and 0.056, but decreasing Tc removal rates with S/Fe > 0.224. The more favorable Tc removal kinetics at low S/Fe could be due to a higher affinity of TcO₄⁻ for FeS than iron oxides, and electron microscopy confirmed that the majority of the Tc was associated with FeS phases. The inhibition of Tc removal at high S/Fe appears to have been caused by excess HS(-). X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that as S/Fe increased, the pathway for Tc(IV) formation shifted from TcO₂·nH2₂ to Tc sulfide phases. The most substantial change of Tc speciation occurred at low S/Fe, coinciding with the rapid increase in Tc removal rate. This agreement further confirms the importance of FeS in Tc sequestration.

  1. Photoreduction of 99Tc pertechnetate by nanometer-sized metal oxides: new strategies for formation and sequestration of low-valent technetium.

    PubMed

    Burton-Pye, Benjamin P; Radivojevic, Ivana; McGregor, Donna; Mbomekalle, Israel M; Lukens, Wayne W; Francesconi, Lynn C

    2011-11-23

    Technetium-99 ((99)Tc) (β(-)(max): 293.7 keV; t(1/2): 2.1 × 10(5) years) is a byproduct of uranium-235 fission and comprises a large component of radioactive waste. Under aerobic conditions and in a neutral-basic environment, the pertechnetate anion ((99)TcO(4)(-)) is stable. (99)TcO(4)(-) is very soluble, migrates easily through the environment and does not sorb well onto mineral surfaces, soils, or sediments. This study moves forward a new strategy for the reduction of (99)TcO(4)(-) and the chemical incorporation of the reduced (99)Tc into a metal oxide material. This strategy employs a single material, a polyoxometalate (POM), α(2)-[P(2)W(17)O(61)](10-), that can be photoactivated in the presence of 2-propanol to transfer electrons to (99)TcO(4)(-) and incorporate the reduced (99)Tc covalently into the α(2)-framework to form the (99)Tc(V)O species, (99)Tc(V)O(α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61))(7-). This occurs via the formation of an intermediate species that slowly converts to (99)Tc(V)O(α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61))(7-). Extended X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis suggests that the intermediate consists of a (99)Tc(IV) α(2)- species where the (99)Tc is likely bound to two of the four W-O oxygen atoms in the α(2)-[P(2)W(17)O(61)](10-) defect. This intermediate then oxidizes and converts to the (99)Tc(V)O(α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61))(7-) product. The reduction and incorporation of (99)TcO(4)(-) was accomplished in a "one pot" reaction using both sunlight and UV irradiation and monitored as a function of time using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance and radio thin-layer chromatography. The process was further probed by the "step-wise" generation of reduced α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61)(12-) through bulk electrolysis followed by the addition of (99)TcO(4)(-). The reduction and incorporation of ReO(4)(-), as a nonradioactive surrogate for (99)Tc, does not proceed through the intermediate species, and Re(V)O is incorporated quickly into the

  2. Photoreduction of 99Tc Pertechnetate by Nanometer-Sized Metal Oxides: New Strategies for Formation and Sequestration of Low-Valent Technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Radivojevic, Ivana; McGregor, Donna; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-11-23

    Technetium-99 (99Tc)(β-max: 293.7 keV; t1/2: 2.1 x 105 years) is a byproduct of uranium-235 fission and comprises a large component of radioactive waste. Under aerobic conditions and in a neutral- basic environment, the pertechnetate anion (99TcO4-) is stable. 99TcO4- is very soluble, migrates easily through the environment and does not sorb well onto mineral surfaces, soils or sediments. This study moves forward a new strategy for the reduction of TcO4- and chemical incorporation of the reduced 99Tc into a metal oxide material. This strategy employs a single material, a polyoxometalate (POM), α2-[P2W17O61]10-, that can be photoactivated in the presence of 2-propanol to transfer electrons to TcO4- and incorporate the reduced 99Tc covalently into the α2- framework to form the TcVO species, TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. This occurs via the formation of an intermediate species that slowly converts to TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7-. EXAFS and XANES analysis and preliminary EPR analysis, suggests that the intermediate consists of a Tc(IV) α2- species where the 99Tc is likely bound to only 2 of the 4 W-O oxygen atoms in the α2-[P2W17O61]10- defect. This intermediate then oxidizes and converts to the 99TcVO(α2-P2W17O61)7- product. The reduction and incorporation of 99TcO4- was accomplished in a ''one pot'' reaction using both sunlight and UV irradiation, and monitored as a function of time using multinuclear NMR

  3. Standards not that standard.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology. PMID:26435739

  4. Infrastructure Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yow, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of technological design standards for a 35-school construction/renovation effort by Guilford County Schools in North Carolina. The standards encompassed the physical infrastructure, telephone systems, and paging systems. (EV)

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies of an aqueous extract of Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pinto, Angélica B.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Carvalho, Jorge J.; Pereira, Mário J. S.; Fonseca, Adenilson S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mário

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural products might alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and these results may be correlated with modifications of the shape of the red blood cells (RBC). The biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals can be also altered. Objective: This investigation aimed to determine biological effects of an aqueous extract of chamomile (CE). Materials and Methods: To study the effect of the CE on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed. The effect of the CE on the morphology of RBC was observed under light microscope. The images were acquired, processed, and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC determined. To analyze the effect of the CE on biodistribution of the sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in Wistar rats, these animals were treated or not with a CE. Na99mTcO4 was injected, the rats were sacrificed, the organs were removed, weighted and percentage of radioactivity/gram calculated. Result: In the in vitro experiment, the radioactivity on blood cells compartment and on insoluble fractions of plasma was diminished. The shape and the perimeter/area ratio of the RBC were altered in in vitro assays. An increase of the percentage of radioactivity of Na99mTcO4 was observed in stomach after in vivo treatment. Conclusion: These results could be due to substances of the CE or by the products of the metabolism of this extract in the animal organism. These findings are examples of drug interaction with a radiopharmaceutical, which could lead to misdiagnosis in clinical practice with unexpected consequences. PMID:24143045

  6. Acupuncture at “Zusanli” (St.36) and “Sanyinjiao” (SP.6) Points on the Gastrointestinal Tract: A Study of the Bioavailability of 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Senna-Fernandes, Vasco; França, Daisy L. M.; de Souza, Deise; Santos, Kelly C. M.; Sousa, Rafael S.; Manoel, Cristiano V.; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D.; Cortez, Célia M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Guimarães, Marco Antonio M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the differences of acupuncture effect between the Zusanli (St.36) and Sanyinjiao (SP.6) points on the gastrointestinal-tract (GIT) segment performed by the bioavailability of 99mTc-sodium-pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) in rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 21) were allocated into three groups of seven each. Group 1 was treated by acupuncture bilaterally at St.36; Group 2 at SP.6; and Group 3 was untreated (control). After 10 min of needle insertion in anesthetized rats, 0.3 mL of Na99mTcO4 (7.4 MBq) was injected via ocular-plexus. After 20 min, the exitus of animals was induced by cervical-dislocation and GIT organs isolated. However, immediately before the exitus procedure, blood was collected by cardiac-puncture for blood radio-labeling (BRL). The radioactivity uptake of the blood constituents was calculated together with the GIT organs by a well gamma counter. The percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) of Na99mTcO4 was calculated for each GIT organs, while BRL was calculated in %ID. According to the one-way ANOVA, the stomach, jejunum, ileum from the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2) had significant differences compared to the controls (Group 3). However, between the treated groups (Group 1 and Group 2), there were significant differences (P < .05) in the stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum, transverse and rectum. In BRL analysis, Group 2 showed significant increase and decrease of the insoluble and soluble fractions of the blood cells, respectively (P < .0001). The authors suggest that St.36 may have a tendency of up-regulation effect on GIT, whereas SP.6, down-regulation effect. However, further rigorous experimental studies to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture in either acupuncture points need to be carried out. PMID:19213853

  7. Performance Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    1997-01-01

    Standards-based systems generally require students to meet the performance level specified in order to proceed or be certified. This issue of the Oregon School Study Council (OSSC) Bulletin surveys the types of standards currently being proposed. After an introductory chapter, chapter 2 describes eight components of standards, illustrated with a…

  8. 99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroid surgery planned on the basis of a preoperative combined 99mTc-pertechnetate/99mTc-MIBI and ultrasound imaging protocol.

    PubMed

    Casara, D; Rubello, D; Piotto, A; Pelizzo, M R

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to define the accuracy of a preoperative parathyroid imaging protocol based on the combination of technetium-99m pertechnetate/technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTcO4/ 99mTc-MIBI) scan and neck ultrasound (US) in selecting patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) eligible for a limited neck exploration, and (b) to investigate the potential role of the intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) in radio-guided minimally invasive surgery. 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI subtraction scan was performed by means of potassium perchlorate administration with the aim of effecting rapid 99mTcO4 wash-out from the thyroid. Minimally invasive surgery using an IGP was commenced some minutes following the injection of a low, 70 MBq, 99mTc-MIBI dose. Intraoperative PTH (i-PTH) was measured. On the basis of preoperative imaging, 21 pHPT consecutive patients were selected for a limited neck dissection. In 18 of them, a single parathyroid adenoma was found at surgery and IGP allowed performance of parathyroidectomy through a small, 2-2.5 cm, skin incision with a relatively short surgical duration (mean 38 min). i-PTH rapidly normalised in all cases. In two patients, a parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed at surgery; consequently, a wide neck exploration associated with a near-total thyroidectomy was performed. No loco-regional metastatic lesions were found and i-PTH rapidly normalised after carcinoma excision. In one patient, i-PTH remained elevated after removal of the enlarged parathyroid gland which was localised by 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI scan and US. A bilateral exploration was needed to remove a contralateral enlarged parathyroid gland. Combined, 99mTcO4/99mTc-MIBI scan and US imaging correctly localised a single parathyroid gland in 20/21 patients (95.2%); thus, this protocol appears to be accurate enough for the preoperative selection of pHPT patients eligible for limited neck surgery. Moreover, in these selected patients the IGP seems to be helpful in

  9. EOS standards

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, Carl W

    2011-01-12

    An approach to creating accurate EOS for pressure standards is described. Applications to Cu, Au, and Ta are shown. Extension of the method to high compressions using DFT is illustrated. Comparisons with modern functionals show promise.

  10. (Terminology standardization)

    SciTech Connect

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  11. Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S.

    1998-03-17

    A method is described for preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: (a) providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; (b) eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate; (c) eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; (d) eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and (e) eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution. 1 fig.

  12. Concentration of perrhenate and pertechnetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Furn F.; Beets, Arnold L.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Guhlke, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    A method of preparing a concentrated solution of a carrier-free radioisotope which includes the steps of: a. providing a generator column loaded with a composition containing a parent radioisotope; b. eluting the generator column with an eluent solution which includes a salt of a weak acid to elute a target daughter radioisotope from the generator column in a first eluate. c. eluting a cation-exchange column with the first eluate to exchange cations of the salt for hydrogen ions and to elute the target daughter radioisotope and a weak acid in a second eluate; d. eluting an anion-exchange column with the second eluate to trap and concentrate the target daughter radioisotope and to elute the weak acid solution therefrom; and e. eluting the concentrated target daughter radioisotope from the anion-exchange column with a saline solution.

  13. Standardizing Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Sompuram, Seshi R.; Vani, Kodela; Tracey, Brian; Kamstock, Debra A.

    2015-01-01

    A new standardized immunohistochemistry (IHC) control for breast cancer testing comprises formalin-fixed human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, or progesterone receptor peptide antigens covalently attached to 8-µm glass beads. The antigen-coated beads are suspended in a liquid matrix that hardens upon pipetting onto a glass microscope slide. The antigen-coated beads remain in place through deparaffinization, antigen retrieval, and immunostaining. The intensity of the beads’ stain provides feedback regarding the efficacy of both antigen retrieval and immunostaining. As a first report, we tested the sensitivity and specificity of the new IHC controls (“IHControls”). To evaluate sensitivity, various staining problems were simulated. IHControls detected primary and secondary reagent degradation similarly to tissue controls. This first group of IHControls behaved similarly to tissue controls expressing high concentrations of the antigen. The IHControls were also able to detect aberrations in antigen retrieval, as simulated by sub-optimal times or temperatures. Specificity testing revealed that each antigen-coated bead was specific for its cognate IHC test antibody. The data support the conclusion that, like tissue controls, IHControls are capable of verifying the analytic components of an immunohistochemical stain. Unlike tissue controls, IHControls are prepared in large bulk lots, fostering day-to-day reproducibility that can be standardized across laboratories. PMID:25940339

  14. High Standards or a High Standard of Standardness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the difference between "high standards" and a "high standard of standardness" of professional service provision in teacher-librarianship. That is to say, it explores the difference between a demonstrated deep commitment to 21st century learning ("high standards") and demonstrated compliance with a pre-determined checklist of…

  15. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  16. Standards 101: The ASA Standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul

    2001-05-01

    ASA serves as a standards developer under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The Standards Program is organized through four technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) development of national standards (ANSI Standards), (2) national adoption of international standards (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of international standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are staffed by hundreds of volunteers, mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Physiological and Psychological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the society except meetings. It is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large sectors of society. It is a main way the ASA diffuses the knowledge of acoustics and its practical application, perhaps the main way.

  17. Standards 101; the ASA standards program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomer, Paul D.

    2002-11-01

    ASA supports the development of standards by serving as the secretariat for standards committees of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The program is organized through four ANSI technical committees (S1, S2, S3, and S12) and one administrative committee (ASACOS). S1 deals with physical acoustics, S2 deals with shock and vibration, S3 deals with physiological and psychological acoustics, and S12 deals with noise. ASACOS is the ASA Committee on Standards. The program has three primary tasks: (1) the development of National Standards (ANSI Standards), (2) the national adoption of an international standard (ANSI NAIS Standards), (3) providing the USA input to the development of International Standards (ISO and IEC Standards). At every level the main work is accomplished in Working Groups (WG) that are ''staffed'' by hundreds of volunteers--mainly ASA members from its various technical committees such as Noise, Physical Acoustics, Architectural Acoustics, Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, etc. Overall, the Standards Program involves more ASA members than does any other single function of the Society except meetings and it is the biggest outreach function of ASA affecting the health, welfare, and economic well-being of large segments of the population, the business and industrial community, and government at all levels.

  18. Test-Factor Standardization and Marginal Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent W.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses M. Rosenberg's Test-Factor Standardization as a type of marginal standardization. To illustrate this relation, the author utilizes a table on abortion attitudes formerly published by K.W. Smith in his commentary on Rosenberg's work. (Author/GC)

  19. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  20. Standards for holdup measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal.

  1. Technology Standards for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jennifer

    In many states technology standards for students have focused on basic computer skills, but more standards are beginning to focus on identifying technology skills that students need for school and the workplace. In most states in the Southern Region, technology standards for students are based on the National Educational Technology Standards for…

  2. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  3. ACOUSTICAL STANDARDS NEWS.

    PubMed

    Stremmel, Neil; Struck, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    American National Standards (ANSI Standards) developed by Accredited Standards Committees S1, S2, S3, S3/SC 1, and S12 in the areas of acoustics, mechanical vibration and shock, bioacoustics, animal bioacoustics, and noise, respectively, are published by the Acoustical Society of America (ASA). In addition to these standards, ASA publishes a catalog of Acoustical American National Standards. To receive a copy of the latest Standards catalog, please contact Neil Stremmel.Comments are welcomed on all material in Acoustical Standards News.This Acoustical Standards News section in JASA, as well as the National Catalog of Acoustical Standards and other information on the Standards Program of the Acoustical Society of America, are available via the ASA home page: http://acousticalsociety.org. PMID:27475185

  4. Standards for British Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Reviews developments in British library standards since 1971, highlighting types of standards, public libraries, academic libraries (university, polytechnic, college), school libraries, and special libraries (hospital and health sciences, prison, subject specializations). Thirty-nine references are cited. (EJS)

  5. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  6. Stricter clean air standards

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    1997-07-01

    New standards for ozone and particulate matter stir a debate between the EPA and industrial groups. The article discusses both the history of the ozone and particulates standards, the goal of the EPA to protect health and evaluation of what the standards mean to health, and the industrial response.

  7. New Coal Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heritage, John

    1979-01-01

    Tighter federal air pollution control standards for new coal-burning electric power plants have been issued. Through use of air pollution control devices all types of coal will be useable under the new standards. Even stricter standards may be imposed where visibility may be affected in areas now enjoying very clean air. (RE)

  8. Standards for Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Academic Senate.

    The standards for accreditation presented in this paper were developed by the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges to measure basic characteristics of quality required of all accredited institutions. The accreditation standards are divided into eight areas. Standard one discusses institutional integrity: purposes; planning; and…

  9. Emission Standards for Particulates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, George W.

    1974-01-01

    Promulgation of standards of performance under Section 111 and national emission standards for hazardous pollutants under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act is the responsibility of the Emission Standards and Engineering Division of the Environmental Protection Agency. The problems encountered and the bases used are examined. (Author/BT)

  10. Differential Grading Standards Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strenta, A. Christopher; Elliott, Rogers

    1987-01-01

    Differential grading standards were examined in a sample of 1,029 Dartmouth College graduates. Fields of study that attracted students (as majors) who scored higher on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) employed stricter grading standards. These differential standards attenuated the substantial correlation between SAT scores and grades.…

  11. Standard gas hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Stan

    1995-01-01

    The Sierra College Space Technology Program is currently building their third GAS payload in addition to a small satellite. The project is supported by an ARPA/TRP grant. One aspect of the grant is the design of standard hardware for Get Away Specials (GAS) payloads. A standard structure has been designed and work is progressing on a standard battery box and computer.

  12. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  13. Standards for Objective Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

  14. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  15. Standards and Certification. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on standards and certification in human resource development (HRD). "Implementing Management Standards in the UK" (Jonathan Winterton, Ruth Winterton) reports on a study that explored the implementation of management standards in 16 organizations and identified 36 key themes and strategic issues…

  16. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  17. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  18. NDTA narcotics standard development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvick, Sydney J.; Cui, Jing; Kunz, Terry D.; Hoglund, David E.; Pilon, Pierre; Lawrence, Andre H.; Drolet, Gerry; Su, Chih-Wu; Rigdon, Stephen W.; Demirgian, Jack C.; Shier, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    The Narcotics Detection Technology Assessment (NDTA) program is a series of studies conducted to evaluate illicit substance detection devices. The ability to effectively detect cocaine and heroin particles is directly related to the efficiency of a detection device's sample collection design. The NDTA tests are therefore structured to require sampling of narcotics from a surface. Tests standards are required which permit subnanogram to microgram quantities of narcotic to be dispensed onto a target surface for sampling. Optimally, the standard should not adversely affect the performance of the device under test. The NDTA test team has developed and experimentally characterized solution- deposited substrate standards, solution-deposited substrate- free standards, vapor-deposited standards, suspension standards, and dry mix standards, and dry mix standards. A variety of substrates and dry-mix fillers have been evaluated, including sand, fullerenes, copper powder, nickel powder, pulverized paper, and aluminum. Suspension standards were explored with a variety of liquids. The narcotic standards with the best performance were found to be dry mixes of cocaine with silver-coated nickel powder, and dry mixes of heroin with silanized glass beads.

  19. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, WIlliam W.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program s function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned - standards integration system. The Program maintains a "one stop-shop" Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  20. NASA Technical Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Technical Standards Program was officially established in 1997 as result of a directive issued by the Administrator. It is responsible for Agency wide technical standards development, adoption (endorsement), and conversion of Center-unique standards for Agency wide use. One major element of the Program is the review of NSA technical standards products and replacement with non-Government Voluntary Consensus Standards in accordance with directions issued by the Office of Management and Budget. As part of the Program's function, it developed a NASA Integrated Technical Standards Initiative that consists of and Agency wide full-text system, standards update notification system, and lessons learned-standards integration system. The Program maintains a 'one stop-shop' Website for technical standards ad related information on aerospace materials, etc. This paper provides information on the development, current status, and plans for the NAS Technical Standards Program along with metrics on the utility of the products provided to both users within the nasa.gov Domain and the Public Domain.

  1. Setting standards: Legislative proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-11-01

    This article, second of a two-part series examining the standard-setting process reviews legislative proposals that would change the way drinking water standards are set. How drinking water standards should be set and which contaminants should be regulated is a central issue for Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) reauthorization. Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum of issues. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Others note that the high costs associated with meeting increasingly strict standards are not justified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits.

  2. PV standards overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1997-02-01

    A brief historical perspective and current status of the on going evolution of photovoltaic standards development and the use of these standards in promulgating accepted practices used in producing, measuring, and deploying Photovoltaic (PV) components and systems in the field. After nearly 20 years of experience in developing and writing domestic and international consensus PV standards the need and importance of standard methods and practices continues, as in the past, to be essential for a maturing PV industry. Part of this maturity has been in establishing and maintaining a common ground through the development of consensus standards and furthering the use of standards for PV commercialization in support of test facility accreditation, product certification, systems deployment, and safety code development to assure PV quality, performance, reliability, and safety.

  3. QKD standardization at ETSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, Gaby

    2012-09-01

    The present document starts with a brief introduction of ETSI, followed by an overview of locations where QKD has already been deployed commercially. The various scenarios of QKD deployment lead to a strong need for standardization. Before going into detail about the work of the ETSI standardization group for QKD the paper gives some general information of the importance of standards for the industry and describes the working methods of the ETSI ISG on QKD.

  4. Software Formal Inspections Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.

  5. Standardization: colorfull or dull?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2003-01-01

    After mentioning the necessity of standardization in general, this paper explains how human factors, or ergonomics standardization by ISO and the deployment of information technology were linked. Visual display standardization is the main topic; the present as well as the future situation in this field are treated, mainly from an ISO viewpoint. Some observations are made about the necessary and interesting co-operation between physicists and psychologists, of different nationality, who both may be employed by either private enterprise or governmental institutions, in determining visual display requirements. The display standard that is to succeed the present ISO standards in this area: ISO 9241-3, -7, -8 and ISO 13406-1, -2, will have a scope that is not restricted to office tasks. This means a large extension of the contexts for which display requirements have to be investigated and specified especially if mobile use of displays, under outdoor lighting conditions, is included. The new standard will be structured in such a way that it is better accessible than the present ones for different categories of standards users. The subject color in the new standard is elaborated here. A number of questions are asked as to which requirements on color rendering should be made, taking new research results into account, and how far the new standard should go in making recommendations to the display user.

  6. Preparation and initial characterization of fluidized bed steam reforming pure-phase standards

    SciTech Connect

    Missimer, D. M.; Rutherford, R. L.

    2013-03-21

    Hanford is investigating the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process for their Low Activity Waste. The FBSR process offers a low-temperature continuous method by which liquid waste can be processed with the addition of clay into a sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) waste form. The NAS waste form is mainly comprised of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), sodalite (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}Cl{sub 2}), and nosean (Na{sub 8}[AlSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}SO{sub 4}). Anions such as perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup -}), pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), and iodine (I{sup -}) are expected to replace sulfate in the nosean structure and/or chloride in the sodalite mineral structure (atomically bonded inside the aluminosilicate cages that these mineral structures possess). In the FBSR waste form, each of these phases can exist in a variety of solid solutions that differ from the idealized forms observed in single crystals in nature. The lack of understanding of the durability of these stoichiometric or idealized mineral phases complicates the ability to deconvolute the durability of the mixed phase FBSR product since it is a combination of different NAS phases. To better understand the behavior, fabrication and testing of the individual phases of the FBSR product is required. Analytical Development (AD) of the Science and Technology directorate of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to prepare the series of phase-pure standards, consisting of nepheline, nosean, and Cl, Re, and I sodalite. Once prepared, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to confirm the products were phase pure. These standards are being used for subsequent characterization studies consisting of the following: single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing, development of thermodynamic data, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) calibration curves. In addition to the above mentioned phase-pure standards, AD was tasked with fabricating a mixed Tc-Re sodalite.

  7. Soviet Standardization of Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Morton

    1961-01-01

    After a brief history of influences on the standardization of Russian since the Revolution, the descriptive and normalizing role of specific reference works of grammar, phonetics, vocabulary, and morphology is discussed. Concluding remarks point out a problem caused by a lack of coordination of standardization efforts and the mounting demands for…

  8. Smithsonian Microbeam Standards

    PubMed Central

    Jarosewich, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This is a short history of the Smithsonian Microbeam Standards; their sources, selection, preparation, and analyses. Fifty-eight minerals, natural glasses, and synthetic samples have been characterized in the past 25 years. During that time, over 750 requests were received for approximately 11 000 individual samples. These reference samples are referred to as the Smithsonian Microbeam Standards. PMID:27446760

  9. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  10. A national skills standard

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, G.

    1996-06-01

    The United States Department of Education has awarded a contract to an organization named the Vocational-technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) for the development of a skills standard for the HVAC/R industry. This report describes the development of the skills standard.

  11. Academic Standards. Fall 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Technical and Community Coll., Dover. Terry Campus.

    The Terry Campus of Delaware Technical and Community College has established academic standards to endorse competencies and skills for all courses of the technological programs. These standards eliminate conflicts and allow students to understand, from the beginning of their studies, the requirements for awarding a degree, diploma, or certificate.…

  12. Rewriting the Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, aggressive leadership from the National Association for Music Education resulted in the adoption of the nine National Standards for Music Education. Now, almost two decades later, much has changed. Standards have been studied and critiqued, and scholars have undertaken a great deal of research to identify best practices not only for…

  13. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  14. New Source Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Richard E.; McCutchen, Gary D.

    1972-01-01

    This feature article outlines the concept and procedures followed in establishing performance standards for new emission sources and summarizes the standards that have been established to date. Five source catagories are enumerated: fossil fuel-fired steam generators, municipal incinerators, Portland cement plants, nitric acid plants, and sulfuric…

  15. State Standards and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the United States various individuals and groups have tried to subvert science education by removing or weakening the treatment of evolution in state science-education standards. Most states' science-education standards support the teaching of evolution, but many in the general public and some policymakers want science classrooms to…

  16. State Academic Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Kanstoroom, Marci

    2001-01-01

    Standards-based reform has been America's premier education strategy for more than a decade. Its many backers seek stronger school and student performance and more equal opportunities for children, especially disadvantaged youngsters. Education is attracting more high-level attention and political energy than ever before. Yet standards-based…

  17. Exploring the New Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Ted; Pratt, Harold; Workosky, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This is an exciting time to be in science education. New science standards are being developed by a group of science educators from across the country, working with 26 states in a process managed by Achieve, Inc., a non-profit education reform organization. The development of the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) promises to be the most…

  18. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  19. Standards Supporters Firing Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Supporters of the Common Core State Standards are moving to confront increasingly high-profile opposition to the standards at the state and national levels by rallying the private sector and initiating coordinated public relations and advertising campaigns as schools continue implementation. In states such as Michigan and Tennessee, where…

  20. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Environmental Horticulture Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide contains 45 program standards for the environmental horticulture program conducted in technical institutes in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment,…

  2. Controversy Envelopes Environment Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions made at the first National Conference on Standards for Environmental Improvement. Indicates the presence of contradictions between industry and governmental agencies in terms of current environmental standards and their congressionally mandated deadlines as well as interpretation of environmental research data. (CC)

  3. Why Standards Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Michael A.; Caleb, Derry; Mitchell, Stanley G.

    2012-01-01

    When standards are absent, people soon notice. They care when products turn out to be of poor quality, are unreliable, or dangerous because of counterfeiting. By positioning their products in relation to a common standard, firms grow the total size of the market, and can focus their innovation efforts in areas where they have a comparative…

  4. Academic Standards in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    A+ Education Partnership, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Education policymakers and educators in Alabama are committed to improving the state's public education system to ensure that students gain the knowledge and skills they need to graduate from high school ready for real life. The state is on the path to implementing higher academic standards--the College and Career Ready Standards--which lay a…

  5. Standardized Developmental Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirlam, David; Byrne, Maureen

    The feasibility of standardized assessment of features of children's organization of knowledge and the demonstration of differences in organization between stages of development were investigated. It was possible to standardize developmentally derived instruments, in the same way as empirically derived tests because such evaluations concern the…

  6. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  7. Resisting Educational Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Americans' commitment to local control, expanded educational opportunities, and form over substance have made standards a hard sell. Education is becoming a private good to serve consumers' individual interests, not a public good serving broader public interests. A consumerist approach to standards stresses schools' sorting function. (MLH)

  8. Construction Cluster Skills Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL. Built Environment Partnership.

    Twelve construction cluster skill standards and associated benchmarks were developed as part of a federally funded school-to-work initiative that included the following parties: the Chicago Public Schools; City Colleges of Chicago; and business, labor, and community organizations. The standards, which include core academic, generic workplace…

  9. Weaving Standards into Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busick, Kathy; Mann, Monica

    This guide provides practical support for teachers as they tackle the challenges of planning and implementing lessons, units, and assessments that energize student learning and progress toward standards. Section 1, "Gathering Materials," provides the basic materials for approaching standards-based learning (definitions of key terms, grade-cluster…

  10. Drinking-water standards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.

  11. [CAS General Standards 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is to promote the improvement of programs and services to enhance the quality of student learning and development. CAS is a consortium of professional associations who work collaboratively to develop and promulgate standards and guidelines and to encourage…

  12. State Skill Standards: Welding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  13. State Skill Standards: Metalworking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

  14. Linking Service Learning & Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue explores the connection between service learning and standards-based education. In the lead article, "Service Learning and Standards: Are They Compatible?" (Brian Loney), an educator applies his extensive experience with Active Citizenship Today, a successful social studies service-learning program, to a representative set of…

  15. Standardization in Andean Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerron-Palomino, Rodolfo

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses current efforts to standardize the two major Andean languages: Quechua and Aymara. The difficulties in gaining consensus on standardizing phonology, grammar, and lexicon are highlighted. Specific recommendations are offered on how to deal with neologisms, and a proposal is made for the creation of a pan-Andean entity to…

  16. The State of Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    2001-01-01

    All 50 states are moving toward accountability systems that involve setting clear standards of learning, assessing student progress on those standards, and providing a variety of incentives and sanctions for performance. Many educators remain profoundly ambivalent; however, they recognize opportunities for positive change but worry that a narrow…

  17. Primary Standards Laboratory report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories operates the Primary Standards Laboratory (PSL) for the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE/AL). This report summarizes metrology activities that received emphasis in the first half of 1990 and provides information pertinent to the operation of the DOE/AL system-wide Standards and Calibration Program.

  18. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  19. The search for standards.

    PubMed

    Nolan, S P

    1995-07-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) assigned the responsibility for developing valve standards to its technical committee on surgical implants. A sub-committee on cardiovascular implants and the working group for heart valves were formed more than 20 years ago. The working group has learned a great deal, not only from its experience with ISO, but most of all from the collaboration of its international experts representing science, engineering and manufacturing. The first valve standard was published in 1984, revised in 1989, and the next revision will probably be published in 1995. After the formation of this ISO working group in 1972, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed regulations for the premarket approval of heart valves in the United States. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) was subsequently formed and appointed a working group to develop heart valve standards for Europe. It rapidly became apparent that the lack of co-ordination and communication of three separate organizations writing documents with different requirements and tests would lead to inconsistent and conflicting requirements. The ultimate outcome could have been a threat to public welfare by limiting the availability of medical devices. The commitment to the harmonization of standards by CEN and ISO, and the recent FDA policy to participate actively in standards development, have greatly improved this situation. Past errors, omissions and inappropriate attitudes have often slowed the standards process or have resulted in incomplete standards. This learning experience, while painful, should point the way to more timely and complete standards development in the future. PMID:8581215

  20. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  1. Spaceflight Human System Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Jan

    2009-01-01

    NASA created a new approach for human system integration and human performance standards. NASA created two documents a standard and a reference handbook. The standard is titled NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard (SFHSS) and consists of two-volumes: Volume 1- Crew Health This volume covers standards needed to support astronaut health (medical care, nutrition, sleep, exercise, etc.) Volume 2 Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health This volume covers the standards for system design that will maintain astronaut performance (ie., environmental factors, design of facilities, layout of workstations, and lighting requirements). It includes classic human factors requirements. The new standards document is written in terms so that it is applicable to a broad range of present and future NASA systems. The document states that all new programs prepare system-specific requirements that will meet the general standards. For example, the new standard does not specify a design should accommodate specific percentiles of a defined population. Rather, NASA-STD-3001, Volume 2 states that all programs shall prepare program-specific requirements that define the user population and their size ranges. The design shall then accommodate the full size range of those users. The companion reference handbook, Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), was developed to capture the design consideration information from NASA-STD-3000, and adds spaceflight lessons learned, gaps in knowledge, example solutions, and suggests research to further mature specific disciplines. The HIDH serves two major purposes: HIDH is the reference document for writing human factors requirements for specific systems. HIDH contains design guidance information that helps insure that designers create systems which safely and effectively accommodate the capabilities and limitations of space flight crews.

  2. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOEpatents

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  3. Helicopter simulator standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    The initial advisory circular was produced in 1984 (AC 120-XX). It was not finalized, however, because the FAR's for pilot certification did not recognize helicopter simulators and, therefore, permitted no credit for their use. That is being rectified, and, when the new rules are published, standards must be available for qualifying simulators. Because of the lack of a data base to support specification of these standards, the FAA must rely on the knowledge of experts in the simulator/training industry. A major aim of this workshop is to form a working group of these experts to produce a set of standards for helicopter training simulators.

  4. Localisation Standards and Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiou, Dimitra; Vázquez, Lucia Morado

    In this paper we describe a localisation process and focus on localisation standards. Localisation standards provide a common framework for localisers, including authors, translators, engineers, and publishers. Standards with rich semantic metadata generally facilitate, accelerate, and improve the localisation process. We focus particularly on the XML Localisation Interchange File Format (XLIFF), and present our experiment and results. An html file after converted into XLIFF, travels through different commercial localisation tools, and as a result, data as well as metadata are stripped away. Interoperability between file formats and application is a key issue for localisation and thus we stress how this can be achieved.

  5. Genomic standards consortium projects.

    PubMed

    Field, Dawn; Sterk, Peter; Kottmann, Renzo; De Smet, J Wim; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy; Cole, James R; Davies, Neil; Dawyndt, Peter; Garrity, George M; Gilbert, Jack A; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Hirschman, Lynette; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Knight, Rob; Kyrpides, Nikos; Meyer, Folker; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Morrison, Norman; Robbins, Robert; San Gil, Inigo; Sansone, Susanna; Schriml, Lynn; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ussery, Dave; Yilmaz, Pelin; White, Owen; Wooley, John; Caporaso, Gregory

    2014-06-15

    The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) is an open-membership community that was founded in 2005 to work towards the development, implementation and harmonization of standards in the field of genomics. Starting with the defined task of establishing a minimal set of descriptions the GSC has evolved into an active standards-setting body that currently has 18 ongoing projects, with additional projects regularly proposed from within and outside the GSC. Here we describe our recently enacted policy for proposing new activities that are intended to be taken on by the GSC, along with the template for proposing such new activities.

  6. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  7. Crewstation display interface standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Gregory J.

    1999-08-01

    Military sensors and crewstation displays are all moving to digital-based technologies, an epochal shift from the previous world of analog interfaces throughout the video chain. It is no longer possible to specify a sensor and display to the same interface specification such as the venerable RS-170 and RS- 343 standards without paying an unacceptable resolution penalty. Consequently a new standard is required to allow sensor and display manufacturers to easily design system interfaces without relying on cumbersome, costly and unique interface control documents. This paper presents one possible hardware and protocol standard based on FibreChannel technology, and solicits inputs into the standards setting process which is now in progress.

  8. State Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  9. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  10. Roundness calibration standard

    DOEpatents

    Burrus, Brice M.

    1984-01-01

    A roundness calibration standard is provided with a first arc constituting the major portion of a circle and a second arc lying between the remainder of the circle and the chord extending between the ends of said first arc.

  11. Standards in Mathematics Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Bill

    1978-01-01

    This article is based on a lecture given at the 1978 Easter Course at Padgate College of Higher Education. The lecture is an analysis of the complexity of mathematics teaching and the setting of teaching standards. (MN)

  12. Standards of neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H J

    2001-01-01

    Written specifications with regard to procedures performed, equipment used, and training of the involved personnel are widely used in the industry and aviation to guarantee constant quality. Similar systems are progressively being introduced to medicine. We have made an effort to standardize surgical procedures by introducing step-by-step guidelines and checklists. The current experience shows that a system of written standards is applicable to neurosurgery and that the use of checklists contributes to the prevention of forgetting essential details. Written standards and checklists are also a useful training tool within a university hospital and facilitate communication of essentials to the residents. Comparison with aviation suggests that standardization leads to a remarkable but nonetheless limited reduction of adverse incidents. PMID:11840739

  13. Improved protein labeling by stannous tartrate reduction of pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, W.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Bennett, S.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure has been developed whereby small amounts of protein - specifically human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G - can be labeled with Tc-99m. Artifactual problems associated with electrolytic and stannous chloride labeling procedures are virtually eliminated. The procedure is satisfactory for labeling human serum albumin, normal goat immunoglobulin G, and goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G.

  14. Effect of nitrate on uptake of pertechnetate by tomato plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krijger, G.C.; Kolloeffel, C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2000-06-01

    Nitrate has been shown to affect the acquisition of the nuclear waste product technetium (Tc) by plants. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is unknown. The uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}},[{sup 35}S] SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and H{sub 2}[{sup 32P}]PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} was studied in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Tiny Tim) with different growth rates due to culture at 0.5, 4.0, or 30 mM NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. In experiments lasting 24 h, net TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} uptake decreased at higher NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} supplies. The inhibitory effect of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} on TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} uptake also was shown in TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx experiments (K{sub i} = 3.3 mM), although about 30% of the TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx is suggested to be insensitive to NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. In contrast, H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} (30 mM) did not inhibit TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx, whereas SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} (30 mM) tended to increase TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} influx, probably due to the ionic strength of the uptake solution. Significant effects of the NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} supply on Tc efflux were not found. Overall, this leads to the conclusion that TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} share at least one transporter.

  15. DOE technical standards list. Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listing of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  16. SAE Standards Support

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes PNNL activities in FY 2012 in support of the following two vehicle communication standards activities: • Technical support to SAE, ANSI and NIST technical working groups. PNNL actively contributed to the use case development, harmonization, and evaluation of the SAE standards activities for vehicle to grid communication • Tested and validated a set of potential technologies for meeting SAE communication requirements and provided recommendations for technology choices.

  17. The Standard Model.

    PubMed

    Shears, Tara

    2012-02-28

    The Standard Model is the theory used to describe the interactions between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. It is remarkably successful at predicting the outcome of particle physics experiments. However, the theory has not yet been completely verified. In particular, one of the most vital constituents, the Higgs boson, has not yet been observed. This paper describes the Standard Model, the experimental tests of the theory that have led to its acceptance and its shortcomings. PMID:22253237

  18. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  19. Standards update -- 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    What a year this has been! Not since 1986, when SGML was being finished, has there been so much activity in the SGML world. In ISO, there are new standards being completed and old ones (some of which are not really all that old) being revised. As you`ll be hearing, there is lots of SGML activity in the applications world--particularly on the Internet--and that`s causing other kinds of standards activity. WG8 divides its work into five ``Rapporteur Groups`` (or ``RGs``) for DSSSL, Font Description and Interchange, SGML, SPDL, and Hypermedia Languages. Since interest is in DSSSL, SGML, and Hypermedia Languages, the author only mentions that the other groups have been active, too. The Fronts group has been doing amendments to its standards, ISO/IEC 9541 and ISO/IEC 10036. The Fronts groups has been active in providing support for ISO/IEC 10646, the massive character coding standard that has drawn a lot of attention in the SGML world. The SPDL group has at long last finished its standard, the Standard Page Description Language (ISO/IEC 10180) and is about to publish it. More detailed discussions are given for activity in SGML, DSSSL, and Hypermedia Languages.

  20. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.

  1. Standards for discharge measurement with standardized nozzles and orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    The following standards give the standardized forms for two throttling devices, standard nozzles and standard orifices, and enable them to be used in circular pipes without calibration. The definition of the standards are applicable in principle to the calibration and use of nonstandardized throttling devices, such as the venturi tube. The standards are valid, likewise, as a basis for discharge measurements in the German acceptance standards.

  2. Computation of Standard Errors

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Bryan E; Greene, William H; Norton, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We discuss the problem of computing the standard errors of functions involving estimated parameters and provide the relevant computer code for three different computational approaches using two popular computer packages. Study Design We show how to compute the standard errors of several functions of interest: the predicted value of the dependent variable for a particular subject, and the effect of a change in an explanatory variable on the predicted value of the dependent variable for an individual subject and average effect for a sample of subjects. Empirical Application Using a publicly available dataset, we explain three different methods of computing standard errors: the delta method, Krinsky–Robb, and bootstrapping. We provide computer code for Stata 12 and LIMDEP 10/NLOGIT 5. Conclusions In most applications, choice of the computational method for standard errors of functions of estimated parameters is a matter of convenience. However, when computing standard errors of the sample average of functions that involve both estimated parameters and nonstochastic explanatory variables, it is important to consider the sources of variation in the function's values. PMID:24800304

  3. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed.

  4. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  5. Standards Laboratory environments

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Standards Laboratory environments need to be carefully selected to meet the specific mission of each laboratory. The mission of the laboratory depends on the specific work supported, the measurement disciplines required and the level of uncertainty required in the measurements. This document reproduces the contents of the Sandia National Laboratories Primary Standards Laboratory Memorandum Number 3B (PSLM-3B) which was issued on May 16, 1988, under the auspices of the Department of Energy, Albuquerque Operations Office, to guide the laboratories of the Nuclear Weapons Complex in selecting suitable environments. Because of both general interest and specific interest in Standards Laboratory environments this document is being issued in a more available form. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance in selection of laboratory environments suitable for standards maintenance and calibration operations. It is not intended to mandate a specific environment for a specific calibration but to direct selection of the environment and to offer suggestions on how to extend precision in an existing and/or achievable (practical) environment. Although this documents pertains specifically to standards laboratories, it can be applied to any laboratory requiring environmental control.

  6. The standard cosmological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.

    2006-06-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) is an enormously successful description of high-energy physics, driving ever more precise measurements to find "physics beyond the standard model", as well as providing motivation for developing more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Simultaneously, a description of the entire three-dimensional structure of the present-day Universe is being built up painstakingly. Most of the structure is stochastic in nature, being merely the result of the particular realization of the "initial conditions" within our observable Universe patch. However, governing this structure is the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC), which appears to require only about a dozen parameters. Cosmologists are now determining the values of these quantities with increasing precision to search for "physics beyond the standard model", as well as trying to develop an understanding of the more fundamental ideas that might explain the values of its parameters. Although it is natural to see analogies between the two Standard Models, some intrinsic differences also exist, which are discussed here. Nevertheless, a truly fundamental theory will have to explain both the SMPP and SMC, and this must include an appreciation of which elements are deterministic and which are accidental. Considering different levels of stochasticity within cosmology may make it easier to accept that physical parameters in general might have a nondeterministic aspect.

  7. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1995-09-01

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who`s Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed.

  8. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  9. Science education standards

    SciTech Connect

    Alberts, B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the National Science Education Standards that are being developed at the National Research Council. The Standards are being developed for the following areas: content, teaching, assessment, program, and system. The national science standards will call for the kind of science that provides both an understanding of the basic concepts needed for success in our high technology society, and the acquisition of process skills, or the ability to proceed step by step to solve a practical problem. Science should become a core subject like reading, writing and math in grades K-12. At all levels, the material taught should be interesting, both to students and to teachers. The profession of science teaching must become an attractive one, which is possible to do well without superhuman effort. The scientific community must accept responsibility for achieving these goals.

  10. Software assurance standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the software assurance program for the provider of software. It also delineates the assurance activities for the provider and the assurance data that are to be furnished by the provider to the acquirer. In any software development effort, the provider is the entity or individual that actually designs, develops, and implements the software product, while the acquirer is the entity or individual who specifies the requirements and accepts the resulting products. This standard specifies at a high level an overall software assurance program for software developed for and by NASA. Assurance includes the disciplines of quality assurance, quality engineering, verification and validation, nonconformance reporting and corrective action, safety assurance, and security assurance. The application of these disciplines during a software development life cycle is called software assurance. Subsequent lower-level standards will specify the specific processes within these disciplines.

  11. Ethics, standards, and TQM.

    PubMed

    Botticelli, M G

    1995-04-01

    The most important ethical issue for our profession is the responsibility to assure the care delivered by our colleagues and ourselves meets a self-imposed standard of excellence. There is anecdotal and experimental evidence that we have not fulfilled this obligation. Peer review has proven, for a number of reasons, to be ineffective; however, improvements in the epidemiologic sciences should provide better standards and total quality management (TQM) might prove to be of value in monitoring, comparing and improving the decisions made by physicians. Its promise lies in its emphasis on statistical analysis, its focus on systematic rather than human error, and its use of outcomes as standards. These methods, however, should not diminish our other professional responsibilities: Altruism, peer review, and in Hippocrates' words "to prescribe regimens for the good of our patients-and never do harm to anyone."

  12. Coordinate Standard Measurement Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hanshaw, R.A.

    2000-02-18

    A Shelton Precision Interferometer Base, which is used for calibration of coordinate standards, was improved through hardware replacement, software geometry error correction, and reduction of vibration effects. Substantial increases in resolution and reliability, as well as reduction in sampling time, were achieved through hardware replacement; vibration effects were reduced substantially through modification of the machine component dampening and software routines; and the majority of the machine's geometry error was corrected through software geometry error correction. Because of these modifications, the uncertainty of coordinate standards calibrated on this device has been reduced dramatically.

  13. 4 Steps to Standards Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domine, Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    It is too easy for teachers and library media specialists to entangle themselves in the multiple strands of standards: State core curriculum content standards, National Educational Technology Standards for Students (NETS.S), National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers (NETS.T), and the Information Literacy Standards (ALA). To prevent…

  14. Department of Energy Standards Index

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This TSL, intended for use in selecting and using DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards, provides listing of current and inactive DOE technical standards, non-Government standards adopted by DOE, other Government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards.

  15. Standardized Curriculum for Cosmetology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: cosmetology I and II. The 18 units in cosmetology I are as follows: introduction to cosmetology; Vocational Industrial Clubs of America; the look you like; bacteriology; sterilization and sanitation; hair and disorders; draping,…

  16. Standardized Curriculum for Electrician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: electrician I and II. The 11 units in electrician I are as follows: orientation; safety; tools, equipment, materials/supplies; basic principles and theory; DC circuits; AC circuits; blueprints and load calculations; load centers and…

  17. Patternmaker. Apprenticeship Training Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    This training document outlines the apprenticeship training standards for the trade of patternmaker that have been approved by the Ontario Ministry of Skills Development. The document consists of the following: (1) skills (competencies) identified by a trade analysis development group of practicing patternmakers; (2) general performance objectives…

  18. Standards and Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph has grown out of a series of discussions and a six-month period of reading and reflecting on the literature which were initiated by Fritz Mosher's suggestions to the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to examine the "standards" question. Conversations with Mosher himself and the staff of NAEP have been most…

  19. Nationwide Standards Eyed Anew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    With the federal No Child Left Behind Act underscoring the wide variation in what states demand of their students, people on both sides of the political aisle are again making the case for national standards, curricula, and tests. It wasn't so long ago--during the Clinton and George H.W. Bush administrations--that similar proposals went down in…

  20. Distributed Learning Metadata Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Significant economies can be achieved in distributed learning systems architected with a focus on interoperability and reuse. The key building blocks of an efficient distributed learning architecture are the use of standards and XML technologies. The goal of plug and play capability among various components of a distributed learning system…

  1. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  2. Math, Literacy, & Common Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Nearly every state has signed on to use the Common Core State Standards as a framework for teaching English/language arts and mathematics to students. Translating them for the classroom, however, requires schools, teachers, and students to change the way they approach teaching and learning. This report examines the progress some states have made…

  3. GASB Achieves Standardization, Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, George E.

    1986-01-01

    In 1984 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board, created to solidify accounting principles for government entities, enumerated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles endorsed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Council on Governmental Accounting. These principles have recently been approved for school…

  4. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. Custodial Standards. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard County School District, Rockledge, FL.

    The Brevard County School Board has issued this document detailing maintenance and custodial standards district wide for its schools. The document first addresses the general procedures and maintenance for the school, including universal precautions for the protection of the custodial staff. It then details maintenance and cleaning requirements…

  6. Setting the Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen

    1994-01-01

    New Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) standards for college and university fund raising establish three key rules for campaign reporting: (1) separation of gifts for featured and unspecified objectives; (2) separation of current from deferred gifts; and (3) disclosure of both face value and discounted present value of…

  7. Low electrolytic conductivity standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.C.; Berezansky, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    The monitoring and control of the quality of feedwater and boiler water are necessary for power plants. The generation of steam at high temperature and pressure requires that contaminants be strictly limited to very low levels to prevent corrosion and scaling. Standards of low electrolytic conductivity were developed to satisfy the demands of the US Navy and American industry for the measurement of high quality water. The criteria for the selection of appropriate solvent and solutes, based on the principles of equivalent conductivity and Onsager`s limiting law, are described. Dilute solutions of potassium chloride and benzoic acid in 30% n-propanol-water have been chosen as standards. The electrolytic conductivity of both sets of these solutions as a function of molality was determined. Solutions of potassium chloride and of benzoic acid are recommended for use as 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 {micro}S/cm conductivity standards. Solutions prepared from potassium chloride in 30% n-propanol-water have been certified as Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). SRM 3198 and SRM 3199 are certified nominally at 5 and 15 {micro}S/cm, respectively, at 25.000 C.

  8. Setting Environmental Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  9. Accessibility Standards, Illustrated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael A.

    The book sets forth Illinois environmental accessibility standards for disabled persons based on observation and interview data. Photographs, drawings, and detailed floor plans are included in sections dealing with human data (including space requirements for maneuvering wheelchairs, color blindness, incontinence, and severe auditory or visual…

  10. Standard Curriculum Underestimates Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPike, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Compares two social studies textbooks for second graders, one standard curriculum (SC) text and the other from the Core Knowledge Curriculum (CKC). It argues that the SC textbook is boring and overly simplified, while the CKC textbook is interesting and considerably more informative. It suggests that elementary school students are fully capable of…

  11. Standards Worrying Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Even as the Common Core State Standards are being put into practice across most of the country, nearly half of teachers feel unprepared to teach them, especially to disadvantaged students, according to a new survey. The study by the EPE Research Center found deep wells of concern among teachers about their readiness to meet the challenges posed by…

  12. Laser Propulsion Standardization Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Scharring, Stefan; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Sinko, John E.; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2010-10-08

    It is a relevant issue in the research on laser propulsion that experimental results are treated seriously and that meaningful scientific comparison is possible between groups using different equipment and measurement techniques. However, critical aspects of experimental measurements are sparsely addressed in the literature. In addition, few studies so far have the benefit of independent confirmation by other laser propulsion groups. In this paper, we recommend several approaches towards standardization of published laser propulsion experiments. Such standards are particularly important for the measurement of laser ablation pulse energy, laser spot area, imparted impulse or thrust, and mass removal during ablation. Related examples are presented from experiences of an actual scientific cooperation between NU and DLR. On the basis of a given standardization, researchers may better understand and contribute their findings more clearly in the future, and compare those findings confidently with those already published in the laser propulsion literature. Relevant ISO standards are analyzed, and revised formats are recommended for application to laser propulsion studies.

  13. Standardization of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  14. Quantum primordial standard clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wang, Yi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we point out and study a generic type of signals existing in the primordial universe models, which can be used to model-independently distinguish the inflation scenario from alternatives. These signals are generated by massive fields that function as standard clocks. The role of massive fields as standard clocks has been realized in previous works. Although the existence of such massive fields is generic, the previous realizations require sharp features to classically excite the oscillations of the massive clock fields. Here, we point out that the quantum fluctuations of massive fields can actually serve the same purpose as the standard clocks. We show that they are also able to directly record the defining property of the scenario type, namely, the scale factor of the primordial universe as a function of time a(t), but through shape-dependent oscillatory features in non-Gaussianities. Since quantum fluctuating massive fields exist in any realistic primordial universe models, these quantum primordial standard clock signals are present in any inflation models, and should exist quite generally in alternative-to-inflation scenarios as well. However, the amplitude of such signals is very model-dependent.

  15. Occupational Standards: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao, Ed.

    These nine papers from a conference of the International Research Network for Training and Development focus on occupational classification, standards, and certification. "Introduction" (Joao Oliveria) presents synopses with highlights from the papers. Part I offers an overview of recent developments in the United States in "Occupational Standards…

  16. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This technical standards list (TSL) was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of US DOE technical standards and other government and non-government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other government documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and cancelled DOE technical standards. Standards are indexed by type in the appendices to this document. Definitions of and general guidance for the use of standards are also provided.

  17. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  18. DOE standard: Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  19. The Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial standard observer is a computational model that provides a measure of the visibility of a target in a uniform background image or of the visual discriminability of two images. Standard observers have long been used in science and industry to quantify the discriminability of colors. Color standard observers address the spectral characteristics of visual stimuli, while the spatial standard observer (SSO), as its name indicates, addresses spatial characteristics. The SSO is based on a model of human vision. The SSO was developed in a process that included evaluation of a number of earlier mathematical models that address optical, physiological, and psychophysical aspects of spatial characteristics of human visual perception. Elements of the prior models are incorporated into the SSO, which is formulated as a compromise between accuracy and simplicity. The SSO operates on a digitized monochrome still image or on a pair of such images. The SSO consists of three submodels that operate sequentially on the input image(s): 1. A contrast model, which converts an input monochrome image to a luminance contrast image, wherein luminance values are expressed as excursions from, and normalized to, a mean; 2. A contrast-sensitivity-filter model that includes an oblique-effect filter (which accounts for the decline in contrast sensitivity at oblique viewing angles); and 3. A spatial summation model, in which responses are spatially pooled by raising each pixel to the power beta, adding the results, and raising the sum to the 1/b power. In this model, b=2.9 was found to be a suitable value. The net effect of the SSO is to compute a numerical measure of the perceptual strength of the single image, or of the visible difference (denoted the perceptual distance) between two images. The unit of a measure used in the SSO is the just noticeable difference (JND), which is a standard measure of perceptual discriminability. A target that is just visible has a measure of 1 JND.

  20. Microcomputer Acquisition Standards and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Geoffrey H.

    1987-01-01

    Increased use of microcomputers in schools can be implemented more effectively when management develops acquisitions standards and controls. Technical standards as well as operational and documentation standards are outlined. (MLF)

  1. ISO 50001 Energy Management Standard

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-12

    This powerful standard from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides an internationally recognized framework for organizations to voluntarily implement an energy management system.

  2. US Topo Product Standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    A full-size style sheet template in PDF that defines the placement of map elements, marginalia, and font sizes and styles accompanies this standard. The GeoPDF US Topo maps are fashioned to conform to this style sheet so that a user can print out a map at the 1:24,000-scale using the dimensions of the traditional standard 7.5-minute quadrangle. Symbology and type specifications for feature content are published separately. In addition, the GeoPDF design allows for custom printing, so that a user may zoom in and out, turn layers on and off, and view or print any combination of layers or any map portion at any desired scale.

  3. NASA Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda

    1997-01-01

    If software is a critical element in a safety critical system, it is imperative to implement a systematic approach to software safety as an integral part of the overall system safety programs. The NASA-STD-8719.13A, "NASA Software Safety Standard", describes the activities necessary to ensure that safety is designed into software that is acquired or developed by NASA, and that safety is maintained throughout the software life cycle. A PDF version, is available on the WWW from Lewis. A Guidebook that will assist in the implementation of the requirements in the Safety Standard is under development at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). After completion, it will also be available on the WWW from Lewis.

  4. Standardized radiological dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1996-05-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

  5. Wind turbine acoustic standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F.

    1981-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop noise standards for wind turbines which minimize annoyance and which can be used to design specifications. The approach consists of presenting wind turbine noise stimuli to test subjects in a laboratory listening chamber. The responses of the subjects are recorded for a range of stimuli which encompass the designs, operating conditions, and ambient noise levels of current and future installations. Results to date have established the threshold of detectability for a range of impulsive stimuli of the type associated with blade/tower wake interactions. The status of the ongoing psychoacoustic tests, the subjective data, and the approach to the development of acoustic criteria/standards are described.

  6. Beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, M.E.

    1997-05-01

    These lectures constitute a short course in ``Beyond the Standard Model`` for students of experimental particle physics. The author discusses the general ideas which guide the construction of models of physics beyond the Standard model. The central principle, the one which most directly motivates the search for new physics, is the search for the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking observed in the theory of weak interactions. To illustrate models of weak-interaction symmetry breaking, the author gives a detailed discussion of the idea of supersymmetry and that of new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale. He discusses experiments that will probe the details of these models at future pp and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders.

  7. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  8. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  9. Setting mastery learning standards.

    PubMed

    Yudkowsky, Rachel; Park, Yoon Soo; Lineberry, Matthew; Knox, Aaron; Ritter, E Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Mastery learning is an instructional approach in which educational progress is based on demonstrated performance, not curricular time. Learners practice and retest repeatedly until they reach a designated mastery level; the final level of achievement is the same for all, although time to mastery may vary. Given the unique properties of mastery learning assessments, a thoughtful approach to establishing the performance levels and metrics that determine when a learner has demonstrated mastery is essential.Standard-setting procedures require modification when used for mastery learning settings in health care, particularly regarding the use of evidence-based performance data, the determination of appropriate benchmark or comparison groups, and consideration of patient safety consequences. Information about learner outcomes and past performance data of learners successful at the subsequent level of training can be more helpful than traditional information about test performance of past examinees. The marginally competent "borderline student" or "borderline group" referenced in traditional item-based and examinee-based procedures will generally need to be redefined in mastery settings. Patient safety considerations support conjunctive standards for key knowledge and skill subdomains and for items that have an impact on clinical outcomes. Finally, traditional psychometric indices used to evaluate the quality of standards do not necessarily reflect critical measurement properties of mastery assessments. Mastery learning and testing are essential to the achievement and assessment of entrustable professional activities and residency milestones. With careful attention, sound mastery standard-setting procedures can provide an essential step toward improving the effectiveness of health professions education, patient safety, and patient care. PMID:26375263

  10. Landsat US standard catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The U.S. Standard Catalog lists imagery of the continental U.S., Alaska and Hawaii acquired by Landsat 1 and 2 which has been processed and input to the data files during the referenced month. Data, such as date acquired, cloud cover and image quality are given for each scene. The microfilm roll and frame on which the scene may be found is also given.

  11. A standardized kinesin nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Carolyn J.; Dawe, R. Kelly; Christie, Karen R.; Cleveland, Don W.; Dawson, Scott C.; Endow, Sharyn A.; Goldstein, Lawrence S.B.; Goodson, Holly V.; Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Howard, Jonathon; Malmberg, Russell L.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Miki, Harukata; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Okada, Yasushi; Reddy, Anireddy S.N.; Saxton, William M.; Schliwa, Manfred; Scholey, Jonathan M.; Vale, Ronald D.; Walczak, Claire E.; Wordeman, Linda

    2004-01-01

    In recent years the kinesin superfamily has become so large that several different naming schemes have emerged, leading to confusion and miscommunication. Here, we set forth a standardized kinesin nomenclature based on 14 family designations. The scheme unifies all previous phylogenies and nomenclature proposals, while allowing individual sequence names to remain the same, and for expansion to occur as new sequences are discovered. PMID:15479732

  12. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  13. 76 FR 75840 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... language from outdated standards published by standards developing organizations (``SDO standards'') (69 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... rulemaking, the Agency is proposing to revise its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating...

  14. ESDIS Standards Office (ESO): Requirements, Standards and Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Mcinerney, Mark Allen; Enloe, Yonsok K.; Conover, Helen T.; Doyle, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The ESDIS Standards Office assists the ESDIS Project in formulating standards policy for NASA Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS), coordinates standards activities within ESDIS, and provides technical expertise and assistance with standards related tasks within the NASA Earth Science Data System Working Groups (ESDSWG). This poster summarizes information found on the earthdata.nasa.gov site that describes the ESO.

  15. Implementing PAT with Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  16. Consistency Across Standards or Standards in a New Business Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: standards in a changing business model, the new National Space Policy is driving change, a new paradigm for human spaceflight, consistency across standards, the purpose of standards, danger of over-prescriptive standards, a balance is needed (between prescriptive and general standards), enabling versus inhibiting, characteristics of success-oriented standards, characteristics of success-oriented standards, and conclusions. Additional slides include NASA Procedural Requirements 8705.2B identifies human rating standards and requirements, draft health and medical standards for human rating, what's been done, government oversight models, examples of consistency from anthropometry, examples of inconsistency from air quality and appendices of government and non-governmental human factors standards.

  17. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  18. Status of conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-06-01

    One major goal of the Nuclear Standards Program is to convert existing NE standards into national consensus standards (where possible). This means that an NE standard in the same subject area using the national consensus process. This report is a summary of the activities that have evolved to effect conversion of NE standards to national consensus standards, and the status of current conversion activities. In some cases, all requirements in an NE standard will not be incorporated into the published national consensus standard because these requirements may be considered too restrictive or too specific for broader application by the nuclear industry. If these requirements are considered necessary for nuclear reactor program applications, the program standard will be revised and issued as a supplement to the national consensus standard. The supplemental program standard will contain only those necessary requirements not reflected by the national consensus standard. Therefore, while complete conversion of program standards may not always be realized, the standards policy has been fully supported in attempting to make maximum use of the national consensus standard. 1 tab.

  19. Emergency Management Standards and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication discusses emergency management standards for school use and lists standards recommended by FEMA's National Incident Management System (NIMS). Schools are encouraged to review these standards carefully and to adopt, where applicable, those that meet their needs. The lists of standards, resources, and references contained herein…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  1. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  2. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  3. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  8. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  9. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft launched that does not have a computer on board that will provide command and control services. There have been recent incidents where software has played a role in high-profile mission failures and hazardous incidents. For example, the Mars Orbiter, Mars Polar Lander, the DART (Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology), and MER (Mars Exploration Rover) Spirit anomalies were all caused or contributed to by software. The Mission Control Centers for the Shuttle, ISS, and unmanned programs are highly dependant on software for data displays, analysis, and mission planning. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been little to no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Meanwhile, academia and private industry have been stepping forward with procedures and standards for safety critical systems and software, for example Dr. Nancy Leveson's book Safeware: System Safety and Computers. The NASA Software Safety Standard, originally published in 1997, was widely ignored due to its complexity and poor organization. It also focused on concepts rather than definite procedural requirements organized around a software project lifecycle. Led by NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard has recently undergone a significant update. This new standard provides the procedures and guidelines for evaluating a project for safety criticality and then lays out the minimum project lifecycle requirements to assure the software is created, operated, and maintained in the safest possible manner. This update of the standard clearly delineates the minimum set of software safety requirements for a project without detailing the implementation for those

  10. Beyond the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    'BSM physics' is a phrase used in several ways. It can refer to physical phenomena established experimentally but not accommodated by the Standard Model, in particular dark matter and neutrino oscillations (technically also anything that has to do with gravity, since gravity is not part of the Standard Model). 'Beyond the Standard Model' can also refer to possible deeper explanations of phenomena that are accommodated by the Standard Model but only with ad hoc parameterizations, such as Yukawa couplings and the strong CP angle. More generally, BSM can be taken to refer to any possible extension of the Standard Model, whether or not the extension solves any particular set of puzzles left unresolved in the SM. In this general sense one sees reference to the BSM 'theory space' of all possible SM extensions, this being a parameter space of coupling constants for new interactions, new charges or other quantum numbers, and parameters describing possible new degrees of freedom or new symmetries. Despite decades of model-building it seems unlikely that we have mapped out most of, or even the most interesting parts of, this theory space. Indeed we do not even know what is the dimensionality of this parameter space, or what fraction of it is already ruled out by experiment. Since Nature is only implementing at most one point in this BSM theory space (at least in our neighborhood of space and time), it might seem an impossible task to map back from a finite number of experimental discoveries and measurements to a unique BSM explanation. Fortunately for theorists the inevitable limitations of experiments themselves, in terms of resolutions, rates, and energy scales, means that in practice there are only a finite number of BSM model 'equivalence classes' competing at any given time to explain any given set of results. BSM phenomenology is a two-way street: not only do experimental results test or constrain BSM models, they also suggest - to those who get close enough to listen

  11. Dynamic Pressure Calibration Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, P. C.; Cate, K. H.; Young, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Vibrating columns of fluid used to calibrate transducers. Dynamic pressure calibration standard developed for calibrating flush diaphragm-mounted pressure transducers. Pressures up to 20 kPa (3 psi) accurately generated over frequency range of 50 to 1,800 Hz. System includes two conically shaped aluminum columns one 5 cm (2 in.) high for low pressures and another 11 cm (4.3 in.) high for higher pressures, each filled with viscous fluid. Each column mounted on armature of vibration exciter, which imparts sinusoidally varying acceleration to fluid column. Signal noise low, and waveform highly dependent on quality of drive signal in vibration exciter.

  12. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  13. Hazard Communication Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab.

  14. Standardization of Sn-113.

    PubMed

    Roteta, Miguel; Peyres, Virginia; García-Toraño, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The radionuclide (113)Sn is a quasi-monoenergetic gamma emitter often used in the efficiency calibration of gamma spectrometers in the energy region around 390keV. This paper presents the results of the standardization of this radionuclide by three methods: integral (4π-γ) counting with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector, liquid scintillation counting applying the CIEMAT-NIST method and 4π coincidence counting (conversion electron-X) with a digital coincidence system. PMID:24365465

  15. World gravity standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  16. NASA's Software Safety Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) relies more and more on software to control, monitor, and verify its safety critical systems, facilities and operations. Since the 1960's there has hardly been a spacecraft (manned or unmanned) launched that did not have a computer on board that provided vital command and control services. Despite this growing dependence on software control and monitoring, there has been no consistent application of software safety practices and methodology to NASA's projects with safety critical software. Led by the NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the NASA Software Safety Standard (STD-18l9.13B) has recently undergone a significant update in an attempt to provide that consistency. This paper will discuss the key features of the new NASA Software Safety Standard. It will start with a brief history of the use and development of software in safety critical applications at NASA. It will then give a brief overview of the NASA Software Working Group and the approach it took to revise the software engineering process across the Agency.

  17. Standards for Lithotripter Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheiss, Reiner; Doerffel, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Standards for lithotripsy have been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the FDA. In addition to the existing regulations and norms for the manufacturers, special standards were developed to address a treatment method developed in the early 1980's using extracorporeal shock waves. Initially, the FDA regulated the premarket approval process for lithotripters as a Class III device but reclassified lithotripters in 2000 to a Class II device. The corresponding guidance document for showing the substantial equivalence of new devices with predicate devices will be described in detail. The FDA guidance document is very useful in helping device manufacturers: (i) develop technical performance testing for a shock wave lithotripter within the parameters of an FDA submission, and (ii) conduct clinical performance testing via at least one clinical confirmation study with a small number of subjects. Unfortunately although the submitted data are available at the FDA they are not available in the marketplace and this causes difficulties for physicians in deciding which device to use. The results of the technical performance testing of the LithoGold™ are provided.

  18. The standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1994-03-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to provide a survey of the standard model with emphasis on its renormalizability and electroweak radiative corrections. Since this is a school, I will try to be somewhat pedagogical by providing examples of loop calculations. In that way, I hope to illustrate some of the commonly employed tools of particle physics. With those goals in mind, I have organized my presentations as follows: In Section 2, renormalization is discussed from an applied perspective. The technique of dimensional regularization is described and used to define running couplings and masses. The utility of the renormalization group for computing leading logs is illustrated for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. In Section 3 electroweak radiative corrections are discussed. Standard model predictions are surveyed and used to constrain the top quark mass. The S, T, and U parameters are introduced and employed to probe for ``new physics``. The effect of Z{prime} bosons on low energy phenomenology is described. In Section 4, a detailed illustration of electroweak radiative corrections is given for atomic parity violation. Finally, in Section 5, I conclude with an outlook for the future.

  19. The Supersymmetric Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayet, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The Standard Model may be included within a supersymmetric theory, postulating new sparticles that differ by half-a-unit of spin from their standard model partners, and by a new quantum number called R-parity. The lightest one, usually a neutralino, is expected to be stable and a possible candidate for dark matter. The electroweak breaking requires two doublets, leading to several charged and neutral Brout-Englert-Higgs bosons. This also leads to gauge/Higgs unification by providing extra spin-0 partners for the spin-1 W± and Z. It offers the possibility to view, up to a mixing angle, the new 125 GeV boson as the spin-0 partner of the Z under two supersymmetry transformations, i.e. as a Z that would be deprived of its spin. Supersymmetry then relates two existing particles of different spins, in spite of their different gauge symmetry properties, through supersymmetry transformations acting on physical fields in a non-polynomial way. We also discuss how the compactification of extra dimensions, relying on R-parity and other discrete symmetries, may determine both the supersymmetrybreaking and grand-unification scales.

  20. A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.

  1. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  2. Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrw B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image. or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image . Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer. SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions. window functions. special treatment for images lying on or near border and pre-processing of test images.

  3. Spatial Standard Observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image, or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image. Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer, SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions, window functions, special treatment for images lying on or near borders and pre-processing of test images.

  4. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  5. Process standardization of rasamanikya.

    PubMed

    Srimannarayana, K; Patgiri, B J; Prajapati, P K

    2010-01-01

    Rasamanikya is a famous drug, frequently used by Ayurvedic physicians for Vata-Kaphaja diseases like Shwasa, Kasa and Kushtha (Skin disorders). Various methods of preparation have been found described in Rasa classics. Generally it is prepared by Shuddha Haratala which is kept between two thin transparent Abharaka Patra (mica sheets) in small scale and in sharava for large scale, heated up to desired level. There are so many methods and different liquid media have been found described for Shodhana of Haratala. Therefore the methods of preparation of Rasamanikya and Shodhana process of Haratala have been validated through various experiments. Tankana-treated Haratala (T. Treated) is found best for Shodhana process and final product too i.e. Rasamanikya in terms of pharmaceutical standards i.e. Ruby in colour, along with reproducibility of fixed quality. PMID:22131676

  6. Standard Asteroid Photometric Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piironen, J.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Torppa, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Warner, B.

    2001-12-01

    The Asteroid Photometric Catalogue (APC) is now in its fifth update with over 8600 lightcurves of more than 1000 asteroids in the database. The APC also has references of over one thousand lightcurves not in digital format. The catalogue has been published by Uppsala University Observatory and is distributed by request (contact: classe@astro.uu.se). The new update also includes a list of known asteroid rotational periods and a CD-ROM containing all the existing digital data in the APC. The total number of observed lightcurves is growing rapidly, not the least because of the new state-of-the-art equipment and growing interest among amateur astronomers. The photometric database is now so large that the present format must be altered to facilitate a user-friendly on-line service for the down- and uploading of data. We are proposing (and have started to construct) a new Internet-based Standard Asteroid Photometric Catalogue (SAPC). The website is planned to open during the first half of the year 2002. In addition to the data files, the site would contain the index and guide to the catalogue, a web-form for reporting observations, and some general observing guidelines (e.g., on filters, timing, etc.). There would also be a list of asteroids for which more observations are needed, together with recommended observing periods. This would be accompanied by an up-to-date collection of physical asteroid models based on photometric data, as well as links to observer network pages and other sites that work in collaboration with the catalogue project. Our aim is to develop this site into a global standard service used by everyone involved in asteroid photometry.

  7. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Standards and Standardization Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    These three papers consider various models and mechanisms for the achievement of industrial standardization. The first, "Duopoly Compatibility Standards with Partial Cooperation and Standards Leadership" (Sanford V. Berg, University of Florida) presents a model of duopolists producing differentiated substitutes, and considers the equilibrium…

  8. CF-netCDF Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Nativi, S.; Rew, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    NetCDF has long been a de facto standard for data storage and access in several communities. More recently it has been recognized by the NASA Standards Process Group and the NOAA IOOS DMAC as a de jure standard. Within the OGC, CF-netCDF is being considered as an extension to the latest recognized version of the WCS. A new initiative is underway to establish CF-netCDF as an OGC binary encoding standard in its own right. The idea is that, establishing CF-netCDF as a separate OGC encoding standard will simplify the process of using it as a payload for other standard access protocols such as the WFS and SOS. The approach is modeled on that taken for establishing KML as an OGC standard for XML encoding. One difference is that CF-netCDF will be standardized with a core and a set of extensions.. The standardization process for the core and each of the extension will involve the following steps: -- Make the existing NASA standard the basis for the OGC Core Candidate Standard for CF-netCDF -- Submit an initial draft Candidate Standard to the OGC Technical Committee (TC) -- Form a CF-netCDF Standard Working Group (SWG) -- In the CF-netCDF SWG, refine the Candidate Standard document into a draft for public comment -- Submit the Candidate Standard to the OGC TC to be submitted for public comment -- Incorporate public comment suggestions and submit the result as an OGC Standard Specification. In parallel initiatives will be undertaken for extension standard for specific CF conventions (e.g., gridded data, point data collections, swath data, etc.)., for netCDF APIs, and for NcML (the netCDF Markup Language)-GML. The presentation will outline the plan and provide a report on the status of the initiative at the time of the meeting.

  9. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the respiratory therapy technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation; Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  10. Eddy-Current Reference Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, H. H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic properties of metallic reference standards duplicated and stabilized for eddy-current coil measurements over long times. Concept uses precisely machined notched samples of known annealed materials as reference standards.

  11. NASA Technical Standards Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Establish and maintain "NASA Preferred Technical Standard" as a common baseline for NASA programs. Support the use of technical standards on NASA program in the systems requirement process.

  12. Issues Forum: National Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "On the Common Core of Learning" (Kennedy); "Constitutional Implications of National Curriculum Standards" (Arons); "Arguments against National Performance Standards" (Fulk, Mantzicopoulos, Hirth); and "The Painful Lessons of Introducing the National Curriculum in England" (Foster). (SK)

  13. Avionics Maintenance Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the avionics maintenance technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into the following categories: foundations, diploma/degree (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions, diploma/degree (admission requirements, provisional admission…

  14. Civil Engineering Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the civil engineering program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  15. Reflections on International Bibliographic Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, W.

    This paper raises questions about many bibliographic standards developed over the past 20 years, and challenges librarians to consider how standards might evolve. A brief overview is given of the aims of Universal Bibliographic Control (UBC) and to some assumptions common to much standardization work in recent years inspired by the concept of UBC.…

  16. Iranian Senior College Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    In this document are standards for Iranian senior college libraries. A four year or senior college may provide a liberal arts education or preparation for a particular profession, like nutrition or banking. These standards have been adapted from foreign library standards to fit the Iranian situation. They have been established to guide Iranian…

  17. National Standards for Carpentry Apprenticeship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Joint Carpentry Apprenticeship Committee, Washington, DC.

    The revised national standards for carpentry apprenticeship encompass standards for carpentry, millwright, and mill-cabinet apprenticeships. The standards were developed to provide guidelines for establishing local systems of apprenticeship as well as for advancing and improving existing systems. The term for carpentry, millwright, and…

  18. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  19. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  20. New Federal Air Quality Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stopinski, O. W.

    The report discusses the current procedures for establishing air quality standards, the bases for standards, and, finally, proposed and final National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, photochemical oxidants, and nitrogen dioxide. (Author/RH)

  1. The Invisible Infrastructure of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    In education, contemporary discussions of standards and standardisation often appear incidentally, as part of the critique of particular standardisation projects, such as national or international assessments and comparisons. This review essay focuses not on particular standards but more broadly on how standards develop, how they participate in…

  2. Standards for Utah Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Library Div., Salt Lake City. Dept. of Community and Economic Development.

    This document presents standards for Utah public libraries. The benefits of standards for public libraries and for the state library are listed, and responsibilities, benefits, and characteristics of three types of public libraries (i.e., volunteer, transitional, and certified public libraries) are summarized. Specific standards in the following…

  3. Standards and Assessment. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter includes three articles, two of which focus on standards for student evaluation and for admission to higher education. "A Measuring Stick for Standards and TEKS: Meeting the Needs of Second Language Learners" (Laura Chris Green, Adela Solis) examines beliefs embodied in the notion of standards; defines content, performance, and…

  4. Standards for Pediatric Immunization Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This booklet outlines 18 national standards for pediatric immunizations. The standards were developed by a 35-member working group drawn from 24 different public and private sector organizations and from numerous state and local health departments and approved by the U.S. Public Health Service. The first three standards state that: immunization…

  5. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  6. State Standards: Authenticity vs. Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Marcia R.; Howell, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews problems with the current movement to use national standards and performance assessment to reform education and the impact of the standards on students with disabilities. The characteristics of standards, as they are currently being employed, are discussed, along with issues related to measurement, reliability, and validity. (Author/CR)

  7. States Set Common Standards, IF...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    Whether differences in the standards states have set can be explained by something other than regional differences is explored. In addition, a way in which standards can be compared is defined, and the standard of proficiency that seems to be widely shared across the country is illustrated. The Trial State Assessment (TSA) data from the National…

  8. Sound Standards for Schools "Unsound."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Don

    2002-01-01

    Criticizes new classroom sound standard proposed by the American National Standards Institute that sets maximum background sound level at 35 decibels (described as "a whisper at 2 meters"). Argues that new standard is too costly for schools to implement, is not recommended by the medical community, and cannot be achieved by construction industry.…

  9. Standardization in Clinical Enzymology

    PubMed Central

    Infusino, Ilenia; Mauro, Panteghini

    2009-01-01

    The goal of standardization in Laboratory Medicine is to achieve comparable results in human samples, independent of the reagent kits, instruments, and laboratory where the assay is carried out. To pursue this objective in clinical enzymology, the IFCC has established reference measurement systems for the most important clinical enzymes. These systems are based on the following requirements: a) reference methods, well described in procedures that are extensively evaluated; b) suitable reference materials; and c) reference laboratories operating in a highly controlled manner. Using these reference systems and the manufacturer’s standing procedures, industry can assign traceable values to commercial calibrators. Clinical laboratories, which use routine procedures with validated calibrators to measure enzymes in human specimens, can finally obtain values which are traceable to higher-order reference procedures. These reference systems constitute the structure of the traceability chain to which the enzyme routine methods can be linked via an appropriate calibration process, provided that they have a comparable specificity (i.e. they are measuring the same quantity).

  10. Standardizing Scavenger Receptor Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    PrabhuDas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K.; Moestrup, Soren K.; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community. PMID:24563502

  11. Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.

  12. Comparison of CRBRP standards to DOE prescribed standards

    SciTech Connect

    Ogg, W W; Copeland, G S

    1983-09-02

    The tables list standards committed to by CRBRP in its design documents, its Environmental Report, and its Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. The compilation of these standards has been placed in column form beside the column of prescribed standards listed under the various headings of Chapter 1 of DOE's Order 5480.1A, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Program for DOE Operations. (The DOE standards listed, however, include all those in the other applicable chapters of 5480.1A as mandated in Chapter 1.) There are some CRBRP systems which are impacted very little, if any, by the safety requirements of 5480.1A's prescribed standards. The standards committed to in those systems are, consequently, not included in this comparison. The comparison is made in detail, however, for standards committed to in those systems of CRBRP having areas of safety corresponding to DOE's jurisdiction/requirements as opposed to areas covered only by the USNRC's jurisdiction/regulations. Included in this document are: (1) a table listing titles of the standards not already listed in the comparison table, and (2) a list of acronyms. It seems apparent by the comparison that CRBRP meets the DOE requirement that the Project standards be equal or better (more conservative) than DOE's own prescribed standards.

  13. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  14. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Refereeing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, C.; Scriven, N.

    2004-08-01

    Wuppertal, Germany (Chaotic and Complex Systems); F W Nijhoff, University of Leeds, UK (Mathematical Physics); G Ghirardi, Universita di Trieste, Italy (Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Information Theory); G Dunne, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Classical and Quantum Field Theory); and L Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM, USA (Fluid and Plasma Theory). It will be an honour and a pleasure to work together with all these talented people towards the high-minded goal of running a world-class scientific journal. As Editor-in-Chief of J. Phys. A, my principal objective will be to raise the standards of this first-rate journal to even higher levels by raising the quality of accepted papers. I believe that this goal will be possible to accomplish. Despite an already high rejection rate, paper submissions are rising rapidly and I anticipate that we will need to be even more stringent in our assessment of quality next year. A letter has already been sent to referees urging them to raise their standards for acceptance. I believe we will make rapid progress in this direction. (I have heard a few people criticize the journal for being a `write-only' journal. My goal is for the worldwide community of mathematical physicists to view J. Phys. A as essential reading.) I am extremely optimistic about the future of J. Phys. A. I believe that we will raise the standards of acceptance while maintaining the short time from submission to decision. I am confident that we will continue to improve the quality of the papers published in this already first-class journal. I look forward to working with the journal's excellent staff, the Board of Editors, and the Advisory Panel.

  15. 77 FR 43542 - Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413-Cost Accounting Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Harmonization Rule. The final rule was published at 76 FR 81296 on December 27, 2011. Generally, the technical... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy 48 CFR Part 9904 Cost Accounting Standards: Cost Accounting Standards 412 and 413--Cost Accounting Standards Pension Harmonization Rule AGENCY: Cost...

  16. Standards and Standard Setting and the Post School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the role of standards and standard setting in shaping the expansion of post school education in highly unequal society. It draws on an account of the debates and policies on standards in the UK from the 1980's to today and the wider lessons that can be learned from them. It argues that relying on any type of…

  17. Standards for a nonstandard industry

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This paper will address recent efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop standards related to physical security. Physical security is a nonstandardized industry, with standards only beginning to be developed. Even where there are security standards, few means of product and system certification exist; compare this to safety where an Underwriters` Laboratories (UL) certification mark is considered a must. As a result, security products and systems performance often prove unsatisfactory. Efforts are underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop performance testing standards for physical security systems and to establish a means of certification against those and other related standards. This should make physical protection more cost effective and of higher reliability in the Department of Energy and elsewhere. This paper will briefly describe the problem as well as the background of the DOE standardization initiative, give a brief glimpse into both standardization and certification, describe Sandia`s activities in this regard, list basic principles of standardization, discuss the relevant players in US standardization, and describe how standards can help solve some of the physical security problems.

  18. Environmental standards provide competitive advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.; Kirshner, E.

    1993-04-28

    Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. [open quotes]It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000[close quote], says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. [open quote]We will only want to deal with people who have got their environmental act together. And we'll be in a better competitive positions[close quote]. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO;Geneva) has set up a taskforce to develop an environmental management standard, which is expected to be completed by the mid-1990s. Observers think the ISO standard will draw heavily on the British Standard Institute's (BSI;London) environmental management standard, BS7750, which will likely be the first system adopted in the world. Published last year, BS7750 has been extensively piloted in the UK (CW, Sept. 30, 1992, p. 62) and is now set to be revised before being offically adopted by BSI. The UK's Chemical Industries Association (CIA;London) is anxious to prevent a proliferation of standards, and its report on BS7750 pilot projects calls for an approach integrating quality, environment, and health and safety. But standard setters, including ISO, appear to be moving in the opposite direction. In the US, the American national Standards Institute (ANSI;Washington) has started work on an environmental management standard.

  19. Open Standards for Emergency Mangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E.

    2012-04-01

    The mission of the OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) Emergency Management Technical Committee (EM-TC) is to create incident and emergency-related standards for data interoperability. The TC welcomes participation from members of the emergency management community, developers and implementers, and members of the public concerned with disaster management and response. Since the foundation of the EM-TC in 2003, there have been several Standards developed to support this mission. The first and most widely accepted has been the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). CAP has been adopted worldwide and is also ITU Recommendation 1303. The EM-TC has continued in the development of content data standards to support the emergency management mission. This suite of standards is referred to as the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) family of standards. The EDXL suite of standards are developed starting with a defined requirement from the response community. The requirements are vetted through a working group process, reviewed by the development community to determine whether the concepts once "standardized" will result in software that will be developed then provided with comments to the OASIS EM-TC for defining the standard. The OASIS process includes an open public review period where all comments are accepted and publically adjudicated. The EDXL-Distribution Element (DE), EDXL-Resource Management (RM), EDXL-Hospital Availability eXchange (HAVE) are all now ratified Standards. The EDXL-Situation Reporting (SitRep) Standard is in final review and the EXDL-Tracking of Emergency Patients (TEP) is in development. This presentation will briefly present each of the OASIS EM-TC Standards as well as the process for their development and review. Information will be provided about how to participate in the process as well as where open source code can be found to get started developing systems of systems using the EDXL Standards.

  20. Optical media standards for industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical storage is a new and growing area of technology that can serve to meet some of the mass storage needs of the computer industry. Optical storage is characterized by information being stored and retrieved by means of diode lasers. When most people refer to optical storage, they mean rotating disk media, but there are 1 or 2 products that use lasers to read and write to tape. Optical media also usually means removable media. Because of its removability, there is a recognized need for standardization, both of the media and of the recording method. Industry standards can come about in one or more different ways. An industry supported body can sanction and publish a formal standard. A company may ship enough of a product that it so dominates an application or industry that it acquires 'standard' status without an official sanction. Such de facto standards are almost always copied by other companies with varying degrees of success. A governmental body can issue a rule or law that requires conformance to a standard. The standard may have been created by the government, or adopted from among many proposed by industry. These are often known as de jure standards. Standards are either open or proprietary. If approved by a government or sanctioning body, the standard is open. A de facto standard may be either open or proprietary. Optical media is too new to have de facto standards accepted by the marketplace yet. The proliferation of non-compatible media types in the last 5 years of optical market development have convinced many of the need for recognized media standards.

  1. Technical Standards Products Informing NASA Quality Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes formal definitions of standards (external and internal), as well as discussions of the importance of standards to NASA, current technical standards issues, the NASA technical standards program, and provides technical standards resources.

  2. International reference standards in coagulation.

    PubMed

    Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma.

  3. Setting standards: Risk assessment issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    How drinking water standards are set and which contaminants should be regulated are central issues in reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Other note that the high cost associated with meeting increasingly strict standards is unjustified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits. This article takes a look at the issues involved in developing a rational approach for establishing drinking water standards. It reviews the current approach used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to set standards.

  4. The classical microwave frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busca, Giovanni; Thomann, Pierre; Laurent-Guy, Bernier; Willemin, Philippe; Schweda, Hartmut S.

    1990-01-01

    Some key problems are presented encountered in the classical microwave frequency standards which are still not solved today. The point of view expressed benefits from the experience gained both in the industry and in the research lab, on the following classical microwave frequency standards: active and passive H, conventional and laser pumped Cs beam tube, small conventional and laser pumped Rubidium. The accent is put on the Rubidium standard.

  5. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  6. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... their comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rules published June 1, 2012, at 77 FR 32444 and 77 FR 32465, is extended. Comments on the proposed rules must be received on or before August 15... COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards...

  7. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  8. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    PubMed

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff. PMID:16530349

  9. ASHRAE Standard 62: tobacco industry's influence over national ventilation standards

    PubMed Central

    Bialous, S; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the role of the tobacco industry in the development of ventilation standards for indoor air quality by influencing the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Methods: Review of tobacco industry documents available on the internet between January 2001 and March 2002. Search terms included "ASHRAE", "ventilation", "minutes", "memo", and the names of key players and organisations as identified in the initial searches. Analysis of ASHRAE and other relevant documents publicly available and the personal files of a Standard 62 committee member; interviews of a selected number of ASHRAE players; observation of an ASHRAE meeting. Results: The tobacco industry has been involved in the development of ventilation standards for over 20 years. It has successfully influenced the standard and continues to attempt to change the standard from a smoke-free framework into an "accommodation" framework. The industry acts directly and through consultants and allies. The major health groups have been largely absent and the health interests have been poorly represented in standard development. While concentrated in the USA, ASHRAE standards are adopted worldwide. Conclusion: The tobacco industry determined that allowing smoking in ventilation standards for indoor air quality was a high priority and dedicated significant human and financial resources to ensure that its interests were represented. The health groups, until recently, have largely ignored the policy implications for tobacco control of standard development. This situation is changing, but unless health groups maintain high visibility within ASHRAE, the tobacco industry may succeed in creating a standard that ignores the dangers of secondhand smoke. PMID:12432157

  10. The National Visual Arts Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Art Education Association, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The "National Visual Arts Standards" form the basis for providing depth of knowledge and achievement in art for all students throughout their education and for developing effective art programs in all schools throughout the U.S. These standards offer one road map for competence and educational effectiveness, but without casting a mold into which…

  11. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  12. International Lessons about National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William H.; Houang, Richard; Shakrani, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Whether to adopt national standards and tests has long been a subject of lively debate in the United States. With 47 states now participating in the Common Core State Standards Initiative, and a commitment from Education Secretary Arne Duncan to allocate hundreds of millions in stimulus funds to the development of common tests, the country is…

  13. The New Standards for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Current education standards focus narrowly on reading, math, and science learning. As fundamentally important as those standards are, they do not incorporate the essential social, emotional, ethical, and civic dimensions of student learning. School climate does. A growing number of districts and state departments of education are in the process of…

  14. Colorado Model Content Standards: Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Model Content Standards for Science specify what all students should know and be able to do in science as a result of their school studies. Specific expectations are given for students completing grades K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. Five standards outline the essential level of science knowledge and skills needed by Colorado citizens to…

  15. Meeting Standards through Integrated Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Susan; Burns, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Many schools are under pressure to meet new standards of learning mistakenly believe that they must adopt a narrow curriculum that imposes strict boundaries on what students are taught. In this book, Susan M. Drake and Rebecca C. Burns address this issue by offering strategies for synchronizing standards across the disciplines. At the heart of the…

  16. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  17. Are Standards Preventing Good Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Clair T.

    2004-01-01

    The National Standards movement seeks to raise the quality of the American educational system. According to one of its chief architects, Diane Ravitch (2000), national standards give clear expectations for students, teachers, parents, colleges, and employers that will result in improved student achievement. Forty-nine of the fifty states (save…

  18. Guidelines for Professional Standards Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards.

    This document is a report of the Joint Committee on Professional Standards Boards appointed by the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC), the National Commission on Teacher Education and Professional Standards (NCTEPTS), and the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE). A…

  19. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  20. [Quality standards of processed nutmegs].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Xia, F; Wang, Z

    1998-04-01

    The quality standards of nutmeg and its processed products were studied in such aspects as volatile oil content, extract determination, moisture content, microscopic characteristics, thin-layer chromatography, and so on. This provided a basis for drawing up the quality standards. PMID:11596246

  1. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  2. Standards Writers Wade into Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    New guidelines on crafting curriculum materials for the common standards in English/language arts are reigniting debate about how to ensure a marketplace of good instructional materials for the new standards without crossing the line into telling teachers how to teach. The focal point of the conversations is a set of "publishers' criteria" issued…

  3. Professional Standards in Environmental Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petulla, Joseph M.

    1985-01-01

    Focuses on the technical and ethical professional standards that guide industry, public agencies, and environmental consulting firms in their work in environmental management. Explores the role that university curricular programs have in creating environmental management standards, advocating a critical thinking, problem-solving, interdisciplinary…

  4. National Health Care Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This booklet contains draft national health care skill standards that were proposed during the National Health Care Skill Standards Project on the basis of input from more than 1,000 representatives of key constituencies of the health care field. The project objectives and structure are summarized in the introduction. Part 1 examines the need for…

  5. Environmental Education Standards for Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Association for Conservation and Environmental Education, Manhattan.

    This document is organized under three knowledge skills standards and two process skills standards which reflect the breadth of environmental education and its goal of environmental literacy. Related benchmarks and indicators suggesting appropriate expectations for learner performance and achievement at specific grade levels (fourth, eighth, and…

  6. National Health Care Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education, Okemos, MI.

    This document presents the National Health Care Skill Standards, which were developed by the National Consortium on Health Science and Technology and West Ed Regional Research Laboratory, in partnership with educators and health care employers. The document begins with an overview of the purpose and benefits of skill standards. Presented next are…

  7. Electroweak interaction: Standard and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, H.

    1987-02-01

    Several important topics within the standard model raise questions which are likely to be answered only by further theoretical understanding which goes beyond the standard model. In these lectures we present a discussion of some of these problems, including the quark masses and angles, the Higgs sector, neutrino masses, W and Z properties and possible deviations from a pointlike structure. 44 refs.

  8. Standards Draw Heat in States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Opponents of the Common Core State Standards are ramping up legislative pressure and public relations efforts aimed at getting states to scale back--or even abandon--the high-profile initiative, even as implementation proceeds and tests aligned with the standards loom. Critics of the common core have focused recent lobbying and media efforts on…

  9. SAT Future: Alignment to Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief architects of the Common Core State Standards was named the next president of the College Board and said one of his top priorities is to reshape the organization's influential college-admissions test, the SAT, to better reflect the new standards. David Coleman will assume his new duties on Oct. 15, replacing Gaston Caperton, who…

  10. Standards and Dialects in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shopen, Timothy; Williams, Joseph M.

    A collection of essays on linguistic variation in English that distinguishes communities and social groups from one another includes: "Standard English: Biography of a Symbol" (Shirley Brice Heath); "The Rise of Standard English" (Margaret Shaklee); "English Orthography" (Wayne O'Neil); "How Pablo Says 'Love' and 'Stove'" and "An Afterword: How…

  11. The Birth of a Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), which was adopted as an international standard for data description, data modeling, and interchange in October 1986, and explores its evolution from its technical completion to its adoption by the international market. (four references) (LAE)

  12. Variations in Standard American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Raven I., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A discussion of nonstandard varieties of English implies a standard variety. What "standard" English actually is should be defined in order to approach it in the classroom. C.C. Fries described it as the variety used by those who hold positions of trust and respect and conduct the important affairs of a community. This definition admits that what…

  13. Lead Abatement Worker Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…

  14. Standards on Ethics and Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Janet Z.; Dean, Peter J.; Hatcher, Tim; Otte, Fred L.; Preskill, Hallie; Russ-Eft, Darlene

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the standards described in this article are to provide guidance and a common set of values for human resource development/human performance training (HRD/HPT) professionals. General Standards; Research and Evaluation; Advertising and Other Public Statements; Publication of Work; Privacy and Confidentiality; Teaching and…

  15. Simplified propagation of standard uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, A.H.

    1997-06-09

    An essential part of any measurement control program is adequate knowledge of the uncertainties of the measurement system standards. Only with an estimate of the standards` uncertainties can one determine if the standard is adequate for its intended use or can one calculate the total uncertainty of the measurement process. Purchased standards usually have estimates of uncertainty on their certificates. However, when standards are prepared and characterized by a laboratory, variance propagation is required to estimate the uncertainty of the standard. Traditional variance propagation typically involves tedious use of partial derivatives, unfriendly software and the availability of statistical expertise. As a result, the uncertainty of prepared standards is often not determined or determined incorrectly. For situations meeting stated assumptions, easier shortcut methods of estimation are now available which eliminate the need for partial derivatives and require only a spreadsheet or calculator. A system of simplifying the calculations by dividing into subgroups of absolute and relative uncertainties is utilized. These methods also incorporate the International Standards Organization (ISO) concepts for combining systematic and random uncertainties as published in their Guide to the Expression of Measurement Uncertainty. Details of the simplified methods and examples of their use are included in the paper.

  16. Standard satellite data bus initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinney, Timothy; Yousef, Hassan

    The USAF Space Technology Center manages programs to reduce satellite costs through the appropriate use of microelectronics standardization. Ongoing programs such as the Standard Spacecraft Memory Module and Generic VHSIC Spaceborne Computer have provided an insight into the value of standardization and led to an initiative to coordinate microelectronics development around a standard satellite data bus, which should reduce costs by eliminating program- and contractor-unique interfaces, increasing production runs, and developing generic test equipment. Current efforts focus on the satellite housekeeping functions, and it is expected that the mission payload would also use this data bus. Based on existing housekeeping data-traffic requirements, several candidates have been identified for the standard data bus. The two candidates selected for further work are the ANSI X3T9.5 data bus and the linear token-passing data bus being proposed as part of the Advanced Tactical Fighter effort.

  17. APS beamline standard components handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  18. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  19. 20 CFR 627.470 - Performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... standards. (a) General. The Secretary shall prescribe performance standards for adult programs under title... older worker programs under section 204(d) of the Act. Any performance standards developed...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  1. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  2. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  3. 40 CFR 264.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a) Each...

  4. 40 CFR 192.02 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.02 Standards....

  5. 40 CFR 192.02 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.02 Standards....

  6. 40 CFR 192.02 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.02 Standards....

  7. 40 CFR 192.02 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.02 Standards....

  8. 40 CFR 192.02 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites § 192.02 Standards....

  9. Standardized development of computer software. Part 2: Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    This monograph contains standards for software development and engineering. The book sets forth rules for design, specification, coding, testing, documentation, and quality assurance audits of software; it also contains detailed outlines for the documentation to be produced.

  10. State Standard-Setting Processes in Brief. State Academic Standards: Standard-Setting Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about academic standards, whether created by states from scratch or adopted by states under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) banner, have drawn widespread media attention and are at the top of many state policymakers' priority lists. Recently, a number of legislatures have required additional steps, such as waiting periods for…

  11. "There's Nothing Standard about Standards": Exploring Tensions between Two Standards Documents in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Terri; Carter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Quality in education at the tertiary level is constantly questioned, and increasingly "professional standards" are offered as the solution to the perceived decline in quality. Foucauldian archaeological analysis of teacher graduate and geography graduate standards in Australia is conducted, revealing tensions between the different…

  12. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  13. Standard classification of software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    General conceptual requirements for standard levels of documentation and for application of these requirements to intended usages. These standards encourage the policy to produce only those forms of documentation that are needed and adequate for the purpose. Documentation standards are defined with respect to detail and format quality. Classes A through D range, in order, from the most definitive down to the least definitive, and categories 1 through 4 range, in order, from high-quality typeset down to handwritten material. Criteria for each of the classes and categories, as well as suggested selection guidelines for each are given.

  14. Reference standards for software evaluation.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, J; Wellek, S; Willems, J L

    1990-09-01

    The field of automated ECG analysis was one of the earliest topics in Medical Informatics and may be regarded as a model both for computer-assisted medical diagnosis and for evaluating medical diagnostic programs. The CSE project has set reference standards of two kinds: In a broad sense, a standard how to perform a comprehensive evaluation study, in a narrow sense, standards as specific references for evaluating computer ECG programs. The evaluation methodology used within the CSE project is described as a basis for presentation of results which are published elsewhere in this issue. PMID:2233375

  15. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, Maryland

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  16. Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

  17. Organizations Contributing to Development of Library Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avram, Henriette D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a variety of institutions and groups that affect promulgation of library standards, including standards organizations (American National Standards Institute, International Organization for Standardization); library associations (American Library Association); national and international committees, government agencies (National Bureau of…

  18. Phenomenology beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    An elementary review of models and phenomenology for physics beyond the Standard Model (excluding supersymmetry). The emphasis is on LHC physics. Based upon a talk given at the ''Physics at LHC'' conference, Vienna, 13-17 July 2004.

  19. (abstract) Towards Ancillary Data Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's SPICE information system for archiving, distributing, and accessing spacecraft navigation, orientation, and other ancillary data is described. A proposal is made for the further evolution of this concept to an internationally useful standard, to be.

  20. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  1. Imaging standards for smart cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-01-01

    'Smart cards' are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper reviews imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper concludes with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  2. PV System Performance and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during fiscal year (FY) 2005 of the Photovoltaic (PV) System Performance and Standards Subtask, which is part of the PV Systems Engineering Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  3. Standard exercise report format (SERF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This talk summarizes the reasons for the development of draft SERF the Standard Exercise Report Format used for reporting the results of emergency preparedness exercises, and gives a summary of the format and rational behind it.

  4. UPWT check standard model test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Installation of the check standard model in test section 2 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Testing was conducted as part of a Data Quality Control assessment in the Research Facilities Branch/Aerodynamics Aerothermodynamics Acoustics Competency.

  5. Educational Standards for Chiropractic Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Chiropractic Education, Des Moines, IA.

    Contents include: background information on the historical development, purpose, structure, and function of chiropractic accreditation; accreditation policy (eligibility, procedures, classifications, commission actions, and reports); standards for chiropractic colleges (organization, administration, scholastic regulations curriculum, faculty,…

  6. Prospects for atomic frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audoin, C.

    1984-01-01

    The potentialities of different atomic frequency standards which are not yet into field operation, for most of them, but for which preliminary data, obtained in laboratory experiments, give confidence that they may improve greatly the present state of the art are described. The review will mainly cover the following devices: (1) cesium beam frequency standards with optical pumping and detection; (2) optically pumped rubidium cells; (3) magnesium beam; (4) cold hydrogen masers; and (5) traps with stored and cooled ions.

  7. Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute?s (ANSI) Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) is a mechanism for archiving and transferring of spatial data (including metadata) between dissimilar computer systems. The SDTS specifies exchange constructs, such as format, structure, and content, for spatially referenced vector and raster (including gridded) data. The SDTS includes a flexible conceptual model, specifications for a quality report, transfer module specifications, data dictionary specifications, and definitions of spatial features and attributes.

  8. Standardization of grading embryo morphology.

    PubMed

    Racowsky, Catherine; Vernon, Michael; Mayer, Jacob; Ball, G David; Behr, Barry; Pomeroy, Kimball O; Wininger, David; Gibbons, William; Conaghan, Joseph; Stern, Judy E

    2010-08-01

    Standardization of morphologic assessment for an embryo grading system was developed and is being implemented by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART). A recent European consensus conference of embryologists from Europe and America is working toward adopting an embryo classification system modeled similarly to that of SART that, if adopted, would produce a de facto international standard to aid cross-border collaboration. PMID:20580357

  9. Standards for Bibliographic Control in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiruppapa, Siriporn

    This paper summarizes initiatives related to standards for bibliographic control in Thailand. Topics addressed include: (1) standardized forms for headings; (2) standard bibliographic description; (3) standardized subject headings; (4) standards for classification schemes; (5) standardized format; (6) software application in libraries and…

  10. CTD writing and editing standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruthers, C. M.

    1991-03-01

    The Computer and Telecommunication Division (CTD) recognizes that the communication of clear, accurate, reasonably complete information is essential to the success of its Laboratory mission. CTD therefore encourages all Division personnel to adhere to the principles of good writing and to the standards for grammar, usage, style, formats, and publication procedures that are described in CTD Writing and Editing Standards. We encourage CTD personnel to read CTD Writing and Editing Standards and to use it continually as a desktop reference. It will help CTD writers to produce better documents consistent with CTD standards in less time. Applying the principles specified in this document on how to write and organize technical information will speed up the editing, review, and revision processes. CTD Writing and Editing Standards complements the Argonne National Laboratory Technical Publications Guide, which serves as the basic Argonne documentation reference on issues concerning DOE orders and guidelines, NRC directives, and other sponsor requirements. However, this Laboratory-wide document does not address matters of grammar or style. Documents recommended in CTD Writing and Editing Standards are usually available for purchase at the Document Distribution Counter (Building 221, Room A-134) or through the mail (by calling extension 2-5405 and ordering copies).

  11. International standardization of mechanical contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mellstam, S

    1983-06-01

    At least 12 countries have regulations for condoms, and because of the complicated regulations relating to condoms the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) was asked to create a committee for contraceptives. Its objective is to promote the development of standards throughout the world to help the international exchange of goods and services. Following discussions between the World Health Organization (WHO) and ISO it was decided in 1974 to establish a technical ISO committee that would deal with international standards for mechanical contraceptives, comprising condoms, diaphragms, and IUDs. It was also decided that spermicides and oral contraceptives (OCs) should be excluded from the ISO effort, but that they should fall within the responsibility of WHO. The committee, entitled ISO/TC 157 Mechanical Contraceptives, was represented by 35 member countries in 1982. The object of standardizing condoms is to obtain a satisfactory quality that can be accepted throughout the world. To achieve that purpose, acceptable test methods and associated limit requirements and values must be determined, along with rules for storage, packaging, and labeling. The most important factors in determining condom quality are the need to reach agreement on an acceptable number of holes in the condom and the ability to establish limit values for the mechanical properties of the condom. Specific requirements regarding dimensions, resistance to storage, packaging, labeling, and appropriate storage are also important. Up to 1982 the work of ISO for condoms resulted in 8 published international standards, of which 6 deal with test methods, 1 with packaging and labeling, and 1 with storage. Agreement has also been reached within the ISO committee on an additional 3 draft standards. Due to the comparatively small use of diaphragms, standardization efforts in this area do not have the highest priority. ISO/TC 157 has formulated 10 drafts which are being prepared for distribution to

  12. Fluorescent standards for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belko, N.; Kavalenka, S.; Samtsov, M.

    2016-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is an evolving technique for treatment of various oncological diseases. This method employs photosensitizers - species that lead to death of tumor cells after the photoactivation. For further development and novel applications of photodynamic therapy new photosensitizers are required. After synthesis of a new photosensitizer it is important to know its concentration in different biological tissues after its administration and distribution. The concentration is frequently measured by the extraction method, which has some disadvantages, e.g. it requires many biological test subjects that are euthanized during the measurement. We propose to measure the photosensitizer concentration in tissue by its fluorescence. For this purpose fluorescent standards were developed. The standards are robust and simple to produce; their fluorescence signal does not change with time. The fluorescence intensity of fluorescent standards seems to depend linearly on the dye concentration. A set of standards thus allow the calibration of a spectrometer. Finally, the photosensitizer concentration can be determined by the fluorescence intensity after comparing the corresponding spectrum with spectra of the set of fluorescent standards. A biological test subject is not euthanized during this kind of experiment. We hope this more humane technique can be used in future instead of the extraction method.

  13. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  14. FAINT UBVRI STANDARD STAR FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, James L.; Landolt, Arlo U. E-mail: landolt@phys.lsu.edu

    2013-10-01

    High-quality CCD-based UBVRI photometry is presented for ∼45, 000 stars distributed among 60 different fields centered on the celestial equator and at δ ≈ –50°. This photometry has been calibrated to the standard Johnson UBV and Kron-Cousins RI systems via observations of the UBVRI standard stars presented in the works of Landolt. The majority of the stars in our photometric catalog fall in the magnitude range 12 ∼< V ∼< 22 and in the color range –0.3 ∼< (B – V) ∼< 1.8. Each star averages 67 measures in each UBVRI filter from data taken on 250 different photometric nights over a period of ∼6.5 yr from two different telescopes. Our final photometric database effectively extends the UBVRI standard star network defined by Landolt to much fainter magnitudes and increases the number density of stars within pre-existing standard fields. Hence, these new, fainter standards serve as suitable calibrators for investigators who employ either small or large-aperture telescopes for their observational projects.

  15. Standards in neurosonology. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27104002

  16. Age, colors and ISO standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2010-01-01

    Age influences all bodily functions, also vision. Therefore, the effects of age on vision should be mirrored in ergonomic requirements laid down in display standards such as ISO 9241-300/307, 'Electronic visual display requirements'. However, this is only true to a limited extent - just as is the case with other standards dealing with ergonomic requirements, because developers of such standards do not possess the necessary specific knowledge. It therefore was an important step by ISO and IEC to publish in 2001 ISO/IEC Guide 71: 'Guidelines for standard developers to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities'. This guide was followed by a more specific and detailed Technical Report from ISO, ISO/TR 22411, as well as by 'Guidelines on Accessibility' from CIE. These three guidelines are reviewed. The paper concludes with developments around ISO 9241-300/307 in general, especially future additions on autostereoscopic displays and electronic paper. As to the former, the visual fatigue often accompanying viewing 3D displays needs methods for characterizing and validating such displays, to reduce visual fatigue as much as possible. Standardizing certain properties of electronic paper is an example of the present pro-active way of working of ISO/TC159/SC4/WG2, 'Visual Display Requirements', that developed ISO 9241-300/307.

  17. Double Standards in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Admay, Catherine; Shakow, Aaron; Keshavjee, Salmaan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The human rights arguments that underpinned the fight against HIV over the last three decades were poised, but ultimately failed, to provide a similar foundation for success against multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and other diseases of the poor. With more than 1.5 million deaths since 2000 attributed to strains of MDR-TB, and with half a million new, and mostly untreated, MDR-TB cases in the world each year, the stakes could not be higher. The World Health Organization (WHO), whose mandate is to champion the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health, recommended unsound medical treatment for MDR-TB patients in resource-poor settings from 1993-2002. Citing cost considerations, WHO did not recommend the available standard of care that had been successfully used to contain and defeat MDR-TB in rich countries. By acting as a strategic gatekeeper in its technical advisory role to donor agencies and countries, it also facilitated the global implementation of a double standard for TB care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), upending important legal and scientific priorities. This raises serious questions about whether the organization violated international human rights standards and those established in its own constitution. While calling for additional analysis and discussion on this topic, the authors propose that policymakers should reject double standards of this kind and instead embrace the challenge of implementing the highest standard of care on a global level. PMID:27781001

  18. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  19. Standards in neurosonology. Part III

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27446600

  20. Acoustical standards in engineering acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhard, Mahlon D.

    2001-05-01

    The Engineering Acoustics Technical Committee is concerned with the evolution and improvement of acoustical techniques and apparatus, and with the promotion of new applications of acoustics. As cited in the Membership Directory and Handbook (2002), the interest areas include transducers and arrays; underwater acoustic systems; acoustical instrumentation and monitoring; applied sonics, promotion of useful effects, information gathering and transmission; audio engineering; acoustic holography and acoustic imaging; acoustic signal processing (equipment and techniques); and ultrasound and infrasound. Evident connections between engineering and standards are needs for calibration, consistent terminology, uniform presentation of data, reference levels, or design targets for product development. Thus for the acoustical engineer standards are both a tool for practices, for communication, and for comparison of his efforts with those of others. Development of many standards depends on knowledge of the way products are put together for the market place and acoustical engineers provide important input to the development of standards. Acoustical engineers and members of the Engineering Acoustics arm of the Society both benefit from and contribute to the Acoustical Standards of the Acoustical Society.

  1. Standards in neurosonology. Part III.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  2. Standards in neurosonology. Part I.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-toleft shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  3. Standards in neurosonology. Part II.

    PubMed

    Wojczal, Joanna; Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity).

  4. 40 CFR 403.6 - National pretreatment standards: Categorical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The Control Authority may convert the mass limits of the categorical Pretreatment Standards at 40 CFR... established as separate regulations under the appropriate subpart of 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N. These... subpart of 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N. Direct dischargers with NPDES Permits modified or reissued...

  5. Standardized Tests: Whose Standards Are We Talking About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The United States is currently involved in a continuing controversy about how best to measure the education of children. President Bush and his Administration have pushed for a bevy of standardized assessments, the results of which would be used to reward high-scoring schools and punish low-scoring ones. State departments of education and school…

  6. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... on November 9, 2009. See 74 FR 57883. The Compressed Gas Association published a new edition of CGA G... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a...

  7. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS…

  8. 77 FR 13969 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Association (GGA) acetylene standard (see 76 FR 75782). In the DFR, OSHA deleted reference to CGA G-1-2003 and... final rule published on December 5, 2011 (76 FR 75782), is effective on March 5, 2012. For the purposes....C. 553, Secretary of Labor's Order 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), and 29 CFR part 1911. Signed at...

  9. 40 CFR 403.6 - National pretreatment standards: Categorical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW... established as separate regulations under the appropriate subpart of 40 CFR chapter I, subchapter N. These... falls within that particular subcategory. If an existing Industrial User adds or changes a process...

  10. ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Competency Standards Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Both professional development programs for teachers currently in the classroom and programs for preparing future teachers should provide technology-rich experiences throughout all aspects of the training. Standards and resources within the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)'s project "Information and…

  11. Metadata Standards and Workflow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2012-12-01

    All modern workflow systems include mechanisms for recording inputs, outputs and processes. These descriptions can include details required to reproduce the workflows exactly and, in some cases, can include virtual images of the hardware and operating system. There are several on-going and emerging standards for representing these detailed workflows including the Open Provenance Model (OPM) and the W3C PROV. At the same time, ISO metadata standards include a simple provenance or lineage model that includes many important elements of workflows. The ISO model could play a critical role in sharing and discovering workflow information for collections and perhaps in recording some details in granules. In order for this goal to be reached, connections between the detailed standards and ISO must be understood and conventions for using them must be developed.

  12. Dynamics of the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, J.F.; Golowich, E.; Holstein, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    Given the remarkable successes of the standard model, it is appropriate that books in the field no longer dwell on the development of our current understanding of high-energy physics but rather present the world as we now know it. Dynamics of the Standard Model by Donoghue, Golowich, and Holstein takes just this approach. Instead of showing the confusion of the 60s and 70s, the authors present the enlightenment of the 80s. They start by describing the basic features and structure of the standard model and then concentrate on the techniques whereby the model can be applied to the physical world, connecting the theory to the experimental results that are the source of its success. Because they do not dwell on ancient (pre-1980) history, the authors of this book are able to go into much more depth in describing how the model can be tied to experiment, and much of the information presented has been accessible previously only in journal articles in a highly technical form. Though all of the authors are card-carrying theorists they go out of their way to stress applications and phenomenology and to show the reader how real-life calculations of use to experimentalists are done and can be applied to physical situations: what assumptions are made in doing them and how well they work. This is of great value both to the experimentalist seeking a deeper understanding of how the standard model can be connected to data and to the theorist wanting to see how detailed the phenomenological predictions of the standard model are and how well the model works. Furthermore, the authors constantly go beyond the lowest-order predictions of the standard model to discuss the corrections to it, as well as higher-order processes, some of which are now experimentally accessible and others of which will take well into the decade to uncover.

  13. A standard for ultraviolet radiation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, G. B.; Spicer, W. E.; Mckernan, P. C.; Pereskok, V. F.; Wanner, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Photoemission diode standards for accurately measuring monochromatic ultraviolet light intensity (3000 A-1100 A) are described that are also blind to visible light. The standard uses an opaque photocathode of Cs2Te and is unique because of its combination of thinness (19 mm), high sensitivity, time stability, and uniformity of response. Design criteria, construction methods, and difficulties overcome in obtaining a stable, uniform, high yield photocathode responses are discussed. Cs2Te is discussed in terms of a model for high yield photoemitters.

  14. Pulsed optically pumped frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Godone, Aldo; Micalizio, Salvatore; Levi, Filippo

    2004-08-01

    We reconsider the idea of a pulsed optically pumped frequency standard conceived in the early 1960s to eliminate the light-shift effect. The development of semiconductor lasers and of pulsed electronic techniques for atomic fountains and new theoretical findings allow an implementation of this idea which may lead to a frequency standard whose frequency stability is limited only by the thermal noise in the short term and by the temperature drift in the long term. We shall also show both theoretically and experimentally the possibility of doubling the atomic quality factor with respect to the classical Ramsey technique approach.

  15. Standards for hospital libraries 2002

    PubMed Central

    Gluck, Jeannine Cyr; Hassig, Robin Ackley; Balogh, Leeni; Bandy, Margaret; Doyle, Jacqueline Donaldson; Kronenfeld, Michael R.; Lindner, Katherine Lois; Murray, Kathleen; Petersen, JoAn; Rand, Debra C.

    2002-01-01

    The Medical Library Association's “Standards for Hospital Libraries 2002” have been developed as a guide for hospital administrators, librarians, and accrediting bodies to ensure that hospitals have the resources and services to effectively meet their needs for knowledge-based information. Specific requirements for knowledge-based information include that the library be a separate department with its own budget. Knowledge-based information in the library should be directed by a qualified librarian who functions as a department head and is a member of the Academy of Health Information Professionals. The standards define the role of the medical librarian and the links between knowledge-based information and other functions such as patient care, patient education, performance improvement, and education. In addition, the standards address the development and implementation of the knowledge-based information needs assessment and plans, the promotion and publicity of the knowledge-based information services, and the physical space and staffing requirements. The role, qualifications, and functions of a hospital library consultant are outlined. The health sciences library is positioned to play a key role in the hospital. The increasing use of the Internet and new information technologies by medical, nursing, and allied health staffs; patients; and the community require new strategies, strategic planning, allocation of adequate resources, and selection and evaluation of appropriate information resources and technologies. The Hospital Library Standards Committee has developed this document as a guideline to be used in facing these challenges. Editor's Note: The “Standards for Hospital Libraries 2002” were approved by the members of the Hospital Library Section during MLA '02 in Dallas, Texas. They were subsequently approved by Section Council and received final approval from the MLA Board of Directors in June 2002. They succeed the Standards for Hospital Libraries

  16. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Kathleen; Lopez, Hugo; Cairns, Julie; Wichert, Richard; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Buttner, William

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  17. Standardizing Knowledge in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeter, Christine; Stillman, Jamy

    2005-01-01

    Across the United States, in an attempt to raise standards for student learning, states have developed curriculum standards that specify what students are to learn. Raising standards has become synonymous with standardizing curriculum. This study critically examines the reading/language arts and history-social science standards documents in…

  18. 7 CFR 160.15 - New standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false New standards. 160.15 Section 160.15 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Establishment of New and Modified Standards § 160.15 New standards. Whenever in the opinion of the Administrator a new standard for any naval stores is necessary in the interest...

  19. 7 CFR 160.15 - New standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false New standards. 160.15 Section 160.15 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Establishment of New and Modified Standards § 160.15 New standards. Whenever in the opinion of the Administrator a new standard for any naval stores is necessary in the interest...

  20. 48 CFR 53.301 - Standard forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard forms. 53.301... AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301 Standard forms. This section illustrates the standard... order. The subsection numbers correspond with the standard form numbers (e.g., Standard Form 18...

  1. 40 CFR 141.601 - Standard monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard monitoring. 141.601 Section... Standard monitoring. (a) Standard monitoring plan. Your standard monitoring plan must comply with paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section. You must prepare and submit your standard monitoring...

  2. 29 CFR 1911.12 - Emergency standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency standards. 1911.12 Section 1911.12 Labor... STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.12 Emergency standards. (a)(1) Whenever an emergency standard is... section 6(b) of the Act, and the standard as published must serve as a proposed rule. Any notice...

  3. Environmental Health Standards for Human Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James John T.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of air and water quality standards includes evidence-based standards, factors unique to spaceflight, effects from exposures to combinations of compounds, contingency versus nominal standards, tables of ISO standards for air quality (ppm) and water quality (mg/L), and updating of standards.

  4. The standard model and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1989-05-01

    In these lectures, my aim is to present a status report on the standard model and some key tests of electroweak unification. Within that context, I also discuss how and where hints of new physics may emerge. To accomplish those goals, I have organized my presentation as follows. I survey the standard model parameters with particular emphasis on the gauge coupling constants and vector boson masses. Examples of new physics appendages are also commented on. In addition, I have included an appendix on dimensional regularization and a simple example which employs that technique. I focus on weak charged current phenomenology. Precision tests of the standard model are described and up-to-date values for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) mixing matrix parameters are presented. Constraints implied by those tests for a 4th generation, extra Z' bosons, and compositeness are discussed. An overview of the physics of tau decays is also included. I discuss weak neutral current phenomenology and the extraction of sin/sup 2//theta/W from experiment. The results presented there are based on a global analysis of all existing data. I have chosen to concentrate that discussion on radiative corrections, the effect of a heavy top quark mass, implications for grand unified theories (GUTS), extra Z' gauge bosons, and atomic parity violation. The potential for further experimental progress is also commented on. Finally, I depart from the narrowest version of the standard model and discuss effects of neutrino masses, mixings, and electromagnetic moments. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Standard English and Student Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Janis Butler

    College composition teachers face serious difficulties with student anger in trying to teach writing to poorly prepared students who do not see the need for learning standard English. Most teachers would agree that they are trying to teach writing in a much harsher, less receptive climate produced by powerful social forces over which they have…

  6. The Mapmark Standard Setting Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.

    2005-01-01

    A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…

  7. Standardized Testing and School Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of standardized tests to hold schools accountable. The history of testing for accountability is reviewed, and it is shown that currently between-school differences account for less than 10% of the variance in student scores, in part because the progress of individuals is small compared to the spread of achievement…

  8. Standards for Art Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Art Education Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Art Education Association (NAEA) is committed to ensuring student access to a highly qualified, certified visual arts educator in every K-12 public school across the United States, recognizing that effective arts instruction is a core component to a 21st-century education. "Standards for Art Teacher Preparation" represents the…

  9. Skill Standards and Certification Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Bruce

    America's more than 1,200 community, technical, and junior colleges constitute the largest branch of higher education in the country. Two-year colleges are subjected to rigorous institutional accreditation standards and procedures by regional accrediting bodies. At least 80% of their students are already in the workforce, and they serve the…

  10. Castles, Kings...and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Susan M.

    2001-01-01

    Standards can help integrate a curriculum, as a fourth-grade teacher discovered when implementing a unit on the Middle Ages. Students created a medieval fair that demonstrated their learning in medieval history (social studies), pulleys and gears (science and technology), story telling (language arts), and costume and dance (fine arts). (MLH)

  11. The Ampere and Electrical Standards

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, Randolph E.; Cage, Marvin E.; Tang, Yi-hua; Jeffery, Anne-Marie; Kinard, Joseph R.; Dziuba, Ronald F.; Oldham, Nile M.; Williams, Edwin R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some of the major contributions to metrology and physics made by the NIST Electricity Division, which has existed since 1901. It was one of the six original divisions of the National Bureau of Standards. The Electricity Division provides dc and low-frequency calibrations for industrial, scientific, and research organizations, and conducts research on topics related to electrical metrology and fundamental constants. The early work of the Electricity Division staff included the development of precision standards, such as Rosa and Thomas standard resistors and the ac-dc thermal converter. Research contributions helped define the early international system of measurement units and bring about the transition to absolute units based on fundamental principles and physical and dimensional measurements. NIST research has helped to develop and refine electrical standards using the quantum Hall effect and the Josephson effect, which are both based on quantum physics. Four projects covering a number of voltage and impedance measurements are described in detail. Several other areas of current research at NIST are described, including the use of the Internet for international compatibility in metrology, determination of the fine-structure and Planck constants, and construction of the electronic kilogram. PMID:27500018

  12. Sexuality, Television and Broadcast Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Melvin S.

    This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…

  13. Standards for Health Sciences Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, E. Ray

    1982-01-01

    Discusses service standards (level of excellence or adequacy in performance of library service) and their incorporation in the accreditation process for hospital library service and academic health sciences libraries. The certification program developed for health sciences librarians by the Medical Library Association is reviewed. Fifty-nine…

  14. Standardized Tests: Their Use & Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This article is devoted to explaining the use and misuse of standardized tests in adult literacy programs. Among the topics covered on that subject are why the tests are of such interest among adult educators: because the authority vested in these tests can determine the way programs are developed, what is taught, the climate of teaching and…

  15. Splendid Substitutes for Standard Sonatas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, Sidney

    1997-01-01

    States that music teachers have a responsibility to introduce their students to music outside of the standard violin repertoire in order to assist them in their careers as musicians. Offers two recital series of sonatas that have been disregarded by performing artists and describes the musical compositions in each of the two series. (CMK)

  16. Revisiting the standard solar model

    SciTech Connect

    Turck-Chieze, S.; Cahen, S.; Casse, M.; Doom, C.

    1988-12-01

    The mutual consistency between standard solar models is studied based on the recent Los Alamos opacity tables. Satisfactory agreement is found among these models concerning the helium content and the neutrino capture rates. The reference model leads to a solar helium content of 0.276 + or - 0.012 by mass fraction. 75 references.

  17. Inexpensive Eddy-Current Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Robert F., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radial crack replicas serve as evaluation standards. Technique entails intimately joining two pieces of appropriate aluminum alloy stock and centering drilled hole through and along interface. Bore surface of hole presents two vertical stock interface lines 180 degrees apart. These lines serve as radial crack defect replicas during eddy-current technique setup and verification.

  18. [Transsexuality--standards of care].

    PubMed

    Eicher, W

    1995-01-01

    After the description of transsexualism as a nosological entity by Harry Benjamin standards of care emerged which are useful and protective for patients and doctors involved in treatment. The diagnosis is established by the finding of an irreversibly transposed gender identity. This has to be confirmed by an expert who is competent in counselling gender identity problems. He will give his written opinion which is the indication for the hormonal treatment to be done at least for half a year prior to operation and which leads to virilization or effeminization and which is the preparation for genital surgery. Standards of female-to-male surgery are: 1. Breast-transformation 2. Colpohysterectomy with adnexectomy, possibly by the vaginal route. Surrogates for testes and phalloplasties are only in the experimental stage and not standard. Standards of male-to-female surgery are: 1. Castration by extirpation of testes. 2. Resection of penis shaft with total resection of the spongy bodies. 3. Neovagina by inverted penis-skin technique. 4. Plasty of labia majora and minora and a clitoris. 5. In case of insufficient gynecomastia breast-augmentation. After the operation, follow-up examinations are necessary by the surgeon until complete healing. A supportive psychological care by the expert who has evaluated the transposition of gender identity would be useful. It could be done also by the gynecologist who makes the follow-up examinations in male to female transsexuals. He is also competent for the life-long hormonal substitution.

  19. Multilevel Assessments of Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quellmalz, Edys S.; Timms, Michael J.; Silberglitt, Matt D.

    2011-01-01

    The Multilevel Assessment of Science Standards (MASS) project is creating a new generation of technology-enhanced formative assessments that bring the best formative assessment practices into classrooms to transform what, how, when, and where science learning is assessed. The project is investigating the feasibility, utility, technical quality,…

  20. Standard atmosphere - tables and data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1926-01-01

    Detailed tables of pressures and densities are given for altitudes up to 20,000 meters and to 65,000 feet. In addition to the tables the various data pertaining to the standard atmosphere have been compiled in convenient form for ready reference. This report is an extension of NACA-TR-147.

  1. In Pursuit of "World Standards."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John

    1996-01-01

    Presents highlights of abstracts submitted for the 13th International Conference on Technology and Education (ICTE). Topics include Internet policy and practice, classroom/curriculum issues, K-12 technology standards, tools, copyright, networked computing, and aid for developing nations. Lists areas of concern not addressed by conference…

  2. ACCOUNTABILITY WITHIN NEW OZONE STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past two decades, as part of the effort to develop the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), researchers have been using real human exposure data to help analyze the magnitude and extent of the risks from specific or multiple pollutants. Surrogates for exposur...

  3. Standards for hospital libraries 2002.

    PubMed

    Gluck, Jeannine Cyr; Hassig, Robin Ackley; Balogh, Leeni; Bandy, Margaret; Doyle, Jacqueline Donaldson; Kronenfeld, Michael R; Lindner, Katherine Lois; Murray, Kathleen; Petersen, JoAn; Rand, Debra C

    2002-10-01

    The Medical Library Association's "Standards for Hospital Libraries 2002" have been developed as a guide for hospital administrators, librarians, and accrediting bodies to ensure that hospitals have the resources and services to effectively meet their needs for knowledge-based information. Specific requirements for knowledge-based information include that the library be a separate department with its own budget. Knowledge-based information in the library should be directed by a qualified librarian who functions as a department head and is a member of the Academy of Health Information Professionals. The standards define the role of the medical librarian and the links between knowledge-based information and other functions such as patient care, patient education, performance improvement, and education. In addition, the standards address the development and implementation of the knowledge-based information needs assessment and plans, the promotion and publicity of the knowledge-based information services, and the physical space and staffing requirements. The role, qualifications, and functions of a hospital library consultant are outlined. The health sciences library is positioned to play a key role in the hospital. The increasing use of the Internet and new information technologies by medical, nursing, and allied health staffs; patients; and the community require new strategies, strategic planning, allocation of adequate resources, and selection and evaluation of appropriate information resources and technologies. The Hospital Library Standards Committee has developed this document as a guideline to be used in facing these challenges.

  4. Professional Standards into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbon, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008, the Professional Standards Project (PSP) management team conducted the final scheduled Project Advisory Committee meeting. The Project was to conclude in December 2008 with a final report and evaluation informing all stakeholders of the developments and achievements of what has to be termed a major national contribution to…

  5. Scientific Reporting: Raising the Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Garney, Whitney; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Grant, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a presentation that was made at the 2014 annual meeting of the editorial board of "Health Education & Behavior." The article addresses critical issues related to standards of scientific reporting in journals, including concerns about external and internal validity and reporting bias. It reviews current…

  6. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  7. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

  8. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  9. The State of State Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Petrilli, Michael J.; Vanourek, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    The Fordham Foundation commissioned experts in each of the five core academic subjects (English, history, geography, mathematics, and science) to develop criteria for excellence and apply them to as many state standards as could be obtained. This summary report compiles the numerical scores and letter grades that each state earned in every…

  10. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  11. North Dakota Dance Content Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sue; Farrell, Renee; Robbins, Susan; Simonson, Paula; Stanley, Melissa

    Dance should be seen as an authentic avenue for allowing students to learn kinesthetically by using movement that is essential to brain development. Ideally students would be exposed to dance forms and patterns in other art forms like music and drama as well as units within physical education classes. These North Dakota standards may be taught…

  12. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  13. Standardized Tests: A Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, MaryJane

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an explanation of standardized tests so that parents may understand the significance of their children's tests scores. Definitions of terms such as "percentile ranking," "norming group" and "criterion-referenced" are given. The author also questions the validity of high-stakes tests as a true measure of student knowledge.

  14. Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SOTS) is a mechanism for the transfer of spatial data between dissimilar computer systems. The SOTS specifies exchange constructs, addressing formats, structure, and content for spatially referenced vector and raster (including gridded) data. SOTS components are a conceptual model, specifications for a quality report, transfer module specifications, data dictionary specifications, and definitions of spatial features and attributes.

  15. The Ampere and Electrical Standards.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, R E; Cage, M E; Tang, Y H; Jeffery, A M; Kinard, J R; Dziuba, R F; Oldham, N M; Williams, E R

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some of the major contributions to metrology and physics made by the NIST Electricity Division, which has existed since 1901. It was one of the six original divisions of the National Bureau of Standards. The Electricity Division provides dc and low-frequency calibrations for industrial, scientific, and research organizations, and conducts research on topics related to electrical metrology and fundamental constants. The early work of the Electricity Division staff included the development of precision standards, such as Rosa and Thomas standard resistors and the ac-dc thermal converter. Research contributions helped define the early international system of measurement units and bring about the transition to absolute units based on fundamental principles and physical and dimensional measurements. NIST research has helped to develop and refine electrical standards using the quantum Hall effect and the Josephson effect, which are both based on quantum physics. Four projects covering a number of voltage and impedance measurements are described in detail. Several other areas of current research at NIST are described, including the use of the Internet for international compatibility in metrology, determination of the fine-structure and Planck constants, and construction of the electronic kilogram. PMID:27500018

  16. Calibration of surface roughness standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, R.; Nicolet, A.; Meli, F.; Picotto, G. B.; Matus, M.; Carcedo, L.; Hemming, B.; Ganioglu, O.; De Chiffre, L.; Saraiva, F.; Bergstrand, S.; Zelenika, S.; Tonmueanwai, A.; Tsai, C.-L.; Shihua, W.; Kruger, O.; de Souza, M. M.; Salgado, J. A.; Ramotowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The key comparison EURAMET.L-K8.2013 on roughness was carried out in the framework of a EURAMET project starting in 2013 and ending in 2015. It involved the participation of 17 National Metrology Institutes from Europe, Asia, South America and Africa representing four regional metrology organisations. Five surface texture standards of different type were circulated and on each of the standards several roughness parameters according to the standard ISO 4287 had to be determined. 32 out of 395 individual results were not consistent with the reference value. After some corrective actions the number of inconsistent results could be reduced to 20, which correspond to about 5% of the total and can statistically be expected. In addition to the material standards, two softgauges were circulated, which allow to test the software of the instruments used in the comparison. The comparison results help to support the calibraton and measurement capabilities (CMCs) of the laboratories involved in the CIPM MRA. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  18. READING AND WRITING STANDARD ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAIG, MYRTLE C.

    THE PROBLEM OF HOW TO TEACH PUPILS IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS TO READ AND WRITE STANDARD ENGLISH IS DISCUSSED. THE VALUE OF ORAL LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF ATTAINING READING AND WRITING PROFICIENCY IS SUGGESTED. SUCCESS IN THESE AREAS CAN BE ATTAINED IF (1) THE HOME LANGUAGE OF THE CHILD IS ACCEPTED, (2) THE CHILD IS OFFERED MATERIALS ON HIS LEVEL OF…

  19. Encoding Standards for Linguistic Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    The demand for extensive reusability of large language text collections for natural languages processing research requires development of standardized encoding formats. Such formats must be capable of representing different kinds of information across the spectrum of text types and languages, capable of representing different levels of…

  20. Teaching and Academic Standards Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handleman, Chester

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the decline of educational standards as reflected in national test scores and discusses four pedagogic causes for this decline: the abandonment of written tests in favor of objective, true/false testing techniques; nonpunitive grading and attendance policies; excessive use of technology in the classroom; and academic grade inflation. (JP)

  1. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  2. Educational Standards for Chiropractic Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Chiropractic Education, Des Moines, IA.

    The policy of accreditation for the chiropractic profession and educational standards for chiropractic colleges are presented. The following types are historical development of chiropractic accreditation; the structure and function of the Council on Chiropractic Education; and eligibility, procedures, and classifications for status as an…

  3. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  4. Software engineering standards and practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durachka, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for the preparation of a software development plan. The various phases of a software development project are discussed throughout its life cycle including a general description of the software engineering standards and practices to be followed during each phase.

  5. A "Lunatic Vision" on Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, Sybil

    1998-01-01

    Through workshops, seminars, training programs, and conferences, the nonprofit Center on Learning, Assessment, and School Structure (CLASS) helps educators in public and private schools develop more credible and authentic assessments and curricula. The Center's head, Grant Wiggins, argues that schools should have standards--but the standards…

  6. Towards Uniformity in Grading Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Libby; McCulloch, Elizabeth

    To study grading standards and consistency within the English department, 1600 freshmen at Rockland Community College were asked to complete a uniform exit essay at the end of English 101. After developing criteria for grading the papers, members of the department marked their own papers and one other set. Eight months later, 240 of the papers…

  7. Standards, Title I Link Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    The Obama administration's proposal to make federal funding for disadvantaged students contingent on states' adoption of reading and math standards intended to prepare students for college or a career has drawn sharp criticism from groups representing grassroots educators and state lawmakers, even as some governors and members of Congress appear…

  8. Future of Software Engineering Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poon, Peter T.

    1997-01-01

    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  9. A synthetic zero air standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  10. An overview of software safety standards

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1995-10-01

    The writing of standards for software safety is an increasingly important activity. This essay briefly describes the two primary standards-writing organizations, IEEE and IEC, and provides a discussion of some of the more interesting software safety standards.

  11. 40 CFR 265.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 265.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 265.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 265.1053 - Standards: Compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1053 Standards: Compressors. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  16. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  17. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  18. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  19. 40 CFR 61.42 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium Rocket Motor Firing § 61.42 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from rocket-motor test sites shall...

  20. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  1. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  2. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  3. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  4. Automatic Processing of Documentation and Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochard, Jean

    1971-01-01

    The need for standardization, the nature of such standardization, and the work carried out by the Technical Committee on Documentation of the International Organization for Standardization are described. (Author/AB)

  5. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  6. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  7. Standard Distributions: One Graph Fits All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Clifford H.

    2007-01-01

    Standard distributions are ubiquitous but not unique. With suitable scaling, the graph of a standard distribution serves as the graph for every distribution in the family. The standard exponential can easily be taught in elementary statistics courses.

  8. Towards a World Catalogue of Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Barteld E.

    1973-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) efforts to develop a uniform catalog of integrated standard indexes from around the world are described. The purpose is to facilitate the search for standards. (SM)

  9. 40 CFR 61.22 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Radon Emissions From Underground Uranium Mines § 61.22 Standard. Emissions of radon-222 to the ambient air from an...

  10. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  11. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  12. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  13. The Making of the Standard Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, John

    2016-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Prehistory * Thirty Years of Unconcern, Thirty Years of Doubt * Gauge Theories * Fighting the Infinities * The Standard Model * Beyond the Standard Model

  14. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  15. Subsea production equipment standardization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    George, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines Shell Expro`s work in simplifying and standardizing its subsea production systems on 10,000 psi, 300 F rated equipment through the use of proven technology and configured to meet common interface requirements. A modular ``building block`` approach to design was adopted, whereby trees are easily converted from one style to another (oil, water or gas lift) by the addition or removal of bolt-on, pre-engineered packages. Standardization of associated control systems has also been applied, together with series hook-up of trees for small developments. A common top-of-tree interface enables vendor interchangeability of tooling. The use of ROV compatible designs for choke and control module change out are expected to provide significant operational cost savings. Common interfaces allow cross-sharing of tooling systems between projects and potentially other operators, and are the catalyst for vendors to develop rental tooling pools.

  16. Banning standard cell engineering notebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A family of standardized thick-oxide P-MOS building blocks (standard cells) is described. The information is presented in a form useful for systems designs, logic design, and the preparation of inputs to both sets of Design Automation programs for array design and analysis. A data sheet is provided for each cell and gives the cell name, the cell number, its logic symbol, Boolean equation, truth table, circuit schematic circuit composite, input-output capacitances, and revision date. The circuit type file, also given for each cell, together with the logic drawing contained on the data sheet provides all the information required to prepare input data files for the Design Automation Systems. A detailed description of the electrical design procedure is included.

  17. Composite-technicolor standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar Chivukula, B.; Georgi, Howard

    1987-04-01

    We characterize a class of composite models in which the quarks and leptons and technifermions are built from fermions (preons) bound by strong gauge interactions. We argue that if the preon dynamics has as [SU(3) × U(1)] 5 flavor symmetry that is explicitly broken only by preon mass terms proportional to the quark and lepton mass matrices, then the composite-tech-nicolor theory has a GIM mechanism that suppresses dangerous flavor changing neutral current effects. We show that the compositeness scale must be between ≈1 TeV and ≈2.5 TeV, giving rise to observable deviations from the standard electroweak interactions, and that B overlineB mixing and CP violation in K mesons can differ significantly from the standard model predictions. The lepton flavor symmetries may be observable in the near future in the comparison of the compositeness effects in e +e - → μ +μ - with those in e +e - → e +e -.

  18. Standardization of beam line representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, David C.

    1999-05-01

    Standardization of beam line representations means that a single set of data can be used in many situations to represent a beam line. This set of data should be the same no matter what the program to be run or the calculation to be made. We have concerned ourselves with three types of standardization: (1) The same set of data should be usable by different programs. (2) The inclusion of other items in the data, such as calculations to be done, units to be used, or preliminary specifications, should be in a notation similar to the lattice specification. (3) A single set of data should be used to represent a given beam line, no matter what is being modified or calculated. The specifics of what is to be modified or calculated can be edited into the data as part of the calculation. These three requirements all have aspects not previously discussed in a public forum. Implementations into TRANSPORT [1] will be discussed.

  19. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  20. Cesium standard for satellite application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M. B.; Meirs, M.; Pascaru, I.; Weinstein, B.

    1983-01-01

    A Cesium frequency standard that was developed for satellite applications is discussed. It weighs 23 lbs. and uses 23.5 watts of power, achieves a stability of 1 x ten to the minus 13th power/100,000 seconds, and is radiation hardened. To achieve the weight and reliability requirements, both thick and thin film hybrid circuits were utilized. A crystal oscillator is used to improve short-term stability and performance on a moving platform.

  1. DOE limited standard: Operations assessments

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Purpose of this standard is to provide DOE Field Element assessors with a guide for conducting operations assessments, and provide DOE Field Element managers with the criteria of the EM Operations Assessment Program. Sections 6.1 to 6.21 provide examples of how to assess specific areas; the general techniques of operations assessments (Section 5) may be applied to other areas of health and safety (e.g. fire protection, criticality safety, quality assurance, occupational safety, etc.).

  2. The standard model and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    The field of elementary particle, or high energy, physics seeks to identify the most elementary constituents of nature and to study the forces that govern their interactions. Increasing the energy of a probe in a laboratory experiment increases its power as an effective microscope for discerning increasingly smaller structures of matter. Thus we have learned that matter is composed of molecules that are in turn composed of atoms, that the atom consists of a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons, and that the atomic nucleus is a collection of protons and neutrons. The more powerful probes provided by high energy particle accelerators have taught us that a nucleon is itself made of objects called quarks. The forces among quarks and electrons are understood within a general theoretical framework called the ''standard model,'' that accounts for all interactions observed in high energy laboratory experiments to date. These are commonly categorized as the ''strong,'' ''weak'' and ''electromagnetic'' interactions. In this lecture I will describe the standard model, and point out some of its limitations. Probing for deeper structures in quarks and electrons defines the present frontier of particle physics. I will discuss some speculative ideas about extensions of the standard model and/or yet more fundamental forces that may underlie our present picture. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Study of federal microwave standards

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.

    1980-08-01

    Present and future federal regulatory processes which may impact the permissible levels of microwave radiation emitted by the SPS Microwave Power Transmission (MPTS) were studied. An historical development of US occupational and public microwave standards includes an overview of Western and East European philosophies of environmental protection and neurophysiology which have led to the current widely differing maximum permissible exposure limits to microwaves. The possible convergence of microwave standards is characterized by a lowering of Western exposure levels while Eastern countries consider standard relaxation. A trend toward stricter controls on activities perceived as harmful to public health is under way as is interest in improving the federal regulatory process. Particularly relevant to SPS is the initiation of long-term, low-level microwave exposure programs. Coupled with new developments in instrumentation and dosimetry, the results from chronic exposure program and population exposure studies could be expected within the next five to ten years. Also discussed is the increasing public concern that rf energy is yet another hazardous environmental agent.

  4. Radiation protection standards in space.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, W K

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection standards for the individual exposed to ionizing radiation in his/her daily work have evolved over more than 50 years since the first recommendations on limits by the NCRP and the ICRP. Initial standards were based on the absence of observable harm, notably skin erythema, but have since been modified as other concerns, such as leukemia and genetic effects, became more important. More recently, the general carcinogenic effect of radiation has become the principal concern at low doses. Genetic effects are also of concern in the younger individual. Modern radiation protection practices take both of these risks into account. Quantification of these risks improves as new information emerges. The study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs continues to yield new information and the recent revisions in the dosimetry are about to be completed. The special circumstances of space travel suggest approaches to limits not unlike those for radiation workers on the ground. One approach is to derive a career limit based on the risks of accident faced by many nonradiation workers in a lifetime. The career limit can be apportioned according to the type of mission. The NCRP is considering this and other approaches to the specification of radiation standards in space.

  5. Physics beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, J.

    2000-01-24

    The author briefly summarizes the prospects for extending the understanding of physics beyond the standard model within the next five years. He interprets ``beyond the standard model'' to mean the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking, including the standard model Higgs boson. The nature of this TeV-scale new physics is perhaps the most crucial question facing high-energy physics, but one should recall (neutrino oscillations) that there is ample evidence for interesting physics in the flavour section too. In the next five years, before the LHC starts operations, the facilities available will be LEP2, HERA and the Fermilab Tevatron. He devotes a bit more time to the Tevatron as it is a new initiative for United Kingdom institutions. The Tevatron schedule now calls for data taking in Run II, using two upgraded detectors, to begin on March 1, 2001, with 2 fb{sup {minus}1} accumulated in the first two years. A nine-month shutdown will follow, to allow new silicon detector layers to be installed, and then running will resume with a goal of accumulating 15 fb{sup {minus}1} (or more) by 2006.

  6. Active Faraday optical frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-11-01

    We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks. PMID:25361349

  7. A standard audit trail format

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, M.

    1995-02-01

    The central role of audit trails, or (more properly) logs, in security monitoring needs little description, for it is too well known for any to doubt it. Auditing, or the analysis of logs, is a central part of security not only in computer system security but also in analyzing financial and other non-technical systems. As part of this process, it is often necessary to reconcile logs from different sources. This speaks of a need for a standard logging format. A standard log format robust enough to meet the needs of heterogeneity, transportability across various network protocols, and flexibility sufficient to meet a variety of needs in very different environments must satisfy two basic properties: extensibility and portability. This report presents the author`s proposed format for a standard log record. In section 3, he shows how and where the translation should be done, and in section 4 he demonstrates how log records from several disparate systems would be put into this format. Section 5 concludes with some observations and suggestions for future work.

  8. NASA standard: Trend analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This Standard presents descriptive and analytical techniques for NASA trend analysis applications. Trend analysis is applicable in all organizational elements of NASA connected with, or supporting, developmental/operational programs. Use of this Standard is not mandatory; however, it should be consulted for any data analysis activity requiring the identification or interpretation of trends. Trend Analysis is neither a precise term nor a circumscribed methodology, but rather connotes, generally, quantitative analysis of time-series data. For NASA activities, the appropriate and applicable techniques include descriptive and graphical statistics, and the fitting or modeling of data by linear, quadratic, and exponential models. Usually, but not always, the data is time-series in nature. Concepts such as autocorrelation and techniques such as Box-Jenkins time-series analysis would only rarely apply and are not included in this Standard. The document presents the basic ideas needed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of trends, together with relevant examples. A list of references provides additional sources of information.

  9. Software Development Standard Processes (SDSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavin, Milton L.; Wang, James J.; Morillo, Ronald; Mayer, John T.; Jamshidian, Barzia; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Wilkinson, Belinda M.; Hihn, Jairus M.; Borgen, Rosana B.; Meyer, Kenneth N.; Crean, Kathleen A.; Rinker, George C.; Smith, Thomas P.; Lum, Karen T.; Hanna, Robert A.; Erickson, Daniel E.; Gamble, Edward B., Jr.; Morgan, Scott C.; Kelsay, Michael G.; Newport, Brian J.; Lewicki, Scott A.; Stipanuk, Jeane G.; Cooper, Tonja M.; Meshkat, Leila

    2011-01-01

    A JPL-created set of standard processes is to be used throughout the lifecycle of software development. These SDSPs cover a range of activities, from management and engineering activities, to assurance and support activities. These processes must be applied to software tasks per a prescribed set of procedures. JPL s Software Quality Improvement Project is currently working at the behest of the JPL Software Process Owner to ensure that all applicable software tasks follow these procedures. The SDSPs are captured as a set of 22 standards in JPL s software process domain. They were developed in-house at JPL by a number of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) residing primarily within the Engineering and Science Directorate, but also from the Business Operations Directorate and Safety and Mission Success Directorate. These practices include not only currently performed best practices, but also JPL-desired future practices in key thrust areas like software architecting and software reuse analysis. Additionally, these SDSPs conform to many standards and requirements to which JPL projects are beholden.

  10. Active Faraday optical frequency standard.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wei; Chen, Jingbiao

    2014-11-01

    We propose the mechanism of an active Faraday optical clock, and experimentally demonstrate an active Faraday optical frequency standard based on narrow bandwidth Faraday atomic filter by the method of velocity-selective optical pumping of cesium vapor. The center frequency of the active Faraday optical frequency standard is determined by the cesium 6 (2)S(1/2) F=4 to 6 (2)P(3/2) F'=4 and 5 crossover transition line. The optical heterodyne beat between two similar independent setups shows that the frequency linewidth reaches 281(23) Hz, which is 1.9×10(4) times smaller than the natural linewidth of the cesium 852-nm transition line. The maximum emitted light power reaches 75 μW. The active Faraday optical frequency standard reported here has advantages of narrow linewidth and reduced cavity pulling, which can readily be extended to other atomic transition lines of alkali and alkaline-earth metal atoms trapped in optical lattices at magic wavelengths, making it useful for new generation of optical atomic clocks.

  11. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical...

  12. Data Standards in Tele-radiology

    PubMed Central

    Fatehi, Mansoor; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Jebraeily, Mohamad; Habibi-koolaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Data standards play an important role to provide interoperability among different system. As other applications of telemedicine, the tele-radiology needs these standards to work properly. In this article, we conducted a review to introduce some data standards about tele-radiology. By searching PUBMED and Google Scholar database, we find more relevant articles about data standards in tele-radiology. Three categories of standards identified, including data interchange, document and terminology standards. Data interchange standards, including those which facilitate the understanding of the format of a massage between systems, such as DICOM and HL7. Document standards, including those which facilitate the contents of a massage, such as DICOM SR and HL7 CDA. And terminology standards, including those which facilitate the understanding of concepts of the domain. Since, the harmonization between different standards are important to meet interoperability, so the more effort is needed to conduct harmonization between tele-radiology standards and other domain. PMID:26236084

  13. Authentication: A Standard Problem or a Problem of Standards?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Reproducibility and transparency in biomedical sciences have been called into question, and scientists have been found wanting as a result. Putting aside deliberate fraud, there is evidence that a major contributor to lack of reproducibility is insufficient quality assurance of reagents used in preclinical research. Cell lines are widely used in biomedical research to understand fundamental biological processes and disease states, yet most researchers do not perform a simple, affordable test to authenticate these key resources. Here, we provide a synopsis of the problems we face and how standards can contribute to an achievable solution. PMID:27300550

  14. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS Diversity and Equity Team completed four major charges: (1) bias reviews of the NGSS, (2) Appendix D on diversity and equity, (3) inclusion of the topic of diversity and equity across Appendices, and (4) seven case studies of diverse student groups. This article starts with an overview of the NGSS Diversity and Equity charges, followed by a description of each of the four charges. This body of work addresses what science educators can and should do to ensure that the NGSS are accessible to all students, hence the title: " All Standards, All Students." In the coming years, the nation's student diversity will continue to grow rapidly while states adopt and implement the NGSS. Therefore, science teaching for non-dominant student groups equates to science teaching for all students.

  15. 32 CFR 78.7 - Standard agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard agreement. 78.7 Section 78.7 National... VOLUNTARY STATE TAX WITHHOLDING FROM RETIRED PAY § 78.7 Standard agreement. Standard Agreement For Voluntary..., hereafter referred to as the “Standard Agreement,” establishes administrative procedures and...

  16. Transition to new global standards on hold.

    PubMed

    St George, J

    1995-01-01

    The nation's major standard-setting body for health care financial transactions has delayed a decision on migrating to new, international standards. An immediate move to EDIFACT standards would have been a setback for efforts to encourage the use of standards-based EDI. PMID:10141422

  17. 7 CFR 29.24 - Official standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official standards. 29.24 Section 29.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.24 Official standards. Standards for tobacco promulgated by...

  18. 7 CFR 29.25 - Tentative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tentative standards. 29.25 Section 29.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.25 Tentative standards. Standards for tobacco prepared by...

  19. Business Education. Vocational Education Program Courses Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This document contains vocational education program courses standards (curriculum frameworks and student performance standards) for business technology education programs in Florida. Each program courses standard is composed of two parts: a curriculum framework and student performance standards. The curriculum framework includes four major…

  20. 40 CFR 63.102 - General standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General standards. 63.102 Section 63....102 General standards. (a) Owners and operators of sources subject to this subpart shall comply...

  1. Minimum Standards for Tribal Child Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Child Care Bureau.

    These minimum standards for tribal child care centers are being issued as guidance. An interim period of at least 1 year will allow tribal agencies to identify implementation issues, ensure that the standards reflect tribal needs, and guarantee that the standards provide adequate protection for children. The standards will be issued as regulations…

  2. EUDISED: Standards, Format, Character Representation, 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Part of a larger effort in creating a computer-based European Documentation and Information System for Education (EUDISED), the present document is the report of the Working Party on formats and standards. It presents draft recommendations on general system standards: transmission standards (interchange format, magnetic tape standards, tape labels…

  3. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.82 Evaluation standards. (a) The Secretary establishes two evaluation standards to evaluate the performance of each DSU that receives funds under this part. The evaluation standards assist the Secretary and each DSU to evaluate a DSU's performance in serving...

  4. 29 CFR 1911.10 - Construction standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction standards. 1911.10 Section 1911.10 Labor... STANDARDS Commencement of Rulemaking § 1911.10 Construction standards. The Assistant Secretary may promulgate, modify, or revoke a standard applicable to employments in construction work, as defined in §...

  5. 40 CFR 61.92 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard. 61.92 Section 61.92... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities § 61.92 Standard. Emissions of radionuclides...

  6. 41 CFR 101-29.202 - Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standard. 101-29.202...-Definitions § 101-29.202 Standard. A standard is a document that establishes engineering and technical.... Standards may also establish requirements for selection, application, and design criteria so as to...

  7. 40 CFR 92.8 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standards. 92.8 Section 92.8... Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.8 Emission standards. (a) Exhaust standards. Exhaust emissions from..., shall comply with both the applicable line-haul duty-cycle standards, and the applicable switch...

  8. 40 CFR 191.03 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 191.03 Section 191.03... ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES Environmental Standards for Management and Storage § 191.03 Standards....

  9. 40 CFR 265.18 - Location standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location standards. 265.18 Section 265...) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES General Facility Standards § 265.18 Location standards. The placement of any hazardous waste in...

  10. 36 CFR 905.735-401 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 905.735-401 Section 905.735-401 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Special Standards Applicable to Certain Board Members § 905.735-401 Standards....

  11. Leveraging Standards to Promote Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michelle D.; Mawhinney, Hanna; Reed, Cynthia J.

    2016-01-01

    Standards provide a foundation for thinking about leadership development and practice. This article explores three sets of standards that impact educational leadership preparation: (a) the recently revised Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards, which are now known as the Practice Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL);…

  12. Standards for Text and Hypermedia Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Martin

    1993-01-01

    Describes international standards for information technology, including an emerging standard for interchangeable multimedia and hypermedia scripts. Highlights include data interchange standards; HyTime (Hypermedia/Time-Based Structuring Language); DSSSL (Document Style Semantics and Specification Language); SPDL (Standard Page Description…

  13. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards. 191.04 Section... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL....04 Alternative standards. (a) The Administrator may issue alternative standards from those...

  14. 40 CFR 191.04 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alternative standards. 191.04 Section... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL....04 Alternative standards. (a) The Administrator may issue alternative standards from those...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1652 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Emission standards. 63.1652 Section 63...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards... Emission standards. (a) New and reconstructed submerged arc furnaces. No owner or operator shall cause...

  16. 47 CFR 95.857 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission standards. 95.857 Section 95.857... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.857 Emission standards. (a) All transmissions by each CTS and by each RTU shall use an emission type that complies with the following standard...

  17. 47 CFR 95.857 - Emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emission standards. 95.857 Section 95.857... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.857 Emission standards. (a) All transmissions by each CTS and by each RTU shall use an emission type that complies with the following standard...

  18. 36 CFR 905.735-401 - Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards. 905.735-401 Section 905.735-401 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Special Standards Applicable to Certain Board Members § 905.735-401 Standards. Section 3(c)(8) of the Pennsylvania Avenue...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Peaches Standard Pack § 51.1217 Standard pack. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the peaches in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Peaches packed in U.S....

  20. 7 CFR 51.1217 - Standard pack.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Peaches Standard Pack § 51.1217 Standard pack. (a) Each package shall be packed so that the peaches in the shown face shall be reasonably representative in size, color and quality of the contents of the package. (b) Peaches packed in U.S. Standard bushel baskets, or half-bushel baskets,...