Science.gov

Sample records for 99mtc-dmsa early images

  1. Imaging the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, Tyler J.

    2000-07-01

    An international team of cosmologists has released the first detailed images of the universe in its infancy. The images reveal the structure that existed when the universe was a tiny fraction of its current age and 1,000 times smaller and hotter than it is today. Research carried out as part of this project is shedding light on some of cosmology's long-standing mysteries, such as the nature of the matter and energy that dominate intergalactic space and whether space is ''curved'' or ''flat.''(c) 2000 Optical Society of America.

  2. Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Fiona M

    2013-08-01

    Imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has undergone extraordinary change in recent years and new techniques are now available to help the clinician diagnose and manage patients much more effectively than previously. While established modalities such as plain radiography (X-Ray) remain important, especially for detection of erosions and determining the progression of joint damage, there are many instances where ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scanning provide added information. MRI and US are now used regularly by clinicians to help diagnose RA in the pre-radiographic stage as they offer improved visualisation of joint erosions. They also have the potential to provide prognostic information as MRI bone oedema/osteitis is linked to the later development of erosions and power Doppler ultrasound (PDUS) joint positivity is also a predictor of joint damage. Nuclear imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are also highly sensitive for detecting joint change in early RA and pre-RA but not yet used clinically mainly because of accessibility and radiation exposure. MRI, US, scintigraphy, SPECT and PET have all been shown to detect sub-clinical joint inflammation in patients in clinical remission, a state that is now the goal of most treat-to-target management strategies. Thus, imaging may be used to direct therapeutic decision making and MRI is also now being used in clinical trials to determine the impact of disease-suppressing therapy on the course of synovitis and osteitis. As is the case for all tests, it would be unwise to rely completely on any one imaging result, as false positives and negatives can occur for all modalities. Thus, the clinician needs to choose the most relevant and reliable imaging test, while also striving to minimise patient discomfort, radiation burden and economic impact.

  3. Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Kenneth K.; Reese, Timothy G.; Nelissen, Koen; Wu, Ona; Chan, Suk-Tak; Benner, Thomas; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Foley, Mary; Vanduffel, Wim; Chesler, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the feasibility of making relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps from MR images acquired with short TR by measuring the initial arrival amount of Gd-DTPA evaluated within a time window before any contrast agent has a chance to leave the tissue. We named this rCBF measurement technique utilizing the early data points of the Gd-DTPA bolus the “early time points” method (ET), based on the hypothesis that early time point signals were proportional to rCBF. Simulation data were used successfully to examine the ideal behavior of ET while monkey’s MRI results offered encouraging support to the utility of ET for rCBF calculation. A better brain coverage for ET could be obtained by applying the Simultaneous Echo Refocusing (SER) EPI technique. A recipe to run ET was presented, with attention paid to the noise problem around the time of arrival (TOA) of the contrast agent. PMID:20851196

  4. Multimodality imaging of early heterotopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Laurin, N R; Powe, J E; Pavlosky, W F; Driedger, A A

    1990-04-01

    An atypical heterotopic bone formation that was difficult to diagnose presented in a young paraplegic patient as an acute deep vein thrombosis. A number of imaging methods, including contrast venography, ultrasonography, conventional radiography, bone scanning, leukocyte scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, were used to arrive eventually at the final diagnosis. Early bone scanning remains a sensitive and effective method of diagnosis. Computed tomography can be useful in difficult cases, but the role of other imaging studies appears limited.

  5. [Brain imaging in early onset anorexia].

    PubMed

    Bargiacchi, A

    2014-05-01

    Structural and functional brain alterations in the structures involved in taste processing, emotions regulation and the reward system have been described in anorexia nervosa. The neurodevelopmental origin of this disorder has been recently discussed. In this article, brain-imaging data in early onset anorexia nervosa will be recalled and the relationship between clinical symptoms, normal brain maturation and brain imaging data in adolescents and adults will be discussed.

  6. MR imaging of early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Narváez, José A; Narváez, Javier; De Lama, Eugenia; De Albert, Matías

    2010-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment have been recognized as essential for improving clinical outcomes in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. However, diagnosis is somewhat difficult in the early stages of the disease because the diagnostic criteria were developed from data obtained in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis and therefore are not readily applicable. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is increasingly being used in the assessment of rheumatoid arthritis due to its capacity to help identify the key pathologic features of this disease entity at presentation. MR imaging has demonstrated greater sensitivity for the detection of synovitis and erosions than either clinical examination or conventional radiography and can help establish an early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. It also allows the detection of bone marrow edema, which is thought to be a precursor for the development of erosions in early rheumatoid arthritis as well as a marker of active inflammation. In addition, MR imaging can help differentiate rheumatoid arthritis from some clinical subsets of peripheral spondyloarthropathies by allowing identification of inflammation at the insertions of ligaments and tendons (enthesitis).

  7. [Image processing of early gastric cancer cases].

    PubMed

    Inamoto, K; Umeda, T; Inamura, K

    1992-11-25

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Gery scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions.

  8. Early and delayed indium 111 leukocyte imaging in Crohn's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Navab, F.; Boyd, C.M.; Diner, W.C.; Subramani, R.; Chan, C.

    1987-10-01

    Twenty-seven patients with Crohn's disease were studied for the presence and location of activity by both early (4 h) and delayed (18-24 h) indium 111 leukocyte imaging. The results were compared with other parameters of disease activity including Crohn's disease activity index, barium studies, and endoscopy. There was a correlation between early images and Crohn's disease activity index (r = 0.78) and between delayed images and index (r = 0.82). Based upon the corresponding Crohn's disease activity index, the sensitivity of early and delayed imaging was 81.0% and 95.2%, respectively. Specificity of early and delayed imaging was 75.0% and 87.0%, respectively. Presence of activity on the early and delayed imaging agreed with activity on barium studies and colonoscopy in approximately 80% of cases. Correlation of location of disease by leukocyte imaging and x-ray was observed in 58.9% of early scans and 55.0% of delayed scans. Correlation of the location of disease by imaging and endoscopy was observed in 71.4% of early and 75.0% of delayed studies. Because of the possibility of occurrence of false-negative results in early images, delayed imaging should always be included in evaluation of disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease who are suspected of having mild activity. Delayed imaging is not required if the early imaging study clearly shows activity.

  9. Imaging early demineralization with PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hobin; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    New methods are needed for the nondestructive measurement of tooth demineralization and remineralization to monitor the progression of incipient caries lesions (tooth decay) for effective nonsurgical intervention and to evaluate the performance of anti-caries treatments such as chemical treatments or laser irradiation. Studies have shown that optical coherence tomography (OCT) has great potential to fulfill this role since it can be used to measure the depth and severity of early lesions with an axial resolution exceeding 10-μm, it is easy to apply in vivo and it can be used to image the convoluted topography of tooth occlusal surfaces. In this paper we attempt to determine the earliest stage at which we can detect significant differences in lesion severity. Automated methods of analysis were used to measure the depth and severity of demineralized bovine enamel produced using a simulated caries model that emulates demineralization in the mouth. Significant differences in the depth and integrated reflectivity from the lesions were detected after only a few hours of demineralization. These results demonstrate that cross polarization OCT is ideally suited for the nondestructive assessment of early demineralization.

  10. Gallium-67 imaging and computed tomography in early retroperitoneal fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowich, S.; Tumeh, S.S.

    1988-11-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is characterized by symptoms associated with gradual compression of retroperitoneal structures. This case report demonstrates the use of Ga-67 imaging and CT in the early diagnostic work-up of this disorder.

  11. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  12. Nuclear imaging and early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Laura; Cervino, Anna Rita

    2014-01-01

    The present report discusses about the most important roles of nuclear medicine related to the early detection of breast cancer. We summarily describe the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications and clinical impact for planar and tomographic breast scintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission mammography (PEM).

  13. Digital Imaging of Ice Cores: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, G.; McGwire, K.; Taylor, K.; Alley, R. B.; Dupont, T. K.; Reusch, D. B.

    2005-12-01

    Ice core science addresses fundamental questions of human interest related to global warming, abrupt climate change, biogeochemical cycling and more, and directly informs policymakers. The National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) in Denver, Colorado, is currently developing a high-resolution optical scanning system for laboratory curation in order to expand the accessibility of ice core data sets through creation of a digital archive of ice core images. Additional goals of this project include development of internet-based search and retrieval capabilities from this digital archive; development of a digital image analysis system specifically for ice core studies; integration of digital optical data with other dating methods and testing of the image processing tools in scientific investigations. By providing permanent online digital archives of core quality, it will allow improved selection of samples, and documentation of possible core-quality artifacts for all U.S. ice core scientists. This project will allow any researcher to examine the core in similar detail to the few investigators who were fortunate enough to observe it before modifications from sampling and storage. This re-examination can be done decades later by anyone at any location, which is not possible now because only the interpretation of the original observer is recorded. Integration of this digital optical examination into ice core analysis will speed discovery, allow collaborative interpretation, and enhance consistency of analysis to improve ice core dating, identification of melt layers, location of flow disturbances, and more. Here we report on the current status of, and latest results from, these development efforts, including examples of images from the GISP2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two) ice core. Preliminary work on this core shows that the imaging system successfully and accurately captures numerous features readily recognized by (trained) human observers, such as layering from changes in

  14. Imaging of Early-type(Sa-Sab) Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, S.; Devereux, N.

    1997-12-01

    imaging of Early-type (Sa-Sab) Spirals A recent analysis of the IRAS database indicates that the massive star formation rates in early-type(Sa-Sab) spirals are comparable to the massive star formation rates in late-type spirals. We are conducting an Hα imaging survey of a complete sample of nearby (D <= 40Mpc), bright (m(B) <= 12.1), early-type spirals to confirm the results obtained by IRAS. Our preliminary results indicate that a majority of these galaxies show either signs of interaction, and/or host nuclear starbursts. The occurence of nuclear starbursts in early-type spirals may be related to the propensity for such galaxies to also host Seyfert nuclei. The evidence for interactions suggests that early-type spirals are evolving in the current epoch.

  15. Fluorescence imaging of early lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Ikeda, Norihiko; Palcic, Branko

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a fluorescence imaging device was compared with conventional white-light bronchoscopy in 100 patients with lung cancer, 46 patients with resected State I nonsmall cell lung cancer, 10 patients with head and neck cancer, and 67 volunteers who had smoked at least one pack of cigarettes per day for twenty-five years or more. Using differences in tissue autofluorescence between premalignant, malignant and normal tissues, fluorescence bronchoscopy was found to detect more than twice as many moderate-severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ sites than conventional white-light bronchoscopy. The use of fluorescence imaging to detect small peripheral lung nodules was investigated in a micro metastatic lung model of mice implanted with Lewis lung tumor cells. Fluorescence imaging was found to be able to detect small malignant lung lesions. The use of (delta) -aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to enhance fluorescence detection of CIS was investigated in a patient after oral administration of 60 mg/kg of ALA four hours prior to bronchoscopy, although ALA enhanced the tumor's visibility, multiple sites of false positive fluorescence were observed in areas of inflammation or metaplasia.

  16. Early Voyager 1 Images of Jupiter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    These Jupiter photographs are part of a set taken by NASA Voyager 1 on December 10 and 11, 1978 from a distance of 83 million km 52 million miles or more than half the distance from the Earth to the sun. At this range, Voyager 1 is able to record more detail on the giant planet than the very best ground-based telescopes. The highest resolution ever obtained on the Jovian disk was recorded by Pioneer 11 four years ago. Voyager, however, has longer focal-length optics than Pioneer, and while nearly three months from encounter (~ March 1979) was able to achieve higher resolution than that obtained by Pioneer only 24 hours from its encounter on 3 December 1974. Jupiter's colorful and turbulent atmosphere is evident in these photographs. The entire visible surface of the planet is made up of multiple layers of clouds, composed primarily of ammonia ice crystals colored by small amounts of materials of unknown composition. The Great Red Spot, seen to the lower left of 2 and lower right of 3, is now recovering from a period of relative inconspicuousness. An atmospheric system larger than the Earth and more than 100 years old, the Great Red Spot remains a mystery and a challenge to Voyager instruments. A bright convective cloud (center of and right of center in 4) displays a plume which has been swept westward (to the left) by local currents in the planet's equatorial wind system. Below and to the left and right of the Great Red Spot are a pair of white oval clouds; a third can be seen in 1. All three were formed almost 40 years ago and are the second oldest class of discrete features identified in the Jovian atmosphere. Each of the pictures was produced from blue, green, and orange originals in JPL's Image Processing Laboratory. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00454

  17. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    head injuries sustained in battle have been associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Pathological series have...Keywords:Traumatic Brain Injury, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy ,PET imaging, Tau Overall Project Summary:Preparation for enrollment...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0486 TITLE: Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic

  18. Novel endoscopic imaging system for early cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Makoto; Gono, Kazuhiro

    2007-02-01

    We have developed the novel video endoscope imaging techniques; Narrow band imaging (NBI), Auto-Fluorescence Imaging (AFI), Infra-Red Imaging (IRI) and Endo-Cytoscopy System (ECS). The purpose of these imaging techniques is to emphasize the important tissue features associated with early stage of lesions. We have already launched the new medical endoscope system including NBI, AFI and IRI (EVIS LUCERA SPECTRUM, OLYMPUS MEDICAL SYSTEMS Co., Ltd., Fig.1). Moreover ECS, which has enough magnification to observe cell nuclei on a superficial mucosa under methylene blue dye staining, is the endoscopic instrument with ultra-high optical zoom. In this paper we demonstrate the concepts and the medical efficacy of each technology.

  19. Imaging the Hot Stellar Content of Early Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertola, Francesco

    1991-07-01

    WE PROPOSE TO IMAGE WITH THE FOC IN THE F/96 CONFIGURATION FIVE EARLY TYPE GALAXIES IN FOUR PASSBANDS CENTERED AT 1500 A, 2200 A, 2800 A AND 3400 A. WHEN COUPLED WITH PHOTOMETRY OBTAINED FROM THE GROUND OUR OBSERVATIONS WILL ALLOW US TO DERIVE COMPLETE SED OF THESE GALAXIES AS A FUNCTION OF THE DISTANCE FROM THE CENTER. THIS IS A KEY STEP TOWARDS THE UNDERSTANDING OF STELLAR POPULATIONS - IN PARTICULAR THE ONE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UV EMISSION - IN EARLY TYPE GALAXIES AND WILL PROVIDE IMPORTANT INSIGHT IN THEIR FORMATION AND EVOLUTION. WE PLAN TO OBSERVE NGC 1399, NGC 2681, NGC 4552, NGC 5018 AND NGC 4627 WHICH SAMPLE A WIDE RANGE OF INTRINSIC PROPERTIES AS INDICATED BY PREVIOUS IUE OBSERVATIONS. FOR NGC 4627 THERE IS EVIDENCE OF ONGOING STAR FORMATION AND THE HST WILL BE ABLE TO SHOW THE CHARACTERISTIC CLUMPINESS. NGC 2681 HAD A STARBUST OF AGE GREATER THAN 1 GYR. NGC 4552 IS ONE OF THE MOST METAL RICH GALAXY KNOWN. NGC 1399 HAS THE SAME METALLICITY AND LUMINOSITY OF THE PREVIOUS GALAXY BUT IS A MUCH STRONGER X-RAY EMITTER. NGC 5018 IS A VERY GOOD CANDIDATE FOR ONGOING STAR FORMATION. WE BELIEVE IN THIS WAY WE CAN OBTAIN SED FOR THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES FROM BROAD BAND IMAGING ALONE. THE CALIBRATION OF OUR FILTER SYSTEM WILL ALLOW US TO APPLY IT TO THE BIDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL SAMPLE OF EARLY TYPE GALAXIES.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging markers for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease☆

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Silvia; Ciurleo, Rosella; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Barresi, Marina; De Salvo, Simona; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Bramanti, Alessia; Lanzafame, Pietro; Bramanti, Placido

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective and progressive degeneration, as well as loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In PD, approximately 60-70% of nigrostriatal neurons are degenerated and 80% of content of the striatal dopamine is reduced before the diagnosis can be established according to widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. This condition describes a stage of disease called “prodromal”, where non-motor symptoms, such as olfactory dysfunction, constipation, rapid eye movement behaviour disorder, depression, precede motor sign of PD. Detection of prodromal phase of PD is becoming an important goal for determining the prognosis and choosing a suitable treatment strategy. In this review, we present some non-invasive instrumental approaches that could be useful to identify patients in the prodromal phase of PD or in an early clinical phase, when the first motor symptoms begin to be apparent. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and advanced MRI techniques, such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging, diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI, are useful to differentiate early PD with initial motor symptoms from atypical parkinsonian disorders, thus, making easier early diagnosis. Functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging techniques can show abnormalities in the olfactory system in prodromal PD. PMID:25745453

  1. Digital image processing for the early localization of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelmar, Cheryl M.

    1991-06-01

    The prognosis for cancer patients becomes much better if a tumor is diagnosed, localized and treated early, in a precancerous stage. The difficulty lies in the localization of cancerous tumors. Carcinoma in situ (CIS) refers to a tumor which is approximately 100 microns thick and one which has not penetrated through the epithelium wall or become invasive (2). A tumor of this size cannot be detected by existing techniques such as x-ray, computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine or conventional endoscopy under white-light illumination. However, these tumors can be localized and destroyed by photodynamic diagnosis and therapy. This research shows that digital image processing and the technique of digital image ratioing contribute to photodynamic diagnosis and the early localization of cancer. A software package has been developed as a result of this research. The software package quantifies the usefulness of digital image processing for tumor localization and detectability. System parameters such as the endoscope distance and angle variations, tumor size and tumor concentration, sensitivity and specificity of the system have been tested and quantified.

  2. Multispectral fundus imaging for early detection of diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, James M.; Tiedeman, James S.; Hopkins, Mark F.; Sabharwal, Yashvinder S.

    1999-04-01

    Functional imaging of the retina and associated structures may provide information for early assessment of risks of developing retinopathy in diabetic patients. Here we show results of retinal oximetry performed using multi-spectral reflectance imaging techniques to assess hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen saturation (OS) in blood vessels of the inner retina and oxygen utilization at the optic nerve in diabetic patients without retinopathy and early disease during experimental hyperglycemia. Retinal images were obtained through a fundus camera and simultaneously recorded at up to four wavelengths using image-splitting modules coupled to a digital camera. Changes in OS in large retinal vessels, in average OS in disk tissue, and in the reduced state of cytochrome oxidase (CO) at the disk were determined from changes in reflectance associated with the oxidation/reduction states of Hb and CO. Step to high sugar lowered venous oxygen saturation to a degree dependent on disease duration. Moderate increase in sugar produced higher levels of reduced CO in both the disk and surrounding tissue without a detectable change in average tissue OS. Results suggest that regulation of retinal blood supply and oxygen consumption are altered by hyperglycemia and that such functional changes are present before clinical signs of retinopathy.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging for understanding brain development in early life.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Anqi; Mori, Susumu; Miller, Michael I

    2015-01-03

    The human brain rapidly develops during the final weeks of gestation and in the first two years following birth. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique in vivo imaging technique that allows three-dimensional visualization of the white matter anatomy in the brain. It has been considered to be a valuable tool for studying brain development in early life. In this review, we first introduce the DTI technique. We then review DTI findings on white matter development at the fetal stage and in infancy as well as DTI applications for understanding neurocognitive development and brain abnormalities in preterm infants. Finally, we discuss limitations of DTI and potential valuable imaging techniques for studying white matter myelination.

  4. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    resolution required to detect ovarian cancer in an early curable stage, specific imaging probes are not currently available and are urgently needed...resolution required to detect ovarian cancer in an early, curable stage, specific imaging probes are not currently available and are urgently needed...10-1-0422 TITLE: Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early PRINCIPAL

  5. Three-dimensional thermoacoustic imaging for early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhong; Lou, Cunguang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-11-01

    Microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography (TAT) is a noninvasive modality based on the differences in microwave absorption of various biological tissues. In this paper, the feasibility of the early breast tumor detection by TAT system has been discussed and validated experimentally. A fast TAT system, which based on three 128-elements transducers, a 384-64ch switch and a parallel data acquisition system (DAS), was developed to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) image of a breast model with similar microwave absorption coefficient to breast tissue. A novel method to explore the ability of TAT system to distinguish absorption coefficient was introduced and the minimum absorption coefficient difference that can be distinguished clearly by our TAT system is 12 m(-1). The potential applications of the TAT system were clearly demonstrated by successfully mapping breast model with mimicked tumors and microcalcification. An imaging experiment of human breast tumor embedding in the breast model was performed and the tumor was visualized by the 3D thermoacoustic volume. The thermoacoustic images match well with the samples and achieve penetration depth of 6 cm. The experimental results indicate that TAT has a great potential to be used for detecting early-stage breast cancers with high contrast and high resolution.

  6. Quantitative optical imaging for the detection of early cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao

    The objectives of this thesis are to provide insight of fundamental mechanisms of acetowhitening effect, upon which the colposcopic diagnosis of human cervical cancer is based and to develop novel quantitative optical imaging technologies supplementing colposcopy to improve its performance in detecting early cancer. Firstly, the temporal characteristics of acetowhitening process are studied on monolayer cell cultures. It is found that the dynamic acetowhitening processes in normal and cancerous cells are significantly different. Secondly, the changes in light scattering induced by acetic acid in intact cells and isolated cellular fractions are investigated by using confocal microscopy and light scattering spectroscopy. The results provide evidence that the small-sized components in the cytoplasm are the major contributors to the acetowhitening effect. Thirdly, a unified Mie and fractal model is proposed to interpret light scattering by biological cells. It is found that light scattering in forward directions is dominated by Mie scattering by bare cells and nuclei, whereas light scattering at large angles is determined by fractal scattering by subcellular structures. Fourthly, an optical imaging system based on active stereo vision and motion tracking is built to measure the 3-D surface topology of cervix and track the motion of patient. The information of motion tracking is used to register the time-sequenced images of cervix recorded during colposcopic examination. The imaging system is evaluated by tracking the movements of cervix models. The results demonstrate that the imaging technique holds the promise to enable the quantitative mapping of the acetowhitening kinetics over cervical surface for more accurate diagnosis of cervical cancer. At last, a calibrated autofluorescence imaging system is instrumented for detecting neoplasia in vivo. It is found that the calibrated autofluorescence signals from neoplasia are generally lower than signals from normal

  7. Early magnetic resonance imaging control after temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis

    PubMed Central

    Ângelo, David Faustino; Sousa, Rita; Pinto, Isabel; Sanz, David; Gil, F. Monje; Salvado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lysis and lavage arthrocentesis with viscosupplementation are an effective treatment for acute disc displacement (DD) without reduction. Clinical success seems to be related to multiple factors despite the lack of understanding of its mechanisms. The authors present a case report of 17-year-old women with acute open mouth limitation (12 mm), right TMJ pain-8/10 visual analog scale, right deviation when opening her mouth. The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis was acute DD without reduction of right TMJ. Right TMJ arthrocentesis was purposed to the patient with lysis, lavage, and viscosupplementation of the upper joint space. After 5 days, a new MRI was performed to confirm upper joint space distension and disc position. Clinical improvement was obtained 5 days and 1 month after arthrocentesis. Upper joint space increased 6 mm and the disc remained displaced. We report the first early TMJ MRI image postoperative, with measurable upper joint space. PMID:26981483

  8. Early magnetic resonance imaging control after temporomandibular joint arthrocentesis.

    PubMed

    Ângelo, David Faustino; Sousa, Rita; Pinto, Isabel; Sanz, David; Gil, F Monje; Salvado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) lysis and lavage arthrocentesis with viscosupplementation are an effective treatment for acute disc displacement (DD) without reduction. Clinical success seems to be related to multiple factors despite the lack of understanding of its mechanisms. The authors present a case report of 17-year-old women with acute open mouth limitation (12 mm), right TMJ pain-8/10 visual analog scale, right deviation when opening her mouth. The clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnosis was acute DD without reduction of right TMJ. Right TMJ arthrocentesis was purposed to the patient with lysis, lavage, and viscosupplementation of the upper joint space. After 5 days, a new MRI was performed to confirm upper joint space distension and disc position. Clinical improvement was obtained 5 days and 1 month after arthrocentesis. Upper joint space increased 6 mm and the disc remained displaced. We report the first early TMJ MRI image postoperative, with measurable upper joint space.

  9. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging: a novel early caries detection and imaging modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2011-03-01

    Using photothermal wave principles and as an extension to the frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. In order to assess the capabilities of the proposed methodology samples with natural and artificially-generated caries were examined and the results were compared with the destructive transverse microradiography density profiles. It was found that the increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stain. Amplitude images provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It was concluded that the results of our non-invasive, non-contacting imaging methodology exhibit significantly higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles.

  10. Detection of early plant stress responses in hyperspectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmann, Jan; Steinrücken, Jörg; Plümer, Lutz

    2014-07-01

    Early stress detection in crop plants is highly relevant, but hard to achieve. We hypothesize that close range hyperspectral imaging is able to uncover stress related processes non-destructively in the early stages which are invisible to the human eye. We propose an approach which combines unsupervised and supervised methods in order to identify several stages of progressive stress development from series of hyperspectral images. Stress of an entire plant is detected by stress response levels at pixel scale. The focus is on drought stress in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Unsupervised learning is used to separate hyperspectral signatures into clusters related to different stages of stress response and progressive senescence. Whereas all such signatures may be found in both, well watered and drought stressed plants, their respective distributions differ. Ordinal classification with Support Vector Machines (SVM) is used to quantify and visualize the distribution of progressive stages of senescence and to separate well watered from drought stressed plants. For each senescence stage a distinctive set of most relevant Vegetation Indices (VIs) is identified. The method has been applied on two experiments involving potted barley plants under well watered and drought stress conditions in a greenhouse. Drought stress is detected up to ten days earlier than using NDVI. Furthermore, it is shown that some VIs have overall relevance, while others are specific to particular senescence stages. The transferability of the method to the field is illustrated by an experiment on maize (Zea mays).

  11. Value or waste: Perfusion imaging following radiofrequency ablation - early experience.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Stefan F; Vahldiek, Janis L; Tummler, Katja; Poch, Franz; Gemeinhardt, Ole; Hiebl, Bernhard; Lehmann, Kai S; Hamm, B; Niehues, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an evolving technique in treatment of hepatic malignant tumors. By heating local tissue it leads to coagulative necrotic areas around the ablation probe. Temperature falls with increasing distance to the probe, risking incomplete necrosis at the margins of the RFA-induced lesion. Therefore, immediate non-invasive and precise detection of incomplete ablation is necessary for early enlargement of the ablation if needed. This in vivo pig study compares early experiences of immediate post-interventional computed tomography (CT) perfusion volume analysis to macroscopic and CT image evaluation in healthy pig liver. RFA was performed in vivo in healthy pig livers. Different CT perfusion algorithms (Maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to quantify three different perfusion parameters. Data points were acquired from rectangular grids. These grids were semiautomatically overlayed to macroscopic images documented after liver explantation. Each data point was visually assigned to zones defined as "inner" and "outer necrotic zone", "margin" or "vital tissue". Significant differences between necrotic zones and vital tissue are shown for equivalent blood volume (p <  0.0001), arterial flow (p <  0.01) and flow extraction product (p <  0.001). Looking at equivalent blood volume and flow extraction product, there were also significant differences (EquivBV: p <  0.0001, FE: p <  0.001) between margins, necrotic and vital areas. In a porcine model these early results could show that all of the used CT perfusion parameters allowed discrimination of necrosis from vital tissue after RFA at high levels of significance. In addition, the parameters EquivBV and FE that give an estimate of the tissue blood volume and the permeability, were able to precisely discern different zones also seen macroscopically. From this data CT perfusion analysis could be precise tool for measurement and visualization of ablated liver lesions and

  12. Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Early Neurological Deterioration in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Minor Stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dezhi; Sun, Wen; Scalzo, Fabien; Xiong, Yunyun; Zhang, Xiaohao; Qiu, Zhongming; Zhu, Wusheng; Ma, Minmin; Liu, Wenhua; Xu, Gelin; Lu, Guangming; Liebeskind, David S; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-02-01

    Early neurological deterioration (END) is an important factor associated with worse clinical outcome in minor strokes. Early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings can provide better sensitivity to delineate stroke pathophysiology and have diagnostic value associated with causative mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between early MRI finding and the presence of END in minor stroke patients with lesions in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Consecutive MCA minor stroke patients who were admitted to our center within 24 hours of symptom onset were included in this study. All patients underwent MRI within 24 hours of admission. We analyzed baseline characteristics, infarction patterns, and treatment algorithms. The correlation between early MRI findings and END, defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score increasing more than 2 points during 72 hours after admission, was also determined. Across 211 patients meeting entry criteria between January 2010 and December 2013, internal border-zone (IBZ) infarcts on early MRI scan were observed in 23 of 65 patients with END (35.4%) and in 18 of 146 patients without END (12.3%, P < .001). Patients with IBZ infarcts were found to have more hyperlipidemia, less perforating artery infarcts, more pial artery infarcts, more cortical border-zone infarcts and more ipsilateral large arterial stenosis. Logistic regression analysis revealed that IBZ infarct was independently associated with END after adjustment for other factors (odds ratio, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.74; P = .031). Early MRI patterns of IBZ infarction are associated with END in minor stroke patients with acute infarcts of the MCA territory. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantum dots hold promise for early cancer imaging and detection.

    PubMed

    Pericleous, Pericles; Gazouli, Maria; Lyberopoulou, Anna; Rizos, Spyros; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2012-08-01

    Despite all major breakthroughs in recent years of research concerning the complex events that lead to cancer expression and metastasis, we are not yet able to effectively treat cancer that has spread to vital organs. The various clinical phases originating from cancer diagnosis through treatment and prognosis require a comprehensive understanding of these events, to utilise pre-symptomatic, minimally invasive and targeted cancer management techniques. Current imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and gamma scintigraphy facilitate the pre-operative study of tumours, but they have been rendered unable to visualise cancer in early stages, due to their intrinsic limitations. The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular (in vitro) and in vivo molecular imaging. However, the same unique physical and chemical properties which renowned QDs attractive may be associated with their potentially catastrophic effects on living cells and tissues. There are critical issues that need to be further examined to properly assess the risks associated with the manufacturing and use of QDs in cancer management. In this review, we aim to describe the current utilisation of QDs as well as their future prospective to decipher and confront cancer.

  14. Detectability of early brain meningitis with magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early brain meningitis was evaluated in a canine model. Contrast dose, timing postinjection, and imaging technique (specifically the use of magnetization transfer) were assessed. Imaging of five canines was performed at 1.5 T 24 hours after injection of Cowans staphylococcus into the cisterna magna. Two control animals also were imaged using the same protocol. Contrast doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.8 mmol/kg gadoteridol were compared. Scans were performed at 2, 13, and 22 minutes after an initial injection of 0.1 mmol/kg. Thirty minutes after the initial injection of contrast, a supplemental dose of 0.2 mmol/kg was given. Scans were then repeated at 2, 12, and 22 minutes after this dose was administered. A second supplemental contrast injection of 0.5 mmol/kg was given at 70 minutes, and immediate postinjection scans with and without MT were acquired. Results. In the animals receiving a cisternal injection of bacteria, the degree of meningeal enhancement was greatest at 0.8 mmol/kg, intermediate at 0.3 mmol/kg, and least at 0.1 mmol/kg. Scans in control studies did not demonstrate abnormal meningeal enhancement. High-contrast dose, MT, and acquisition of immediate postcontrast scans all resulted in statistically significant improvement. On masked film review, abnormal meningeal enhancement was noted in only 2 of 5 experimental dogs at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (regardless of the use of MT) compared with all animals at a dose of 0.3 mmol/kg. In 18 of 37 dogs (paired scans with and without MT), when abnormal enhancement was noted, the use of MT improved the visualization of abnormal meningeal enhancement. In early brain meningitis, high-contrast dose (0.3 mmol/kg), MT, and scanning immediately after injection improve detection of abnormal meningeal enhancement, thus facilitating the diagnosis of meningitis. Of these factors, contrast dose is the most important. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  16. Rescripting Early Memories Linked to Negative Images in Social Phobia: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Jennifer; Hackmann, Ann; Clark, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Negative self-images are a maintaining factor in social phobia. A retrospective study (Hackmann, A., Clark, D.M., McManus, F. (2000). Recurrent images and early memories in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 601-610) suggested that the images may be linked to early memories of unpleasant social experiences. This preliminary study…

  17. CRAFT: Multimodality confocal skin imaging for early cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Tong; Xie, Hao; Ding, Yichen; Wang, Weichao; Li, Zhiming; Jin, Dayong; Tang, Yuanhe; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng

    2012-05-01

    Although histological analysis serves as a gold standard to cancer diagnosis, its application on skin cancer detection is largely prohibited due to its invasive nature. To obtain both the structural and pathological information in situ, a Confocal Reflectance/Auto-Fluorescence Tomography (CRAFT) system was established to examine the skin sites in vivo with both reflectance and autofluorescence modes simultaneously. Nude mice skin with cancerous sites and normal skin sites were imaged and compared with the system. The cellular density and reflective intensity in cancerous sites reflects the structural change of the tissue. With the decay coefficient analysis, the corresponding NAD(P)H decay index for cancerous sites is 1.65-fold that of normal sites, leading to a 97.8% of sensitivity and specificity for early cancer diagnosis. The results are verified by the followed histological analysis. Therefore, CRAFT may provide a novel method for the in vivo, non-invasive diagnosis of early cancer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. DELM image processing for skin-melanoma early diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A.; Crivellini, M.; Codagnone, G.; Dacquino, G. F.; Libertini, M.; Morresi, A.

    1997-10-01

    Among the various skin diseases skin tumors are the most serious ones and skin Melanoma is particularly dangerous. Its malignant evolution lasts about 5 or 6 years and ends with the death of the patient. Early diagnosis is a powerful means of preventing this evolution allowing sudden intervention, which increases probability or recover and survival. Aim of the paper is to present the result of an active support system for early diagnosis of melanoma and related skin diseases. The system is based upon a digital acquisition camera with a dedicated illumination system digitally controlled in order to achieve best performance in color and feature discrimination reaching best signal to noise ratio especially in blue band. A polarization framework allows for reflected ray rejection maximization. A new classification approach is presented. It allows for a quantification of morphological patterns and standard parameters in order to implement a computer aided dermatological system. The image information extraction is based on minimal descriptor set of parameters in order to classify chromatic texture and morphological features. The results obtained allow for determination of standard reference grids for pathological cases and reliable and objective classification procedure. We adopt, as reference, the approach used by Stanganelli and Kenet. Through a bioengineering analysis we can organize reference grids that offer the possibility to extract the maximum information content from dermatological data. The classification takes into account the spread and intrinsic descriptors and correspond to the best operative description. Therefore these grids are the more suitable tools for applications which requires active support system for diagnosis. In fact it is possible to obtain quantitative evaluations too. We propose a method based on geometrical synthetical descriptors. All that permits a reliable early diagnosis of melanotic disease and to follow its evolution in time. The

  19. On the detection of early osteoarthritis by quantitative microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel John

    measurements. These studies demonstrate the ability to use two quantitative microscopic imaging techniques, microCT and microMRI, to detect microscopic changes in collagen and GAG from healthy, biochemically degraded, and early OA cartilage. The capability for microscopic imaging to detect alterations at the earliest stages of OA will ultimately improve the understanding of degradation and may help aid in the detection for the prevention of disease and repair of damaged cartilage.

  20. Role of Advanced Laryngeal Imaging in Glottic Cancer: Early Detection and Evaluation of Glottic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Tan, Melin

    2015-08-01

    Laryngeal cancer accounts for approximately 2.4% of new malignancies worldwide each year. Early identification of laryngeal neoplasms results in improved prognosis and functional outcomes. Imaging plays an integral role in the diagnosis, staging, and long-term follow-up of laryngeal cancer. This article highlights advanced laryngeal imaging techniques and their application to early glottic neoplasms.

  1. Multimodal Imaging Assisting the Early Diagnosis of Cat-Scratch Neuroretinitis.

    PubMed

    Freitas-Neto, Clovis Arcoverde; Oréfice, Fernando; Costa, Rogerio A; Oréfice, Juliana L; Dhanireddy, Swetha; Maghsoudlou, Armin; Foster, C Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To describe how a multifocal fundus imaging system assisted the early diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis in a case of a 27-year-old male with unilateral visual loss, neuroretinitis, and a peripapillary angiomatous lesion. Multimodal fundus imaging analysis was an essential contributor to the clinical diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis during the early stage of the disease.

  2. Light-induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Haishan; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Palcic, Branko

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes our experiences on the development of a Light Induced Fluorescence Endoscopy (LIFE) imaging system for early cancer detection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. The system utilizes tissue autofluorescence to provide real time video imaging of the examined organ. No exogenous fluorescent tumor markers are needed. It is used by a physician in adjunct to conventional white-light endoscopy. Suspicious areas are identified in pseudo color to guide biopsy. A multi- center clinical trial has demonstrated that in the lung, the relative sensitivity of white-light imaging + LIFE imaging vs. white-light imaging alone was 6.3 for intraepithelial neoplastic lesion detection and 2.71 when invasive carcinomas were also included. The following issues will be discussed: (1) spectroscopy study design for imaging system development; (2) architecture of the imaging systems; (3) different imaging modalities (white-light imaging, dual channel fluorescence imaging, and combined fluorescence/reflectance imaging); and (4) clinical applications.

  3. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oncology: Translational Preclinical and Early Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Valluru, Keerthi S.; Wilson, Katheryne E.

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has evolved into a clinically translatable platform with the potential to complement existing imaging techniques for the management of cancer, including detection, characterization, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. In photoacoustic imaging, tissue is optically excited to produce ultrasonographic images that represent a spatial map of optical absorption of endogenous constituents such as hemoglobin, fat, melanin, and water or exogenous contrast agents such as dyes and nanoparticles. It can therefore provide functional and molecular information that allows noninvasive soft-tissue characterization. Photoacoustic imaging has matured over the years and is currently being translated into the clinic with various clinical studies underway. In this review, the current state of photoacoustic imaging is presented, including techniques and instrumentation, followed by a discussion of potential clinical applications of this technique for the detection and management of cancer. © RSNA, 2016 PMID:27429141

  4. Tomosynthesis Breast Imaging: Early Detection and Characterization of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    developed phantoms and to quantitate tomosynthesis image quality parameters by using image post processing. Moreover we have further improved the...contrast lesion detection characteristics of our digital mammography system capable of tomosynthesis and did a comparison with a - conventional film/screen technique.

  5. Early detection of ovarian cancer by serum marker and targeted ultrasound imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ABSTRACT We propose to test the validity and specificity of our targeted ultrasound imaging probes in detecting early stage ovarian cancer (OVCA) by transvaginal ultrasound imaging (TVUS). We then test the predictive validity of these probes in a longitudinal study using the laying hen ? the only widely available animal model of spontaneous OVCA. OVCA is a fatal gynecological malignancy of women. An effective early detection test could reduce high mortality rate due to OVCA and morbidity associated with exploratory surgeries significantly. |

  6. Photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging application in cancer early detection and treatment monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Da; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2007-11-01

    Laser-based photoacoustic imaging and microwave-based thermoacoustic imaging, combining the advantages of both the high image contrast that results from electromagnetic absorption and the high resolution of ultrasound imaging, could be the next successful generation imaging techniques in biomedical application. It can provide an effective approach of tissue structure and functional images to study the architectures, physiological and pathological properties and metabolisms of biological tissues. This paper is focused on photoacoustic and thermoacoustic imaging application in cancer early detection and treatment monitoring. A unique photoacoustic imaging system was used to detect tumors neovascularization associated with angiogenesis in a rat animal model. We also developed the imaging system to monitor the vascular damage during photodynamic therapy treatment. This method could be potentially used to guide PDT and other phototherapies using vascular changes during treatment to optimize treatment protocols, by choosing appropriate types and doses of photosensitizers, and doses of light. Potentially development of photoacoustic imaging and thermoacoustic imaging to employing in functional and molecular imaging also has been discussed. Especially, these imaging modalities can be further developed by using the contrast agents which modified with tumor-targeting antibodies to realize cancer early detection and cancer target treatment monitoring.

  7. Calculus students' early concept images of tangent lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Brittany; LaRue, Renee; Sealey, Vicki; Engelke, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    This study explored first-semester calculus students' understanding of tangent lines as well as how students used tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. Task-based interviews were conducted with twelve first-semester calculus students who were asked to verbally describe a tangent line, sketch tangent lines for multiple curves, and use tangent lines within the context of Newton's method. We examined students' graphical illustrations and the language they used to describe tangent lines and identified six prominent categories that described students' concept images of tangent lines. Our data show that individual students often possessed multiple concept images of tangent lines, and often these multiple concept images were conflicting. Furthermore, students were usually willing to modify their concept images of tangent lines depending on the task presented to the students.

  8. Imaging of Venus from Galileo: Early results and camera performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belton, M.J.S.; Gierasch, P.; Klaasen, K.P.; Anger, C.D.; Carr, M.H.; Chapman, C.R.; Davies, M.E.; Greeley, R.; Greenberg, R.; Head, J.W.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Veverka, J.; Fanale, F.P.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Pollock, J.B.; Morrison, D.; Clary, M.C.; Cunningham, W.; Breneman, H.

    1992-01-01

    Three images of Venus have been returned so far by the Galileo spacecraft following an encounter with the planet on UT February 10, 1990. The images, taken at effective wavelengths of 4200 and 9900 A??, characterize the global motions and distribution of haze near the Venus cloud tops and, at the latter wavelength, deep within the main cloud. Previously undetected markings are clearly seen in the near-infrared image. The global distribution of these features, which have maximum contrasts of 3%, is different from that recorded at short wavelengths. In particular, the "polar collar," which is omnipresent in short wavelength images, is absent at 9900 A??. The maximum contrast in the features at 4200 A?? is about 20%. The optical performance of the camera is described and is judged to be nominal. ?? 1992.

  9. Early-phase myocardial infarction: Evaluation by MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tscholakoff, D.; Higgins, C.B.; McNamara, M.T.; Derugin, N.

    1986-06-01

    In vivo gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 12 dogs immediately after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and serially up to 5 hours and again between 4 and 14 days. This was done to evaluate the appearance of acute myocardial infarcts and to determine how soon after coronary artery occlusion MR imaging can demonstrate the site of acute myocardial ischemia. In nine dogs with postmortem evidence of myocardial infarction, regional increase of signal intensity of the myocardium was present by 3 hours after coronary occlusion and conformed to the site of myocardial infarct found at autopsy. The signal intensity on T2-weighted images of the infarcted on T2-weighted images of the infarcted myocardium was significantly greater than that of normal myocardium at 3, 4, and 5 hours after occlusion. The T2 (spin-spin) relaxation time was significantly prolonged in the region of myocardial infarct at 3, 4, and 5 hours post-occlusion compared with normal myocardium. Myocardial wall thinning and increased intracavitary flow signal were found in six dogs with comparable pre- and postocclusion images in late systole.

  10. A biopsychosocial model of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

    2014-05-01

    Body image and eating concerns are prevalent among early adolescent girls, and associated with biological, psychological and sociocultural risk factors. To date, explorations of biopsychosocial models of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls are lacking. A sample of 488 early adolescent girls, mean age = 12.35 years (SD = 0.53), completed a questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), sociocultural appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body image concerns and disordered eating. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test a hypothetical model in which internalization and comparison were mediators of the effect of both negative affect and sociocultural influences on body image concerns and disordered eating. In addition, the model proposed that BMI would impact body image concerns. Although the initial model was a poor fit to the data, the fit was improved after the addition of a direct pathway between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. The final model explained a large to moderate proportion of the variance in body image and eating concerns. This study supports the role of negative affect in biopsychosocial models of the development of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Interventions including strategies to address negative affect as well as sociocultural appearance pressures may help decrease the risk for body image concerns and disordered eating among this age group.

  11. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  12. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  13. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  14. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-05-11

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves.

  15. Correlation of early-phase 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET images to FDG images: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Huang, Chin-Chang; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Hsu, Wen-Chun; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Kung, Mei-Ping; Lin, Kun-Ju

    2012-04-01

    (18)F-Florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD), while PET images of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for cerebral glucose metabolism can provide complementary information to amyloid plaque images for diagnosis of AD. The goal of this preliminary study was to investigate the perfusion-like property of relative cerebral blood flow estimates (R(1)) and summed early-phase AV-45 images [perfusion AV-45 (pAV-45)] and optimize the early time frame for pAV-45. Dynamic AV-45 PET scans (0-180 min) were performed in seven subjects. pAV-45, late-phase AV-45, and FDG images were spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute template aided by individual MRI images, and the corresponding standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was computed. The R(1) images were derived from a simplified reference tissue model. Correlations between regional and voxelwise R(1) and the corresponding FDG images were calculated. An optimization of time frames of pAV-45 was conducted in terms of correlation to FDG images. The optimal early time frame was validated in a separate cohort. The regional distribution in the R(1) images correlated well (R = 0.91) to that of the FDG within subjects. Consistently high correlation was noted across a long range of time frames. The maximal correlation of pAV-45 to FDG SUVR of R = 0.95 was observed at the time frame of 1-6 min, while the peak correlation of R = 0.99 happened at 0-2 min between pAV-45 and R(1). A similar result was achieved in the validation cohort. Preliminary results showed that the distribution patterns of R(1) and pAV-45 images are highly correlated with normalized FDG images, and the initial 5-min early time frame of 1-6 min is potentially useful in providing complementary FDG-like information to the amyloid plaque density by late-phase AV-45 images.

  16. Tornosynthesis Breast Imaging: Early Detection and Characterization of Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Tomosynthesis is a method of obtaining tomographic images of the breast. We have developed a method for breast tomosynthesis using a full-field...source moves in an are above the breast. Our results indicate: (1) a radiation dose similar to a conventional mammogram may be used for tomosynthesis ...observer study. Our results indicate tomosynthesis will over improvements over conventional breast screening methods.

  17. Nanoparticle-facilitated functional and molecular imaging for the early detection of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivasubramanian, Maharajan; Hsia, Yu; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cancer detection in its early stages is imperative for effective cancer treatment and patient survival. In recent years, biomedical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and ultrasound have been greatly developed and have served pivotal roles in clinical cancer management. Molecular imaging (MI) is a non-invasive imaging technique that monitors biological processes at the cellular and sub-cellular levels. To achieve these goals, MI uses targeted imaging agents that can bind targets of interest with high specificity and report on associated abnormalities, a task that cannot be performed by conventional imaging techniques. In this respect, MI holds great promise as a potential therapeutic tool for the early diagnosis of cancer. Nevertheless, the clinical applications of targeted imaging agents are limited due to their inability to overcome biological barriers inside the body. The use of nanoparticles has made it possible to overcome these limitations. Hence, nanoparticles have been the subject of a great deal of recent studies. Therefore, developing nanoparticle-based imaging agents that can target tumors via active or passive targeting mechanisms is desirable. This review focuses on the applications of various functionalized nanoparticle-based imaging agents used in MI for the early detection of cancer. PMID:25988156

  18. Association of early imaging for back pain with clinical outcomes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Gold, Laura S; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Rundell, Sean D; Turner, Judith A; Avins, Andrew L; Bauer, Zoya; Bresnahan, Brian W; Friedly, Janna L; James, Kathryn; Kessler, Larry; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Nerenz, David R; Shi, Xu; Sullivan, Sean D; Chan, Leighton; Schwalb, Jason M; Deyo, Richard A

    2015-03-17

    In contrast to the recommendations for younger adults, many guidelines allow for older adults with back pain to undergo imaging without waiting 4 to 6 weeks. However, early imaging may precipitate interventions that do not improve outcomes. To compare function and pain at the 12-month follow-up visit among older adults who received early imaging with those who did not receive early imaging after a new primary care visit for back pain without radiculopathy. Prospective cohort of 5239 patients 65 years or older with a new primary care visit for back pain (2011-2013) in 3 US health care systems. We matched controls 1:1 using propensity score matching of demographic and clinical characteristics, including diagnosis, pain severity, pain duration, functional status, and prior resource use. Diagnostic imaging (plain films, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) of the lumbar or thoracic spine within 6 weeks of the index visit. back or leg pain-related disability measured by the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (score range, 0-24; higher scores indicate greater disability) 12 months after enrollment. Among the 5239 patients, 1174 had early radiographs and 349 had early MRI/CT. At 12 months, neither the early radiograph group nor the early MRI/CT group differed significantly from controls on the disability questionnaire. The mean score for patients who underwent early radiography was 8.54 vs 8.74 among the control group (difference, -0.10 [95% CI, -0.71 to 0.50]; mixed model, P = .36). The mean score for the early MRI/CT group was 9.81 vs 10.50 for the control group (difference,-0.51 [-1.62 to 0.60]; mixed model, P = .18). Among older adults with a new primary care visit for back pain, early imaging was not associated with better 1-year outcomes. The value of early diagnostic imaging in older adults for back pain without radiculopathy is uncertain.

  19. Early detection of plant disease using infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    By using imaging techniques, plant physiological parameters can be assessed without contact with the plant and in a non-destructive way. During plant-pathogen infection, the physiological state of the infected tissue is altered, such as changes in photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance, accumulation of Salicylic acid (SA) and even cell death. In this study, the different temperature distribution between the leaves infected by tobacco mosaic virus strain-TMV-U1 and the noninfected leaves was visualized by digital infrared thermal imaging with the microscopic observations of the different structure within different species tomatoes. Results show a presymptomatic decrease in leaf temperature about 0.5-1.3 °C lower than the healthy leaves. The temperature difference allowed the discrimination between the infected and healthy leaves before the appearance of visible necrosis on leaves.

  20. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    ethylidene) malononitrile) [FDDNP] has shown sensitivity for in vivo detection of tau in addition to -sheet-containing brain amyloid...imaging will be completed by summer, 2016. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Traumatic Brain Injury Positron Emission Tomography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...feature of CTE is accumulation of tau protein in the brain . Until very recently, there has been no reliable way of measuring tau deposition in the

  1. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    student, Bern who has worked on assessing the relationship FDDNP imaging results and neuropsychological measures. Preliminary results noted above have...17), Neuropsychological Society (New 2/17). Over the next reporting period, emphasis will be placed on completing enrollment (hopefully by...BernG. Uptake, Neurocognition, and Number of Boxers and MMA Neuropsychology Society, New No products resulted from this study over the last year

  2. Imaging findings of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw with emphasis on early magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anant; Arslanoglu, Atilla; Yildirm, Nadir; Silbergleit, Richard; Aygun, Nafi

    2009-01-01

    To describe the imaging findings of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with emphasis on early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. The medical records and computed tomography, MRI, and bone scintigraphy images of 5 female and 1male patients (n = 6) between the ages of 49 and 79 years (mean age, 70 years) who had a diagnosis of BRONJ were retrospectively reviewed, and temporal changes in imaging features were noted. The earliest MRI finding was the loss of the normal T1 hyperintensity of fatty marrow in the mandible and maxilla. The MRI findings of more advanced BRONJ included bone destruction, soft tissue edema and enhancement, inferior alveolar nerve thickening, and pterygoid muscle swelling and enhancement. On computed tomography, sclerosis and subtle lucencies (widening) of the periodontal ligament and cortex and around the apices of the teeth in the early stage, and osteolytic bone lesions, cortical disruption, and frank bone fragmentation in the later stages were observed. Bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake early in the disease. Osteonecrosis of the mandible and maxilla occurs as a complication of bisphosphonate treatment of bone metastasis and osteoporosis and typically manifests after a dental procedure. Magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy findings may precede clinical symptoms and mimic metastatic disease.

  3. A novel multimodal optical imaging system for early detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Malik, Bilal H; Jabbour, Joey M; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Wright, John M; Jo, Javier A; Maitland, Kristen C

    2016-03-01

    Several imaging techniques have been advocated as clinical adjuncts to improve identification of suspicious oral lesions. However, these have not yet shown superior sensitivity or specificity over conventional oral examination techniques. We developed a multimodal, multi-scale optical imaging system that combines macroscopic biochemical imaging of fluorescence lifetime imaging with subcellular morphologic imaging of reflectance confocal microscopy for early detection of oral cancer. We tested our system on excised human oral tissues. In total, 4 tissue specimens were imaged. These specimens were diagnosed as either clinically normal, oral lichen planus, gingival hyperplasia, or superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The optical and fluorescence lifetime properties of each specimen were recorded. Both quantitative and qualitative differences among normal, benign, and squamous cell carcinoma lesions can be resolved with fluorescence lifetime imaging reflectance confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that an integrated approach based on these two methods can potentially enable rapid screening and evaluation of large areas of oral epithelial tissue. Early results from ongoing studies of imaging human oral cavity illustrate the synergistic combination of the 2 modalities. An adjunct device based on such optical characterization of oral mucosa can potentially be used to detect oral carcinogenesis in early stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel multimodal optical imaging system for early detection of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Bilal H.; Jabbour, Joey M.; Cheng, Shuna; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Cheng, Yi-Shing Lisa; Wright, John M.; Jo, Javier A.; Maitland, Kristen C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Several imaging techniques have been advocated as clinical adjuncts to improve identification of suspicious oral lesions. However, these have not yet shown superior sensitivity or specificity over conventional oral examination techniques. We developed a multimodal, multi-scale optical imaging system that combines macroscopic biochemical imaging of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with subcellular morphologic imaging of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for early detection of oral cancer. We tested our system on excised human oral tissues. Study Design A total of four tissue specimen were imaged. These specimens were diagnosed as one each: clinically normal, oral lichen planus, gingival hyperplasia, and superficially-invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The optical and fluorescence lifetime properties of each specimen were recorded. Results Both quantitative and qualitative differences between normal, benign and SCC lesions can be resolved with FLIM-RCM imaging. The results demonstrate that an integrated approach based on these two methods can potentially enable rapid screening and evaluation of large areas of oral epithelial tissue. Conclusions Early results from ongoing studies of imaging human oral cavity illustrate the synergistic combination of the two modalities. An adjunct device based on such optical characterization of oral mucosa can potentially be used to detect oral carcinogenesis in early stages. PMID:26725720

  5. Thermophotonic lock-in imaging of early demineralized and carious lesions in human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Amaechi, Bennett Tochukwu

    2011-07-01

    As an extension of frequency-domain photothermal radiometry, a novel dental-imaging modality, thermophotonic lock-in imaging (TPLI), is introduced. This methodology uses photothermal wave principles and is capable of detecting early carious lesions and cracks on occlusal and approximal surfaces as well as early caries induced by artificial demineralizing solutions. The increased light scattering and absorption within early carious lesions increases the thermal-wave amplitude and shifts the thermal-wave centroid, producing contrast between the carious lesion and the intact enamel in both amplitude and phase images. Samples with artificial and natural occlusal and approximal caries were examined in this study. Thermophotonic effective detection depth is controlled by the modulation frequency according to the well-known concept of thermal diffusion length. TPLI phase images are emissivity normalized and therefore insensitive to the presence of stains. Amplitude images, on the other hand, provide integrated information from deeper enamel regions. It is concluded that the results of our noninvasive, noncontacting imaging methodology exhibit higher sensitivity to very early demineralization than dental radiographs and are in agreement with the destructive transverse microradiography mineral density profiles.

  6. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue for early-stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler H.; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini F. S.; Koevary, Jennifer Watson; Orsinger, Gabriel V.; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2016-05-01

    With early detection, 5-year survival rates for ovarian cancer exceed 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease originates in the fallopian tube. Twenty-eight women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery provided informed consent for the use of surgical discard tissue samples for multispectral fluorescence imaging. Using multiple ultraviolet and visible excitation wavelengths and emissions bands, 12 fluorescence and 6 reflectance images of 47 ovarian and 31 fallopian tube tissue samples were recorded. After imaging, each sample was fixed, sectioned, and stained for pathological evaluation. Univariate logistic regression showed cancerous tissue samples had significantly lower intensity than noncancerous tissue for 17 image types. The predictive power of multiple image types was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). Two MLR models each using two image types had receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve exceeding 0.9. QDA determined 56 image type combinations with perfect resubstituting using as few as five image types. Adaption of the system for future in vivo fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible, which may enable sensitive detection of ovarian cancer with no exogenous contrast agents.

  7. Emerging Roles for Multimodal Optical Imaging in Early Cancer Detection: A Global Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Noah; Pierce, Mark; El-Naggar, Adel; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Gillenwater, Ann; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Medical imaging technologies have become increasingly important in the clinical management of cancer, and now play key roles in cancer screening, diagnosis, staging, and monitoring response to treatment. Standard imaging modalities such as MRI, PET, and CT require significant financial resources and infrastructure, which limits access to these modalities to those patients in high-resource settings. In contrast, optical imaging strategies, with the potential for reduced cost and enhanced portability, are emerging as additional tools to facilitate the early detection and diagnosis of cancer. This article presents a vision for an expanding role for optical imaging in global cancer management, including screening, early detection at the point-of-care, biopsy guidance, and real-time histology. Multi-modal optical imaging – the combination of widefield and high resolution imaging - has the potential to aid in the detection and management of precancer and early cancer for traditionally underserved populations. Several recent widefield and high-resolution optical imaging technologies are described, along with requirements for implementing such devices into lower-resource settings. PMID:20218743

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging Provides Early Prediction of Random Axial Flap Necrosis in a Preclinical Model.

    PubMed

    Chin, Michael S; Chappell, Ava G; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Perry, Dylan J; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Haddad, Anthony; Matsumine, Hajime; Orgill, Dennis P; Lalikos, Janice F

    2017-06-01

    Necrosis remains a significant complication in cutaneous flap procedures. Monitoring, and ideally prediction, of vascular compromise in the early postoperative period may allow surgeons to limit the impact of complications by prompt intervention. Hyperspectral imaging could be a reliable, effective, and noninvasive method for predicting flap survival postoperatively. In this preclinical study, the authors demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging is able to correlate early skin perfusion changes and ultimate flap survival in a preclinical model. Thirty-one hairless, immunocompetent, adult male mice were used. Random pattern dorsal skin flaps were elevated and sutured back into place with a silicone barrier. Hyperspectral imaging and digital images were obtained 30 minutes, 24 hours, or 72 hours after flap elevation and before sacrifice on postoperative day 7. Areas of high deoxygenated hemoglobin change (124; 95 percent CI, 118 to 129) seen at 30 minutes after surgery were associated with greater than 50 percent flap necrosis at postoperative day 7. Areas demarcated by high deoxygenated hemoglobin at 30 minutes postoperatively had a statistically significant correlation with areas of macroscopic necrosis on postoperative day 7. Analysis of images obtained at 24 and 72 hours did not show similar changes. These findings suggest that early changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin seen with hyperspectral imaging may predict the region and extent of flap necrosis. Further clinical studies are needed to determine whether hyperspectral imaging is applicable to the clinical setting.

  9. Early diagnosis of teeth erosion using polarized laser speckle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader, Christelle Abou; Pellen, Fabrice; Loutfi, Hadi; Mansour, Rassoul; Jeune, Bernard Le; Brun, Guy Le; Abboud, Marie

    2016-07-01

    Dental erosion starts with a chemical attack on dental tissue causing tooth demineralization, altering the tooth structure and making it more sensitive to mechanical erosion. Medical diagnosis of dental erosion is commonly achieved through a visual inspection by the dentist during dental checkups and is therefore highly dependent on the operator's experience. The detection of this disease at preliminary stages is important since, once the damage is done, cares become more complicated. We investigate the difference in light-scattering properties between healthy and eroded teeth. A change in light-scattering properties is observed and a transition from volume to surface backscattering is detected by means of polarized laser speckle imaging as teeth undergo acid etching, suggesting an increase in enamel surface roughness.

  10. Multiparametric and Multimodality Functional Radiological Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Early Treatment Response Assessment.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Michael A; Wolff, Antonio C; Macura, Katarzyna J; Stearns, Vered; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; El Khouli, Riham; Bluemke, David A; Wahl, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US women, and the chance of a woman developing breast cancer sometime during her lifetime is one in eight. Early detection and diagnosis to allow appropriate locoregional and systemic treatment are key to improve the odds of surviving its diagnosis. Emerging data also suggest that different breast cancer subtypes (phenotypes) may respond differently to available adjuvant therapies. There is a growing understanding that not all patients benefit equally from systemic therapies, and therapeutic approaches are being increasingly personalized based on predictive biomarkers of clinical benefit. Optimal use of established and novel radiological imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, which have different biophysical mechanisms can simultaneously identify key functional parameters. These methods provide unique multiparametric radiological signatures of breast cancer, that will improve the accuracy of early diagnosis, help select appropriate therapies for early stage disease, and allow early assessment of therapeutic benefit.

  11. Multiparametric and Multimodality Functional Radiological Imaging for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Early Treatment Response Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Antonio C.; Macura, Katarzyna J.; Stearns, Vered; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; El Khouli, Riham; Bluemke, David A.; Wahl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US women, and the chance of a woman developing breast cancer sometime during her lifetime is one in eight. Early detection and diagnosis to allow appropriate locoregional and systemic treatment are key to improve the odds of surviving its diagnosis. Emerging data also suggest that different breast cancer subtypes (phenotypes) may respond differently to available adjuvant therapies. There is a growing understanding that not all patients benefit equally from systemic therapies, and therapeutic approaches are being increasingly personalized based on predictive biomarkers of clinical benefit. Optimal use of established and novel radiological imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, which have different biophysical mechanisms can simultaneously identify key functional parameters. These methods provide unique multiparametric radiological signatures of breast cancer, that will improve the accuracy of early diagnosis, help select appropriate therapies for early stage disease, and allow early assessment of therapeutic benefit. PMID:26063885

  12. Application of SVM classifier in thermographic image classification for early detection of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleszkiewicz, Witold; Cichosz, Paweł; Jagodziński, Dariusz; Matysiewicz, Mateusz; Neumann, Łukasz; Nowak, Robert M.; Okuniewski, Rafał

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the application of machine learning algorithms for early detection of breast cancer on the basis of thermographic images. Supervised learning model: Support vector machine (SVM) and Sequential Minimal Optimization algorithm (SMO) for the training of SVM classifier were implemented. The SVM classifier was included in a client-server application which enables to create a training set of examinations and to apply classifiers (including SVM) for the diagnosis and early detection of the breast cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of SVM classifier were calculated based on the thermographic images from studies. Furthermore, the heuristic method for SVM's parameters tuning was proposed.

  13. Near-infrared transillumination at 1310-nm for the imaging of early dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert S.; Huynh, Gigi D.; Jones, Graham C.; Fried, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    New imaging technologies are needed for the early detection of dental caries (decay) in the interproximal contact sites between teeth. Previous measurements have demonstrated that dental enamel is highly transparent in the near-IR at 1300-nm. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1300-nm was used to acquire images through tooth sections of varying thickness and whole teeth in order to demonstrate the utility of a near-IR dental transillumination system for the imaging of early dental caries (decay). Simulated lesions, which model the optical scattering of natural dental caries, were placed in plano-parallel dental enamel sections. The contrast ratio between the simulated lesions and surrounding sound enamel was calculated from analysis of acquired projection images. The results show significant contrast between the lesion and the enamel (>0.35) and a spatial line profile that clearly resolves the lesion in samples as thick as 6.75-mm. This study clearly demonstrates that a near-IR transillumination system has considerable potential for the imaging of early dental decay.

  14. Live cell imaging of early autophagy events: omegasomes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Karanasios, Eleftherios; Stapleton, Eloise; Walker, Simon A; Manifava, Maria; Ktistakis, Nicholas T

    2013-07-27

    Autophagy is a cellular response triggered by the lack of nutrients, especially the absence of amino acids. Autophagy is defined by the formation of double membrane structures, called autophagosomes, that sequester cytoplasm, long-lived proteins and protein aggregates, defective organelles, and even viruses or bacteria. Autophagosomes eventually fuse with lysosomes leading to bulk degradation of their content, with the produced nutrients being recycled back to the cytoplasm. Therefore, autophagy is crucial for cell homeostasis, and dysregulation of autophagy can lead to disease, most notably neurodegeneration, ageing and cancer. Autophagosome formation is a very elaborate process, for which cells have allocated a specific group of proteins, called the core autophagy machinery. The core autophagy machinery is functionally complemented by additional proteins involved in diverse cellular processes, e.g. in membrane trafficking, in mitochondrial and lysosomal biology. Coordination of these proteins for the formation and degradation of autophagosomes constitutes the highly dynamic and sophisticated response of autophagy. Live cell imaging allows one to follow the molecular contribution of each autophagy-related protein down to the level of a single autophagosome formation event and in real time, therefore this technique offers a high temporal and spatial resolution. Here we use a cell line stably expressing GFP-DFCP1, to establish a spatial and temporal context for our analysis. DFCP1 marks omegasomes, which are precursor structures leading to autophagosomes formation. A protein of interest (POI) can be marked with either a red or cyan fluorescent tag. Different organelles, like the ER, mitochondria and lysosomes, are all involved in different steps of autophagosome formation, and can be marked using a specific tracker dye. Time-lapse microscopy of autophagy in this experimental set up, allows information to be extracted about the fourth dimension, i.e. time. Hence we

  15. Signal and image processing for early detection of coronary artery diseases: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobssite, Youness; Samir, B. Belhaouari; Mohamad Hani, Ahmed Fadzil B.

    2012-09-01

    Today biomedical signals and image based detection are a basic step to diagnose heart diseases, in particular, coronary artery diseases. The goal of this work is to provide non-invasive early detection of Coronary Artery Diseases relying on analyzing images and ECG signals as a combined approach to extract features, further classify and quantify the severity of DCAD by using B-splines method. In an aim of creating a prototype of screening biomedical imaging for coronary arteries to help cardiologists to decide the kind of treatment needed to reduce or control the risk of heart attack.

  16. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  17. Preliminary imaging results and SAR analysis of a microwave imaging system for early breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Dagheyan, Ashkan Ghanbarzadeh; Molaei, Ali; Obermeier, Richard; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Currently X-ray-based imaging systems suffer from low contrast between malignant and healthy fibrous tissues in breast. Microwave Near-field Radar Imaging (NRI) shows a higher contrast between the aforementioned tissues and therefore can enhance tumor detection and diagnosis accuracy. In this work, we present the first imaging results of our developed NRI system that is equipped with a pair of Antipodal Vivaldi Antennas. We used a metal bearing ball immersed in oil as our object of interest, to keep the first measurement configuration simple. Moreover, to demonstrate the safety of our system for human subject tests, we simulated the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in a realistic breast tissue model and compared the resulted values with both the USA and Europe standards. The results show that firstly the imaging results from the measurements and simulations are comparable, and secondly the antennas radiations meet the SAR criteria.

  18. Early-Years Teachers' Concept Images and Concept Definitions: Triangles, Circles, and Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates practicing early-years teachers' concept images and concept definitions for triangles, circles, and cylinders. Teachers were requested to define each figure and then to identify various examples and non-examples of the figure. Teachers' use of correct and precise mathematical language and reference to critical and…

  19. Playful Structure: A Novel Image of Early Years Pedagogy for Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…

  20. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Perceived Popularity and Self-Image during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laura R.; Newman, Judith L.

    Girls and boys develop different value systems during early adolescence. For girls, popularity with peers assumes high priority, while for boys popularity seems to be secondary to other values established in childhood. A study was conducted to examine the relationship between popularity and adjustment, as measured by self-image, for adolescent…

  1. Early-Years Teachers' Concept Images and Concept Definitions: Triangles, Circles, and Cylinders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates practicing early-years teachers' concept images and concept definitions for triangles, circles, and cylinders. Teachers were requested to define each figure and then to identify various examples and non-examples of the figure. Teachers' use of correct and precise mathematical language and reference to critical and…

  2. Playful Structure: A Novel Image of Early Years Pedagogy for Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…

  3. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Marijuana Use: Early Sensation Seeking, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Social Images

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Andrews, Judy A.; Barckley, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial mechanisms by which children’s early sensation seeking may influence their later marijuana use. In a longitudinal study, 4th and 5th grade elementary school children (N = 420) were followed until they were in 11th and 12th grades in high school with annual or biennial assessments. Sensation seeking (assessed over the first 4 assessments) predicted affiliating with deviant peers and level of favorable social images of kids who use marijuana (both assessed over the subsequent 3 assessments). Affiliation with deviant peers and the growth in social images predicted marijuana use in 11th and 12th grades. Affiliation with deviant peers mediated the effect of early sensation seeking on subsequent marijuana use. The theoretical and applied significance of this influence of early sensation seeking is discussed. PMID:18547739

  4. Expression and imaging of fluorescent proteins in the C. elegans gonad and early embryo.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca A; Audhya, Anjon; Pozniakovsky, Andrei; Dammermann, Alexander; Pemble, Hayley; Monen, Joost; Portier, Nathan; Hyman, Anthony; Desai, Arshad; Oegema, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans gonad and early embryo have recently emerged as an attractive metazoan model system for studying cell and developmental biology. The success of this system is attributable to the stereotypical architecture and reproducible cell divisions of the gonad/early embryo, coupled with penetrant RNAi-mediated protein depletion. These features have facilitated the development of visual assays with high spatiotemporal resolution to monitor specific subcellular processes. Assay development has relied heavily on the emergence of methods to circumvent germline silencing to allow the expression of transgenes encoding fluorescent fusion proteins. In this chapter, we discuss methods for the expression and imaging of fluorescent proteins in the C. elegans germline, including the design of transgenes for optimal expression, the generation of transgenic worm lines by ballistic bombardment, the construction of multimarker lines by mating, and methods for live imaging of the gonad and early embryo.

  5. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  6. Near infrared fluorescence imaging for early detection, monitoring and improved intervention of diseases involving the joint.

    PubMed

    Slooter, M D; Bierau, K; Chan, A B; Löwik, C W G M

    2015-04-01

    Joints consist of different tissues, such as bone, cartilage and synovium, which are at risk for multiple diseases. The current imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, Doppler ultrasound, X-ray, computed tomography and arthroscopy, lack the ability to detect disease activity before the onset of anatomical and significant irreversible damage. Optical in vivo imaging has recently been introduced as a novel imaging tool to study the joint and has the potential to image all kinds of biological processes. This tool is already exploited in (pre)clinical studies of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and cancer. The technique uses fluorescent dyes conjugated to targeting moieties that recognize biomarkers of the disease. This review will focus on these new imaging techniques and especially where Near Infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has been used to visualize diseases of the joint. NIR fluorescent imaging is a promising technique which will soon complement established radiological, ultrasound and MRI imaging in the clinical management of patients with respect to early disease detection, monitoring and improved intervention.

  7. Endoscopic detection of early malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract using laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukowski, Uwe; Ebert, Bernd; Ortner, Marianne; Zumbusch, Katharina; Mueller, Karsten; Fleige, Barbara; Lochs, Herbert; Rinneberg, Herbert H.

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence images were recorded simultaneously with white light images to detect dyspasia or early malignancies during regular endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract, after topical administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid. Biopsies were taken at locations where fluorescence intensity were high compared with the mean fluorescence intensity of the image. Prompt and delayed fluorescence spectra of biopsies were subsequently recorded ex vivo, and normalized fluorescence intensities of Protoporphyrin IX derived from these spectra were compared with routine histology. In contrast to routine endoscopy, one early carcinoma and one signet-ring carcinoma were found in the stomach, and malignancies in a duodenal polyp. In addition, intestinal metaplasia could be visualized in the stomach of two patients, which had not been detected in biopsies taken prior to fluorescence endoscopy.

  8. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome: early magnetic resonance imaging findings and neuroradiological follow-up.

    PubMed

    Toldo, I; Calderone, M; Boniver, C; Dravet, Ch; Guerrini, R; Laverda, A M

    2007-03-01

    We describe a case of hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) syndrome documented by longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A two-year and nine-month-old boy had a prolonged hemiconvulsion during fever followed by right hemiparesis. Seven days later the imaging abnormality on T2 and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) was limited to the white matter of the left hemisphere. One month later severe gliosis and unilateral brain atrophy were already evident. MRI is useful in the early stages of prolonged seizures and T2 and DWI abnormalities appear to be well correlated with parenchymal damage that results from sustained ictal activity. The neuroradiological findings in our case and in the few HHE patients reported in the literature seem to be very characteristic and, if confirmed in larger series, could permit an early diagnosis.

  9. Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Keogh, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:24310585

  10. Spectrum and Image Texture Features Analysis for Early Blight Disease Detection on Eggplant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated both spectrum and texture features for detecting early blight disease on eggplant leaves. Hyperspectral images for healthy and diseased samples were acquired covering the wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. Four gray images were identified according to the effective wavelengths (408, 535, 624 and 703 nm). Hyperspectral images were then converted into RGB, HSV and HLS images. Finally, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from gray images, RGB, HSV and HLS images, respectively. The dependent variables for healthy and diseased samples were set as 0 and 1. K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and AdaBoost classification models were established for detecting healthy and infected samples. All models obtained good results with the classification rates (CRs) over 88.46% in the testing sets. The results demonstrated that spectrum and texture features were effective for early blight disease detection on eggplant leaves. PMID:27187387

  11. Juvenile Dermatomyositis: Key Roles of Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Early Aggressive Treatment.

    PubMed

    Corral-Magaña, O; Bauzá-Alonso, A F; Escudero-Góngora, M M; Lacruz, L; Martín-Santiago, A

    2017-09-11

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is a rare systemic connective tissue disease with onset during childhood. It presents clinically with proximal muscle weakness and characteristic skin involvement. Diagnosis is based on the Bohan and Peter criteria, though many authors are now substituting biopsy with muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for both diagnosis and follow-up. Without intensive early treatment, complications such as calcinosis cutis and lipodystrophy can develop in the chronic phases of the disease. Early recognition is therefore key to management. We present a series of 5 patients who were diagnosed with Juvenile dermatomyositis on muscle MRI without undergoing muscle biopsy and who received early treatment. We draw attention to the usefulness of muscle MRI for the diagnosis of muscle involvement and to the importance of early initiation of intensive treatment to prevent complications. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Images of Science Teaching in Constructivism Science Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Go, Youngmi; Kang, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it investigates the self-images of science teaching held by early childhood pre-service teachers who took constructivism early childhood science education courses. Second, it analyzes what aspects of those courses influenced these images. The participants were eight pre-service teachers who took these…

  13. Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Images of Science Teaching in Constructivism Science Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Go, Youngmi; Kang, Jinju

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it investigates the self-images of science teaching held by early childhood pre-service teachers who took constructivism early childhood science education courses. Second, it analyzes what aspects of those courses influenced these images. The participants were eight pre-service teachers who took these…

  14. EARLY POSTOPERATIVE MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FINDINGS IN FIVE DOGS WITH CONFIRMED AND SUSPECTED BRAIN TUMORS.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kathleen Ella; Tyrrell, Dayle; Long, Sam Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Early postoperative neuroimaging has been performed in people for over 20 years to detect residual brain tumor tissue and surgical complications. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe characteristics observed using early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in a group of dogs undergoing craniotomy for brain tumor removal. Two independent observers came to a consensus opinion for presence/absence of the following MRI characteristics: residual tumor tissue; hemorrhage and ischemic lesions; abnormal enhancement (including the margins of the resection cavity, choroid plexus, meninges) and signal intensity changes on diffusion-weighted imaging. Five dogs were included in the study, having had preoperative and early postoperative MRI acquired within four days after surgery. The most commonly observed characteristics were abnormal meningeal enhancement, linear enhancement at margins of the resection cavity, hemorrhage, and a thin rim of hyperintensity surrounding the resection cavity on diffusion-weighted imaging. Residual tumor tissue was detected in one case of an enhancing tumor and in one case of a tumor containing areas of hemorrhage preoperatively. Residual tumor tissue was suspected but could not be confirmed when tumors were nonenhancing. Findings supported the use of early postoperative MRI as a method for detecting residual brain tumor tissue in dogs.

  15. Early detection of tumor masses by in vivo hematoporphyrin-mediated fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autiero, Maddalena; Celentano, Luigi; Cozzolino, Rosanna; Laccetti, Paolo; Marotta, Marcello; Mettivier, Giovanni; Cristina Montesi, Maria; Quarto, Maria; Riccio, Patrizia; Roberti, Giuseppe; Russo, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the capability of fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) for the early detection of surface tumors in mice. We used a hematoporphyrin (HP) compound (HP dichlorohydrate) as a red fluorescent marker and a low noise, high sensitivity, digital CCD camera for fluorescence imaging. In this preliminary study, highly malignant anaplastic human thyroid carcinoma cells were implanted subcutaneously in one mouse and their growth was monitored daily for 5 days by FRI. The selective HP uptake by the tumor tissues was successfully observed: we observed the fluorescence of tumor only 3 days after cancer cells injection, i.e. when the tumor mass was neither visible (to the naked eye) or palpable. These measurements indicate that FRI is a suitable technique to detect minute subcutaneous tumor masses. This FRI system will be coupled to a radionuclide imaging system based on a CdTe detector for in vivo multimodal imaging in mice.

  16. All-optical photoacoustic imaging and detection of early-stage dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin; Hughes, David A.; Longbottom, Chris; Kirk, Katherine J.

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries remain one of the most common oral diseases in the world. Current detection methods, such as dental explorer and X-ray radiography, suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease because of the small size (< 100 microns) of early-stage lesions. We have developed a fine-resolution (480 nm), ultra-broadband (1 GHz), all-optical photoacoustic imaging (AOPAI) system to image and detect early stages of tooth decay. This AOPAI system provides a non-contact, non-invasive and non-ionizing means of detecting early-stage dental caries. Ex-vivo teeth exhibiting early-stage, white-spot lesions were imaged using AOPAI. Experimental scans targeted each early-stage lesion and a reference healthy enamel region. Photoacoustic (PA) signals were generated in the tooth using a 532-nm pulsed laser and the light-induced broadband ultrasound signal was detected at the surface of the tooth with an optical path-stabilized Michelson interferometer operating at 532 nm. The measured time-domain signal was spatially resolved and back-projected to form 2D and 3D maps of the lesion using k-wave reconstruction methods. Experimental data collected from areas of healthy and diseased enamel indicate that the lesion generated a larger PA response compared to healthy enamel. The PA-signal amplitude alone was able to detect a lesion on the surface of the tooth. However, time- reversal reconstructions of the PA scans also quantitatively depicted the depth of the lesion. 3D PA reconstruction of the diseased tooth indicated a sub-surface lesion at a depth of 0.6 mm, in addition to the surface lesion. These results suggest that our AOPAI system is well suited for rapid clinical assessment of early-stage dental caries. An overview of the AOPAI system, fine-resolution PA and histology results of diseased and healthy teeth will be presented.

  17. Tomographic lifetime imaging using combined early- and late-arriving photons.

    PubMed

    Hou, Steven S; Rice, William L; Bacskai, Brian J; Kumar, Anand T N

    2014-03-01

    We present a novel, hybrid approach for time domain fluorescence tomography that efficiently combines lifetime multiplexing using late-arriving or asymptotic photons, with the high spatial resolution capability of early photon tomography. We also show that a decay amplitude-based asymptotic approach is superior to direct inversion of late-arriving photons for tomographic lifetime imaging within turbid media. The hybrid reconstruction approach is experimentally shown to recover fluorescent inclusions separated as close as 1.4 mm, with improved resolution and reduced cross talk compared to just using early photons or the asymptotic approach alone.

  18. Early BVRcIc imaging and the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 041218

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Tsunemi, H.

    2005-07-01

    We report early BVR_cIc imaging of the INTEGRAL GRB 041218. The observation started 129 s after the burst and a sequence of exposures in V, R_c, I_c, and B bands were repeated. The optical afterglow is detected in Rc and Ic bands while it was not detected in B and V. We find that the early afterglow deviates from a single power law decay and identify two characteristic timescales (breaks). Such breaks are theoretically expected from synchrotron cooling in the relativistic fireball (Sari et al. 1998, ApJ, 497, L17) and we crudely constrain the physical condition of the relativistic shock.

  19. Early prediction of clinical benefit of treating ovarian cancer using quantitative CT image feature analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Ding, Kai; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In current clinical trials of treating ovarian cancer patients, how to accurately predict patients' response to the chemotherapy at an early stage remains an important and unsolved challenge. To investigate feasibility of applying a new quantitative image analysis method for predicting early response of ovarian cancer patients to chemotherapy in clinical trials. A dataset of 30 patients was retrospectively selected in this study, among which 12 were responders with 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) and 18 were non-responders. A computer-aided detection scheme was developed to segment tumors depicted on two sets of CT images acquired pre-treatment and 4-6 weeks post treatment. The scheme computed changes of three image features related to the tumor volume, density, and density variance. We analyzed performance of using each image feature and applying a decision tree to predict patients' 6-month PFS. The prediction accuracy of using quantitative image features was also compared with the clinical record based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The areas under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.773 ± 0.086, 0.680 ± 0.109, and 0.668 ± 0.101, when using each of three features, respectively. AUC value increased to 0.831 ± 0.078 when combining these features together. The decision-tree classifier achieved a higher predicting accuracy (76.7%) than using RECIST guideline (60.0%). This study demonstrated the potential of using a quantitative image feature analysis method to improve accuracy of predicting early response of ovarian cancer patients to the chemotherapy in clinical trials. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  20. Adenosine stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease at an early stage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Bing; Wu, Hua; He, Xiao-Jiang; Huang, Jin-Xiong; Yu, Dan; Xu, Wei-Yi; Yu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of adenosine thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging and to compare it with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) at an early stage. Forty-one patients suspected with CAD were randomly divided into two groups. In Group 1 (n=21) adenosine stress was undertaken; the exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in Group 2 (n=20). Coronary angiography (CAG) was performed in each patient within 2 weeks before or after single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Adenosine stress group vs. exercise stress group, the sensitivity was 92.86% vs. 100.0%, specificity 57.14% vs. 60.0%, positive predictive value 81.25% vs. 71.43%, negative predictive value 80.0% vs. 100.0%, accuracy 80.95% vs. 80.0% respectively. Detection rates of vessels of coronary artery lesions were 66.67% in Group 1 and 72.22% in Group 2 (P> 0.05). The side effects were mild and transient. Our results demonstrated that adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and reliable diagnostic method for an early stage of CAD. As a comparative sensitivity and accuracy with exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging, adenosine stress testing may provide a feasible alternative pharmacological stress method in myocardial SPECT for detection of CAD.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging applications in early rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Troum, Orrin M; Pimienta, Olga; Olech, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment have been recognized as essential for improving clinical outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive modality that can assess both inflammatory and structural lesions. MRI can assist in following the disease course in patients treated with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biological therapies both in the clinic and in research trials. Therefore, it is anticipated that MRI becomes the diagnostic imaging modality of choice in RA clinical trials while remaining a useful tool for clinicians evaluating patients with RA.

  2. Lumbar spine after surgery for herniated disk: imaging findings in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Dina, T S; Boden, S D; Davis, D O

    1995-03-01

    Imaging the lumbar spine after surgery for disk herniation is all too often an unrewarding challenge. A constellation of findings is inevitable, and determining their significance is often impossible. The challenge is greatest during the first few months following surgery, when the rules of scar enhancement, deformity, and mass effect do not apply to differentiation of the abnormal from the normal. A clear understanding of normal postoperative healing is necessary to avoid overreaction to misleading findings. This report reviews imaging of the lumbar spine in the early postoperative period (i.e., the first 6 months after surgery), focusing on the normal healing process that so often mimics complicating or recurrent disease.

  3. Different spatial frequency bands selectively signal for natural image statistics in the early visual system.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bruce C; Johnson, Aaron P; Ellemberg, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Early visual evoked potentials (VEPs) measured in humans have recently been observed to be modulated by the image statistics of natural scene imagery. Specifically, the early VEP is dominated by a strong positivity when participants view minimally complex natural scene imagery, with the magnitude of that component being modulated by luminance contrast differences across spatial frequency (i.e., the slope of the amplitude spectrum). For scenes high in structural complexity, the early VEP is dominated by a prominent negativity that exhibits little dependency on luminance contrast. However, since natural scene imagery is broad band in terms of spatial frequency, it is not known whether the above-mentioned modulation results from a complex interaction within or between the early neural processes tuned to different bands of spatial frequency. Here, we sought to address this question by measuring early VEPs (specifically, the C1, P1, and N1 components) while human participants viewed natural scene imagery that was filtered to contain specific bands of spatial frequency information. The results show that the C1 component is largely unmodulated by the luminance statistics of natural scene imagery (being only measurable when such stimuli were made to contain high spatial frequencies). The P1 and N1, on the other hand, were observed to exhibit strong spatial frequency-dependent modulation to the luminance statistics of natural scene imagery. The results therefore suggest that the dependency of early VEPs on natural image statistics results from an interaction between the early neural processes tuned to different bands of spatial frequency.

  4. Does early posttreatment surveillance imaging affect subsequent management following stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Daly, Megan E; Beckett, Laurel A; Chen, Allen M

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the optimal surveillance imaging strategy following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly with respect to timing. We sought to determine how routine use of early (<6 months) posttreatment imaging affects subsequent management. The records of all patients treated with SBRT between January 2007 and January 2013 for early-stage NSCLC were reviewed. Eligible patients underwent ≥ 1 early (defined as within 6 months following SBRT) surveillance imaging study. Radiographic findings and subsequent diagnostic or therapeutic interventions were identified. Proportions and exact 95% confidence intervals (CI) with early posttreatment surveillance findings and altered treatment were calculated, and cases were examined descriptively. Sixty-two patients with 67 lung tumors underwent 92 early surveillance imaging studies (86 computed tomographic [CT] and 6 positron emission/CT) at a median of 2.1 months (range, 0.1-5.9 months). New lung nodules were identified in 8 patients (13%), leading to a diagnosis of metastatic disease treated with systemic therapy in 2 patients and biopsy proven solitary lung recurrence in 2 patients, both treated successfully with local therapy. Tumor growth meeting Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria was identified in 1 patient, who was followed with subsequent radiographic regression. In aggregate, the treatment of 4 patients (6.5%, 95% CI 1.7%-15.2%) was altered by early imaging; 2 (3.2%, 95% CI 0.4%-10.8%) with a potentially curative intervention. No predictors for utility of early surveillance were identified. Imaging within 6 months following SBRT for early-stage NSCLC resulted in a definitive intervention in approximately 3% of patients. In the era of cost-effective health care, a first scan at 6 months posttreatment may be adequate for most patients. Larger scale prospective studies are needed to address the optimal

  5. A Correlated Microwave-Acoustic Imaging method for early-stage cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2012-01-01

    Microwave-based imaging technique shows large potential in detecting early-stage cancer due to significant dielectric contrast between tumor and surrounding healthy tissue. In this paper, we present a new way named Correlated Microwave-Acoustic Imaging (CMAI) of combining two microwave-based imaging modalities: confocal microwave imaging(CMI) by detecting scattered microwave signal, and microwave-induced thermo-acoustic imaging (TAI) by detecting induced acoustic signal arising from microwave energy absorption and thermal expansion. Necessity of combining CMI and TAI is analyzed theoretically, and by applying simple algorithm to CMI and TAI separately, we propose an image correlation approach merging CMI and TAI together to achieve better performance in terms of resolution and contrast. Preliminary numerical simulation shows promising results in case of low contrast and large variation scenarios. A UWB transmitter is designed and tested for future complete system implementation. This preliminary study inspires us to develop a new medical imaging modality CMAI to achieve real-time, high resolution and high contrast simultaneously.

  6. Pulmonary uptake of sestamibi on early post-stress images: angiographic relationships, incidence and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, G A; Fox, S P; Driedger, A A; Willems, C; Powe, J E

    1993-01-01

    Early post-stress imaging with 99Tcm-sestamibi has the potential to reveal ancillary markers of severe coronary artery disease. Lung/myocardial ratios of sestamibi were assessed after pharmacologic, exercise or combined stress, and these were compared with historical controls who were stressed similarly, but imaged with 201Tl. Forty initial patients had planar imaging and correlating angiograms; pulmonary uptake for sestamibi related to severe coronary artery stenoses when measured on immediate images, started at 4 min post-stress (P = 0.04), but had a poor relationship to angiographic findings when measured on delayed clinical images. Of 180 subsequent studies, increased pulmonary uptake of sestamibi was seen more frequently (incidence = 34%) in those with abnormal tomograms compared to those with normal tomograms (incidence = 13%, P < 0.01), but appeared less frequently than on abnormal 201Tl studies (incidence = 60%). With sequential imaging for 5 min after injection, pulmonary uptake showed a greater fall with time on sestamibi studies than on matched 201Tl studies. No consistent differences were seen among the stress modalities. As an ancillary sign of haemodynamically severe disease, increased pulmonary uptake can be seen after various stress modalities, but may be more difficult to apply with sestamibi than with thallium imaging.

  7. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  8. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  9. Emerging Cardiac Imaging Modalities for the Early Detection of Cardiotoxicity due to Anticancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, Teresa; Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh

    2017-02-08

    The undeniable advances in the field of oncology have finally led to a decrease in overall cancer-related mortality. However, this population of long-term cancer survivors is now facing a shift toward a substantial increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Because the development of overt cardiotoxicity can be associated with poor outcomes, preclinical identification of cardiac toxicity is important. This will promote early instauration of treatments to prevent overt heart dysfunction and allow oncologists to continue cancer therapy in an uninterrupted manner. Surveillance strategies for the early detection of cardiac injury include cardiac imaging and biomarkers during treatment. In this review, we outline existing cardiac imaging modalities to detect myocardial changes in patients undergoing cancer treatment and in survivors, and their strengths and limitations.

  10. Imaging early demineralization on tooth occlusional surfaces with a high definition InGaAs camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-IR due to the high transparency of dental enamel. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1300-nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acidresistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1 and 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using NIR reflectance at 3 wavelengths, 1310, 1460 and 1600-nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. The contrast of both the 24 hr and 48 hr lesions were significantly higher (P<0.05) for NIR reflectance imaging at 1460-nm and 1600-nm than it was for NIR reflectance imaging at 1300-nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. The results of this study suggest that NIR reflectance measurements at longer near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are better suited for imaging early caries lesions.

  11. Brain imaging evidence of early involvement of subcortical regions in familial and sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Tentolouris-Piperas, Vasileios; Ryan, Natalie S; Thomas, David L; Kinnunen, Kirsi M

    2017-01-15

    Recent brain imaging studies have found changes in subcortical regions in presymptomatic autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD). These regions are also affected in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), but whether such changes are seen in early-stage disease is still uncertain. In this review, we discuss imaging studies published in the past 12 years that have found evidence of subcortical involvement in early-stage ADAD and/or sAD. Several papers have reported amyloid deposition in the striatum of presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers, prior to amyloid deposition elsewhere. Altered caudate volume has also been implicated in early-stage ADAD, but findings have been variable. Less is known about subcortical involvement in sAD: the thalamus and striatum have been found to be atrophied in symptomatic patients, but their involvement in the preclinical phase remains unclear, in part due to the difficulties of studying this stage in sporadic disease. Longitudinal imaging studies comparing ADAD mutation carriers with individuals at high-risk for sAD may be needed to elucidate the significance of subcortical involvement in different AD clinical stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Early Molecular and Cellular Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Michael J.; McCann, Bryony; Kauppinen, Risto A.; Coulthard, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent pharmaceutical trials have demonstrated that slowing or reversing pathology in Alzheimer's disease is likely to be possible only in the earliest stages of disease, perhaps even before significant symptoms develop. Pathology in Alzheimer's disease accumulates for well over a decade before symptoms are detected giving a large potential window of opportunity for intervention. It is therefore important that imaging techniques detect subtle changes in brain tissue before significant macroscopic brain atrophy. Current diagnostic techniques often do not permit early diagnosis or are too expensive for routine clinical use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the most versatile, affordable, and powerful imaging modality currently available, being able to deliver detailed analyses of anatomy, tissue volumes, and tissue state. In this mini-review, we consider how MRI might detect patients at risk of future dementia in the early stages of pathological change when symptoms are mild. We consider the contributions made by the various modalities of MRI (structural, diffusion, perfusion, relaxometry) in identifying not just atrophy (a late-stage AD symptom) but more subtle changes reflective of early dementia pathology. The sensitivity of MRI not just to gross anatomy but to the underlying “health” at the cellular (and even molecular) scales, makes it very well suited to this task. PMID:27378911

  13. The Functional Diffusion Map: An Imaging Biomarker for the Early Prediction of Cancer Treatment Outcome1

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, Bradford A; Chenevert, Thomas L; Meyer, Charles R; Mckeever, Paul E; Hall, Daniel E; Hoff, Benjamin A; Johnson, Timothy D; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Functional diffusion map (fDM) has been recently reported as an early and quantitative biomarker of clinical brain tumor treatment outcome. This MRI approach spatially maps and quantifies treatment-induced changes in tumor water diffusion values resulting from alterations in cell density/cell membrane function and microenvironment. This current study was designed to evaluate the capability of fDM for preclinical evaluation of dose escalation studies and to determine if these changes were correlated with outcome measures (cell kill and overall survival). Serial T2-weighted and diffusion MRI were carried out on rodents with orthotopically implanted 9L brain tumors receiving three doses of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (6.65, 13.3, and 26.6 mg/kg, i.p.). All images were coregistered to baseline T2-weighted images for fDM analysis. Analysis of tumor fDM data on day 4 posttreatment detected dosedependent changes in tumor diffusion values, which were also found to be spatially dependent. Histologic analysis of treated tumors confirmed spatial changes in cellularity as observed by fDM. Early changes in tumor diffusion values were found to be highly correlative with drug dose and independent biologic outcome measures (cell kill and survival). Therefore, the fDM imaging biomarker for early prediction of treatment efficacy can be used in the drug development process. PMID:16756718

  14. Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2001-10-01

    Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

  15. Early recognition of lung cancer by integrin targeted imaging in K-ras mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Aichler, Michaela; Kayser, Gian; Walch, Axel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is characterized by slow progression and high heterogeneity of tumors. Integrins play an important role in lung cancer development and metastasis and were suggested as a tumor marker; however their role in anticancer therapy remains controversial. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of integrin-targeted imaging to recognize early lesions in transgenic mouse model of lung cancer based on spontaneous introduction of mutated human gene bearing K-ras mutation. We conducted ex vivo and fluorescence molecular tomography-X-ray computed tomography (FMT-XCT) in vivo imaging and analysis for specific targeting of early lung lesions and tumors in rodent preclinical model for lung cancer. The lesions and tumors were characterized by histology, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using a panel of cancer markers. Ex vivo, the integrin-targeted fluorescent signal significantly differed between wild type lung tissue and K-ras pulmonary lesions (PL) at all ages studied. The panel of immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that PL, which only partially show cancer cell features were detected by αvβ3-integrin targeted imaging. Human patient material analysis confirmed the specificity of target localization in different lung cancer types. Most importantly, small tumors in the lungs of 4-week-old animals could be noninvasively detected in vivo on the fluorescence channel of FMT-XCT. Our findings demonstrated αvβ3-integrin targeted fluorescent imaging to specifically detect premalignant pleural lesions in K-ras mice. Integrin targeted imaging may find application areas in preclinical research and clinical practice, such as early lung cancer diagnostics, intraoperative assistance or therapy monitoring.

  16. Image-guided conformation arc therapy for prostate cancer: Early side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Soete, Guy . E-mail: guy.soete@az.vub.ac.be; Verellen, Dirk; Michielsen, Dirk; Rappe, Bernard; Keuppen, Frans; Storme, Guy

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate early side effects in prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy (IGCAT) using a minimultileaf collimator and daily X-ray-assisted patient positioning. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2004, 238 cT1-T3N0M0 tumors were treated with doses of 70 or 78 Gy. Seventy patients also received neoadjuvant or concurrent hormonal treatment. Median follow-up is 18 months (range, 4-55 months). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity scoring system was used to evaluate early side effects. Results: Grade 1, 2, and >2 acute side effects occurred in 19, 6, and 0% (gastrointestinal) and 37, 16, and 0% (genitourinary) of the patients. No relation between radiation dose and early side effects was observed. Conclusion: Patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy experience a low rate of Grade 2 (i.e., requiring medication) early side effects. The definitive evaluation of late side effects and biochemical control requires further follow-up.

  17. Early prediction of postmeningitic hearing loss in children using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Jonathan C; Germiller, John A; Laury, Adrienne M; Shah, Samir S; Pollock, Avrum N

    2011-05-01

    To determine whether early gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI) can reliably detect meningitic labyrinthitis and thereby predict which children are at high risk for hearing loss. Permanent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) remains a common sequela of bacterial meningitis, and early diagnosis of the associated suppurative labyrinthitis can be difficult, especially in critically ill, sedated patients and young children. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary pediatric hospital. Twenty-three survivors of bacterial meningitis (median age, 15 months [range, 3 months-14 years]) who had undergone brain GdMRI during the acute disease and had subsequent ear-specific audiometric data. Blinded to disease and outcome, a neuroradiologist rated the relative enhancement of each cochlea on T1-weighted images using a 4-point scale. Scores were then correlated with the degree of hearing loss on subsequent testing. Sensorineural hearing loss occurred in 15 of 46 ears (8 of 23 patients). Enhancement on GdMRI was detected in 13 of the 15 ears that later developed SNHL but was absent in all 31 unaffected ears. Thus, GdMRI was 87% sensitive and 100% specific for predicting which ears would develop permanent SNHL. In the subgroup with pneumococcal meningitis (n = 15), GdMRI was 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Labyrinthine enhancement was detectable as early as 1 day after diagnosis. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI detected meningitic labyrinthitis at early stages and accurately predicted which patients would later develop hearing loss.

  18. Evaluation of cross-polarized near infrared hyperspectral imaging for early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Despite major improvements in dental healthcare and oral hygiene, dental caries remains one of the most prevalent oral diseases and represents the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The initial stages of dental caries are characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals and are difficult to diagnose. Near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging is a new promising technique for detection of early changes in the surfaces of carious teeth. This noninvasive imaging technique can characterize and differentiate between the sound tooth surface and initial or advanced tooth caries. The absorbing and scattering properties of dental tissues reflect in distinct spectral features, which can be measured, quantified and used to accurately classify and map different dental tissues. Specular reflections from the tooth surface, which appear as bright spots, mostly located around the edges and the crests of the teeth, act as a noise factor which can significantly interfere with the spectral measurements and analysis of the acquired images, degrading the accuracy of the classification and diagnosis. Employing cross-polarized imaging setup can solve this problem, however has yet to be systematically evaluated, especially in broadband hyperspectral imaging setups. In this paper, we employ cross-polarized illumination setup utilizing state-of-the-art high-contrast broadband wire-grid polarizers in the spectral range from 900 nm to 1700 nm for hyperspectral imaging of natural and artificial carious lesions of various degrees.

  19. Detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images for early diagnosis of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD) is a major sign of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Early detection of NFLDs is critical for improved prognosis of this progressive, blinding disease. We have investigated a computerized scheme for detection of NFLDs on retinal fundus images. In this study, 162 images, including 81 images with 99 NFLDs, were used. After major blood vessels were removed, the images were transformed so that the curved paths of retinal nerves become approximately straight on the basis of ellipses, and the Gabor filters were applied for enhancement of NFLDs. Bandlike regions darker than the surrounding pixels were detected as candidates of NFLDs. For each candidate, image features were determined and the likelihood of a true NFLD was determined by using the linear discriminant analysis and an artificial neural network (ANN). The sensitivity for detecting the NFLDs was 91% at 1.0 false positive per image by using the ANN. The proposed computerized system for the detection of NFLDs can be useful to physicians in the diagnosis of glaucoma in a mass screening.

  20. Predicting Cortical Dark/Bright Asymmetries from Natural Image Statistics and Early Visual Transforms

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Emily A.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system has evolved in an environment with structure and predictability. One of the ubiquitous principles of sensory systems is the creation of circuits that capitalize on this predictability. Previous work has identified predictable non-uniformities in the distributions of basic visual features in natural images that are relevant to the encoding tasks of the visual system. Here, we report that the well-established statistical distributions of visual features -- such as visual contrast, spatial scale, and depth -- differ between bright and dark image components. Following this analysis, we go on to trace how these differences in natural images translate into different patterns of cortical input that arise from the separate bright (ON) and dark (OFF) pathways originating in the retina. We use models of these early visual pathways to transform natural images into statistical patterns of cortical input. The models include the receptive fields and non-linear response properties of the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) pathways, with their ON and OFF pathway divisions. The results indicate that there are regularities in visual cortical input beyond those that have previously been appreciated from the direct analysis of natural images. In particular, several dark/bright asymmetries provide a potential account for recently discovered asymmetries in how the brain processes visual features, such as violations of classic energy-type models. On the basis of our analysis, we expect that the dark/bright dichotomy in natural images plays a key role in the generation of both cortical and perceptual asymmetries. PMID:26020624

  1. Imaging and detection of early stage dental caries with an all-optical photoacoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D. A.; Sampathkumar, A.; Longbottom, C.; Kirk, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth decay, at its earliest stages, manifests itself as small, white, subsurface lesions in the enamel. Current methods for detection in the dental clinic are visual and tactile investigations, and bite-wing X-ray radiographs. These techniques suffer from poor sensitivity and specificity at the earliest (and reversible) stages of the disease due to the small size (<100μm) of the lesion. A fine-resolution (600 nm) ultra-broadband (200 MHz) all-optical photoacoustic microscopy system was is used to image the early signs of tooth decay. Ex-vivo tooth samples exhibiting white spot lesions were scanned and were found to generate a larger (one order of magnitude) photoacoustic (PA) signal in the lesion regions compared to healthy enamel. The high contrast in the PA images potentially allows lesions to be imaged and measured at a much earlier stage than current clinical techniques allow. PA images were cross referenced with histology photographs to validate our experimental results. Our PA system provides a noncontact method for early detection of white-spot lesions with a high detection bandwidth that offers advantages over previously demonstrated ultrasound methods. The technique provides the sensing depth of an ultrasound system, but with the spatial resolution of an optical system.

  2. Routine postoperative imaging early after lumbar decompression surgery: a prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Gerrit Alexander; Diepers, Michaels; Hegewald, Aldemar Andres; Seiz, Marcel; Thomé, Claudius

    2013-09-15

    Prospective cohort study. To determine the value of routine postoperative magnetic resonance imaging early after lumbar decompression in patients with nonspecific symptoms. Imaging after lumbar surgery may be performed more readily in patients even with nonspecific symptoms and without neurological deficit. Patients undergoing elective lumbar decompression surgery completed standardized questionnaires, were assessed neurologically on admission, and underwent magnetic resonance scanning within 72 hours after surgery. Residual stenosis was graded as absent or mild (outcome A) or moderate to severe (outcome B). Surgical technique and intraoperative complications and postoperative neurological status were recorded. We recruited 28 consecutive patients who reported significant improvement in preoperative symptoms. In two-thirds of all patients, postoperative images showed at least one segment with moderate or severe residual stenosis (outcome B). Radiological outcome did not correlate with postoperative pain. Patient satisfaction index was comparable in groups A and B. The cross section of the spinal canal was significantly wider with a drain in situ. This did not, however, translate into a difference in overall visual analogue scale score or wound discomfort. Patients tended to report more back and leg pain with drains and were less satisfied with the result of the operation. Early postoperative magnetic resonance scans in patients with nonspecific symptoms frequently show radiologically relevant stenosis, which is associated with neither outcome nor patient satisfaction. Drain placement is associated with less radiological narrowing but with lower patient satisfaction. Imaging without clinical correlate may yield nondiscriminatory information likely to unsettle and puzzle both patients and health care providers. 3.

  3. Towards non-invasive diagnostic imaging of early-stage Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Kirsten L.; Sbarboro, James; Sureka, Ruchi; de, Mrinmoy; Bicca, Maíra A.; Wang, Jane; Vasavada, Shaleen; Satpathy, Sreyesh; Wu, Summer; Joshi, Hrushikesh; Velasco, Pauline T.; Macrenaris, Keith; Waters, E. Alex; Lu, Chang; Phan, Joseph; Lacor, Pascale; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Klein, William L.

    2015-01-01

    One way to image the molecular pathology in Alzheimer's disease is by positron emission tomography using probes that target amyloid fibrils. However, these fibrils are not closely linked to the development of the disease. It is now thought that early-stage biomarkers that instigate memory loss are composed of Aβ oligomers. Here, we report a sensitive molecular magnetic resonance imaging contrast probe that is specific for Aβ oligomers. We attach oligomer-specific antibodies onto magnetic nanostructures and show that the complex is stable and binds to Aβ oligomers on cells and brain tissues to give a magnetic resonance imaging signal. When intranasally administered to an Alzheimer's disease mouse model, the probe readily reached hippocampal Aβ oligomers. In isolated samples of human brain tissue, we observed a magnetic resonance imaging signal that distinguished Alzheimer's disease from controls. Such nanostructures that target neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are potentially useful for evaluating the efficacy of new drugs and ultimately for early-stage Alzheimer's disease diagnosis and disease management.

  4. Novel Multistatic Adaptive Microwave Imaging Methods for Early Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre

    2006-12-01

    Multistatic adaptive microwave imaging (MAMI) methods are presented and compared for early breast cancer detection. Due to the significant contrast between the dielectric properties of normal and malignant breast tissues, developing microwave imaging techniques for early breast cancer detection has attracted much interest lately. MAMI is one of the microwave imaging modalities and employs multiple antennas that take turns to transmit ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses while all antennas are used to receive the reflected signals. MAMI can be considered as a special case of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar with the multiple transmitted waveforms being either UWB pulses or zeros. Since the UWB pulses transmitted by different antennas are displaced in time, the multiple transmitted waveforms are orthogonal to each other. The challenge to microwave imaging is to improve resolution and suppress strong interferences caused by the breast skin, nipple, and so forth. The MAMI methods we investigate herein utilize the data-adaptive robust Capon beamformer (RCB) to achieve high resolution and interference suppression. We will demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods for breast cancer detection via numerical examples with data simulated using the finite-difference time-domain method based on a 3D realistic breast model.

  5. Dust Plate, Retina, Photograph: Imaging on Experimental Surfaces in Early Nineteenth-Century Physics.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Chitra

    2015-09-01

    This article explores the entangled histories of three imaging techniques in early nineteenth-century British physical science, techniques in which a dynamic event (such as a sound vibration or an electric spark) was made to leave behind a fixed trace on a sensitive surface. Three categories of "sensitive surface" are examined in turn: first, a metal plate covered in fine dust; second, the retina of the human eye; and finally, a surface covered with a light-sensitive chemical emulsion (a photographic plate). For physicists Michael Faraday and Charles Wheatstone, and photographic pioneer William Henry Fox Talbot, transient phenomena could be studied through careful observation and manipulation of the patterns wrought on these different surfaces, and through an understanding of how the imaging process unfolded through time. This exposes the often-ignored materiality and temporality of epistemic practices around nineteenth-century scientific images said to be "drawn by nature."

  6. Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of early and advanced breast cancer: When, why, and how often?

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Lin, Nancy U

    2017-02-01

    Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with early or advanced breast cancer is an important aspect of cancer care. The role of imaging in breast cancer depends on the goal and should only be performed to guide clinical decisions. Imaging is valuable if a finding will change the course of treatment and improve outcomes, whether this is disease-free survival, overall survival or quality-of-life. In the last decade, imaging is often overused in oncology and contributes to rising healthcare costs. In this context, we review the data that supports the appropriate use of imaging for breast cancer patients. We will discuss: 1) the optimal use of staging imaging in both early (Stage 0-II) and locally advanced (Stage III) breast cancer, 2) the role of surveillance imaging to detect recurrent disease in Stage 0-III breast cancer and 3) how patients with metastatic breast cancer should be followed with advanced imaging.

  7. Reliable? The Value of Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Cerebral Cavernous Malformation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixia; Göricke, Sophia; Wrede, Karsten; Jabbarli, Ramazan; Wälchli, Thomas; Jägersberg, Max; Sure, Ulrich; Dammann, Philipp

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) can cause intracerebral hemorrhage. The lesions themselves are frequently associated with perifocal hemosiderin deposits caused by repetitive microhemorrhages. Main indications for a surgical treatment are recurrent symptomatic hemorrhages or cavernoma-related epilepsy. After surgical resection, follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually performed to confirm 1) the complete resection of the CCM and, especially in cases of cavernoma-related epilepsy, 2) the complete resection of the hemosiderin deposits. This prospective study evaluates the value of early postoperative MRI (within 72 hours) regarding the detection of CCM or hemosiderin remnants compared with a standard 3-6 months postoperative MRI control in 61 CCM cases. Sensitivity of early postoperative MRI for CCM remnant detection was 66.67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.43%-99.16%), specificity was 76.74% (95% CI, 61.37%-88.24%), positive predictive value was 16.67% (95% CI, 2.09%-48.41%), and negative predictive value was 97.06% (95% CI, 84.67%-99.93%). Because of the high number of patients who could not be evaluated because of imaging artifacts, sensitivity and specificity analysis was not performed for early postoperative MRI using T2*/susceptibility-weighted imaging to assess hemosiderin remnants. Sensitivity of early postoperative MRI for hemosiderin remnant detection using T2-weighted sequences was 85.71% (95% CI, 63.66%-96.95%), specificity was 66.67% (95% CI, 44.68%-84.37%), positive predictive value was 69.23% (95% CI, 55.45%-80.27%), and negative predictive value was 84.21% (95% CI, 64.31%-94.04%). Our data suggest that early postoperative MRI after CCM surgery is often hampered by imaging artifacts creating false-positive results and therefore ineligible for a resection control. However, reliability of a negative result on early postoperative T2-weighted MRI is relatively high regarding both CCM and hemosiderin remnants. Copyright © 2017

  8. Microwave power imaging for ultra-wide band early breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenyi

    Due to the critical need for complementary or/and alternative modalities to current X-ray mammography for early-stage breast cancer detection, a 3D active microwave imaging system has been developed. This thesis presents a detailed method for rapid, high contrast microwave imaging for the purpose of breast survey. In the proposed imaging system, several transmitters polarized in different directions take turns sending out a low-power UWB pulse into the breast; backscattered signals are recorded by a synthetic aperture antenna array. These backscattered signals are passed through a beamformer, which spatially focuses the waveforms to image backscattered energy as a function of location in the breast. A simple Delay-and-Sum algorithm is applied to test the proposed multistatic multi-polarized detection scheme. The obtained 2-D and 3-D numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of detecting small malignant breast tumors using our antenna strategy. An improved algorithm of microwave power imaging for detecting small breast tumors within an MRI-derived phantom is also introduced. Our imaging results demonstrate that a high-quality image can be reached without solving the inverse problem. To set up an experimental system for future clinical investigation, we developed two Vivaldi antennas, which have a notable broad band property, good radiation pattern, and a suitable size for breast cancer detection. Finally, an antenna array which consists of eight proposed Vivaldi antennas is introduced. By conveniently moving up/down and rotating this antenna array, it can be used for the multistatic breast cancer imaging and qualified for our multi-polarized scan mode.

  9. Functional imaging of the cerebellum and basal ganglia during predictive motor timing in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Husárová, Ivica; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Mareček, Radek; Mikl, Michal; Gescheidt, Tomáš; Krupa, Petr; Bareš, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia and the cerebellum have both emerged as important structures involved in the processing of temporal information. We examined the roles of the cerebellum and striatum in predictive motor timing during a target interception task in healthy individuals (HC group; n = 21) and in patients with early Parkinson's disease (early stage PD group; n = 20) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Despite having similar hit ratios, the PD failed more often than the HC to postpone their actions until the right moment and to adapt their behavior from one trial to the next. We found more activation in the right cerebellar lobule VI in HC than in early stage PD during successful trials. Successful trial-by-trial adjustments were associated with higher activity in the right putamen and lobule VI of the cerebellum in HC. We conclude that both the cerebellum and striatum are involved in predictive motor timing tasks. The cerebellar activity is associated exclusively with the postponement of action until the right moment, whereas both the cerebellum and striatum are needed for successful adaptation of motor actions from one trial to the next. We found a general ''hypoactivation'' of basal ganglia and cerebellum in early stage PD relative to HC, indicating that even in early stages of the PD there could be functional perturbations in the motor system beyond striatum. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  10. Multimodal imaging biomarkers in premanifest and early Huntington's disease: 30-month IMAGE-HD data.

    PubMed

    D, Juan F Domínguez; Stout, Julie C; Poudel, Govinda; Churchyard, Andrew; Chua, Phyllis; Egan, Gary F; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of potential disease-modifying therapies in a neurodegenerative condition like Huntington's disease depends on the availability of sensitive biomarkers that reflect decline across disease stages and that are functionally and clinically relevant. To quantify macrostructural and microstructural changes in participants with premanifest and symptomatic Huntington's disease over 30 months, and to establish their functional and clinical relevance. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study measuring changes in macrostructural (volume) and microstructural (diffusivity) measures in 40 patients with premanifest Huntington's disease, 36 patients with symptomatic Huntington's disease and 36 healthy control participants over three testing sessions spanning 30 months. Relative to controls, there was greater longitudinal atrophy in participants with symptomatic Huntington's disease in whole brain, grey matter, caudate and putamen, as well as increased caudate fractional anisotropy; caudate volume loss was the only measure to differ between premanifest Huntington's disease and control groups. Changes in caudate volume and fractional anisotropy correlated with each other and neurocognitive decline; caudate volume loss also correlated with clinical and disease severity. Caudate neurodegeneration, especially atrophy, may be the most suitable candidate surrogate biomarker for consideration in the development of upcoming clinical trials. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  11. Confocal microendoscopy: Characterization of imaging bundles, fluorescent contrast agents, and early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovich, Joshua Anthony

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Early detection improves the chances of survival following diagnosis, and new imaging modalities have the potential to reduce deaths due to this disease. The confocal microendoscope (CME) is a non-destructive in-vivo imaging device for visualization of the ovaries that operates in real-time. Two components of the CME system are evaluated in this paper, and initial results from an ongoing clinical trial are presented. Fiber-optic imaging bundles are used in the CME imaging catheter to relay images over distances of up to 20 feet. When detecting fluorescent signals from investigated tissue, any fluorescence in the system can potentially reduce contrast in images. The emission and transmission properties of three commercially available fiber optic imaging bundles were evaluated. Emission maps of fluorescence from bundles were generated at multiple excitation wavelengths to determine the profile and amount of fluorescence present in bundles manufactured by Sumitomo, Fujikura, and Schott. Results are also presented that show the variation of transmittance as a function of illumination angle in these bundles. Users of high-resolution fiber-optic imaging bundles should be aware of these properties and take them into account during system design. Contrast is improved in images obtained with the CME through the application of topical dyes. Acridine orange (AO) and SYTO 16 are two fluorescent stains that are used to show the size, shape, and distribution of cell nuclei. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of these dyes on living tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dye treatment on peritoneal tissues in mice. Seventy-five Balb/c mice were split into five groups of fifteen and given peritoneal injections of dye or saline. The proportions of negative outcomes for the control and test groups were compared using confidence intervals and the Fisher's exact test

  12. SU-F-R-24: Identifying Prognostic Imaging Biomarkers in Early Stage Lung Cancer Using Radiomics

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X; Wu, J; Cui, Y; Li, R; Gao, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Patients diagnosed with early stage lung cancer have favorable outcomes when treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy. However, a significant proportion (∼20%) of patients will develop metastatic disease and eventually die of the disease. The purpose of this work is to identify quantitative imaging biomarkers from CT for predicting overall survival in early stage lung cancer. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved HIPPA-compliant retrospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the diagnostic CT scans of 110 patients with early stage lung cancer. Data from 70 patients were used for training/discovery purposes, while those of remaining 40 patients were used for independent validation. We extracted 191 radiomic features, including statistical, histogram, morphological, and texture features. Cox proportional hazard regression model, coupled with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), was used to predict overall survival based on the radiomic features. Results: The optimal prognostic model included three image features from the Law’s feature and wavelet texture. In the discovery cohort, this model achieved a concordance index or CI=0.67, and it separated the low-risk from high-risk groups in predicting overall survival (hazard ratio=2.72, log-rank p=0.007). In the independent validation cohort, this radiomic signature achieved a CI=0.62, and significantly stratified the low-risk and high-risk groups in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio=2.20, log-rank p=0.042). Conclusion: We identified CT imaging characteristics associated with overall survival in early stage lung cancer. If prospectively validated, this could potentially help identify high-risk patients who might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy.

  13. Visualization of early post-implantation mouse embryogenesis using 3D imaging modality (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Le, Henry H.; Li-Villarreal, Nanbing; Piazza, Victor G.; Kalaga, Sowmya; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2017-02-01

    Hemodynamic force is vital to cardiovascular remodeling in the early post-implantation mouse embryo. Here, we present work using microCT and lightsheet microscopy to establish the critical sequence of developmental events required for forming functional vasculature and circulation in the embryo, yolk sac, and placenta in the context of normal and impaired flow. A flow impaired model, Mlc2a+/- will be used to determine how hemodynamic force affects the specific events during embryonic development and vascular remodeling between the 4 and 29-somite stage using microCT. We have recently established high-resolution methods for the generation of 3D image volumes from the whole embryo within the deciduum (Hsu et al., in revision). This method enables the careful characterization of 3D images of vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling to define how poor blood flow impacts both vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling. Novel lightsheet live imaging techniques will be used to determine the consequence of impaired blood flow on yolk sac vasculature remodeling and formation of umbilical vessels using transgenic reporters: Flk-myr::mCherry, Flk1-H2B::YFP, or ɛGlobin-GFP. High-resolution 3D imaging of fixed and ScaleA2-cleared whole mount embryos labeled with Ki67 and Caspase3 will also be performed using lightsheet microscopy to quantify the proliferation and apoptotic indexes of early post-implanted embryos and yolk sac. This multi-modality approach is aimed at revealing further information about the cellular mechanisms required for proper vessel remodeling and the initial stages in placentation during early post-implantation development.

  14. Computer-aided detection of early cancer in the esophagus using HD endoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sommen, Fons; Zinger, Svitlana; Schoon, Erik J.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2013-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is the fastest rising type of cancer in the Western world. The recent development of High-Definition (HD) endoscopy has enabled the specialist physician to identify cancer at an early stage. Nevertheless, it still requires considerable effort and training to be able to recognize these irregularities associated with early cancer. As a first step towards a Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system that supports the physician in finding these early stages of cancer, we propose an algorithm that is able to identify irregularities in the esophagus automatically, based on HD endoscopic images. The concept employs tile-based processing, so our system is not only able to identify that an endoscopic image contains early cancer, but it can also locate it. The identification is based on the following steps: (1) preprocessing, (2) feature extraction with dimensionality reduction, (3) classification. We evaluate the detection performance in RGB, HSI and YCbCr color space using the Color Histogram (CH) and Gabor features and we compare with other well-known features to describe texture. For classification, we employ a Support Vector Machine (SVM) and evaluate its performance using different parameters and kernel functions. In experiments, our system achieves a classification accuracy of 95.9% on 50×50 pixel tiles of tumorous and normal tissue and reaches an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.990. In 22 clinical examples our algorithm was able to identify all (pre-)cancerous regions and annotate those regions reasonably well. The experimental and clinical validation are considered promising for a CAD system that supports the physician in finding early stage cancer.

  15. Iatrogenic Consequences of Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute, Work-Related, Disabling Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Barbara S.; Bauer, Ann Z.; Choi, YoonSun; Cifuentes, Manuel; Pransky, Glenn S.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. Objective. To determine the effect of early (receipt ≤30 d postonset) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on disability and medical cost outcomes in patients with acute, disabling, work-related low back pain (LBP) with and without radiculopathy. Summary of Background Data. Evidence-based guidelines suggest that, except for “red flags,” MRI is indicated to evaluate patients with persistent radicular pain, after 1 month of conservative management, who are candidates for surgery or epidural steroid injections. Prior research has suggested an independent iatrogenic effect of nonindicated early MRI, but it had limited clinical information and/or patient populations. Methods. A nationally representative sample of workers with acute, disabling, occupational LBP was randomly selected, oversampling those with radiculopathy diagnoses (N = 1000). Clinical information from medical reports was used to exclude cases for which early MRI might have been indicated, or MRI occurred more than 30 days postonset (final cohort = 555). Clinical information was also used to categorize cases into “nonspecific LBP” and “radiculopathy” groups and further divided into “early-MRI” and “no-MRI” subgroups. The Cox proportional hazards model examined the association of early MRI with duration of the first episode of disability. Multivariate linear regression models examined the association with medical costs. All models adjusted for demographic and medical severity measures. Results. In our sample, 37% of the nonspecific LBP and 79.9% of the radiculopathy cases received early MRI. The early-MRI groups had similar outcomes regardless of radiculopathy status: much lower rates of going off disability and, on average, $12,948 to $13,816 higher medical costs than the no-MRI groups. Even in a subgroup with relatively minimal disability impact (≤30 d of total lost time post-MRI), medical costs were, on average, $7643 to $8584 higher in the

  16. Early detection of liver fibrosis in rats using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging: a feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Lee, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lin, Jen-Jen; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using 3-D ultrasound Nakagami imaging to detect the early stages of liver fibrosis in rats. Fibrosis was induced in livers of rats (n = 60) by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5% dimethylnitrosamine (DMN). Group 1 was the control group, and rats in groups 2-6 received DMN injections for 1-5 weeks, respectively. Each rat was sacrificed to perform 3-D ultrasound scanning of the liver in vitro using a single-element transducer of 6.5 MHz. The 3-D raw data acquired at a sampling rate of 50 MHz were used to construct 3-D Nakagami images. The liver specimen was further used for histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining to score the degree of liver fibrosis. The results indicate that the Metavir scores of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections in Groups 1-4 were 0 (defined as early liver fibrosis in this study), and those in groups 5 and 6 ranged from 1 to 2 and 2 to 3, respectively. To quantify the degree of early liver fibrosis, the histologic sections with Masson stain were analyzed to calculate the number of fiber-related blue pixels. The number of blue pixels increased from (2.36 ± 0.79) × 10(4) (group 1) to (7.68 ± 2.62) × 10(4) (group 4) after DMN injections for 3 weeks, indicating that early stages of liver fibrosis were successfully induced in rats. The Nakagami parameter increased from 0.36 ± 0.02 (group 1) to 0.55 ± 0.03 (group 4), with increasing numbers of blue pixels in the Masson-stained sections (p-value < 0.05, t-test). We concluded that 3-D Nakagami imaging has potential in the early detection of liver fibrosis in rats and may serve as an image-based pathologic model to visually track fibrosis formation and growth.

  17. Endoscopic fluorescence imaging for early assessment of anastomotic recurrence of Crohn's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Maunoury, Vincent; Geboes, K.; Klein, Olivier; Desreumaux, P.; Debaert, A.; Colombel, Jean-Frederic

    1999-02-01

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. The mechanism of the initial mucosal alterations is still unclear: ulcerations overlying lymphoid follicles and/or vasculitis have been proposed as the early lesions. We have developed a new and original method combining endoscopy of fluorescence angiography for identifying the early pathological lesions, occurring in the neo-terminal ileum after right ileocolonic resection. The patient population consisted of 10 subjects enrolled in a prospective protocol of endoscopic follow-up at 3 and 12 months after surgery. Fluorescence imaging showed small spots giving a bright fluorescence distributed singly in mucosa which appeared normal in routine endoscopy. Histopathological examination demonstrated that the fluorescence of small spots originated from small, usually superficial, erosive lesions. In several cases, these erosive lesions occurred over lymphoid follicles. Endoscopic fluorescence imaging provides a suitable means of investigating the initial aspect of the Crohn's disease process in displaying some correlative findings between fluorescent aspects and early pathological mucosal alterations.

  18. Edema is a sign of early acute myocardial infarction on post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Thomas D; Ebert, Lars C; Khattab, Ahmed A; Rieben, Robert; Thali, Michael J; Kamat, Pranitha

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if acute myocardial infarction can be detected by post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMMR) at an earlier stage than by traditional autopsy, i.e., within less than 4 h after onset of ischemia; and if so, to determine the characteristics of PMMR findings in early acute infarcts. Twenty-one ex vivo porcine hearts with acute myocardial infarction underwent T2-weighted cardiac PMMR imaging within 3 h of onset of iatrogenic ischemia. PMMR imaging findings were compared to macroscopic findings. Myocardial edema induced by ischemia and reperfusion was visible on PMMR in all cases. Typical findings of early acute ischemic injury on PMMR consist of a central zone of intermediate signal intensity bordered by a rim of increased signal intensity. Myocardial edema can be detected on cardiac PMMR within the first 3 h after the onset of ischemia in porcine hearts. The size of myocardial edema reflects the area of ischemic injury in early acute (per-acute) myocardial infarction. This study provides evidence that cardiac PMMR is able to detect acute myocardial infarcts at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology.

  19. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of esophagus during the early phase of tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Chen, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancer and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ, and early invasive carcinoma in order to investigate the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of tumor progression. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. The infiltration depth during tumor progression was determined by the appearance of cancerous cells. The significant change of layer structure between cancerous tissue and normal esophagus was described. We also quantitatively described the differences of morphology between normal and cancerous cells. These results correlated well with the corresponding histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A fast SPAD-based small animal imager for early-photon diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ying; Niedre, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Photon scatter is the dominant light transport process in biological tissue and is well understood to degrade imaging performance in near-infrared diffuse optical tomography. Measurement of photons arriving at early times following a short laser pulse is considered to be an effective method to improve this limitation, i.e. by systematically selecting photons that have experienced fewer scattering events. Previously, we tested the performance of single photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) in measurement of early transmitted photons through diffusive media and showed that it outperformed photo-multiplier tube (PMT) systems in similar configurations, principally due to its faster temporal response. In this paper, we extended this work and developed a fast SPAD-based time-resolved diffuse optical tomography system. As a first validation of the instrument, we scanned an optical phantom with multiple absorbing inclusions and measured full time-resolved data at 3240 scan points per axial slice. We performed image reconstruction with very early-arriving photon data and showed significant improvements compared to time-integrated data. Extension of this work to mice in vivo and measurement of time-resolved fluorescence data is the subject of ongoing research.

  1. Surface Roughness Detection of Arteries via Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images for Early Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lili; Qian, Ming; Yang, Wei; Meng, Long; Xiao, Yang; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Abbott, Derek; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    There is a strong research interest in identifying the surface roughness of the carotid arterial inner wall via texture analysis for early diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of texture analysis methods for identifying arterial roughness in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Ultrasound images of common carotid arteries of 15 normal mice fed a normal diet and 28 apoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet were recorded by a high-frequency ultrasound system (Vevo 2100, frequency: 40 MHz). Six different texture feature sets were extracted based on the following methods: first-order statistics, fractal dimension texture analysis, spatial gray level dependence matrix, gray level difference statistics, the neighborhood gray tone difference matrix, and the statistical feature matrix. Statistical analysis indicates that 11 of 19 texture features can be used to distinguish between normal and abnormal groups (p<0.05). When the 11 optimal features were used as inputs to a support vector machine classifier, we achieved over 89% accuracy, 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for the k-nearest neighbor classifier were 73%, 75% and 70%, respectively. The results show that it is feasible to identify arterial surface roughness based on texture features extracted from ultrasound images of the carotid arterial wall. This method is shown to be useful for early detection and diagnosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:24146940

  2. MRI-based biomechanical imaging: initial study on early plaque progression and vessel remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Abendschein, Dana R.; Okamoto, Ruth J.; Yang, Deshan; McCommis, Kyle S.; Misselwitz, Bernd; Gropler, Robert J.; Tang, Dalin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study is to develop a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomechanical imaging technique to address biomechanical pathways of atherosclerotic progression and regression in vivo using a 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Initial in vivo study was carried out in an early plaque model in pigs that underwent balloon-overstretch injury to the left carotid arteries. Consecutive MRI scans were performed while the pigs were maintained on high cholesterol (progression) or normal chow (regression), with an injection of a plaque-targeted contrast agent, Gadofluorine M. At the end of study, the specimens of carotid arterial segments were dissected and underwent dedicated mechanical testing to determine their material properties. 3D FSI computational model was applied to calculate structure stress and strain distribution. The plaque structure resembles early plaque with thickened intima. Lower maximal flow shear stress correlates with the growth of plaque volume during progression, but not during regression. In contrast, maximal principle structure stress/stain (stress-P1 and strain-P1) were shown to correlate strongly with the change in the plaque dimension during regression, but moderately during progression. This MRI-based biomechanical imaging method may allow for noninvasive dynamic assessment of local hemodynamic forces on the development of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:19559552

  3. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-11-17

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves.

  4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of brain injury after nasopharyngeal cancer radiation in early delayed reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-S; Li, J-J; Zhang, J-H; Hong, L; Xing, Z-B; Wang, F; Li, C-Q

    2014-08-29

    This study aimed to investigate the value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) imaging in assessing nasopharyngeal carcinoma radiotherapy during the early delayed reaction period. Eighty cases of nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy within the same period underwent MRS imaging before or after radiotherapy. Of the 80 cases, 47 underwent MRS imaging on the 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 12th months after radiotherapy. The trends of the primary metabolite concentration at different time points were monitored and compared with the corresponding data after radiotherapy. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed. At the end of radiotherapy, the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), choline (Cho)/Cr, and NAA/Cho ratios were reduced to the lowest levels after 3 months. However, increasing trends were observed from the 4th to the 12th month. On the 12th month, stable levels were reached with statistically significant differences (F = 316.02, 53.84, 286.68; P < 0.01). MRS reflected the radiation injury-repair process in the brain of a nasopharyngeal cancer patient during early delayed reaction. This non-invasive monitoring of changes in brain tissue metabolite concentrations provides valuable information for prognosis.

  5. Detection of early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuanqi; Shao, Yongni; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using hyperspectral imaging for detecting different diseases on tomato leaves. One hundred and twenty healthy, one hundred and twenty early blight and seventy late blight diseased leaves were selected to obtain hyperspectral images covering spectral wavelengths from 380 to 1023 nm. An extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier model was established based on full wavelengths. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to identify the most important wavelengths. Based on the five selected wavelengths (442, 508, 573, 696 and 715 nm), an ELM model was re-established. Then, eight texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, second moment and correlation) based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) at the five effective wavelengths were extracted to establish detection models. Among the models which were established based on spectral information, all performed excellently with the overall classification accuracy ranging from 97.1% to 100% in testing sets. Among the eight texture features, dissimilarity, second moment and entropy carried most of the effective information with the classification accuracy of 71.8%, 70.9% and 69.9% in the ELM models. The results demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging has the potential as a non-invasive method to identify early blight and late blight diseases on tomato leaves. PMID:26572857

  6. Body image in recently diagnosed young women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Gelber, Shari; Ruddy, Kathryn J.; Kereakoglow, Sandra; Borges, Virginia F.; Come, Steven E.; Schapira, Lidia; Winer, Eric P.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess body image concerns among young women following a breast cancer diagnosis. METHODS 419 women with recently diagnosed stage 0-III breast cancer were surveyed following enrollment as part of a prospective cohort study of women age 40 or younger at diagnosis. Body image was assessed using three items from the psycho-social scale of the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES). CARES scores range from 0–4, with higher scores indicative of greater image concerns. Mean CARES scores were calculated and compared between treatment groups using t-tests and ANOVA. Multiple linear regression models were fit to evaluate the relationship between physical and psychological factors and body image. RESULTS Mean time from diagnosis to completion of the baseline survey was 5.2 months. The mean CARES score for all women was 1.28. Mean CARES scores in the mastectomy-only group (1.87) and in the mastectomy with reconstruction group (1.52) were significantly higher (p<0.0001) compared to the scores in the lumpectomy group (0.85), indicating that radical surgery was associated with more body image concerns. Radiation (p=0.01), anxiety (p=0.0001), depression (p<0.0001), fatigue (p=0.04), musculoskeletal pain symptoms (p<0.0001), weight gain (p=0.01) and weight loss (p=0.02), in addition to surgery type (p<0.0001), were all associated with more body image concerns in the multi-variable analysis. CONCLUSION This analysis highlights the impact of treatment, along with physical and psychological factors, on body image early in the survivorship period. Our findings provide targets for potential future intervention and may aid young women in the surgical decision-making process. PMID:23132765

  7. Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Microwave Imaging via Space-Frequency Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemulapalli, Spandana

    The conventional breast cancer detection methods have limitations ranging from ionizing radiations, low specificity to high cost. These limitations make way for a suitable alternative called Microwave Imaging, as a screening technique in the detection of breast cancer. The discernible differences between the benign, malignant and healthy breast tissues and the ability to overcome the harmful effects of ionizing radiations make microwave imaging, a feasible breast cancer detection technique. Earlier studies have shown the variation of electrical properties of healthy and malignant tissues as a function of frequency and hence stimulates high bandwidth requirement. A Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays have been designed, simulated and optimized for high (44%), medium (33%) and low (7%) bandwidths respectively, using the EM (electromagnetic software) called FEKO. These arrays are then used to illuminate the breast model (phantom) and the received backscattered signals are obtained in the near field for each case. The Microwave Imaging via Space-Time (MIST) beamforming algorithm in the frequency domain, is next applied to these near field backscattered monostatic frequency response signals for the image reconstruction of the breast model. The main purpose of this investigation is to access the impact of bandwidth and implement a novel imaging technique for use in the early detection of breast cancer. Earlier studies show the implementation of the MIST imaging algorithm on the time domain signals via a frequency domain beamformer. The performance evaluation of the imaging algorithm on the frequency response signals has been carried out in the frequency domain. The energy profile of the breast in the spatial domain is created via the frequency domain Parseval's theorem. The beamformer weights calculated using these the MIST algorithm (not including the effect of the skin) has been calculated for Ultrawideband, Wideband and Narrowband arrays, respectively

  8. Body image in recently diagnosed young women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M; Tamimi, Rulla M; Gelber, Shari; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Kereakoglow, Sandra; Borges, Virginia F; Come, Steven E; Schapira, Lidia; Winer, Eric P; Partridge, Ann H

    2013-08-01

    To assess body image concerns among young women following a breast cancer diagnosis. A total of 419 women with recently diagnosed stage 0-III breast cancer were surveyed following enrollment as part of a prospective cohort study of women age 40 or younger at diagnosis. Body image was assessed using three items from the psycho-social scale of the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System (CARES). CARES scores range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicative of greater image concerns. Mean CARES scores were calculated and compared between treatment groups using t-tests and analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression models were fit to evaluate the relationship between physical and psychological factors and body image. Mean time from diagnosis to completion of the baseline survey was 5.2 months. The mean CARES score for all women was 1.28. Mean CARES scores in the mastectomy-only group (1.87) and in the mastectomy with reconstruction group (1.52) were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) compared with the scores in the lumpectomy group (0.85), indicating that radical surgery was associated with more body image concerns. Radiation (p = 0.01), anxiety (p = 0.0001), depression (p < 0.0001), fatigue (p = 0.04), musculoskeletal pain symptoms (p < 0.0001), weight gain (p = 0.01), and weight loss (p = 0.02), in addition to surgery type (p < 0.0001), were all associated with more body image concerns in the multi-variable analysis. This analysis highlights the impact of treatment, along with physical and psychological factors, on body image early in the survivorship period. Our findings provide targets for potential future intervention and may aid young women in the surgical decision-making process. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. OH radical imaging in a DI diesel engine and the structure of the early diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.E.; Coy, E.B.

    1996-03-01

    Laser-sheet imaging studies have considerably advanced our understanding of diesel combustion; however, the location and nature of the flame zones within the combusting fuel jet have been largely unstudied. To address this issue, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical has been applied to the reacting fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class, modified for optical access. An Nd:YAG-based laser system was used to pump the overlapping Q{sub 1}9 and Q{sub 2}8 lines of the (1,0) band of the A{yields}X transition at 284.01 nm, while the fluorescent emission from both the (0,O) and (1, I) bands (308 to 320 nm) was imaged with an intensified video camera. This scheme allowed rejection of elastically scattered laser light, PAH fluorescence, and laser-induced incandescence. OH PLIF is shown to be an excellent diagnostic for diesel diffusion flames. The signal is strong, and it is confined to a narrow region about the flame front because the threebody recombination reactions that reduce high flame-front OH concentrations to equilibrium levels occur rapidly at diesel pressures. No signal was evident in the fuel-rich premixed flame regions where calculations and burner experiments indicate that OH concentrations will be below detectable limits. Temporal sequences of OH PLIF images are presented showing the onset and development of the early diffusion flame up to the time that soot obscures the images. These images show that the diffusion flame develops around the periphery of the-downstream portion of the reacting fuel jet about half way through the premixed burn spike. Although affected by turbulence, the diffusion flame remains at the jet periphery for the rest of the imaged sequence.

  10. [Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Diagnostic Imaging of Muscle Injuries: Perfusion Imaging in the Early Arterial Phase].

    PubMed

    Hotfiel, T; Carl, H D; Swoboda, B; Engelhardt, M; Heinrich, M; Strobel, D; Wildner, D

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound is a standard procedure widely used in the diagnostic investigation of muscle injuries and widely described in the literature. Its advantages include rapid availability, cost effectiveness and the possibility to perform a real-time dynamic examination with the highest possible spatial resolution. In the diagnostic work-up of minor lesions (muscle stiffness, muscle strain), plain ultrasound has so far been inferior to MRI. The case presented by us is an example of the possibilities offered by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the imaging of muscle injuries compared with plain B-mode image ultrasound and MRI imaging of the affected region. This case report is about a high-performance football player who sustained a muscle injury. He underwent an ultrasound examination (S 2000, 9L4 Probe, Siemens, Germany), which was performed simultaneously in the conventional and contrast-enhanced mode at the level of the lesion. An intravenous bolus injection of 4.8 ml of intravascular contrast agent (SonoVue(®), Bracco, Italy) was given via a cubital intravenous line. After that, the distribution of contrast agent was visualised in the early arterial phase. In addition, a plain magnetic resonance imaging scan of both thighs was performed for reference. On conventional ultrasound, the lesion was not clearly distinguishable from neighbouring tissue, whereas contrast-enhanced ultrasound demonstrated a well delineated, circumscribed area of impaired perfusion with hypoenhancement compared with the surrounding muscles at the clinical level of the lesion in the arterial wash-in phase (0-30 sec, after intravenous administration). The MRI scan revealed an edema signal with perifascial fluid accumulation in the corresponding site. The use of intravascular contrast agent enabled the sensitive detection of a minor injury by ultrasound for the first time. An intramuscular edema seen in the MRI scan showed a functional arterial perfusion impairment on ultrasound, which was

  11. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H.; Amaechi, Bennet T.

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  12. On the sensitivity of thermophotonic lock-in imaging and polarized Raman spectroscopy to early dental caries diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Nima; Mandelis, Andreas; Dehghany, Mehdi; Michaelian, Kirk H; Amaechi, Bennet T

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the leading cause of tooth loss, which can promptly be prevented if detected in early stages of progression. Unfortunately, conventional diagnostic modalities currently used in dentistry lack the sensitivity to detect early caries. The authors' intention is to compare the ability of polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging to make early caries diagnosis. Extracted human teeth with no visible stain or defects were artificially demineralized in accordance to a well-known protocol in dentistry for simulated early caries development at several demineralization stages. Samples were then inspected using polarized Raman spectroscopy and thermophotonic imaging. The sensitivities of these two diagnostic modalities are compared, and the results are verified using transverse micro-radiography. It was found that compared to polarized Raman spectroscopy, thermophotonic imaging exhibits superior sensitivity to very early stages of demineralization.

  13. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Arterial Spin Labeling as Markers of Early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaobo; Yan, Ronghua; Chen, Zhaoyu; Weng, Ruihui; Liu, Xu; Gao, Huimin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Kang, Zhuang; Liu, Zhexing; Guo, Yan; Liu, Zhenhua; Larsen, Jan Petter; Wang, Jin; Tang, Beisha; Hallett, Mark; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify a PD-specific MRI pattern using combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) to discriminate patients with early PD from healthy subjects and evaluate disease status. Twenty-one early and 22 mid-late PD patients, and 22 healthy, age/gender-matched controls underwent 3-T MRI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), fiber number (FN) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. We found that compared with healthy subjects, there was a profound reduction in FN passing through the SN in PD. FA in the SN and CBF in the caudate nucleus were inversely correlated with motor dysfunction. A negative correlation was observed between FA in the hippocampus (Hip) and the NMSS-Mood score, whereas CBF in the Hip and the prefrontal cortex(PFC) correlated with declined cognition. Stratified five-fold cross-validation identified FA in the SN(FA-SNAv), CBF in the PFC(CBF-PFCAv) and FA in the parietal white matter(FA-PWMAv), and the combination of these measurements offered relatively high accuracy (AUC 0.975, 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity) in distinguishing those with early PD from healthy subjects. We demonstrate that the decreased FNs through SN in combination with changes in FA-SNAv, CBF-PFCAv and FA-PWMAv values might serve as potential markers of early-stage PD. PMID:27646647

  14. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  15. Lateralizing language function with pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging in early proficient bilingual patients.

    PubMed

    Połczyńska, Monika M; Japardi, Kevin; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2017-03-23

    Research on bilinguals with brain lesions is complicated by high patient variability, making it difficult to find well-matched controls. We benefitted from a database of over 700 patients and conducted an analysis of pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging data to assess language dominance in 25 early, highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals, and 25 carefully matched monolingual controls. Our results showed that early bilingualism is associated with greater bilateral hemispheric involvement, and monolingualism is associated with stronger left hemisphere lateralization (p=0.009). The bilinguals showed more pronounced right hemisphere activation (p=0.008). Although language dominance values were concordant in the bilingual group, there were a few (12%) atypical cases with different lateralization patterns in L1 and L2. Finally, we found distinct areas of activity in first and second language within the language network, in addition to regions of convergence. These data underscore the need to map all languages proficiently spoken by surgical candidates.

  16. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M.

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  17. Mechanism of disease in early osteoarthritis: application of modern MR imaging techniques -- a technical report.

    PubMed

    Jobke, Bjoern; Bolbos, Radu; Saadat, Ehsan; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1ρ relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MRI sequence, T1ρ, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-weighted sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future.

  18. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo-Núñez, A.; Pérez-Meza, M.

    2012-10-01

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  19. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  20. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  1. In vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging allows early detection of a therapeutic response in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sagiyama, Koji; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Togao, Osamu; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Maher, Elizabeth A; Mickey, Bruce E; Pan, Edward; Sherry, A Dean; Bachoo, Robert M; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-03-25

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which account for more than 50% of all gliomas, is among the deadliest of all human cancers. Given the dismal prognosis of GBM, it would be advantageous to identify early biomarkers of a response to therapy to avoid continuing ineffective treatments and to initiate other therapeutic strategies. The present in vivo longitudinal study in an orthotopic mouse model demonstrates quantitative assessment of early treatment response during short-term chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) by amide proton transfer (APT) imaging. In a GBM line, only one course of TMZ (3 d exposure and 4 d rest) at a dose of 80 mg/kg resulted in substantial reduction in APT signal compared with untreated control animals, in which the APT signal continued to increase. Although there were no detectable differences in tumor volume, cell density, or apoptosis rate between groups, levels of Ki67 (index of cell proliferation) were substantially reduced in treated tumors. In another TMZ-resistant GBM line, the APT signal and levels of Ki67 increased despite the same course of TMZ treatment. As metabolite changes are known to occur early in the time course of chemotherapy and precede morphologic changes, these results suggest that the APT signal in glioma may be a useful functional biomarker of treatment response or degree of tumor progression. Thus, APT imaging may serve as a sensitive biomarker of early treatment response and could potentially replace invasive biopsies to provide a definitive diagnosis. This would have a major impact on the clinical management of patients with glioma.

  2. Diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Yu; Wang, Xian-Bin; Sun, Xue-Hui; Liu, Feng-Li; Huang, Sheng-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis and management improve the outcome of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study explored the application of high-frequency ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of early RA. Thirty-nine patients (20 males and 19 females) diagnosed with early RA were enrolled in the study. A total of 1,248 positions, including 858 hand joints and 390 tendons, were examined by high-frequency US and MRI to evaluate the presence of bone erosion, bone marrow edema (BME), synovial proliferation, joint effusion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. The imaging results of the above abnormalities, detected by US, were compared with those identified using MRI. No statistically significant overall changes were observed between high-frequency US and MRI in detecting bone erosion [44 (5.1%) vs. 35 (4.1%), respectively; P>0.05], tendinitis [18 (4.6%) vs. 14 (1.5%), respectively; P>0.05] and tendon sheath edema [37 (9.5%) vs. 30 (7.7%), respectively; P>0.05]. Significant differences were observed between high-frequency US and MRI with regards to the detection of synovial proliferation [132 (15.4%) vs. 66 (7.7%), respectively; P<0.05] and joint effusion [89 (10.4%) vs. 52 (6.1%), respectively; P<0.05]. In addition, significant differences were identified between the detection of BME using MRI compared with high-frequency US (5.5 vs. 0%, respectively; P<0.05). MRI and high-frequency US of the dominant hand and wrist joints were comparably sensitive to bone erosion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. However, MRI was more sensitive in detecting bone marrow edema in early RA, while US was more sensitive in the evaluation of joint effusion and synovial proliferation. In conclusion, US and MRI are promising for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory activity in patients with RA. PMID:27882112

  3. Diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Yu; Wang, Xian-Bin; Sun, Xue-Hui; Liu, Feng-Li; Huang, Sheng-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    Early diagnosis and management improve the outcome of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study explored the application of high-frequency ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of early RA. Thirty-nine patients (20 males and 19 females) diagnosed with early RA were enrolled in the study. A total of 1,248 positions, including 858 hand joints and 390 tendons, were examined by high-frequency US and MRI to evaluate the presence of bone erosion, bone marrow edema (BME), synovial proliferation, joint effusion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. The imaging results of the above abnormalities, detected by US, were compared with those identified using MRI. No statistically significant overall changes were observed between high-frequency US and MRI in detecting bone erosion [44 (5.1%) vs. 35 (4.1%), respectively; P>0.05], tendinitis [18 (4.6%) vs. 14 (1.5%), respectively; P>0.05] and tendon sheath edema [37 (9.5%) vs. 30 (7.7%), respectively; P>0.05]. Significant differences were observed between high-frequency US and MRI with regards to the detection of synovial proliferation [132 (15.4%) vs. 66 (7.7%), respectively; P<0.05] and joint effusion [89 (10.4%) vs. 52 (6.1%), respectively; P<0.05]. In addition, significant differences were identified between the detection of BME using MRI compared with high-frequency US (5.5 vs. 0%, respectively; P<0.05). MRI and high-frequency US of the dominant hand and wrist joints were comparably sensitive to bone erosion, tendinitis and tendon sheath edema. However, MRI was more sensitive in detecting bone marrow edema in early RA, while US was more sensitive in the evaluation of joint effusion and synovial proliferation. In conclusion, US and MRI are promising for the detection and diagnosis of inflammatory activity in patients with RA.

  4. In vivo chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging allows early detection of a therapeutic response in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sagiyama, Koji; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Togao, Osamu; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Maher, Elizabeth A.; Mickey, Bruce E.; Pan, Edward; Sherry, A. Dean; Bachoo, Robert M.; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which account for more than 50% of all gliomas, is among the deadliest of all human cancers. Given the dismal prognosis of GBM, it would be advantageous to identify early biomarkers of a response to therapy to avoid continuing ineffective treatments and to initiate other therapeutic strategies. The present in vivo longitudinal study in an orthotopic mouse model demonstrates quantitative assessment of early treatment response during short-term chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) by amide proton transfer (APT) imaging. In a GBM line, only one course of TMZ (3 d exposure and 4 d rest) at a dose of 80 mg/kg resulted in substantial reduction in APT signal compared with untreated control animals, in which the APT signal continued to increase. Although there were no detectable differences in tumor volume, cell density, or apoptosis rate between groups, levels of Ki67 (index of cell proliferation) were substantially reduced in treated tumors. In another TMZ-resistant GBM line, the APT signal and levels of Ki67 increased despite the same course of TMZ treatment. As metabolite changes are known to occur early in the time course of chemotherapy and precede morphologic changes, these results suggest that the APT signal in glioma may be a useful functional biomarker of treatment response or degree of tumor progression. Thus, APT imaging may serve as a sensitive biomarker of early treatment response and could potentially replace invasive biopsies to provide a definitive diagnosis. This would have a major impact on the clinical management of patients with glioma. PMID:24616497

  5. Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Cardoso, G. G.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.; Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.; Salas-Gutierrez, I.; Lemus-Bedolla, E.; Castillo-Guzman, A. R.; Lopez-Lemus, H. L.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2017-02-01

    Most people with diabetes suffer some deterioration of the feet. Diabetic foot syndrome causes ulceration in about 15% of cases and such deterioration leads to amputation in about 2.5% of diabetic patients, diminishing their quality of life and generating extraordinary costs for patients and public health systems. Currently, there is no objective method for the detection of diabetic foot syndrome in its early stages. We propose terahertz imaging as a method for the evaluation of such deterioration. This screening method could aid the prevention and medical treatment of this condition in the future.

  6. Diffusion imaging changes in grey matter in Alzheimer's disease: a potential marker of early neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Weston, Philip S J; Simpson, Ivor J A; Ryan, Natalie S; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized to have a long presymptomatic period, during which there is progressive accumulation of molecular pathology, followed by inexorable neuronal damage. The ability to identify presymptomatic individuals with evidence of neurodegenerative change, to stage their disease, and to track progressive changes will be important for early diagnosis and for prevention trials. Despite recent advances, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging, our ability to identify early neurodegenerative changes reliably is limited. The development of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which is sensitive to microstructural changes not visible with conventional volumetric techniques, has led to a number of diffusion imaging studies in AD; these have largely focused on white matter changes. However, in AD cerebral grey matter is affected very early, with pathological studies suggesting that grey matter changes predate those in white matter. In this article we review the growing number of studies that assess grey matter diffusivity changes in AD. Although use of the technique is still at a relatively early stage, results so far have been promising. Initial studies identified changes in diffusion measures in the hippocampi of patients with mild cognitive impairment, which predated macroscopic volume loss, with positive predictive value for progression to AD dementia. More recent studies have identified abnormalities in multiple neocortical areas (particularly the posterior cingulate) at various stages of disease progression. Studies of patients who carry genetic mutations predisposing to autosomal dominant familial AD have shown cortical and subcortical grey matter diffusivity changes several years before the expected onset of the first clinical symptoms. The technique is not without potential methodological difficulties, especially relating to partial volume effects, although recent advances appear to be reducing such issues. Going forward

  7. Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Cardoso, G G; Rojas-Landeros, S C; Alfaro-Gomez, M; Hernandez-Serrano, A I; Salas-Gutierrez, I; Lemus-Bedolla, E; Castillo-Guzman, A R; Lopez-Lemus, H L; Castro-Camus, E

    2017-02-06

    Most people with diabetes suffer some deterioration of the feet. Diabetic foot syndrome causes ulceration in about 15% of cases and such deterioration leads to amputation in about 2.5% of diabetic patients, diminishing their quality of life and generating extraordinary costs for patients and public health systems. Currently, there is no objective method for the detection of diabetic foot syndrome in its early stages. We propose terahertz imaging as a method for the evaluation of such deterioration. This screening method could aid the prevention and medical treatment of this condition in the future.

  8. Terahertz imaging for early screening of diabetic foot syndrome: A proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Cardoso, G. G.; Rojas-Landeros, S. C.; Alfaro-Gomez, M.; Hernandez-Serrano, A. I.; Salas-Gutierrez, I.; Lemus-Bedolla, E.; Castillo-Guzman, A. R.; Lopez-Lemus, H. L.; Castro-Camus, E.

    2017-01-01

    Most people with diabetes suffer some deterioration of the feet. Diabetic foot syndrome causes ulceration in about 15% of cases and such deterioration leads to amputation in about 2.5% of diabetic patients, diminishing their quality of life and generating extraordinary costs for patients and public health systems. Currently, there is no objective method for the detection of diabetic foot syndrome in its early stages. We propose terahertz imaging as a method for the evaluation of such deterioration. This screening method could aid the prevention and medical treatment of this condition in the future. PMID:28165050

  9. Early functional magnetic resonance imaging activations predict language outcome after stroke.

    PubMed

    Saur, Dorothee; Ronneberger, Olaf; Kümmerer, Dorothee; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Klöppel, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    An accurate prediction of system-specific recovery after stroke is essential to provide rehabilitation therapy based on the individual needs. We explored the usefulness of functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from an auditory language comprehension experiment to predict individual language recovery in 21 aphasic stroke patients. Subjects with an at least moderate language impairment received extensive language testing 2 weeks and 6 months after left-hemispheric stroke. A multivariate machine learning technique was used to predict language outcome 6 months after stroke. In addition, we aimed to predict the degree of language improvement over 6 months. 76% of patients were correctly separated into those with good and bad language performance 6 months after stroke when based on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from language relevant areas. Accuracy further improved (86% correct assignments) when age and language score were entered alongside functional magnetic resonance imaging data into the fully automatic classifier. A similar accuracy was reached when predicting the degree of language improvement based on imaging, age and language performance. No prediction better than chance level was achieved when exploring the usefulness of diffusion weighted imaging as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging acquired two days after stroke. This study demonstrates the high potential of current machine learning techniques to predict system-specific clinical outcome even for a disease as heterogeneous as stroke. Best prediction of language recovery is achieved when the brain activation potential after system-specific stimulation is assessed in the second week post stroke. More intensive early rehabilitation could be provided for those with a predicted poor recovery and the extension to other systems, for example, motor and attention seems feasible.

  10. Noninvasive Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of the Effect of Statins on Endothelial Inflammatory Phenotype in Early Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Khanicheh, Elham; Mitterhuber, Martina; Xu, Lifen; Haeuselmann, Stéphanie P.; Kuster, Gabriela M.; Kaufmann, Beat A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Inflammatory changes on the endothelium are responsible for leukocyte recruitment to plaques in atherosclerosis. Noninvasive assessment of treatment-effects on endothelial inflammation may be of use for managing medical therapy and developing novel therapies. We hypothesized that molecular imaging of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEU) could assess treatment effects on endothelial phenotype in early atherosclerosis. Methods Mice with atherosclerosis produced by gene deletion of the LDL-receptor and Apobec-1-editing protein were studied. At 12 weeks of age, mice received 8 weeks of regular chow or atorvastatin-enriched chow (10 mg/kg/day). At 20 weeks, CEU molecular imaging for aortic endothelial VCAM-1 expression was performed with VCAM-1-targeted (MBVCAM) and control microbubbles (MBCtr). Aortic wall thickness was assessed with high frequency ultrasound. Histology, immunohistology and Western blot were used to assess plaque burden and VCAM-1 expression. Results Plaque burden was reduced on histology, and VCAM-1 was reduced on Western blot by atorvastatin, which corresponded to less endothelial expression of VCAM-1 on immunohistology. High frequency ultrasound did not detect differences in aortic wall thickness between groups. In contrast, CEU molecular imaging demonstrated selective signal enhancement for MBVCAM in non-treated animals (MBVCAM 2±0.3 vs MBCtr 0.7±0.2, p<0.01), but not in statin-treated animals (MBVCAM 0.8±0.2 vs MBCtr 1.0±0.2, p = ns; p<0.01 for the effect of statin on MBVCAM signal). Conclusions Non-invasive CEU molecular imaging detects the effects of anti-inflammatory treatment on endothelial inflammation in early atherosclerosis. This easily accessible, low-cost technique may be useful in assessing treatment effects in preclinical research and in patients. PMID:23554922

  11. Pattern recognition applied to infrared images for early alerts in fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Vincent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Cord, Aurélien

    2014-09-01

    Fog conditions are the cause of severe car accidents in western countries because of the poor induced visibility. Its forecast and intensity are still very difficult to predict by weather services. Infrared cameras allow to detect and to identify objects in fog while visibility is too low for eye detection. Over the past years, the implementation of cost effective infrared cameras on some vehicles has enabled such detection. On the other hand pattern recognition algorithms based on Canny filters and Hough transformation are a common tool applied to images. Based on these facts, a joint research program between IFSTTAR and Cerema has been developed to study the benefit of infrared images obtained in a fog tunnel during its natural dissipation. Pattern recognition algorithms have been applied, specifically on road signs which shape is usually associated to a specific meaning (circular for a speed limit, triangle for an alert, …). It has been shown that road signs were detected early enough in images, with respect to images in the visible spectrum, to trigger useful alerts for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

  12. Use of radionuclide imaging in the early diagnosis and treatment of renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, S R; Mattern, W D; Staab, E; Johnson, G

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the clinical application of radionuclide imaging to evaluate changes in cadaver transplant function in the immediate postoperative period. The method uses orthoiodohippuric acid (hippuran) administered IV, with scintillation imaging, and curve analysis by a digital computer. An initial study is always obtained 24 hours after transplantation. Serial studies are then obtained, as needed, to interpret the clinical course. Selected cases are presented which illustrate the use of this protocol in various clinical settings. In the oliguric patient serial studies have been of particular value. They have identified ATN so that over-enthusiastic treatment for rejection could be avoided. They have also identified acute rejection complicating ATN so that high dose steroid therapy could be administered appropriately. In the non-oliguric patient they have frequently contributed to the early diagnosis of acute rejection, and they have been useful in monitoring the effect and duration of treatment for severe rejection crisis. It is concluded that radionuclide imaging studies, when carefully applied and interpreted, are a valuable adjunct to the management of patients in this complex clinical setting. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1093490

  13. Prediction of Early Reperfusion From Repeated Arterial Spin Labeling Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging During Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shuhei; Griebe, Martin; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias; Sauter-Servaes, Johannes; Wolf, Marc E; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina; Kern, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    There are few in vivo data on the pathophysiology of reperfusion during systemic thrombolysis. We monitored the time course of cerebral perfusion changes in patients during thrombolysis with repeated arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. Ten patients with proximal arterial occlusion within 4.5 hours after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. All patients received intravenous thrombolysis during the magnetic resonance imaging examination. Repeated arterial spin labeling perfusion images were acquired during the 60-minute therapy and at follow-up after 24 to 72 hours. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging features, and cerebral perfusion changes were analyzed. Before thrombolysis, arterial spin labeling hypoperfusion and fluid-attenuation inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity in the territory of the occluded arteries were observed in all patients. In 5 patients, extensive arterial transit artifacts (ATA) developed in the hypoperfused area. The ATA corresponded with fluid-attenuation inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities. All 5 patients who developed extensive ATA in the hypoperfused area had complete reperfusion after thrombolysis, whereas the 5 without extensive ATA showed no or only partial reperfusion (P<0.01). The development of ATA preceded the normalization of tissue perfusion. The development of ATA during thrombolysis is associated with early reperfusion after thrombolysis. arterial spin labeling assessment during intravenous thrombolysis has the potential to guide subsequent therapeutic strategies in patients with acute stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Tetrofosmin early time gated post-stress single-photon emission computed tomography imaging: feasibility and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Laurent; Mérino, Bertrand; Blaire, Tanguy; Bailliez, Alban; Casset-Senon, Danielle; Levy, Maurice; Halley, Arnaud; Divry, Guillaume

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, the image quality, and the clinical relevance of an early gated post-stress (GPS) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tetrofosmin (Myoview™-GE Healthcare) acquisition protocol. Time delay between myocardial technetium-labeled tracer administration and SPECT acquisition is usually about 30 minutes after stress, and 45 to 60 minutes at rest: because of the absence of significant redistribution, perfusion images are related to stress even 30 minutes after stress injection, while function and thickening data obtained with gated acquisition 30 minutes after stress are mainly related to rest conditions. 194 patients were prospectively included and analyzed, in a multicenter registry. Three gated-SPECT 99(m)Tc-Tetrofosmin studies were performed per patient: GPS-SPECT, 30 minutes post-stress (GS30), and at rest (GR30). GPS image quality was excellent/good (93.9%), and similar to GS30 images (96.6%). The presence of adjacent myocardial sub-diaphragmatic activity on GPS images was similar to GS30 images (24% vs 22%), and less frequent than on GR30 images (31%). For perfusion, thickening, and motion scores, there was no significant difference between early and 30 minute post-stress in the global patient population, but significant differences were observed between GPS and GS30 for LVEF (65% ± 15% vs 63% ± 14%). In the ischemic patients, with the stress-rest protocol, the perfusion score was 14.2 on GPS images and 12.4 on GS30 images (P = .002). Tetrofosmin early GPS-SPECT is feasible without impairment of image quality (better count rate). Ischemic defect size on early post-stress images is slightly more pronounced than at 30 minutes: this could modify therapeutic decision. This technique produces reliable function information during early post-stress period, and might be useful for disclosing transient motion abnormalities.

  15. Mechanism of Disease in early Osteoarthritis: Application of modern MR imaging techniques – A technical report

    PubMed Central

    Jobke, B.; Bolbos, R.; Saadat, E.; Cheng, J.; Li, X.; Majumdar, S.

    2012-01-01

    The application of biomolecular magnetic resonance imaging becomes increasingly important in the context of early cartilage changes in degenerative and inflammatory joint disease before gross morphological changes become apparent. In this limited technical report, we investigate the correlation of MRI T1, T2 and T1 relaxation times with quantitative biochemical measurements of proteoglycan and collagen contents of cartilage in close synopsis with histologic morphology. A recently developed MR imaging sequence, T1, was able to detect early intracartilaginous degeneration quantitatively and also qualitatively by color mapping demonstrating a higher sensitivity than standard T2-w sequences. The results correlated highly with reduced proteoglycan content and disrupted collagen architecture as measured by biochemistry and histology. The findings lend support to a clinical implementation that allows rapid visual capturing of pathology on a local, millimeter level. Further information about articular cartilage quality otherwise not detectable in-vivo, via normal inspection, is needed for orthopedic treatment decisions in the present and future. PMID:22902064

  16. Multi-method analysis of MRI images in early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Robin; Julkunen, Valtteri; Koikkalainen, Juha; Niskanen, Eini; Zhang, Dong Ping; Rueckert, Daniel; Soininen, Hilkka; Lötjönen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    The role of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more and more emphasized in the early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to assess the improvement in classification accuracy that can be achieved by combining features from different structural MRI analysis techniques. Automatically estimated MR features used are hippocampal volume, tensor-based morphometry, cortical thickness and a novel technique based on manifold learning. Baseline MRIs acquired from all 834 subjects (231 healthy controls (HC), 238 stable mild cognitive impairment (S-MCI), 167 MCI to AD progressors (P-MCI), 198 AD) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database were used for evaluation. We compared the classification accuracy achieved with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). The best results achieved with individual features are 90% sensitivity and 84% specificity (HC/AD classification), 64%/66% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 82%/76% (HC/P-MCI) with the LDA classifier. The combination of all features improved these results to 93% sensitivity and 85% specificity (HC/AD), 67%/69% (S-MCI/P-MCI) and 86%/82% (HC/P-MCI). Compared with previously published results in the ADNI database using individual MR-based features, the presented results show that a comprehensive analysis of MRI images combining multiple features improves classification accuracy and predictive power in detecting early AD. The most stable and reliable classification was achieved when combining all available features.

  17. Lentiviral vector design and imaging approaches to visualize the early stages of cellular reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Warlich, Eva; Kuehle, Johannes; Cantz, Tobias; Brugman, Martijn H; Maetzig, Tobias; Galla, Melanie; Filipczyk, Adam A; Halle, Stephan; Klump, Hannes; Schöler, Hans R; Baum, Christopher; Schroeder, Timm; Schambach, Axel

    2011-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from somatic cells by gene transfer of reprogramming transcription factors. Expression levels of these factors strongly influence the overall efficacy to form iPSC colonies, but additional contribution of stochastic cell-intrinsic factors has been proposed. Here, we present engineered color-coded lentiviral vectors in which codon-optimized reprogramming factors are co-expressed by a strong retroviral promoter that is rapidly silenced in iPSC, and imaged the conversion of fibroblasts to iPSC. We combined fluorescence microscopy with long-term single cell tracking, and used live-cell imaging to analyze the emergence and composition of early iPSC clusters. Applying our engineered lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that vector silencing typically occurs prior to or simultaneously with the induction of an Oct4-EGFP pluripotency marker. Around 7 days post-transduction (pt), a subfraction of cells in clonal colonies expressed Oct4-EGFP and rapidly expanded. Cell tracking of single cell-derived iPSC colonies supported the concept that stochastic epigenetic changes are necessary for reprogramming. We also found that iPSC colonies may emerge as a genetic mosaic originating from different clusters. Improved vector design with continuous cell tracking thus creates a powerful system to explore the subtle dynamics of biological processes such as early reprogramming events.

  18. Prediction of MRI erosive progression: a comparison of modern imaging modalities in early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Bøyesen, Pernille; Haavardsholm, Espen A; van der Heijde, Désirée; Østergaard, Mikkel; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Sesseng, Sølve; Kvien, Tore K

    2011-01-01

    To examine the associations between modern imaging modalities and joint damage measured as 1-year MRI erosive progression, in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. 84 RA patients with disease duration of less than 1 year were included in this inception cohort. Patients were evaluated at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months by core measures of disease activity, MRI and ultrasound grey-scale (USGS) of inflammation, conventional radiography and digital x-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) bone mineral density (BMD) of cortical hand bone. 53 of the 79 patients (67%) who completed the follow-up had MRI erosive progression (dependent variable). USGS and MRI bone marrow oedema (BME) were in multivariate analyses independent predictors of 1-year MRI erosive progression. There was a trend towards higher MRI synovitis score and 3-month DXR BMD loss in patients developing MRI erosions. On an individual level, USGS inflammation, MRI synovitis and MRI BME also somewhat better predicted outcome than rheumatoid factor, anticitrullinated protein antibodies and disease activity score 28. USGS inflammation and MRI BME were independent predictors of MRI erosive progression in early RA patients on a group level. The exact prognosis of the individual patients could not be determined by imaging alone.

  19. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; Mage = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual < ideal); and (4) degree of discrepancy (i.e., how different actual and ideal body self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lentiviral Vector Design and Imaging Approaches to Visualize the Early Stages of Cellular Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Warlich, Eva; Kuehle, Johannes; Cantz, Tobias; Brugman, Martijn H; Maetzig, Tobias; Galla, Melanie; Filipczyk, Adam A; Halle, Stephan; Klump, Hannes; Schöler, Hans R; Baum, Christopher; Schroeder, Timm; Schambach, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from somatic cells by gene transfer of reprogramming transcription factors. Expression levels of these factors strongly influence the overall efficacy to form iPSC colonies, but additional contribution of stochastic cell-intrinsic factors has been proposed. Here, we present engineered color-coded lentiviral vectors in which codon-optimized reprogramming factors are co-expressed by a strong retroviral promoter that is rapidly silenced in iPSC, and imaged the conversion of fibroblasts to iPSC. We combined fluorescence microscopy with long-term single cell tracking, and used live-cell imaging to analyze the emergence and composition of early iPSC clusters. Applying our engineered lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate that vector silencing typically occurs prior to or simultaneously with the induction of an Oct4-EGFP pluripotency marker. Around 7 days post-transduction (pt), a subfraction of cells in clonal colonies expressed Oct4-EGFP and rapidly expanded. Cell tracking of single cell–derived iPSC colonies supported the concept that stochastic epigenetic changes are necessary for reprogramming. We also found that iPSC colonies may emerge as a genetic mosaic originating from different clusters. Improved vector design with continuous cell tracking thus creates a powerful system to explore the subtle dynamics of biological processes such as early reprogramming events. PMID:21285961

  1. High angular resolution diffusion imaging abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Trojsi, Francesca; Caiazzo, Giuseppina; Di Nardo, Federica; Fratello, Michele; Santangelo, Gabriella; Siciliano, Mattia; Femiano, Cinzia; Russo, Antonio; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; Cirillo, Mario; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2017-09-15

    Using magnetic resonance (MR) high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), we aimed at revealing possible microstructural alterations in the early stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), still not completely elucidated. We studied 22 patients with ALS, in stages 1 or 2 according to the King's staging system, compared to 18 healthy controls (HCs). Statistical mapping of HARDI-derived parameters and tractography measures were performed using the Q-ball imaging diffusion data model. When compared to HCs, the ALS group showed a highly significant decrease of generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and fiber length and density in the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) and in the corpus callosum (CC) (p<0.05, corrected level of significance). Moreover, stratifying the ALS population considering the disease phenotype, larger areas of decreased GFA were found in patients with bulbar phenotype compared to those with classic phenotype in several bilateral associative fiber tracts, such as superior and inferior longitudinal, inferior fronto-occipital and uncinate fasciculi. Our whole-brain HARDI results provided preliminary evidence of an early pattern of microstructural degeneration in ALS, mainly involving the CSTs and the CC, although divergent patterns of microstructural abnormalites could be related to different disease phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bimodal in vivo imaging provides early assessment of stem-cell-based photoreceptor engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Laver, C R J; Metcalfe, A L; Szczygiel, L; Yanai, A; Sarunic, M V; Gregory-Evans, K

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Subretinal transplantation of stem-cell-derived photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) is a promising and innovative approach to treating a range of blinding diseases. However, common barriers to efficient preclinical transplantation comes in the form of suboptimal graft architecture, limited graft survival, and immune-rejection, each of which cannot be assessed using conventional in vivo imaging (ie, rodent ophthalmoscopy). With the majority of PPCs reported to die within the first few weeks after transplantation, understanding the mechanisms of graft failure, and ultimately devising preventative methods, currently relies on lengthy end point histology. To address these limitations, we hypothesized that combining two imaging modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescence confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (fcSLO), could provide a more rapid and comprehensive view of PPC engraftment. Methods Human ESC-derived PPCs were transplanted into 15 retinal dystrophic rats that underwent bimodal imaging at 0, 8, and 15 days posttransplant. Results Bimodal imaging provided serial detection of graft: placement, architecture, and survival; each undetectable under ophthalmoscopy. Bimodal imaging determined graft placement to be either: subretinal (n=7), choroidal (n=4), or vitreal (n=4) indicating neural retinal perforation. Graft architecture was highly variable at the time of transplantation, with notable redistribution over time, while complete, or near complete, graft loss was observed in the majority of recipients after day 8. Of particular importance was detection of vitreal aggregates overlying the graft—possibly an indicator of host-site inflammation and rejection. Conclusion Early real-time feedback of engraftment has the potential to greatly increase efficiency of preclinical trials in cell-based retinal therapeutics. PMID:25771816

  3. Diagnosis of extent of early gastric cancer using flexible spectral imaging color enhancement.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Miura, Yoshimasa; Yoshizawa, Mitsuyo; Sunada, Keijiro; Satoh, Kiichi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2012-08-16

    The demarcation line between the cancerous lesion and the surrounding area could be easily recognized with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) system compared with conventional white light images. The characteristic finding of depressed-type early gastric cancer (EGC) in most cases was revealed as reddish lesions distinct from the surrounding yellowish non-cancerous area without magnification. Conventional endoscopic images provide little information regarding depressed lesions located in the tangential line, but FICE produces higher color contrast of such cancers. Histological findings in depressed area with reddish color changes show a high density of glandular structure and an apparently irregular microvessel in intervening parts between crypts, resulting in the higher color contrast of FICE image between cancer and surrounding area. Some depressed cancers are shown as whitish lesion by conventional endoscopy. FICE also can produce higher color contrast between whitish cancerous lesions and surrounding atrophic mucosa. For nearly flat cancer, FICE can produce an irregular structural pattern of cancer distinct from that of the surrounding mucosa, leading to a clear demarcation. Most elevated-type EGCs are detected easily as yellowish lesions with clearly contrasting demarcation. In some cases, a partially reddish change is accompanied on the tumor surface similar to depressed type cancer. In addition, the FICE system is quite useful for the detection of minute gastric cancer, even without magnification. These new contrasting images with the FICE system may have the potential to increase the rate of detection of gastric cancers and screen for them more effectively as well as to determine the extent of EGC.

  4. Diagnosis of extent of early gastric cancer using flexible spectral imaging color enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Miura, Yoshimasa; Yoshizawa, Mitsuyo; Sunada, Keijiro; Satoh, Kiichi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The demarcation line between the cancerous lesion and the surrounding area could be easily recognized with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) system compared with conventional white light images. The characteristic finding of depressed-type early gastric cancer (EGC) in most cases was revealed as reddish lesions distinct from the surrounding yellowish non-cancerous area without magnification. Conventional endoscopic images provide little information regarding depressed lesions located in the tangential line, but FICE produces higher color contrast of such cancers. Histological findings in depressed area with reddish color changes show a high density of glandular structure and an apparently irregular microvessel in intervening parts between crypts, resulting in the higher color contrast of FICE image between cancer and surrounding area. Some depressed cancers are shown as whitish lesion by conventional endoscopy. FICE also can produce higher color contrast between whitish cancerous lesions and surrounding atrophic mucosa. For nearly flat cancer, FICE can produce an irregular structural pattern of cancer distinct from that of the surrounding mucosa, leading to a clear demarcation. Most elevated-type EGCs are detected easily as yellowish lesions with clearly contrasting demarcation. In some cases, a partially reddish change is accompanied on the tumor surface similar to depressed type cancer. In addition, the FICE system is quite useful for the detection of minute gastric cancer, even without magnification. These new contrasting images with the FICE system may have the potential to increase the rate of detection of gastric cancers and screen for them more effectively as well as to determine the extent of EGC. PMID:22912909

  5. Early detection of chemotherapy-refractory patients by monitoring textural alterations in diffuse optical spectroscopic images

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Falou, Omar; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Vorauer, Eric; Chin, Lee; Tran, William T.; Wright, Frances C.; Gandhi, Sonal; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Changes in textural characteristics of diffuse optical spectroscopic (DOS) functional images, accompanied by alterations in their mean values, are demonstrated here for the first time as early surrogates of ultimate treatment response in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). NAC, as a standard component of treatment for LABC patient, induces measurable heterogeneous changes in tumor metabolism which were evaluated using DOS-based metabolic maps. This study characterizes such inhomogeneous nature of response development, by determining alterations in textural properties of DOS images apparent at early stages of therapy, followed later by gross changes in mean values of these functional metabolic maps. Methods: Twelve LABC patients undergoing NAC were scanned before and at four times after treatment initiation, and tomographic DOS images were reconstructed at each time. Ultimate responses of patients were determined clinically and pathologically, based on a reduction in tumor size and assessment of residual tumor cellularity. The mean-value parameters and textural features were extracted from volumetric DOS images for several functional and metabolic parameters prior to the treatment initiation. Changes in these DOS-based biomarkers were also monitored over the course of treatment. The measured biomarkers were applied to differentiate patient responses noninvasively and compared to clinical and pathologic responses. Results: Responding and nonresponding patients demonstrated different changes in DOS-based textural and mean-value parameters during chemotherapy. Whereas none of the biomarkers measured prior the start of therapy demonstrated a significant difference between the two patient populations, statistically significant differences were observed at week one after treatment initiation using the relative change in contrast/homogeneity of seven functional maps (0.001 < p < 0.049), and mean value of water

  6. Imaging of Early-Type (SA-SAB) Spiral Galaxies. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Salman; Devereux, Nick

    1999-08-01

    Hα and continuum images are presented for 27 nearby early-type (Sa-Sab) spiral galaxies. Contrary to popular perception, the images reveal copious massive star formation in some of these galaxies. A determination of the Hα morphology and a measure of the Hα luminosity suggest that early-type spirals can be classified into two broad categories based on the luminosity of the largest H II region in the disk. The first category includes galaxies for which the individual H II regions have L_Hα<10^39 ergs s^-1. Most of the category 1 galaxies appear to be morphologically undisturbed but show a wide diversity in nuclear Hα properties. The second category includes galaxies that have at least one H II region in the disk with L_Hα>=10^39 ergs s^-1. All category 2 galaxies show either prominent dust lanes or other morphological peculiarities such as tidal tails, which suggests that the anomalously luminous H II regions in category 2 galaxies may have formed as a result of a recent interaction. The observations, which are part of an ongoing Hα survey, reveal early-type spirals to be a heterogeneous class of galaxies that are evolving in the current epoch. We have also identified some systematic differences between the classifications of spiral galaxies in the Second General Catalog and the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog that may be traced to subtle variations in the application of the criteria used for classifying spiral galaxies. An examination of earlier studies suggests that perceptions concerning the Hubble-type dependence of star formation rates among spiral galaxies depends on the choice of catalog.

  7. Potential diagnostic role of diffusion tensor imaging in early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hongwei; Xu, Feng; Gu, Rui; Han, Xinzuo; Wang, Anqing; Liu, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the potential diagnostic role of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in the early stage of modified corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). A total of 20 beagles were randomly classified (1:1) into either an experimental group (LM), which were intramuscularly injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS) on three consecutive days, or control (CON) group, which were injected with saline. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI were performed at pre-induction and 8 and 12 weeks post-induction. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the range of interest in the femoral head were quantified using DTI. Proximal femora were examined for ONFH at 8 and 12 weeks. The results demonstrated that ONFH developed in four beagles at 8 weeks and in six beagles at 12 weeks, whereas no ONFH was detected in the CON group. No abnormalities were detected by MRI and DTI, and no mortality occurred. In beagles with ONFH in the LM group, the ADC values were 4.7±0.2×10−4 and 4.8±0.3×10−4 mm2/sec at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively, which were significantly increased compared with the CON group (2.5±0.3×10−4 and 2.4±0.3×10−4 mm2, respectively) and the LM group without ONFH (2.6±0.4×10−4 and 2.4±0.3×10−4 mm2, respectively) (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that intramuscular injection of LPS and MPS may lead to early-stage ONFH in beagles. As such, the detection of locally elevated ADC values in the femoral head may aid in the early diagnosis of ONFH. PMID:27882161

  8. Accuracy of early burn depth assessment by laser Doppler imaging on different days post burn.

    PubMed

    Hoeksema, Henk; Van de Sijpe, Karlien; Tondu, Thiery; Hamdi, Moustapha; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Blondeel, Phillip; Monstrey, Stan

    2009-02-01

    Accurate diagnosis of burn depth is essential in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Early assessment of burn depth by clinical means only has been shown to be inaccurate, resulting in unnecessary operations or delay of grafting procedures. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) was reported as an objective technique to determine the depth of a burn wound, but the accuracy on very early days post burn has never been investigated yet. In 40 patients with intermediate depth burns, we prospectively evaluated and compared the accuracy of the LDI measurements with the clinical assessments on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 8. Clinical evaluation of the depth of the burn was performed by two observers blinded to the LDI images. Accuracies were assessed by comparison with outcome: healing times longer than 21 days were considered to be equivalent to a biopsy finding of a deep dermal wound. Obviously superficial and full thickness wounds were excluded. LDI flux level was used for LDI prediction of outcome: less than 220PU to predict non-healing at day 21. The accuracies of burn depth assessments on the day of burn and post burn days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 8 using LDI were 54%, 79.5%, 95%, 97% and 100% compared with clinical assessment accuracies of 40.6%, 61.5%, 52.5%, 71.4% and 100%, respectively. LDI accuracy was significantly higher than clinical accuracy on day 3 (p<0.001) and day 5 (p=0.005). Burn depth conversion was also considered. This is the first study to quantify the advantage of LDI scanning over clinical assessments during these important early after burn days.

  9. Narrow-band imaging system with magnifying endoscopy for early oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Yakushiji, Takashi; Nomura, Takeshi; Sekine, Riyo; Muramatsu, Kyotaro; Ohata, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is often difficult to detect early oral cancer due to the specificity of the oral mucosa structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of narrow band imaging (NBI) as an effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool in early oral cancer and other oral diseases. A magnifying endoscopy system manufactured by Olympus Corporation was used. A total of 121 subjects were included in the study. Subepithelial capillary loops were identified and categorized according to the classification of Inoue, with healthy mucosa graded as Type I or II, and that showing evidence of cancer-induced morphological change as Type III or IV. Sensitivity and specificity for the identification of oral cancer were estimated at 92.3% and 88.2%, respectively. Examination under a microscope with H&E staining and immunostaining for CD34 revealed dilation and extension of the capillaries in epithelial dysplasia, in addition to thickening of the epithelial layer. The present results indicate that use of NBI in conjunction with conventional magnifying endoscopy has great potential as an effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool in the early detection of oral cancer.

  10. Specific lipase-responsive polymer-coated gadolinium nanoparticles for MR imaging of early acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wu; Wang, Li-Qin; Xiang, Qing-Feng; Zhong, Qian; Chen, Lu-Ming; Xu, Cai-Xia; Xiang, Xian-Hong; Xu, Bo; Meng, Fei; Wan, Yi-Qian; Deng, David Y B

    2014-01-01

    Currently, available methods for diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) are mainly dependent on serum enzyme analysis and imaging techniques that are too low in sensitivity and specificity to accurately and promptly diagnose AP. The lack of early diagnostic tools highlights the need to search for a highly effective and specific diagnostic method. In this study, we synthesized a conditionally activated, gadolinium-containing, nanoparticle-based MRI nanoprobe as a diagnostic tool for the early identification of AP. Gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic fatty acid (Gd-DTPA-FA) nanoparticles were synthesized by conjugation of DTPA-FA ligand and gadolinium acetate. Gd-DTPA-FA exhibited low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility when characterized in vitro and in vivo studies. L-arginine induced a gradual increase in the intensity of the T1-weighted MRI signal from 1 h to 36 h in AP rat models. The increase in signal intensity was most significant at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h. These results suggest that the Gd-DTPA-FA as an MRI contrast agent is highly efficient and specific to detect early AP.

  11. Results from UV Imaging in the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Seth H.; WFC3-SOC

    2013-01-01

    A portion of the GOOD-S field was observed with the HST Wide Field Camera 3 with both the UVIS and IR channels, as part of the Early Release Science Observations. Here we present a summary of our results from imaging intermediate redshift galaxies with an emphasis on what was learned from the ultraviolet portion of the observations. We discuss the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies, the assembly of massive spheroids during the peak epoch of the cosmic star-formation rate, the evolution and properties of UV-selected star-forming galaxies, analysis of AGN host galaxies, and the UV properties of z<1.5 early-type galaxies. Additionally, we will discuss how the UV data affect derived galaxy properties such as photometric redshifts and SED parameters. This work is based on the Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program. Support for program 11359 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development.

  13. Automated detection of dark and bright lesions in retinal images for early detection of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Akram, Usman M; Khan, Shoab A

    2012-10-01

    There is an ever-increasing interest in the development of automatic medical diagnosis systems due to the advancement in computing technology and also to improve the service by medical community. The knowledge about health and disease is required for reliable and accurate medical diagnosis. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common causes of blindness and it can be prevented if detected and treated early. DR has different signs and the most distinctive are microaneurysm and haemorrhage which are dark lesions and hard exudates and cotton wool spots which are bright lesions. Location and structure of blood vessels and optic disk play important role in accurate detection and classification of dark and bright lesions for early detection of DR. In this article, we propose a computer aided system for the early detection of DR. The article presents algorithms for retinal image preprocessing, blood vessel enhancement and segmentation and optic disk localization and detection which eventually lead to detection of different DR lesions using proposed hybrid fuzzy classifier. The developed methods are tested on four different publicly available databases. The presented methods are compared with recently published methods and the results show that presented methods outperform all others.

  14. Early developability screen of therapeutic antibody candidates using Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging detection

    PubMed Central

    Lavoisier, Alexandra; Schlaeppi, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies represent one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical market. They are used in a broad range of disease fields, such as autoimmune diseases, cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. The growth of the segment has necessitated development of new analytical platforms for faster and better antibody selection and characterization. Early quality control and risk assessment of biophysical parameters help prevent failure in later stages of antibody development, and thus can reduce costs and save time. Critical parameters such as aggregation, conformational stability, colloidal stability and hydrophilicity, are measured during the early phase of antibody generation and guide the selection process of the best lead candidates in terms of technical developability. We report on the use of a novel instrument (ActiPix/Viscosizer) for measuring both the hydrodynamic radius and the absolute viscosity of antibodies based on Taylor dispersion analysis and UV area imaging. The looped microcapillary-based method combines low sample consumption, fast throughput and high precision compared to other conventional methods. From a random panel of 130 antibodies in the early selection process, we identified some with large hydrodynamic radius outside the normal distribution and others with non-Gaussian Taylor dispersion profiles. The antibodies with such abnormal properties were confirmed later in the selection process to show poor developability profiles. Moreover, combining these results with those of the viscosity measurements at high antibody concentrations allows screening, with limited amounts of materials, candidates with potential issues in pre-formulation development. PMID:25514497

  15. H-alpha images of early type galaxies with hot gas

    SciTech Connect

    Trinchieri, G.; Di serego alighieri, S. European Southern Observatory, Garching )

    1991-05-01

    H-alpha imaging observations of 13 early type galaxies with known X-ray fluxes are presented from the Einstein Observatory data, and long-slit spectroscopy of nine of these. H-alpha emission is detected in the central regions of ten objects. The line emission appears extended over a radius of 5-10 kpc, is generally peaked on the nucleus with regular elliptical isophotes, similar to the red continuum, although with a steeper radial distribution. Low surface brightness filamentary structure is also seen in a few cases (NGC 4406 and NGC 5846). To study the different phases of the interstellar medium in early type galaxies, the emissions due to hot (X-ray) and warm (H-alpha) gas are compared. On average, galaxies with a larger content of hot gas also show a more powerful line emission. However, the scatter in the relation is significant, and suggests that other parameters must play a role. The depth of the gravitational potential and/or the shape of the objects are probably important in determining the amount of gas present in early type galaxies. 50 refs.

  16. Early magnetic resonance imaging in transient ischemic attack and minor stroke: do it or lose it.

    PubMed

    Moreau, François; Modi, Jayesh; Almekhlafi, Mohammed; Bal, Simer; Goyal, Mayank; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2013-03-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke may be affected by the relative timing of imaging. We measured the impact of scanning an individual patient late versus early after TIA and minor stroke. Two hundred sixty-three TIA or minor stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3) patients with a baseline MRI completed within 24 hours of symptom onset and a follow-up MRI at 90 days were included. Baseline and 90-day scans were assessed independently for the presence of any stroke lesions that could explain the presenting symptoms. The presence and pattern of any stroke lesions were compared at the 2 time points. The presence of a stroke (acute or chronic) in any location was more common on baseline MRI versus 90-day MRI (68% vs 56%; P=0.005). Thirty percent of subjects with negative scans at 90 days had a clearly identifiable stroke at baseline. When interpreted blinded to the baseline scan, the presumed relevant lesion on the 90-day MR scan was the correct lesion in only 53% patients. One-third (34%) of patients had a different lesion pattern on the baseline scan compared with the 90-day scan. Ninety percent (80/89) of these patients had more lesions on the baseline MRI and 10% (9/89) had new lesions on the 90-day MRI. Delayed MRI after TIA or minor stroke reduces the diagnostic yield and results in missed understanding of the lesion pattern. MRI of minor stroke and TIA patients should occur early after symptom onset, and delayed imaging should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Early Tumor Development Captured Through Nondestructive, High Resolution Differential Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, A.; Pinzer, B. R.; McDonald, J. T.; Stampanoni, M.; Hlatky, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although a considerable amount is known about molecular dysregulations in later stages of tumor progression, much less is known about the regulated processes supporting initial tumor growth. Insight into such processes can provide a fuller understanding of carcinogenesis, with implications for cancer treatment and risk assessment. Work from our laboratory suggests that organized substructure emerges during tumor formation. The goal here was to examine the feasibility of using state-of-the-art differential phase contrast X-ray imaging to investigate density differentials that evolve during early tumor development. To this end the beamline for TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs (TOMCAT) at the Swiss Light Source was used to examine the time-dependent assembly of substructure in developing tumors. Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging based on grating interferometry as implemented with TOMCAT, offers sensitivity to density differentials within soft tissues and a unique combination of high resolution coupled with a large field of view that permits the accommodation of larger tissue sizes (1 cm in diameter), difficult with other imaging modalities. PMID:24125488

  18. Out-of-plane Stokes imaging polarimeter for early skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Lemaillet, Paul; Germer, Thomas A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Venna, Suraj S.; Boisvert, Marc E.; Flanagan, Katherine E.; Jordan, Marion H.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-07-01

    Optimal treatment of skin cancer before it metastasizes critically depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Imaging spectroscopy and polarized remittance have been utilized in the past for diagnostic purposes, but valuable information can be also obtained from the analysis of skin roughness. For this purpose, we have developed an out-of-plane hemispherical Stokes imaging polarimeter designed to monitor potential skin neoplasia based on a roughness assessment of the epidermis. The system was utilized to study the rough surface scattering for wax samples and human skin. The scattering by rough skin--simulating phantoms showed behavior that is reasonably described by a facet scattering model. Clinical tests were conducted on patients grouped as follows: benign nevi, melanocytic nevus, melanoma, and normal skin. Images were captured and analyzed, and polarization properties are presented in terms of the principal angle of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. In the former case, there is separation between different groups of patients for some incidence azimuth angles. In the latter, separation between different skin samples for various incidence azimuth angles is observed.

  19. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h. PMID:26892180

  20. Early detection of germinated wheat grains using terahertz image and chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuying; Ge, Hongyi; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible tool that uses a terahertz (THz) imaging system for identifying wheat grains at different stages of germination. The THz spectra of the main changed components of wheat grains, maltose and starch, which were obtained by THz time spectroscopy, were distinctly different. Used for original data compression and feature extraction, principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the changes that occurred in the inner chemical structure during germination. Two thresholds, one indicating the start of the release of α-amylase and the second when it reaches the steady state, were obtained through the first five score images. Thus, the first five PCs were input for the partial least-squares regression (PLSR), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) models, which were used to classify seven different germination times between 0 and 48 h, with a prediction accuracy of 92.85%, 93.57%, and 90.71%, respectively. The experimental results indicated that the combination of THz imaging technology and chemometrics could be a new effective way to discriminate wheat grains at the early germination stage of approximately 6 h.

  1. Dental panoramic image analysis for enhancement biomarker of mandibular condyle for osteoporosis early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suprijanto; Azhari; Juliastuti, E.; Septyvergy, A.; Setyagar, N. P. P.

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative disease characterized by low Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Currently, a BMD level is determined by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar vertebrae and femur. Previous studies reported that dental panoramic radiography image has potential information for early osteoporosis detection. This work reported alternative scheme, that consists of the determination of the Region of Interest (ROI) the condyle mandibular in the image as biomarker and feature extraction from ROI and classification of bone conditions. The minimum value of intensity in the cavity area is used to compensate an offset on the ROI. For feature extraction, the fraction of intensity values in the ROI that represent high bone density and the ROI total area is perfomed. The classification will be evaluated from the ability of each feature and its combinations for the BMD detection in 2 classes (normal and abnormal), with the artificial neural network method. The evaluation system used 105 panoramic image data from menopause women which consist of 36 training data and 69 test data that were divided into 2 classes. The 2 classes of classification obtained 88.0% accuracy rate and 88.0% sensitivity rate.

  2. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  3. Competition for attentional resources between low spatial frequency content of emotional images and a foreground task in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Müller, Matthias M; Gundlach, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Low spatial frequency (LSF) image content has been proposed to play a superior functional role in emotional content extraction via the magnocellular pathway biasing attentional resources toward emotional content in visual cortex. We investigated whether emotionally unpleasant complex images that were presented either unfiltered or with LSF content only in the background while subjects performed a foreground task will withdraw more attentional resources from the task compared to unemotional, neutral images (distraction paradigm). We measured steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) driven by flickering stimuli of a foreground task. Unfiltered unpleasant images resulted in a significant reduction of SSVEP amplitude compared to neutral images. No statistically significant differences were found with LSF background images. In a behavioral control experiment, we found no significant differences for complexity ratings between unfiltered and LSF pictures. Content identification was possible for unfiltered and LSF picture (correct responses > 74%). An additional EEG study examined typical emotion-related components for complex images presented either as unfiltered, LSF, or high spatial frequency (HSF, as an additional control) filtered, unpleasant, and neutral images. We found a significant main effect of emotional valence in the early posterior negativity. Late positive potential differences were only found for unfiltered and HSF images. Results suggest that, while LSF content is sufficient to allow for content and emotional cue extraction when images were presented alone, LSF content is not salient enough to serve as emotional distractor that withdraws attentional resources from a foreground task in early visual cortex.

  4. Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Catherine, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The theme of this month's issue is "Images"--from early paintings and statuary to computer-generated design. Resources on the theme include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and others. A page of reproducible activities is also provided. Features include photojournalism, inspirational Web sites, art history, pop art, and myths. (AEF)

  5. Assessment of early occlusal caries pre- and post- sealant application – an imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Jennifer S; Ballantine, Jami; Fontana, Margherita; Wang, Alex; Calantog, Alden; Benavides, Erika; Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Chen, Zhongping; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective Clinicians have difficulty assessing and monitoring early occlusal caries. Traditional clinical exam and radiographs are unable to detect the subtle alterations in enamel indicative of de- or re-mineralization, particularly under dental sealants. Although clinicians have used laser fluorescence (LF) to address this gap, this modality has demonstrated weak correlation with histology. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, but since it is based on visual assessment, it is of no use in areas beneath the most commonly used dental sealants which are opaque. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an emergent assessment tool which has demonstrated great promise in detecting and quantifying caries, including areas beneath commonly used dental sealants and composites. However, OCT has not yet been widely integrated into clinical dental practice, perhaps because OCT imaging does not provide an easily accessible diagnostic outcome for clinicians. The objective of this ex vivo study was to use OCT-images of sound and carious occlusal surfaces in combination with a simple algorithm to compare the caries detection ability of OCT with tools clinicians may be more familiar with (LF and radiography), and with an established valid and reliable clinical assessment tool (ICDAS-II). Study Design/Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty extracted teeth with sound or naturally carious occlusal surfaces were imaged with OCT, LF, radiography, and examined clinically with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Teeth were randomized to one of two dental sealants recommended for use with LF. A novel simple algorithm was used to interpret OCT-based images. The accuracy of caries severity assessments of the OCT-based diagnosis, LF, ICDAS-II, and digital radiography were compared to the 4-point histological analysis gold standard. Results OCT and

  6. Gray and white matter imaging: A biomarker for cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Gordon W; Firbank, Michael J; Yarnall, Alison J; Khoo, Tien K; Brooks, David J; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the cortical and white matter changes that underlie cognitive impairment in patients with incident Parkinson's disease (PD) disease using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Newly diagnosed nondemented PD (n = 125) and control subjects (n = 50) were recruited from the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment in Cohorts with Longitudinal Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease Study and completed cognitive assessments and 3T structural and diffusion tensor MR imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to investigate the relationship between gray matter volume and cognitive ability. Microstructural white matter changes were assessed with diffusion tensor imaging measures of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity using tract-based spatial statistics. Increased mean diffusivity was observed bilaterally in subjects with PD, relative to controls (P = 0.019). Increased mean diffusivity was associated with performance on the semantic fluency and Tower of London tasks in frontal and parietal white matter tracts, including the cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. There was no difference in total gray matter volume between groups; however, bilateral reductions in frontal and parietal gray matter volume were associated with reduced performance on measures of executive function in PD subjects. At the earliest stages of PD, regionally specific increases in central white matter mean diffusivity are present and suggest early axonal damage. Such changes are not accompanied by significant gray matter volume loss and are consistent with proposed models of pathological progression of the disease. Structural MRI, especially diffusion tensor imaging analysis, offers potential as a noninvasive biomarker reflecting cognitive impairment in PD. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. A voxel-wise encoding model for early visual areas decodes mental images of remembered scenes.

    PubMed

    Naselaris, Thomas; Olman, Cheryl A; Stansbury, Dustin E; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gallant, Jack L

    2015-01-15

    Recent multi-voxel pattern classification (MVPC) studies have shown that in early visual cortex patterns of brain activity generated during mental imagery are similar to patterns of activity generated during perception. This finding implies that low-level visual features (e.g., space, spatial frequency, and orientation) are encoded during mental imagery. However, the specific hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery is difficult to directly test using MVPC. The difficulty is especially acute when considering the representation of complex, multi-object scenes that can evoke multiple sources of variation that are distinct from low-level visual features. Therefore, we used a voxel-wise modeling and decoding approach to directly test the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded in activity generated during mental imagery of complex scenes. Using fMRI measurements of cortical activity evoked by viewing photographs, we constructed voxel-wise encoding models of tuning to low-level visual features. We also measured activity as subjects imagined previously memorized works of art. We then used the encoding models to determine if putative low-level visual features encoded in this activity could pick out the imagined artwork from among thousands of other randomly selected images. We show that mental images can be accurately identified in this way; moreover, mental image identification accuracy depends upon the degree of tuning to low-level visual features in the voxels selected for decoding. These results directly confirm the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery of complex scenes. Our work also points to novel forms of brain-machine interaction: we provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of an internet image search guided by mental imagery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Microwave ablation of osteoid osteomas using dynamic MR imaging for early treatment assessment: preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Kostrzewa, Michael; Diezler, Patricius; Michaely, Henrik; Rathmann, Nils; Attenberger, Ulrike I; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Diehl, Steffen J

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of microwave ablation for osteoid osteomas by using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in early treatment assessment. Ten patients (two female, eight male; mean age, 28 y; range, 16-47 y) presenting with osteoid osteomas were treated between June 2010 and December 2012 with the use of computed tomography (CT)-guided microwave ablation. Osteoid osteomas were found at the femoral neck (n = 4), tibia (n = 3), calcaneus (n = 1), navicular bone (n = 1), and dorsal rib (n = 1). Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T was performed 1 day before microwave ablation and again after ablation. The procedure was considered successful if the signal intensity (SI) of the lesion on MR imaging decreased by at least 50% and the patient was pain-free within 1 week of intervention. All patients were pain-free within 1 week after microwave ablation and remained so during the 6 months of follow-up. No major or minor complications developed. On average, SI of the lesions decreased by 75% (range, 55.5%-89.1%) after treatment. The difference in lesion SI before versus after ablation was significant by t test (P < .0001; confidence interval, 120.26-174.96) and Wilcoxon test (P = .0020). Microwave ablation treatment of osteoid osteoma was highly successful, without any complications observed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging is a useful tool for diagnosing osteoid osteoma and evaluating treatment. © 2013 Published by SIR on behalf of The Society of Interventional Radiology.

  9. A voxel-wise encoding model for early visual areas decodes mental images of remembered scenes

    PubMed Central

    Naselaris, Thomas; Olman, Cheryl A.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent multi-voxel pattern classification (MVPC) studies have shown that in early visual cortex patterns of brain activity generated during mental imagery are similar to patterns of activity generated during perception. This finding implies that low-level visual features (e.g., space, spatial frequency, and orientation) are encoded during mental imagery. However, the specific hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery is difficult to directly test using MVPC. The difficulty is especially acute when considering the representation of complex, multi-object scenes that can evoke multiple sources of variation that are distinct from low-level visual features. Therefore, we used a voxel-wise modeling and decoding approach to directly test the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded in activity generated during mental imagery of complex scenes. Using fMRI measurements of cortical activity evoked by viewing photographs, we constructed voxel-wise encoding models of tuning to low-level visual features. We also measured activity as subjects imagined previously memorized works of art. We then used the encoding models to determine if putative low-level visual features encoded in this activity could pick out the imagined artwork from among thousands of other randomly selected images. We show that mental images can be accurately identified in this way; moreover, mental image identification accuracy depends upon the degree of tuning to low-level visual features in the voxels selected for decoding. These results directly confirm the hypothesis that low-level visual features are encoded during mental imagery of complex scenes. Our work also points to novel forms of brain-machine interaction: we provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of an internet image search guided by mental imagery. PMID:25451480

  10. Archeological treasures protection based on early forest wildfire multi-band imaging detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouverneur, B.; Verstockt, S.; Pauwels, E.; Han, J.; de Zeeuw, P. M.; Vermeiren, J.

    2012-10-01

    Various visible and infrared cameras have been tested for the early detection of wildfires to protect archeological treasures. This analysis was possible thanks to the EU Firesense project (FP7-244088). Although visible cameras are low cost and give good results during daytime for smoke detection, they fall short under bad visibility conditions. In order to improve the fire detection probability and reduce the false alarms, several infrared bands are tested ranging from the NIR to the LWIR. The SWIR and the LWIR band are helpful to locate the fire through smoke if there is a direct Line Of Sight. The Emphasis is also put on the physical and the electro-optical system modeling for forest fire detection at short and longer ranges. The fusion in three bands (Visible, SWIR, LWIR) is discussed at the pixel level for image enhancement and for fire detection.

  11. Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Anticancer Drug-induced Cardiotoxicity: From Cardiac Imaging to "Omics" Technologies.

    PubMed

    Madonna, Rosalinda

    2017-07-01

    Heart failure due to antineoplastic therapy remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in oncological patients. These patients often have no prior manifestation of disease. There is therefore a need for accurate identification of individuals at risk of such events before the appearance of clinical manifestations. The present article aims to provide an overview of cardiac imaging as well as new "-omics" technologies, especially with regard to genomics and proteomics as promising tools for the early detection and prediction of cardiotoxicity and individual responses to antineoplastic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. WE-EF-210-07: Development of a Minimally Invasive Photo Acoustic Imaging System for Early Prostate Cancer Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, M; Yousefi, S; Xing, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to design, implement and characterize a catheter-based ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging probe for early-diagnosis of prostate cancer and to aid in image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: The need to image across 6–10cm of tissue to image the whole prostate gland limits the resolution achievable with a transrectal ultrasound approach. In contrast, the urethra bisects the prostate gland, providing a minimally invasive pathway for deploying a high resolution ultrasound transducer. Utilizing a high-frequency (20MHz) ultrasound/photoacoustic probe, high-resolution structural and molecular imaging of the prostate tissue is possible. A custom 3D printed probe containing a high-frequency single-element ultrasound transducer is utilized. The diameter of the probe is designed to fit inside a Foley catheter and the probe is rotated around the central axis to achieve a circular B-scan. A custom ultrasound amplifier and receiver was set up to trigger the ultrasound pulse transmission and record the reflected signal. The reconstructed images were compared to images generated by traditional 5 MHz ultrasound transducers. Results: The preliminary results using the high-frequency ultrasound probe show that it is possible to resolve finely detailed information in a prostate tissue phantom that was not achievable with previous low-frequency ultrasound systems. Preliminary ultrasound imaging was performed on tissue mimicking phantom and sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio of the catheter was measured. Conclusion: In order to achieve non-invasive, high-resolution, structural and molecular imaging for early-diagnosis and image-guided radiation therapy of the prostate tissue, a transurethral catheter was designed. Structural/molecular imaging using ultrasound/photoacoustic of the prostate tissue will allow for localization of hyper vascularized areas for early-stage prostate cancer diagnosis.

  13. Early Outcomes From Three Prospective Trials of Image-Guided Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Marcus, Robert B.; Mendenhall, William M.; Nichols, R. Charles; Morris, Christopher G.; Williams, Christopher R.; Costa, Joseph; Henderson, Randal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To report early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We accrued 211 prostate cancer patients on prospective Institutional Review Board-approved trials of 78 cobalt gray equivalent (CGE) in 39 fractions for low-risk disease, dose escalation from 78 to 82 CGE for intermediate-risk disease, and 78 CGE with concomitant docetaxel followed by androgen deprivation for high-risk disease. Minimum follow-up was 2 years. Results: One intermediate-risk patient and 2 high-risk patients had disease progression. Pretreatment genitourinary (GU) symptom management was required in 38% of patients. A cumulative 88 (42%) patients required posttreatment GU symptom management. Four transient Grade 3 GU toxicities occurred, all among patients requiring pretreatment GU symptom management. Multivariate analysis showed correlation between posttreatment GU 2+ symptoms and pretreatment GU symptom management (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.0048). Only 1 Grade 3+ gastrointestinal (GI) symptom occurred. The prevalence of Grade 2+ GI symptoms was 0 (0%), 10 (5%), 12 (6%), and 8 (4%) at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, with a cumulative incidence of 20 (10%) patients at 2 years after proton therapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed significant correlation between Grade 2+ rectal bleeding and proctitis and the percentage of rectal wall (rectum) receiving doses ranging from 40 CGE (10 CGE) to 80 CGE. Conclusions: Early outcomes with image-guided proton therapy suggest high efficacy and minimal toxicity with only 1.9% Grade 3 GU symptoms and <0.5% Grade 3 GI toxicities.

  14. Early Cardiac Dysfunction in the Type 1 Diabetic Heart Using Speckle-Tracking Based Strain Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Danielle L.; Nichols, Cody E.; Croston, Tara L.; McLaughlin, Sarah L.; Petrone, Ashley B.; Lewis, Sara E.; Thapa, Dharendra; Long, Dustin M.; Dick, Gregory M.; Hollander, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced sensitivity in echocardiographic analyses may allow for early detection of changes in cardiac function beyond the detection limits of conventional echocardiographic analyses, particularly in a small animal model. The goal of this study was to compare conventional echocardiographic measurements and speckle-tracking based strain imaging analyses in a small animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conventional analyses revealed differences in ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and stroke volume in diabetic animals relative to controls at 6-weeks post-diabetic onset. In contrast, when assessing short- and long-axis speckle-tracking based strain analyses, diabetic mice showed changes in average systolic radial strain, radial strain rate, radial displacement, and radial velocity, as well as decreased circumferential and longitudinal strain rate, as early as 1-week post-diabetic onset and persisting throughout the diabetic study. Further, we performed regional analyses for the LV and found that the free wall region was affected in both the short- and long-axis when assessing radial dimension parameters. These changes began 1-week post-diabetic onset and remained throughout the progression of the disease. These findings demonstrate the use of speckle-tracking based strain as an approach to elucidate cardiac dysfunction from a global perspective, identifying left ventricular cardiac regions affected during the progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus earlier than contractile changes detected by conventional echocardiographic measurements. PMID:26654913

  15. Noninvasive Dynamic Imaging of Tumor Early Response to Nanoparticle-mediated Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Cao, Jianbo; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Lei; Fu, Guifeng; Huang, Xinglu; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of rapidly increasing interest in the use of nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) for treatment of different types of tumors, very little is known on early treatment-related changes in tumor response. Using graphene oxide (GO) as a model nanoparticle (NP), in this study, we tracked the changes in tumors after GO NP-mediated PTT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitatively identified MRI multiple parameters to assess the dynamic changes of MRI signal in tumor at different heating levels and duration. We found a time- and temperature-dependent dynamic change of the MRI signal intensity in intratumor microenvironment prior to any morphological change of tumor, mainly due to quick and effective eradication of tumor blood vessels. Based on the distribution of GO particles, we also demonstrated that NP-medited PTT caused heterogeneous thermal injury of tumor. Overall, these new findings provide not only a clinical-related method for non-invasive early tracking, identifying, and monitoring treatment response of NP-mediated PTT but also show a new vision for better understanding mechanisms of NP-mediated PTT. PMID:26681988

  16. Integrated live imaging and molecular profiling of embryoid bodies reveals a synchronized progression of early differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Boxman, Jonathan; Sagy, Naor; Achanta, Sirisha; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth; Nachman, Iftach

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells can spontaneously differentiate into cell types of all germ layers within embryoid bodies (EBs) in a highly variable manner. Whether there exists an intrinsic differentiation program common to all EBs is unknown. Here, we present a novel combination of high-throughput live two-photon imaging and gene expression profiling to study early differentiation dynamics spontaneously occurring within developing EBs. Onset timing of Brachyury-GFP was highly variable across EBs, while the spatial patterns as well as the dynamics of mesendodermal progression following onset were remarkably similar. We therefore defined a ‘developmental clock’ using the Brachyury-GFP signal onset timing. Mapping snapshot gene expression measurements to this clock revealed their temporal trends, indicating that loss of pluripotency, formation of primitive streak and mesodermal lineage progression are synchronized in EBs. Exogenous activation of Wnt or BMP signaling accelerated the intrinsic clock. CHIR down-regulated Wnt3, allowing insights into dependency mechanisms between canonical Wnt signaling and multiple genes. Our findings reveal a developmental clock characteristic of an early differentiation program common to all EBs, further establishing them as an in vitro developmental model. PMID:27530599

  17. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-21

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  18. Computer-aided detection of early interstitial lung diseases using low-dose CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Cheol; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Leader, Joseph K.; Kim, Soo Hyung; Zheng, Bin

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme to detect early interstitial lung disease (ILD) using low-dose computed tomography (CT) examinations. The CAD scheme classifies each pixel depicted on the segmented lung areas into positive or negative groups for ILD using a mesh-grid-based region growth method and a multi-feature-based artificial neural network (ANN). A genetic algorithm was applied to select optimal image features and the ANN structure. In testing each CT examination, only pixels selected by the mesh-grid region growth method were analyzed and classified by the ANN to improve computational efficiency. All unselected pixels were classified as negative for ILD. After classifying all pixels into the positive and negative groups, CAD computed a detection score based on the ratio of the number of positive pixels to all pixels in the segmented lung areas, which indicates the likelihood of the test case being positive for ILD. When applying to an independent testing dataset of 15 positive and 15 negative cases, the CAD scheme yielded the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.884 ± 0.064) and 80.0% sensitivity at 85.7% specificity. The results demonstrated the feasibility of applying the CAD scheme to automatically detect early ILD using low-dose CT examinations.

  19. Noninvasive Dynamic Imaging of Tumor Early Response to Nanoparticle-mediated Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Cao, Jianbo; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Lei; Fu, Guifeng; Huang, Xinglu; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of rapidly increasing interest in the use of nanoparticle-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) for treatment of different types of tumors, very little is known on early treatment-related changes in tumor response. Using graphene oxide (GO) as a model nanoparticle (NP), in this study, we tracked the changes in tumors after GO NP-mediated PTT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitatively identified MRI multiple parameters to assess the dynamic changes of MRI signal in tumor at different heating levels and duration. We found a time- and temperature-dependent dynamic change of the MRI signal intensity in intratumor microenvironment prior to any morphological change of tumor, mainly due to quick and effective eradication of tumor blood vessels. Based on the distribution of GO particles, we also demonstrated that NP-medited PTT caused heterogeneous thermal injury of tumor. Overall, these new findings provide not only a clinical-related method for non-invasive early tracking, identifying, and monitoring treatment response of NP-mediated PTT but also show a new vision for better understanding mechanisms of NP-mediated PTT.

  20. Early-Onset Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Pattern Recognition.

    PubMed

    Vanderver, Adeline; Prust, Morgan; Kadom, Nadja; Demarest, Scott; Crow, Yanick J; Helman, Guy; Orcesi, Simona; La Piana, Roberta; Uggetti, Carla; Wang, Jichuan; Gordisch-Dressman, Heather; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Livingston, John H

    2015-09-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inherited leukodystrophy with calcifying microangiopathy and abnormal central nervous system myelination. As fewer diagnostic computed tomographic (CT) scans are being performed due to increased availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there is a potential for missed diagnoses on the basis of calcifications. We review a series of patients with MRIs selected from IRB-approved leukodystrophy biorepositories to identify MRI patterns for recognition of early-onset Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and scored for a panel of radiologic predictors. Each individual predictor was tested against disease status using exact logistic regression. Features for pattern recognition of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome are temporal lobe swelling followed by atrophy with temporal horn dilatation, early global cerebral atrophy and visible calcifications, as evidenced by 94.44% of cases of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome correctly classified with a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 96.9%. We identify a panel of MRI features predictive of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome in young patients that would differentiate it from other leukoencephalopathies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Distinct spatiotemporal patterns of spreading depolarizations during early infarct evolution: evidence from real-time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Tetsuya; Walberer, Maureen; Nakamura, Hajime; Endepols, Heike; Sué, Michael; Vollmar, Stefan; Adib, Sasan; Mies, Günter; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Schroeter, Michael; Graf, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies indicate that waves of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) appearing in the ischemic penumbra contribute to secondary lesion growth. We used an embolic stroke model that enabled us to investigate inverse coupling of blood flow by laser speckle imaging (CBFLSF) to CSD as a contributing factor to lesion growth already in the early phase after arterial occlusion. Embolization by macrospheres injected into the left carotid artery of anesthetized rats reduced CBFLSF in the territories of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) (8/14 animals), the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) (2/14) or in less clearly defined regions (4/14). Analysis of MCA occlusions (MCAOs) revealed a first CSD wave starting off during ischemic decline at the emerging core region, propagating concentrically over large portions of left cortex. Subsequent recurrent waves of CSD did not propagate concentrically but preferentially circled around the ischemic core. In the vicinity of the core region, CSDs were coupled to waves of predominantly vasoconstrictive CBFLSF responses, resulting in further decline of CBF in the entire inner penumbra and in expansion of the ischemic core. We conclude that CSDs and corresponding CBF responses follow a defined spatiotemporal order, and contribute to early evolution of ischemic territories. PMID:20700132

  2. Imaging of Early-Type Sa-Sab Spiral Galaxies. II. Global Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Salman; Devereux, Nick

    2005-06-01

    New results, based on one of the most comprehensive Hα imaging surveys of nearby Sa-Sab spirals completed to date, reveals early-type spirals to be a diverse group of galaxies that span a wide range in massive star formation rates. While the majority of Sa-Sab galaxies in our sample are forming stars at a modest rate, a significant fraction (~29%) exhibit star formation rates greater than 1 Msolar yr-1, rivaling the most prolifically star-forming late-type spirals. A similar diversity is apparent in the star formation history of Sa-Sab spirals as measured by their Hα equivalent widths. Consistent with our preliminary results presented in the first paper in this series, we find giant H II regions [L(Hα)>=1039 ergs s-1] in the disks of ~37% of early-type spirals. We suspect that recent minor mergers or past interactions are responsible for the elevated levels of Hα emission and, perhaps, for the presence of giant H II regions in these galaxies. Our results, however, are not in total agreement with the Hα study of Kennicutt & Kent, who did not find any early-type spirals with Hα equivalent widths >14 Å. A close examination of the morphological classification of galaxies, however, suggests that systematic differences between the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog and the Second Reference Catalogue may be responsible for the contrasting results. Based on observations obtained with the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO) and the 0.9 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). The APO 3.5 m telescope is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals a noncategorical representation of hue in early visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Persichetti, Andrew S.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Butt, Omar H.; Brainard, David H.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Color names divide the fine-grained gamut of color percepts into discrete categories. A categorical transition must occur somewhere between the initial encoding of the continuous spectrum of light by the cones and the verbal report of the name of a color stimulus. Here, we used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation experiment to examine the representation of hue in the early visual cortex. Our stimuli varied in hue between blue and green. We found in the early visual areas (V1, V2/3, and hV4) a smoothly increasing recovery from adaptation with increasing hue distance between adjacent stimuli during both passive viewing (Experiment 1) and active categorization (Experiment 2). We examined the form of the adaptation effect and found no evidence that a categorical representation mediates the release from adaptation for stimuli that cross the blue–green color boundary. Examination of the direct effect of stimulus hue on the fMRI response did, however, reveal an enhanced response to stimuli near the blue–green category border. This was largest in hV4 and when subjects were engaged in active categorization of the stimulus hue. In contrast with a recent report from another laboratory (Bird, Berens, Horner, & Franklin, 2014), we found no evidence for a categorical representation of color in the middle frontal gyrus. A post hoc whole-brain analysis, however, revealed several regions in the frontal cortex with a categorical effect in the adaptation response. Overall, our results support the idea that the representation of color in the early visual cortex is primarily fine grained and does not reflect color categories. PMID:26024465

  4. Automated image classification applied to reconstituted human corneal epithelium for the early detection of toxic damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Urani, Chiara; De Servi, Barbara; Meloni, Marisa

    2010-02-01

    For a long time acute eye irritation has been assessed by means of the DRAIZE rabbit test, the limitations of which are known. Alternative tests based on in vitro models have been proposed. This work focuses on the "reconstituted human corneal epithelium" (R-HCE), which resembles the corneal epithelium of the human eye by thickness, morphology and marker expression. Testing a substance on R-HCE involves a variety of methods. Herewith quantitative morphological analysis is applied to optical microscope images of R-HCE cross sections resulting from exposure to benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The short term objectives and the first results are the analysis and classification of said images. Automated analysis relies on feature extraction by the spectrum-enhancement algorithm, which is made sensitive to anisotropic morphology, and classification based on principal components analysis. The winning strategy has been the separate analysis of the apical and basal layers, which carry morphological information of different types. R-HCE specimens have been ranked by gross damage. The onset of early damage has been detected and an R-HCE specimen exposed to a low BAK dose has been singled out from the negative and positive control. These results provide a proof of principle for the automated classification of the specimens of interest on a purely morphological basis by means of the spectrum enhancement algorithm.

  5. Hyperspectral imaging for early detection of oxygenation and perfusion changes in irradiated skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Michael S.; Freniere, Brian B.; Lo, Yuan-Chyuan; Saleeby, Jonathan H.; Baker, Stephen P.; Strom, Heather M.; Ignotz, Ronald A.; Lalikos, Janice F.; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.

    2012-02-01

    Studies examining acute oxygenation and perfusion changes in irradiated skin are limited. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), a method of wide-field, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, provides noninvasive, quantified measurements of cutaneous oxygenation and perfusion. This study examines whether HSI can assess acute changes in oxygenation and perfusion following irradiation. Skin on both flanks of nude mice (n=20) was exposed to 50 Gy of beta radiation from a strontium-90 source. Hyperspectral images were obtained before irradiation and on selected days for three weeks. Skin reaction assessment was performed concurrently with HSI. Desquamative injury formed in all irradiated areas. Skin reactions were first seen on day 7, with peak formation on day 14, and resolution beginning by day 21. HSI demonstrated increased tissue oxygenation on day 1 before cutaneous changes were observed (p<0.001). Further increases over baseline were seen on day 14, but returned to baseline levels by day 21. For perfusion, similar increases were seen on days 1 and 14. Unlike tissue oxygenation, perfusion was decreased below baseline on day 21 (p<0.002). HSI allows for complete visualization and quantification of tissue oxygenation and perfusion changes in irradiated skin, and may also allow prediction of acute skin reactions based on early changes seen after irradiation.

  6. Body image score following anterior and lateral approaches to wide local excision for early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Menelik; Patel, Mitesh; Cresswell, Adrian B; Bentley, Phillip G

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer surgery is an emotive topic and rather than just simple cosmetic issues, the final appearance of the operated breast has been shown to have a significant impact on psychologic well-being and overall quality of life. Wide local excision (WLE) is a popular conservative approach to small tumors, which do not involve the nipple-areolar complex. This study compares WLE via an anterior and lateral approach. A retrospective survey of patient satisfaction was performed using a recognized and validated Body Image Score (BIS), which was sent to a total of 267 patients who had undergone WLE by either the anterior or lateral approach. The response rate was 57%, of which 89 women had undergone surgery via the anterior and 80 by the lateral approach. There was no significant difference in BIS when comparing the anterior and lateral approaches, despite concerns regarding the physical appearance of the scar and postoperative breast expressed by patients. Generally, surgery on the upper part of the breast was associated with less satisfaction than the lower, but "hiding" the scar with a lateral approach did not improve satisfaction. Surgeons should be reassured that the approach to WLE of early breast cancers has no impact on the patients overall body image and that the choice of technique should be based on the patient's personal preference and the surgeons experience and skill.

  7. Investigating the Merger Origin of Early-type Galaxies using Ultra-deep Optical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, P.-A.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Alatalo, K.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, M.; Côté, P.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T. A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Ferrarese, L.; Ferriere, E.; Gwyn, S.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; MacArthur, L.; McDermid, R. M.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Young, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The mass assembly of galaxies leaves various imprints on their surroundings, such as shells, streams and tidal tails. The frequency and properties of these fine structures depend on the mechanism driving the mass assembly: e.g. a monolithic collapse, rapid cold-gas accretion followed by violent disk instabilities, minor mergers or major dry/wet mergers. Therefore, by studying the outskirts of galaxies, one can learn about their main formation mechanism. I present here our on-going work to characterize the outskirts of Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs), which are powerful probes at low redshift of the hierarchical mass assembly of galaxies. This work relies on ultra-deep optical images obtained at CFHT with the wide-field of view MegaCam camera of field and cluster ETGs obtained as part of the ATLAS3D and NGVS projects. State of the art numerical simulations are used to interpret the data. The images reveal a wealth of unknown faint structures at levels as faint as 29 mag arcsec-2 in the g-band. Initial results for two galaxies are presented here.

  8. A Novel Imaging Approach for Early Detection of Prostate Cancer Based on Endogenous Zinc Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subrata K.; Kim, Pilhan; Zhang, Xiao-an; Yun, Seok-Hyun; Moore, Anna; Lippard, Stephen J.; Medarova, Zdravka

    2010-01-01

    The early detection of prostate cancer is a life-saving event in patients harboring potentially aggressive disease. With the development of malignancy there is a dramatic reduction in the zinc content of prostate tissue associated with the inability of cancer cells to accumulate the ion. In the current study, we utilized endogenous zinc as an imaging biomarker for prostate cancer detection and progression monitoring. We employed a novel fluorescent sensor for mobile zinc (ZPP1) to detect and monitor the development of prostate cancer in a transgenic mouse model of prostate adenocarcinoma, using in vivo optical imaging correlated with biological fluid-based methods. We demonstrated that the progression of prostate cancer could be monitored in vivo judging by decreasing zinc content in the prostates of tumor-bearing mice in an age-dependent manner. In a novel quantitative assay, we determine the concentration of mobile zinc in both prostate cell lysates and mouse prostate extracts through simple titration of the ZPP1 sensor. Our findings fulfill the promise of zinc-based prostate cancer diagnostics with the prospect for immediate clinical translation. PMID:20610630

  9. Early detection of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in the cervix with quantitative spectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Jelena; Yu, Chung-Chieh; O’Donoghue, Geoff P.; Galindo, Luis; Dasari, Ramachandra; de las Morenas, Antonio; Feld, Michael; Stier, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Quantitative spectroscopy has recently been extended from a contact-probe to wide-area spectroscopic imaging to enable mapping of optical properties across a wide area of tissue. We train quantitative spectroscopic imaging (QSI) to identify cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) in 34 subjects undergoing the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP subjects). QSI’s performance is then prospectively evaluated on the clinically suspicious biopsy sites from 47 subjects undergoing colposcopic-directed biopsy. The results show the per-subject normalized reduced scattering coefficient at 700 nm (An) and the total hemoglobin concentration are significantly different (p<0.05) between HSIL and non-HSIL sites in LEEP subjects. An alone retrospectively distinguishes HSIL from non-HSIL with 89% sensitivity and 83% specificity. It alone applied prospectively on the biopsy sites distinguishes HSIL from non-HSIL with 81% sensitivity and 78% specificity. The findings of this study agree with those of an earlier contact-probe study, validating the robustness of QSI, and specifically An, for identifying HSIL. The performance of An suggests an easy to use and an inexpensive to manufacture monochromatic instrument is capable of early cervical cancer detection, which could be used as a screening and diagnostic tool for detecting cervical cancer in low resource countries. PMID:23843090

  10. Hyperspectral imaging for early detection of oxygenation and perfusion changes in irradiated skin.

    PubMed

    Chin, Michael S; Freniere, Brian B; Lo, Yuan-Chyuan; Saleeby, Jonathan H; Baker, Stephen P; Strom, Heather M; Ignotz, Ronald A; Lalikos, Janice F; Fitzgerald, Thomas J

    2012-02-01

    Studies examining acute oxygenation and perfusion changes in irradiated skin are limited. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), a method of wide-field, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, provides noninvasive, quantified measurements of cutaneous oxygenation and perfusion. This study examines whether HSI can assess acute changes in oxygenation and perfusion following irradiation. Skin on both flanks of nude mice (n=20) was exposed to 50 Gy of beta radiation from a strontium-90 source. Hyperspectral images were obtained before irradiation and on selected days for three weeks. Skin reaction assessment was performed concurrently with HSI. Desquamative injury formed in all irradiated areas. Skin reactions were first seen on day 7, with peak formation on day 14, and resolution beginning by day 21. HSI demonstrated increased tissue oxygenation on day 1 before cutaneous changes were observed (p<0.001). Further increases over baseline were seen on day 14, but returned to baseline levels by day 21. For perfusion, similar increases were seen on days 1 and 14. Unlike tissue oxygenation, perfusion was decreased below baseline on day 21 (p<0.002). HSI allows for complete visualization and quantification of tissue oxygenation and perfusion changes in irradiated skin, and may also allow prediction of acute skin reactions based on early changes seen after irradiation.

  11. Dynamic spatio-temporal imaging of early reflow in a neonatal rat stroke model.

    PubMed

    Leger, Pierre-Louis; Bonnin, Philippe; Lacombe, Pierre; Couture-Lepetit, Elisabeth; Fau, Sebastien; Renolleau, Sylvain; Gharib, Abdallah; Baud, Olivier; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to better understand blood-flow changes in large arteries and microvessels during the first 15 minutes of reflow in a P7 rat model of arterial occlusion. Blood-flow changes were monitored by using ultrasound imaging with sequential Doppler recordings in internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and basilar trunk. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes were obtained by using laser speckle Doppler monitoring. Tissue perfusion was measured with [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Cerebral energy metabolism was evaluated by mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Gradual increase in mean blood-flow velocities illustrated a gradual perfusion during early reflow in both ICAs. On ischemia, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory presented a residual perfusion, whereas the caudal territory remained normally perfused. On reflow, speckle images showed a caudorostral propagation of reperfusion through anastomotic connections, and a reduced perfusion in the MCA territory. Autoradiography highlighted the caudorostral gradient, and persistent perfusion in ventral and medial regions. These blood-flow changes were accompanied by mitochondrial respiration impairment in the ipsilateral cortex. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of a primary collateral pathway through the circle of Willis, providing an immediate diversion of blood flow toward ischemic regions, and secondary efficient cortical anastomoses in the immature rat brain.

  12. Dynamic spatio-temporal imaging of early reflow in a neonatal rat stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Leger, Pierre-Louis; Bonnin, Philippe; Lacombe, Pierre; Couture-Lepetit, Elisabeth; Fau, Sebastien; Renolleau, Sylvain; Gharib, Abdallah; Baud, Olivier; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to better understand blood-flow changes in large arteries and microvessels during the first 15 minutes of reflow in a P7 rat model of arterial occlusion. Blood-flow changes were monitored by using ultrasound imaging with sequential Doppler recordings in internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and basilar trunk. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes were obtained by using laser speckle Doppler monitoring. Tissue perfusion was measured with [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Cerebral energy metabolism was evaluated by mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Gradual increase in mean blood-flow velocities illustrated a gradual perfusion during early reflow in both ICAs. On ischemia, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory presented a residual perfusion, whereas the caudal territory remained normally perfused. On reflow, speckle images showed a caudorostral propagation of reperfusion through anastomotic connections, and a reduced perfusion in the MCA territory. Autoradiography highlighted the caudorostral gradient, and persistent perfusion in ventral and medial regions. These blood-flow changes were accompanied by mitochondrial respiration impairment in the ipsilateral cortex. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of a primary collateral pathway through the circle of Willis, providing an immediate diversion of blood flow toward ischemic regions, and secondary efficient cortical anastomoses in the immature rat brain. PMID:23047273

  13. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Thackeray, James T.; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C.; Bengel, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid 11C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher 11C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial 11C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased 11C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased 11C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and 11C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated 11C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. 11C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies. PMID:27570549

  14. Comparison of fluorescence tomographic imaging in mice with early-arriving and quasi-continuous-wave photons.

    PubMed

    Niedre, Mark; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2010-02-01

    The highly diffuse nature of light propagation in biological tissue is a major challenge for obtaining high-fidelity fluorescence tomographic images. In this work we investigated the use of time-gated detection of early-arriving photons for reducing the effects of light scatter in mice relative to quasi-cw photons. When analyzing sinographic representations of the measured data, it was determined that early photons allowed a reduction in the measured FWHM of fluorescent targets by a factor of approximately 2-3, yielding a significant improvement in the tomographic image reconstruction quality.

  15. Multidimensional Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Early Impairment in Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mabray, Marc C.; Whetstone, William D.; Dhall, Sanjay S.; Phillips, David B.; Pan, Jonathan Z.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Beattie, Michael S.; Haefeli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Literature examining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in acute spinal cord injury (SCI) has focused on cervical SCI. Reproducible systems have been developed for MRI-based grading; however, it is unclear how they apply to thoracic SCI. Our hypothesis is that MRI measures will group as coherent multivariate principal component (PC) ensembles, and that distinct PCs and individual variables will show discriminant validity for predicting early impairment in thoracic SCI. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 25 patients with acute thoracic SCI who underwent MRI on admission and had American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) assessment at hospital discharge. Imaging variables of axial grade, sagittal grade, length of injury, thoracolumbar injury classification system (TLICS), maximum canal compromise (MCC), and maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC) were collected. We performed an analytical workflow to detect multivariate PC patterns followed by explicit hypothesis testing to predict AIS at discharge. All imaging variables loaded positively on PC1 (64.3% of variance), which was highly related to AIS at discharge. MCC, MSCC, and TLICS also loaded positively on PC2 (22.7% of variance), while variables concerning cord signal abnormality loaded negatively on PC2. PC2 was highly related to the patient undergoing surgical decompression. Variables of signal abnormality were all negatively correlated with AIS at discharge with the highest level of correlation for axial grade as assessed with the Brain and Spinal Injury Center (BASIC) score. A multiple variable model identified BASIC as the only statistically significant predictor of AIS at discharge, signifying that BASIC best captured the variance in AIS within our study population. Our study provides evidence of convergent validity, construct validity, and clinical predictive validity for the sampled MRI measures of SCI when applied in acute thoracic and thoracolumbar SCI. PMID:26414451

  16. Photoacoustic Imaging of Cancer Treatment Response: Early Detection of Therapeutic Effect from Thermosensitive Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging methods capable of indicating the potential for success of an individualized treatment course, during or immediately following the treatment, could improve therapeutic outcomes. Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSLs) provide an effective way to deliver chemotherapeutics to a localized tumoral area heated to mild-hyperthermia (HT). The high drug levels reached in the tumor vasculature lead to increased tumor regression via the cascade of events during and immediately following treatment. For a TSL carrying doxorubicin (DOX) these include the rapid and intense exposure of endothelial cells to high drug concentrations, hemorrhage, blood coagulation and vascular shutdown. In this study, ultrasound-guided photoacoustic imaging was used to probe the changes to tumors following treatment with the TSL, HaT-DOX (Heat activated cytoToxic). Levels of oxygen saturation (sO2) were studied in a longitudinal manner, from 30 min pre-treatment to 7 days post-treatment. The efficacious treatments of HT-HaT-DOX were shown to induce a significant drop in sO2 (>10%) as early as 30 min post-treatment that led to tumor regression (in 90% of cases); HT-Saline and non-efficacious HT-HaT-DOX (10% of cases) treatments did not show any significant change in sO2 at these timepoints. The changes in sO2 were further corroborated with histological data, using the vascular and perfusion markers CD31 and FITC-lectin. These results allowed us to further surmise a plausible mechanism of the cellular events taking place in the TSL treated tumor regions over the first 24 hours post-treatment. The potential for using photoacoustic imaging to measure tumor sO2 as a surrogate prognostic marker for predicting therapeutic outcome with a TSL treatment is demonstrated. PMID:27788199

  17. Visualizing the blind brain: brain imaging of visual field defects from early recovery to rehabilitation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Urbanski, Marika; Coubard, Olivier A.; Bourlon, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    Visual field defects (VFDs) are one of the most common consequences observed after brain injury, especially after a stroke in the posterior cerebral artery territory. Less frequently, tumors, traumatic brain injury, brain surgery or demyelination can also determine various visual disabilities, from a decrease in visual acuity to cerebral blindness. Visual field defects is a factor of bad functional prognosis as it compromises many daily life activities (e.g., obstacle avoidance, driving, and reading) and therefore the patient’s quality of life. Spontaneous recovery seems to be limited and restricted to the first 6 months, with the best chance of improvement at 1 month. The possible mechanisms at work could be partly due to cortical reorganization in the visual areas (plasticity) and/or partly to the use of intact alternative visual routes, first identified in animal studies and possibly underlying the phenomenon of blindsight. Despite processes of early recovery, which is rarely complete, and learning of compensatory strategies, the patient’s autonomy may still be compromised at more chronic stages. Therefore, various rehabilitation therapies based on neuroanatomical knowledge have been developed to improve VFDs. These use eye-movement training techniques (e.g., visual search, saccadic eye movements), reading training, visual field restitution (the Vision Restoration Therapy, VRT), or perceptual learning. In this review, we will focus on studies of human adults with acquired VFDs, which have used different imaging techniques (Positron Emission Tomography, PET; Diffusion Tensor Imaging, DTI; functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, fMRI; Magneto Encephalography, MEG) or neurostimulation techniques (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, TMS; transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, tDCS) to show brain activations in the course of spontaneous recovery or after specific rehabilitation techniques. PMID:25324739

  18. Essential pre-treatment imaging examinations in patients with endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been no reports discussing which imaging procedures are truly necessary before treatment of endoscopically-diagnosed early gastric cancer (eEGC). The aim of this pilot study was to show which imaging examinations are essential to select indicated treatment or appropriate strategy in patients with eEGC. Methods In 140 consecutive patients (95 men, 45 women; age, 66.4 +/- 11.3 years [mean +/- standard deviation], range, 33-90) with eEGC which were diagnosed during two years, the pre-treatment results of ultrasonography (US) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen, barium enema (BE) and chest radiography (CR) were retrospectively reviewed. Useful findings that might affect indication or strategy were evaluated. Results US demonstrated useful findings in 13 of 140 patients (9.3%): biliary tract stones (n = 11) and other malignant tumors (n = 2). Only one useful finding was demonstrated on CT (pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous tumor) but not on US (0.7%; 95% confidential interval [CI], 2.1%). BE demonstrated colorectal carcinomas in six patients and polyps in 10 patients, altering treatment strategy (11.4%; 95%CI, 6.1-16.7%). Of these, only two colorectal carcinomas were detected on CT. CR showed three relevant findings (2.1%): pulmonary carcinoma (n = 1) and cardiomegaly (n = 2). Seventy-nine patients (56%) were treated surgically and 56 patients were treated by endoscopic intervention. The remaining five patients received no treatment due to various reasons. Conclusions US, BE and CR may be essential as pre-treatment imaging examinations because they occasionally detect findings which affect treatment indication and strategy, although abdominal contrast-enhanced CT rarely provide additional information. PMID:20534137

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging can detect the early stages of cartilage damage: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Taku; Sato, Masato; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Imai, Yutaka; Mitani, Genya; Takagaki, Tomonori; Serigano, Kenji; Mochida, Joji

    2015-02-21

    In the present study, we measured damaged areas of cartilage with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and T2 mapping, and investigated the extent to which cartilage damage could be determined using these techniques. Forty-one patients underwent arthroscopic knee surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee, a meniscus injury, or an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the knee was performed, including T2 mapping and diffusion tensor imaging. The presence of cartilage injury involving the medial and lateral femoral condyles and tibia plateau was assessed during surgery using the Outerbridge scale. The ADC, T2 values and fractional anisotropy of areas of cartilage injury were then retrospectively analysed. The ADC results identified significant differences between Outerbridge grades 0 and 2 (P = 0.041); 0 and 3 (P < 0.001); 1 and 2 (P = 0.045); 1 and 3 (P < 0.001); and 2 and 3 (P = 0.028). The FA results identified significant differences between grades 0 and 1 (P < 0.001); 0 and 2 (P < 0.001); and 0 and 3 (P < 0.001). T2 mapping identified significant differences between Outerbridge grades 0 and 2 (P = 0.032); 0 and 3 (P < 0.001); 1 and 3 (P < 0.001); and 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). Both the T2 mapping (R(2) = 0.7883) and the ADC (R(2) = 0.9184) correlated significantly with the Outerbridge grade. The FA (R(2) = 0.6616) correlated slightly with the Outerbridge grade. T2 mapping can be useful for detecting moderate or severe cartilage damage, and the ADC can be used to detect early stage cartilage damage. The FA can also distinguish normal from damaged cartilage.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging identifies early biochemical markers of tissue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Vishal K.; Ohlander, Samuel; Nguyen, Peter; Vendryes, Christopher; Parthiban, Sujeeth; Hamilton, Blake; Wallis, M. Chad; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Hannaford, Blake; Lendvay, Thomas; Hotaling, James M.; Walsh, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging can allow for the rapid imaging of tissue biochemistry in a label-free and non-perturbing fashion. With the rapid adoption of new minimally invasive surgery (MIS) technologies over the last 20 years, adequate skill to safely and effectively use these technologies may not be achieved and risk of undue physical pressure being placed on tissues is a concern. Previous work has demonstrated that a number of histological stains can detect tissue damage, however, this process requires the initiation and progression of a signaling cascade that results in the epitope of interest being expressed. We proposed to identify the early biochemical markers associated with physical tissue damage from applied forces, thus not requiring transcriptional and translational protein synthesis as traditional immunohistochemistry does. To demonstrate that FT-IR can measure biochemical changes in tissues that have undergone physical force, we took ex-vivo lamb's liver that had been freshly excised and applied varying levels of physical pressure (0kPa to 30kPa). Tissues were then formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and sectioned on to glass for H and E staining to identify damage and on to an IR slide for FT-IR imaging. Regions of interest containing hepatocytes were identified and average FT-IR spectra were extracted from the damaged and undamaged livers. FT-IR spectra showed clear biochemical changes associated with tissue damage. In addition, chemical changes could be observed proceeding histological changes observed when using conventional staining approaches.

  1. Advances in the early detection of lung cancer using analysis of volatile organic compounds: from imaging to sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Liu, Hong-Ying; Jia, Zi-Ru; Qiao, Pan-Pan; Pi, Xi-Tian; Chen, Jun; Deng, Lin-Hong

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 1.37 million people died of lung cancer all around the world in 2008, occupying the first place in all cancer-related deaths. However, this number might be decreased if patients were detected earlier and treated appropriately. Unfortunately, traditional imaging techniques are not sufficiently satisfactory for early detection of lung cancer because of limitations. As one alternative, breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may reflect the biochemical status of the body and provide clues to some diseases including lung cancer at early stage. Early detection of lung cancer based on breath analysis is becoming more and more valued because it is non-invasive, sensitive, inexpensive and simple. In this review article, we analyze the limitations of traditional imaging techniques in the early detection of lung cancer, illustrate possible mechanisms of the production of VOCs in cancerous cells, present evidence that supports the detection of such disease using breath analysis, and summarize the advances in the study of E-noses based on gas sensitive sensors. In conclusion, the analysis of breath VOCs is a better choice for the early detection of lung cancer compared to imaging techniques. We recommend a more comprehensive technique that integrates the analysis of VOCs and non-VOCs in breath. In addition, VOCs in urine may also be a trend in research on the early detection of lung cancer.

  2. Visualization of Inflammation at Early Stage of Lung Cancer in Xenografted Temporally Immunosuppression Rats by Ferrioxamine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dechsupa, Nathupakorn; Udomtanakunchai, Chatchanok; Udom-Utraracheva, Anan; Suttho, Dutsadee; Pazart, Lionel; Humbert, Philippe; Garrigos, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Physiological responses such as chronic inflammation and angiogenesis could be used as biomarkers for early detection of cancer with noninvasive imaging modalities. The present study reports the application of magnetic resonance imaging instrument to image the binding of ferrioxamine with hemin that allows visualizing the chronic inflammation foci of lung tissue of immunocompromised rats xenografted using small cell lung carcinoma. A low concentration of ferrioxamine (0.05 ± 0.02 μM·kg−1 of rat weight) deposited on tissue outside the vasculature was found to diffuse across the capillary walls to the interstitial space and inflammation foci, which provided a clear enhancement of T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence images. Ferrioxamine imaging allowed the determination of inflammatory sites and their localization in 3D fat-suppressed maximum intensity projections. The smallest dimension of foci that can be clearly determined is about 0.1 mm3. In concomitant to the in vivo imaging, analysis of histological tissue section showed the development of inflammatory sites. This study provides evidence that medical imaging instrument such as MRI scanner allows researchers to correlate images taken with MRI with those using high-resolution microscopy. Moreover, ferrioxamine is a useful molecular probe for determining chronic inflammation particularly at the very early stages of cancer. PMID:28074158

  3. Infarct Volume Prediction by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Murine Stroke Model Depends on Ischemia Duration and Time of Imaging.

    PubMed

    Leithner, Christoph; Füchtemeier, Martina; Jorks, Devi; Mueller, Susanne; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Royl, Georg

    2015-11-01

    Despite standardization of experimental stroke models, final infarct sizes after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) vary considerably. This introduces uncertainties in the evaluation of drug effects on stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging may detect variability of surgically induced ischemia before treatment and thus improve treatment effect evaluation. MCAO of 45 and 90 minutes induced brain infarcts in 83 mice. During, and 3 and 6 hours after MCAO, we performed multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. We evaluated time courses of cerebral blood flow, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T1, T2, accuracy of infarct prediction strategies, and impact on statistical evaluation of experimental stroke studies. ADC decreased during MCAO but recovered completely on reperfusion after 45 and partially after 90-minute MCAO, followed by a secondary decline. ADC lesion volumes during MCAO or at 6 hours after MCAO largely determined final infarct volumes for 90 but not for 45 minutes MCAO. The majority of chance findings of final infarct volume differences in random group allocations of animals were associated with significant differences in early ADC lesion volumes for 90, but not for 45-minute MCAO. The prediction accuracy of early magnetic resonance imaging for infarct volumes depends on timing of magnetic resonance imaging and MCAO duration. Variability of the posterior communicating artery in C57Bl6 mice contributes to differences in prediction accuracy between short and long MCAO. Early ADC imaging may be used to reduce errors in the interpretation of post MCAO treatment effects on stroke volumes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Fluorescence-based endoscopic imaging of Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen to improve early detection of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Shinji; Yu, James Y H; Quang, Timothy; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Kumagai, Hironori; Kao, Stephanie; Holt, Alex; Erskind, Jalysa; McClure, Richard; Siuta, Michael; Kitamura, Tokio; Tobita, Etsuo; Koike, Seiji; Wilson, Kevin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Liu, Eric; Washington, Kay; Omary, Reed; Gore, John C; Pham, Wellington

    2015-03-01

    Thomsen-Friedenreich (TF) antigen belongs to the mucin-type tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Notably, TF antigen is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) but is rarely expressed in normal colonic tissue. Increased TF antigen expression is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we sought to validate a novel nanobeacon for imaging TF-associated CRC in a preclinical animal model. We developed and characterized the nanobeacon for use with fluorescence colonoscopy. In vivo imaging was performed on an orthotopic rat model of CRC. Both white light and fluorescence colonoscopy methods were utilized to establish the ratio-imaging index for the probe. The nanobeacon exhibited specificity for TF-associated cancer. Fluorescence colonoscopy using the probe can detect lesions at the stage which is not readily confirmed by conventional visualization methods. Further, the probe can report the dynamic change of TF expression as tumor regresses during chemotherapy. Data from this study suggests that fluorescence colonoscopy can improve early CRC detection. Supplemented by the established ratio-imaging index, the probe can be used not only for early detection, but also for reporting tumor response during chemotherapy. Furthermore, since the data obtained through in vivo imaging confirmed that the probe was not absorbed by the colonic mucosa, no registered toxicity is associated with this nanobeacon. Taken together, these data demonstrate the potential of this novel probe for imaging TF antigen as a biomarker for the early detection and prediction of the progression of CRC at the molecular level. © 2014 UICC.

  5. Early imaging radioresponsiveness of melanoma brain metastases as a predictor of patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zubatkina, Irina; Ivanov, Pavel

    2017-08-25

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to analyze the early radiological response of melanoma brain metastases to single high-dose irradiation and to reveal possible correlations between tumor radioresponsiveness and patient clinical outcomes. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the medical data for all patients with melanoma brain metastases who had undergone Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) and follow-up MRI examinations with standard protocols at regular 2- to 3-month intervals. Volumetric measurements of the metastases on pretreatment and initial posttreatment images were performed to assess the rate of early radiological response. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the rate of response, and overall survival, local control, and the appearance of new metastases in the brain were compared in these groups using the long-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of clinical outcomes. RESULTS After retrospective analysis of 298 melanoma brain metastases in 78 patients, the authors determined that early radiological responses of these metastases to GKRS differ considerably and can be divided into 2 distinct groups. One group of tumors underwent rapid shrinkage after radiosurgery, whereas the other showed minor fluctuations in size (rapid- and slow-response groups, respectively). Median survival for patients with a slow response was 15.2 months compared with 6.3 months for those with a rapid response (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, improved overall survival was associated with a slow response to radiosurgery (p < 0.0001), stable systemic disease (p = 0.001), and a higher Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.001). Stratification by Recursive Partitioning Analysis, score index for radiosurgery, and diagnosis-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment classes further confirmed the difference in overall survival for patients with a slow versus rapid radiation response. Local recurrence

  6. Tetrofosmin early time gated post-stress single-photon emission computed tomography imaging: Feasibility and potential benefits

    PubMed Central

    Mérino, Bertrand; Blaire, Tanguy; Bailliez, Alban; Casset-Senon, Danielle; Levy, Maurice; Halley, Arnaud; Divry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, the image quality, and the clinical relevance of an early gated post-stress (GPS) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tetrofosmin (Myoview™—GE Healthcare) acquisition protocol. Time delay between myocardial technetium-labeled tracer administration and SPECT acquisition is usually about 30 minutes after stress, and 45 to 60 minutes at rest: because of the absence of significant redistribution, perfusion images are related to stress even 30 minutes after stress injection, while function and thickening data obtained with gated acquisition 30 minutes after stress are mainly related to rest conditions. Methods 194 patients were prospectively included and analyzed, in a multicenter registry. Three gated-SPECT 99mTc-Tetrofosmin studies were performed per patient: GPS-SPECT, 30 minutes post-stress (GS30), and at rest (GR30). Results GPS image quality was excellent/good (93.9%), and similar to GS30 images (96.6%). The presence of adjacent myocardial sub-diaphragmatic activity on GPS images was similar to GS30 images (24% vs 22%), and less frequent than on GR30 images (31%). For perfusion, thickening, and motion scores, there was no significant difference between early and 30 minute post-stress in the global patient population, but significant differences were observed between GPS and GS30 for LVEF (65% ± 15% vs 63% ± 14%). In the ischemic patients, with the stress-rest protocol, the perfusion score was 14.2 on GPS images and 12.4 on GS30 images (P = .002). Conclusions Tetrofosmin early GPS-SPECT is feasible without impairment of image quality (better count rate). Ischemic defect size on early post-stress images is slightly more pronounced than at 30 minutes: this could modify therapeutic decision. This technique produces reliable function information during early post-stress period, and might be useful for disclosing transient motion abnormalities. PMID:21063927

  7. Instrumentation of Molecular Imaging on Site-Specific Targeting Fluorescent Peptide for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ping; Ma, Lixin

    2012-02-01

    In this work we developed two biomedical imaging techniques for early detection of breast cancer. Both image modalities provide molecular imaging capability to probe site-specific targeting dyes. The first technique, heterodyne CCD fluorescence mediated tomography, is a non-invasive biomedical imaging that uses fluorescent photons from the targeted dye on the tumor cells inside human breast tissue. The technique detects a large volume of tissue (20 cm) with a moderate resolution (1 mm) and provides the high sensitivity. The second technique, dual-band spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, is a high-resolution tissue imaging modality. It uses a low coherence interferometer to detect coherent photons hidden in the incoherent background. Due to the coherence detection, a high resolution (20 microns) is possible. We have finished prototype imaging systems for the development of both image modalities and performed imaging experiments on tumor tissues. The spectroscopic/tomographic images show contrasts of dense tumor tissues and tumor necrotic regions. In order to correlate the findings from our results, a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the tumors was performed using a small animal 7-Telsa MRI and demonstrated excellent agreement.

  8. Optic disc boundary segmentation from diffeomorphic demons registration of monocular fundus image sequences versus 3D visualization of stereo fundus image pairs for automated early stage glaucoma assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Vijay; Hill, Jason; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Despite the current availability in resource-rich regions of advanced technologies in scanning and 3-D imaging in current ophthalmology practice, world-wide screening tests for early detection and progression of glaucoma still consist of a variety of simple tools, including fundus image-based parameters such as CDR (cup to disc diameter ratio) and CAR (cup to disc area ratio), especially in resource -poor regions. Reliable automated computation of the relevant parameters from fundus image sequences requires robust non-rigid registration and segmentation techniques. Recent research work demonstrated that proper non-rigid registration of multi-view monocular fundus image sequences could result in acceptable segmentation of cup boundaries for automated computation of CAR and CDR. This research work introduces a composite diffeomorphic demons registration algorithm for segmentation of cup boundaries from a sequence of monocular images and compares the resulting CAR and CDR values with those computed manually by experts and from 3-D visualization of stereo pairs. Our preliminary results show that the automated computation of CDR and CAR from composite diffeomorphic segmentation of monocular image sequences yield values comparable with those from the other two techniques and thus may provide global healthcare with a cost-effective yet accurate tool for management of glaucoma in its early stage.

  9. In vivo small animal imaging for early assessment of therapeutic efficacy of photodynamic therapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Baowei; Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Xiang; Meyers, Joseph; Mulvilhill, John; Feyes, Denise; Edgehouse, Nancy; Duerk, Jeffrey L.; Pretlow, Thomas G.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2007-03-01

    We are developing in vivo small animal imaging techniques that can measure early effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for prostate cancer. PDT is an emerging therapeutic modality that continues to show promise in the treatment of cancer. At our institution, a new second-generation photosensitizing drug, the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, has been developed and evaluated at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. In this study, we are developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that provide therapy monitoring and early assessment of tumor response to PDT. We generated human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice. For the imaging experiments, we used a highfield 9.4-T small animal MR scanner (Bruker Biospec). High-resolution MR images were acquired from the treated and control tumors pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. We utilized multi-slice multi-echo (MSME) MR sequences. During imaging acquisitions, the animals were anesthetized with a continuous supply of 2% isoflurane in oxygen and were continuously monitored for respiration and temperature. After imaging experiments, we manually segmented the tumors on each image slice for quantitative image analyses. We computed three-dimensional T2 maps for the tumor regions from the MSME images. We plotted the histograms of the T2 maps for each tumor pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. After the imaging and PDT experiments, we dissected the tumor tissues and used the histologic slides to validate the MR images. In this study, six mice with human prostate cancer tumors were imaged and treated at the Case Center for Imaging Research. The T2 values of treated tumors increased by 24 +/- 14% 24 hr after the therapy. The control tumors did not demonstrate significant changes of the T2 values. Inflammation and necrosis were observed within the treated tumors 24 hour after the treatment. Preliminary results show that Pc 4-PDT is effective for the treatment of human prostate cancer in mice. The small animal MR

  10. In Vivo Small Animal Imaging for Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fei, Baowei; Wang, Hesheng; Chen, Xiang; Meyers, Joseph; Mulvihill, John; Feyes, Denise; Edgehouse, Nancy; Duerk, Jeffrey L; Pretlow, Thomas G; Oleinick, Nancy L

    2007-03-29

    We are developing in vivo small animal imaging techniques that can measure early effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for prostate cancer. PDT is an emerging therapeutic modality that continues to show promise in the treatment of cancer. At our institution, a new second-generation photosensitizing drug, the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, has been developed and evaluated at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. In this study, we are developing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that provide therapy monitoring and early assessment of tumor response to PDT. We generated human prostate cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice. For the imaging experiments, we used a high-field 9.4-T small animal MR scanner (Bruker Biospec). High-resolution MR images were acquired from the treated and control tumors pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. We utilized multi-slice multi-echo (MSME) MR sequences. During imaging acquisitions, the animals were anesthetized with a continuous supply of 2% isoflurane in oxygen and were continuously monitored for respiration and temperature. After imaging experiments, we manually segmented the tumors on each image slice for quantitative image analyses. We computed three-dimensional T2 maps for the tumor regions from the MSME images. We plotted the histograms of the T2 maps for each tumor pre- and post-PDT and 24 hr after PDT. After the imaging and PDT experiments, we dissected the tumor tissues and used the histologic slides to validate the MR images. In this study, six mice with human prostate cancer tumors were imaged and treated at the Case Center for Imaging Research. The T2 values of treated tumors increased by 24 ± 14% 24 hr after the therapy. The control tumors did not demonstrate significant changes of the T2 values. Inflammation and necrosis were observed within the treated tumors 24 hour after the treatment. Preliminary results show that Pc 4-PDT is effective for the treatment of human prostate cancer in mice. The small animal MR

  11. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dependent/Independent Images of the Early Adolescent Boys--Case Studies through "Sandplay Technique" and Dream Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Toshihisa

    The purpose of this paper is to present early adolescent Japanese boys' images that emerge from the counseling process through the use of sandplay and dreams. The author, an assistant professor of clinical psychology at the International Buddhist University in Japan, has made use of sandplay and dreams as a mediative method to understand and…

  13. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging clarifies cardiac pathophysiology in early, asymptomatic diffuse systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Bratis, Konstantinos; Karabela, Georgia; Spiliotis, George; Wijk, Kees van; Hautemann, David; Reiber, Johan H C; Koutsogeorgopoulou, Loukia; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa; Stavropoulos, Efthymios

    2015-01-01

    Myopericardial inflammation, perfusion's defects and fibrosis are major causes of cardiac disease in scleroderma (SSc). We hypothesized that using inflammation and stress perfusion-fibrosis cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), we can identify the pathophysiology of heart disease in asymptomatic diffuse SSc. 46 recently diagnosed, asymptomatic patients with diffuse SSc had a CMR examination using a 1.5T system. ECG gated breath hold cine and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) T2 images were initially acquired. If T2 ratio<2 a stress perfusion-fibrosis protocol was applied. If T2>2 a myocarditis protocol including early (EGE) and late (LGE) gadolinium imaging was applied. SSc patients' results were compared with age and sex-matched controls and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In 2/46 SSc with T2 ratio>2, the myocarditis protocol was positive for acute myocardial inflammation, who developed clinical signs of acute myocarditis shortly after the CMR evaluation. In the rest 44/46 with T2 ratio<2 the stress perfusion-fibrosis CMR identified a significant reduction in Myocardial Perfusion Reserve Index (MPRI) compared with matched controls (0.6±0.4 vs 3.2±0.8, p<0.001), but not with CAD (0.6±0.4 vs 0.86±0.46, p=NS) and correlated only with the presence of digital ulcers (p<0.05). The scar was diffused and greater compared to controls, but did not differ from that assessed in CAD. Two years follow up, available in 11/44 SSc, showed further asymptomatic MPRI deterioration in all and diffuse subendocardial LGE in 8/11, without any change in LV, RV volumes and ejection fractions. CMR may reveal severe cardiac involvement in early, asymptomatic diffuse SSc with normal routine cardiac evaluation, presenting either as myocardial inflammation or as severe reduction of MPRI and diffuse fibrosis with further deterioration in the long term follow up.

  14. PET imaging of brain inflammation during early epileptogenesis in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, inflammatory cascades have been suggested as a target for epilepsy therapy. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging offers the unique possibility to evaluate brain inflammation longitudinally in a non-invasive translational manner. This study investigated brain inflammation during early epileptogenesis in the post-kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) model with post-mortem histology and in vivo with [18F]-PBR111 PET. Methods Status epilepticus (SE) was induced (N = 13) by low-dose injections of KA, while controls (N = 9) received saline. Translocator protein (TSPO) expression and microglia activation were assessed with [125I]-CLINDE autoradiography and OX-42 immunohistochemistry, respectively, 7 days post-SE. In a subgroup of rats, [18F]-PBR111 PET imaging with metabolite-corrected input function was performed before post-mortem evaluation. [18F]-PBR111 volume of distribution (Vt) in volume of interests (VOIs) was quantified by means of kinetic modelling and a VOI/metabolite-corrected plasma activity ratio. Results Animals with substantial SE showed huge overexpression of TSPO in vitro in relevant brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala (P < 0.001), while animals with mild symptoms displayed a smaller increase in TSPO in amygdala only (P < 0.001). TSPO expression was associated with OX-42 signal but without obvious cell loss. Similar in vivo [18F]-PBR111 increases in Vt and the simplified ratio were found in key regions such as the hippocampus (P < 0.05) and amygdala (P < 0.01). Conclusion Both post-mortem and in vivo methods substantiate that the brain regions important in seizure generation display significant brain inflammation during epileptogenesis in the KASE model. This work enables future longitudinal investigation of the role of brain inflammation during epileptogenesis and evaluation of anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:23136853

  15. Modelling the RV jitter of early-M dwarfs using tomographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébrard, É. M.; Donati, J.-F.; Delfosse, X.; Morin, J.; Moutou, C.; Boisse, I.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we show how tomographic imaging (Zeeman-Doppler imaging, ZDI) can be used to characterize stellar activity and magnetic field topologies, ultimately allowing us to filter out the radial velocity (RV) activity jitter of M dwarf moderate rotators. This work is based on spectropolarimetric observations of a sample of five weakly active early-M dwarfs (GJ 205, GJ 358, GJ 410, GJ 479, GJ 846) with HARPS-Pol and NARVAL. These stars have v sin i and RV jitters in the range 1-2 km s-1 and 2.7-10.0 m s-1 rms, respectively. Using a modified version of ZDI applied to sets of phase-resolved least-squares deconvolved profiles of unpolarized spectral lines, we are able to characterize the distribution of active regions at the stellar surfaces. We find that dark spots cover less than 2 per cent of the total surface of the stars of our sample. Our technique is efficient at modelling the rotationally modulated component of the activity jitter, and succeeds at decreasing the amplitude of this component by typical factors of 2-3 and up to 6 in optimal cases. From the rotationally modulated time series of circularly polarized spectra and with ZDI, we also reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field topology. These fields suggest that bistability of dynamo processes observed in active M dwarfs may also be at work for moderately active M dwarfs. Comparing spot distributions with field topologies suggest that dark spots causing activity jitter concentrate at the magnetic pole and/or equator, to be confirmed with future data on a larger sample.

  16. Imaging the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of esophageal tumor progression using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Successful strategies for primary prevention and early detection are critically needed to control this disease. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is becoming a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology by two-photon excited fluorescence. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and early invasive carcinoma in order to establish the morphological features to differentiate these tissues. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the significant loss of stroma, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. These results correlated well with the paired histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level.

  17. Optical design of an optical coherence tomography and multispectral fluorescence imaging endoscope to detect early stage ovarian cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Tyler; Keenan, Molly; Swan, Elizabeth; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    The five year survival rate for ovarian cancer is over 90% if early detection occurs, yet no effective early screening method exists. We have designed and are constructing a dual modality Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) endoscope to optically screen the Fallopian tube and ovary for early stage cancer. The endoscope reaches the ovary via the natural pathway of the vagina, cervix, uterus and Fallopian tube. In order to navigate the Fallopian tube the endoscope must have an outer diameter of 600 μm, be highly flexible, steerable, tracking and nonperforating. The imaging systems consists of six optical subsystems, two from OCT and four from MFI. The optical subsystems have independent and interrelated design criteria. The endoscope will be tested on realistic tissue models and ex vivo tissue to prove feasibility of future human trials. Ultimately the project aims to provide women the first effective ovarian cancer screening technique.

  18. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Vladimir V; Filonenko, E V; Telegina, L V; Boulgakova, N N; Smirnov, V V

    2002-11-30

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)

  19. Perceptions of early body image socialization in families: Exploring knowledge, beliefs, and strategies among mothers of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M; Clarke, Samantha; Birky, Julie P; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to explore parental perceptions of body image in preschoolers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 primary caregivers of preschoolers to examine knowledge, beliefs, and strategies regarding early body image socialization in families. Thematic Analysis yielded three themes highlighting knowledge gaps, belief discrepancies, and limited awareness of strategies. Findings regarding knowledge: Most participants defined body image as objective attractiveness rather than subjective self-assessment (53%) and focused on negative body image. Beliefs: Although 97% of participants believed weight and shape impact children's self-esteem, 63% believed preschoolers too young to have a body image. Strategies: Most participants (53%) said family was a primary influence on body image, but identified few effective strategies and 63% said they did not do anything to influence children's body image. Findings suggested family body image socialization in preschoolers is occurring outside the awareness of parents and the concept of positive body image is underdeveloped. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction and Early Evaluation of Anticancer Therapy Response: From Imaging of Drug Efflux Pumps to Targeted Therapy Response.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingqing; Li, Zheng; Li, Shaoshun

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) describes the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy and has been ascribed to the overexpression of drug efflux pumps. Molecular imaging of drug efflux pumps is helpful to identify the patients who may be resistant to the chemotherapy and thus will avoid the unnecessary treatment and increase the therapeutic effectiveness. Imaging probes targeting drug efflux pumps can non-invasively evaluate the Pgp function and play an important role in identification of MDR, prediction of response, and monitoring MDR modulation. On the other hand, new anticancer agents based on molecular targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and angiogenic factor receptor may potentially be combined with chemotherapeutic drugs to overcome the MDR. Imaging of molecular targets visualize treatment response of patients at molecular level vividly and help to select right patients for certain targeted anticancer therapy. Among all the imaging modalities, nuclear imaging including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has the greatest promise for rapid translation to the clinic and can realize quantitative visualization of biochemical processes in vivo. In this review, we will summarize the nuclear imaging probes utilized for predicting and evaluating the early anticancer therapy response.99mTc labeled agents and PET based radiopharmaceuticals like 18F-Paclitaxel, 11C-Verapamil for drug efflux pumps imaging will be discussed here. Moreover, molecular imaging probes used for targeted therapy response evaluation like 18F-Tamoxifen,89Zr-Trastuzumab will also be introduced in this review.

  1. Recognition of endoscopic diagnosis in differentiated-type early gastric cancer by flexible spectral imaging color enhancement with indigo carmine.

    PubMed

    Dohi, O; Yagi, N; Wada, T; Yamada, N; Bito, N; Yamada, S; Gen, Y; Yoshida, N; Uchiyama, K; Ishikawa, T; Takagi, T; Handa, O; Konishi, H; Wakabayashi, N; Kokura, S; Naito, Y; Yoshikawa, T

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of flexible spectral imaging color enhancement with indigo carmine (I-FICE) in early gastric cancer (EGC) demarcation. The study participants were 29 patients with differentiated-type EGC. The endoscope was fixed and images of the same area of EGC demarcations in each lesion were obtained using four different methods (WLE, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE), CE, and I-FICE). FICE mode at R 550 nm (Gain: 2), G 500 nm (Gain: 4), and B 470 nm (Gain: 4) was used. Four endoscopists ranked the images obtained by each method on the basis of the ease of recognition of demarcation using a 4-point system. We calculated the standard deviation of pixel values based on L*, a*, and b* color spaces in the demarcation region (Lab-SD score). The median ranking score for I-FICE images was significantly higher than that obtained from the other methods. Further, the average Lab-SD score was significantly higher for I-FICE images than for images obtained by the other methods. There was a good correlation between the ranking score and Lab-SD score. EGC demarcations were most easily recognized both subjectively and objectively using I-FICE image, followed by CE, FICE and WLE images. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI): Instrument Overview and Early On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, David W.; Newell, David A.; Wentz, Frank J.; Krimchansky, Sergey; Jackson, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission that uses measurements from an advanced radar/radiometer system on a core observatory as reference standards to unify and advance precipitation estimates made by a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM core observatory was launched on February 27, 2014 at 18:37 UT in a 65? inclination nonsun-synchronous orbit. GPM focuses on precipitation as a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle, and has the capability to provide near-real-time observations for tracking severe weather events, monitoring freshwater resources, and other societal applications. The GPM microwave imager (GMI) on the core observatory provides the direct link to the constellation radiometer sensors, which fly mainly in polar orbits. The GMI sensitivity, accuracy, and stability play a crucial role in unifying the measurements from the GPM constellation of satellites. The instrument has exhibited highly stable operations through the duration of the calibration/validation period. This paper provides an overview of the GMI instrument and a report of early on-orbit commissioning activities. It discusses the on-orbit radiometric sensitivity, absolute calibration accuracy, and stability for each radiometric channel. Index Terms-Calibration accuracy, passive microwave remote sensing, radiometric sensitivity.

  3. Early Detection of T cell Transfer-induced Autoimmune Colitis by In Vivo Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lo, Cheng-Feng; Hsieh, Ching-I; Chiu, Shang-Yi; Wu, Chang-Yen; Yeh, Yu-Shan; Hung, Shu-Hsuan; Cheng, Po-Hao; Su, Yu-Hsuan; Jiang, Si-Tse; Chin, Hsian-Jean; Su, Yu-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory intestinal disease that includes two major types, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is characterized by intestinal epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Transfer of CD25−CD45RBhiCD4+ (naïve) T cells into immunodeficiency mice induces autoimmune colitis with pathological lesions similar to CD and loss of body weight 4 weeks after cell transfer. However, weight loss neither has sufficient sensitivity nor totally matches the pathological findings of CD. To establish an early and sensitive indicator of autoimmune colitis model, the transferred T cell-induced colitis mouse model was modified by transferring luciferase-expressing donor T cells and determining the colitis by in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Colitis was detected with IVIS 7–10 days before the onset of body weight loss and diarrhea. IVIS was also applied in the dexamethasone treatment trial, and was a more sensitive indicator than body weight changes. All IVIS signals were parallel to the pathological abnormalities of the gut and immunological analysis results. In summary, IVIS provides both sensitive and objective means to monitor the disease course of transferred T cell-induced CD and fulfills the 3Rs principle of humane care of laboratory animals. PMID:27762297

  4. Early Detection of T cell Transfer-induced Autoimmune Colitis by In Vivo Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lo, Cheng-Feng; Hsieh, Ching-I; Chiu, Shang-Yi; Wu, Chang-Yen; Yeh, Yu-Shan; Hung, Shu-Hsuan; Cheng, Po-Hao; Su, Yu-Hsuan; Jiang, Si-Tse; Chin, Hsian-Jean; Su, Yu-Chia

    2016-10-20

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory intestinal disease that includes two major types, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (CD). CD is characterized by intestinal epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Transfer of CD25(-)CD45RB(hi)CD4(+) (naïve) T cells into immunodeficiency mice induces autoimmune colitis with pathological lesions similar to CD and loss of body weight 4 weeks after cell transfer. However, weight loss neither has sufficient sensitivity nor totally matches the pathological findings of CD. To establish an early and sensitive indicator of autoimmune colitis model, the transferred T cell-induced colitis mouse model was modified by transferring luciferase-expressing donor T cells and determining the colitis by in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Colitis was detected with IVIS 7-10 days before the onset of body weight loss and diarrhea. IVIS was also applied in the dexamethasone treatment trial, and was a more sensitive indicator than body weight changes. All IVIS signals were parallel to the pathological abnormalities of the gut and immunological analysis results. In summary, IVIS provides both sensitive and objective means to monitor the disease course of transferred T cell-induced CD and fulfills the 3Rs principle of humane care of laboratory animals.

  5. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI): Instrument Overview and Early On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, David W.; Newell, David A.; Wentz, Frank J.; Krimchansky, Sergey; Jackson, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international satellite mission that uses measurements from an advanced radar/radiometer system on a core observatory as reference standards to unify and advance precipitation estimates made by a constellation of research and operational microwave sensors. The GPM core observatory was launched on February 27, 2014 at 18:37 UT in a 65? inclination nonsun-synchronous orbit. GPM focuses on precipitation as a key component of the Earth's water and energy cycle, and has the capability to provide near-real-time observations for tracking severe weather events, monitoring freshwater resources, and other societal applications. The GPM microwave imager (GMI) on the core observatory provides the direct link to the constellation radiometer sensors, which fly mainly in polar orbits. The GMI sensitivity, accuracy, and stability play a crucial role in unifying the measurements from the GPM constellation of satellites. The instrument has exhibited highly stable operations through the duration of the calibration/validation period. This paper provides an overview of the GMI instrument and a report of early on-orbit commissioning activities. It discusses the on-orbit radiometric sensitivity, absolute calibration accuracy, and stability for each radiometric channel. Index Terms-Calibration accuracy, passive microwave remote sensing, radiometric sensitivity.

  6. Study of the early phase of a Coronal Mass Ejection driven shock in EUV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassati, Federica; Susino, Roberto; Mancuso, Salvatore; Bemporad, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    The November 1st, 2014 prominence eruption (associated with a C2.7 class flare) resulted in a fast, partial-halo Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). During its early propagation, the CME produced a type II radio burst (seen by the Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer) starting around 04:57 UT when the front entered into the LASCO/C2 field of view (FOV) and the top of the CME front was at the heliocentric distance of about 2.5 R_{⊙}. In order to identify the source of the type II radio burst, we studied the kinematic of the eruption with EUV images acquired by SDO/AIA. Profiles of the observed EUV front speed have been compared with the Alfvén speed profiles derived by combining the plasma electron densities obtained from Emission Measure analysis and model magnetic fields extrapolated on the plane of the sky. Our results show that the northern half of the front became super-Alfvénic at approximately the same time when the type-II radio burst started. A comparison between the starting frequency of the type II emission and the frequencies corresponding to the coronal densities of the locations where the EUV front became super-Alfvénic suggests that the radio sources should be located in the northern flank of the front.

  7. Early Instrument Performance Results from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Guenther, B. W.; Barnes, W. L.; Murphy, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a major observational capability flying on the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 "Terra" mission. This mission is to go into orbit in late 1999 or very early 2000. The MODIS was developed to provide improved observations of land, ocean, and atmosphere features relative to "heritage instruments" such as the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Nimbus Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS)and the SeaStar/SeaWiFS instruments, in particular. In addition the MODIS should provide complementary observations to the Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper and the NOAA HIRS instrument. There has been considerable effort to include capabilities or plans to characterize and assure calibration of the instrument data. These efforts include on on-board blackbody (BB), a solar diffuser (SID), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), and a spectral radiometric calibration assembly (SDSM). These devices, along with careful analyses of scenes acquired during orbit, are expected to allow comparisons with pre-launch expectations regarding spatial performance, spectral performance, and radiometric performance. In addition deep space observations and observations of the moon are to be used to characterize instrument performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative comparisons, as results become available from the Terra MODIS, to heritage instruments, pre-launch expectations and specifications.

  8. Image of God: effect on coping and psychospiritual outcomes in early breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Judith A

    2011-05-01

    To examine the effect of breast cancer survivors' views of God on religious coping strategies, depression, anxiety, stress, concerns about recurrence, and psychological well-being. Exploratory, cross-sectional, comparative survey. Outpatients from community and university oncology practices in the southeastern United States. 130 early breast cancer survivors (6-30 months postdiagnosis). Self-report written survey packets were mailed to practice-identified survivors. Image of God, religious coping strategies, depression, anxiety, stress, concerns about recurrence, and psychological well-being. Women who viewed God as highly engaged used more coping strategies to promote spiritual conservation in proportion to coping strategies that reflect spiritual struggle. Women who viewed God as highly engaged maintained psychological well-being when either spiritual conservation or spiritual struggle coping styles were used. No differences in variables were noted for women who viewed God as more or less angry. The belief in an engaged God is significantly related to increased psychological well-being, decreased psychological distress, and decreased concern about recurrence. Addressing survivors' issues related to psychological adjustment and concern about recurrence within their world view would allow for more personalized and effective interventions. Future research should be conducted to establish how the view that God is engaged affects coping and psychological adjustment across diverse groups of cancer survivors and groups with monotheistic, polytheistic, and naturalistic world views. This could lead to a practical method for examining the influence of these world views on individuals' responses to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship.

  9. Perception of body image in early adolescence. An investigation in secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2017-09-01

    Raiting Scale test both males and females want to be of lesser weight. 91 subjects reached a BSQ test score of over 34, so most of the sample has a strong concern for their physical appearance. The results obtained by administering the BUT test also highlighted concern about the body with moderate gravity. Body dissatisfaction, as so many studies have confirmed, can be considered a precursor of psychopathology. Concerns concern both female gender and male gender. It is also necessary to pay close attention to the pressure exerted by family members, friends and the media towards a difficult to reach thinness ideal. That is why we need to focus on strengthening protective factors in adolescents with prevention and awareness campaigns which are properly targeted. The work resulted a useful reflection on the building of the body image as an early risk factor for the onset of pathologies linked to this concept. We need to commit to an educative practice of support for adolescent, recognition and sharing, which does not avoid the presence of the adults, but in fact it is enriched. It would be appreciated if we could introduce in the school, in the program of different subjects, the discussion regarding different aspects of a healthy nutrition and the formation of a solid self-esteem in order, for the students, to have a critical interpretation of the media message on food, body and beauty. It is desirable to promote the emancipation of the adolescents from a condition of dependence to discover their own place in the world. The educative action can help developing the research of the meaning of the own personality.

  10. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Yi, Dingrong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fengtao; Liu, Fuhan; Wang, Jiwu; Zhao, Futing

    2009-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel idea, innovative technology in building multi spectral imaging based device. The benefit from them is people can have low cost, handheld and standing alone device which makes acquire multi spectral images real time with just a snapshot. The paper for the first time publishes some images got from such prototyped miniaturized multi spectral imager.

  11. Quantitative correlational study of microbubble-enhanced ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging of glioma and early response to radiotherapy in a rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chen; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhang, Kai; Li, Wenxiao; Zhou, Jinyuan; Mangraviti, Antonella; Tyler, Betty; Su, Lin; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Bin; Wong, John; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Velarde, Esteban; Ding, Kai

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy remains a major treatment method for malignant tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard modality for assessing glioma treatment response in the clinic. Compared to MRI, ultrasound imaging is low-cost and portable and can be used during intraoperative procedures. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and MRI of irradiated gliomas in rats and to determine which quantitative ultrasound imaging parameters can be used for the assessment of early response to radiation in glioma. Methods: Thirteen nude rats with U87 glioma were used. A small thinned skull window preparation was performed to facilitate ultrasound imaging and mimic intraoperative procedures. Both CEUS and MRI with structural, functional, and molecular imaging parameters were performed at preradiation and at 1 day and 4 days postradiation. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlations between MRI and CEUS parameters and the changes between pre- and postradiation imaging. Results: Area under the curve (AUC) in CEUS showed significant difference between preradiation and 4 days postradiation, along with four MRI parameters, T{sub 2}, apparent diffusion coefficient, cerebral blood flow, and amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) (all p < 0.05). The APTw signal was correlated with three CEUS parameters, rise time (r = − 0.527, p < 0.05), time to peak (r = − 0.501, p < 0.05), and perfusion index (r = 458, p < 0.05). Cerebral blood flow was correlated with rise time (r = − 0.589, p < 0.01) and time to peak (r = − 0.543, p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI can be used for the assessment of radiotherapy treatment response and CEUS with AUC as a new technique and can also be one of the assessment methods for early response to radiation in glioma.

  12. Effects of perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain on long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Ilka; Finke, Beatrice; Tam, Friederike I; Fittig, Eike; Scholz, Michael; Gantchev, Krassimir; Roessner, Veit; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN), a severe mental disorder with an onset during adolescence, has been found to be difficult to treat. Identifying variables that predict long-term outcome may help to develop better treatment strategies. Since body image distortion and weight gain are central elements of diagnosis and treatment of AN, the current study investigated perceptual body image distortion, defined as the accuracy of evaluating one's own perceived body size in relation to the actual body size, as well as total and early weight gain during inpatient treatment as predictors for long-term outcome in a sample of 76 female adolescent AN patients. Long-term outcome was defined by physical, psychological and psychosocial adjustment using the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule as well as by the mere physical outcome consisting of menses and/or BMI approximately 3 years after treatment. Perceptual body image distortion and early weight gain predicted long-term outcome (explained variance 13.3 %), but not the physical outcome alone. This study provides first evidence for an association of perceptual body image distortion with long-term outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa and underlines the importance of sufficient early weight gain.

  13. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging of Substantia Nigra Is a Sensitive Method for Early Diagnosis and Disease Evaluation in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guohua; Zhang, Yuhu; Zhang, Chengguo; Wang, Yukai; Ma, Guixian; Nie, Kun; Xie, Haiqun; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Background. To diagnose Parkinson disease (PD) in an early stage and accurately evaluate severity, it is important to develop a sensitive method for detecting structural changes in the substantia nigra (SN). Method. Seventy-two untreated patients with early PD and 72 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging. Regions of interest were drawn in the rostral, middle, and caudal SN by two blinded and independent raters. Mean kurtosis (MK) and fractional anisotropy in the SN were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Spearman correlation analyses were used to compare the diagnostic accuracy and correlate imaging findings with Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) staging and part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). Result. MK in the SN was increased significantly in PD patients compared with healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was 0.976 for MK in the SN (sensitivity, 0.944; specificity, 0.917). MK in the SN had a positive correlation with H-Y staging and UPDRS-III scores. Conclusion. Diffusion kurtosis imaging is a sensitive method for PD diagnosis and severity evaluation. MK in the SN is a potential biomarker for imaging studies of early PD that can be widely used in clinic. PMID:26770867

  14. Early magnetic resonance imaging prediction of arterial recanalization and late infarct volume in acute carotid artery stroke.

    PubMed

    Hermier, Marc; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Adeleine, Patrice; Berthezène, Yves; Derex, Laurent; Yilmaz, Hasan; Dugor, Jean-François; Dardel, Pascal; Cotton, François; Philippeau, Frédéric; Trouillas, Paul; Froment, Jean-Claude

    2003-02-01

    In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early recanalization may save tissue at risk for ischemic infarction, thus resulting in smaller infarcts and better clinical outcome. The hypothesis that clinical and diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging (DWI, PWI) parameters may have a predictive value for early recanalization and final infarct size was assessed. Twenty-nine patients were prospectively enrolled and underwent sequential magnetic resonance imaging (1) within 6 hours from hemispheric stroke onset, before thrombolytic therapy; (2) at day 1; and (3) at day 60. Late infarct volume was assessed by T2 -weighted imaging. At each time, clinical status was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Twenty-eight patients had arterial occlusion at day 0 magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). They were classified into two groups according to day 1 MRA: recanalization (n = 18) versus persistent occlusion (n = 10). Any significant differences between these groups were assessed regarding (1) PWI and DWI abnormality volumes, (2) relative and absolute time-to-peak (TTP) and apparent diffusion coefficient within the lesion on DWI; and (3) day 60 lesion volume on T2 -weighted imaging. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most powerful predictive factors for recanalization were lower baseline NIHSS score and lower baseline absolute TTP within the lesion on DWI. The best predictors of late infarct size were day 0 lesion volume on DWI and day 1 recanalization. Early PWI and DWI studies and day 1 MRA provide relevant predictive information on stroke outcome.

  15. Strategies for early detection of cardiotoxicities from anticancer therapy in adults: evolving imaging techniques and emerging serum biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Nausheen; Murtagh, Gillian; Yancy, Clyde

    2015-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in detecting cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction with serum biomarkers, cardiovascular MRI, echocardiography and multi-modality approaches. Serum biomarkers, notably cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, have been evaluated for their prognostic ability in predicting left ventricular dysfunction. Imaging modalities, such as cardiovascular MRI and echocardiography, have been used for cardiac surveillance of patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Developments in imaging, specifically myocardial deformation imaging, also known as strain, have been shown to be sensitive tools in detecting early changes in cardiac function. This review aims to synthesize the evidence that supports emerging serum biomarkers and complementary imaging modalities that continue to enhance the detection of cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction.

  16. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos, A. Rashid A.; Sulaiman, Shaharin A.

    2013-06-01

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  17. Effects of autofluorescence imaging on detection and treatment of early neoplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Boerwinkel, David F; Holz, Jasmin A; Kara, Mohammed A; Meijer, Sybren L; Wallace, Michael B; Wong Kee Song, Louis-Michel; Ragunath, Krish; Wolfsen, Herbert C; Iyer, Prasad G; Wang, Kenneth K; Weusten, Bas L; Aalders, Maurice C; Curvers, Wouter L; Bergman, Jacques J G H M

    2014-05-01

    Studies have reported that autofluorescence imaging (AFI) increases targeted detection of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) and intramucosal cancer (IMC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). We analyzed data from trials to assess the clinical relevance of AFI-detected lesions. We collected information on 371 patients with BE, along with endoscopy and histology findings, from databases of 5 prospective studies of AFI (mean age, 65 years; 305 male). We compared these data with outcomes of treatment and follow-up. Study end points included the diagnostic value of AFI (proportion of surveillance patients with HGIN or IMC detected only by AFI-targeted biopsies) and value of AFI in selection of therapy (the proportion of patients for which detection of an HGIN or IMC lesion by AFI changed the treatment strategy based on white-light endoscopy or random biopsy analysis). Of study participants, 211 were referred for surveillance and 160 were referred for early stage neoplasia; HGIN or IMC were diagnosed in 147 patients. In 211 patients undergoing surveillance, 39 had HGIN or IMC (23 detected by white-light endoscopy, 11 detected by random biopsies, 5 detected by AFI). So, the diagnostic value of AFI was 5 (2%) of 211. In 24 patients, HGIN or IMC was diagnosed using only AFI. In 33 patients, AFI detected additional HGINs or IMCs next to lesions detected by primary white-light endoscopy. Lesions detected by AFI were treated in 57 patients: 26 patients underwent radiofrequency ablation and showed full remission of neoplasia, whereas 31 underwent endoscopic resection and 6 were found to have IMC. The value of AFI in selection of therapy was 6 (2%) of 371. Based on an analysis of data from clinical trials of patients with BE, detection of lesions by AFI has little effect on the diagnosis of early stage neoplasia or therapeutic decision making. AFI therefore has a limited role in routine surveillance or management of patients with BE. Copyright © 2014 AGA

  18. Early Changes in Atrial Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with Hypertension: Assessment by Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Burcak Kilickiran; Gulmez, Oyku; Donmez, Guclu; Pehlivanoglu, Seckin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension (HT) is associated with atrial electrophysiological abnormalities. Echocardiographic pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is one of the noninvasive methods for evaluation of atrial electromechanical properties. The aims of our study were to investigate the early changes in atrial electromechanical conduction in patients with HT and to assess the parameters that affect atrial electromechanical conduction. Methods: Seventy-six patients with HT (41 males, mean age 52.6 ± 9.0 years) and 41 controls (22 males, mean age 49.8 ± 7.9 years) were included in the study. Atrial electromechanical coupling at the right (PRA), left (PLA), interatrial septum (PIS) were measured with TDI. Intra- (right: PIS-PRA, left: PLA-PIS) and inter-atrial (PLA-PRA) electromechanical delays were calculated. Maximum P-wave duration (Pmax) was calculated from 12-lead electrocardiogram. Results: Atrial electromechanical coupling at PLA (76.6 ± 14.1 ms vs. 82.9 ± 15.8 ms, P = 0.036), left intra-atrial (10.9 ± 5.0 ms vs. 14.0 ± 9.7 ms, P = 0.023), right intra-atrial (10.6 ± 7.8 ms vs. 14.5 ± 10.1 ms, P = 0.035), and interatrial electromechanical (21.4 ± 9.8 ms vs. 28.3 ± 12.7 ms, P = 0.003) delays were significantly longer in patients with HT. The linear regression analysis showed that left ventricular (LV) mass index and Pmax were significantly associated with PLA (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), and the LV mass index was the only related factor for interatrial delay (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Intra- and interatrial electromechanical delay, PLA were significantly prolonged in hypertensive patients. LV mass index and Pmax were significantly associated with PLA, and the LV mass index was the only related factor for interatrial delay. The atrial TDI can be a valuable method to assess the early changes of atrial electromechanical conduction properties in those patients. PMID:27231168

  19. Detectability improvement of early sign of acute stroke on brain CT images using an adaptive partial smoothing filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongbum; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2006-03-01

    Detection of early infarct signs on non-enhanced CT is mandatory in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We present a method for improving the detectability of early infarct signs of acute ischemic stroke. This approach is considered as the first step for computer-aided diagnosis in acute ischemic stroke. Obscuration of the gray-white matter interface at the lentiform nucleus or the insular ribbon has been an important early infarct sign, which affects decisions on thrombolytic therapy. However, its detection is difficult, since the early infarct sign is subtle hypoattenuation. In order to improve the detectability of the early infarct sign, an image processing being able to reduce local noise with edges preserved is desirable. To cope with this issue, we devised an adaptive partial smoothing filter (APSF). Because the APSF can markedly improve the visibility of the normal gray-white matter interface, the detection of conspicuity of obscuration of gray-white matter interface due to hypoattenuation could be increased. The APSF is a specifically designed filter used to perform local smoothing using a variable filter size determined by the distribution of pixel values of edges in the region of interest. By adjusting four parameters of the APSF, an optimal condition for image enhancement can be obtained. In order to determine a major one of the parameters, preliminary simulation was performed by using composite images simulated the gray-white matter. The APSF based on preliminary simulation was applied to several clinical CT scans in hyperacute stroke patients. The results showed that the detectability of early infarct signs is much improved.

  20. Lock-in thermal imaging for the early-stage detection of cutaneous melanoma: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bonmarin, Mathias; Le Gal, Frédérique-Anne

    2014-04-01

    This paper theoretically evaluates lock-in thermal imaging for the early-stage detection of cutaneous melanoma. Lock-in thermal imaging is based on the periodic thermal excitation of the specimen under test. Resulting surface temperature oscillations are recorded with an infrared camera and allow the detection of variations of the sample's thermophysical properties under the surface. In this paper, the steady-state and transient skin surface temperatures are numerically derived for a different stage of development of the melanoma lesion using a two-dimensional axisymmetric multilayer heat-transfer model. The transient skin surface temperature signals are demodulated according to the digital lock-in principle to compute both a phase and an amplitude image of the lesions. The phase image can be advantageously used to accurately detect cutaneous melanoma at an early stage of development while the maximal phase shift can give precious information about the lesion invasion depth. The ability of lock-in thermal imaging to suppress disturbing subcutaneous thermal signals is demonstrated. The method is compared with the previously proposed pulse-based approaches, and the influence of the modulation frequency is further discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Magnetic resonance imaging of the hand as an early diagnostic method for rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Rapoport, I E; Luchikhina, E L; Pogozheva, E Iu; Smirnov, A V; Karateev, D E

    2010-01-01

    To provide the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of changes revealed by the data of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hand and by those of X-ray study of the hand and foot in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). The study enrolled 110 patients (90 females, 20 males; age 49.6 +/- 12.2 years) examined in the framework of the RADICAL program at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The mean duration of the disease was 5.61 +/- 3.17 months. The diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis was established by the 1987 ARA criteria in all the patients on primary standard examination comprising X-ray study of the hand and feet and evaluation by the modified Sharp method. MRI of the hand was performed in all the patients, by assessing the result by the OMERACT-RAMRIS procedure. Destructive changes (cysts and erosions) evidenced by X-ray study were found in the wrists, metacarpophalangeal articulations (MPA), and foot in 7.27, 8.2, and 13.64%, respectively. MRI revealed destructions in the wrist, MPA, and metacarpal bone base in 50, 60, and 16.36%, respectively. Overall, erosions could be seen on X-ray films and MRI scans in 20.91 and 67.27%, respectively (p < 0.0001). MRI revealed bone edema (osteitis) in 46.4% of the patients; there was no difference in the detection rate between the extremities. MRI synovitis was found in 99% of the patients, the right hand being significantly more commonly affected. Detailed characterization of the changes revealed by MRI and Xray was obtained in patients with ERA. MRI detected erosions significantly more frequently than did X-ray (p < 0.001), which confirms the high value of low-field MRI diagnosis on primary examination of patients with ERA and supports the opinion that the results of this study should be included into the diagnostic criteria of ERA.

  2. Predicting Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury by Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesion Location and Volume

    PubMed Central

    Smitherman, Emily; Hernandez, Ana; Stavinoha, Peter L.; Huang, Rong; Kernie, Steven G.; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain lesions after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heterogeneous, rendering outcome prognostication difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate whether early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesion location and lesion volume within discrete brain anatomical zones can accurately predict long-term neurological outcome in children post-TBI. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI hyperintense lesions in 63 children obtained 6.2±5.6 days postinjury were correlated with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended-Pediatrics (GOS-E Peds) score at 13.5±8.6 months. FLAIR lesion volume was expressed as hyperintensity lesion volume index (HLVI)=(hyperintensity lesion volume / whole brain volume)×100 measured within three brain zones: zone A (cortical structures); zone B (basal ganglia, corpus callosum, internal capsule, and thalamus); and zone C (brainstem). HLVI-total and HLVI-zone C predicted good and poor outcome groups (p<0.05). GOS-E Peds correlated with HLVI-total (r=0.39; p=0.002) and HLVI in all three zones: zone A (r=0.31; p<0.02); zone B (r=0.35; p=0.004); and zone C (r=0.37; p=0.003). In adolescents ages 13–17 years, HLVI-total correlated best with outcome (r=0.5; p=0.007), whereas in younger children under the age of 13, HLVI-zone B correlated best (r=0.52; p=0.001). Compared to patients with lesions in zone A alone or in zones A and B, patients with lesions in all three zones had a significantly higher odds ratio (4.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–16.0) for developing an unfavorable outcome. PMID:25808802

  3. Liver dysplasia: US molecular imaging with targeted contrast agent enables early assessment.

    PubMed

    Grouls, Christoph; Hatting, Maximillian; Rix, Anne; Pochon, Sibylle; Lederle, Wiltrud; Tardy, Isabelle; Kuhl, Christiane K; Trautwein, Christian; Kiessling, Fabian; Palmowski, Moritz

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2)-targeted ultrasonographic (US) microbubbles for the assessment of liver dysplasia in transgenic mice. Animal experiments were approved by the governmental review committee. Nuclear factor-κB essential modulator knock-out mice with liver dysplasia and wild-type mice underwent liver imaging by using a clinical US system. Two types of contrast agents were investigated: nontargeted, commercially available, second-generation microbubbles (SonoVue) and clinically translatable PEGylated VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles (BR55). Microbubble kinetics was investigated over the course of 4 minutes. Targeted contrast material-enhanced US signal was quantified 5 minutes after injection. Competitive in vivo binding experiments with BR55 were performed in knock-out mice. Immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining of liver sections was performed to validate the in vivo US results. Groups were compared by using the Mann-Whitney test. Peak enhancement after injection of SonoVue and BR55 did not differ in healthy and dysplastic livers (SonoVue, P = .46; BR55, P = .43). Accordingly, immunohistochemical findings revealed comparable vessel densities in both groups. The specificity of BR55 to VEGFR2 was proved by in vivo competition (P = .0262). While the SonoVue signal decreased similarly in healthy and dysplastic livers during the 4 minutes, there was an accumulation of BR55 in dysplastic livers compared with healthy ones. Furthermore, targeted contrast-enhanced US signal indicated a significantly higher site-specific binding of BR55 in dysplastic than healthy livers (P = .005). Quantitative immunohistologic findings confirmed significantly higher VEGFR2 levels in dysplastic livers (P = .02). BR55 enables the distinction of early stages of liver dysplasia from normal liver. © RSNA, 2013.

  4. Optimization of illumination for a diffuse-spectroscopy-based early melanoma diagnostic imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawicz, Andrew H.; Melnyk, Ivan; Oldham, Bradley

    2004-10-01

    An optical system injecting light directly to the skin and collecting the backscattered portion of the light that has been spectrally modified within the skin has been designed and fabricated. This method reduces the noise generated by the specular component practically to zero. The initial device involved a single channel, optical-fibre-based illuminator and collector connected with a spectroscope. The single channel probing head scanned the skin using a mechanical shifting device. Seven clinical tests performed on patients with suspect skin lesions have been tested with our device, and later biopsy was taken as a "gold standard" procedure. Three cases proved to be melanoma and our spectra indicated differences from those collected from non-melanoma lesions. The process of collecting spectral data was time consuming (about 30 min) and thus not acceptable for a medical procedure. To accelerate the process of data collection from the skin, using the same principle of diffuse spectroscopy, an imaging device was conceived which is able to collect the skin spectral response at once from a relatively sizeable skin area. The requirement of negligible specular component was considered of paramount importance. Two possible approaches are feasible to satisfy this requirement: 1. Collection of backscattered light directly from the skin 2. Injection of illuminating light directly to the skin without creating reflections directly from skin. We decided to use the second approach and construct a circular, circumferential illuminator with angled light injection. Before fabricating this illuminator, a thorough analysis was performed to optimize its radius and angle of injection in order to receive the highest uniformity of diffuse light in the skin. Monte-Carlo simulation was applied to a three layer skin approximation. Only three layers were considered due to the assumption that the device must be able to diagnose early melanoma before reaching metastasis. The results of the

  5. Can early effective anticoagulation prevent new lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in acute cardioembolic stroke?

    PubMed

    Nomura, Eiichi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Imamura, Eiji; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2014-09-01

    The timing of warfarin administration for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with atrial fibrillation (Af) has not been established. We hypothesized that achieving targeted prothrombin time and international normalized ratio (PT-INR) at 2 weeks could prevent AIS patients with Af from developing a new lesion on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). Of consecutively enrolled AIS patients with Af between 2008 and 2011, we selected the patients who were given warfarin within 2 weeks of admission and had DW-MRI and blood test for PT-INR both on admission and at 2 weeks. Warfarin was started as early as possible and heparin was administered until the targeted PT-INR (2.0-3.0 for patients aged <70 years or 1.6-2.6 for those aged ≥70 years) was achieved. One hundred and twenty-three patients were selected, consisting of 88 patients without a new lesion and 35 patients with a new lesion. Patients with a new lesion had a significantly higher median score on National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (11.0 vs. 5.5, P = .0053), a lower rate of achieving targeted PT-INR at 2 weeks (25.7% vs. 48.9%, P = .0190), and a lower median dosage of warfarin at 2 weeks (2.0 mg vs. 2.5 mg, P = .0209) than patients without a new lesion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that failure to achieve targeted PT-INR (P = .0298) was significantly associated with the occurrence of a new lesion. Our findings suggest that achieving targeted PT-INR at 2 weeks by using warfarin prevents new lesions in AIS patients with Af. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [(11)C]-Acetoacetate PET imaging: a potential early marker for cardiac heart failure.

    PubMed

    Croteau, Etienne; Tremblay, Sébastien; Gascon, Suzanne; Dumulon-Perreault, Véronique; Labbé, Sébastien M; Rousseau, Jacques A; Cunnane, Stephen C; Carpentier, André C; Bénard, François; Lecomte, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The ketone body acetoacetate could be used as an alternate nutrient for the heart, and it also has the potential to improve cardiac function in an ischemic-reperfusion model or reduce the mitochondrial production of oxidative stress involved in cardiotoxicity. In this study, [(11)C]-acetoacetate was investigated as an early marker of intracellular damage in heart failure. A rat cardiotoxicity heart failure model was induced by doxorubicin, Dox(+). [(14)C]-Acetoacetate, a non-positron (β-) emitting radiotracer, was used to characterize the arterial blood input function and myocardial mitochondrial uptake. Afterward, [(11)C]-acetoacetate (β+) myocardial PET images were obtained for kinetic analysis and heart function assessment in control Dox(-) (n=15) and treated Dox(+) (n=6) rats. The uptake rate (K1) and myocardial clearance rate (k2or kmono) were extracted. [(14)C]-Acetoacetate in the blood was increased in Dox(+), from 2 min post-injection until the last withdrawal point when the heart was harvested, as well as the uptake in the heart and myocardial mitochondria (unpaired t-test, p <0.05). PET kinetic analysis of [(11)C]-acetoacetate showed that rate constants K1, k2 and kmono were decreased in Dox(+) (p <0.05) combined with a reduction of 24% of the left ventricular ejection fraction (p <0.001). Radioactive acetoacetate ex vivo analysis [(14)C], and in vivo kinetic [(11)C] studies provided evidence that [(11)C]-acetoacetate can assess heart failure Dox(+). Contrary to myocardial flow reserve (rest-stress protocol), [(11)C]-acetoacetate can be used to assess reduced kinetic rate constants without requirement of hyperemic stress response. The proposed [(11)C]-acetoacetate cardiac radiotracer in the investigation of heart disease is novel and paves the way to a potential role for [(11)C]-acetoacetate in cardiac pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  8. Automated detection of nerve fiber layer defects on retinal fundus images using fully convolutional network for early diagnosis of glaucoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Ryusuke; Muramatsu, Chisako; Ishida, Kyoko; Sawada, Akira; Hatanaka, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Early detection of glaucoma is important to slow down progression of the disease and to prevent total vision loss. We have been studying an automated scheme for detection of a retinal nerve fiber layer defect (NFLD), which is one of the earliest signs of glaucoma on retinal fundus images. In our previous study, we proposed a multi-step detection scheme which consists of Gabor filtering, clustering and adaptive thresholding. The problems of the previous method were that the number of false positives (FPs) was still large and that the method included too many rules. In attempt to solve these problems, we investigated the end-to-end learning system without pre-specified features. A deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) with deconvolutional layers was trained to detect NFLD regions. In this preliminary investigation, we investigated effective ways of preparing the input images and compared the detection results. The optimal result was then compared with the result obtained by the previous method. DCNN training was carried out using original images of abnormal cases, original images of both normal and abnormal cases, ellipse-based polar transformed images, and transformed half images. The result showed that use of both normal and abnormal cases increased the sensitivity as well as the number of FPs. Although NFLDs are visualized with the highest contrast in green plane, the use of color images provided higher sensitivity than the use of green image only. The free response receiver operating characteristic curve using the transformed color images, which was the best among seven different sets studied, was comparable to that of the previous method. Use of DCNN has a potential to improve the generalizability of automated detection method of NFLDs and may be useful in assisting glaucoma diagnosis on retinal fundus images.

  9. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Molecular Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Together with Serum Markers of Tumor-Associated Nuclear Change and Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    ultrasound molecular imaging agents enhances signal intensity and detection of OVCA’ was examined in specific aim 1 described in Year-1 report...improved the detection of OVCA at early stage. This improvement in OVCA detectability was due to the enhanced ultrasound imaging signal intensity ...Molecular Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Together with Serum Markers of Tumor-Associated Nuclear Change and Angiogenesis PRINCIPAL

  10. Why Are We Failing to Implement Imaging Studies with Radiolabelled New Molecular Entities in Early Oncology Drug Development?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In early drug development advanced imaging techniques can help with progressing new molecular entities (NME) to subsequent phases of drug development and thus reduce attrition. However, several organizational, operational, and regulatory hurdles pose a significant barrier, potentially limiting the impact these techniques can have on modern drug development. Positron emission tomography (PET) of radiolabelled NME is arguably the best example of a complex technique with a potential to deliver unique decision-making data in small cohorts of subjects. However, to realise this potential the impediments to timely inclusion of PET into the drug development process must be overcome. In the present paper, we discuss the value of PET imaging with radiolabelled NME during early anticancer drug development, as exemplified with one such NME. We outline the multiple hurdles and propose options on how to streamline the organizational steps for future studies. PMID:25202719

  11. Diagnosis of early-stage rheumatoid arthritis: usefulness of unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced MR images at 3 T.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Korogi, Yukunori

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one consecutive unclassified arthritis patients with polyarthralgia including wrist joint were evaluated with 3-T MRI as possible early-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA). After prospective follow-up, 21 of 41 patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Synovitis was detected in all 21 RA patients (sensitivity=100%) with postcontrast MRI and in 14 patients (67%) with unenhanced MRI when none of them fulfilled ACR diagnostic criteria. Fat-suppressed intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) image showed high detection rate of synovitis and bone erosion, whereas FIESTA image clearly delineated joint fluid and bone trabeculae. MRI at 3 T is a potentially powerful tool for discriminating and managing early-stage RA patients.

  12. A fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy in corneal images.

    PubMed

    Al-Fahdawi, Shumoos; Qahwaji, Rami; Al-Waisy, Alaa S; Ipson, Stanley; Malik, Rayaz A; Brahma, Arun; Chen, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common types of diabetes that can affect the cornea. An accurate analysis of the nerve structures can assist the early diagnosis of this disease. This paper proposes a robust, fast and fully automatic nerve segmentation and morphometric parameter quantification system for corneal confocal microscope images. The segmentation part consists of three main steps. First, a preprocessing step is applied to enhance the visibility of the nerves and remove noise using anisotropic diffusion filtering, specifically a Coherence filter followed by Gaussian filtering. Second, morphological operations are applied to remove unwanted objects in the input image such as epithelial cells and small nerve segments. Finally, an edge detection step is applied to detect all the nerves in the input image. In this step, an efficient algorithm for connecting discontinuous nerves is proposed. In the morphometric parameters quantification part, a number of features are extracted, including thickness, tortuosity and length of nerve, which may be used for the early diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy and when planning Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) or Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The performance of the proposed segmentation system is evaluated against manually traced ground-truth images based on a database consisting of 498 corneal sub-basal nerve images (238 are normal and 260 are abnormal). In addition, the robustness and efficiency of the proposed system in extracting morphometric features with clinical utility was evaluated in 919 images taken from healthy subjects and diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. We demonstrate rapid (13 seconds/image), robust and effective automated corneal nerve quantification. The proposed system will be deployed as a useful clinical tool to support the expertise of ophthalmologists and save the clinician time in a busy clinical setting.

  13. The assessment of antiangiogenic and antivascular therapies in early-stage clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging: issues and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Leach, M O; Brindle, K M; Evelhoch, J L; Griffiths, J R; Horsman, M R; Jackson, A; Jayson, G C; Judson, I R; Knopp, M V; Maxwell, R J; McIntyre, D; Padhani, A R; Price, P; Rathbone, R; Rustin, G J; Tofts, P S; Tozer, G M; Vennart, W; Waterton, J C; Williams, S R; Workman, P

    2005-01-01

    Vascular and angiogenic processes provide an important target for novel cancer therapeutics. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is being used increasingly to noninvasively monitor the action of these therapeutics in early-stage clinical trials. This publication reports the outcome of a workshop that considered the methodology and design of magnetic resonance studies, recommending how this new tool might best be used. PMID:15870830

  14. Early detection of glaucoma using fully automated disparity analysis of the optic nerve head (ONH) from stereo fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Archie; Corona, Enrique; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian S.

    2006-03-01

    Early detection of structural damage to the optic nerve head (ONH) is critical in diagnosis of glaucoma, because such glaucomatous damage precedes clinically identifiable visual loss. Early detection of glaucoma can prevent progression of the disease and consequent loss of vision. Traditional early detection techniques involve observing changes in the ONH through an ophthalmoscope. Stereo fundus photography is also routinely used to detect subtle changes in the ONH. However, clinical evaluation of stereo fundus photographs suffers from inter- and intra-subject variability. Even the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) has not been found to be sufficiently sensitive for early detection. A semi-automated algorithm for quantitative representation of the optic disc and cup contours by computing accumulated disparities in the disc and cup regions from stereo fundus image pairs has already been developed using advanced digital image analysis methodologies. A 3-D visualization of the disc and cup is achieved assuming camera geometry. High correlation among computer-generated and manually segmented cup to disc ratios in a longitudinal study involving 159 stereo fundus image pairs has already been demonstrated. However, clinical usefulness of the proposed technique can only be tested by a fully automated algorithm. In this paper, we present a fully automated algorithm for segmentation of optic cup and disc contours from corresponding stereo disparity information. Because this technique does not involve human intervention, it eliminates subjective variability encountered in currently used clinical methods and provides ophthalmologists with a cost-effective and quantitative method for detection of ONH structural damage for early detection of glaucoma.

  15. An assessment of the correlation between early postinfarction pyramidal tract Wallerian degeneration and nerve function recovery using diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Guo, A H; Hao, F L; Liu, L F; Wang, B J; Jiang, X F

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the early diagnosis of pyramidal tract Wallerian degeneration (WD) and assessment of neurological recovery following cerebral infarction. This study included 23 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 10 healthy adult controls. All participants underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DTI scans. DTI images were analyzed using the Functional MRI of the Brain Software Library to determine the regions of interest (ROI) and obtain the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) value for each ROI. The correlation between FA or MD and postinfarction functional recovery of the nervous system was further analyzed to assess the feasibility of using a DTI scan in the evaluation of functional recovery of the nervous system in patients with cerebral infarction. DTI may be useful in detecting signals of early postinfarction pyramidal tract WD and is useful for the evaluation of postinfarction neurological recovery. Cerebral lesions were detected using MRI in all patients. It was found that in some patients, the FA value of the ipsilateral pyramidal tract on DTI was decreased as early as day 3 after the onset of infarction and in all patients by day 7. Subsequent correlation studies showed that the FA value of the ipsilateral pyramidal tract on day 13 was negatively correlated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, but positively correlated with the Barthel Index, motricity index, and modified Rankin Scale scores.

  16. Study of Functional Infrared Imaging for Early Detection of Mucositis in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Ahmed, Omar; Kocherginsky, Masha; Shustakova, Galyna; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Salama, Joseph K.; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Novosad, Valentyn

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has led to improved efficacy in treating locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LA-SCCHN) but has led to almost universal in-field mucositis. Patients treated with the same regimen often have differences in mucositis occurrence and severity. Mucositis induced via radiation is known to represent an intense inflammatory response histologically. We hypothesized that patients destined to display severe mucocutaneous toxicity would demonstrate greater alterations in thermal intensity early in therapy than identically treated counterparts. This will allow identification of patients that will require more intensive supportive care using thermal imaging technology. Materials and Methods Subjects with LA-SCCHN (oral cavity or oropharynx) being treated with the identical chemoradiotherapy regimen underwent baseline and weekly thermal imaging. Changes in skin temperature caused by mucositis and dermatitis compared with a reference area (T were calculated and correlated to grade of mucositis based on NCI-CTCAE 3.0. Results Thirty-four subjects were enrolled. Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis was observed in 53% and 21%, respectively. We observed a statistically significant positive association between an early rise in T and mucositis grade (p value=0.03). Conclusions Thermal imaging is able to detect small and early changes in skin surface temperature that may be associated with development of mucositis in patients being treated with chemoradiotherapy. PMID:23988569

  17. Change in PDE10 across early Huntington disease assessed by [18F]MNI-659 and PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Russell, David S; Jennings, Danna L; Barret, Olivier; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Carroll, Vincent M; Caillé, Fabien; Alagille, David; Morley, Thomas J; Papin, Caroline; Seibyl, John P; Marek, Kenneth L

    2016-02-23

    To evaluate whether striatal [(18)F]MNI-659 PET imaging of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) serves as a sensitive and reliable biomarker of striatal neurodegeneration in a longitudinal cohort of participants with early Huntington disease (HD). A cohort of participants with HD, including both participants premanifest or manifest with motor signs, underwent clinical assessments, genetic determination, and 2 [(18)F]MNI-659 PET imaging sessions approximately 1 year apart. Eleven healthy control (HC) participants underwent clinical assessments and [(18)F]MNI-659 PET imaging once. Striatal binding potentials (BPnd) were estimated for brain regions of interest, specifically within the basal ganglia, and compared between baseline and follow-up imaging. Clinical measures of HD severity were assessed at each visit. Eight participants with HD (6 manifest; 2 premanifest) participated. Of those with manifest HD, all had relatively early stage disease (stage 1, n = 2; stage 2, n = 4) and a Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale total motor score <45. As expected, the HD cohort as a whole had a reduction in the basal ganglia BPnd to approximately 50% of that seen in HC. On follow-up scans, [(18)F]MNI-659 uptake declined in the putamen and caudate nucleus in all 8 participants. The mean annualized rates of decline in signal in the caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus and the putamen were 16.6%, 6.9%, and 5.8%, respectively. In HC, the annualized reduction in signal in striatal regions was less than 1%. Longitudinal data in this small cohort of participants with early HD support [(18)F]MNI-659 PET imaging of PDE10 as a useful biomarker to track HD disease progression. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Early Detection of Acute Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Noninvasive Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Kristine O.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular and cholestatic forms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are major reasons for late-stage termination of small-molecule drug discovery research projects. Biochemical serum markers are limited in their ability to sensitively and specifically detect both of these common DILI forms in preclinical models, and tissue-specific approaches to assessing this are labor intensive, requiring extensive animal dosing, tissue preparation, and pathology assessment. In vivo fluorescent imaging offers noninvasive detection of biologic changes detected directly in the livers of living animals. Three different near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes, specific for cell death (Annexin-Vivo 750), matrix metalloproteases (MMPSense 750 FAST), and transferrin receptor (Transferrin-Vivo 750) were used to measure the effects of single bolus intraperitoneal doses of four different chemical agents known to induce liver injury. Hepatocellular injury–inducing agents, thioacetamide and acetaminophen, showed optimal injury detection with probe injection at 18–24 hours, the liver cholestasis-inducing drug rifampicin required early probe injection (2 hours), and chlorpromazine, which induces mixed hepatocellular/cholestatic injury, showed injury with both early and late injection. Different patterns of liver responses were seen among these different imaging probes, and no one probe detected injury by all four compounds. By using a cocktail of these three near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes, all labeled with 750-nm fluorophores, each of the four different DILI agents induced comparable tissue injury within the liver region, as assessed by epifluorescence imaging. A strategy of probe cocktail injection in separate cohorts at 2 hours and at 20–24 hours allowed the effective detection of drugs with either early- or late-onset injury. PMID:28115551

  19. Early Detection of Acute Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Noninvasive Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Kristine O; Peterson, Jeffrey D

    2017-04-01

    Hepatocellular and cholestatic forms of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are major reasons for late-stage termination of small-molecule drug discovery research projects. Biochemical serum markers are limited in their ability to sensitively and specifically detect both of these common DILI forms in preclinical models, and tissue-specific approaches to assessing this are labor intensive, requiring extensive animal dosing, tissue preparation, and pathology assessment. In vivo fluorescent imaging offers noninvasive detection of biologic changes detected directly in the livers of living animals. Three different near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes, specific for cell death (Annexin-Vivo 750), matrix metalloproteases (MMPSense 750 FAST), and transferrin receptor (Transferrin-Vivo 750) were used to measure the effects of single bolus intraperitoneal doses of four different chemical agents known to induce liver injury. Hepatocellular injury-inducing agents, thioacetamide and acetaminophen, showed optimal injury detection with probe injection at 18-24 hours, the liver cholestasis-inducing drug rifampicin required early probe injection (2 hours), and chlorpromazine, which induces mixed hepatocellular/cholestatic injury, showed injury with both early and late injection. Different patterns of liver responses were seen among these different imaging probes, and no one probe detected injury by all four compounds. By using a cocktail of these three near-infrared fluorescent imaging probes, all labeled with 750-nm fluorophores, each of the four different DILI agents induced comparable tissue injury within the liver region, as assessed by epifluorescence imaging. A strategy of probe cocktail injection in separate cohorts at 2 hours and at 20-24 hours allowed the effective detection of drugs with either early- or late-onset injury. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  20. The Value of Intraoperative and Early Postoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Low-Grade Glioma Surgery: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pala, Andrej; Brand, Christine; Kapapa, Thomas; Hlavac, Michal; König, Ralph; Schmitz, Bernd; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Coburger, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The presence of residual tumor is crucial in decision-making for low-grade gliomas (LGGs), because patients older than 40 years of age with residual tumor are considered for adjuvant treatment. There are hints that early postoperative fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2 (within 48 hours) may overestimate residual tumor volume in LGG. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without subsequent resection or ultra-early postoperative MRI may assess the amount of residual tumor more adequately. To evaluate the utility of postoperative imaging in LGG, we volumetrically analyzed intraoperative, early, and late (3-4 months after surgery) postoperative MRIs of LGGs. A total of 33 patients with LGG were assessed retrospectively. Residual tumor was defined as signal-enhanced tissue in T2 and FLAIR. Volumetric assessment was performed with intraoperative, early, and late postoperative T2/FLAIR via Brainlab-iPlan 3.0. Wilcoxon and χ(2) tests were used for statistical analysis. A significant difference of FLAIR/T2 abnormalities was found in intraoperative and early postoperative MRIs (FLAIR mean volume = 5.433 cm(3), T2 mean volume = 3.374 cm(3) vs. FLAIR mean volume = 14.090 cm(3), P = 0.002, T2 mean volume = 7.597 cm(3), P = 0.006). There was no significant difference between intraoperative and late postoperative FLAIR/T2 abnormalities (late postoperative FLAIR/T2 mean volume = 5.560 cm(3) and 2.370 cm(3), P = 0.520, P = 0.398), whereas a significant difference was detected between early and late postoperative images (FLAIR, P < 0.0001; T2, P < 0.00001). Intraoperative MRI without further resection or ultra-early postoperative MRI seems to reflect the actual volume of residual tumor in LGG more precisely compared with early postoperative MRI and therefore seems to be more useful regarding decisions for adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic Performance of and Breast Tissue Changes at Early Breast MR Imaging Surveillance in Women after Breast Conservation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Youn, In Kyung; Baek, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Sil

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance and tissue changes in early (1 year or less) breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging surveillance in women who underwent breast conservation therapy for breast cancer. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Between April 2014 and June 2016, 414 women (mean age, 51.5 years; range, 21-81 years) who underwent 422 early surveillance breast MR imaging examinations (median, 6.0 months; range, 2-12 months) after breast conservation therapy were studied. The cancer detection rate, positive predictive value of biopsy, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve of surveillance MR imaging, mammography, and ultrasonography (US) were assessed. Follow-up was also obtained in 95 women by using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) changes in the contralateral breast were assessed according to adjuvant therapy by using the McNemar test. Results Of 11 detected cancers, six were seen at MR imaging only, one was seen at MR imaging and mammography, two were seen at MR imaging and US, one was seen at mammography only, and one was seen at PET/CT only. Three MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed at the original tumor bed, and two MR imaging-depicted cancers were observed adjacent to the original tumor. Among two false-negative MR imaging diagnoses (two cases of ductal carcinoma in situ), one cancer had manifested as calcifications at mammography without differentiated enhancement at MR imaging, and the other cancer was detected at PET/CT, but MR imaging results were negative because of marked BPE, which resulted in focal lesion masking. The positive predictive value of biopsy and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve for MR imaging were 32.1% (nine of 28), 81.8% (nine of 11), 95.1% (391 of 411), 94.7% (400 of 422), and 0

  2. Dynamic migration and cell-cell interactions of early reprogramming revealed by high resolution time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Megyola, Cynthia M.; Gao, Yuan; Teixeira, Alexandra M.; Cheng, Jijun; Heydari, Kartoosh; Cheng, Ee-chun; Nottoli, Timothy; Krause, Diane S.; Lu, Jun; Guo, Shangqin

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of induced pluripotency has been hampered by its low efficiency and slow kinetics. Here, we report an experimental system with multi-color time-lapse microscopy that permits direct observation of pluripotency induction at single cell resolution, with temporal intervals as short as five minutes. Using granulocyte-monocyte progenitors as source cells, we visualized nascent pluripotent cells emerge from a hematopoietic state. We engineered a suite of image processing and analysis software to annotate the behaviors of the reprogramming cells, which revealed the highly dynamic cell-cell interactions associated with early reprogramming. We observed frequent cell migration, which can lead to sister colonies, satellite colonies and colonies of mixed genetic makeup. In addition, we discovered a previously unknown morphologically distinct 2-cell intermediate of reprogramming, which occurs prior to other reprogramming landmarks. By directly visualizing the reprogramming process with E-cadherin inhibition, we demonstrate the requirement of E-cadherin for proper cellular interactions from an early stage of reprogramming, including the 2-cell intermediate. The detailed cell-cell interactions revealed by this imaging platform shed light on previously unappreciated early reprogramming dynamics. This experimental system could serve as a powerful tool to dissect the complex mechanisms of early reprogramming by focusing on the relevant but rare cells with superb temporal and spatial resolution. PMID:23335078

  3. Early and delayed thallium 201 imaging. Diagnosis of patients with cold thyroid nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Bleichrodt, R.P.; Vermey, A.; Piers, D.A.; de Langen, Z.J.

    1987-12-01

    To investigate the utility of thallium 201 (Tl-201) thyroid scintigraphy for the detection of thyroid malignancies, early and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy was done in 70 consecutive patients with a clinically solitary cold (Iodine 123 (I-123)) nodule. Early Tl-201 scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 7% in predicting malignancy. With a combination of early and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy, sensitivity ranged from 17 to 25% and specificity from 95 to 100%. Early and and delayed Tl-201 scintigraphy are only of limited value for the detection of thyroid cancer.

  4. Early Detection of Breast Cancer by Using Handycam Camera Manipulation as Thermal Camera Imaging with Images Processing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riantana, R.; Arie, B.; Adam, M.; Aditya, R.; Nuryani; Yahya, I.

    2017-02-01

    One important thing to pay attention for detecting breast cancer is breast temperature changes. Indications symptoms of breast tissue abnormalities marked by a rise in temperature of the breast. Handycam in night vision mode interferences by external infrared can penetrate into the skin better and can make an infrared image becomes clearer. The program is capable to changing images from a camcorder into a night vision thermal image by breaking RGB into Grayscale matrix structure. The matrix rearranged in the new matrix with double data type so that it can be processed into contour color chart to differentiate the distribution of body temperature. In this program are also features of contrast scale setting of the image is processed so that the color can be set as desired. There was Also a contrast adjustment feature inverse scale that is useful to reverse the color scale so that colors can be changed opposite. There is improfile function used to retrieves the intensity values of pixels along a line what we want to show the distribution of intensity in a graph of relationship between the intensity and the pixel coordinates.

  5. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Small Peritoneal Implants in “Potentially” Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grabowska-Derlatka, Laretta; Derlatka, Pawel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Cieszanowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. MRI is established modality for the diagnosis of ovarian malignancies. Advances in MRI technology, including DW imaging, could lead to the further increase in the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of peritoneal metastases. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of DW imaging for detection of peritoneal metastatic disease in patients suspected of having potentially early ovarian cancer and secondly to evaluate ADC values of peritoneal implants. Materials and Methods. The prospective study group consisted of 26 women with sonographic or/and CT diagnosis of suspected ovarian tumor. Based on the results of the above imaging, in none of them was extraovarian spread of disease or ascites recognized. All patients underwent MRI with DW imaging. Results. Overall, 18 extraovarian peritoneal lesions were found on DW images in 10 from 26 examined patients. All implants had diameter ≤10 mm. The presence of all lesions diagnosed by MRI was confirmed intraoperatively. Histopathologic findings in 17 proofs confirmed ovarian cancer. PPV was 94%. On all DW images (with b values of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 s/mm2) the mean signal intensities of peritoneal lesions were significantly higher than the mean signal intensities of normal adjacent tissue (p = 0.000001). PMID:27022614

  6. Cortical bone water changes in ovariectomized rats during the early postoperative period: Objective evaluation using sweep imaging with Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Horii, Motoyuki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kido, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Shigeki; Hara, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Tetsuro; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the cortical bone signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats during the early postoperative period as a method to measure bone quality using the sweep imaging with Fourier transform (SWIFT) technique. Twelve-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were divided into sham and OVX groups. Preoperative tetracycline was immediately administered subcutaneously to distinguish new cortical bone area, and tibial samples were collected at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using proton density-weighted imaging (PDWI) and SWIFT to obtain cross-sectional images of the tibial diaphysis. The cortical bone SNR was calculated. Bone histomorphometry was performed. Histomorphometry findings showed that the new bone area was significantly greater at 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively in the OVX group (P < 0.05) while the porosity area decreased gradually in both groups (P < 0.001). The difference of SNR receiving PDWI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.057). The SWIFT technique showed that the SNR was significantly higher at 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively in the OVX group (P < 0.05) and was correlated with the new bone area (R(2) = 0.430). The SWIFT findings suggest that the SWIFT technique may depict early changes in cortical bone quality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Gray and white matter volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Junji; Kakeda, Shingo; Abe, Osamu; Goto, Naoki; Yoshimura, Reiji; Hori, Hikaru; Ohnari, Norihiro; Sato, Toru; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakamura, Jun; Korogi, Yukunori

    2010-02-01

    To determine whether statistical analyses of quantitative MR imaging data, including morphological changes, mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA), could provide useful biomarkers in early stage of first-episode schizophrenia. Twenty-three patients, who met all the criteria in the DSM-IV-TR category for schizophrenia excluding the duration of the disease (less than 6 months of follow-up), were examined by MR imaging during the initial consultation. Nineteen of the 23 patients were finally diagnosed to have schizophrenia after a 6-month follow-up, and they were included in this study as having been in the early stage of first-episode schizophrenia. Nineteen healthy volunteers also underwent MR imaging as age-matched controls. Three-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled acquisition with steady state (3D-SPGR) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed at 3T. Image processing for voxel-based morphometry, a fully automatic technique for a computational analysis of differences in regional brain volume throughout the entire brain, was conducted using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software package (SPM5). The 3D-SPGR images in the native space were bias-corrected; spatially normalized; segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images; and intensity-modulated using SPM5. A voxel-based analysis was conducted using both the MD and FA maps computed from DTI. The customized MD and FA template specific to this study was created from all participants. Thereafter, all the MD and FA maps in the native space were transformed onto the stereotactic space by registering each of the images to the customized MD and FA template. The two groups were compared using SPM5. Age and sex were treated as confounding covariates. The patients demonstrated a significant increase in the MD of the left parahippocampal gyrus, left insula, and right anterior cingulate gyrus in comparison to the control subjects (FDR corrected p<0.05). No significant

  8. Early detection and longitudinal imaging of cancer micrometastases using biofunctionalized rare-earth albumin nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevon, M.; Kantamneni, H.; Ganapathy, V.; Higgins, L.; Mingozzi, M.; Pierce, M.; Riman, R.; Roth, C. M.; Moghe, P. V.

    2016-05-01

    Success of personalized medicine in cancer therapy depends on the ability to identify and molecularly phenotype tumors. Current clinical imaging techniques cannot be integrated with precision molecular medicine at the level of single cells or microlesions due to limited resolution. In this work we use molecularly targeted infrared emitting optical probes to identify and characterize metastatic microlesions prior to their detection with clinically relevant imaging modalities. These contrast agents form the basis of an in vivo optical imaging system capable of resolving internal microlesions, filling a critical unmet need in cancer imaging.

  9. Differences in selectivity to natural images in early visual areas (V1-V3).

    PubMed

    Coggan, David D; Allen, Luke A; Farrar, Oliver R H; Gouws, Andre D; Morland, Antony B; Baker, Daniel H; Andrews, Timothy J

    2017-05-26

    High-level regions of the ventral visual pathway respond more to intact objects compared to scrambled objects. The aim of this study was to determine if this selectivity for objects emerges at an earlier stage of processing. Visual areas (V1-V3) were defined for each participant using retinotopic mapping. Participants then viewed intact and scrambled images from different object categories (bottle, chair, face, house, shoe) while neural responses were measured using fMRI. Our rationale for using scrambled images is that they contain the same low-level properties as the intact objects, but lack the higher-order combinations of features that are characteristic of natural images. Neural responses were higher for scrambled than intact images in all regions. However, the difference between intact and scrambled images was smaller in V3 compared to V1 and V2. Next, we measured the spatial patterns of response to intact and scrambled images from different object categories. We found higher within-category compared to between category correlations for both intact and scrambled images demonstrating distinct patterns of response. Spatial patterns of response were more distinct for intact compared to scrambled images in V3, but not in V1 or V2. These findings demonstrate the emergence of selectivity to natural images in V3.

  10. Light sheet-based imaging and analysis of early embryogenesis in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Khaled; Lemon, William C; Amat, Fernando; Keller, Philipp J

    2015-01-01

    The fruit fly is an excellent model system for investigating the sequence of epithelial tissue invaginations constituting the process of gastrulation. By combining recent advancements in light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and image processing, the three-dimensional fly embryo morphology and relevant gene expression patterns can be accurately recorded throughout the entire process of embryogenesis. LSFM provides exceptionally high imaging speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, low level of photoinduced damage, and good optical penetration depth. This powerful combination of capabilities makes LSFM particularly suitable for live imaging of the fly embryo.The resulting high-information-content image data are subsequently processed to obtain the outlines of cells and cell nuclei, as well as the geometry of the whole embryo tissue by image segmentation. Furthermore, morphodynamics information is extracted by computationally tracking objects in the image. Towards that goal we describe the successful implementation of a fast fitting strategy of Gaussian mixture models.The data obtained by image processing is well-suited for hypothesis testing of the detailed biomechanics of the gastrulating embryo. Typically this involves constructing computational mechanics models that consist of an objective function providing an estimate of strain energy for a given morphological configuration of the tissue, and a numerical minimization mechanism of this energy, achieved by varying morphological parameters.In this chapter, we provide an overview of in vivo imaging of fruit fly embryos using LSFM, computational tools suitable for processing the resulting images, and examples of computational biomechanical simulations of fly embryo gastrulation.

  11. Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Kara, Mohammed A; Peters, Femke P; Fockens, Paul; ten Kate, Fiebo J W; Bergman, Jacques J G H M

    2006-08-01

    Video-autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and narrow band imaging (NBI) are new endoscopic techniques that may improve the detection of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) in Barrett's esophagus (BE). AFI improves the detection of lesions but may give false-positive findings. NBI allows for detailed inspection of the mucosal and (micro)vascular patterns, which are related to HGIN. A proof-of-principle study to combine AFI and NBI to improve the detection of HGIN and to reduce false-positive findings. Cross-sectional study of consecutive eligible patients. Single-center. Twenty patients with BE with suspected or endoscopically treated HGIN were investigated with 2 prototype imaging systems: AFI (inspection with high-resolution videoendoscopy and autofluorescence imaging for detection of lesions) and NBI (for detailed inspection of mucosal and vascular patterns of identified lesions). Lesions were sampled for histopathologic evaluation. The positive predictive value of AFI alone and of AFI-NBI for detecting HGIN and the reduction of false-positive findings because of the use of NBI. All of the 28 lesions with HGIN were identified with AFI. Seventeen were identified with white light (61%). Forty-seven suspicious lesions were detected with AFI: 28 contained HGIN (60%) and 19 were false positive (40%). With NBI, 25 of the true-positive lesions had definitely suspicious patterns, and 3 had dubiously suspicious patterns. Of the 19 false positives, 14 were not suspicious on NBI. The false-positive rate, therefore, was reduced from 40% to 10%. Low-grade dysplasia was found in 4 of the remaining 5 false positives. All of the 14 patients with HGIN were identified by AFI-NBI (sensitivity 100%). Uncontrolled study in high-risk patients. This proof-of-principle study confirms that AFI can be used as a red-flag technique to detect suspicious lesions. With NBI, detailed inspection of the surface patterns can be performed. This combination may increase the accuracy of detecting

  12. First step toward translation of thermophotonic lock-in imaging to dentistry as an early caries detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojaghi, Ashkan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of the most prevalent oral disease worldwide, i.e., dental caries, still remains as one of the major challenges in dentistry. The current dental standard of care relies on caries detection methods, such as visual inspection and x-ray radiography, which lack the sufficient specificity and sensitivity to detect caries at early stages of formation when they can be healed. We report on the feasibility of early caries detection in a clinically and commercially viable thermophotonic imaging system. The system incorporates intensity-modulated laser light along with a low-cost long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 to 14 μm) camera, providing diagnostic contrast based on the enhanced light absorption of early caries. The LWIR camera is highly suitable for integration into clinical platforms because of its low weight and cost. In addition, through theoretical modeling, we show that LWIR detection enhances the diagnostic contrast due to the minimal LWIR transmittance of enamel and suppression of the masking effect of the direct thermal Planck emission. Diagnostic performance of the system and its detection threshold are experimentally evaluated by monitoring the inception and progression of artificially induced occlusal and smooth surface caries. The results are suggestive of the suitability of the developed LWIR system for detecting early dental caries.

  13. First step toward translation of thermophotonic lock-in imaging to dentistry as an early caries detection technology.

    PubMed

    Ojaghi, Ashkan; Parkhimchyk, Artur; Tabatabaei, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of the most prevalent oral disease worldwide, i.e., dental caries, still remains as one of the major challenges in dentistry. The current dental standard of care relies on caries detection methods, such as visual inspection and x-ray radiography, which lack the sufficient specificity and sensitivity to detect caries at early stages of formation when they can be healed. We report on the feasibility of early caries detection in a clinically and commercially viable thermophotonic imaging system. The system incorporates intensity-modulated laser light along with a low-cost long-wavelength infrared (LWIR; 8 to 14???m) camera, providing diagnostic contrast based on the enhanced light absorption of early caries. The LWIR camera is highly suitable for integration into clinical platforms because of its low weight and cost. In addition, through theoretical modeling, we show that LWIR detection enhances the diagnostic contrast due to the minimal LWIR transmittance of enamel and suppression of the masking effect of the direct thermal Planck emission. Diagnostic performance of the system and its detection threshold are experimentally evaluated by monitoring the inception and progression of artificially induced occlusal and smooth surface caries. The results are suggestive of the suitability of the developed LWIR system for detecting early dental caries.

  14. Three-dimensional Dynamic Contrast-enhanced US Imaging for Early Antiangiogenic Treatment Assessment in a Mouse Colon Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaijun; Hristov, Dimitre; Qin, Jiale; Tian, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate feasibility and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast material–enhanced (DCE) ultrasonographic (US) imaging by using a clinical matrix array transducer to assess early antiangiogenic treatment effects in human colon cancer xenografts in mice. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care at Stanford University. Three-dimensional DCE US imaging with two techniques (bolus and destruction-replenishment) was performed in human colon cancer xenografts (n = 38) by using a clinical US system and transducer. Twenty-one mice were imaged twice to assess reproducibility. Seventeen mice were scanned before and 24 hours after either antiangiogenic (n = 9) or saline-only (n = 8) treatment. Data sets of 3D DCE US examinations were retrospectively segmented into consecutive 1-mm imaging planes to simulate two-dimensional (2D) DCE US imaging. Six perfusion parameters (peak enhancement [PE], area under the time-intensity curve [AUC], time to peak [TTP], relative blood volume [rBV], relative blood flow [rBF], and blood flow velocity) were measured on both 3D and 2D data sets. Percent area of blood vessels was quantified ex vivo with immunofluorescence. Statistical analyses were performed with the Wilcoxon rank test by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients and by using Pearson correlation analysis. Results Reproducibility of both 3D DCE US imaging techniques was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.73–0.86). PE, AUC, rBV, and rBF significantly decreased (P ≤ .04) in antiangiogenic versus saline-treated tumors. rBV (r = 0.74; P = .06) and rBF (r = 0.85; P = .02) correlated with ex vivo percent area of blood vessels, although the statistical significance of rBV was not reached, likely because of small sample size. Overall, 2D DCE-US overestimated and underestimated treatment effects from up to 125-fold to170-fold compared with 3D DCE US

  15. Influence of the frequency of laser toning for melasma on occurrence of leukoderma and its early detection by ultraviolet imaging.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Jun; Kou, Seiko; Kou, Sousei; Yasumura, Kazunori; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-02-01

    Laser "toning" with a Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has recently been described to be effective for the treatment of melasma. Leukoderma is a refractory complication of laser toning for melasma, but it can be detected early with ultraviolet (UV) imaging. We assessed the relationship between leukoderma and the frequency or total number of laser toning sessions, as well as the effectiveness of UV imaging for detecting leukoderma. The subjects included 147 patients who received at least five laser toning sessions. Subjects were classified into three groups according to the frequency of treatment (weekly for Group A1, fortnightly for Group A2, and monthly for Group B), and the incidence of leukoderma was compared among the three groups. In patients who developed leukoderma, the interval between clinical diagnosis and leukoderma detection on UV images (obtained with a Visia Evolution during every laser toning session) was determined to evaluate the effectiveness of UV imaging for the early detection of leukoderma. The overall incidence of leukoderma was 2% (3/147 patients): 3.8% (1/26 patients) in Group A1, 4% (2/49 patients) in Group A2, and 0% (0/72 patients) in Group B. There were no significant differences in the incidence of leukoderma relative to the frequency of laser toning. In two of the three patients who developed leukoderma, it was diagnosed clinically at the 20th and 21st laser toning session, whereas it was diagnosed by UV imaging at the 12th and 13th session. In the remaining 1 patient, leukoderma was detected clinically and by UV imaging at the 7th session. There was no significant difference in the incidence of leukoderma related to the frequency of laser toning. This study showed that there are two types of leukoderma associated with laser toning. UV imaging was effective for the early detection of type 1 leukoderma, which seems to be related to the cumulative laser energy delivered, but not for detecting type 2

  16. Molecular Imaging of Platelet-Endothelial Interactions and Endothelial Von Willebrand Factor In Early and Mid-Stage Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Chi Young; Liu, Ya Ni; Atkinson, Tamara; Xie, Aris; Foster, Ted; Davidson, Brian P.; Treible, Mackenzie; Qi, Yue; López, José A.; Munday, Adam; Ruggeri, Zaverio; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-thrombotic platelet-endothelial interactions may contribute to atherosclerotic plaque development, although in vivo studies examining mechanism without platelet pre-activation are lacking. Using in vivo molecular imaging at various stages of atherosclerosis, we quantified platelet-endothelial interactions and evaluated the contribution of major adhesion pathways. Methods and Results Mice deficient for the LDL-receptor and Apobec-1 were studied as an age-dependent model of atherosclerosis at 10, 20, 30, and 40 wks of age, which provided progressive increase in stage from very early fatty streak (10 wks) to large complex plaques without rupture (40 wks). Platelet-targeted contrast ultrasound molecular imaging of the thoracic aorta performed with microbubbles targeted to GPIbα demonstrated selective signal enhancement as early as 10 weeks of age. This signal increased progressively with age (almost 8-fold increase from 10 to 40 weeks, ANOVA p<0.001). Specificity for platelet targeting was confirmed by the reduction in platelet-targeted signal commensurate with the decrease in platelet count after immunodepletion with anti-GPIb or anti-CD41 antibody. Inhibition of P-selectin in 20 and 40 wk atherosclerotic mice resulted in a small (15-30%) reduction in platelet signal. Molecular imaging with microbubbles targeted to the A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF) demonstrated selective signal enhancement at all time points which did not significantly increase with age. Treatment of 20 and 40 week mice with recombinant ADAMTS13 eliminated platelet and VWF molecular imaging signal. Conclusions Platelet-endothelial interactions occur in early atherosclerosis. These interactions are in part due to endothelial VWF large multimers which can be reversed with exogenous ADAMTS13. PMID:26156014

  17. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and computerized tomography perfusion imaging of a liver fibrosis-early cirrhosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanghui; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yaqin; Liao, Jian; Tong, Qiongjuan; Gao, Feng; Hu, Yuequn; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    To assess liver fibrosis stages in a liver fibrosis-early cirrhosis model in dogs, the clinical efficiency of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging were compared. Hepatic vein arriving time (HVAT), hepatic artery arriving time, and hepatic artery to vein transit time (HA-VTT) were measured on CEUS. Total liver perfusion (TLP), portal vein perfusion (PVP), hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were measured on CT perfusion imaging. Histologic examination of liver specimens of the animals was performed to assess the fibrosis stage. For assessment of liver fibrosis, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CEUS indexes HVAT and HA-VTT were 0.865 and 0.930, respectively; the perfusion CT indexes TLP, PVP, and HPI were 0.797, 0.800, and 0.220, respectively; the serological index hyaluronic acid was 0.793. While for assessment of early cirrhosis, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CEUS indexes HVAT and HA-VTT were 0.915 and 0.948, respectively; the perfusion CT indexes TLP, PVP, and HPI were 0.737, 0.765, and 0.218, respectively; the serological index hyaluronic acid was 0.627. This study showed that both CEUS and CT perfusion imaging have the potential to be complementary imaging tools in the evaluation of liver fibrosis. While CEUS is the better choice and the index HA-VTT can be considered as non-invasive semi-quantitative indexes for diagnosing liver fibrosis and early cirrhosis. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Transsphenoidal pituitary macroadenomas resection guided by PoleStar N20 low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with early postoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Song; Shou, Xue-Fei; Yao, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Yong-Fei; Zhuang, Dong-Xiao; Mao, Ying; Li, Shi-Qi; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the applicability of low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) during transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary macroadenomas. Fifty-five transsphenoidal surgeries were performed for macroadenomas (modified Hardy's Grade II-IV) resections. All of the surgical processes were guided by real-time updated contrast T1-weighted coronal and sagittal images, which were acquired with 0.15 Tesla PoleStar N20 iMRI (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, CO). The definitive benefits as well as major drawbacks of low-field iMRI in transsphenoidal surgery were assessed with respect to intraoperative imaging, tumor resection control, comparison with early postoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging, and follow-up outcomes. Intraoperative imaging revealed residual tumor and guided extended tumor resection in 17 of 55 cases. As a result, the percentage of gross total removal of macroadenomas increased from 58.2% to 83.6%. The accuracy of imaging evaluation of low-field iMRI was 81.8%, compared with early postoperative high-field MRI (Correlation coefficient, 0.677; P < 0.001). A significantly lower accuracy was identified with low-field iMRI in 6 cases with cavernous sinus invasion (33.3%) in contrast to the 87.8% found with other sites (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001). The PoleStar N20 low-field iMRI navigation system is a promising tool for safe, minimally invasive, endonasal, transsphenoidal pituitary macroadenomas resection. It enables neurosurgeons to control the extent of tumor resection, particularly for suprasellar tumors, ensuring surgical accuracy and safety, and leading to a decreased likelihood of repeat surgeries. However, this technology is still not satisfying in estimating the amount of the parasellar residual tumor invading into cavernous sinus, given the false or uncertain images generated by low-field iMRI in this region, which are difficult to discriminate between tumor remnant and blood within the venous sinus.

  19. Early Assessment of Breast Cancer Therapy Response Using Photoacoustic Molecular Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    5Laboratory for Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine , National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH...oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography. J Biomed Opt 11, 024015 (2006). 5. Zhang, H. F., Maslov, K., Stoica, G

  20. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Gaul, David A.; Wang, May D.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy. PMID:27159635

  1. Whole Reproductive System Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of an Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kim, Jaeyeon; Bennett, Rachel V; Parry, R Mitchell; Gaul, David A; Wang, May D; Matzuk, Martin M; Fernández, Facundo M

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common and deadliest form of ovarian cancer. Yet it is largely asymptomatic in its initial stages. Studying the origin and early progression of this disease is thus critical in identifying markers for early detection and screening purposes. Tissue-based mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can be employed as an unbiased way of examining localized metabolic changes between healthy and cancerous tissue directly, at the onset of disease. In this study, we describe MSI results from Dicer-Pten double-knockout (DKO) mice, a mouse model faithfully reproducing the clinical nature of human HGSC. By using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) for the unsupervised analysis of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) datasets, tissue regions are segregated based on spectral components in an unbiased manner, with alterations related to HGSC highlighted. Results obtained by combining NMF with DESI-MSI revealed several metabolic species elevated in the tumor tissue and/or surrounding blood-filled cyst including ceramides, sphingomyelins, bilirubin, cholesterol sulfate, and various lysophospholipids. Multiple metabolites identified within the imaging study were also detected at altered levels within serum in a previous metabolomic study of the same mouse model. As an example workflow, features identified in this study were used to build an oPLS-DA model capable of discriminating between DKO mice with early-stage tumors and controls with up to 88% accuracy.

  2. Optimization of the spectral design used to detect early carcinoma in the human tracheo-bronchial tree by autofluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Glanzmann, Thomas; Freitag, Lutz; Grosjean, Pierre; Weber, Bernd C.; Monnier, Philippe; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2003-10-01

    The early detection and localization of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is emerging as a useful diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity and specificity. Evidence exists that the native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic or to carcinoma in situ (CIS). Early lesions in the bronchi tend to show a decrease in autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum when excited with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum. Several endoscopic imaging devices relying on these optical properties of bronchial mucosa have been developed. An industrial endoscopic autofluorescence imaging system for the detection of early cancerous lesions in the bronchi has been developed in collaboration with the firm Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH, Knittlingen (Germany; its performance has been evaluated in a previous clinical study. A second study, presented in this article, aims to optimize the spectral design of the device. Twenty-four lung cancer or high risk patients were enrolled in this study to assess the influence of additional backscattered red light on the tumor-to-healthy tissue contrast and to compare the effect of a narrow band violet excitation to a large band violet excitation. In our study we observed a three times higher contrast between cancer and healthy tissue, when backscattered red light was added to the violet excitation. The comparison between a narrow and a large band violet excitation indicated an increase of the tumor-to-healthy tissue contrast by the narrow band excitation.

  3. Biomarkers, imaging and disease activity indices in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early (SPACE) Study.

    PubMed

    Lorenzin, M; Ortolan, A; Vio, S; Favero, M; Oliviero, F; Zaninotto, M; Cosma, C; Lacognata, C; Punzi, L; Ramonda, R

    2017-08-03

    The study aimed to evaluate biomarkers facilitating early diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and correlations between them and disease activity parameters and imaging indexes. Patients with low back pain (LBP) (≥3 months, ≤2 years, onset ≤45 years) participating in the Italian arm of the SpondyloArthritis-Caught-Early SPACE study underwent a physical examination, questionnaires, laboratory tests, X-rays and MRI of the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJ). An expert rheumatologist formulated axSpA diagnosis in accordance with Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria. Disease activity and physical functioning were assessed using imaging, clinical and serological indices. Spine and SIJ MRI and X-rays were scored independently by 2 readers using the SPARCC, mSASSS and NY-criteria. Patients were classified as: subjects with signs of radiographic sacroiliitis (r-axSpA), subjects with signs of sacroiliitis on SIJ-MRI but not on X-rays (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ+) or subjects with no signs of sacroiliitis on MRI/X-rays but with >2 SpA features and signs of bone oedema on MRI spine (nr-axSpA MRI SIJ-/undifferentiated SpA). Significant differences were found in the prevalence of radiographic sacroiliitis, active sacroiliitis on MRI and SPARCC SIJ scores. Biomarker levels were not significantly increased in any of the patient groups. The correlations between IL-17 and IL-23 and other indices were not significant; correlations were found between IL-22 and BASFI, BASG1, HAQ, VAS pain, between mSASSS and MMP3, and between the latter and hsCRP. Although not significantly higher in any of the three groups, IL-22, MMP3 and hsCRP values were correlated with some disease activity indexes and with mSASSS. Large observational studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.

  4. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex ((t)BuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that (t)BuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35-40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI.

  5. Self-assembled polymeric nanoparticles as new, smart contrast agents for cancer early detection using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mouffouk, Fouzi; Simão, Teresa; Dornelles, Daniel F; Lopes, André D; Sau, Pablo; Martins, Jorge; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; dos Santos, Nuno R

    2015-01-01

    Early cancer detection is a major factor in the reduction of mortality and cancer management cost. Here we developed a smart and targeted micelle-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), able to turn on its imaging capability in the presence of acidic cancer tissues. This smart contrast agent consists of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles formed by self-assembly of a diblock copolymer (poly(ethyleneglycol-b-trimethylsilyl methacrylate)), loaded with a gadolinium hydrophobic complex (tBuBipyGd) and exploits the acidic pH in cancer tissues. In vitro MRI experiments showed that tBuBipyGd-loaded micelles were pH-sensitive, as they turned on their imaging capability only in an acidic microenvironment. The micelle-targeting ability toward cancer cells was enhanced by conjugation with an antibody against the MUC1 protein. The ability of our antibody-decorated micelles to be switched on in acidic microenvironments and to target cancer cells expressing specific antigens, together with its high Gd(III) content and its small size (35–40 nm) reveals their potential use for early cancer detection by MRI. PMID:25565804

  6. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  7. Estimation of relative regional neuroreceptor concentration by PET or SPECT: Theoretical comparisons of using a single late image or a late plus early image

    SciTech Connect

    Zeeberg, B.R.; Kim, Hee Joung; Reba, R.C. . Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-09-01

    The potential for using a single SPECT or PET image to estimate quantitatively the relative regional neuroreceptor concentration was previously analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The success of this approach depends upon acquiring the image at a time when changes in the regional radioactivity localization are much more sensitive to changes in receptor concentration than to changes in delivery. Using the binding of [[sup 11]C]carfentanil to the opiate receptor as a model, the authors have applied a computer simulation approach to determine the joint and marginal probability distributions for the ipsilateral/contralateral ratio of receptor concentrations and delivery. The authors have studied the effect, upon the probability distributions, of (1) the values of the sensitivities to receptor and delivery, (2) the selection of a particular operational procedure for interpreting the observed ipsilateral and contralateral radioactivity localizations, and (3) the inclusion of radioactivity localizations at an early time point in addition to those at the later time point. The authors have found that the probability distributions depend upon the sensitivities for both delivery and receptor. Incorporation of data at an early time point results in a significant sharpening of the probability distributions. There is an insignificant effect of subtraction of the radioactivity localization in a control region.

  8. Detecting early stage pressure ulcer on dark skin using multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-02-01

    We are developing a handheld multispectral imaging device to non-invasively inspect stage I pressure ulcers in dark pigmented skins without the need of touching the patient's skin. This paper reports some preliminary test results of using a proof-of-concept prototype. It also talks about the innovation's impact to traditional multispectral imaging technologies and the fields that will potentially benefit from it.

  9. Early diagnosis of testicular tumor using Tc-99m pertechnetate scrotal imaging.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, G D; Prezio, J A; Ricci, P E

    1983-12-01

    Two patients who originally presented with clinical symptoms of epididymo-orchitis, with compatible findings on the Tc-99m pertechnetate scrotal images, had temporary remission of their symptoms with antibiotic therapy. After two months, both patients had repeat scrotal images, because of persistent testicular enlargement. Both now demonstrated a "cold spot" in the otherwise increased activity on the affected side. Both patients underwent orchiectomy; patient 1 had a tissue diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor and patient 2 showed teratocarcinoma.

  10. Optimization of Early Response Monitoring and Prediction of Cancer Antiangiogenesis Therapy via Noninvasive PET Molecular Imaging Strategies of Multifactorial Bioparameters.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiao; Wang, Ming-Wei; Luo, Jian-Min; Wang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Yong-Ping; Zhang, Ying-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Antiangiogenesis therapy (AAT) has provided substantial benefits regarding improved outcomes and survival for suitable patients in clinical settings. Therefore, the early definition of therapeutic effects is urgently needed to guide cancer AAT. We aimed to optimize the early response monitoring and prediction of AAT efficacy, as indicated by the multi-targeted anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib in U87MG tumors, using noninvasive positron emission computed tomography (PET) molecular imaging strategies of multifactorial bioparameters. Methods: U87MG tumor mice were treated via intragastric injections of sunitinib (80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Longitudinal MicroPET/CT scans with (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FMISO, (18)F-ML-10 and (18)F-Alfatide II were acquired to quantitatively measure metabolism, hypoxia, apoptosis and angiogenesis on days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 13 following therapy initiation. Tumor tissues from a dedicated group of mice were collected for immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of key biomarkers (Glut-1, CA-IX, TUNEL, ανβ3 and CD31) at the time points of PET imaging. The tumor sizes and mouse weights were measured throughout the study. The tumor uptake (ID%/gmax), the ratios of the tumor/muscle (T/M) for each probe, and the tumor growth ratios (TGR) were calculated and used for statistical analyses of the differences and correlations. Results: Sunitinib successfully inhibited U87MG tumor growth with significant differences in the tumor size from day 9 after sunitinib treatment compared with the control group (P < 0.01). The uptakes of (18)F-FMISO (reduced hypoxia), (18)F-ML-10 (increased apoptosis) and (18)F-Alfatide II (decreased angiogenesis) in the tumor lesions significantly changed during the early stage (days 1 to 3) of sunitinib treatment; however, the uptake of (18)F-FDG (increased glucose metabolism) was significantly different during the late stage. The PET imaging data of each probe were all confirmed via ex vivo IHC of the relevant

  11. Early Clinical Experience With Kilovoltage Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Interfraction Motion Management

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, Joshua D. Fox, Tim; Elder, Eric; Nowlan, Adam; Davis, Lawrence; Keller, James; Crocker, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Interest in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) reflects the desire to minimize interfraction positioning variability. Using a kilovoltage (kV) imaging unit mounted to a traditional LINAC allows daily matching of kV images to planning digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). We quantify and evaluate the significance of calculated deviation from the intended isocenter. Since September 2004, 117 patients with various malignancies were treated using the On-Board Imaging (OBI) system, with 2088 treatment sessions. Patients were positioned by the treating therapist; orthogonal images were then obtained with the OBI unit. Couch shifts were made, aligning bony anatomy to the initial simulation image. Routine port films were performed weekly (after that day's OBI session). Ninety percent of all lateral, longitudinal, and vertical shifts were less than 0.8 cm, 0.6 cm, and 0.7 cm, respectively. The median vector shift for each anatomic site was: 0.42 cm for head and neck, 0.40 cm for CNS, 0.59 cm for GU/prostate, and 0.73 cm for breast; shift magnitude did not change with successive OBI sessions. The use of OBI effectively corrects setup variability. These shifts are typically small and random. The use of OBI likely can replace weekly port films for isocenter verification; however, OBI does not provide field shape verification.

  12. Nuclear medicine imaging for prediction or early assessment of response to chemotherapy in patients suffering from breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van de Wiele, P; Dierckx, Rudi; Scopinaro, Francesco; Waterhouse, Rikki; Annovazzi, Alessio; Kolindou, Anna; Signore, Alberto

    2002-04-01

    Reliable assays that could assess treatment response more rapidly or even predict responsiveness of breast tumours to chemotherapy would be very valuable as they would allow for adjustment of ineffective treatment and discontinuation of ineffective treatment in an early phase. As with effective cancer therapy, changes in tumour physiology, metabolism and proliferation do often precede volumetric changes routinely measured by morphological imaging modalities, for example, radiography and computerized tomography, assessment of these parameters by means of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography may provide more sensitive and earlier markers of tumour cell death or growth inhibition. This paper reviews the available literature on the role of SPECT and PET in the measurement and visualisation of breast tumour metabolism (glucose utilization and protein synthesis rate), apoptosis induction and chemotherapy resistance mechanisms as predictors or early markers of tumour response or non-response to chemotherapeutic options in patients suffering from breast carcinoma.

  13. Ultrasound imaging in the management of bleeding and pain in early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Knez, Jure; Day, Andrea; Jurkovic, Davor

    2014-07-01

    Bleeding and pain are experienced by 20% of women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Although most pregnancies complicated by pain and bleeding tend to progress normally, these symptoms are distressing for woman, and they are also associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound is the first and often the only diagnostic modality that is used to determine location of early pregnancy and to assess its health. Ultrasound is an accurate, safe, painless and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool, which all contributed to its widespread use in early pregnancy. Pain and bleeding in early pregnancy are sometimes caused by concomitant gynaecological, gastrointestinal, and urological problems, which could also be detected on ultrasound scan. In women with suspected intra-abdominal bleeding, ultrasound scan can be used to detect the presence of blood and provide information about the extent of bleeding. In this chapter, we comprehensively review the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of early pregnancy complications. We include information about the diagnosis of gynaecological and other pelvic abnormalities, which could cause pain or bleeding in pregnancy. We also provide a summary of the current views on the safety of ultrasound in early pregnancy.

  14. Efficiency of fluorescence and reflectance imaging as complementary tools for early warning of stress effects on plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumov, A.; Nikolova, A.; Vassilev, N.; Vassilev, V.

    Monitoring of terrestrial vegetation for the needs of agriculture, forestry and scientific investigation has demonstrated significant contribution to Earth' sciences in general and particular in ecological surveys and disaster management. Remote sensing of specific vegetation signature by space-born instruments is the only technique allowing large scale (regional or global) repeated observation, which can be used for early warning of natural hazards. Nowadays reflectance spectra are the main optical signatures used for monitoring of plant biomes. However, such a spectrum provides only data primarily related to the total quantity of vegetation and the concentration of their constituents. In fact, changes in the reflectance signature appear only after serious damage of the bio-systems has occurred. Thus, the use of reflectance signal as an early indicator of stress factors is rather impossible. More recently, the interest of the scientific community is increasingly devoted to the vegetation fluorescence emission, known to be an intrinsic early indicator of plant photosynthetic activity. With respect to reflectance, fluorescence is more specific as an observable of the basic biophysical processes in the plant cells. Several projects dedicated to remote measurements of solar-induced plant fluorescence, have shown the feasibility the fluorescence signal to be remotely sensed from a satellite altitudes. However, the correlation between reflectance and fluorescence still needs to be investigated. This work presents a set of experiments aimed to investigate the link between reflectance and fluorescence emission under controlled illumination conditions. They were performed in a specially designed laboratory bio chamber. The hardware of the bio-chamber allows monitoring of the plants vitality both by fluorescence and reflectance spectral imaging. Different types of stress factors (water, drought stress, acid impact etc.) were investigated. The acquired fluorescence and

  15. Early structural anomalies observed by high-resolution imaging in two related cases of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings.

  16. Early Structural Anomalies Observed by High-Resolution Imaging in Two Related Cases of Autosomal-Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Pyo; Lee, Winston; Bae, Eun Jin; Greenstein, Vivianne; Sin, Bum Ho; Chang, Stanley; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the use of adaptive-optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to investigate RHO, D190N autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa in two siblings (11 and 16 years old, respectively). Each patient exhibited distinct hyperautofluorescence patterns in which the outer borders corresponded to inner segment ellipsoid band disruption. Areas within the hyperautofluorescence patterns exhibited normal photoreceptor outer segments and retinal pigment epithelium. However, AO-SLO imaging revealed noticeable spacing irregularities in the cone mosaic. AO-SLO allows researchers to characterize retinal structural abnormalities with precision so that early structural changes in retinitis pigmentosa can be identified and reconciled with genetic findings. PMID:25215869

  17. What characterizes early adolescents with a positive body image? A qualitative investigation of Swedish girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Frisén, Ann; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate positive body image during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews, centring on three body image domains (satisfaction with own appearance, views on exercise, and influence from family and friends) were conducted with 30 early adolescent Swedish girls and boys who at age 10 and 13 had shown the highest level of body satisfaction in a large longitudinal sample. The data were analyzed thematically. Results revealed that the adolescents' satisfaction with their own appearance was characterized by a functional view of the body and an acceptance of the bodily imperfections that they perceived that they had. The vast majority of the adolescents were physically active and found exercise joyful and health-promoting. Finally, although some of the adolescents had received negative comments about their appearance from family and friends, such comments were not given any importance.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Early Spondylodiscitis: Interpretive Challenges and Atypical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Jeong A; Suh, Hie Bum; Song, You Seon; Song, Jong Woon

    2016-01-01

    MR findings of early infectious spondylodiscitis are non-specific and may be confused with those of other conditions. Therefore, it is important to recognize early MR signs of conditions, such as inappreciable cortical changes in endplates, confusing marrow signal intensities of vertebral bodies, and inflammatory changes in paraspinal soft tissues, and subligamentous and epidural spaces. In addition, appreciation of direct inoculation, such as in iatrogenic spondylodiscitis may be important, because the proportion of patients who have undergone recent spine surgery or a spinal procedure is increasing. In this review, the authors focus on the MR findings of early spondylodiscitis, atypical findings of iatrogenic infection, and the differentiation between spondylodiscitis and other disease entities mimicking infection. PMID:27587946

  19. Equivalent cross-relaxation rate imaging and diffusion weighted imaging for early prediction of response to bevacizumab-containing treatment in colorectal liver metastases-preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Shigeru; Sato, Takeshi; Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Sato, Yozo; Murata, Shinichi; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Era, Seiichi; Inaba, Yoshitaka

    To evaluate and compare the usefulness of equivalent cross-relaxation rate (ECR) imaging (ECRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the early prediction of the response of bevacizumab-containing treatments of colorectal liver metastases. Seven patients received bevacizumab-containing treatments for colorectal liver metastases. Serial magnetic resonance imaging was performed to evaluate responses before and 2 weeks after starting chemotherapy. In the ECRI, we adopted the off-resonance technique for preferential saturation of immobile protons to evaluate the ECR values. A single saturation transfer pulse frequency was used at a frequency of 3.5 ppm downfield from the water resonance. In the DWI, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value commonly used with two b-values was acquired by using diffusion weightings of 0 and 800 s/mm(2). The region of interest of the metastatic lesions in the liver was separately measured by ECRI and DWI. Tumor response was assessed by response evaluation criteria in solid tumors criteria 8 weeks after starting chemotherapy. In this study, we had four responders and three nonresponders. There was a significant difference in the pretreatment ECR values between the responders and nonresponders (P=.01); there was no significant difference in the ADC values between the two groups. Analysis of the percentage difference between the pretreatment and post-treatment values, termed as percentage change, showed that there were no significant differences in the percentage change of the ADC values between both groups; however, the percentage change in the ECR value was significantly greater for the responders than for the nonresponders (-41.6%±17.1% vs. -12.9%±6.9%, respectively; P=.04). The pretreatment ECR value and percentage change of the ECR value 2 weeks after starting chemotherapy were useful parameters in the early prediction of response to bevacizumab-containing treatment in colorectal liver metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Effect of 18F-FDG uptake time on lesion detectability in PET imaging of early stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wangerin, Kristen A.; Muzi, Mark; Peterson, Lanell M.; Linden, Hannah M.; Novakova, Alena; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Kurland, Brenda F.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Prior reports have suggested that delayed FDG-PET oncology imaging can improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for known lesions. Our goal was to estimate realistic bounds for lesion detectability for static measurements with one to four hours between FDG injection and image acquisition. Tumor and normal tissue kinetic model parameters were estimated from dynamic PET studies of patients with early stage breast cancer. These were used to generate time-activity curves (TACs) out to four hours, for which we assumed both nonreversible and reversible models with different rates of FDG dephosphorylation (k4). For each pair of tumor and normal tissue TACs, 600 PET sinogram realizations were generated, and images were reconstructed using OSEM. Test statistics for each tumor and normal tissue region of interest were output from the computer model observers and evaluated using an ROC analysis with the calculated AUC providing a measure of lesion detectability. For the nonreversible model (k4 = 0), the AUC increased in 11/23 (48%) of patients for one to two hours after the current standard post-radiotracer injection imaging window of one hour. This improvement was driven by increased tumor/normal tissue contrast before the impact of increased noise due to radiotracer decay began to dominate the imaging signal. As k4 was increased from 0 to 0.01 min−1, the time of maximum detectability shifted earlier, as the decreasing FDG concentration in the tumor lowered the CNR. These results imply that delayed PET imaging may reveal low-conspicuity lesions that would have otherwise gone undetected. PMID:26807443

  1. A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Manuel; Nelemans, Ben K A; Smit, Theodoor H

    2016-12-28

    Due to its availability, low cost, flat geometry, and transparency, the ex ovo chick embryo has become a major vertebrate animal model for the study of morphogenetic events, such as gastrulation(2), neurulation(3)(-)(5), somitogenesis(6), heart bending(7,8), and brain formation(9)(-)(13), during early embryogenesis. Key to understanding morphogenetic processes is to follow them dynamically by time-lapse imaging. The acquisition of time-lapse movies of chick embryogenesis ex ovo has been limited either to short time windows or to the need for an incubator to control temperature and humidity around the embryo(14). Here, we present a new technique to culture chick embryos ex ovo for high-resolution time-lapse imaging using transmitted light microscopy. The submerged filter paper sandwich is a variant of the well-established filter paper carrier technique (EC-culture)(1) and allows for the culturing of chick embryos without the need for a climate chamber. The embryo is sandwiched between two identical filter paper carriers and is kept fully submerged in a simple, temperature-controlled medium covered by a layer of light mineral oil. Starting from the primitive streak stage (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 5, HH5)(15) up to at least the 28-somite stage (HH16)(15), embryos can be cultured with either their ventral or dorsal side up. This allows the acquisition of time-lapse movies covering about 30 hr of embryonic development. Representative time-lapse frames and movies are shown. Embryos are compared morphologically to an embryo cultured in the standard EC-culture. The submerged filter paper sandwich provides a stable environment to study early dorsal and ventral morphogenetic processes. It also allows for live fluorescence imaging and micromanipulations, such as microsurgery, bead implantation, microinjection, gene silencing, and electroporation, and has a strong potential to be combined with immersion objectives for laser-based imaging (including light-sheet microscopy).

  2. A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Theodoor H.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its availability, low cost, flat geometry, and transparency, the ex ovo chick embryo has become a major vertebrate animal model for the study of morphogenetic events, such as gastrulation2, neurulation3-5, somitogenesis6, heart bending7,8, and brain formation9-13, during early embryogenesis. Key to understanding morphogenetic processes is to follow them dynamically by time-lapse imaging. The acquisition of time-lapse movies of chick embryogenesis ex ovo has been limited either to short time windows or to the need for an incubator to control temperature and humidity around the embryo14. Here, we present a new technique to culture chick embryos ex ovo for high-resolution time-lapse imaging using transmitted light microscopy. The submerged filter paper sandwich is a variant of the well-established filter paper carrier technique (EC-culture)1 and allows for the culturing of chick embryos without the need for a climate chamber. The embryo is sandwiched between two identical filter paper carriers and is kept fully submerged in a simple, temperature-controlled medium covered by a layer of light mineral oil. Starting from the primitive streak stage (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 5, HH5)15 up to at least the 28-somite stage (HH16)15, embryos can be cultured with either their ventral or dorsal side up. This allows the acquisition of time-lapse movies covering about 30 hr of embryonic development. Representative time-lapse frames and movies are shown. Embryos are compared morphologically to an embryo cultured in the standard EC-culture. The submerged filter paper sandwich provides a stable environment to study early dorsal and ventral morphogenetic processes. It also allows for live fluorescence imaging and micromanipulations, such as microsurgery, bead implantation, microinjection, gene silencing, and electroporation, and has a strong potential to be combined with immersion objectives for laser-based imaging (including light-sheet microscopy). PMID:28060338

  3. Do friends share similar body image and eating problems? The role of social networks and peer influences in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Delyse M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2007-07-01

    This study examined the role of friendship networks and peer influences in body image concern, dietary restraint, extreme weight loss behaviours (EWLBs) and binge eating in a large community sample of young adolescent females. Based on girls' self-reported friendship groups, social network analysis was used to identify 173 friendship cliques. Results indicated that clique members shared similar scores on measures of dieting, EWLB and binge eating, but not body image concern. Average clique scores for dieting, EWLB and binge eating, were also correlated significantly with clique averages on measures of perceived peer influence, body mass index and psychological variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived peer influences in weight-related attitudes and behaviours were predictive of individual girls' level of body image concern, dieting, EWLB use and binge eating. Notably, an individual girl's dieting and EWLB use could be predicted from her friends' respective dieting and EWLB scores. Findings highlight the significance of the peer environment in body image and eating problems during early adolescence.

  4. Early Rivaroxaban Use After Cardioembolic Stroke May Not Result in Hemorrhagic Transformation: A Prospective Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Laura C; Kate, Mahesh; Sivakumar, Leka; Hussain, Dulara; Kalashyan, Hayrapet; Buck, Brian; Bussiere, Miguel; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Emery, Derek; Butcher, Ken

    2016-07-01

    Early anticoagulation after cardioembolic stroke remains controversial because of the potential for hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We tested the safety and feasibility of initiating rivaroxaban ≤14 days after cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack. A prospective, open-label study of patients with atrial fibrillation treated with rivaroxaban ≤14 days of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale <9). All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging <24 hours of rivaroxaban initiation and day 7. The primary end point was symptomatic HT at day 7. Sixty patients (mean±SD age 71±19 years, 82% stroke/18% transient ischemic attack) were enrolled. Median (interquartile range) time from onset to rivaroxaban was 3 (5) days. At treatment initiation, median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 2 (4), and median diffusion-weighted imaging volume was 7.9 (13.7) mL. At baseline, HT was present in 25 (42%) patients (hemorrhagic infarct [HI]1=19, HI2=6). On follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, no patients developed symptomatic HT. New asymptomatic HI1 developed in 3 patients, and asymptomatic progression from HI1 to HI2 occurred in 5 patients; otherwise, HT remained unchanged at day 7. These data support the safety of rivaroxaban initiation ≤14 days of mild-moderate cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of petechial HT, which is common, does not appear to increase the risk of symptomatic HT. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Wide-field and high-resolution optical imaging for early detection of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Mark C.; Schwarz, Richard A.; Rosbach, Kelsey; Roblyer, Darren; Muldoon, Tim; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-02-01

    Current procedures for oral cancer screening typically involve visual inspection of the entire tissue surface at risk under white light illumination. However, pre-cancerous lesions can be difficult to distinguish from many benign conditions when viewed under these conditions. We have developed wide-field (macroscopic) imaging system which additionally images in cross-polarized white light, narrowband reflectance, and fluorescence imaging modes to reduce specular glare, enhance vascular contrast, and detect disease-related alterations in tissue autofluorescence. We have also developed a portable system to enable high-resolution (microscopic) evaluation of cellular features within the oral mucosa in situ. This system is a wide-field epi-fluorescence microscope coupled to a 1 mm diameter, flexible fiber-optic imaging bundle. Proflavine solution was used to specifically label cell nuclei, enabling the characteristic differences in N/C ratio and nuclear distribution between normal, dysplastic, and cancerous oral mucosa to be quantified. This paper discusses the technical design and performance characteristics of these complementary imaging systems. We will also present data from ongoing clinical studies aimed at evaluating diagnostic performance of these systems for detection of oral neoplasia.

  6. Validating a mouse model of ovarian cancer for early detection through imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Despite advances in treatment strategies, ovarian cancer remains the deadliest gynecological malignancy and the 5th largest cancer killer in women. Located deep in the body, with few early symptoms and no effective screening technique, ovarian cancer has remained stubbornly difficult to understand, much less effectively combat. Ovarian cancer is almost always discovered at an advanced stage. |

  7. Diffusion imaging of nigral alterations in early Parkinson's disease with dopaminergic deficits.

    PubMed

    Schuff, Norbert; Wu, I-Wei; Buckley, Shannon; Foster, Eric D; Coffey, Christopher S; Gitelman, Darren R; Mendick, Susan; Seibyl, John; Simuni, Tanya; Zhang, Yu; Jankovic, Joseph; Hunter, Christine; Tanner, Caroline M; Rees, Linda; Factor, Stewart; Berg, Daniela; Wurster, Isabel; Gauss, Katharina; Sprenger, Fabienne; Seppi, Klaus; Poewe, Werner; Mollenhauer, Brit; Knake, Susanne; Mari, Zoltan; McCoy, Arita; Ranola, Madelaine; Marek, Kenneth

    2015-12-01

    This study reports the baseline characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging data in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy control subjects from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. The main goals were to replicate previous findings of abnormal diffusion imaging values from the substantia nigra. in a large multicenter cohort and determine whether nigral diffusion alterations are associated with dopamine deficits. Two hundred twenty subjects (PD = 153; control = 67) from 10 imaging sites were included. All subjects had a full neurological exam, a ((123) I)ioflupane dopamine transporter (DAT) single-photon emission computer tomography scan, and diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy as well as radial and axial diffusivity was computed within multiple regions across the substantia nigra. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found a marginally nonsignificant interaction between regional fractional anisotropy of the substantia nigra and disease status (P = 0.08), conflicting with an earlier study. However, a linear mixed model that included control regions in addition to the nigral regions revealed a significant interaction between regions and disease status (P = 0.002), implying a characteristic distribution of reduced fractional anisotropy across the substantia nigra in PD. Reduced fractional anisotropy in PD was also associated with diminished DAT binding ratios. Both axial and radial diffusivity were also abnormal in PD. Although routine nigral measurements of fractional anisotropy are clinically not helpful, the findings in this study suggest that more-sophisticated diffusion imaging protocols should be used when exploring the clinical utility of this imaging modality. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  9. Modeling distinct imaging hemodynamics early after TBI: the relationship between signal amplitude and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Medaglia, John D; McAleavey, Andrew A; Rostami, Sohayla; Slocomb, Julia; Hillary, Frank G

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, fMRI studies of cognitive change following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have investigated blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity during working memory (WM) performance in individuals in early and chronic phases of recovery. Recently, BOLD fMRI work has largely shifted to focus on WM and resting functional connectivity following TBI. However, fundamental questions in WM remain. Specifically, the effects of injury on the basic relationships between local and interregional functional neuroimaging signals during WM processing early following moderate to severe TBI have not been examined. This study employs a mixed effects model to examine prefrontal cortex and parietal lobe signal change during a WM task, the n-back, and whether there is covariance between regions of high amplitude signal change, (synchrony of elicited activity (SEA) very early following TBI. We also examined whether signal change and SEA differentially predict performance during WM. Overall, percent signal change in the right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) was and important predictor of both reaction time (RT) and SEA in early TBI and matched controls. Right prefrontal cortex (rPFC) percent signal change positively predicted SEA within and between persons regardless of injury status, suggesting that the link between these neurodynamic processes in WM-activated regions remains unaffected even very early after TBI. Additionally, rPFC activity was positively related to RT within and between persons in both groups. Right parietal (rPAR) activity was negatively related to RT within subjects in both groups. Thus, the local signal intensity of the rPFC in TBI appears to be a critical property of network functioning and performance in WM processing and may be a precursor to recruitment observed in chronic samples. The present results suggest that as much research moves toward large scale functional connectivity modeling, it will be essential to develop integrated models of how local and

  10. White matter changes in early phase schizophrenia and cannabis use: an update and systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Cookey, Jacob; Bernier, Denise; Tibbo, Philip G

    2014-07-01

    The impact of cannabis use on the brain tissue is still unclear, both in the healthy developing brain and in people with schizophrenia. The focus of this review is on white matter, the primary connective infrastructure of the brain. We systematically reviewed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of early phase schizophrenia (illness effect), of cannabis use in otherwise healthy brains (drug effect), and of early phase schizophrenia with cannabis use (combined effects). Studies had to include a healthy, non-cannabis using, control group as well as report on fractional anisotropy as it is the most commonly used DTI index. We excluded cohorts with heavy alcohol or illicit drug use and studies with a sample size of less than 20 in the clinical group. We retained 17 studies of early phase schizophrenia, which together indicate deficits in white matter integrity observed in all fiber tract families, but most frequently in association, callosal and projection fibers. In otherwise healthy cannabis users (2 studies), deficits in white matter tracts were reported mainly in callosal fibers, but also in projection and limbic fibers. In cannabis users with early phase schizophrenia (1 study), deficits in white matter integrity were also observed in all fiber tract families, except for limbic fibers. The current literature points to several families of white matter tracts being differentially affected in early phase schizophrenia. Further work is required to reveal the impact of cannabis use in otherwise healthy people as well as those with schizophrenia. Paucity of available studies as well as restricting analysis to FA values represent the main limitations of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of bone erosion in early rheumatoid arthritis: ultrasonography and conventional radiography versus non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Maryam; Chegini, Hosein; Najafizadeh, Seyed Reza; Azimi, Mohammad; Habibollahi, Peiman; Shakiba, Madjid

    2010-08-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend toward early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) especially in patients with early signs of bone erosion which can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of following study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography (US) and conventional radiography (CR) compared to MRI for early detection of bone erosion in RA patients. In 12 patients with RA diagnosis, 120 first to fifth metacarpophalangeal joints and 96 second to fifth proximal interphalangeal joints were examined. Non-contrast MRI, US and CR were performed for bone erosion evaluation. For further analysis, the patients were divided in two equal groups according to disease activity score (DAS28). The overall sensitivity and specificity of US compared to MRI in detecting bone erosion were 0.63 and 0.98, respectively with a considerable agreement (kappa = 0.68, p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of CR compared to MRI in detecting bone erosion were 0.13 and 1.00, respectively (kappa = 0.20, p < 0.001). In patients with more active disease, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.67 and 0.99 (kappa = 0.74, p < 0.001) compared to 0.59 and 0.97 (kappa = 0.61, p < 0.001) for the rest of patients according to DAS28. Conclusively, these findings reveal an acceptable agreement between US and MRI for detection of bone erosion in patients with early RA but not CR. US might be considered as a valuable tool for early detection of bone erosion especially when MRI is not available or affordable. Besides, it seems the US could be more reliable when the disease is more active.

  12. Dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging for the prediction of early and late recurrences in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jung; Choi, HyeMi; Choi, Sin Ae; Youk, Ji Hyun

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) features for the prediction of early and late recurrences in patients with breast cancer.Of 1030 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery at our hospital from January 2007 to July 2011, 83 recurrent breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study. We compared MRI features (background parenchymal enhancement [BPE], internal enhancement, adjacent vessel sign, whole-breast vascularity, initial enhancement pattern, kinetic curve types, and quantitative kinetic parameters) and clinico-pathologic variables (age, stage, histologic grade, nuclear grade, existence of lymphovascular invasion and extensive intraductal carcinoma component, and immunohistochemical profiles) between patients with early (≤2.5 years after surgery) and late recurrence (>2.5 years after surgery). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to evaluate independent risk factors for early and late recurrence.On breast MRI, prominent ipsilateral whole-breast vascularity was independently associated with early recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 2.86; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.39-5.88) and moderate or marked BPE (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.04-4.18) and rim enhancement (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.00-4.59) were independently associated with late recurrence. Clinico-pathologic variables independently associated with early recurrence included negative estrogen receptor (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.96), whereas T2 stage (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.04-4.16) and nuclear grade III (HR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.29-4.98) were associated with late recurrence.In DCE-MRI, prominent ipsilateral whole-breast vascularity, moderate or marked BPE, and rim enhancement could be useful for predicting recurrence timing in patients with breast cancer.

  13. Spatiotemporal lipid profiling during early embryo development of Xenopus laevis using dynamic ToF-SIMS imaging.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hua; Fletcher, John S; Thuret, Raphael; Henderson, Alex; Papalopulu, Nancy; Vickerman, John C; Lockyer, Nicholas P

    2014-09-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging has been used for the direct analysis of single intact Xenopus laevis embryo surfaces, locating multiple lipids during fertilization and the early embryo development stages with subcellular lateral resolution (∼4 μm). The method avoids the complicated sample preparation for lipid analysis of the embryos, which requires selective chemical extraction of a pool of samples and chromatographic separation, while preserving the spatial distribution of biological species. The results show ToF-SIMS is capable of profiling multiple components (e.g., glycerophosphocholine, SM, cholesterol, vitamin E, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol) in a single X. laevis embryo. We observe lipid remodeling during fertilization and early embryo development via time course sampling. The study also reveals the lipid distribution on the gamete fusion site. The methodology used in the study opens the possibility of studying developmental biology using high resolution imaging MS and of understanding the functional role of the biological molecules.

  14. Spatiotemporal lipid profiling during early embryo development of Xenopus laevis using dynamic ToF-SIMS imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hua; Fletcher, John S.; Thuret, Raphael; Henderson, Alex; Papalopulu, Nancy; Vickerman, John C.; Lockyer, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) imaging has been used for the direct analysis of single intact Xenopus laevis embryo surfaces, locating multiple lipids during fertilization and the early embryo development stages with subcellular lateral resolution (∼4 μm). The method avoids the complicated sample preparation for lipid analysis of the embryos, which requires selective chemical extraction of a pool of samples and chromatographic separation, while preserving the spatial distribution of biological species. The results show ToF-SIMS is capable of profiling multiple components (e.g., glycerophosphocholine, SM, cholesterol, vitamin E, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol) in a single X. laevis embryo. We observe lipid remodeling during fertilization and early embryo development via time course sampling. The study also reveals the lipid distribution on the gamete fusion site. The methodology used in the study opens the possibility of studying developmental biology using high resolution imaging MS and of understanding the functional role of the biological molecules. PMID:24852167

  15. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Swann, Karl; Borri, Paola

    2016-06-15

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Electrocortical reactivity to emotional images and faces in middle childhood to early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Autumn; Klein, Daniel N; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-10-01

    The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential (ERP) component that indexes sustained attention toward motivationally salient information. The LPP has been observed in children and adults, however little is known about its development from childhood into adolescence. In addition, whereas LPP studies examine responses to images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) or emotional faces, no previous studies have compared responses in youth across stimuli. To examine how emotion interacts with attention across development, the current study used an emotional-interrupt task to measure LPP and behavioral responses in 8- to 13-year-olds using unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral IAPS images, as well as sad, happy, and neutral faces. Compared to older youth, younger children exhibited enhanced LPPs over occipital sites. In addition, sad but not happy faces elicited a larger LPP than neutral faces; behavioral measures did not vary across facial expressions. Both unpleasant and pleasant IAPS images were associated with increased LPPs and behavioral interference compared to neutral images. Results suggest that there may be developmental differences in the scalp distribution of the LPP, and compared to faces, IAPS elicit more robust behavioral and electrocortical measures of attention to emotional stimuli.

  17. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. PMID:27151947

  18. Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing for Early Detection of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ng, P. Y.; Saleh, N. I. Md

    2017-01-01

    Medical imaging techniques have widely been in use in the diagnosis and detection of breast cancer. The drawback of applying these techniques is the large time consumption in the manual diagnosis of each image pattern by a professional radiologist. Automated classifiers could substantially upgrade the diagnosis process, in terms of both accuracy and time requirement by distinguishing benign and malignant patterns automatically. Neural network (NN) plays an important role in this respect, especially in the application of breast cancer detection. Despite the large number of publications that describe the utilization of NN in various medical techniques, only a few reviews are available that guide the development of these algorithms to enhance the detection techniques with respect to specificity and sensitivity. The purpose of this review is to analyze the contents of recently published literature with special attention to techniques and states of the art of NN in medical imaging. We discuss the usage of NN in four different medical imaging applications to show that NN is not restricted to few areas of medicine. Types of NN used, along with the various types of feeding data, have been reviewed. We also address hybrid NN adaptation in breast cancer detection. PMID:28473865

  19. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Transverse Relaxometry in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonenc, Atilla; Frazier, Jean A.; Crowley, David J.; Moore, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Transverse relaxation time (T2) imaging provides the opportunity to examine membrane fluidity, which can affect a number of cellular functions. The objective of the present work was to examine T2 abnormalities in children with unmodified DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorder (BD) in bilateral cingulate-paracingulate (CPC) white matter. Method: A…

  20. MOLECULAR IMAGING OF THE INITIAL INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY DETECTION OF DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Beat A.; Carr, Chad L.; Belcik, J. Todd; Xie, Aris; Yue, Qi; Chadderdon, Scott; Caplan, Evan S.; Khangura, Jaspreet; Bullens, Sherry; Bunting, Stuart; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that molecular imaging of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression could non-invasively evaluate pre-lesion pro-atherogenic phenotype. Methods Mice deficient for the LDL-receptor and the Apobec-1 editing peptide (DKO mice) were studied as an age-dependent model of atherosclerosis. At 10, 20, and 40 weeks of age, ultrasound molecular imaging of the proximal thoracic aorta was performed with contrast agents targeted to P-selectin and VCAM-1. Atherosclerotic lesion severity and content were assessed by ultra-high frequency ultrasound, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Results In wild-type mice at all ages, there was neither aortic thickening nor targeted tracer signal enhancement. In DKO mice, lesions progressed from sparse mild intimal thickening at 10 weeks to widespread severe lesions with luminal encroachment at 40 weeks. Molecular imaging for P-selectin and VCAM-1 demonstrated selective signal enhancement (p<0.01 vs. non-targeted agent) at all ages for DKO mice. P-selectin and VCAM-1 signal in DKO mice were greater by 3-fold at 10 wks, 4–6-fold at 20 wks, and 9–10-fold at 40 weeks compared to wild-type mice. En face microscopy demonstrated preferential attachment of targeted microbubbles to regions of lesion formation. Conclusions Non-invasive ultrasound molecular imaging of endothelial activation can detect lesion-prone vascular phenotype before the appearance of obstructive atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:19834105

  1. Combined Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Transverse Relaxometry in Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonenc, Atilla; Frazier, Jean A.; Crowley, David J.; Moore, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Transverse relaxation time (T2) imaging provides the opportunity to examine membrane fluidity, which can affect a number of cellular functions. The objective of the present work was to examine T2 abnormalities in children with unmodified DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorder (BD) in bilateral cingulate-paracingulate (CPC) white matter. Method: A…

  2. Early monitoring of cerebral hypoperfusion in rats by laser speckle imaging and functional photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Xiaoquan; Wang, Zhen; Deng, Zilin; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming

    2012-06-01

    Because cerebral hypoperfusion brings damage to the brain, prevention of cerebrovascular diseases correlative to hypoperfusion by studying animal models makes great sense. Since complicated cerebrovascular adaptive changes in hypoperfusion could not be revealed only by cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity imaging, we performed multi-parameter imaging by combining laser speckle imaging and functional photoacoustic microscopy. The changes in CBF, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO(2)), and total hemoglobin concentration (HbT) in single blood vessels of ipsilateral cortex were observed during transient cerebral hypoperfusion by ligating the unilateral common carotid artery in rats. CBF, SO(2), and HbT, respectively, decreased to 37 ± 3%, 71 ± 7.5%, and 92 ± 1.3% of baseline in 6 s immediately after occlusion, and then recovered to 77 ± 4.8%, 84 ± 8%, and 96 ± 2% of baseline in 60 s. These parameters presented the decrease with different degree and the following recovery over time after ligation, the recovery of SO(2) lagged behind those of CBF and HbT, which had the similar response. The results demonstrated that complete monitoring of both cerebral hemodynamic response and oxygen metabolic changes occurred at the earliest period of cerebral hypoperfusion was possible by using the two image modalities with high temporal and spatial resolution.

  3. Hemorrhage and/or Microaneurysm Severity and Count in Ultrawide Field Images and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Photography.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paolo S; El-Rami, Hala; Barham, Rasha; Gupta, Aditi; Fleming, Alan; van Hemert, Jano; Cavallerano, Jerry D; Sun, Jennifer K; Aiello, Lloyd Paul

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate detection of hemorrhage and/or microaneurysm (H/Ma) using ultrawide field (UWF) retinal imaging as compared with standard Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 7-field photographs (ETDRS photos). Single-site comparative study of UWF images and ETDRS photos. One hundred twenty-six eyes of 69 patients with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or mild or moderate nonproliferative DR (NPDR). Stereoscopic 200° UWF images and stereoscopic 35mm 30° 7-field color photographs were acquired on the same visit. Images were graded for severity and distribution of H/Ma. H/Mas were counted in ETDRS fields 2 to 7 in both ETDRS photos and UWF images. H/Mas in the UWF peripheral fields were also counted. Kappa (κ) and weighted κ statistics for agreement. Number of H/Ma within and outside ETDRS fields identified in UWF images and ETDRS photos. Distribution of DR severity by ETDRS photos was 24 (19.0%) no DR, 48 (38.1%) mild NPDR, and 54 (42.9%) moderate NPDR. A total of 748 of 756 fields (98.9%) were gradable for H/Mas on ETDRS photos and UWF images. Simple κ/weighted κ statistics for severity of H/Ma: all fields 0.61/0.69, field 2 0.70/0.77, field 3 0.62/0.73, field 4 0.50/0.62, field 5 0.54/0.65, field 6 0.64/0.70, and field 7 0.58/0.63 with overall exact agreement in 81.3% and within 1 step in 97.9% of fields. A greater proportion of fields was graded a more severe H/Ma level in UWF images than in the corresponding ETDRS photos (UWF: 12.7% vs. 6.5%). Evaluating comparable areas in UWF images and ETDRS photos (fields 2-7), a mean of 42.8 H/Mas were identified using ETDRS photos and 48.8 in UWF images (P = 0.10). An additional mean of 21.3 H/Mas (49.8% increase, P < 0.0001) were identified in the peripheral fields of the UWF images. There is good to excellent agreement between UWF images and ETDRS photos in determining H/Ma severity, with excellent correlation of H/Ma counts within ETDRS photo fields. UWF peripheral fields identified 49.8% more H

  4. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging of water evaporation dynamics for early detection of incipient caries.

    PubMed

    Usenik, Peter; Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2014-10-01

    Incipient caries is characterized as demineralization of the tooth enamel reflecting in increased porosity of enamel structure. As a result, the demineralized enamel may contain increased amount of water, and exhibit different water evaporation dynamics than the sound enamel. The objective of this paper is to assess the applicability of water evaporation dynamics of sound and demineralized enamel for detection and quantification of incipient caries using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. The time lapse of water evaporation from enamel samples with artificial and natural caries lesions of different stages was imaged by a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system. Partial least squares regression was used to predict the water content from the acquired spectra. The water evaporation dynamics was characterized by a first order logarithmic drying model. The calculated time constants of the logarithmic drying model were used as the discriminative feature. The conducted measurements showed that demineralized enamel contains more water and exhibits significantly faster water evaporation than the sound enamel. By appropriate modelling of the water evaporation process from the enamel surface, the contrast between the sound and demineralized enamel observed in the individual near infrared spectral images can be substantially enhanced. The presented results indicate that near-infrared based prediction of water content combined with an appropriate drying model presents a strong foundation for development of novel diagnostic tools for incipient caries detection. The results of the study enhance the understanding of the water evaporation process from the sound and demineralized enamel and have significant implications for the detection of incipient caries by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of posttreatment imaging and biomarkers in survivors of early-stage breast cancer: Inappropriate surveillance or necessary care?

    PubMed

    Hahn, Erin E; Tang, Tania; Lee, Janet S; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Shen, Ernest; Rowley, Braden; Maeda, Jared L; Mosen, David M; Ruckdeschel, John C; Gould, Michael K

    2016-03-15

    Advanced imaging and serum biomarkers are commonly used for surveillance in patients with early-stage breast cancer, despite recommendations against this practice. Incentives to perform such low-value testing may be less prominent in integrated health care delivery systems. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate and compare the use of these services within 2 integrated systems: Kaiser Permanente (KP) and Intermountain Healthcare (IH). The authors also sought to distinguish the indication for testing: diagnostic purposes or routine surveillance. Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage 0 to II breast cancer diagnosed between 2009 and 2010 were identified and the use of imaging and biomarker tests over an 18-month period were quantified, starting at 1 year after diagnosis. Chart abstraction was performed on a random sample of patients who received testing to identify the indication for testing. Multivariate regression was used to explore associations with the use of nonrecommended care. A total of 6585 patients were identified; 22% had stage 0 disease, 44% had stage I disease, and 34% had stage II disease. Overall, 24% of patients received at least 1 imaging test (25% at KP vs 22% at IH; P = .009) and 28% of patients received at least 1 biomarker (36% at KP vs 13% at IH; P<.001). Chart abstraction revealed that 84% of imaging tests were performed to evaluate symptoms or signs. Virtually all biomarkers were ordered for routine surveillance. Stage of disease, medical center that provided the services, and provider experience were found to be significantly associated with the use of biomarkers. Advanced imaging was most often performed for appropriate indications, but biomarkers were used for nonrecommended surveillance. Distinguishing between inappropriate use for surveillance and appropriate diagnostic testing is essential when evaluating adherence to recommendations. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Heterotopic ossification of the knee joint in intensive care unit patients: early diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulou, Maria I; Kostandi, Eleonora; Kosta, Paraskevi; Zikou, Anastasia K; Kastani, Dimitra; Galiatsou, Efi; Kitsakos, Athanassios; Nakos, George

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of bone in soft tissues. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings on clinical suspicion of HO in the knee joint of patients hospitalised in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods This was a case series of 11 patients requiring prolonged ventilation in the ICU who had the following diagnoses: head trauma (nine), necrotising pancreatitis (one), and fat embolism (one). On clinical suspicion of HO, x-rays and MRI of the knee joint were performed. Follow-up x-rays and MRI were also performed. Results First x-rays were negative, whereas MRI (20.2 ± 6.6 days after admission) showed joint effusion and in fast spin-echo short time inversion-recovery (STIR) images a 'lacy pattern' of the muscles vastus lateralis and medialis. The innermost part of the vastus medialis exhibited homogeneous high signal. Contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images also showed a 'lacy pattern.' On follow-up (41.4 ± 6.6 days after admission), STIR and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images depicted heterogeneous high signal and heterogeneous enhancement, respectively, at the innermost part of the vastus medialis, whereas x-rays revealed a calcified mass in the same position. Overall, positive MRI findings appeared simultaneously with clinical signs (1.4 ± 1.2 days following clinical diagnosis) whereas x-ray diagnosis was evident at 23 ± 4.3 days (p = 0.002). Conclusion MRI of the knee performed on clinical suspicion shows a distinct imaging pattern confirming the diagnosis of HO earlier than other methods. MRI diagnosis may have implications for early intervention in the development of HO. PMID:17074077

  7. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    PubMed

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  8. Targeting Cell Surface Proteins in Molecular Photoacoustic Imaging to Detect Ovarian Cancer Early

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    ABSTRACTS, AND PRESENTATIONS: Lay Press: CDMRP Ovarian Cancer Research Program 2013, Early Detection and Diagnosis , highlighted project. Peer-Reviewed...et al., Detection of elevated plasma levels of epidermal growth factor receptor before breast cancer diagnosis among hormone therapy users. Cancer Res...peritoneal serous carcinoma from breast carcinoma in effusions. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 15, 535 (Mar, 2011). 17. L. E. Kelemen, The

  9. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound-Targeted Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    in serum and its association with ovarian TAN in prospective study. 2a. Hens with ovaries appearing normal (with normal egg laying rates and low egg ...detective of ovarian TAN at early stage of OVCA. Animals: A total of 140 White Leghorn hens (3 years old) with low egg laying rates (eggs/year...matched 100 hens with low egg laying rates and 20 hens with normally egg laying rates and reared under similar environment were selected for CE-US

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and cognition at the very early stage of MS.

    PubMed

    Audoin, Bertrand; Au Duong, My Van; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Ibarrola, Danielle; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2006-06-15

    Dysfunction of high controlled information processing is present in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) right at the beginning of the disease. One hypothesis is that disruption of communication inside large-scale cortical networks, occurring as a consequence of white matter damage, may constitute the anatomical substrate of cognitive impairment at the very early stage of MS. Disturbance of interregional synchronization might be the main pathogenic factor in controlled information processing deficiency in early MS. Preliminary functional MRI studies (fMRI) have provided important clues to corroborate the connectivity hypotheses. First, brain connectivity assessed by fMRI has brought new data about the influence of diffuse white matter damage on connectivity efficiency inside large-scale networks. These studies have suggested that connectivity disturbances occur inside the working memory network in patients at the very early stage of MS and appear related to the extent of structural white matter damage. Also, fMRI studies have suggested that patients may partially compensate for connectivity impairment by a greater cognitive control. Such a compensatory mechanism could limit the determinant functional impact of diffuse white matter damage on high controlled information processing.

  11. Comparison of clinical, radiographic, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging methods for early prediction of canine hip laxity and dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ginja, Mário M D; Ferreira, António J; Jesus, Sandra S; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Bulas-Cruz, José; Orden, Maria A; San-Roman, Fidel; Llorens-Pena, Maria P; Gonzalo-Orden, José M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use two palpation methods (Bardens and Ortolani), a radiographic distraction view, three computed tomography (CT) measurements (dorsolateral subluxation score, the lateral center-edge angle, and acetabular ventroversion angle) and two magnetic resonance (MR) imaging hip studies (synovial fluid and acetabular depth indices) in the early monitoring of hip morphology and laxity in 7-9 week old puppies; and in a follow-up study to compare their accuracy in predicting later hip laxity and dysplasia. The MR imaging study was performed with the dog in dorsal recumbency and the CT study with the animal in a weight-bearing position. There was no association between clinical laxity with later hip laxity or dysplasia. The dorsolateral subluxation score and the lateral center-edge angle were characterized by a weak negative correlation with later radiographic passive hip laxity (-0.26 < r < -0.38, P < 0.05) but its association with hip dysplasia was not significant. There was an association between early radiographic passive hip laxity and synovial fluid index with later passive hip laxity (0.41 < r < 0.55, P < 0.05) and this was significantly different in dysplastic vs. nondysplastic hips (P < 0.05). There was no association between the remaining variables and later hip laxity or dysplasia. The overlapping ranges of early passive hip laxity and synovial fluid index for hip dysplasia grades and the moderate correlations with the later passive hip laxity make the results of these variables unreliable for use in predicting hip laxity and dysplasia susceptibility.

  12. Collateral flow and brain changes on computed tomography angiography predict infarct volume on early diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Junya; Tateishi, Yohei; Cummings, Christopher L; Cheng-Ching, Esteban; Ruggieri, Paul; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam; Uchino, Ken

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether a computed tomography (CT)-based score could predict a large infarct (≥ 80 mL) on early diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). Acute stroke patients considered for endovascular therapy within 8 hours of the onset of symptoms were included. The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) was determined on noncontrast CT and computed tomography angiography source images (CTA-SI). Limited collateral flow was defined as less than 50% collateral filling on CTA-SI. Fifty-six patients were analyzed. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 20 (15-24) in the large infarct group and 16 (11-20) in the small infarct group (P = .049). ASPECTS on noncontrast CT and CTA-SI was 5 (3-8) and 3 (2-6) in the large infarct group and 9 (8-10) and 8 (7-9) in the small infarct group (both P < .001), respectively. Limited collateral flow was frequent in the large infarct group than in the small infarct group (92% vs. 11%, P < .001). Multivariate analysis found that CTA-SI ASPECTS less than or equal to 5 (odds ratio [OR], 40.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1493.44; P = .044) and limited collateral flow (OR, 114.64; 95% CI, 1.93-6812.79; P = .023) were associated with a large infarct. Absence of ASPECTS less than or equal to 5 and limited collateral flow on CTA-SI predicted absence of a large infarct with a sensitivity of .89, specificity of 1.00, positive predictive value of 1.00, and negative predictive value of .71. Assessment of ASPECTS and collateral flow on CTA-SI may be able to exclude a patient with large infarct on early DWI. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multimodal MR-imaging reveals large-scale structural and functional connectivity changes in profound early blindness

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Corinna M.; Hirsch, Gabriella V.; Zajac, Lauren; Koo, Bang-Bon; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis. When comparing the brains of early blind individuals to sighted controls, we found evidence of co-occurring decreases in cortical volume and cortical thickness within visual processing areas of the occipital and temporal cortices respectively. Increases in cortical volume in the early blind were evident within regions of parietal cortex. Investigating white matter connections using HARDI revealed patterns of increased and decreased connectivity when comparing both groups. In the blind, increased white matter connectivity (indexed by increased fiber number) was predominantly left-lateralized, including between frontal and temporal areas implicated with language processing. Decreases in structural connectivity were evident involving frontal and somatosensory regions as well as between occipital and cingulate cortices. Differences in white matter integrity (as indexed by quantitative anisotropy, or QA) were also in general agreement with observed pattern changes in the number of white matter fibers. Analysis of resting state sequences showed evidence of both increased and decreased functional connectivity in the blind compared to sighted controls. Specifically, increased connectivity was evident between temporal and inferior frontal areas. Decreases in functional connectivity were observed

  14. Young stars in nearby early-type galaxies: SED fitting based on ultraviolet (UV) and optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies from the Galaxy Evolution Explore (GALEX) ultraviolet (UV) data have demonstrated that the recent star formation is more common in early-type galaxies (ETGs) than we used to believe. The UV is one order of magnitude more sensitive than the optical to the presence of young stellar populations. The near-ultraviolet (NUV) lights of ETGs, especially, are used to reveal their residual star formation history. Here we used the GALEX UV data of 34 nearby early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, all of which have optical data from MDM Observatory. At least 15% of the galaxies in this sample show blue UV-optical colours suggesting recent star formation (Jeong et al. 2009). These NUV blue galaxies are generally low velocity dispersion systems and change the slopes of scaling relations (colour-magnitude relations and fundamental planes) and increase the scatters. To quantify the amount of recent star formation in our sample, we assume two bursts of star formation, allowing us to constrain the age and mass fraction of the young component pixel by pixel (Jeong et al. 2007). The pixel-by-pixel SED fitting based on UV and optical imaging reveals that the mass fraction of young (< 1 Gyr old) stars in ETGs varies between 1 and 3% in the nearby universe (Jeong et al. in prep.). We will compare our results with the prediction from the hierarchical merger paradigm to understand the mechanism of low-level recent star formation observed in early-type galaxies.

  15. Reliability of Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Necessity of Repeating MRI in Noncooled and Cooled Infants With Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chakkarapani, Elavazhagan; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Miller, Steven P; Zwicker, Jill G; Xu, Qi; Wong, Darren S T; Roland, Elke H; Hill, Alan; Chau, Vann

    2016-04-01

    In cooled newborns with encephalopathy, although late magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan (10-14 days of age) is reliable in predicting long-term outcome, it is unknown whether early scan (3-6 days of life) is. We compared the predominant pattern and extent of lesion between early and late MRI in 89 term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-three neonates (48%) were cooled. The predominant pattern of lesions and the extent of lesion in the watershed region agreed near perfectly in noncooled (kappa = 0.94; k = 0.88) and cooled (k = 0.89; k = 0.87) infants respectively. There was perfect agreement in the extent of lesion in the basal nuclei in noncooled infants (k = 0.83) and excellent agreement in cooled infants (k = 0.67). Changes in extent of lesions on late MRI occurred in 19 of 89 infants, with higher risk in infants with hypoglycemia and moderate-severe lesions in basal nuclei. In most term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy, early MRI (relative to late scan) robustly predicts the predominant pattern and extent of injury. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Mid-UV Imaging of Nearby Early to Mid-Type Galaxies as Templates for High Redshift Galaxy Classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarenza, C. A. T.; Windhorst, R. A.; Taylor, V. A.; Odewahn, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; MacKenty, J.; de Jong, R. S.; de Grijs, R.; Eskridge, P. B.; Frogel, J. A.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kobulnicky, H.; Hibbard, J. E.; Matthews, L. D.; O'Connell, R. W.

    2000-12-01

    Current samples of high redshift galaxies are primarily observed in their restframe mid-UV. They often resemble nearby late type galaxies, but are they really physically similar classes of objects? To explore this question we did a systematic imaging survey with the HST/WFPC2 of 37 nearby galaxies in two mid-UV bands. Our sample is carefully selected for size and surface brightness over a wide range of Hubble types and inclinations. All objects (will) have ground based UBVRIJ(H)K images, and 15 have far UV UIT images. The mid-UV is the missing keystone. With it we can examine the distribution of star formation and its history, dust, the SED's of star forming regions, and differentiate between age and metallicity. Our first results from this Cycle 9 project are: (1) Early type galaxies can show significant changes from the mid-UV to the red. Some are quite dim in the UV, reflecting their old stellar population. Others become point sources in the mid-UV (LINER's, Seyferts). This raises the question to what extent the apparently strong cosmological evolution of weak AGN in early type galaxies is due to ``morphological K-correction.'' (2) Mid type spirals and star forming galaxies can appear as later or different types in the mid-UV. Dust lanes are well traceable comparing F300W to F814W. We see a considerable range in scale and surface brightness of individual star-forming regions. We acknowledge NASA ADP grant NAG-6740, ASU NASA Space Grants, and NASA grants GO-8645.01-99A and AR-8765.01-99A from STScI. Based on observations with the VATT: the Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  17. Detection of Alzheimer's disease signature in MR images seven years before conversion to dementia: Toward an early individual prognosis.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Pierrick; Fonov, Vladimir S; Bernard, Charlotte; Zandifar, Azar; Eskildsen, Simon F; Helmer, Catherine; Manjón, José V; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwenaelle; Collins, D Louis

    2015-12-01

    Finding very early biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) to aid in individual prognosis is of major interest to accelerate the development of new therapies. Among the potential biomarkers, neurodegeneration measurements from MRI are considered as good candidates but have so far not been effective at the early stages of the pathology. Our objective is to investigate the efficiency of a new MR-based hippocampal grading score to detect incident dementia in cognitively intact patients. This new score is based on a pattern recognition strategy, providing a grading measure that reflects the similarity of the anatomical patterns of the subject under study with dataset composed of healthy subjects and patients with AD. Hippocampal grading was evaluated on subjects from the Three-City cohort, with a followup period of 12 years. Experiments demonstrate that hippocampal grading yields prediction accuracy up to 72.5% (P < 0.0001) 7 years before conversion to AD, better than both hippocampal volume (58.1%, P = 0.04) and MMSE score (56.9%, P = 0.08). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) supports the efficiency of imaging biomarkers with a gain of 8.4 percentage points for hippocampal grade (73.0%) over hippocampal volume (64.6%). Adaptation of the proposed framework to clinical score estimation is also presented. Compared with previous studies investigating new biomarkers for AD prediction over much shorter periods, the very long followup of the Three-City cohort demonstrates the important clinical potential of the proposed imaging biomarker. The high accuracy obtained with this new imaging biomarker paves the way for computer-based prognostic aides to help the clinician identify cognitively intact subjects that are at high risk to develop AD.

  18. Diagnostic role of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for early and atypical bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Liang; Li, Qian; Cao, Lin; Jiang, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    The bone metastasis appeared early before the bone imaging for most of the above patients. (99)Tc(m)-MDP ((99)Tc(m) marked methylene diphosphonate) bone imaging could diagnosis the bone metastasis with highly sensitivity, but with lower specificity. The aim of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging for the early period atypical bone metastases. 15 to 30 mCi (99)Tc(m)-MDP was intravenously injected to the 34 malignant patients diagnosed as doubtful early bone metastases. SPECT, CT and SPECT/CT images were captured and analyzed consequently. For the patients diagnosed as early period atypical bone metastases by SPECT/CT, combining the SPECT/CT and MRI together as the SPECT/MRI integrated image. The obtained SPECT/MRI image was analyzed and compared with the pathogenic results of patients. The results indicated that 34 early period doubtful metastatic focus, including 34 SPECT positive focus, 17 focus without special changes by using CT method, 11 bone metastases focus by using SPECT/CT method, 23 doubtful bone metastases focus, 8 doubtful bone metastases focus, 14 doubtful bone metastases focus and 2 focus without clear image. Totally, SPECT/CT combined with SPECT/MRI method diagnosed 30 bone metastatic focus and 4 doubtfully metastatic focus. In conclusion, (99)Tc(m)-MDP SPECT/CT combined SPECT/MRI Multi modality imaging shows a higher diagnostic value for the early period bone metastases, which also enhances the diagnostic accuracy rate.

  19. [Possibilities of modern imaging technologies in early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Unschuld, Paul G

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging technology and image analysis algorithms have significantly contributed to a better understanding of spatial and temporal aspects of brain change associated with Alzheimer Disease. The current review will demonstrate how functional (fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques may be used to identify distinct patterns of brain change associated with disease progression and also increased risk for Alzheimer Disease. Moreover, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) based measures of glucosemetabolism (Fluorodeoxyglucose, FDG) and Amyloid-beta plaque density (11-C-Pittsburgh Compound B, PiB and 18-F) will be reviewed regarding their diagnostic value for assessing the individual degree of Alzheimer -pathology and thus complement the information provided by MRI and other clinical measures.

  20. Photoacoustic imaging of early gastric cancer diagnosis based on long focal area ultrasound transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaqin; Li, Zuoran; Liu, Lantian; Li, Zhifang; Wu, Shulian; Li, Hui

    2017-06-01

    We illustrated a novel imaging method to diagnose gastric neoplasms via photoacoustic tomography (PAT). Depending on the structural characteristics of gastric cavity, we used column diffusion fiber to irradiate the stomach tissue through the esophagus, and the externally placed telecentric focus ultrasonic transducer detected photoacoustic signals from the gastric tissue. We reconstructed the distribution of light energy deposition of the simulated gastric tumor, and obtained the location and size information of gastric tumor.

  1. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging of early subchondral cyst-like lesions in induced cranial cruciate ligament deficient dogs.

    PubMed

    Baird, D K; Hathcock, J T; Kincaid, S A; Rumph, P F; Kammermann, J; Widmer, W R; Visco, D; Sweet, D

    1998-01-01

    Six healthy adult male mongrel dogs underwent cranial cruciate ligament transection in the left stifle. Survey radiography of both stifles and low-field (0.064 T) MRI of the left stifle were performed preoperatively and at 2, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Focal changes in signal intensity were seen with MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle at 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. At 12 weeks postoperative, a cyst-like lesion was detected using MRI in the subchondral bone of the medial tibial condyle in 4 of 6 dogs and a less defined lesion at this site in the remaining 2 dogs. The cyst-like lesion was spherical in shape and showed typical characteristics of fluid with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and high signal intensity on inversion recovery images. The lesion was seen in the subchondral bone of the caudal medial and/or middle region of the tibial plateau slightly cranial to the insertion of the caudal cruciate ligament. No subchondral cysts were seen in the tibia on radiographs. Histopathologically, the tibia was characterized by a loose myxomatous phase of early subchondral cyst formation.

  2. Attempts to Image the Early Inflammatory Response during Infection with the Lymphatic Filarial Nematode Brugia pahangi in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Ryan; Goundry, Amy; O’Neill, Kerry; Marchesi, Francesco; Devaney, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites remain a major constraint upon human health and well-being in many parts of the world. Treatment of these infections relies upon a very small number of therapeutics, most of which were originally developed for use in animal health. A lack of high throughput screening systems, together with limitations of available animal models, has restricted the development of novel chemotherapeutics. This is particularly so for filarial nematodes, which are long-lived parasites with a complex cycle of development. In this paper, we describe attempts to visualise the immune response elicited by filarial parasites in infected mice using a non-invasive bioluminescence imaging reagent, luminol, our aim being to determine whether such a model could be developed to discriminate between live and dead worms for in vivo compound screening. We show that while imaging can detect the immune response elicited by early stages of infection with L3, it was unable to detect the presence of adult worms or, indeed, later stages of infection with L3, despite the presence of worms within the lymphatic system of infected animals. In the future, more specific reagents that detect secreted products of adult worms may be required for developing screens based upon live imaging of infected animals. PMID:27992545

  3. An Analysis of Fundamental Waffle Mode in Early AEOS Adaptive Optics Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makidon, Russell B.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall D.; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Soummer, Rémi; Graham, James R.

    2005-08-01

    Adaptive optics (AO) systems have significantly improved astronomical imaging capabilities over the last decade and are revolutionizing the kinds of science possible with 4-5 m class ground-based telescopes. A thorough understanding of AO system performance at the telescope can enable new frontiers of science as observations push AO systems to their performance limits. We look at recent advances with wave-front reconstruction (WFR) on the Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) 3.6 m telescope to show how progress made in improving WFR can be measured directly in improved science images. We describe how a ``waffle mode'' wave-front error (which is not sensed by a Fried geometry Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor) affects the AO point-spread function. We model details of AEOS AO to simulate a PSF that matches the actual AO PSF in the I band and show that while the older observed AEOS PSF contained several times more waffle error than expected, improved WFR techniques noticeably improve AEOS AO performance. We estimate the impact of these improved WFRs on H-band imaging at AEOS, chosen based on the optimization of the Lyot Project near-infrared coronagraph at this bandpass. Based on observations made at the Maui Space Surveillance System, operated by Detachment 15 of the US Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate.

  4. Prediction of early postoperative cerebral hemorrhage in infective endocarditis patients using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Suguru; Doi, Kiyoshi; Kawajiri, Hidetake; Dohi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Watanabe, Taiji; Okawa, Kazunari; Yaku, Hitoshi

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the occurrence of postoperative intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in infective endocarditis (IE) patients. Between 2002 and 2012, 30 IE patients required surgical intervention. Four patients developed and 26 patients did not develop postoperative ICH. All patients underwent preoperative brain MRI. The presence of acute brain infarction was detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and cerebral microbleeds were detected by T2*-weighted imaging. Two ICH(+) patients died of stroke. Preoperative patient characteristics and operative results were not significantly different. Regarding MRI findings, the presence of cerebral microbleeds or acute brain infarction alone was not significantly different between the two groups (100 vs. 29.6 %, p = 0.07; 75.0 vs. 38.5 %, p = 0.37, respectively). The concurrent presence of cerebral microbleeds and acute brain infarction was significantly correlated with the development of major ICH (75 vs. 14.8 %, p = 0.04). In multiple logistic regression analyses, the concurrent presence of cerebral microbleeds and acute brain infarction on MRI was an independent predictor of major postoperative ICH (p = 0.03, odds ratio 16.5, 95 % confidence interval 1.35-201.3). The combination of T2*-weighted MRI and DWI may be useful to evaluate the risk of IE patients developing major postoperative cerebral bleeding.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging detection of early experimental periostitis. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and plain radiography with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, H J; Chandnani, V P; Beltran, J; Lucas, J G; Ortiz, I; King, M A; Bennett, W F; Bova, J G; Mueller, C F; Shaffer, P B

    1991-04-01

    This study characterizes the appearance of periosteal reaction by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluates the efficacy of MRI versus computed tomography (CT), and plain film radiography (PF) in detecting early, experimentally induced periostitis. Acute Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis was induced in 30 legs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were then imaged with MR, contrast-unenhanced CT, and PF 4 days after infection. Histologically, periosteal elevation was present in 27 cases. Periosteal ossification was seen in 23 cases, and cellular reaction without ossification in 4 cases. Periosteal reaction was demonstrated by PF in 21 (78%) and by CT in 20 (74%) cases. Evidence of periostitis was seen by MR in all 27% (100%) cases. MR resulted in two false-positive diagnoses. Multiple concentric, alternating high and low signal arcs demonstrated by MR in 19 (70%) cases represented periosteal ossification surrounded by fibrous or granulation tissue. These findings demonstrate the ability of MR to detect periostitis despite the absence of periosteal ossification. MR was more sensitive than CT (P less than .05) or PF (P less than .05) in the detection of experimentally induced periostitis.

  6. Effect of very early treatment in rheumatoid arthritis on bone oedema and synovitis, using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kosta, P E; Voulgari, P V; Zikou, A K; Tsampoulas, K; Drosos, A A; Argyropoulou, M I

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of hand involvement before and 1 year after treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MRI of the dominant hand was performed in 22 patients fulfilling the new criteria for early RA. The patients were divided into three groups. Nine had very early RA (VERA; disease duration < 3 months), seven had early RA (ERA; disease duration < 6 months), and six had established RA (ESTRA; disease duration > 12 months). The MRI protocol consisted of fat-suppressed T2, and plain and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences. Assessment of bone marrow oedema, synovitis, and bone erosions was performed by the OMERACT RA MRI scoring system. Patients were treated with methotrexate (MTX) 0.2 mg/kg/body weight/week and prednisone 7.5 mg/day. Clinical assessment was evaluated using the Disease Activity Score for 28 joint indices (DAS28). After treatment, a significant decrease was observed: (a) in DAS28 of VERA (6.2 ± 0.9 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2), ERA (5.3 ± 0.8 vs. 2.8 ± 1.0), and ESTRA patients (5.7 ± 8.0 vs. 2.7 ± 0.7; p < 0.05); (b) in bone oedema (16.77 ± 13.78 vs. 5.88 ± 6.31) and synovitis (12.44 ± 6.44 vs. 2.88 ± 3.25) of VERA patients; and (c) in synovitis (7.57 ± 6.32 vs. 1.42 ± 1.81) of ERA patients (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in erosions in any group. Bone marrow oedema and synovitis decrease significantly when RA is diagnosed and treated early. MRI is useful in the early detection of these changes. MTX treatment resulted in a significant decrease in DAS28 score and significant improvement in bone oedema and synovitis.

  7. A method to assist in the diagnosis of early diabetic retinopathy: Image processing applied to detection of microaneurysms in fundus images.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Romero, Roberto; Martínez-Carballido, Jorge; Hernández-Capistrán, Jonathan; Uribe-Valencia, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes increases the risk of developing any deterioration in the blood vessels that supply the retina, an ailment known as Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). Since this disease is asymptomatic, it can only be diagnosed by an ophthalmologist. However, the growth of the number of ophthalmologists is lower than the growth of the population with diabetes so that preventive and early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of opportunity in terms of time and cost. Preliminary, affordable and accessible ophthalmological diagnosis will give the opportunity to perform routine preventive examinations, indicating the need to consult an ophthalmologist during a stage of non proliferation. During this stage, there is a lesion on the retina known as microaneurysm (MA), which is one of the first clinically observable lesions that indicate the disease. In recent years, different image processing algorithms, which allow the detection of the DR, have been developed; however, the issue is still open since acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity have not yet been reached, preventing its use as a pre-diagnostic tool. Consequently, this work proposes a new approach for MA detection based on (1) reduction of non-uniform illumination; (2) normalization of image grayscale content to improve dependence of images from different contexts; (3) application of the bottom-hat transform to leave reddish regions intact while suppressing bright objects; (4) binarization of the image of interest with the result that objects corresponding to MAs, blood vessels, and other reddish objects (Regions of Interest-ROIs) are completely separated from the background; (5) application of the hit-or-miss Transformation on the binary image to remove blood vessels from the ROIs; (6) two features are extracted from a candidate to distinguish real MAs from FPs, where one feature discriminates round shaped candidates (MAs) from elongated shaped ones (vessels) through application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA

  8. VEGFR2-Targeted Ultrasound Imaging Agent Enhances the Detection of Ovarian Tumors at Early Stage in Laying Hens, a Preclinical Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Barua, Animesh; Yellapa, Aparna; Bahr, Janice M; Machado, Sergio A; Bitterman, Pincas; Basu, Sanjib; Sharma, Sameer; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-07-01

    Tumor-associated neoangiogenesis (TAN) is an early event in ovarian cancer (OVCA) development. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by TAN vessels presents a potential target for early detection by ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to examine the suitability of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agents in detecting spontaneous OVCA in laying hens. Effects of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents in enhancing the intensity of ultrasound imaging from spontaneous ovarian tumors in hens were examined in a cross-sectional study. Enhancement in the intensity of ultrasound imaging was determined before and after injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. All ultrasound images were digitally stored and analyzed off-line. Following scanning, ovarian tissues were collected and processed for histology and detection of VEGFR2-expressing microvessels. Enhancement in visualization of ovarian morphology was detected by gray-scale imaging following injection of VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents. Compared with pre-contrast, contrast imaging enhanced the intensities of ultrasound imaging significantly (p < 0.0001) irrespective of the pathological status of ovaries. In contrast to normal hens, the intensity of ultrasound imaging was significantly (p < 0.0001) higher in hens with early stage OVCA and increased further in hens with late stage OVCA. Higher intensities of ultrasound imaging in hens with OVCA were positively correlated with increased (p < 0.0001) frequencies of VEGFR2-expressing microvessels. The results of this study suggest that VEGFR2-targeted contrast agents enhance the visualization of spontaneous ovarian tumors in hens at early and late stages of OVCA. The laying hen may be a suitable model to test new imaging agents and develop targeted therapeutics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Application of a novel confocal imaging technique for early the detection of dental decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Christel; Girkin, John M.; Vaidya, Shilpa; Hall, Andrew F.; Whitters, C. J.; Creanor, Steve L.

    2002-06-01

    In order to stop or prevent the progression of dental disease, early detection and quantification of decay are crucially important. Dental decay (caries) detection methods have traditionally involved clinical examination by eye, using probes and dental radiography, but up to 60% of lesions are missed. What the dentist requires is a cheap, reliable method of detection of early disease, ideally with information on the depth and rate of growth or healing. Conventional commercial scanning confocal microscopes are unsuitable for use on dental patients. We report on a fibre optic based confocal microscope designed for in vivo examination of caries lesions. The system utilizes a common fibre both as the source and to detect the reflected confocal signal. The initial system has been optimized using dielectric mirrors and the thickness of the stack has been measured with high precision. Dental samples have been examined and the system has been demonstrated to provide information on the depth and mineral loss of a lesion. Fibre optic microscopy (FOCM) demonstrates a practical route to developing an in vivo caries profiler. In this paper, the FOCM and its applications in caries detection are described and the potential of this scheme as a practical dental probe is discussed.

  10. Analysis of the Argyre Planitia (Mars) Sinuous Ridges Using Early MRO Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, M. E.; Lang, N. P.; McEwen, A. S.; Kargel, J. S.; Baker, V. R.; Strom, R. G.; Grant, J. A.; HiRISE Team

    2007-12-01

    Southeastern Argyre Planitia hosts a suite of dendritic and braided sinuous ridges. Here we use imagery from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and Context Camera (CTX) to constrain formation processes of the ridges. HiRISE images resolve large boulders, up to ~8 m in diameter, on the ridges; however, it is unclear if the boulders, particularly those that appear more angular, may be eroding out of layers of indurated material or represent transported particles. Well defined layers observed in one of the ridges are quasi-horizontal and, in general, longitudinally continuous. Frequent transitions in ridge crest morphology from sharp-crested to rounded or flat-topped are evident. In several locations, ridges also appear to lie in shallow troughs that are several kilometers in width and mantled with finer sediments. Topographic profiles across and along the three ridges imaged by HiRISE and CTX are derived from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data and reveal that the ridges generally trend in a slope-parallel direction, but cross over low intrabasinal topographic divides. If the regional topography has remained stable, the tendency for the ridges to cross topographic highs suggests formation by pressurized flow rather than gravity driven flow (open river channels). Altogether, the Argyre ridge characteristics are consistent with sub-ice fluvial processes and most likely represent terrestrial esker-like features. Terrestrial eskers have similar morphologies and distributions and may cross topography, contain layers, and lie within troughs, often referred to as Nye channels, which form from subglacial meltwater erosion. The nature of some eroding beds within the Argyre ridges suggests a possible induration process. We present a further analysis of the characteristics of the Argyre ridges and the potential environment in which the ridges formed.

  11. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images.

    PubMed

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

  12. Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  13. Imaging plant cell death: GFP-Nit1 aggregation marks an early step of wound and herbicide induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Sean R; Somerville, Chris R

    2005-01-01

    Background A great deal is known about the morphological endpoints of plant cell death, but relatively little is known about its sequence of events and / or its execution at the biochemical level. Live cell imaging using GFP-tagged markers is a powerful way to provide dynamic portraits of a cellular process that can in turn provide a descriptive foundation valuable for future biochemical and genetic investigations. Results While characterizing a collection of random GFP-protein fusion markers we discovered that mechanical wounding induces rapid aggregation of a GFP-Nitrilase 1 fusion protein in Arabidopsis cells directly abutting wound sites. Time-lapse imaging of this response shows that the aggregation occurs in cells that subsequently die 30 – 60 minutes post-wounding, indicating that GFP-Nit1 aggregation is an early marker of cell death at wound sites. Time-lapse confocal imaging was used to characterize wound-induced cell death using GFP-Nit1 and markers of the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. These analyses provide dynamic portraits of well-known death-associated responses such as nuclear contraction and cellular collapse and reveal novel features such as nuclear envelope separation, ER vesiculation and loss of nuclear-lumen contents. As a parallel system for imaging cell death, we developed a chemical method for rapidly triggering cell death using the herbicides bromoxynil or chloroxynil which cause rapid GFP-Nit1 aggregation, loss of nuclear contents and cellular collapse, but not nuclear contraction, separating this response from others during plant cell death. Conclusion Our observations place aggregation of Nitrilase 1 as one of the earliest events associated with wound and herbicide-induced cell death and highlight several novel cellular events that occur as plant cells die. Our data create a detailed descriptive framework for future investigations of plant cell death and provide new tools for both its cellular and biochemical analysis. PMID

  14. Early Assessment of Breast Cancer Therapy Response Using Photoacoustic Molecular Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam de la Zerda 5d...10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Reserach and Materiel Command Ft. Detrick, MD 21702 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...Gambhir* ·T· ’ Molecular Imaging Program at Stan ford. Depan mem of Radiology and Bio-X Program . t oepan mem of Electrical Engineer ing. § Depan mem of

  15. Early detection of skin cancer via terahertz spectral profiling and 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K; Rao, Babar

    2016-08-15

    Terahertz scanning reflectometry, terahertz 3D imaging and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy have been used to identify features in human skin biopsy samples diagnosed for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and compared with healthy skin samples. It was found from the 3D images that the healthy skin samples exhibit regular cellular pattern while the BCC skin samples indicate lack of regular cell pattern. The skin is a highly layered structure organ; this is evident from the thickness profile via a scan through the thickness of the healthy skin samples, where, the reflected intensity of the terahertz beam exhibits fluctuations originating from different skin layers. Compared to the healthy skin samples, the BCC samples' profiles exhibit significantly diminished layer definition; thus indicating a lack of cellular order. In addition, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy reveals significant and quantifiable differences between the healthy and BCC skin samples. Thus, a combination of three different terahertz techniques constitutes a conclusive route for detecting the BCC condition on a cellular level compared to the healthy skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Progress on a Landsat 8 Image Mosaic of Antarctica and Early Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T.

    2015-12-01

    The polar regions, and the large ice sheets in particular, are quickly evolving harbingers of global change. Therefore, it is important that we measure and monitor the ice sheets in a consistent and repeatable manner over time. While kilometer-scale resolution sensors like MODIS and VIIRS can do this on a daily basis, the higher spatial and radiometric resolution of Landsat 8 supports a more quantitative measure of polar change over decameter spatial scales and weekly to seasonal timescales. To date, Landsat 8 has collected over two years of imagery of exceptional radiometric quality and geolocation accuracy, and with unprecedented acquisition rates for the poles. Building upon lessons learned from the Landsat 7 Antarctic mosaic (LIMA; Bindschadler et al., 2008, Remote Sensing of the Environment), this project harnesses the multispectral imaging capabilities of Landsat 8 with Google's Earth Engine to produce time-series data sets for monitoring the remote, vast, polar ice sheets in a fraction of the time it would take to do so with traditional computational methods (or earlier manual efforts). We focus on building cloud-free, multi-temporal Landsat 8 mosaics ('data cubes') by applying a range of strategies (e.g., normalized indices, statistically based thresholds, image cross-correlation). These can then be used to quantify ice sheet surface and snow cover properties over time to study ice sheet change (e.g., ice sheet morphology, ice shelf extent, snow grain size, melt and melt pond extent, surface wind direction from drift orientation).

  17. An early investigation of ytterbium nanocolloids for selective and quantitative "multicolor" spectral CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dipanjan; Schirra, Carsten O; Senpan, Angana; Schmieder, Anne H; Stacy, Allen J; Roessl, Ewald; Thran, Axel; Wickline, Samuel A; Proska, Roland; Lanza, Gregory M

    2012-04-24

    We report a novel molecular imaging agent based on ytterbium designed for use with spectral "multicolor" computed tomography (CT). Spectral CT or multicolored CT provides all of the benefits of traditional CT, such as rapid tomographic X-ray imaging, but in addition, it simultaneously discriminates metal-rich contrast agents based on the element's unique X-ray K-edge energy signature. Our synthetic approach involved the use of organically soluble Yb(III) complex to produce nanocolloids of Yb of noncrystalline nature incorporating a high density of Yb (>500K/nanoparticle) into a stable metal particle. The resultant particles are constrained to vasculature (∼200 nm) and are highly selective for binding fibrin in the ruptured atherosclerotic plaque. Nanoparticles exhibited excellent signal sensitivity, and the spectral CT technique uniquely discriminates the K-edge signal (60 keV) of Yb from calcium (bones). Bioelimination and preliminary biodistribution reflected the overall safety and defined clearance of these particles in a rodent model.

  18. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a 10- to 20-fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12-48 hours exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths >500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two-dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion contrast in the visible does not accurately reflect the

  19. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: Variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a ten to twenty fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Materials and Methods Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12–48 hr exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Results Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion

  20. Imaging of early acceleration phase of the 2013-2014 Boso slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the

  1. A Critical Review of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score for Evaluation of Acute Stroke Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Julian; Thomalla, Götz

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of ischemic stroke lesions on computed tomography (CT) or MRI using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is widely used to guide acute stroke treatment. We aimed to review the current evidence on ASPECTS. Originally, the score was developed for standardized lesion assessment on non-contrast CT (NCCT). Early studies described ASPECTS as a predictor of functional outcome and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after iv-thrombolysis with a threshold of ≤7 suggested to identify patients at high risk. Following studies rather pointed toward a linear relationship between ASPECTS and functional outcome. ASPECTS has also been applied to assess perfusion CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). Cerebral blood volume ASPECTS proved to be the best predictor of outcome, outperforming NCCT-ASPECTS in some studies. For DWI-ASPECTS varying thresholds to identify patients at risk for poor outcome were reported. ASPECTS has been used for patient selection in three of the five groundbreaking trials proving efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy published in 2015. ASPECTS values predict functional outcome after thrombectomy. Moreover, treatment effect of thrombectomy appears to depend on ASPECTS values being smaller or not present in low ASPECTS, while patients with ASPECTS 5–10 do clearly benefit from mechanical thrombectomy. However, as patients with low ASPECTS values were excluded from recent trials data on this subgroup is limited. There are several limitations to ASPECTS addressed in a growing number of studies. The score is limited to the anterior circulation, the template is unequally weighed and correlation with lesion volume depends on lesion location. Overall ASPECTS is a useful and easily applicable tool for assessment of prognosis in acute stroke treatment and to help guide acute treatment decisions regardless whether MRI or CT is used. Patients with low ASPECTS values are unlikely to achieve good outcome. However, methodological constraints of

  2. A Critical Review of Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score for Evaluation of Acute Stroke Imaging.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Julian; Thomalla, Götz

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of ischemic stroke lesions on computed tomography (CT) or MRI using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is widely used to guide acute stroke treatment. We aimed to review the current evidence on ASPECTS. Originally, the score was developed for standardized lesion assessment on non-contrast CT (NCCT). Early studies described ASPECTS as a predictor of functional outcome and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage after iv-thrombolysis with a threshold of ≤7 suggested to identify patients at high risk. Following studies rather pointed toward a linear relationship between ASPECTS and functional outcome. ASPECTS has also been applied to assess perfusion CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). Cerebral blood volume ASPECTS proved to be the best predictor of outcome, outperforming NCCT-ASPECTS in some studies. For DWI-ASPECTS varying thresholds to identify patients at risk for poor outcome were reported. ASPECTS has been used for patient selection in three of the five groundbreaking trials proving efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy published in 2015. ASPECTS values predict functional outcome after thrombectomy. Moreover, treatment effect of thrombectomy appears to depend on ASPECTS values being smaller or not present in low ASPECTS, while patients with ASPECTS 5-10 do clearly benefit from mechanical thrombectomy. However, as patients with low ASPECTS values were excluded from recent trials data on this subgroup is limited. There are several limitations to ASPECTS addressed in a growing number of studies. The score is limited to the anterior circulation, the template is unequally weighed and correlation with lesion volume depends on lesion location. Overall ASPECTS is a useful and easily applicable tool for assessment of prognosis in acute stroke treatment and to help guide acute treatment decisions regardless whether MRI or CT is used. Patients with low ASPECTS values are unlikely to achieve good outcome. However, methodological constraints of

  3. Is magnetic resonance imaging useful in early evaluation of women on neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer?

    PubMed

    Sala, P; Marchiolè, P; Cittadini, G; Valenzano Menada, M; Moioli, M; Mammoliti, S; Costantini, S

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in staging cervical tumors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). 26 women, affected by locally advanced cervical cancer and triaged for surgery after NACT, were submitted to three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients were submitted to MRI before and after NACT. We evaluated the MRI sensitivity and specificity in staging cervical tumors after chemotherapy, relating MRI findings after NACT with the pathological findings as the gold standard. In our series, MRI sensitivity was 58.8% and specificity was 66.7%. In our study MRI accuracy after NACT was lower than that of MRI used to stage patients with early cervical cancer scheduled for primary surgery, reported by the literature. MRI false negative cases are the major problem because of the delay in application of an effective therapy in non responders to NACT.

  4. Rotator cuff impingement associated with Type III acromial morphology in a young athlete—a case for early imaging

    PubMed Central

    Inklebarger, James; Gyer, Giles; Parkunan, Anand; Galanis, Nikiforos; Michael, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Down-sloped or hooked acromion morphologies may cause bony encroachment on the soft tissues of the subacromial space, predisposing to shoulder impingement syndrome. Of the latter, a hooked or Type III acromion (T3A) has also been linked to rotator cuff (RC) pathology. However, as bony acromial impingement is typically thought to occur over the age of 40, its occurrence in younger shoulder athletes presenting with shoulder pain, impingement and RC pathology may be overlooked. This case serves to illustrate the occurrence of T3A in a younger shoulder athlete, and the importance of early imaging in achieving diagnostic accuracy. Appropriate surgical referrals are patients with subacromial impingement syndrome refractory to 3–6 months of appropriate conservative treatment. Surgery may be particularly beneficial in patients with a T3A. PMID:28096319

  5. Early breast tumor and late SARS detections using space-variant multispectral infrared imaging at a single pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold H.; Buss, James R.; Kopriva, Ivica

    2004-04-01

    We proposed the physics approach to solve a physical inverse problem, namely to choose the unique equilibrium solution (at the minimum free energy: H= E - ToS, including the Wiener, l.m.s E, and ICA, Max S, as special cases). The "unsupervised classification" presumes that required information must be learned and derived directly and solely from the data alone, in consistence with the classical Duda-Hart ATR definition of the "unlabelled data". Such truly unsupervised methodology is presented for space-variant imaging processing for a single pixel in the real world case of remote sensing, early tumor detections and SARS. The indeterminacy of the multiple solutions of the inverse problem is regulated or selected by means of the absolute minimum of isothermal free energy as the ground truth of local equilibrium condition at the single-pixel foot print.

  6. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    5 Feb 2007 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 4 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Key Research Accomplishments...11 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………… 12 4 INTRODUCTION Women diagnosed with breast cancer today have significantly better

  7. 3-D imaging of large scale buried structure by 1-D inversion of very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aydmer, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Cui, T.J.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for large scale three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface imaging of inhomogeneous background is presented. One-dimensional (1-D) multifrequency distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) is employed in the inversion. Simulation results utilizing synthetic scattering data are given. Calibration of the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) experimental waveforms is detailed along with major problems encountered in practice and their solutions. This discussion is followed by the results of a large scale application of the method to the experimental data provided by the VETEM system of the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is shown to have a computational complexity that is promising for on-site inversion.

  8. Early assessment of coagulation necrosis after hepatic microwave ablation: a comparison of non-enhanced and enhanced T1-weighted images.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Qi-Feng; Yang, Zheng-Qiang; Wu, Wen-Tao; Shi, Hai-Bin; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To compare the technical success and accuracy of hepatic microwave ablation (MWA) using non-enhanced and enhanced T1-weighted imaging early after ablation. Patients were evaluated with regard to the ablation zone and local tumor progression (LTP). This retrospective study conducted between September 2014 and December 2015 which consisted of 56 patients with 56 hepatic malignant lesions who underwent percutaneous MWA. Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imagings were performed within 2 days after tumor ablation. The efficacy of ablation assessed according to the hyperintense middle zone on non-enhanced T1-weighted images and the non-enhanced area on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were compared. The development of LTP during ≥7 months of follow-up served as the end point. On the non-enhanced T1-weighted images, the ablated region had a characteristic two-zone structure featuring a hyperintense middle zone and a surrounding hypointense band. Among the 56 patients, LTP developed in ten including seven lesions, in which both the non-enhanced T1-weighted and portal-phase images showed incomplete tumor ablation. In two of the remaining three patients, incomplete tumor ablation was detected on the non-enhanced T1-weighted images, whereas the corresponding portal-phase images showed complete ablation. In the remaining patient, no residual tumor was detected on either the non-enhanced T1-weighted or the portal-phase images. In the 46 patients without LTP, there was no evidence of residual tumor on the non-enhanced T1-weighted or portal-phase images obtained early after ablation. Non-enhanced T1-weighted images are useful in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of MWA of liver tumors early after the procedure.

  9. 3D early embryogenesis image filtering by nonlinear partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Krivá, Z; Mikula, K; Peyriéras, N; Rizzi, B; Sarti, A; Stasová, O

    2010-08-01

    We present nonlinear diffusion equations, numerical schemes to solve them and their application for filtering 3D images obtained from laser scanning microscopy (LSM) of living zebrafish embryos, with a goal to identify the optimal filtering method and its parameters. In the large scale applications dealing with analysis of 3D+time embryogenesis images, an important objective is a correct detection of the number and position of cell nuclei yielding the spatio-temporal cell lineage tree of embryogenesis. The filtering is the first and necessary step of the image analysis chain and must lead to correct results, removing the noise, sharpening the nuclei edges and correcting the acquisition errors related to spuriously connected subregions. In this paper we study such properties for the regularized Perona-Malik model and for the generalized mean curvature flow equations in the level-set formulation. A comparison with other nonlinear diffusion filters, like tensor anisotropic diffusion and Beltrami flow, is also included. All numerical schemes are based on the same discretization principles, i.e. finite volume method in space and semi-implicit scheme in time, for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. These numerical schemes are unconditionally stable, fast and naturally parallelizable. The filtering results are evaluated and compared first using the Mean Hausdorff distance between a gold standard and different isosurfaces of original and filtered data. Then, the number of isosurface connected components in a region of interest (ROI) detected in original and after the filtering is compared with the corresponding correct number of nuclei in the gold standard. Such analysis proves the robustness and reliability of the edge preserving nonlinear diffusion filtering for this type of data and lead to finding the optimal filtering parameters for the studied models and numerical schemes. Further comparisons consist in ability of splitting the very close objects which

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging detects early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cailei; Li, Yongxin; Cao, Weiguo; Xiang, Kui; Zhang, Heye; Yang, Jian; Gan, Yungen

    2016-10-01

    To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation. Regions of interests (ROIs) included the white matter near the frontal horn of the lateral ventricles (FHLV), the occipital horn of the lateral ventricles (OHLV), occipital subcortical (OS) area, frontal subcortical (FS) area, and thalamus. Fractional anisotropies (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of the ROIs before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt were compared between the patients and the controls.Three months after surgery, the patients recovered from the surgery with ameliorated intracranial pressure and slight improvement of clinical intelligence scale and motor scale. Before ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the FA values (except the right FHLV) were significantly decreased and the ADC values were significantly increased in the patients with hydrocephalus, compared with the controls. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the FA values in the FHLV and OHLV of the patients were similar to the controls, but the FA values in other ROIs were still significantly lower than controls. The ADC values in the FS and OS white matter areas of the patients were similar to the controls; however, the ADC values in other ROIs were still significantly higher in patients.The increase of FA and the reduction in ADC in the ROIs preceded the clinical function improvement in patients with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus and reflected the early changes in brain tissue microstructure, such as the compression of the white matter areas in the ROIs.

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging detects early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cailei; Li, Yongxin; Cao, Weiguo; Xiang, Kui; Zhang, Heye; Yang, Jian; Gan, Yungen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus. Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2–36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2–36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation. Regions of interests (ROIs) included the white matter near the frontal horn of the lateral ventricles (FHLV), the occipital horn of the lateral ventricles (OHLV), occipital subcortical (OS) area, frontal subcortical (FS) area, and thalamus. Fractional anisotropies (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) of the ROIs before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt were compared between the patients and the controls. Three months after surgery, the patients recovered from the surgery with ameliorated intracranial pressure and slight improvement of clinical intelligence scale and motor scale. Before ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the FA values (except the right FHLV) were significantly decreased and the ADC values were significantly increased in the patients with hydrocephalus, compared with the controls. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the FA values in the FHLV and OHLV of the patients were similar to the controls, but the FA values in other ROIs were still significantly lower than controls. The ADC values in the FS and OS white matter areas of the patients were similar to the controls; however, the ADC values in other ROIs were still significantly higher in patients. The increase of FA and the reduction in ADC in the ROIs preceded the clinical function improvement in patients with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus and reflected the early changes in brain tissue microstructure, such as the compression of the white matter areas in

  12. Early algorithm development efforts for the National Ecological Observatory Network Airborne Observation Platform imaging spectrometer and waveform lidar instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Keith S.; Kuester, Michele A.; Johnson, Brian R.; McCorkel, Joel; Kampe, Thomas U.

    2011-10-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be the first observatory network of its kind designed to detect and enable forecasting of ecological change at continental scales over multiple decades. NEON will collect data at sites distributed at 20 ecoclimatic domains across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. The NEON Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is an aircraft platform carrying remote sensing instrumentation designed to achieve sub-meter to meter scale ground resolution, bridging the scales from organisms and individual stands to satellite-based remote sensing. AOP instrumentation consists of a VIS/SWIR imaging spectrometer, a scanning small-footprint waveform LiDAR, and a high resolution airborne digital camera. AOP data will provide quantitative information on land use change and changes in ecological structure and chemistry including the presence and effects of invasive species. A Pathfinder Flight Campaign was conducted over a two week period during late August to early September 2010 in order to collect representative AOP data over one NEON domain site. NASA JPL flew the AVIRIS imaging spectrometer and NCALM flew an Optech Gemini waveform LiDAR over the University of Florida Ordway-Swisher Biological Station and Donaldson tree plantation near Gainesville Florida. The pathfinder data are discussed in detail along with how the data are being used for early algorithm and product development prototyping activities. The data collected during the campaign and prototype products are openly available to scientists to become more familiar with representative NEON AOP data.

  13. Live imaging of mitochondrial dynamics in CNS dopaminergic neurons in vivo demonstrates early reversal of mitochondrial transport following MPP(+) exposure.

    PubMed

    Dukes, April A; Bai, Qing; Van Laar, Victor S; Zhou, Yangzhong; Ilin, Vladimir; David, Christopher N; Agim, Zeynep S; Bonkowsky, Joshua L; Cannon, Jason R; Watkins, Simon C; Croix, Claudette M St; Burton, Edward A; Berman, Sarah B

    2016-11-01

    Extensive convergent evidence collectively suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, changes in the dynamic properties of mitochondria have been increasingly implicated as a key proximate mechanism underlying neurodegeneration. However, studies have been limited by the lack of a model in which mitochondria can be imaged directly and dynamically in dopaminergic neurons of the intact vertebrate CNS. We generated transgenic zebrafish in which mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons are labeled with a fluorescent reporter, and optimized methods allowing direct intravital imaging of CNS dopaminergic axons and measurement of mitochondrial transport in vivo. The proportion of mitochondria undergoing axonal transport in dopaminergic neurons decreased overall during development between 2days post-fertilization (dpf) and 5dpf, at which point the major period of growth and synaptogenesis of the relevant axonal projections is complete. Exposure to 0.5-1.0mM MPP(+) between 4 and 5dpf did not compromise zebrafish viability or cause detectable changes in the number or morphology of dopaminergic neurons, motor function or monoaminergic neurochemistry. However, 0.5mM MPP(+) caused a 300% increase in retrograde mitochondrial transport and a 30% decrease in anterograde transport. In contrast, exposure to higher concentrations of MPP(+) caused an overall reduction in mitochondrial transport. This is the first time mitochondrial transport has been observed directly in CNS dopaminergic neurons of a living vertebrate and quantified in a PD model in vivo. Our findings are compatible with a model in which damage at presynaptic dopaminergic terminals causes an early compensatory increase in retrograde transport of compromised mitochondria for degradation in the cell body. These data are important because manipulation of early pathogenic mechanisms might be a valid therapeutic approach to PD. The novel transgenic lines and

  14. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage to predict early failure of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Torin; Jessel, Rebecca; Zurakowski, David; Millis, Michael B; Kim, Young-Jo

    2006-07-01

    Hip dysplasia leads to abnormal loading of articular cartilage, which results in osteoarthritis. Pelvic osteotomies such as the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy can improve the mechanics of the joint, but the results are variable and appear to depend on the amount of preexisting arthritis. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a technique designed to measure early arthritis, and it potentially could be used to select hips with too severe arthritis to benefit from a joint-preserving reconstructive procedure. The purpose of our study was to identify radiographic, clinical, and magnetic resonance imaging measurements that predict failure after pelvic osteotomy. We performed a cohort study of forty-seven patients undergoing a Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for the treatment of hip dysplasia. Our goal was to identify preoperative radiographic factors, such as the grade of arthritis, joint congruency, and the dGEMRIC index, that are associated with a poor outcome after osteotomy. Hips in which the osteotomy did not fail had a significant decrease in pain compared with their status preoperatively (p < 0.0001). Hips in which the osteotomy did fail had had significantly more arthritis on preoperative radiographs (as demonstrated by the joint space width and the Tönnis grade [p = 0.01]), more subluxation (p = 0.02), and a lower dGEMRIC index (p < 0.001) than the hips in which the osteotomy did not fail. Multivariate analysis identified the dGEMRIC index as the most important predictor of failure of the osteotomy. Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for the treatment of hip dysplasia can decrease pain and improve function in symptomatic dysplastic hips. The dGEMRIC index, as an early measure of osteoarthritis, appears to be useful for identifying poor candidates for a pelvic osteotomy. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. BMI at early puerperium: Body image, eating attitudes and mood states.

    PubMed

    Mento, Carmela; Le Donne, Maria; Crisafulli, Sabrina; Rizzo, Amelia; Settineri, Salvatore

    2017-05-01

    The present study was aimed to verify if body weight could influence self-perception, in terms of body image, mood states, dissatisfaction with physical appearance and risk of eating disorders. In particular, we evaluated the differences between women of normal weight vs. overweight and obese during the delicate phase of puerperium to verify if there were different emotional structures, linked to BMI. Thirty-two women, 16 normal-weight and 16 overweight or obese, belonging to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University Hospital, were individually interviewed. The Body Uneasiness Test (BUT), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were used for the evaluation. Findings showed that the BMI in puerperium is significantly correlated to mood states and body perception. Furthermore, significant differences emerged in eating attitudes and behaviours, in specific aspects related to the weight gain phobia and the body shape perception, symptoms classically associated with the risk of developing an eating disorder.

  16. Active electroreception in Gymnotus omari: imaging, object discrimination, and early processing of actively generated signals.

    PubMed

    Caputi, Angel A; Castelló, María E; Aguilera, Pedro A; Pereira, Carolina; Nogueira, Javier; Rodríguez-Cattaneo, Alejo; Lezcano, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Weakly electric fishes "electrically illuminate" the environment in two forms: pulse fishes emit a succession of discrete electric discharges while wave fishes emit a continuous wave. These strategies are present in both taxonomic groups of weakly electric fishes, mormyrids and gymnotids. As a consequence one can distinguish four major types of active electrosensory strategies evolving in parallel. Pulse gymnotids have an electrolocating strategy common with pulse mormyrids, but brains of pulse and wave gymnotids are alike. The beating strategy associated to other differences in the electrogenic system and electrosensory responses suggests that similar hardware might work in a different mode for processing actively generated electrosensory images. In this review we summarize our findings in pulse gymnotids' active electroreception and outline a primary agenda for the next research.

  17. Relevance of magnetic resonance imaging for early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Teipel, Stefan J; Grothe, Michel; Lista, Simone; Toschi, Nicola; Garaci, Francesco G; Hampel, Harald

    2013-05-01

    Hippocampus volumetry currently is the best-established imaging biomarker for AD. However, the effect of multicenter acquisition on measurements of hippocampus volume needs to be explicitly considered when it is applied in large clinical trials, for example by using mixed-effects models to take the clustering of data within centers into account. The marker needs further validation in respect of the underlying neurobiological substrate and potential confounds such as vascular disease, inflammation, hydrocephalus, and alcoholism, and with regard to clinical outcomes such as cognition but also to demographic and socioeconomic outcomes such as mortality and institutionalization. The use of hippocampus volumetry for risk stratification of predementia study samples will further increase with the availability of automated measurement approaches. An important step in this respect will be the development of a standard hippocampus tracing protocol that harmonizes the large range of presently available manual protocols. In the near future, regionally differentiated automated methods will become available together with an appropriate statistical model, such as multivariate analysis of deformation fields, or techniques such as cortical-thickness measurements that yield a meaningful metrics for the detection of treatment effects. More advanced imaging protocols, including DTI, DSI, and functional MRI, are presently being used in monocenter and first multicenter studies. In the future these techniques will be relevant for the risk stratification in phase IIa type studies (small proof-of-concept trials). By contrast, the application of the broader established structural imaging biomarkers, such as hippocampus volume, for risk stratification and as surrogate end point is already today part of many clinical trial protocols. However, clinical care will also be affected by these new technologies. Radiologic expert centers already offer “dementia screening” for well-off middle

  18. In vivo subcellular resolution optical imaging in the lung reveals early metastatic proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Entenberg, David; Rodriguez-Tirado, Carolina; Kato, Yu; Kitamura, Takanori; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Condeelis, John

    2015-01-01

    To better understand breast cancer metastatic cell seeding, we have employed multiphoton microscopy and a vacuum stabilized window which eliminates the need for complex registration software, video rate microscopy or specialized gating electronics to observe the initial steps of tumor cell seeding within the living, breathing lung. We observe that upon arrival to the lung, tumor cells are found exclusively in capillary vessels, completely fill their volume and display an initial high level of protrusive activity that dramatically reduces over time. Further, we observe a concomitant increase in positional stability during this same period. We employ several techniques accessible to most imaging labs for optimizing signal to noise and resolution which enable us to report the first direct observation, with subcellular resolution, of the arrival, proliferation, and motility of metastatic tumor cells within the lung. PMID:26855844

  19. High-resolution images of five radio quasars at early cosmological epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, S.; Paragi, Z.; Gurvits, L. I.; Cseh, D.; Gabányi, K. É.

    2010-12-01

    Context. Until now, there have only been seven quasars at z>4.5 whose the high-resolution radio structure had been studied in detail with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) imaging. Aims: We almost double the number of VLBI-imaged quasars at these high redshifts with the aim of studying their redshift-dependent structural and physical properties in a larger sample. Methods: We observed five radio quasars (J0813+3508, J1146+4037, J1242+5422, J1611+0844, and J1659+2101) at 4.5 < z < 5 with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz on 29 October 2008 and at 5 GHz on 22 October 2008. The angular resolution achieved ranges from 1.5 to 25 milli-arcsec (mas), depending on the observing frequency, the position angle in the sky, and the source's celestial position. Results: The sources are all somewhat extended on mas scales, but compact enough to be detected at both frequencies. With one exception of a flat-spectrum source (J1611+0844), their compact emission is characterised by a steep radio spectrum. We found no evidence of Doppler-boosted radio emission in the quasars in our sample. The radio structure of one of them (J0813+3508) is extended to ~7", which corresponds to 43 kpc projected linear size. Many of the highest redshift compact radio sources are likely to be young, evolving objects, far-away cousins of the powerful gigahertz peaked-spectrum (GPS) and compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources that populate the Universe at lower redshifts.

  20. Serum netrin-1 in relation to gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Voortman, M M; Pekar, T; Bachmayer, D; Archelos, J-J; Stojakovic, T; Scharnagl, H; Ropele, S; Pichler, A; Enzinger, C; Fuchs, S; Fazekas, F; Seifert-Held, T; Khalil, M

    2017-01-01

    Netrin-1, a secreted laminin-related protein, is known to regulate not only axonal guidance and neuronal cell migration, but also blood-brain barrier integrity and inflammation. Two preliminary studies reported altered serum netrin-1 levels in multiple sclerosis; however, associations with longitudinal clinical and magnetic resonance imaging activity have not been investigated. We aimed to assess serum netrin-1 in multiple sclerosis and controls with respect to disease activity and its temporal dynamics. Serum netrin-1 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 79 patients with clinically isolated syndrome or multiple sclerosis, and 30 non-inflammatory neurological disease controls. In patients, serum samples were collected immediately prior to gadolinium-enhanced 3 T magnetic resonance imaging at two time points (initial contrast-enhancing gadolinium+ n = 47, non-enhancing gadolinium- n = 32; reference gadolinium- n = 70; median time-lag 1.4, interquartile range 1.0-2.3 years). Serum netrin-1 levels were similar in clinically isolated syndrome, multiple sclerosis and controls, and gadolinium+ and gadolinium- patients. Among gadolinium+ patients, serum netrin-1 was decreased in clinically active (n = 8) vs non-active patients (n = 39; p = 0.041). Serum netrin-1 showed no temporal dynamics in multiple sclerosis and was unrelated to clinical data. Serum netrin-1 levels show no multiple sclerosis specific changes and are not sensitive for detection of subclinical disease activity. Netrin-1 changes during relapses may deserve further examination.

  1. Technetium 99m-labeled VQ peptide: a new imaging agent for the early detection of tumors or premalignancies.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiyun; Cui, Liyang; Jia, Bing; Liu, Zhaofei; He, Peng; Dong, Chengyan; Jin, Xiaona; Zhao, Huiyun; Li, Fang; Wang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need to develop diagnostic procedures enabling early detection of tumors while at a curable stage. Technetium 99m (99mTc)-labeled VQ peptide (99mTc-HYNIC-VQ) identified through screening phage display peptide libraries against fresh human colonic adenomas was prepared and evaluated for tumor detection. 99mTc-HYNIC-VQ was prepared by a non-SnCl2 method with more than 99% radiochemical purity. The biodistribution in the HT-29 tumor model showed that although the absolute tumor uptake values were relatively low (0.60 ± 0.09, 0.41 ± 0.09, 0.36 ± 0.18, and 0.19 ± 0.08 %ID/g at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours postinjection, respectively), the tumor uptake was higher than that of any of the other organs except for the kidneys at any time point examined, which led to the high tumor to nontarget ratios. The tumors and inflammation were clearly visualized with high contrast. Although the mechanism of accumulation of radiolabeled VQ peptide in tumors and inflammation needs to be further investigated, 99mTc-HYNIC-VQ is a promising imaging agent for the early detection of tumors or premalignancies, at least for screening patients with a high risk of developing cancers.

  2. Early detection of cardiac dysfunction in the type 1 diabetic heart using speckle-tracking based strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Danielle L; Nichols, Cody E; Croston, Tara L; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Petrone, Ashley B; Lewis, Sara E; Thapa, Dharendra; Long, Dustin M; Dick, Gregory M; Hollander, John M

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced sensitivity in echocardiographic analyses may allow for early detection of changes in cardiac function beyond the detection limits of conventional echocardiographic analyses, particularly in a small animal model. The goal of this study was to compare conventional echocardiographic measurements and speckle-tracking based strain imaging analyses in a small animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conventional analyses revealed differences in ejection fraction, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and stroke volume in diabetic animals relative to controls at 6-weeks post-diabetic onset. In contrast, when assessing short- and long-axis speckle-tracking based strain analyses, diabetic mice showed changes in average systolic radial strain, radial strain rate, radial displacement, and radial velocity, as well as decreased circumferential and longitudinal strain rate, as early as 1-week post-diabetic onset and persisting throughout the diabetic study. Further, we performed regional analyses for the LV and found that the free wall region was affected in both the short- and long-axis when assessing radial dimension parameters. These changes began 1-week post-diabetic onset and remained throughout the progression of the disease. These findings demonstrate the use of speckle-tracking based strain as an approach to elucidate cardiac dysfunction from a global perspective, identifying left ventricular cardiac regions affected during the progression of type 1 diabetes mellitus earlier than contractile changes detected by conventional echocardiographic measurements.

  3. Parametrial Involvement on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Has No Effect on the Survival of Early-Stage Cervical Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyungmi; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won

    2017-03-01

    Parametrial involvement (PMI) in patients with cervical cancer is known to be an unfavourable prognostic factor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of PMI on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Three hundred three patients with stage IB or IIA cervical cancer treated by adjuvant radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy following primary surgery from 2001 to 2011 were enrolled in this study. We reviewed preoperative MRI and pathologic findings and compared recurrence and survival of group defined according to PMI status. There were 73 patients (24.1%) with PMI based on MRI and 52 patients (17.2%) with PMI based on surgical pathology. The accuracy of MRI for detecting PMI was 77.2% (sensitivity, 53.8%; specificity, 82.1%). In all patients, pathology-based evidence of PMI had a negative effect on both 5-year disease-free survival (73.2% vs 85.3%, P = 0.048) and 5-year overall survival (76.6% vs 91.4%, P = 0.009), but PMI on MRI did not have a significant effect on survival. In subgroups defined according to PMI status on MRI and surgical pathology, subgroups with pathology-based evidence of PMI showed a trend of a lower survival rate, regardless of PMI on MRI, but without statistical significance. Unlike pathologic results, PMI on MRI was not associated with recurrence or survival in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

  4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum: from early atherosclerosis to the identification of unstable plaques.

    PubMed

    Staub, Daniel; Schinkel, Arend F L; Coll, Blai; Coli, Stefano; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Reed, Jess D; Krueger, Christian; Thomenius, Kai E; Adam, Dan; Sijbrands, Eric J; ten Cate, Folkert J; Feinstein, Steven B

    2010-07-01

    Proliferation of the adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) is inherently linked with early atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability. Recently, direct visualization of arterial VV and intraplaque neovascularization has emerged as a new surrogate marker for the early detection of atherosclerotic disease. This clinical review focuses on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as a noninvasive application for identifying and quantifying carotid and coronary artery VV and intraplaque neovascularization. These novel approaches could potentially impact the clinician's ability to identify individuals with premature cardiovascular disease who are at high risk. Once clinically validated, the uses of CEUS may provide a method to noninvasively monitor therapeutic interventions. In the future, the therapeutic use of CEUS may include ultrasound-directed, site-specific therapies using microbubbles as vehicles for drug and gene delivery systems. The combined applications for diagnosis and therapy provide unique opportunities for clinicians to image and direct therapy for individuals with vulnerable lesions. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic value and molecular correlates of a CT image-based quantitative pleural contact index in early stage NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juheon; Cui, Yi; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Bailiang; Wu, Jia; Li, Dengwang; Gensheimer, Michael F; Loo, Billy W; Diehn, Maximilian; Li, Ruijiang

    2017-08-07

    To evaluate the prognostic value and molecular basis of a CT-derived pleural contact index (PCI) in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively analysed seven NSCLC cohorts. A quantitative PCI was defined on CT as the length of tumour-pleura interface normalised by tumour diameter. We evaluated the prognostic value of PCI in a discovery cohort (n = 117) and tested in an external cohort (n = 88) of stage I NSCLC. Additionally, we identified the molecular correlates and built a gene expression-based surrogate of PCI using another cohort of 89 patients. To further evaluate the prognostic relevance, we used four datasets totalling 775 stage I patients with publically available gene expression data and linked survival information. At a cutoff of 0.8, PCI stratified patients for overall survival in both imaging cohorts (log-rank p = 0.0076, 0.0304). Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling was enriched among genes associated with PCI (p = 0.0003). The genomic surrogate of PCI remained an independent predictor of overall survival in the gene expression cohorts (hazard ratio: 1.46, p = 0.0007) adjusting for age, gender, and tumour stage. CT-derived pleural contact index is associated with ECM remodelling and may serve as a noninvasive prognostic marker in early stage NSCLC. • A quantitative pleural contact index (PCI) predicts survival in early stage NSCLC. • PCI is associated with extracellular matrix organisation and collagen catabolic process. • A multi-gene surrogate of PCI is an independent predictor of survival. • PCI can be used to noninvasively identify patients with poor prognosis.

  6. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Therapy Response Monitoring and Early Treatment Prediction of Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guifeng; Zhu, Lei; Yang, Kai; Zhuang, Rongqiang; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Fan

    2016-03-02

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) as a relatively new cancer treatment method has attracted worldwide attention. Previous research on PTT has focused on its therapy efficiency and selectivity. The early prognosis of PTT, which is pivotal for the assessment of the treatment and the therapy stratification, however, has been rarely studied. In the present study, we investigated diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as a tool for therapy monitoring and early prognosis of PTT. To this end, we injected PEGylated graphene oxide (GO-PEG) or iron oxide deposited graphene oxide (GO-IONP-PEG) to 4T1 tumor models and irradiated the tumors at different drug-light intervals to induce PTT. For GO-IONP-PEG injected animals, we also included therapy arms where an external magnetic field was applied to the tumors to improve the delivery of the nanoparticle transducers. DW-MRI was performed at different time points after PTT and the tumor apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were analyzed and compared. Our studies show that photothermal agents, magnetic guidance, and drug-light intervals can all affect PTT treatment efficacy. Impressively, ADC value changes at early time points after PTT (less than 48 h) were found to be well-correlated with tumor growth suppression that was apparent days or weeks later. The changes were most sensitive to conditions that can extend the survival for more than 4 weeks, in which cases the 48 h ADC values were increased by more than 80%. These studies demonstrate for the first time that DW-MRI can be an accurate prognosis tool for PTT, suggesting an important role it can play in the future PTT evaluation and clinical translation of the modality.

  7. Bicuspid pulmonary valve implantation using polytetrafluoroethylene membrane: early results and assessment of the valve function by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheul; Lee, Chang-Ha; Kwak, Jae Gun; Song, Jin Young; Shim, Woo-Sup; Choi, Eun Young; Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Yang Min

    2013-03-01

    The durability of bioprosthetic valves in the pulmonary position is suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the early results of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bicuspid pulmonary valve (PV) implantation and to better define the function of this valve by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty-six patients who underwent PTFE bicuspid PV implantation between June 2009 and August 2011 were retrospectively analysed. The median age was 17.5 years and median valve size was 26 mm. Fundamental diagnoses were tetralogy of Fallot (n = 38), pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (n = 8), double outlet right ventricle (n = 7) and absent PV syndrome (n = 3). Thirty-two patients with pulmonary regurgitation (PR) underwent MRI preoperatively and 22 of them underwent follow-up MRI at a median of 6.7 months postoperatively. There was one early death. Postoperative echocardiography (n = 53) showed no or trivial PR in 49 patients and mild PR in 4. Median follow-up duration was 15.2 months. There was no late death or reoperation. Follow-up echocardiography (n = 41) performed at a median of 7.5 months postoperatively showed no or trivial PR in 33 patients and mild PR in 8 patients. Follow-up MRI showed a significant reduction in right ventricular volumes and improvement in biventricular function. The median PR fraction of this valve was 10%. Early results of bicuspid PV implantation using PTFE membrane were satisfactory. PTFE bicuspid PV demonstrated excellent performance for the short term as evidenced by echocardiography and MRI. Long-term follow-up is mandatory to determine the durability of this valve.

  8. In vivo microdissection and live embryo imaging by two-photon microscopy to study Drosophila melanogaster early development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supatto, Willy; Brouzes, Eric; Farge, Emmanuel; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel

    2004-09-01

    Animal embryo development exhibits a complex choreography of cell movements highly regulated both in time and space. This sequence of morphogenetic movements is initiated at gastrulation and is tightly controlled by a cascade of developmental gene expression. We have recently reported that developmental gene expression can in turn be mechanically regulated by morphogenetic movements during Drosophila melanogaster early development. In order to study this phenomenon of mechanically induced gene expression, it is necessary to develop new techniques of in vivo investigation. We show that the combination of femtosecond pulse intratissue surgery and two-photon-excitation fluorescence (2PEF) microscopy is a powerful tool for (i) disrupting natural morphogenetic movements and (ii) imaging native and disrupted morphogenetic movements during Drosophila development. (i) First, non-linear-absorption-mediated photo-disruption makes it possible to perform controlled intra-vital micro-dissections resulting in the modulation of morphogenetic movements and subsequent mechano-sensitive gene expression. (ii) Second, in vivo 2PEF microscopy of transgenic GFP systems appears to be an excellent technique for long-term in vivo imaging of the complex morphogenetic movements involved in normal or perturbed Drosophila gastrulation. Together, these two techniques provide a powerful novel approach to study embryo development.

  9. The high angiogenic activity in very early breast cancer enables reliable imaging with VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles (BR55).

    PubMed

    Bzyl, Jessica; Palmowski, Moritz; Rix, Anne; Arns, Susanne; Hyvelin, Jean-Marc; Pochon, Sibylle; Ehling, Josef; Schrading, Simone; Kiessling, Fabian; Lederle, Wiltrud

    2013-02-01

    Tumour xenografts of well-discernible sizes can be examined well by molecular ultrasound. Here, we investigated whether very early breast carcinomas express sufficient levels of VEGFR2 for reliable molecular ultrasound imaging with targeted microbubbles. MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts were orthotopically implanted in nude mice (n = 26). Tumours measuring from 4 mm(3) (2 mm diameter) up to 65 mm(3) (5 mm diameter) were examined with automated 3D molecular ultrasound using clinically translatable VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles (BR55). Additionally, the relative tumour blood volume was assessed with non-targeted microbubbles (BR38). In vivo ultrasound data were validated by quantitative immunohistochemistry. Very small lesions 2 mm in diameter showed the highest binding of VEGFR2-specific microbubbles. In larger tumours significantly less BR55 accumulated (p = 0.023). Nonetheless, binding of VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles was still high enough for imaging. The relative blood volume was comparable at all tumour sizes. Both findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, a significantly enhanced number of large and mature vessels were detected with increasing tumour size (p < 0.01), explaining the decrease in VEGFR2 expression during tumour growth. 3D molecular ultrasound using BR55 is very well suited to depicting the angiogenic activity in very small breast lesions, suggesting its potential for detecting and characterising these lesions.

  10. Mobile Phone Imaging in Low Resource Settings for Early Detection of Oral Cancer and Concordance with Clinical Oral Examination.

    PubMed

    Haron, Nabihah; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Nabillah, Wan Maria; Saleh, Amyza; Kallarakkal, Thomas George; Ramanathan, Anand; Sinon, Suraya Hani Mohd; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Cheong, Sok Ching

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the concordance in clinical diagnosis of high-risk lesions in the oral cavity and referral decisions between clinical oral examination (COE) and teledentistry. Sixteen individuals with a range of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and normal oral mucosa were included. Five areas of the oral cavity were photographed by three dentists using mobile phone cameras with 5 MP-13 MP resolutions. On the same day, the patients were given COE by two oral medicine specialists (OMS) and 3 weeks later, they reviewed the images taken using the phone, and concordance was examined between the two by Kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical diagnosis using the phone images were also measured. Pre- and post-program questionnaires were answered by both the dentists and the OMS to determine the feasibility of integrating teledentistry in their clinical practice. The Kappa values in determining the presence of lesion, category of lesion (OPMD or not), and making referral decision were moderate to strong (0.64-1.00). The overall sensitivity was more than 70% and specificity was 100%. The false negative rate decreased as the camera resolution increased. All dentists agreed that the process could facilitate early detection of oral mucosal lesion, and was easy to use in the clinic. This study provides evidence that teledentistry can be used for communication between primary care and OMS and could be readily integrated into clinical setting for patient management.

  11. Difference in imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration between early and late-onset amnestic Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Anne-Laure; Giusiano, Bernard; Joubert, Sven; Duprat, Lauréline; Didic, Mira; Gueriot, Claude; Koric, Lejla; Boucraut, José; Felician, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Guedj, Eric; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2017-02-21

    Neuroimaging biomarkers differ between patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Whether these changes reflect cognitive heterogeneity or differences in disease severity is still unknown. This study aimed at investigating changes in neuroimaging biomarkers, according to the age of onset of the disease, in mild amnestic Alzheimer's disease patients with positive amyloid biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid. Both patient groups were impaired on tasks assessing verbal and visual recognition memory. EOAD patients showed greater executive and linguistic deficits, while LOAD patients showed greater semantic memory impairment. In EOAD and LOAD, hypometabolism involved the bilateral temporoparietal junction and the posterior cingulate cortex. In EOAD, atrophy was widespread, including frontotemporoparietal areas, whereas it was limited to temporal regions in LOAD. Atrophic volumes were greater in EOAD than in LOAD. Hypometabolic volumes were similar in the 2 groups. Greater extent of atrophy in EOAD, despite similar extent of hypometabolism, could reflect different underlying pathophysiological processes, different glucose-based compensatory mechanisms or distinct level of premorbid atrophic lesions.

  12. Enhancement of Early Cervical Cancer Diagnosis with Epithelial Layer Analysis of Fluorescence Lifetime Images

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jun; Fu, Chit Yaw; Ng, Beng Koon; Liu, Lin Bo; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim; Lee, Caroline Guat Lay

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the use of layer analysis to aid the fluorescence lifetime diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) from H&E stained cervical tissue sections. The mean and standard deviation of lifetimes in single region of interest (ROI) of cervical epithelium were previously shown to correlate to the gold standard histopathological classification of early cervical cancer. These previously defined single ROIs were evenly divided into layers for analysis. A 10-layer model revealed a steady increase in fluorescence lifetime from the inner to the outer epithelial layers of healthy tissue sections, suggesting a close association with cellular maturity. The shorter lifetime and minimal lifetime increase towards the epithelial surface of CIN-affected regions are in good agreement with the absence of cellular maturation in CIN. Mean layer lifetimes in the top-half cervical epithelium were used as feature vectors for extreme learning machine (ELM) classifier discriminations. It was found that the proposed layer analysis technique greatly improves the sensitivity and specificity to 94.6% and 84.3%, respectively, which can better supplement the traditional gold standard cervical histopathological examinations. PMID:25966026

  13. Early Detection of Bone Metastasis in Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Cervix by 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT Imaging.

    PubMed

    Damian, Andres; Lago, Graciela; Rossi, Susana; Alonso, Omar; Engler, Henry

    2017-03-01

    The neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare malignancy that has a poor prognosis due to early lymphatic and hematogenous spread. We herein report a case of a 27- year-old woman who was referred for initial staging of a neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma with previous unremarkable structural imaging. Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT revealed focal uptake at the primary tumor and in a solitary pelvic bone lesion suggestive of metastases that was further confirmed by CT-guided biopsy. Somatostatin receptor PET/CT may be a useful image modality for early detection of metastases to guide treatment in these patients.

  14. Role of Early Postradiation Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scans in Children With Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Christine; Kaushal, Aradhana; Hammoud, Dima A.; Steffen-Smith, Emilie A.; Bent, Robyn; Citrin, Deborah; Camphausen, Kevin; Warren, Katherine E.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine optimal timing of assessing postradiation radiographic response on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Methods and Materials: Patients were treated on a prospective study at the National Cancer Institute (Protocol no. 06-C-0219) evaluating the effects of radiotherapy (RT). Standard RT was administered in standard fractionation over 6 weeks. Postradiation MRI scans were performed at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Results: Eleven patients with DIPG were evaluated. Median age was 6 years (range, 4-13 years). Patients were treated with external-beam RT to 55.8 Gy (n = 10) or 54 Gy (n = 1), with a gross tumor volume to planning target volume expansion of 1.8-2.0 cm. All patients received prescribed dose and underwent posttreatment MRI scans at 2 and 6-8 weeks. Pretreatment imaging revealed compression of fourth ventricle (n = 11); basilar artery encasement (n = 9); tumor extension outside the pons (n = 11); and tumor hemorrhage (n = 2). At the 2-week scan, basilar artery encasement improved in 7 of 9 patients, and extent of tumor was reduced in 5 of 11 patients. Fourth ventricle compression improved in 6 of 11 patients but worsened in 3 of 11 patients. Presumed necrosis was observed in 5 of 11 patients at 2 weeks and in 1 additional patient at 6-8 weeks. There was no significant difference in mean anteroposterior and transverse diameters of tumor between the 2- and 6-8-week time points. Six of 11 patients had increasing ventricular size, with no evidence of obstruction. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in tumor size of DIPG patients who have received standard RT when measured at 2 weeks vs. 6-8 weeks after RT. The majority of patients had the largest change in tumor size at the 2-week post-RT scan, with evolving changes documented on the 6-8-week scan. Six of 11 patients had progressive ventriculomegaly without obstruction, suggestive of communicating hydrocephalus. To the best

  15. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling: Initial Experience in Patients With Early Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Maijer, Karen I; van der Leij, Christiaan; de Hair, Maria J H; Tas, Sander W; Maas, Mario; Gerlag, Daniëlle M; Tak, Paul P; Lavini, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using pharmacokinetic modeling (PKM) provides quantitative measures that mirror microvessel integrity and can be used as an objective marker of the level of synovial inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the PKM parameters K(trans) , kep , and ve in a prospective cohort of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early arthritis, and to validate the results by assessing their correlation with the number of synovial endothelial cells (ECs). Forty-seven patients with early arthritis (arthritis duration <1 year, DMARD naive; comprising 14 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 22 with unclassified arthritis, 6 with spondyloarthritis [SpA], and 5 with other arthritides) were included. At baseline, DCE-MRI was performed on an inflamed knee joint of each patient. These images were used to calculate the K(trans) (volume transfer constant between the plasma and extracellular extravascular space [EES]), the kep (transfer constant between the EES and plasma), and the ve (fractional volume of the EES). Second, markers of disease activity were collected. Finally, vascularity was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of synovial tissue samples obtained from the inflamed knee joints, using antibodies to detect von Willebrand factor (vWF), a marker of ECs. The 3 PKM parameters differed significantly between diagnostic groups at baseline, with the highest K(trans) value being observed in patients with SpA (median 0.050/minute, interquartile range [IQR] 0.041- 0.069). Furthermore, the K(trans) , kep , and ve values correlated significantly with markers of disease activity. Finally, the PKM parameters K(trans) and kep , but not ve , correlated significantly with synovial expression of vWF (r = 0.647, P = 0.004 for K(trans) ; r = 0.614, P = 0.007 for kep ; r = 0.398, P = 0.102 for ve ). These results suggest that the K(trans) , kep , and ve can

  16. In vivo detection of microstructural correlates of brain pathology in preclinical and early Alzheimer Disease with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Raichle, Marcus E; Wen, Jie; Benzinger, Tammie L; Fagan, Anne M; Hassenstab, Jason; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Luo, Jie; Cairns, Nigel J; Christensen, Jon J; Morris, John C; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) affects at least 5 million individuals in the USA alone stimulating an intense search for disease prevention and treatment therapies as well as for diagnostic techniques allowing early identification of AD during a long pre-symptomatic period that can be used for the initiation of prevention trials of disease-modifying therapies in asymptomatic individuals. Our approach to developing such techniques is based on the Gradient Echo Plural Contrast Imaging (GEPCI) technique that provides quantitative in vivo measurements of several brain-tissue-specific characteristics of the gradient echo MRI signal (GEPCI metrics) that depend on the integrity of brain tissue cellular structure. Preliminary data were obtained from 34 participants selected from the studies of aging and dementia at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis. Cognitive status was operationalized with the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. The participants, assessed as cognitively normal (CDR=0; n=23) or with mild AD dementia (CDR=0.5 or 1; n=11) underwent GEPCI MRI, a collection of cognitive performance tests and CSF amyloid (Aβ) biomarker Aβ42. A subset of 19 participants also underwent PET PiB studies to assess their brain Aβ burden. According to the Aβ status, cognitively normal participants were divided into normal (Aβ negative; n=13) and preclinical (Aβ positive; n=10) groups. GEPCI quantitative measurements demonstrated significant differences between all the groups: normal and preclinical, normal and mild AD, and preclinical and mild AD. GEPCI quantitative metrics characterizing tissue cellular integrity in the hippocampus demonstrated much stronger correlations with psychometric tests than the hippocampal atrophy. Importantly, GEPCI-determined changes in the hippocampal tissue cellular integrity were detected even in the hippocampal areas not affected by the atrophy. Our studies also uncovered strong correlations between

  17. Cingulum correlates of cognitive functions in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease: a diffusion spectrum imaging study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Shih, Yao-Chia; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Chu, Yu-Hsiu; Wu, Meng-Tien; Chen, Ta-Fu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) of MRI can detect neural fiber tract changes. We investigated integrity of cingulum bundle (CB) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (EAD) using DSI tractography and explored its relationship with cognitive functions. We recruited 8 patients with MCI, 9 with EAD and 15 healthy controls (HC). All subjects received a battery of neuropsychological tests to access their executive, memory and language functions. We used a 3.0-tesla MRI scanner to obtain T1- and T2-weighted images for anatomy and used a pulsed gradient twice-refocused spin-echo diffusion echo-planar imaging sequence to acquire DSI. Patients with EAD performed significantly poorer than the HC on most tests in executive and memory functions. Significantly smaller general fractional anisotropy (GFA) values were found in the posterior and inferior segments of left CB and of the anterior segment of right CB of the EAD compared with those of the HC. Spearman's correlation on the patient groups showed that GFA values of the posterior segment of the left CB were significantly negatively associated with the time used to complete Color Trails Test Part II and positively correlated with performance of the logical memory and visual reproduction. GFA values of inferior segment of bilateral CB were positively associated with the performance of visual recognition. DSI tractography demonstrates significant preferential degeneration of the CB on the left side in patients with EAD. The location-specific degeneration is associated with corresponding declines in both executive and memory functions.

  18. Morphologic MRI features, diffusion tensor imaging and radiation dosimetric analysis to differentiate pseudo-progression from early tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ajay; Kumar, Sanath; Narang, Jayant; Schultz, Lonni; Mikkelsen, Tom; Wang, Sumei; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Poptani, Harish; Jain, Rajan

    2013-05-01

    Pseudo-progression (PsP) refers to the paradoxical increase of contrast enhancement within 12 weeks of chemo-radiation therapy in gliomas attributable to treatment effects rather than early tumor progression (ETP). This study was performed to evaluate the utility of morphologic imaging features, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and radiation dosimetric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes in differentiating PsP from ETP. Serial MRI examinations of 163 patients treated for high-grade glioma were reviewed. 46 patients showed a recurrent or progressive enhancing lesion within 12 weeks of radiotherapy. We used an in-house modified scoring system based on 20 different morphologic features (modified VASARI features) to assess the MRI studies. DTI analyses were performed in 24 patients. MRI changes were defined as recurrent volume (Vrec) and registered with pretreatment computed tomography dataset, and the actual dose received by the Vrec during treatment was calculated using dose-volume histograms. Bidimensional product of T2-FLAIR signal abnormality and enhancing component was larger in the ETP group. DTI metrics revealed no significant difference between the two groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the location of Vrec between PsP and ETP groups. Morphologic MRI features and DTI have a limited role in differentiating between PsP and ETP. The larger sizes of the T2-FLAIR signal abnormality and the enhancing component of the lesion favor ETP. There was no correlation between the pattern of MRI changes and radiation dose distribution between PsP and ETP groups.

  19. Early cognitive changes due to whole body γ-irradiation: a behavioral and diffusion tensor imaging study in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Trivedi, Richa; Khushu, Subhash; Manda, Kailash

    2013-10-01

    Radiation-induced aberration in the neuronal integrity and cognitive functions are well known. However, there is a lacuna between sparsely reported immediate effects and the well documented delayed effects of radiation on cognitive functions. The present study was aimed at investigating the radiation-dose dependent incongruities in the early cognitive changes, employing two approaches, behavioral functions and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Six-month old female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to whole-body doses of 2, 5 and 8 Gy of γ-radiation and 24 h after exposure, the stress and anxiety levels were examined in the open-field test (OFT). Forty-eight hours after irradiation, the hippocampal dependent recognition memory was observed by the novel object recognition task (NORT), and the cognitive functions related to memory processing and recall were tested using the elevated plus maze (EPM). Magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was done at 48-hour post-irradiation to visualize microstructural damage in brain parenchyma. Our results indicate a complex dose independent effect on the cognitive functions immediately after exposure to gamma rays. Radiation exposure caused short-term memory dysfunctions at lower doses, which were seen to be abrogated at higher doses, but the long-term memory processing was disrupted at higher doses. The hippocampus emerged as one of the sensitive regions to be affected by whole-body exposure to gamma rays, which led to profound immediate alterations in cognitive functions. Furthermore, the results indicate a cognitive recovery process, which might be dependent on the extent of damage to the hippocampal region. The present study also emphasizes the importance of further research to unravel the complex pattern of neurobehavioral responses immediately following ionizing radiation exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Accuracy and pitfalls of early diastolic motion of the mitral annulus for diagnosing constrictive pericarditis by tissue Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Partho P; Mohan, Jagdish C; Mehta, Vimal; Arora, Ramesh; Pandian, Natesa G; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2004-04-01

    Mitral annular velocities are reportedly useful in diagnosing constrictive pericarditis (CP); however, their exact efficacy in larger clinical settings remains unevaluated. This study reexamined the role of longitudinal tissue Doppler imaging in diagnosing CP in clinical practice. Tissue velocity imaging (GE Vingmed System Five) was performed in 122 subjects (87 referred with clinically suspected CP and 35 age- and sex-matched controls). Of the 87 subjects with suspected CP, 45 (51.7%) had CP confirmed at surgery, 11 (12.6%) had restrictive heart disease, 20 (23.0%) had right heart failure due to cor pulmonale, and the other 11 (12.6%) had old pericardial effusions and no hemodynamic evidence of constriction on follow-up echocardiography. Of the 45 patients with CP, mitral early diastolic (Ea) annular velocities from septal and lateral regions were normal (>/=8 cm/s) in 40 (88.9%) and decreased (<8 cm/s) in 1 or both regions in 5 (3 with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, 2 with extensive mitral annular calcification). Of 11 patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy, 8 (72.7%) had reduced Ea (<8 cm/s) and 3 showed normal Ea velocity in 1 or both corners of the mitral annulus. All except 2 patients with right-sided heart failure from cor pulmonale and those with previous pericardial effusion had normal Ea velocities. A normal Ea velocity improved recognition of CP, particularly in the presence of nondiagnostic 2-dimensional or transmitral flow-Doppler imaging. The overall sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CP using tissue Doppler incrementally with M-mode, 2-dimensional, and transmitral flow Doppler were 88.8% and 94.8%, respectively. Mitral annular velocities help with diagnosis and differentiation of CP in most cases, except in the presence of extensive annular calcification, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or segmental nonuniformity in myocardial velocities.

  1. Early and progressive microstructural brain changes in mice overexpressing human α-Synuclein detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Amit; Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Szabó, Nikoletta; Drazanova, Eva; Arab, Anas; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Neddens, Joerg; Latta, Peter; Starcuk, Zenon; Rektorova, Irena

    2017-03-01

    Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is sensitive in detecting α-Synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation-associated microstructural changes at late stages of the pathology in α-Syn overexpressing TNWT-61 mice. The aim of this study was to perform DKI in young TNWT-61 mice when α-Syn starts to accumulate and to compare the imaging results with an analysis of motor and memory impairment and α-Syn levels. Three-month-old (3mo) and six-month-old (6mo) mice underwent DKI scanning using the Bruker Avance 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging system. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were performed in the gray matter; tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analyses were performed in the white matter. In the same mice, α-Syn expression was evaluated using quantitative immunofluorescence. Mean kurtosis (MK) was the best differentiator between TNWT-61 mice and wildtype (WT) mice. We found increases in MK in 3mo TNWT-61 mice in the striatum and thalamus but not in the substantia nigra (SN), hippocampus, or sensorimotor cortex, even though the immunoreactivity of human α-Syn was similar or even higher in the latter regions. Increases in MK in the SN were detected in 6mo mice. These findings indicate that α-Syn accumulation-associated changes may start in areas with a high density of dopaminergic nerve terminals. We also found TBSS changes in white matter only at 6mo, suggesting α-Syn accumulation-associated changes start in the gray matter and later progress to the white matter. MK is able to detect microstructural changes induced by α-Syn overexpression in TNWT-61 mice and could be a useful clinical tool for detecting early-stage Parkinson's disease in human patients.

  2. Health Care Utilization and Costs Associated with Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging among Workers with Acute Occupational Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Janessa M; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Franklin, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate health care utilization and costs associated with adherence to clinical practice guidelines for the use of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; within the first 6 weeks of injury) for acute occupational low back pain (LBP). Data Sources Washington State Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC), consisting of administrative claims and patient interview data from workers’ compensation claimants (2002–2004). Study Design In this prospective, population-based cohort study, we compared health care utilization and costs among workers whose imaging was adherent to guidelines (no early MRI) to workers whose imaging was not adherent to guidelines (early MRI in the absence of red flags). Data Collection/Extraction Methods We identified workers (age >18) with work-related LBP using administrative claims. We obtained demographic, injury, health, and employment information through telephone interviews to adjust for baseline differences between groups. We ascertained health care utilization and costs from administrative claims for 1 year following injury. Principal Findings Of 1,770 workers, 336 (19.0 percent) were classified as nonadherent to guidelines. Outpatient and physical/occupational therapy utilization was 52–54 percent higher for workers whose imaging was not adherent to guidelines compared to workers with guideline-adherent imaging; utilization of chiropractic care was significantly lower (18 percent). Conclusions Nonadherence to guidelines for early MRI was associated with increased likelihood of lumbosacral injections or surgery and higher costs for out-patient, inpatient, and nonmedical services, and disability compensation. PMID:23910019

  3. Longitudinal imaging pattern analysis (SPARE-CD index) detects early structural and functional changes before cognitive decline in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Vanessa H.; Resnick, Susan M.; Doshi, Jimit; Beason-Held, Lori L.; Zhou, Yun; Ferrucci, Luigi; Wong, Dean F.; Kraut, Michael A.; Davatzikos, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates longitudinal imaging characteristics of early cognitive decline during normal aging, leveraging on high-dimensional imaging pattern classification methods for the development of early biomarkers of cognitive decline. By combining magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting positron emission tomography (PET) cerebral blood flow (CBF) images, an individualized score is generated using high-dimensional pattern classification, which predicts subsequent cognitive decline in cognitively normal older adults of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. The resulting score, termed SPARE-CD (Spatial Pattern of Abnormality for Recognition of Early Cognitive Decline), analyzed longitudinally for 143 cognitively normal subjects over 8 years, shows functional and structural changes well before (2.3–2.9 years) changes in neurocognitive testing (California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT] scores) can be measured. Additionally, this score is found to be correlated to the [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET mean distribution volume ratio at a later time. This work indicates that MRI and PET images, combined with advanced pattern recognition methods, may be useful for very early detection of cognitive decline. PMID:22365049

  4. Fluorescence background subtraction technique for hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging of a mouse model of early stage lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-05-01

    The ability to visualize early stage lung cancer is important in the study of biomarkers and targeting agents that could lead to earlier diagnosis. The recent development of hybrid free-space 360-deg fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) imaging yields a superior optical imaging modality for three-dimensional small animal fluorescence imaging over stand-alone optical systems. Imaging accuracy was improved by using XCT information in the fluorescence reconstruction method. Despite this progress, the detection sensitivity of targeted fluorescence agents remains limited by nonspecific background accumulation of the fluorochrome employed, which complicates early detection of murine cancers. Therefore we examine whether x-ray CT information and bulk fluorescence detection can be combined to increase detection sensitivity. Correspondingly, we research the performance of a data-driven fluorescence background estimator employed for subtraction of background fluorescence from acquisition data. Using mice containing known fluorochromes ex vivo, we demonstrate the reduction of background signals from reconstructed images and sensitivity improvements. Finally, by applying the method to in vivo data from K-ras transgenic mice developing lung cancer, we find small tumors at an early stage compared with reconstructions performed using raw data. We conclude with the benefits of employing fluorescence subtraction in hybrid FMT-XCT for early detection studies.

  5. Management of Acute Work-Related Shoulder Injuries by an Early Shoulder Assessment Program: Efficiency of Imaging Investigations.

    PubMed

    Razmjou, Helen; Lincoln, Sandra; Geddes, Christopher; Boljanovic, Dragana; Macritchie, Iona; Virdo-Cristello, Caterina; Medeiros, Danielle; Richards, Robin R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been a significant increase in the number of costly investigations of the shoulder joint over the past decade. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the diagnostic imaging investigations ordered for injured workers seen at an Early Shoulder Physician Assessment (ESPA) program, (2) evaluate the impact of these investigations on final diagnosis and management, and (3) examine how efficient the program was by determining the appropriateness of referrals and whether costly imaging was justified. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the electronic files of injured workers who had been referred to an