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Sample records for 99mtc-methylene diphosphonate 99mtc-mdp

  1. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a

  2. The Development of Diphosphonates as Significant Health Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Marion D.; Centner, Rosemary L.

    1978-01-01

    The historical development of the use of diphosphonates in detergents is presented as well as physical chemistry, physiological response, toxicology, and human clinical trials with these compounds. (BB)

  3. Calcium balance in children treated with diphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Uttley, W S; Belton, N R; Syme, J; Sheppard, H

    1975-03-01

    Serial mineral balances have been obtained in 3 children undergoing therapy with EHDP (ethane-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate) for diseases involving ectopic calcification. Although clinical outcome was not uniformly satisfactory, all cases showed an overall reduction in calcium balance. This was due to increased faecal excretion of calcium and was most marked after a long duration of therapy. Although these results conflict with reported experience in adults, they are in agreement with published observations of the effects of EHDP on calcium absorption in experimental animals.

  4. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  5. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  6. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  7. Pillared and open-framework uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Adelani, Pius O.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-09-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of uranium trioxide, uranyl acetate, or uranyl nitrate with 1,4-benzenebisphosphonic acid in the presence of very small amount of HF at 200 deg. C results in the formation of three different uranyl diphosphonate compounds, [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 2}OH)]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ubbp-1), [H{sub 3}O]{sub 4}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}F{sub 4}{r_brace}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-2), and {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-3). The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Ubbp-1 consists of UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged by the phosphonate moieties to form a three-dimensional pillared structure. Ubbp-2 is composed of UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged through the phosphonate oxygen atoms into one-dimensional chains that are cross-linked by the phenyl spacers into a pillared structure. The structure of Ubbp-3 is a three-dimensional open-framework with large channels containing water molecules with internal dimensions of approximately 10.9x10.9 A. Ubbp-1 and Ubbp-2 fluoresce at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: Illustration of the three-dimensional open-framework structure of {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} units, pentagonal bipyramids=green, oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, hydrogen=white. Highlights: > The influence of the uranyl salt anions and pH were critically examined in relation to structural variation. > The acetate and nitrate counter ions of uranyl may be acting as structure directing agents. > The use of rigid phenyl spacer yield

  8. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also

  9. A comparison of skeletal uptakes of three diphosphonates by whole-body retention: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, I; Pearson, D W; Bessent, R G; Tofe, A J; Francis, M D

    1981-10-01

    Twenty normal volunteers had measurements of 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) of three structurally related Tc-99m-labeled phosphonate skeletal imaging agents: (1-hydroxyethylidene) diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP), and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP). The average WBR values, reflecting skeletal uptake, were 18.4, 30.3, and 36.6%, respectively. These results clearly illustrate that slight alterations in diphosphonate molecular structure have a significant effect upon specificity for osseous tissue, and thus may affect skeletal image quality and the usefulness of the WBR technique in diagnosing metabolic bone disease.

  10. 78 FR 25699 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of... (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) from India. The period of review (POR) is April 1, 2011,...

  11. [Evaluation of multiple myeloma with bone scintigraphy using Tc 99 diphosphonate. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Solis, O J; Gonzales, R; De Luca, S; McKusick, K A; Potsaid, M S

    1977-04-01

    Bone Scanning using 99m Tc-Diphosphonate is another diagnostic modality in the evaluation of multiple mieloma which allows the identification of bone lesions not demonstrable by conventional radiography. The use of 99m Tc-Diphosphonate is more convenient and less harmful than other radioactive isotopes utilized before. PMID:866897

  12. Diphosphonates in the evaluation of metabolic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, I; Smith, M L

    1982-03-01

    The bone scan may be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. However the superiority of the bone scan when compared to radiology in conditions such as renal osteodystrophy, osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism, and osteoporosis requires substantiation with the newer radiopharmaceuticals which have a higher affinity for bone. Two methods of quantitating skeletal uptake of tracer have been assessed to try to remove the subjective aspect of bone scan evaluation. Measurements of bone to soft tissue ratios have proved clinically disappointing, but 24 hour whole body retention of diphosphonate appears to provide a sensitive index of increased bone turnover.

  13. Severe systemic reaction to diphosphonate bone imaging agents: skin testing to predict allergic response and a safe alternative agent

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Gabatin, A.; Orzel, J.A.; Maloney, T.R.; Murnane, J.E.; Borchert, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    We describe a severe systemic reaction which occurred in a patient on two occasions after i.v. injection of chemically related diphosphonate bone imaging agents. Skin testing showed reactivity to multiple commercially available diphosphonate compounds but no significant response to pyrophosphates. A subsequent pyrophosphate bone scan resulted in no adverse reaction. Severe systemic reactions to diphosphonates can occur, skin testing may prove useful in evaluating allergic reactions, and pyrophosphates appear to be a safe alternative agent in patients proven or suspected allergic to diphosphonates.

  14. Water Oxidation by Ruthenium Complexes Incorporating Multifunctional Bipyridyl Diphosphonate Ligands.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Shaffer, David W; Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Szalda, David J; Concepcion, Javier J

    2016-07-01

    We describe herein the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium complexes with multifunctional bipyridyl diphosphonate ligands as well as initial water oxidation studies. In these complexes, the phosphonate groups provide redox-potential leveling through charge compensation and σ donation to allow facile access to high oxidation states. These complexes display unique pH-dependent electrochemistry associated with deprotonation of the phosphonic acid groups. The position of these groups allows them to shuttle protons in and out of the catalytic site and reduce activation barriers. A mechanism for water oxidation by these catalysts is proposed on the basis of experimental results and DFT calculations. The unprecedented attack of water at a neutral six-coordinate [Ru(IV) ] center to yield an anionic seven-coordinate [Ru(IV) -OH](-) intermediate is one of the key steps of a single-site mechanism in which all species are anionic or neutral. These complexes are among the fastest single-site catalysts reported to date. PMID:27166584

  15. 76 FR 772 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... India and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 19197 (April 28, 2009...-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision of the Court of International Trade... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic...

  16. Delayed skin rash following administration of technetium-99m diphosphonate: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.; Sorenson, J.F.; Eisenberg, B.; Glactz, G.; Owens, D.; Hladik, W.B. III.; Curry, M.C. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors report a case of a 48-yr-old woman who developed a delayed skin rash following intravenous (i.v.) administration of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP). The rash was characterized by skin biopsy, and it was concluded that the reaction was due to the diphosphonate compound. The rash resolved spontaneously without treatment. With most {sup 99m}Tc-based agents, adverse reactions are considered rare and are usually allergic in nature, but the delayed nature of this reaction is more common with diphosphonate compounds than with other radiopharmaceuticals. If a repeat examination is required, alternative agents (such as {sup 99m}Tc-pyrosphosphate) or any other diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered. An intradermal skin test may be helpful to determine the safest alternative bone agent.

  17. Thorium and uranium diphosphonates: Syntheses, structures, and spectroscopic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Adelani, Pius O.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Four new thorium and uranium diphosphonate compounds, [H{sub 3}O]{l_brace}Th{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}F{r_brace} (Thbbp-1), An{sub 2}{l_brace}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 4}PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}]{r_brace} [An=Th(IV), U(IV)] (Thbbp-2)/(U4bbp), and [(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}N][(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 4}PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}F(H{sub 2}O)] (U6bbp) have been synthesized hydrothermally using 1,4-benzenebisphosphonic acid as ligand. The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thbbp-1 and Thbbp-2 contain seven-coordinate Th(IV) within ThO{sub 6}F and ThO{sub 7} units with capped trigonal prismatic and capped octahedral geometries, respectively. U4bbp is isotypic with Thbbp-2. The structure of U6bbp contains U(VI) is the common seven-coordinate pentagonal bipyramid. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polyhedra and luminescence properties in thorium and uranium compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional thorium and uranium complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) under hydrothermal condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unusual seven-coordinate thorium complexes exhibiting capped octahedral and capped trigonal prismatic geometries.

  18. 76 FR 19325 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...-Diphosphonic Acid from India and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 19197 (April 28... Less Than Fair Value: Sparklers From the People's Republic of China, 56 FR 20588, 20589 (May 6, 1991... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Silicon Carbide From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR......

  19. 77 FR 15357 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India (76 FR 78237). We invited parties to comment on the preliminary... from India: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 74 FR 10543 (March 11, 2009...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). This...

  20. Increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in calvaria cells cultured with diphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H

    1979-01-01

    1. Dichloromethanediphosphonate and to a lesser degree 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate, two compounds characterized by a P-C-P bond, increased the alkaline phosphatase activity of cultured rat calvaria cells up to 30 times in a dose-dependent fashion. 2. Both diphosphonates also slightly inhibited the protein synthesis in these cells. 3. Thymidine, an inhibitor of cell division, did not inhibit the induction of the enzyme, indicating that the increase in enzyme activity was not due to the formation of a specific population of cells with high alkaline phosphatase activity. 4. The effect on alkaline phosphatase was suppressed by the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. 5. After subculturing the stimulated cells in medium without diphosphonates, the enzyme activity fell almost to the control value. 6. Bovine parathyrin diminished the enzyme activity of the control cells and the cells treated with dichloromethanediphosphonate; however, at high concentration the effect of parathyrin was greater on the diphosphonate-treated cells than on the control cells. 7. The electrophoretic behaviour, heat inactivation, inhibition by bromotetramisole or by phenylalanine, and the Km value of the induced enzyme were identical with that of the control enzyme. PMID:534490

  1. 78 FR 38941 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 19645, 19646 (April 2, 2013). On April 29, 2013, in accordance with... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 78 FR 33052, 33054 (June 3, 2013). \\4\\ See June 4, 2013... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Rescission...

  2. 76 FR 7532 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India (75 FR 73042). We invited parties to comment on the preliminary...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). This clarification... from India: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 74 FR 10543 (March 11,...

  3. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  4. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  5. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  6. Diphosphonate thin films on zinc: Preparation, structure characterization and corrosion protection effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilbáth, A.; Bertóti, I.; Sajó, I.; Nyikos, L.; Kálmán, E.

    2008-12-01

    The reaction of water-based solution of 1,5-diphosphono-pentane (DPP) and 1,7-diphosphono-heptane (DPH) with high purity polycrystalline zinc surface was investigated at room temperature. XRD and XPS studies evidenced the formation of crystalline zinc-phosphonate film on the metal surface. The formed layers give hydrophilic properties to the surface. A conversion-type interaction of diphosphonic acid compounds with the oxidized zinc surface was unambiguously shown by XPS analysis. Conclusive results were obtained by synthesized zinc-diphosphonate model compounds imitating the ones developed on the zinc surface, revealing a simple, closely 1:1 ratio of the phosphonate groups with zinc. Reactions with both diphosphonates resulted in significant protective effect of zinc against corrosion, although the structure and quality of the formed layers exhibit marked differences. The in-depth distribution of the composition and dissimilarity of the layer thickness were determined by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES). The corrosion inhibition was explained by the formation of insoluble zinc-phosphonate salt on the zinc surface, blocking the zinc dissolution process.

  7. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy findings in posttransplant distal limb syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Bannas, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of posttransplant distal limb syndrome (PTDLS) representing a rare complication in kidney transplant recipients characterized by a pain syndrome of the distal extremities. A 68-year-old man with a history of kidney transplantation presented with symmetrical and incapacitating pain in the feet and knees and underwent whole-body Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy for further evaluation. Planar scintigraphy demonstrated marked tracer uptake in the distal femoral and tibial epiphyses, and magnetic resonance imaging showed corresponding osteoedema. Tc-MDP scintigraphy is a valuable tool for evaluation of the etiology of musculoskeletal pain and may demonstrate typical findings in case of PTDLS.

  8. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  9. 76 FR 48142 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of... results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1... through March 31, 2010.\\1\\ The Department gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on...

  10. 75 FR 74684 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ..., 2010. \\1\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of...: Effective Date: December 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shawn Higgins, AD/CVD Operations,...

  11. Thermodynamic Features of Benzene-1,2-Diphosphonic Acid Complexes with Several Metal Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Syouhei Nishihama; Ryan P. Witty; Leigh R Martin; Kenneth L. Nash

    2013-08-01

    Among his many contributions to the advancement of f-element chemistry and separation science, Professor Gregory R. Choppin’s research group completed numerous investigations featuring the application of distribution techniques to the determination of metal complexation equilibrium quotients. Most of these studies focused on the chemistry of lanthanide and actinide complexes. In keeping with that tradition, this report discusses the complex formation equilibrium constants for complexes of trivalent europium (Eu3+) with benzene-1,2-diphosphonic acid (H4BzDP) determined using solvent extraction distribution experiments in 0.2 M (Na,H)ClO4 media in the temperature range of 5 – 45 degrees C. Protonation constants for HnBzDP4-n and stoichiometry and stability of BzDP4- complexes with Zn2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ have also been determined using potentiometric titration (at I = 0.1 M) and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Heats of protonation of HnBzDPn-4 species have been determined by titration calorimetry. From the temperature dependence of the complex Eu3+-HnBzDPn-4 equilibrium constant, a composite enthalpy (?H = -15.1 (+/-1.0) kJ mol-1) of complexation has been computed. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters with literature reports on other diphosphonic acids and structurally similar carboxylic acids indicates that exothermic heats of complexation are unique to the Eu-BzDP system. Comparisons with thermodynamic data from the literature indicate that the fixed geometry imposed by the benzene ring enhances complex stability.

  12. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  13. Structural Investigation of Technetium-Diphosphonate Complex 99mTc-MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ling; Lin, Jian-guo; Ju, Xue-hai; Gong, Xue-dong; Luo, Shi-neng

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory method has been employed to investigate the structures of the prototypical technetium-labeled diphosphonate complex 99mTc-MDP, where MDP represents methylenediphosphonic acid. A total of 14 trial structures were generated by allowing for the geometric, conformational, charge, and spin isomerism. Based on the optimized structures and calculated energies at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level, two stable isomers were determined for the title complex. And they were further studied systematically in comparison with the experimental structure. The basis sets 6-31G*(LANL2DZ for Tc), 6-31G*(cc-pVDZ-pp for Tc), and DGDZVP have also been employed in combination with the B3LYP functional to study the basis set effect on the geometries of isomers. The optimized structures agree well with the available experimental data, and the bond lengths are more sensitive to the basis set than the bond angles. The charge distributions were studied by the Mulliken population analysis and natural bond orbital analysis. The results reflect a significant ligand-to-metal electron donation.

  14. SUV measurement of normal vertebrae using SPECT/CT with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Nawata, Shintaro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015. Various SUVs were calculated based on body-weight, lean-body-weight (lbw), Japanese lean-body-weight (jlbw) and Japanese bone-mineral-content (jbmc). SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a wide range of values. Among these, the maximum body-weight based SUV showed the lowest coefficient of variation. The SUVs also showed relatively small intra-subject variability. In addition, all SUVs showed moderate and significant correlation with height. Moreover, lbw-, jlbw-, and jbmc-based SUVs of men were significantly higher than those of women. In conclusions, SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a relatively large inter-individual variability and small intra-individual variability. As a quantitative imaging biomarker, SUVs might require standardization with adequate reference data for the same subject to minimize variability. PMID:27766184

  15. Application of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid in boiler water for industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Mao-Dong; Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The primary method used for boiler water treatment is the addition of chemicals to industrial boilers to prevent corrosion and scaling. The static scale inhibition method was used to evaluate the scale inhibition performance of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). Autoclave static experiments were used to study the corrosion inhibition properties of the main material for industrial boilers (20# carbon steel) with an HEDP additive in the industrial boiler water medium. The electrochemical behavior of HEDP on carbon steel corrosion control was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. Experimental results indicate that HEDP can have a good scale inhibition effect when added at a quantity of 5 to 7 mg/L at a test temperature of not more than 100 °C. To achieve a high scale inhibition rate, the HEDP dosage must be increased when the test temperature exceeds 100 °C. Electrochemical and autoclave static experimental results suggest that HEDP has a good corrosion inhibition effect on 20# carbon steel at a concentration of 25 mg/L. HEDP is an excellent water treatment agent.

  16. Two new supramolecular metal diphosphonates: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and inhibiting effects on metallic corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholivand, Khodayar; Yaghoubi, Rouhollah; Farrokhi, Alireza; Khoddami, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    Two new divalent metal(II) aminodiphosphonates with layered structure, namely, Cu(H3L1)2·2H2O (1), [H4L1=methyl-N(CH2PO3H2)2] and Cd2(H2L2)4(2), [H4L2=n-propyl-N(CH2PO3H2)2] were synthesized and characterized. The Cu(II) ions in complex 1 are octahedrally coordinated by four oxygen atoms from two chelating ligands and two phosphonate oxygen atoms from two neighboring Cu(H3L1)2 units. The Cu(H3L1)2 units are interconnected by bridging phosphonate groups, forming a 2-D metal phosphonate layer. The structure of complex 2 contains two unique Cd(II) ions octahedrally-coordinated by six phosphonate oxygen atoms from four H2L2 diphosphonate anions. Corrosion inhibition performances of 1 and 2 were also compared with each other in order to study the effect of combinations of externally added Cd/H4L2 and Cu/H4L1 (1:1 ratio) on corrosion rates of carbon steel. It was found that at pH 3.0, Cd/H4L2 or Cu/H4L1 combinations do not have noticeable corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel. In contrast, at pH 7.0, higher corrosion inhibition efficiency was achieved for Cd/H4L2. Physical characterizations such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to study the corrosion specimens and film material.

  17. Modification of Hydroxyapatite with Ion-Selective Complexants: 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) was modified with 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), and its effect on divalent metal ion binding was determined. HAP was synthesized from calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid. After calcination, it was modified with HEDP, and the influence of time and temperature on the modification was investigated. HEDP incorporation increased as its initial solution concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.50 M. Unmodified and modified HAP were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and specific surface area analysis. Ca/P ratios, acid capacities, and phosphorus elemental analyses gave the effect of modification on composition and surface characteristics. A high reaction temperature produced new phosphonate bands at 993, 1082, and 1144 cm–1 that indicated the presence of HEDP. HAP modification at a high temperature–long reaction time had the highest HEDP loading and gave the sharpest XRD peaks. The emergence of new HAP–HEDP strands was observed in SEM images for treated samples while EDS showed high phosphorus contents in these strands. Modified HAP had a high acid capacity from the additional P–OH groups in HEDP. The P(O)OH groups maintain their ability to bind metal ions within the HAP matrix: contacting the modified HAP with 10–4 N nitrate solutions of five transition metal ions gives an affinity sequence of Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II) > Cu(II). This result is comparable to that of commercially available di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, a common solvent extractant, and the trend is consistent with the Misono softness parameter of metal ion polarizabilities. PMID:25678741

  18. N-heterocyclic amine-directed structures and properties of two Cu(II) diphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kui-Rong; Ma, Feng; Zhu, Yu-Lan; Yu, Lin-Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Min; Yang, Yin; Duan, Wei-He

    2011-10-14

    By introducing the second organic N-heterocyclic ligands 4'-(4-pyridyl)-4,2':6',4''-terpyridine (pyterpy) and 4,4'-bipyridyl (4,4'-bipy), two examples of Cu(II)-diphosphonates, [Cu(3)(HL)(2)(Hpyterpy)(2)]·2H(2)O 1 and [Cu(4)(HL)(2)(4,4'-bipy)(H(2)O)(5)] 2 based on 1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (H(5)L = CH(3)C(OH)(PO(3)H(2))(2)), have been hydrothermally obtained and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR, TG-DSC. The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that compound 1 has a one-dimensional fishbone-like chain constructed by anions [Cu(3)(HL)(2)(2-)](n) while simultaneously organic cations [Hpyterpy(+)](n) suspending both sides, and compound 2 exhibits two-dimensional inorganic-organic alternate arrangement layer built from 1-D ladder-like inorganic chain with tetranuclear cluster [Cu(4)O(10)] via 4,4'-bipy linkage. The results of electrochemical measurements indicate half-wave potential of 1 (E(1/2)(1) = 1.01 V) is less than that of 2 (E(1/2)(2) = 1.20 V), indicating a good D-A system in ICT for 1. Moreover fluorescent measurements reveal that emission intensity of 1 centered at 422 nm is larger than that of 2 emitted at 420 nm, caused by intraligand π*-π emission state of organic N-heterocyclic amine (λ(ex) = 233 nm). Magnetism data indicate that compound 1 exhibits ferrimagnetic interactions between metal centers, while compound 2 has antiferromagnetic property.

  19. Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L; Tofe, A J

    1976-06-14

    The bone scanning complex, 99mTc-Sn-EHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate concentration. The nuclidic agent 99mTcO4-BUT NOT THE 99MTc-diphosphonate is selectively taken up by the thyroid and this uptake can be blocked by administering sodium perchlorate. Among the connective tissues studied, the tracheal cartilage seems to have the greatest potential to calcify with increasing age of the animal and man. Soft tissue does not retain the bone scanning complex 99mTc-Sn-EHDP but does retain 99mTcO4-. PMID:182328

  20. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  1. Iodine-131-labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases: II. Preliminary clinical results with iodine-131 BDP3

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhut, M.; Berberich, R.; Kimmig, B.; Oberhausen, E.

    1986-08-01

    The kinetics, dosimetry, and response of iodine-131 alpha-amino-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-diphosphonate ((/sup 131/I)BDP3) treatment were investigated with patients who had pain symptoms from bone metastases of various primary carcinoma. The blood clearance of (/sup 131/I)BDP3 was rapid. More than 90% disappeared from the blood pool at 2 hr after injection. The excretion of the activity occurred solely through the kidneys and mean total-body retention at 48 hr was 48.6%. The urinary activity showed a metabolite which must be formed by an in vivo cleavage reaction of a phosphorus-carbon bond. The uptake of in vivo cleaved (/sup 131/I)iodide in the unblocked thyroid was approximately 0.5%. The effective half-life of (/sup 131/I)BDP3 in metastatic bone (median 182 hr; range 177-205 hr) proved to be longer than in unaffected areas (145 hr; 140-165 hr). Palliative therapies were performed with 18 patients. They received doses ranging between 6 and 48 mCi (/sup 131/I)BDP3. The response was 44% complete pain relief, 6% substantial pain relief, 22% minimal improvement, and 28% no change. The duration of response ranged between 1 and 8 wk.

  2. [99mTc]diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in experimental arthritis: effect of naproxen in the canine carrageenan injection model.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E S; He, S Z; Søballe, K; Kjølseth, D; Henriksen, T B; Hjortdal, V E; Bünger, C

    1992-09-01

    The impact of naproxen treatment on juxta-articular hemodynamics and bone metabolism in experimental juvenile arthritis was studied in the articular carrageenan injection model. Unilateral gonarthritis was induced for 12 weeks in eight dogs receiving naproxen (dosage, 2 mg/kg) and eight controls. Regional blood flow was assessed by the microsphere method, plasma volume by the distribution space of [125I]fibrinogen, and bone metabolism by the 2-h uptake of [99mTc]diphosphonate ([99mTc]DPD). Synovial effusion was less prominent with naproxen treatment as judged by joint fluid volume and pressure. Naproxen reduced the arthritic capsular hyperemia, almost normalized a severe blood flow increase in patella and both juxta-articular epiphyses, ameliorated an expansion of plasma volume in the patella and the distal femoral epiphysis, and normalized an increased [99mTc]DPD uptake in subchondral femoral bone and the tibial cortex. Significantly increased arteriovenous shunting in the arthritic extremity was unaffected by naproxen. The study suggests that long-term cyclooxygenase inhibition offers protection against hemodynamic and metabolic changes in juxta-articular bone secondary to synovial inflammation. PMID:1500978

  3. Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

  4. Complexation of U(VI) with 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonicAcid (HEDPA) in Acidic to Basic Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W A; Rao, L; Zanonato, P; Garnov, A; Powell, B A; Nash, K L

    2007-01-24

    Complexation of U(VI) with 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in acidic to basic solutions has been studied with multiple techniques. A number of 1:1 (UO{sub 2}H{sub 3}L), 1:2 (UO{sub 2}H{sub j}L{sub 2} where j = 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 and -1) and 2:2 ((UO{sub 2}){sub 2}H{sub j}L{sub 2} where j = 1, 0 and -1) complexes form, but the 1:2 complexes are the major species in a wide pH range. Thermodynamic parameters (formation constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation) were determined by potentiometry and calorimetry. Data indicate that the complexation of U(VI) with HEDPA is exothermic, favored by the enthalpy of complexation. This is in contrast to the complexation of U(VI) with dicarboxylic acids in which the enthalpy term usually is unfavorable. Results from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and {sup 31}P NMR have confirmed the presence of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:2 U(VI)-HEDPA complexes.

  5. Self-assembled monolayers of alpha,omega-diphosphonic acids on Ti enable complete or spatially controlled surface derivatization.

    PubMed

    Danahy, Michael P; Avaltroni, Michael J; Midwood, Kim S; Schwarzbauer, Jean E; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2004-06-22

    Alpha,omega-diphosphonic acids self-assemble on the native oxide surfaces of Ti or Ti-6Al-4V. Heating gives strongly bonded phosphonate monolayers. Infrared and X-ray spectroscopic and water contact angle data show that the films are bonded to the surface by one phosphonate unit; the other remains a phosphonic acid. Surface loadings were measured by quartz crystal microbalance procedures. Mechanical shear strengths for the films were also measured; these do not correlate simply with surface loadings. Films formed from 1,12-diphosphonododecane were treated with zirconium tetra(tert-butoxide) to give surface Zr complex species; derivatives of these surface complexes are stable to hydrolysis under physiological conditions and are mechanically strong. The complexation reaction can be accomplished over the entire surface; alternatively, dropwise application of the alkoxide to the surface enables spatial control of deposition. The cell attractive peptide derivative RGDC can be bound to these surface Zr alkoxide complexes through (maleimido)-alkylcarboxylate intermediates. Surfaces modified with RGDC were shown to be effective for osteoblast binding and proliferation. PMID:15986670

  6. Effect of ethane-I-hydroxy-I, I-diphosphonate on arterial calcinosis induced by hypervitaminosis D: a morphologic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, J. G.; Roy, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine changes in vascular ultrastructure of rats subjected to hypervitaminosis D with or without treatment with ethane-I-hydroxy-I, I-diphosphonate (EHDP). Five groups of rats were studied. Untreated rats were given 0.9% NaCl i.p. Sham-treated rats were given vehicle (corn oil). Treated rats were given ergocalciferol (75,000 IU i.p.) dissolved in vehicle with or without EHDP (5 mM/100 g body-weight i.p.). Rats which had been given ergocalciferol without EHDP developed hypercalcemia and demonstrated significant arterial calcinosis. A similar degree of calcinosis was not observed in rats given ergocalciferol with EHDP. EHDP appeared to inhibit arterial calcinosis; however, it did not affect plasma calcium levels. This suggests that EHDP might delay calcium influx into the cell and thereby prevent calcium overload. Our findings support the suggestion that EHDP therapy can be an effective treatment for the inhibition of dystrophic arterial calcinosis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2109995

  7. Paradoxical acute hypercalcemic effect of salmon calcitonin in patients having Paget's disease of bone after treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Delmas, P D; Chapuy, M C; Meunier, P J

    1984-05-01

    The hypocalcemia following administration of calcitonin may be an index to disease activity in Paget's disease of bone. Therefore, we assessed the effect of a single injection of 100 MRC units of salmon calcitonin (SCT) on plasma calcium in 28 patients with active Paget's disease before and after 6 months of treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) at a dose of 400 mg/day (3 patients), 800 mg/day (8 patients), 1.600 mg/day (9 patients) or 2.600 mg/day (8 patients). The mean SCT-induced hypocalcemia was reduced by Cl2MDP and there was a significant positive correlation between the decrease of serum calcium induced by SCT and bone resorption evaluated by the number of osteoclasts on bone biopsy taken in pagetic iliac crest. After Cl2MCP treatment, 5 patients manifested a paradoxical hypercalcemic response to SCT injection ranging from +0.3 mg/dl to +0.5 mg/dl, which was sustained over the 9 hours following injection. As these patients had a dramatic inhibition of bone resorption induced by Cl2 MDP, it is suggested that the hypercalcemic response to SCT might reflect persistence or exaggeration of the early hypercalcemic effect of CT which reportedly precedes the hypocalcemic response to SCT. PMID:6234216

  8. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  9. Effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on Partitioning of Np and Pu to Synthetic Boehmite

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on sorption of Np(V) and Pu(V) to synthetic boehmite ({gamma}-AlOOH) was examined a function of time and pH (between 4 to 11). Sorption of both elements in boehmite suspensions (1 M NaCl, 600 mg L{sup -1} boehmite) increased with increasing pH. Sorption edges for neptunium and plutonium occurred at approximately pH 8.0 and 6.6, respectively. After steady state partitioning was reached, HEDPA was added to the neptunium-boehmite and plutonium-boehmite suspensions. Neptunium and plutonium partitioning appears to be primarily affected by the formation of soluble Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA complexes, the dissolution of boehmite promoted by HEDPA, and the precipitation of Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA colloids. The results are discussed in terms of applicability of HEDPA-promoted dissolution as a waste reduction method in the treatment of sludge phases contained within high-level nuclear waste storage tanks.

  10. Further examples of the failure of surrogates to properly model the structural and hydrothermal chemistry of transuranium elements: Insights provided by uranium and neptunium diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D; Bray, Travis H; Zhang, Wei; Haire, Richard G.; Sayler, Todd S.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    In situ hydrothermal reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) in the presence of methylenediphosphonic acid (C1P2) results in the crystallization of Np[CH2(PO3)2](H2O)2 (NpC1P2-1). Similar reactions have been explored with U(VI) resulting in the isolation of the U(IV) diphosphonate U[CH2(PO3)2](H2O) (UC1P2-1), and the two U(VI) diphosphonates (UO2)2[CH2(PO3)2](H2O)3 H2O (UC1P2-2) and UO2[CH2(PO3H)2](H2O) (UC1P2-3). Single crystal diffraction studies of NpC1P2-1 reveal that it consists of eight-coordinate Np(IV) bound by diphosphonate anions and two coordinating water molecules to create a polar three-dimensional framework structure wherein the water molecules reside in channels. The structure of UC1P2-1 is similar to that of NpC1P2-1 in that it also adopts a three-dimensional structure. However, the U(IV) centers are seven-coordinate with only a single bound water molecule. UC1P2-2 and UC1P2-3 both contain U(VI). Nevertheless, their structures are quite distinct with UC1P2-2 being composed of corrugated layers containing UO6 and UO7 units bridged by C1P2; whereas, UC1P2-3 is found as a polar three-dimensional network structure containing only pentagonal bipyramidal U(VI). Fluorescence measurements on UC1P2-2 and UC1P2-3 exhibit emission from the uranyl moieties with classical vibronic fine-structure.

  11. Desensitization of the guinea-pig urinary bladder by the enantiomers of adenylyl 5'-(beta, gamma-methylene)-diphosphonate and by substance P.

    PubMed Central

    Hourani, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), substance P (SP) and non-cholinergic nerve stimulation contracted the guinea-pig urinary bladder. SP and two poorly-degradable analogues of ATP, the enantiomers of adenylyl 5'-(beta, gamma-methylene)-diphosphonate (AMP-PCP and L-AMP-PCP), were used to desensitize the guinea-pig bladder. Desensitization of the bladder by AMP-PCP (50 microM) or by L-AMP-PCP (50 microM) abolished the responses to ATP, and inhibited the responses to non-cholinergic nerve stimulation and to SP. The responses to histamine were unaffected. Desensitization by SP (1 microM) inhibited the responses to SP itself, but not the responses to ATP, L-AMP-PCP or non-cholinergic nerve stimulation. These results suggest that SP may act partly by releasing ATP, and support the suggestion that ATP rather than SP is the non-cholinergic stimulatory transmitter. PMID:6203588

  12. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  13. Dystrophic calcification in muscles of legs in calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia syndrome: Accurate evaluation of the extent with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Kumar, Kunal; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old man with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia variant scleroderma who presented with dysphagia, Raynaud's phenomenon and calf pain. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed to identify the extent of the calcification. It revealed extensive dystrophic calcification in the left thigh and bilateral legs which was involving the muscles and was well-delineated on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Calcinosis in scleroderma usually involves the skin but can be found in deeper periarticular tissues. Myopathy is associated with a poor prognosis.

  14. Studies on the Labeling of Ethylenediaminetetramethylene Phosphonic Acid, Methylene Diphosphonate, Sodium Pyrophosphate and Hydroxyapatite with Lutetium-177 for use in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    For the treatment of skeletal metastasis, a therapeutic radionuclide tagged with a bone seeking ligand is required, while for radiation synovectomy (RS), a therapeutic radionuclide irreversibly attached to pre-formed particles of appropriate size is required. Radio lanthanides are mostly therapeutic, and ligands containing phosphate groups are predominantly bone seekers. Exploiting these facts, number of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals could be developed. Labeling of four phosphate containing materials was pursued in the present study. It was hypothesized that various (177)Lu-labeled bone-seeking complexes such as (177)Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), (177)Lu-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and (177)Lu-pyrophosphate (PYP) could be developed as agents for palliative radiotherapy of bone pain due to skeletal metastases, and (177)Lu-Hydroxyapatite (HA) could be developed as an agent for radiosynovectomy of small joints. Lyophilized kit vials of EDTMP, MDP and sodium pyrophosphate (Na-PYP) were formulated. HA particles were synthesized locally and purity was checked by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (177)Lu was labeled with EDTMP, MDP, PYP, and HA and the behavior of all was studied by radio-thin layer chromatography (TLC) radio-HPLC and radio-electrophoresis. Radio-TLC confirmed the labeling. HPLC analysis too verified the labeling. Radio-electrophoresis results depicted peaks for (177)Lu-MDP, (177)Lu-EDTMP and (177)Lu-PYP at 3.37 ± 0.06 cm, 5.53 ± 0.15 cm and 7.03 ± 0.06 cm respectively confirming negative charge on each specie as all migrated toward positive anode. All 3 methods verified the labeling. The study demonstrated that EDTMP, MDP and PYP form stable complexes with (177)Lu in injectable solution form. HA particulates could too be labeled with (177)Lu with high radiochemical yields (>98%) in suspension form. Former three could be utilized as bone-pain palliation agents for the treatment of bone metastases, and

  15. Bone resorption, metastasis, and diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 17 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiotherapy of Bone Lesions; Methodological Problems; Treatment of Bone Metastasis with Antiresorptive Drugs; Control of Bone Cancer Pain; and Chemotherapy of Bone Metastases.

  16. Voltammetry as a virtual potentiometric sensor in modelling of a metal-ligand system and refinement of stability constants. Part 4. An electrochemical study of NiII complexes with methylene diphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Cukrowski, Ignacy; Mogano, Daniel M; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2005-12-01

    The Ni(II)-MDP-OH system (MDP=methylene diphosphonic acid) and stability constants of complexes formed at ionic strength 0.15M at 298K were established by direct current polarography (DCP) and glass electrode potentiometry (GEP). The final M-L-OH model could only be arrived to by employing recent concept of virtual potentiometry (VP). VP-data were generated from non-equilibrium and dynamic DC polarographic technique. The VP and GEP data were refined simultaneously by software dedicated to potentiometric studies of metal complexes. Species distribution diagrams that were generated for different experimental conditions employed in this work assisted in making the final choice regarding the metal-ligand model. The model established contains ML, ML(2), ML(OH) and ML(OH)(2) with stability constants, as logbeta, 7.94+/-0.02, 13.75+/-0.02, 12.04 (fixed value), and 16.75+/-0.05, respectively. It has been demonstrated that virtual potential must be used in modelling operations (predictions of species formed) when a polarographic signal decreases significantly due to the formation of polarographically inactive species (or formation of inert complexes). The linear free energy relationships that included stability constant logK(1) for Ni(II)-MDP established in this work together with other available data were used to predict logK(1) values for Sm(III) and Ho(III) with MDP. The logK(1) values for Sm(III)-MDP and Ho(III)-MDP were estimated to be 9.65+/-0.10 and 9.85+/-0.10, respectively. PMID:16213588

  17. Rejection of intradermally injected syngeneic tumor cells from mice by specific elimination of tumor-associated macrophages with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate, followed by induction of CD11b(+)/CCR3(-)/Gr-1(-) cells cytotoxic against the tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Ibata, Minenori; Yu, Zhiqian; Shikama, Yosuke; Endo, Yasuo; Miyauchi, Yasunori; Nakamura, Masanori; Tashiro-Yamaji, Junko; Miura-Takeda, Sayako; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Okada, Masashi; Ueda, Koichi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2009-12-01

    Tumor cell expansion relies on nutrient supply, and oxygen limitation is central in controlling neovascularization and tumor spread. Monocytes infiltrate into tumors from the circulation along defined chemotactic gradients, differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and then accumulate in the hypoxic areas. Elevated TAM density in some regions or overall TAM numbers are correlated with increased tumor angiogenesis and a reduced host survival in the case of various types of tumors. To evaluate the role of TAMs in tumor growth, we here specifically eliminated TAMs by in vivo application of dichloromethylene diphosphonate (DMDP)-containing liposomes to mice bearing various types of tumors (e.g., B16 melanoma, KLN205 squamous cell carcinoma, and 3LL Lewis lung cancer), all of which grew in the dermis of syngeneic mouse skin. When DMDP-liposomes were injected into four spots to surround the tumor on day 0 or 5 after tumor injection and every third day thereafter, both the induction of TAMs and the tumor growth were suppressed in a dose-dependent and injection number-dependent manner; and unexpectedly, the tumor cells were rejected by 12 injections of three times-diluted DMDP-liposomes. The absence of TAMs in turn induced the invasion of inflammatory cells into or around the tumors; and the major population of effector cells cytotoxic against the target tumor cells were CD11b(+) monocytic macrophages, but not CCR3(+) eosinophils or Gr-1(+) neutrophils. These results indicate that both the absence of TAMs and invasion of CD11b(+) monocytic macrophages resulted in the tumor rejection.

  18. Adverse allergic reaction to Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Stephens, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Adverse allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are rare but have been documented in the literature. This report presents data consistent with a definite adverse reaction to the radiopharmaceutical (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP.

  19. Mixed-valent diruthenium diphosphonate with kagomé structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Li, Yi-Zhi; Zheng, Li-Min

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the first example of diruthenium phosphonate with kagomé structure, namely, [NH3(CH2)4NH3][Ru2(hedpH(0.5))2].2H2O (hedp = 1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonate). The compound contains kagomé layers that are linked by very strong hydrogen bonds into a nanoscale kagomé structure. Ferromagnetic interactions are mediated between the paramagnetic diruthenium units.

  20. Solid state coordination chemistry of the oxofluorovanadium-diphosphonate system in the presence of Cu(II)-tetrapyridylpyrazine complex cations. The crystal structures of [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4FO 8(HO 3PCH 2PO 3) 2], [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4F 6O 6(O 3PCH 2CH 2PO 3)], and [Cu 2(tpyprz){HO 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3H}][V 2F 2O 5] (tpyprz=tetra-4-pyridylpyrazine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, Wayne; Golub, Vladimir; O'Connor, Charles J.; Zubieta, Jon

    2007-09-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of V 2O 5, Cu(CH 3CO 2) 2·H 2O, tetrapyridylpyrazine (tpyprz), HF and the appropriate diphosphonic acid yielded a series of compounds of the {Cu(tpyprz)}/VOFzn-/{OP(CH)nPO} family of materials. The structure of [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4F 6O 6(HO 3PCH 2PO 3) 2] ( 1) is one-dimensional, constructed from mixed valence {V3VVFO(HOPCHPO)2} clusters linked through {Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2} 4+ rods. The two-dimensional [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4F 6O 6(O 3PCH 2CH 2PO 3)] ( 2) is constructed from {VFO(OPCHCHPO)}n4n- chains crosslinked by {Cu 2(tpyprz))(H 2O) 2} 4+ rods; mixed valence {V2VV2IVFO(OPCHCHPO)} clusters are embedded in the network. Compound 3, [Cu 2(tpyprz){HO 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3H}][V 2F 2O 5], consists of [Cu(tpyprz){HOP(CH)3POH}]n2n+ chains and isolated {V 2F 2O 5} 2- anions. Structures 1- 3 are compared to the structures of the analogous series {Cu(bisterpy)}/VOFzn-/{OP(CH)nPO}, where bisterpy is 2,2':4':4″:2″,2‴-quaterpyridine, 6',6″-di-2-pyridinyl. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities of 2 and 3 are also discussed.

  1. Radionuclide evaluation of free vascularized bone graft viability. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Rennie, W.R.J.; Daniel, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    Free vascularized bone grafting is a new technique applied to the reconstructive surgery of long bones affected by aggressive benign or malignant processes, as well as traumatic deficiencies. These bone lesions may be treated by en bloc excision and replacement with fibular segments or osteocutaneous flaps from the groin isolated on their vascular pedicle. Microvascular anastomosis of the pedicle at the recipient site is necessary. Radionuclide bone imaging is unique in the assessment of the free vascularized bone graft because postoperative graft uptake of radiopharmaceutical reflects patent anastomoses and segmental bone viability.

  2. Two novel metal–organic coordination polymers based on diphosphonate and oxalate: Synthesis, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Qing-Jun; Zheng, Yue-Qing Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2015-07-15

    Two 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonato and oxalic acid bridged coordination polymers (H{sub 2}en)[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}zdn){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) and Cd{sub 2}(H{sub 2}zdn)(ox){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O) (2) (2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid=H{sub 5}zdn; oxalic acid=H{sub 2}ox) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the infrared (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analyses (EA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compound 1 is bridged by phosphonate anions to 1D chain, and further linked by oxalate anions to 2D layer. Compound 2 is bridged by O–P–O units of H{sub 5}zdn to the layer, and then pillared by oxalate anions to generate 3D frameworks. Compound 1 shows anti-ferromagnetic behaviors analyzed with the temperature-dependent zero-field ac magnetic susceptibilities, while compound 2 exhibits an influence on the luminescent property. - Graphical abstract: Linked by oxalate, two zoledronate-based metal–organic frameworks are synthesized, which exhibits the different frameworks. Magnetism and luminescent properties have been studied. The weak antiferromagnetic coupling is conducted in 1. - Highlights: • Compound 1 and 2 are first linked by oxalate anion based on zoledronic acid. • Compound 1 generates a classic “dia Diamond” (6{sup 6}) topology. • Compound 2 exhibits a (4{sup 4}·6{sup 2})(4{sup 4}·6{sup 6}) topology. • Magnetism and luminescent properties of 1 and 2 have been studied, respectively.

  3. 76 FR 78237 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 30912 (May 27, 2011). On May 31, 2010, we... From South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732 (November 19, 1997) (Plate from South Africa). To determine... 773(a)(7)(B) of the Act. See Plate from South Africa, 62 FR at 61732- 33. \\2\\ Where NV is based...

  4. 78 FR 40099 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...; 2011- 2012; Intent to Revoke Order (in Part), 78 FR 25699 (May 2, 2012) (Preliminary Results). DATES... Preliminary Results.\\3\\ No comments were submitted. \\3\\ See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 25700. Scope of the... FR 19197 (April 28, 2009). Determination To Revoke Order, In Part The Department may revoke, in...

  5. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  6. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Resorption of bone implants. The effect of in vivo incorporation of a diphosphonate and fluoride on resorption.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, J B; Baylink, D J

    1978-02-01

    Weanling isogenously related rats were divided into one control group, one group given a fluoride supplement of 100 parts/10(6) of F- in the drinking water, and a third group given 0.5 mg per kg body weight of phosphorus as dichloromethylene diphosphanic acid (Cl2MDP). The rats were labeled with 1 muCi per g body weight of 3H proline and 40 muCi of 45Ca. Four weeks after labeling, the animals were sacrificed and one scapula was implanted subcutaneously in the back of an isogenously related rat of the same age. The other scapula was stored in a freezer pending analysis. After another 4 weeks the implants were recovered and the radioactivity of each isotope was compared with that of the initially stored scapulae. A 30-40% loss of activity was found, reflecting a considerable loss of bone. However, this loss was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) when Cl2MDP was given to the donor animals, whereas fluoride treatment did not affect the resorption.

  8. 75 FR 73042 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28, 2010). On June 11, 2010, we... From South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732 (November 19, 1997) (Plate from South Africa). To determine... 773(a)(7)(B) of the Act. See Plate from South Africa, 62 FR at 61732- 33. \\2\\ Where NV is based...

  9. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  10. 75 FR 78967 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 74 FR 10545 (March 11, 2009) (``Final... China: Notice of Decision of the Court of International Trade Not in Harmony AGENCY: Import... United States Court of International Trade (``CIT'') sustained the remand determination made by...

  11. Structural, spectral and magnetic studies of two Co(II)-N-heterocyclic diphosphonates based on multinuclear units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen; Ma, Kui-Rong; Zhang, Yu; Kan, Yu-He; Li, Rong-Qing; Hu, Hua-You

    2016-01-01

    Two examples of Co(II)-N-heterocyclic coordination polymers based on 1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (H5L = CH3C(OH)(PO3H2)2), namely 0.5(H3NCH2CH2NH3)·[Co6(Cl2)(H3L)2(H2L)(HL)(2,2‧-bipy)6] 1 and 2(NH4)·[Co3(HL)2(H2O)2(phen)2]·2(H2O) 2, have been solvothermally obtained by introducing the second ligands 2,2‧-bipyridine/1,10-phenanthroline (2,2‧-bipy/phen) and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), elemental analysis, IR, TG-DSC. The single-crystal X-ray diffractions show that compound 1 possesses a 0-D structure with hexa-nuclear cluster [Co6(O-P-O)8] built through single/double O-P-O bridges and compound 2 displays a 1-D ladder-like chain structure with magnetic topology building blocks [Co4(O-P-O)4]n. Then H-bonding and π-π stacking interactions further expand the two low-dimensional structures into three-dimensional supramolecular frameworks. Fluorescent measurements reveal that both the maximum emission peaks of 1-2 are centered at 423 nm, mainly deriving from intraligand π*-π transition state of N-heterocyclic ligand 2,2‧-bipy/phen, respectively. Magnetism data indicate that 1 exhibits antiferromagnetic behavior within hexa-nuclear Co(II) clusters, while 2 shows weak ferromagnetic interactions in 1-D topology Co(II)-chain, showing promising potential as magnetic materials.

  12. Interobserver variability in the interpretation of myocardial images with Tc-99m-labeled diphosphonate and pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, A.; Acero, A.P.; Cardenas, M.; Huerta, D.; Rodriguez, A.; de Garay, R.

    1980-01-01

    Without prior knowledge of the significant clinical data, six observers have independently evaluated a consecutive series of 250 myocardial scans made with Tc-99m-labeled phosphates: 127 with MDP and 123 with PPi. Of the 226 patients, all having acute precordial chest pain, 169 were shown to have acute myocardial infarction while 57 suffered acute distress from other causes. The six observers, varying in their experience with nuclear medicine, compared the intensity of uptake in the heart with that in bone, and rated their impression of a positive image by a six-category scale - that is, one with five criterion levels. Results were expressed as receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, from which the optimal individual criterion level for each observer was determined. We found very high interobserver variability in the perception of the shades of myocardial concentration, although they were based on strict and apparently objective criteria. This variability has a direct influence on the overall performance of each observer. In every instance, PPi was demonstrated to be a better tracer than MDP for myocardial imaging. The bias of the experience, visual perception, and psychology of the observer at the time of the reading of the images seems to be significant, as is the presence of uncorrected visual defects. These results justify the setting of special programs to evaluateperiodically the performance of every physician who interprets studies, to establish his optimal individual criterion level instead of using a fixed criterion level to decide whether an image is positive.

  13. Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, L.L.; Brittin, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents demonstrate functional asplenia. In the context of fever, left upper quadrant pain, and splenomegaly, the pattern of calcification in the patient's spleen as revealed in ultrasound and CT studies suggested possible abscess and led to unnecessary splenectomy. The nuclear medicine studies did not support this diagnosis. Nuclear medicine physicians should not be misled by splenic findings of sickle cell thalassemia (and possibly of other heterozygous sickle cell disorders) that differ from those of the more familiar homozygous sickle cell anemia.

  14. Hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Features of Tumoral Calcinosis in Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Asokumar, Premkumar; Malaikkal, Anjali; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is an uncommon ectopic calcification syndrome. TC is a benign condition characterized by the presence of large calcific soft tissue deposits occurring predominantly in a periarticular location. It generally occurs as a complication of renal dialysis or trauma, and is rarely seen in familial and sporadic cases. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method for diagnosing TC. We report a case of year old female with. She underwent bone scintigraphy to see the sites of involvement, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in soft tissue in bilateral thigh and gluteal region. Hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the pelvis and thigh localized tracer uptake to the calcification in the gluteal and thigh region. PMID:26097427

  15. Hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Features of Tumoral Calcinosis in Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Asokumar, Premkumar; Malaikkal, Anjali; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is an uncommon ectopic calcification syndrome. TC is a benign condition characterized by the presence of large calcific soft tissue deposits occurring predominantly in a periarticular location. It generally occurs as a complication of renal dialysis or trauma, and is rarely seen in familial and sporadic cases. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method for diagnosing TC. We report a case of year old female with. She underwent bone scintigraphy to see the sites of involvement, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in soft tissue in bilateral thigh and gluteal region. Hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the pelvis and thigh localized tracer uptake to the calcification in the gluteal and thigh region.

  16. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  17. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Madhavan, Devdas; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma.

  18. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Madhavan, Devdas; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma. PMID:24379534

  19. Isolation and characterization of TgVP1, a type I vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase from Toxoplasma gondii. The dynamics of its subcellular localization and the cellular effects of a diphosphonate inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Yolanda M; Shaw, Michael; Nishi, Manami; Striepen, Boris; Liwinski, Helene A; Roos, David S; Rea, Philip A

    2003-01-10

    Here we report the isolation and characterization of a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase), TgVP1, from an apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii, a parasitic protist that is particularly amenable to molecular and genetic manipulation. The 816-amino acid TgVP1 polypeptide is 50% sequence-identical (65% similar) to the prototypical type I V-PPase from Arabidopsis thaliana, AVP1, and contains all the sequence motifs characteristic of this pump category. Unlike AVP1 and other known type I enzymes, however, TgVP1 contains a 74-residue N-terminal extension encompassing a 42-residue N-terminal signal peptide sequence, sufficient for targeting proteins to the secretory pathway of T. gondii. Providing that the coding sequence for the entire N-terminal extension is omitted from the plasmid, transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with plasmid-borne TgVP1 yields a stable and functional translation product that is competent in aminomethylenediphosphonate (AMDP)-inhibitable K(+)-activated pyrophosphate (PP(i)) hydrolysis and PP(i)-energized H(+) translocation. Immunofluorescence microscopy of both free and intracellular T. gondii tachyzoites using purified universal V-PPase polyclonal antibodies reveals a punctate apical distribution for the enzyme. Equivalent studies of the tachyzoites during host cell invasion, by contrast, disclose a transverse radial distribution in which the V-PPase is associated with a collar-like structure that migrates along the length of the parasite in synchrony with and in close apposition to the penetration furrow. Although treatment of T. gondii with AMDP concentrations as high as 100 microm had no discernible effect on the efficiency of host cell invasion and integration, concentrations commensurate with the I(50) for the inhibition of TgVP1 activity in vitro (0.9 microm) do inhibit cell division and elicit nuclear enlargement concomitant with the inflation and eventual disintegration of acidocalcisome-like vesicular structures. A dynamic association of TgVP1 with the host cell invasion apparatus is invoked, one in which the effects of inhibitory V-PPase substrate analogs are exerted after rather than during host cell invasion.

  20. Syntheses, structure and magnetic properties of pillared layered diphosphonates: M2(O 3PC 6H 4PO 3)(H 2O) 2 ( M=Co II, Ni II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Gao, Song; Zheng, Li-Min

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the hydrothermal syntheses of two isostructural metal bisphosphonates: M2(O 3PC 6H 4PO 3)(H 2O) 2 [ M=Co II ( 1), Ni II ( 2)]. Single-crystal structure determination of compound 1 revealed a pillared layered structure in which the phenyl groups connect the inorganic layers of cobalt phosphonate. Crystal data for 1: orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a=19.306(5), b=4.8293(12), c=5.6390(14) Å, V=525.7(2) Å 3, Z=2. Magnetic susceptibility data indicate that antiferromagnetic interactions are mediated in both cases.

  1. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, Ankur; Kaminski, Michael D.; Nunez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  2. Diphonix: A new ion exchange resin for the treatment of industrial waste streams, contaminated groundwaters, and mixed-wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.

    1994-03-01

    The resin contains geminally substituted diphosphonic acid functional groups; it is synthesized by copolymerization of a tetralkylvinylidene diphosphonate with styrene, divinylbenzene, and acrylonitrile, followed by deesterifaction by refluxing with conc. HCl (the nitrile group is hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid). The diphosphonic acid functional dominates the resin behavior toward metal ions; it has strong affinity for actinides in all oxidation states, even in 10 M HNO{sub 3} and high salt concentrations. (Efficient agents for stripping actinides from Diphonix all have a strong complexing agent containing the gem-diphosphonic acid functionality.) Diphonix can also remove heavy, toxi metals in high salt concentrations. 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  4. Relationship of inorganic pyrophosphatase and para-nitrophenylphosphatase activities of alkaline phosphatase in the microsomal fraction of isolated odontoblasts.

    PubMed

    Granström, G

    1982-08-01

    Some properties of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPiase EC 3.6.1.1.) and para-nitrophenylphosphatase (p-NPPase EC 3.1.3.1) in the microsomal fraction of odontoblasts were investigated. The ratio of Mg2+:p-NPP and Mg2+:PPi for optimal enzyme activities was 1:1. A mutual substrate competition for PPiase and p-NPPase was described. In the presence of 0.1 mM EDTA, Mg2+ alone was not able to reactivate p-NPPase or PPiase. Instead, Zn2+ and Co2+ reactivated the PPiase, indicating they might act as cofactors for the enzyme. Mg2+ increased the PPiase activity, probably because Mg PP2-i was the true substrate for the enzyme. The diphosphonates ethane-1-hydroxy 1,1 diphosphonate (EHDP), methane diphosphonate (MDP) and dichloromethane diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) inhibited the PPiase activity.

  5. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  6. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  7. Method for the chromatographic separation of cations from aqueous samples

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.

    1998-12-22

    An extraction chromatographic material is described for extracting metal cations from a liquid stream. The extraction chromatographic material is prepared by adsorbing a diesterified methane-diphosphonic acid on an inert particulate support. 7 figs.

  8. 75 FR 16426 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003), the Department has clarified its practice with... Proceedings France: Sorbitol, A-427-001 4/1/09-3/31/10 India: 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid...

  9. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  10. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  11. Positive gallium-67 citrate uptake in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Creagh, M.F.; Nunan, T.O.

    1988-04-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone condition with characteristic radiologic features. It is well known that there is increased uptake of Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) and methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in fibrous dysplasia. There are no reports of uptake of Ga-67 citrate by fibrous dysplasia. A case is reported in which positive Ga-67 uptake was seen in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

  12. Recent advances in the chemistry and applications of the Diphonix resins

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gula, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Diphonix class of ion exchange resins is characterized by the presence of geminally substituted diphosphonic acid groups chemically bonded to a polymer matrix. Regular Diphonix contains gem-diphosphonic groups chemically bonded to a sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene matrix. Modification of the properties of Regular Diphonix are achieved by the introduction of additional functional groups such as anion exchange groups in Diphonix-A and phenolic groups in Diphonix-CS. Diphosil has a silica matrix in which the gem-diphosphonic groups are chemically bonded to an organic polymer graft that surrounds the silica particles. Applications of the Diphonix resins range from treatment of a variety of radioactive waste to iron control in hydrometallurgy and semiconductor manufacture.

  13. Recovery of Uranium from Seawater: Preparation and Development of Polymer-Supported Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Spiro, Alexandratos

    2013-12-01

    A new series of polymer-supported extractants is proposed for the removal and recovery of uranium from seawater. The objective is to produce polymers with improved stability, loading capacity, and sorption kinetics compared to what is found with amidoximes. The target ligands are diphosphonates and aminomethyldiphosphonates. Small molecule analogues, especially of aminomethyldiphos-phonates, have exceptionally high stability constants for the uranyl ion. The polymeric diphosphonates will have high affinities due to their ability to form six-membered rings with the uranyl ion while the aminomethyldiphosphonates may have yet higher affinities due to possible tridentate coordination and their greater acidity. A representative set of the polymers to be prepared are indicated.

  14. Bone single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography disclosing chronic uterine perforation with intrauterine device migration into the anterior wall of the bladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Extraosseous uptake of 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is a common situation of variable clinical relevance. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our department for breast cancer staging. A 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scan was performed and showed focal pelvic hyperfixation that disclosed intrauterine device migration into the anterior wall of the bladder on single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography. Conclusion This observation confirms the major role of single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography in achieving an exact diagnosis. PMID:23759143

  15. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

  16. Two-phase whole-body skeletal scintigraphy in children--revisiting the usefulness of the early blood pool phase.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Neha; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Majd, Massoud

    2013-10-01

    The usefulness of whole-body blood pool imaging as part of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy in detection of marrow infiltrative processes and unexpected soft-tissue and visceral abnormalities is demonstrated via illustrative case examples. Technical aspects of this simple and fast scanning technique are also highlighted.

  17. Radionuclide bone scanning in the diagnosis and management of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Harris, S A; Quayle, A A; Testa, H J

    1984-06-01

    Four patients with maxillo-mandibular facial dysharmony and four controls were evaluated by 99Tcm-MDP (methyl diphosphonate) scintiscanning. The scintiscans in all patients with dysharmony showed positive uptake of the tracer indicating the increased degree of activity in the condylar region of the mandible. The significance of this is discussed. PMID:6241664

  18. Synthesis and characterization of DI-[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propylene] alkylenediphosphonic acids.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith-Dzielawa, J. A.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; McAlister, D. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Herlinger, A. W.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ. of Chicago

    2000-01-01

    A homologous series of alkylenediphosphonic acids was successfully esterified with 3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propanol to the symmetrically-substituted diesters. The procedure, which has general applicability for incorporating silicon heteroatoms into diphosphonic acids, utilizes the esterification reagent dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide (DCC) to activate the acid. The aggregation properties of the di-[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propylene] alkylenediphosphonic acids were measured in toluene and 1-decanol.

  19. Quantitative scintigraphy in diagnosis and management of plantar fasciitis (Calcaneal periostitis): concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, J.R.; Black, C.M.; Chapman, A.H.; Statham, J.; Hughes, G.R.V.; Lavender, J.P.

    1980-07-01

    We have found that Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate imaging of the heel is of diagnostic value in the painful heel syndrome, permitting positive identification of the site of inflammation in cases where radiography is unhelpful. With this technique, tracer uptake in the heel is susceptible to quantification, allowing a serial and objective assessment of response to therapy.

  20. The Bisphosphonate Story: From Detergents to Bone Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2004-01-01

    Marion D. Francis and Rosemary L. Centner tell the story of a special group of compounds, developments at their home company, Procter and Gamble, and contributions by researchers in Europe and the U.S., in "The Development of Diphosphonates as Significant Health Care Products."

  1. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  2. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III, Sherrod L.; Nichols, Sheldon T.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded diphosphonic acid resin with concentrated oxidizing acid in a closed vessel, and irradiating this mixture with microwave radiation. This efficiently increases the temperature of the mixture to a level suitable for digestion of the resin without the use of dehydrating acids that can damage downstream analytical resins. In order to ensure more complete digestion, the irradiated mixture can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidant, and reirradiated with microwave radiation.

  3. A comparison of bone imaging with Tc-99m DPD and Tc-99m MDP: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Zorn-Bopp, E.; Reuschel, W.; Muenzing, W.; Moser, E.A.; Seiderer, M.

    1982-03-01

    Bone to soft tissue (ST) ratios for both high-uptake bone (sacrum) and low-uptake bone (femoral diaphysis) were obtained with a derivative of phosphonic acid, TC-99m 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD), in 26 normal subjects and 177 patients with malignant disease but without metastases. Tests were run 2 hr after tracer injection. Similar ratios were obtained with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in 220 normal subjects and 451 patients. With MDP, the influence of incubation time (5-10 min in 416 cases, 45 min in 185 cases) on these ratios was determined. DPD was superior to MDP for both ratios. With MDP, prolonged incubation time yielded significantly enhanced ratios; however, the ratios for the DPD were still higher. With either agent and preparation, sacrum-to-ST ratios decreased with increasing subject age, and in patients with malignant disease the ratios tended to be higher than those obtained from normals.

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Ligands for Extracting Actinide Metal Ions from Porous Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, Mark L.; Barrans Jr., Richard E.; Herlinger, Albert; Brennecke, Joan F.

    1999-06-01

    The focus of the effort during the project period from 9/16/98 to 6/15/99 has been on the synthesis, aggregation, and coordination chemistry of silyl-containing diphosphonic acids that potentially could be useful as solvent extraction reagents in supercritical CO2. A homologous series of alkylenediphosphonic acids was esterified with 3-(trimethylsilyl)-1- propanol to the symmetrically-substituted diesters. The silicon-containing alcohol 3- (trimethylsilyl)-1-propanol was chosen for esterification of the diphosphonic acids because it contains both a silyl group and a trimethylene linker. Separating the trimethylsilyl from the organo-functional group by three carbon atoms is optimal for achieving chemical stability and synthetic accessibility. The synthesis of these compounds utilizes methodology that relies on dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as the esterification reagent to activate the acid.

  5. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described.

  6. Bone and muscle atrophy with suspension of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Marsh, C.; Evans, H.; Johnson, P.; Schneider, V.; Jhingran, S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to identify a suitable model for the study of muscle atrophy due to suspension in space, a modified version of the Morey tail suspension model was used to measure the atrophic responses of rat bone and muscle to 14-30 days of unloading of the hindlimbs. The progress of atrophy was measured by increases in methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake. It is found that bone uptake of methylene diphosphonate followed a phasic pattern similar to changes in the bone formation rate of immobilized dogs and cats. Increased MDP uptake after a period of 60 days indicated an accelerated bone metabolism. Maximum muscle atrophy in the suspended rats was distinctly different from immobilization atrophy. On the basis of the experimental results, it is concluded that the tail suspension model is an adequate simulation of bone atrophy due to suspension.

  7. Methods of IR spectroscopy in monitoring of chemotherapy of oncological pathologies using palladium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhn'o, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, N. V.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.

    2014-11-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is used to study mammary-gland tissues of mice with a sarcoma tumor (strain 180). Spectral features that are typical of malignant tumors are revealed in the FTIR spectra in the sarcoma-tumor tissues. Tumor tissues are studied after treatment using coordination compounds based on palladium complexes with 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid and zoledronic acid. A therapeutic effect is not revealed after treatment using palladium complex with 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid. The suppression of tumor growth amounts to 59% when palladium complexes with zoledronic acid are used. Suppression of tumor growth is accompanied by variations in spectral characteristics. With respect to diagnostic features, the FTIR spectra of tumor tissues after treatment with the palladium complexes with zoledronic acid are similar to the FTIR spectra of tissues that are free of malignant tumors. Specific spectroscopic characteristics that make it possible to control the chemotherapy of oncological pathologies are determined.

  8. Insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia misdiagnosed as cellulitis in three patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Straaton, K.V.; Lopez-Mendez, A.; Alarcon, G.S. )

    1991-07-01

    We describe 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with diffuse pain, swelling, and erythema of the distal aspect of the lower extremity, suggestive of either cellulitis or thrombophlebitis, but were found to have insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia. The value of technetium-99m diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in the early recognition of these fractures and a possible explanation for the associated inflammatory symptoms are discussed.

  9. [Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu

    2013-03-01

    (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

  10. The bone scan.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Arnold I; Koshy, June; Morey, Jose; Lin, Cheryl; DiPoce, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Bone imaging continues to be the second greatest-volume nuclear imaging procedure, offering the advantage of total body examination, low cost, and high sensitivity. Its power rests in the physiological uptake and pathophysiologic behavior of 99m technetium (99m-Tc) diphosphonates. The diagnostic utility, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 99m-Tc bone imaging for benign conditions and tumors was established when only planar imaging was available. Currently, nearly all bone scans are performed as a planar study (whole-body, 3-phase, or regional), with the radiologist often adding single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Here we review many current indications for planar bone imaging, highlighting indications in which the planar data are often diagnostically sufficient, although diagnosis may be enhanced by SPECT. (18)F sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) is also re-emerging as a bone agent, and had been considered interchangeable with 99m-Tc diphosphonates in the past. In addition to SPECT, new imaging modalities, including (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT, CT, magnetic resonance, and SPECT/CT, have been developed and can aid in evaluating benign and malignant bone disease. Because (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose is taken up by tumor cells and Tc diphosphonates are taken up in osteoblastic activity or osteoblastic healing reaction, both modalities are complementary. CT and magnetic resonance may supplement, but do not replace, bone imaging, which often detects pathology before anatomic changes are appreciated. We also stress the importance of dose reduction by reducing the dose of 99m-Tc diphosphonates and avoiding unnecessary CT acquisitions. In addition, we describe an approach to image interpretation that emphasizes communication with referring colleagues and correlation with appropriate history to significantly improve our impact on patient care.

  11. Identification of hydroxyapatite crystals in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P B; McCarty, D J

    1979-04-01

    A semiquantitative technique employing (14C) ethane-1-hydroxy 1, -1-diphosphonate (EHDP) binding has been used to detect crystals, presumably hydroxyapatite, in human synovial fluid samples which were handled to prevent the formation of artifactual mineral phase. Binding material was found in 29% of non-inflammatory and in none of inflammatory joint fluids. Nuclide binding material was strongly correlated with the presence of CPPD crystals and with radiographic evidence of cartilaginous degeneration. PMID:106859

  12. Increased skeletal:renal uptake ratio. [Bone-seekers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, T.H.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with increased skeletal:renal uptake ratios of /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate were studied. Increased uptake was central in metastatic prostate carcinoma, peripheral in hematologic disorders, and heterogeneous in Paget disease and fibrous dysplasia. There was no discernible redistribution of skeletal uptake in patients with renal failure. Absence of both renal and bladder activity was not observed in patients with normal renal function. An increased ratio was always abnormal and frequently indicated diffuse bone disease.

  13. Radiophosphate visualization of the foreign body reaction to wear debris from total knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosenthall, L

    1987-05-01

    Three patients with total knee arthroplasties, in which the tibial and patellar articulating surfaces consisted of a polyethylene-carbon fiber composite, demonstrated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) deposition in the intraarticular space, whereas, the gallium-67 citrate images were normal. This was shown to be due to a synovial giant cell foreign body reaction to particulate carbon fiber debris in one patient who required surgical revision of the prosthesis.

  14. Fibrodysplasia ossificance progressiva: A familial presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Shwetal Uday; Sahoo, Sarita; Manglunia, Ashmi; Tilve, Gundu Hari

    2015-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare disorder progressing to ossification of tissues causing disability. We report a case of father and daughter in a family presenting with this condition. The diagnosis was made with X-rays. However, Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate bone scan showed extensive extra-osseous localization of tracer suggesting ossification of multiple ligaments, tendons, muscles and connective tissue. PMID:26170583

  15. /sup 99m/Tc-DPD uptake in juvenile hemarthrosis. Scintimetry and autoradiography of the knee in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Noer, I.; Christensen, S.B.; Holm, I.E.; Buenger, C.

    1989-03-01

    The pathogenesis of subchondral bone lesions and growth plate affection in hemophilic arthropathy was studied in puppies by means of repeated regional /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry and contact autoradiography. Unilateral hemarthrosis of the knee was induced by biweekly intraarticular injections of autologous blood for 12 weeks. Hemarthrosis caused an early (2 to 4 weeks) decrease in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate in the juxtaarticular growth plates (ratio 0.7) and a delayed (8 to 10 weeks) increase in epiphyseal uptake (ratio 1.5). In a recovery phase after hemarthrosis, growth plate uptake returned to normal, while the epiphyseal uptake remained elevated for 8 to 10 weeks. By contact autoradiography, the growth plate uptake was localized to the calcification layer at the metaphyseal aspect of the growth plates, while the epiphyseal uptake mainly was seen in the thin subchondral and subsynovial bone layer and around osteophytes. The changes in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate following hemarthrosis for 3 months were reversible and could be ascribed to the presence of synovial inflammation.

  16. Regulatory site of inorganic pyrophosphatase. Interaction with substrate analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Baikov, A.A.; Pavlov, A.R.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-08-10

    The effect of four PP/sub 1/ analogs with the structure PXP (X = N, C), phosphate, and the complex Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 4/PP/sub 1/ on the activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast was studied over a wide range of substrate (Mg-PP/sub 1/) concentrations (lower limit 0.5 ..mu..M). The enzyme activity decreased in the presence of imidodiphosphate, hydroxymethane diphosphonate (PC(OH)P), and P/sub 1/, and a double reciprocal plot of the rate of hydrolysis of Mg-PP/sub 1/ versus its concentration became linear. Small amounts of methane diphosphonate (PCP), ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (0.1-1..mu..M), and Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 4/PP/sub 1/ (10 ..mu..M) activated the enzyme almost 2-fold by a competitive mechanism. The activation was due to an increase in the affinity of the protein for the activating Mg/sup 2 +/ ion. Ultrafiltration showed that the pyrophosphatase molecule has 2.1 and 3.1 binding sites for PCP and PC(OHP)P, respectively. These results confirm the hypothesis that the enzyme contains a regulatory site whose occupation by PP/sub 1/, P/sub 1/, and substrate analogs increases the affinity of the protein for the activating metal.

  17. Supercritical carbon dioxide-soluble ligands for extracting actinide metal ions from porous solids (EMSP Project Number 64965)

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Barrans, Jr., R. E.; Herlinger, A. W.; Brennecke, J. F.

    2000-04-24

    The objective of this project is to develop novel, substituted diphosphonic acid ligands that can be used for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCDE) of actinide ions from solid wastes. Specifically, selected diphosphonic acids, which are known to form extremely stable complexes with actinides in aqueous and organic solution, are to be rendered carbon dioxide-soluble by the introduction of appropriate alkyl- or silicon-containing substituents. The metal complexation chemistry of these new ligands in SC-CO{sub 2} will then be investigated and techniques for their use in actinide extraction from porous solids developed. This report summarizes the work performed during the first 1.3 years of a 3-year program. Because the planned studies of metal complexation and the development of techniques for actinide removal from solids are dependent on the availability of suitable ligands, efforts to date have focused primarily on the synthesis of selected alkyl- or silicon-containing diphosphonic acids. The authors' principal targets have been derivatives in which the silicon-containing groups either serve as the ester function or are attached to the anchor carbon of the diphosphonic acid. Because methylenediphosphonic acid (MDPA) is commercially available and because its esterification with simple alcohols to yield symmetrical diesters is well-established, their initial studies have focused on this ligand and its reactions with silyl alcohols. Success has been achieved in the reaction of MDPA and its ethylene, propylene, and butylene analogs with 3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propanol. Using a procedure similar to that previously employed for the synthesis of C-8 dialkylmethylenediphosphonic acids, this series of alkylenediphosphonic acids has been esterified in good yield (ca. 60%) to the symmetrically-substituted diesters. Vapor phase osmometric and cryoscopic studies of these compounds in toluene and 1-decanol, respectively, indicate that their aggregation properties closely

  18. Chemistry of technetium. Elaboration of the mechanism of action of skeletal imaging agents and development of technetium Schiff base complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jurisson, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Tc-99m skeletal imaging agents contain diphosphonate ligands coordinated to a technetium center. To investigate the chemistry of coordinated diphosphonates, complexes of the type ((en)/sub 2/Co(O/sub 2/P(OH)C(R)(R')P(OH)O/sub 2/)/sup n+/ have been synthesized and characterized. The affinities of these species for calcium ion in solution have been determined and found to be dependent on the substituents, R and R', of the diphosphonate moiety. The single crystal X-ray structural determination of ((en)/sub 2/Co(O/sub 2/P(OH)CH/sub 2/P(OH)O/sub 2/)ClO/sub 4/ x 2H/sub 2/O illustrates the configuration of a coordinated diphosphonate in the solid state and allows for the implication of possible binding modes of this species to the calcium ion in solution. A series of Tc(V) complexes containing tetradentate Schiff base ligands (derived from diamines and either acetylacetonates or salicylaldehyde) has been synthesized and characterized. An investigation of the reactivity of the Tc(V)-Schiff base complexes with phosphines led to the development of a series of Tc(III)-Schiff base complexes containing two coordinated phosphine ligands, i.e., tr-(Tc(Schiff base)(PRR')/sub 2/)PF/sub 6/. These complexes show intriguing redox behavior in that they exhibit both reversible Tc(III)/Tc(II) and Tc(III)/Tc(IV) couples. The substituents on the Schiff base and phosphine ligands have significant effects on the redox potentials of the technetium(III) center and on the MTLCT bands observed for these complexes. Those substituents which make the Schiff base and phosphine ligands better sigma donors make the Tc(III) more difficult to reduce to Tc(II) and easier to oxidize to Tc(IV). The relatonship between the energy of the MTLCT band and the E/sup 0/ values for these complexes is linear with slopes to unity, suggesting that the ligands contribute equally to these properties.

  19. Role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Arora, Arundeep; Singhal, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; Peepre, Karan

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a progressive disease of unknown etiology. The 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scan is useful in finding the sites of involvement in the skeleton and is helpful in excluding other causes of bony pain. Also a scintigraphic pattern consistent with ECD should alert the physician to evaluate the patient for visceral sites of involvement using fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), as this is known to be fatal at times. PMID:25210284

  20. Osteopetrosis: radiological & radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis.

  1. Compression type stress fracture of femoral neck with equivocal X-ray features diagnosed on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT in a case of trivial hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Vitalkar, Saurabh; Manglunia, Ashmi S.; Kulkarni, Arvind; Puranik, Ameya D.

    2016-01-01

    Stress insufficiency fracture is usually diagnosed clinically and on the basis of routine X-ray imaging findings. However, the absence of any known predisposing factors and negative or occult radiographic findings pose diagnostic challenges. We report the case of an elderly male patient who presented with a chief complaint of trivial left hip pain and with equivocal radiographic findings. Triphasic 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography helped in arriving at the diagnosis of stress insufficiency fracture involving femoral neck. PMID:27385898

  2. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  3. Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmann disease): scintigraphic-radiographic-clinical correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B.; Murphy, W.A.; Whyte, M.P.

    1981-07-01

    Four patients (2 males, 2 females; ages 15-47 yrs.) with variable clinical, radiographic, and scintigraphic manifestations of progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (PDD) or Engelmann disease were studied with 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone imaging and radiographic skeletal surveys. Comparison of the results of the two imaging procedures showed that some affected bones were scintigraphically normal but radiographically abnormal and vice versa. These findings suggest that the lesions of PDD may mature, causing a significant decrease in disease activity, and that abnormally increased radiopharmaceutical accumulation during bone scintigraphy appears to be a sensitive indicator of disease activity.

  4. Prevention of space flight induced soft tissue calcification and disuse osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian; Huntoon, Carolyn L.

    1990-01-01

    Medical complications such as renal stone formation, increased uric acid output, and disuse osteoporosis are discussed. A series of experiments was conducted in order to study and eventually reduce these flight hazards. Attempts to prevent the negative calcium balance and loss of calcaneal density during prolonged bed rest had only a limited success. Of the five biochemical regiments tested, only diphosphonate applied in a high dose had a positive effect in elliminating mineral losses. It is found that clodronate can prevent disuse osteoporosis and that fluoride can enhance bone formation. It is concluded that exercises, combined with pharmaceutical agents, are beneficial during long-duration space missions.

  5. Uptake of actinides and other ions by Diphosil, a new silica-based chelating ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; D`Arcy, K.A.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Trochimczuk

    1996-06-01

    After adsorption of actinides on a phosphonic acid resin, it may be desirable to leave the actinides on the resin. It may be preferable that the polymeric resin matrix be replaced by an inorganic material, in order to prevent formation of radiolytic gases from the organic polymer. A new version of the Diphonix resin has been prepared, where the chelating diphosphonic acid groups are grafted to a silica support. This material is called Diphosil, for Diphonix on silica. This paper reports some results on equilibrium and kinetics of uptake of a number of actinide species and other metal ions of nuclear, environmental, or hydrometallurgical interest by Diphosil.

  6. Abnormal scintigraphic evolution in AA hepatic amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lomena, F.; Rosello, R.; Pons, F.; Grau, M.; Garcia, A.; Catafau, A.; Setoain, J.

    1988-03-01

    A patient with AA amyloidosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis showed intense liver uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone imaging. The biopsy showed hepatic amyloid deposition. A repeat bone scan with Tc-99m MDP 1 year later was negative, although the clinical signs and liver function tests of the patient had not changed. A mechanism might exist, other than the affinity of amyloid to calcium, which would explain the extraosseous uptake of pyrophosphates and diphosphonates in organs and soft tissues affected by systemic amyloidosis.

  7. Heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans) and lower-extremity swelling mimicking deep-venous disease

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Rudd, T.G.; Nelp, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    A quadriplegic patient with a swollen leg was suspected of having deep-venous thrombosis, and was studied with radionuclide venography (RNV) and contrast venography. Focal narrowing of the femoral vein, seen on RNV, was due to extrinsic compression. Although soft-tissue radiographs were normal, Tc-99m diphosphonate imaging established the diagnosis of early heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans), which was responsible for the venous compression. Clinically this inflammatory process can mimic deep-venous thrombosis, and should be considered in evaluating patients at risk for both heterotopic bone formation and deep-venous thrombosis.

  8. Properties of inorganic pyrophosphatase of pig scapula cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H

    1975-01-01

    The properties of a highly purified inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase; EC 3.6.1.1) from pig scapula cartilage were studied. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 66 000 and a pH optimum of 7-8. It was markedly activated by magnesium, but not, or only to a much smaller degree, by other metal ions. PP1 was the only substrate found and had a Km value of 11 muM. The enzyme was not inhibited by phosphate and other inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase such as CN- minus, amino acids and theophylline; it was slightly inhibited by tartrate, formaldehyde and ammonium molybdate and strongly inhibited by F- minus, Ca2+ and other metal ions. The properties of the enzyme in the presence of concentrations of PP1 present in plasma (3.5 muM) were similar to those found at higher (2 mM) concentrations of PP1. The diphosphonates ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and dichloromethylenediphosphonate inhibited the enzyme in the presence of low PP1 concentrations. The characteristics of this enzyme are therefore similar to pyrophosphatases from other sources, such as from yeast and erythrocytes, and do not support a specific role of this enzyme in the calcification process. PMID:239696

  9. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  10. Diphonix{trademark} Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gula, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The recently developed Diphonix{trademark} resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions.

  11. Effect of the high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Shim, S.S.; Leung, G.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was done to study the effects of high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip and to further our knowledge of its physiologic basis. We have used established methods of study, including bone scans, microangiography, isotope clearance and perosseous venography, and based upon the results of these studies, we have reached certain conclusions. First, high femoral osteotomy increases the blood flow and vascularity in the hip joint, the femoral head and neck and the great trochanter. Second, bone scanning techniques using /sup 99m/Tc labeled diphosphonate have shown increased uptake in the femoral head and neck after high femoral osteotomy. The localization was done using a Digital Gamma III computer, and the activity on the osteotomy side at two weeks was 3.5 times as great as on the control side. By 16 weeks postoperatively, there was still two times as much activity on the osteotomy side. Third, microangiography showed increased vascularity both at the osteotomy site and in the femoral head and neck and the greater trochanter on that side. Such an increase in vascularity first became evident two weeks after osteotomy and persisted during the four month period studied. Fourth, the results of the /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate clearance study showed a 25 per cent increase in femoral head blood flow on the operative side. Fifth, perosseous venography of the femoral head and neck showed a marked increase in venous drainage through the osteotomy site in the immediate postosteotomy stage.

  12. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  13. Reactivity of a New Zirconium Phosphonate Phase, Zr 2(O 3P-CH 2CH 2-bipyridinium-CH 2CH 2-PO 3) X6·2H 2O, Toward Organic and Inorganic Monophosphonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Lori A.; Burgmeyer, Scott J.

    1999-11-01

    We report that zirconium viologen diphosphonate, (Zr2(O3P-CH2CH2-bipyridinium-CH2CH2-PO3)X6·2H2O), where X=halide ion, ZrVP, will react with a variety of phosphonates (H2O3P-R, where R=OH, H, CH3, C6H5) under mild conditions, producing a disordered porous phase. This is in sharp contrast to the observed reactivity of the more common zirconium phosphonate phases: the α-phase group (IVB) layered phosphonates Zr(O3PR)2 (whose structures are based upon α-(Zr(O3POH)2·H2O), α-ZrP) are resistant to reaction with monophosphonates while γ-Zr(O4P)(O2P(OH)2)·2H2O, γ-ZrP, undergoes topotactic ligand exchange with mono- and di-phosphonates to form ordered porous materials. We follow the reaction by X-ray powder diffraction and IR and UV spectroscopies and investigate the porous nature of the resulting solids through ion-exchange and N2 adsorption experiments.

  14. Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin: Production-scale applications in radioactive waste treatment and iron control in copper electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Dreisinger, D.B.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-12-31

    Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin has been phased through synthetic scale-up, pilot testing, and production installation in radioactive waste treatment and hydrometallurgical applications. The geminal diphosphonic acid groups of Diphonix resin allow selective retention by cation-exchange and/or chelation. The resin is effective at low pH where sulfonic and carboxylic acid resins are ineffective. Diphonix resin has been used in nuclear facilities to reduce actinide concentrations in radioactive waste effluents and to reduce waste volumes. The high retention of iron(III) by Diphonix resin in acidic sulfate media has led to an installation capable of removing one ton of iron per day from a copper electrowinning stream. This iron control process diminishes cobalt losses in the electrowinning circuit and significantly reduces operating costs. The authors will discuss the development of these Diphonix resin applications.

  15. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  16. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic manifestations of hyperparathyroidism in a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Sehgal, Aditi Khurana; Jaiman, Ashish; Sethi, Ravinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the first differential diagnosis when a patient presents with asymptomatic hypercalcemia. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can be as grave as skeletal, cardiovascular, and neuropsychological changes. Skeletal manifestations are relatively common, and patient may present with generalized or focal bone pains, fragility fractures, subperiosteal bone resorption, and osteolytic lesions like brown tumors and salt and pepper appearance of the skull. However, focal osteosclerotic lesions of the skull are rare findings in hyperparathyroidism. Only a few cases of associated osteosclerosis are reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma with coexisting osteolytic and osteosclerotic skull lesions on Tc99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan.

  17. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  18. Bone scanning in assessing viability of vascularized skeletal tissue transplants. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, R.A.; Dief, H.; Greyson, N.D.; Kawano, H.; Gross, A.E.; Langer, F.; Halloran, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and eight bone scans using /sup 99m/Technetium methylene diphosphonate (MDP) were performed in rats undergoing vascularized and nonvascularized syngeneic and allogeneic transplants of the hind limb, and in control animals. A six-level system of grading the radionuclide uptake in the graft was used to evaluate healing or complications of the transplantation. Bone scanning was superior to other modalities in assessing viability of the graft. Bone scans were able to: (1) immediately confirm vascular patency, thus obviating angiography; (2) demonstrate differences in the rate of repair in syngeneic and allogeneic nonvascularized grafts; (3) sequentially assess vascularized allograft rejection; and (4) document long-term effects, such as bone atrophy due to disuse and early epiphyseal maturity.

  19. The use of Tc-99m MDP bone scanning in the study of vascularized bone implants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Dee, P.; Lambruschi, P.G.; Hiebert, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The extent to which the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining bone growth in the immature animal was studied by excision and reimplantation of the upper tibia in two groups of puppies. In one group the reimplant was totally devascularized, and in a second group attempts were made to preserve the nutrient vessels to the reimplant. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) was used to assess the effectiveness with which the nutrient circulation was maintained. With one exception the Tc-99m MDP scans proved to be reliable in indicating the potential for continued growth after reimplantation. It was found that the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining longitudinal bone growth in metaphyseal reimplants in immature animals. Complete devascularization results in cessation of growth. The Tc-99m MDP bone scan should prove of critical importance in the assessment of free vascularized transplants of immature bone.

  20. Pathological clavicular fracture as first presentation of renal cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yan; Wang, Jin; Li, Huan; Guo, Peng; Xu, Jian-Fa; Feng, He-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of all cancer cases. RCCs usually metastasize to the lungs, bones, liver, or brain. Only <1% of patients with bone metastases manifested clavicular RCC metastases. Thus, clavicular metastasis as the initial presentation of RCC is extremely rare. We report a patient with RCC metastasis to the left clavicle, which was first presented with pain caused by a pathological fracture. Magnetic resonance image revealed a renal tumor, and technetium-99m–methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy showed multiple osseous metastases. The patient eventually underwent surgery to remove the lateral end of the left clavicle and right kidney. Histopathology revealed renal tumor and clear cell carcinoma in the clavicle. Finally, we review 17 cases of clavicular metastases originating from different malignancies. PMID:26779378

  1. Pathological clavicular fracture as first presentation of renal cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Wang, Jin; Li, Huan; Guo, Peng; Xu, Jian-Fa; Feng, He-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of all cancer cases. RCCs usually metastasize to the lungs, bones, liver, or brain. Only <1% of patients with bone metastases manifested clavicular RCC metastases. Thus, clavicular metastasis as the initial presentation of RCC is extremely rare. We report a patient with RCC metastasis to the left clavicle, which was first presented with pain caused by a pathological fracture. Magnetic resonance image revealed a renal tumor, and technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy showed multiple osseous metastases. The patient eventually underwent surgery to remove the lateral end of the left clavicle and right kidney. Histopathology revealed renal tumor and clear cell carcinoma in the clavicle. Finally, we review 17 cases of clavicular metastases originating from different malignancies.

  2. A study of stress-free living bone and its application to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Spira, M.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of animals and human subjects in weightless space flight (Skylab and COSMOS) document altered bone metabolism. Bone metabolism is affected by a number of local and systemic factors. The calcification and growth of transplanted bone is independent of local muscle, nervous, and mechanical forces; therefore, transplanted bone would provide data on the role of local vs. systematic factors. Bone metabolism in living transplanted bone, devoid of stress, was investigated as a possible tool for the investigation of countermeasures against disuse bone loss. An animal model using Sprague-Dawley rats was developed for transplantation of femur bone tissue on a nutrient vascular pedicel. The long term course of these implants was assessed through the measure of regional and total bone mineral, blood flow, and methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake. Clomid, an estrogen agonist/antagonist, was shown to protect bone from disuse loss of minerals by retarding trabecular and cortical resorption.

  3. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  4. An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R. |; Horwitz, E.P.; Hodgson, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R. Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA ); Horwitz, E.P. ); Hodgson, K.M. )

    1991-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. 99mTc direct labeling of anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies: quality control and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    De Castiglia, S G; Duran, A; Fiszman, G; Horenstein, A L

    1995-04-01

    The anti-carcinoembryonic B2C114 monoclonal antibody was radiolabeled with 99mTc by a direct method and quality control tested in vitro by instant thin layer chromatography, gel column scanning and cellulose acetate electrophoresis and assessed in vivo for radioimmunodetection on a murine spontaneous mammary carcinoma. The optimal results of percent 99mTc bound to protein were obtained at a dithiothreitol:antibody molar ratio ranging from 800:1 to 1000:1 and at a methylene diphosphonate:stannous fluoride weight ratio of 4.3:1. Although cysteine removed up to 18% of the label during the first 4 h, the stability of the tracer appeared to be excellent in human serum at 37 degrees C and when challenged with DTPA. 99mTc-labeled B2C114 demonstrated good and specific in vivo tumor targeting.

  7. A mechanism for enhancing ionic accessibility into selective ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.; Shelley, C.A.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.

    1998-07-01

    A bifunctional monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin with high capacity has been synthesized. Metal ion studies have been carried out with europium, americium, and ferric nitrate in solutions of varying acidity, with and without sodium nitrate added. The bifunctional resin complexes far higher levels of Eu(III) from 0.5 and 1 N nitric acid than the monofunctional phosphonic acid resin. It is postulated that the sulfonic acid ligand provides an access mechanism for the metal ions into the polymer matrix by hydrating the matrix and preventing its collapse in high ionic strength solutions thus allowing for rapid ionic complexation by the selective phosphonic acid ligands. The bifunctional monophosphonic/sulfonic acid resin has both ligands bound to a polystyrene support. It complexes higher levels of metal ions than a comparable resin differing only by having the monophosphonic acid ligand directly bound to the C-C backbone. Results are compared to a diphosphonic/sulfonic acid resin.

  8. Comparison of bone scans and radiography for detecting bone neoplasms in dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Merickel, B.S.; Rebar, A.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    Radioisotopic bone scans and radiography were used to detect bone neoplasms in 144 dogs that inhaled alpha-particle-emitting /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles. Radiography was used routinely to survey the skeleton of the dogs. Nineteen dogs developed bone neoplasms; 17 of these were studied with bone scans and radiography; both methods showed a high degree of success in detecting bone neoplasms. Predominant regions of occurrence have been the lumbar region of the spine and the humerus. The bone scanning method used gamma-camera detection of IV injected 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate. All neoplasms detected radiographically also were identified by bone scans. In addition, 3 lesions confirmed histologically as osteosarcomas were detected by bone scanning, but were missed by radiography. Bone scanning was a more sensitive means for the detection of bone neoplasms than were routine radiographic procedures.

  9. Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for AluminumDissolution in Tank Waste Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Martin, Leigh

    2006-01-04

    Batch adsorption/dissolution experiments were conducted toexamine the interactions between 233U(VI) and a synthetic aluminumoxyhydroxide (boehmite, g-AlOOH) in 1.0M NaCl suspensions containing1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA). In the pH range 4 to 9,complexation of Al(III) by HEDPA significantly enhanced dissolution ofboehmite. This phenomenon was especially pronounced in the neutral pHregion where the solubility of aluminum, in the absence of complexants,is limited by the formation of sparsely soluble aluminum hydroxides. Athigh pH levels, dissolution of synthetic boehmite was inhibited by HEDPA,likely due to sorption of Al(III)/HEDPA complexes. Addition of HEDPA toequilibrated U(VI)-synthetic boehmite suspensions yielded an increase inthe aqueous phase uranium concentration. The concentration of uraniumcontinually increased over 59 days. Partitioning of uranium between thesolid and aqueous phase was found to correlate well with HEDPApartitioning.

  10. Subacute and chronic bone infections: Diagnosis using In-111, Ga-67 and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikh, W.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Mnaymneh, W.; Hourani, M.; Heal, A.; Duncan, R.C.; Burnett, A.; Ashkar, F.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of subacute or chronic bone infection was examined in 21 orthopedic patients. In-111 WBC imaging was compared with gallium-67 and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate skeletal scintigraphy and bone radiography, all studies being performed within 1 week. In-111 WBC scintigraphy showed no definite advantage over Ga-67 scintigraphy in the identification of chronic bone infection. The two tests had the same sensitivity and similar specificity. Bone radiography had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 67%. A negative Tc-99m MDP bone scintigram ruled out infection, but because of low specific, final evaluation required performance of Ga-67 or In-111 WBC scintigraphy.

  11. Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

  12. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

  13. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

  14. Occult neuroblastoma presenting with opsomyoclonus: utility of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farrelly, C.; Daneman, A.; Chan, H.L.S.; Martin, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The clinical and radiographic findings in 10 children with neuroblastoma presenting with opsomyoclonus are described and the literature is reviewed. Children with opsomyoclonus are often a diagnostic dilemma, as they may not have a palpable tumor or increased urinary catecholamines. Computed tomography (CT) is the most sensitive imaging method in locating tumors (100%) compared with plain radiography of the chest and abdomen (sensitivity 40%), excretory urography (50%), and /sup 99m/Tc radionuclide bone scans (50%). Since most neuroblastomas are solitary lesions that may arise in the adrenal glands or along the sympathetic chain from the neck down into the pelvis, the policy is to use plain radiography, sonography, and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans for the preliminary investigations of patients with opsomyoclonus. Body CT can then be tailored to suit the needs of the individual patients.

  15. Metastatic clear cell variant of renal cell carcinoma of the mandible: Review and case report.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajaz; Jahan, Shahi; Najar, Latief; Hassan, Shahid; Mohammad, Manzoor

    2016-01-01

    A case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the mandible is reported. A 22-year-old man consulted us for hypoesthesia of the right lower lip. Panorama X-ray film showed a radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular body. A diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the mandible from the right kidney was made after evaluation by computed tomography and bone scan with Tc99 methyl diphosphonate which also revealed multiple bone metastases. Histologically diagnosis was clear cell variant of RCC. Patient has been put on radiotherapy for symptomatic treatment and a molecularly targeted drug. The therapy effectively stopped the progressive growth of oral and other metastatic lesions. The quality of life is relatively well maintained with tolerable adverse effects. The patient is still on our follow-up with an improved quality of life. PMID:27563625

  16. Polymer-Supported Reagents: The Role of Bifunctionality in the Design of Ion-Selective Complexants

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S. D.

    2001-06-01

    The importance of multi-functionality in the preparation of ion-selective polymers is evident from the structure of enzymes where specific metal ions are bound through cooperative interactions among different amino acids. In synthetic polymers, ionic selectivity is enhanced when a chemical reaction is superimposed on an ion-exchange process. The concept of reactive ion exchange has been extended through the synthesis of crosslinked polymers whose metal ion selectivity is a function of reduction, coordination or precipitation reactions as determined by various covalently bound ligands. Development of three classes of dual mechanism bifunctional polymers, a new series of bifunctional diphosphonate polymers, and novel bifunctional ion-selective polymers with enhanced ionic accessibility has been accomplished.

  17. Flotation performances and adsorption mechanism of α-hydroxyoctyl phosphinic acid to cassiterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangxu; Zhong, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Guangyi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the flotation performances and adsorption mechanism of α-hydroxyoctyl phosphinic acid (HPA) to cassiterite were investigated by adsorption experiments, micro-flotation tests, zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The micro-flotation results indicated that compared with styrene phosphonic acid (SPA), diphosphonic acid (DPA), benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA), HPA exhibited excellent collecting power to cassiterite and superior selectivity against magnetite or hematite over a wide pH range. The results of adsorption experiments and zeta potential deduced that HPA chemisorb on cassiterite surfaces. The results of FTIR inferred HPA chemisorb onto cassiterite surfaces through its P and O atoms with the P-H and O-H bonds broken. XPS analysis further demonstrated HPA react with Sn species by formation of Sn-O-P and Sn-P bond.

  18. Management of metastatic bone disease of the acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Issack, Paul S; Kotwal, Suhel Y; Lane, Joseph M

    2013-11-01

    Metastatic acetabular disease can be severely painful and may result in loss of mobility. Initial management may consist of diphosphonates, narcotic analgesics, radiation therapy, protected weight bearing, cementoplasty, and radiofrequency ablation. Patients with disease affecting large weight-bearing regions of the acetabulum and with impending failure of the hip joint are unlikely to gain much relief from nonsurgical treatment and interventional procedures. The profound osteopenia of the acetabulum, limited healing potential of the fracture, and projected patient life span and function necessitate surgical techniques that provide immediate stable fixation to reduce pain and restore ambulatory function. Current reconstructive procedures, including cemented total hip arthroplasty, the saddle or periacetabular endoprosthesis, and porous tantalum implants, are based on the quality of remaining acetabular bone as well as the patient's level of function and general health. Well-executed acetabular reconstructions can provide durable hip joints with good pain relief and function.

  19. Investigation of some green compounds as corrosion and scale inhibitors for cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. )

    1999-05-01

    The performance of an open-recirculating cooling system, an important component in most industries, is affected by corrosion and scale formation. Numerous additives have been used in the past for the control of corrosion and scale formation. Effects of the naturally occurring compounds azadirachta indica (leaves), punica granatum (shell), and momordica charantia (fruits), on corrosion of mild steel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) were assessed using weight loss, electrochemical polarization, and impedance techniques. Extracts of the compounds exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies comparable to that of hydroxyethylidine diphosphonic acid (HEDP), the most preferred cooling water inhibitor. The compounds were found effective under static and flowing conditions. Extracts were quite effective in retarding formation of scales, and the maximum antiscaling efficiency was exhibited by the extract of azadirachta indica (98%). The blowdown of the cooling system possessed color and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Concentrations of these parameters were reduced by an adsorption process using activated carbon as an adsorbent.

  20. Plutonium(IV) and plutonium(VI) extraction by 1-hydroxy-6-N-octylcarboxamide-2-(1H)-pyridinone

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovski, V.V.; Hoffman, D.C. |; White, D.J.; Xu, J.; Raymond, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) from nitric acid media by the promising new extractant 1-hydroxy-6-N-octylcarboxamide-2(1H)-pyridinone (octyl-1,2-HOPO) has been investigated. The effects of nitric acid, sodium, aluminum and iron(III) nitrates on extraction have been examined. Octyl-1,2-HOPO exhibits high specificity for Pu(IV) over a wide range of acidity and ionic strength. The affinity of octyl-1,2-HOPO for Pu(VI) is much less than for Pu(IV). However, the extraction of Pu(VI) is possible from acidic as well as from highly salted media. Two water soluble ligands, 1-hydroxyethane-1,1,-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and H(2,2)-1,2-HOPO, have been shown to be very effective for back extraction.

  1. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-12-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss.

  2. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  3. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  4. The os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P; Collier, B D; Carrera, G F

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  5. Os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Collier, B.D.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  6. Treating the Aging Spine.

    PubMed

    Choma, Theodore J; Rechtine, Glenn; McGuire, Robert A; Brodke, Darrel S

    2016-01-01

    Demographic trends make it incumbent on orthopaedic spine surgeons to recognize the special challenges involved in caring for older patients with spine pathology. Unique pathologies, such as osteoporosis and degenerative deformities, must be recognized and treated. Recent treatment options and recommendations for the medical optimization of bone health include vitamin D and calcium supplementation, diphosphonates, and teriparatide. Optimizing spinal fixation in elderly patients who have osteoporosis is critical; cement augmentation of pedicle screws is promising. In the management of geriatric odontoid fractures, nonsurgical support with a collar may be considered for low-demand patients, whereas surgical fixation is favored for high-demand patients. Management of degenerative deformity must address sagittal plane balance, which includes consideration of pelvic incidence. Various osteotomies may prove helpful in this setting. PMID:27049195

  7. Treating the Aging Spine.

    PubMed

    Choma, Theodore J; Rechtine, Glenn R; McGuire, Robert A; Brodke, Darrel S

    2015-12-01

    Demographic trends make it incumbent on orthopaedic spine surgeons to recognize the special challenges involved in caring for older patients with spine pathology. Unique pathologies, such as osteoporosis and degenerative deformities, must be recognized and dealt with. Recent treatment options and recommendations for the medical optimization of bone health include vitamin D and calcium supplementation, diphosphonates, and teriparatide. Optimizing spinal fixation in elderly patients with osteoporosis is critical; cement augmentation of pedicle screws is promising. In the management of geriatric odontoid fractures, nonsurgical support with a collar may be considered for the low-demand patient, whereas surgical fixation is favored for high-demand patients. Management of degenerative deformity must address sagittal plane balance, including consideration of pelvic incidence. Various osteotomies may prove helpful in this setting. PMID:26510625

  8. Multiple Metastasis-Like Bone Lesions in Scintigraphic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunlei; Liu, Hongbiao; Hou, Haifeng; Zhang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Multiple benign osteolytic lesions are very hard to differentiate from disseminated bone metastasis. Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) demonstrates multiple lesions with increased uptake in any bone involved. Even combined with medical history and multiple imaging results, such as MRI and CT, the clinical diagnosis of metastasis lesion remains as a challenge. These clinical characteristics are similar to multiple malignant bone metastases and therefore affect the following treatment procedures. In this paper, we analyzed multiple benign osteolytic lesions, like eosinophilic granuloma (EG), multiple myeloma (MM), disseminated tuberculosis, fibrous dysplasia, or enchondroma, occurring in our daily clinical work and concluded that additional attention should be paid before giving the diagnosis of multiple bone metastases. PMID:22505821

  9. Radionuclide bone scanning of osteosarcoma: falsely extended uptake patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.

  10. Clinical utility of (18)F-fluoride PET/CT in benign and malignant bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxin; Schiepers, Christiaan; Lake, Ralph; Dadparvar, Simin; Berenji, Gholam R

    2012-01-01

    (18)F labeled sodium fluoride is a positron-emitting, bone seeking agent with more favorable skeletal kinetics than conventional phosphate and diphosphonate compounds. With the expanding clinical usage of PET/CT, there is renewed interest in using (18)F-fluoride PET/CT for imaging bone diseases. Growing evidence indicates that (18)F fluoride PET/CT offers increased sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy in evaluating metastatic bone disease compared to (99m)Tc based bone scintigraphy. National Oncologic PET Registry (NOPR) has expanded coverage for (18)F sodium fluoride PET scans since February 2011 for the evaluation of osseous metastatic disease. In this article, we reviewed the pharmacological characteristics of sodium fluoride, as well as the clinical utility of PET/CT using (18)F-fluoride in both benign and malignant bone disorders.

  11. Gallium scanning in Paget's disease of bone: effect of calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Waxman, A.D.; McKee, D.; Siemsen, J.K.; Singer, F.R.

    1980-02-01

    Calcitonin has been used in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone, and serum alkaline phosphatase level and 24 hr urinary hydroxyproline excretion have been used to follow therapeutic response. The radionuclide bone scan has been used as a visual indicator; however, there is some uncertainty as to its value in following changes in disease activity. Four patients with both serial technetium phosphate bone scans and serial gallium studies were studied. In each case the beneficial effect of calcitonin was demonstrated more accurately with gallium than with technetium diphosphonate. Since biochemical changes in Paget's disease are believed to be mediated at the cellular level and gallium uptake depends on cellular activity, it is proposed that gallium uptake is more appropriate measure of the activity of Paget's disease than a noncellular marker such as a technetium-containing bone scan agent.

  12. Diphonix{reg_sign} resin: A review of its properties and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gula, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix{reg_sign} resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. Therefore the resin has potential for applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post-transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. In view of the above applications the influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results obtained in the studies on the properties of the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power and fuel processing plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions.

  13. Synthetic and structural investigations of mercurous and mercuric organophosphonates and phenylarsonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalwar, Nitin Balkrushna; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-11-01

    The following twelve mercurous and mercuric organophosphomates, bis/diphosphonates and phenylarsonates have been isolated and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, 13C-and 31P NMR, infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods: Hg2(HO3PC6H5)2(1), Hg2(HO3P(C6H4)PO3H)(2), Hg2(HO3P(C6H4)2PO3H)(3), Hg2(HO3P(CH2)4PO3H)(4), Hg2(O3PC6H5)·H2O(5), (Hg2)2(O3P(CH2)2PO3)(6), (Hg2)2(O3P(CH2)3PO3)(7), Hg(O3PC6H5)·H2O(8), Hg(O3PCH2C6H5)·H2O(9), Hg(O3AsC6H5)·H2O(10), Hg3(O3AsC6H5)2(HO3AsC6H5)2(11) and (Hg2)Hg3(O3P(C6H4)PO3)2·2H2O(12). Compounds 1-7 are the first examples of mercurous phosphonates and di/bisphosphonates. They contain Hg2O6 units, which consist of Hg22+ cations with Hg-Hg bond of ~2.5 Å length. Phenylphosphonates 1 and 5 are layered compounds, whereas bis/diphosphonates 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 have pillared-layered and three-dimensional structures. Compounds 8-11 are layered mercuric phosphonates and phenylarsonates. Compound 12 is a three-dimensional mixed-valent mercury phenylenebisphosphonate.

  14. Bisphosphonate treatment and dental implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de-Freitas, Nayara-Ribeiro; de-Moura, Marcos-Boaventura; Veloso-Guedes, Cizelene-do-Carmo-Faleiros; Simamoto-Júnior, Paulo-César; de-Magalhães, Denildo

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze articles that studied patients submitted to diphosphonates therapy and who received dental implants before, during or after bisphosphonate (BP) treatment, compared to healthy patients, analyzing the increase of failure and loss of implants or bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) incidence. Material and Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement was used in this study. The clinical question in “PICO” format was: In patients under bisphosphonate therapy, do dental implants placement, compared to healthy patients, increase the failure and loss of implants or bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw incidence? PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for articles published up until April 15, 2015 using a combination of MeSH terms and their Entry terms. Results The search resulted in 375 articles. After selection according to the eligibility criteria, 15 studies fulfilled were included (eight retrospective, one prospective and six case series), with a total of 1339 patients analyzed, 3748 implants placed, 152 loss of implants and 78 cases of BRONJ. Conclusions Due to the lack of randomized clinical trials looking at this theme, further studies with longer follow-up are needed to elucidate the remaining questions. Thus, it is wise to be careful when planning dental implant surgery in patients undergoing bisphosphonate therapy because of the risk of developing BRONJ as well as occurring failure of implant. Moreover, complete systemic condition of the patient must be also taking into considering when such procedures are performed. Key words:Bisphosphonates, diphosphonates, dental implants, osteonecrosis. PMID:27475681

  15. Hydrothermal syntheses, structures and characterizations of two luminescent cadmium(II) complexes with p-xylenediphosphonic acid and N-donor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yanqiong; Hu Jin; Zhang Hanhui; Chen Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Two novel cadmium diphosphonates [Cd(cis-H{sub 4}BDPP)(2,2 Prime -bipy){sub 2}]{center_dot}(trans-H{sub 2}BDPP)]{sub n} (1) and [Cd(trans-H{sub 2}BDPP)(phen)]{sub n} (2) (H{sub 4}BDPP=p-xylenediphosphonic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2 Prime -bipy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) were hydrothermally synthesized from p-xylenediphosphonic acid and CdSO{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O with phen or 2,2 Prime -bipy as second ligand components and characterized by means of elemental analyses, IR, TG analysis, luminescence spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of a novel one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal [Cd(cis-H{sub 4}BDPP)(2,2 Prime -bipy){sub 2}] chains and trans-H{sub 2}BDPP anions. Compound 2 possesses a three-dimensional architecture built from double zigzag -Cd-O-P-O-Cd- chains pillared by trans-p-xylylenediphosphonate ligands from four different directions. There are hexagonal channels running along the c-axis and the coordinated phen ligands suspend in the hexagonal channels. The results indicate that p-xylenediphosphonic acid can adopt varied coordination modes and conformations in the formation of the complexes and the influence of the N-donor ligands on the structure of the complexes is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Two new cadmium diphosphonates were obtained by using two different auxiliary ligands. The influence of the N-donor ligands on the structure of the complexes is discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of cadmium(II)-p-xylenediphosphonates templated by second ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of size of the auxiliary ligand on the structure of cadmium p-xylenediphosphonates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cis and trans configurations of p-xylenediphosphonates exist in the same crystal structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional 4-connected framework with PtS network topology.

  16. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    PubMed Central

    Khmelinskii, Artem; Groen, Harald C.; Baiker, Martin; de Jong, Marion; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability). The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) and 99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs) of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR) algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for “incomplete” data (large chunks of skeleton missing) and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT/CT cross

  17. Bone scan: Indium-WBC correlation in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, B.; Wrege, S.S.; Altman, M.I.; Moore, J.W. )

    1989-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 20 podiatric cases using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate three-phase bone scans along with indium-111 oxine leukocyte scans, as needed, to determine the presence and extent of osteomyelitis of the foot. Using criteria developed at our institution, the authors attempt to provide a mechanism to make a reliable diagnosis for osteomyelitis that has been supported by surgical/pathologic confirmation of long-term clinical follow-up. The sensitivity, using bone scans alone, was 100%, and specificity was 47%. Correlating bone and indium-111 leukocyte scans yielded a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity raised to 81%. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were used in 40% of cases when a definitive diagnosis for osteomyelitis could not be made on the basis of the three-phase bone scan or clinical presentation alone. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were also helpful in delineating the extent of the disease process. The authors present a standard technique for a 5-hour delayed imaging in the three-phase bone scan, as well as marking the foot in the indium-111 leukocyte scan with three routine views obtained for each imaging procedure, to ensure clinical accuracy.

  18. Nitrogen mustard up-regulates Bcl-2 and GSH and increases NTP and PCr in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boddie, A. W.; Constantinou, A.; Williams, C.; Reed, A.

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesized that unexplained increases in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) observed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after treatment of tumours by DNA-damaging agents were related to chemotherapy-induced up-regulation of the bcl-2 gene and DNA damage prevention and repair processes. To test this hypothesis, we treated HT-29 cells with 10(-4) M nitrogen mustard (HN2) and performed sequential perchloric acid extractions in replicate over 0-18 h. By reference to an internal standard (methylene diphosphonic acid), absolute changes in 31P-detectable high-energy phosphates in these extracts were determined and correlated with changes in bcl-2 protein levels, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and total cellular glutathione (GSH) (an important defence against DNA damage from alkylating agents). After HN2 administration, bcl-2 protein levels in the HT-29 cell line rose at 2 h. Cell viability declined to 25% within 18 h, but apoptosis measured using fluorescence techniques remained in the 1-4% range. Increased cell division was noted at 4 h. Two high-energy interconvertible phosphates, NTP (P < or = 0.006) and phosphocreatine (PCr) (P < or = 0.0002), increased at 2 h concurrently with increased levels of bcl-2 protein and glutathione. This study demonstrates that bcl-2 and glutathione are up-regulated by HN2 and links this to a previously unexplained 31P MRS phenomenon: increased NTP after chemotherapy. Images Figure 6 PMID:9652754

  19. Ribbing disease: Uncommon cause of a common symptom

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Patnecha, Manish; Kumar, Praveen; Gadodia, Ankur; Subbarao, Kiran; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare form of sclerosing dysplasia characterized by benign endosteal and periosteal bone growth confined to the diaphyses of the long bones, usually the tibiae and femora. It occurs after puberty and is more commonly seen in women. The most common presenting symptom is pain that is usually self-limited; however, progression is known. The etiology and optimal treatment for the disease are as yet undefined. We present here the case of a 31-year-old woman with clinical, radiological and bone scan manifestations of Ribbing disease corroborated by bone biopsy. Radiographs demonstrated cortical thickening of the diaphyses of both tibiae. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed intense irregular uptake in diaphyseal region of both tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical thickening with bone marrow edema in bilateral tibial diaphysis with minimal adjacent soft tissue edema. Bone biopsy revealed predominantly dense lamellar bone with irregular sized and spaced haversian systems. Serum and urine markers of bone metabolism were within normal limits. The patient was treated with analgesics, and had partial relief from pain. Medullary rimming is the next treatment option in case pain progresses. This report emphasizes the role of bone scan in the diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:21969779

  20. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Nour, S; El-Sharkawy, A; Burnett, W C; Horwitz, E P

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of > 30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a "hold back" carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference.

  1. Palliative therapy with I-131 labeled bezylidenediphosphonic acid: In vivo kinetics and response to pain induced by bone metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhut, M.; Berberich, R.; Kimmig, B.; Oberhausen, E.; Georgi, P.; Zum Winkel, K.

    1985-05-01

    I-131 labeled ..cap alpha..-amino-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)diphosphonic acid (BDP3) was recently suggested as a palliative acting radiopharmaceutical against pain syndromes associated with disseminated bone metastases. Such an application was supported by the in vivo kinetics of I-131-BDP3 in rats. The authors investigated the palliative effectiveness of I-131-BDP3 in 18 patients with typical pain symptoms induced by bone metastases of various primary carcinoma. The blood clearance was rapid. More than 90% disappeared from the blood pool at 4 hr after injection. The excretion of the activity occured solely through the kidneys and the median total body retention at 48 hr was 51% (range 30-64%). The thyroid activity decreased during therapy indicating no cleavage reactions as long as I-131-BDP3 is bound to the bone tissue. The binding of I-131-BDP3 to bone is very long since the effective half life was in the order of magnitude of the physical half life. Additionally the effective half lifes in the metastatic ares (median 182 hr; range 177-205 hr) proved to be longer than in unaffected areas (145 hr; 140-165 hr). The palliative therapies were performed with doses of 6 - 48 mCi. The response amounted to 44% complete pain relief, 6% substantial pain relief, 22% minimal improvement and 28% no change. The duration of response ranged between 1 and 8 weeks.

  2. Bone scintigraphy in evaluating the viability of composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and free non-revascularized periosteal grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, A.; Weiland, A.J.; Ostrup, L.T.

    1982-07-01

    Researchers studied the value of bone scintigraphy in the assessment of anastomotic patency and bone-cell viability in free bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses in twenty-seven dogs. The dogs were divided into three different groups, and scintigraphy was carried out using technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate in composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and periosteal grafts placed in different recipient beds. The viability of the grafts were evaluated by histological examination and fluorescence microscopy after triple labeling with oxytetracycline on the first postoperative day, alizarin complexone on the fourth postoperative day, and DCAF on the eleventh postoperative day. A positive scintiscan within the first week following surgery indicated patent microvascular anastomoses, and histological study and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that bone throughout the graft was viable. A positive scintiscan one week after surgery or later does not necessarily indicate microvascular patency or bone-cell survival, because new bone formed by creeping substitution on the surface of a dead bone graft can result in this finding.

  3. Laxative Related Primary Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis Identified by Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Asokendaran, Marcus; Lenzo, Nat Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with tumor calcinosis where hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) was suspected given her extensive history of malignancy. Plain X-rays did not show reveal the typical periarticular calcification but did show appearances consistent with HPOA. Bone scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) is a sensitive investigation in the detection of hypertrophic osteoarthopathy but did not show findings characteristics of HPOA like bilateral symmetrical increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical along the cortical margins of the long bones. The final diagnosis of tumor calcinosis was only made after low dose computerized tomography chest showed a moderated sized amorphous calcified cluster in the apical segment of the right upper lobe consistent. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy continues to be a useful investigation for both common and rare conditions like tumor calcinosis. The unusual three phase bone scan finding of diffuse activity throughout both lung fields, which turned to out to be tumoral calcinosis is highlighted in this case. PMID:27651742

  4. Bone stress lesions in ballet dancers: scintigraphic assessment.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, A R; Treves, S T; Micheli, L

    1988-04-01

    Ballet dancers are athletes susceptible to ligamentous and bony injury. We reviewed retrospectively the bone scans (technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate) of 23 ballet dancers with pain in the back and/or lower extremities to determine the usefulness of scintigraphy in the detection of stress lesions of bone. The scintigraphic studies in 19 dancers identified multiple areas of stress injury in both symptomatic and asymptomatic locations. Thirteen dancers had 22 stress fractures (microfractures of trabeculae with associated bone repair) manifested by an intense focus of increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical, and 19 dancers had stress reactions (areas of accelerated remodeling and resorption of bone) demonstrated by diffusely increased uptake of radiotracer. Ten of the 13 dancers with stress fractures were symptomatic and six of the 19 dancers with stress reactions were symptomatic. The radiographs of 10 dancers with positive bone scans were normal or showed no distinction between acute and chronic injuries. Stress fractures were most prevalent in the feet, and stress reactions were most prevalent in the tibiae. The study confirmed that ballet dancers sustain significant bone stress in their legs and feet. Our results show that scintigraphy can be used to detect stress fractures and stress reactions at both symptomatic and asymptomatic sites in this population.

  5. Stabilization of Metal-Loaded Ion-Exchange Resin with a Porous Silica Supporter Through Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I-T. Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.; Kim, J-H.

    2003-02-25

    A new ion exchanger with porous silica as a supporting material and diphosphonic acid as a functional chelating group has been developed at ANL for the effective removal of transition metals and actinide ions from very acidic radioactive liquid wastes. The applicability of this resin for the treatment of low- and/or intermediate-level aqueous waste from nuclear power plants (NPP) has not been reported in scientific literature, but is under study now in Korea. The major radioisotopes in NPP radioactive liquid waste are Cs and Co in neutral pH ranges. This study on the thermal stabilization of metal-loaded waste resin has been carried out in parallel with the sorption experiment. Thermal treatment of metal (Co, Cs or U) loaded resin was accomplished to see the possibility of enhancing the safety and stability of the final product during transportation and disposal. In this paper, characteristics of the metal-loaded resins before and after heat treatment at three different thermal conditions were investigated and compared with each other to see the effectiveness of the thermal treatment method.

  6. U.S. manned space flight: the first twenty years, a biomedical status report.

    PubMed

    Dietlein, L F; Johnston, R S

    1981-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the biomedical problems facing man in space have been brought into sharper focus. Space motion sickness is presently our most serious problem. Its etiology remains obscure, but the "sensory conflict" theory appears most plausible. No valid predictive tests of susceptibility exist and presently we must rely on medication for prevention or mitigation of symptoms. Adaptation/biofeedback techniques may prove useful. Cardiovascular "deconditioning" may be effectively attenuated by use of anti-g suits or plasma expanding techniques. Recent bedrest simulation studies would seem to indicate that concerns about chronically elevated central venous pressure during space flight are unfounded. The loss of red cell mass in space flight appears to be self-limited, independent of mission duration, and not of clinical concern, based on recent Soviet experiences. And finally, clodronate, a new diphosphonate effective in preventing hypercalciuria and negative calcium balance in normal human bedrested subjects, may prove effective in preventing or lessening skeletal mineral loss in space.

  7. Indium-111-chloride and three-phase bone scintigraphy: A comparison for imaging experimental osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, J.J.; Daniel, G.B.; Patton, C.S. )

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the utility of indium-111-chloride ({sup 111}In-Cl) imaging in detecting osteomyelitis complicating surgical or fracture sites, the proximal tibia of 11 dogs were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus after creation of a cortical defect. The contralateral limb served as a sham-operated control. Animals were serially imaged by radiography, three-phase technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scintigraphy, and {sup 111}In-Cl scintigraphy. There was a significant difference between infected (1.93) and noninfected (1.32) limb's tibia/femur count density ratios on 24-hr (p = 0.0001) and 72-hr (p = 0.0001) {sup 111}In-Cl images. A smaller difference was found for 99mTc-MDP bone-phase tibia/femur ratios (p = 0.0199). Using receiver operator characteristic analysis of tibia/femur ratios, a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 88%, and positive (75%) and negative (79%) predictive values were determined for the 24-hr {sup 111}In-Cl images. Indium-111-chloride was superior to 99mTc-MDP in differentiating infected and noninfected operative sites.

  8. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, J.S.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Downing, D.

    1986-03-01

    This retrospective study was done to determine the value of combined bone (technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate) and gallium-67 citrate imaging in selected children with complicated clinical situations. Thirty-one children were evaluated for suspected osteomyelitis by bone scan followed within 4 days by a gallium scan. These 31 children represented a subpopulation in whom the Tc-99m scan is known to be potentially unreliable in diagnosing acute osteomyelitis. Eight children had acute osteomyelitis by strict criteria, while 23 did not. The bone scan successfully identified five of the eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in ten of the other 23. The gallium scan correctly identified all eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in seven of the other 23. The gallium scan was significantly less specific when the suspected lesion was in the extremities compared with central locations; causes of false-positive gallium scans included fracture and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Combined gallium and bone scanning increased accuracy of the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis. Both tests may, however, be abnormal in conditions other than osteomyelitis. These findings emphasize the importance of correlating all imaging studies in detection of osteomyelitis.

  9. Role of FDG PET/CT in Baastrup's disease

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Baastrup's disease is a benign condition, which presents as chronic low back pain. It is also known as “kissing spine syndrome” and refers to close approximation of adjacent spinous processes producing inflammation and back pain. This condition is often misdiagnosed, resulting in incorrect treatment and persistence of symptoms. Diagnosis of Baastrup's disease is verified with clinical examination and imaging studies. Conventionally, clinicians resort to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine rather than X-ray or computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of back pain. MRI can additionally identify flattening, sclerosis, enlargement, cystic lesions, and bone edema at the articulating surfaces of the two affected spinous processes. Studies have reported that 18Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) can detect a bursitis or an inflammation as a form of stress reaction despite a negative MRI and 99mTc Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan. PET/CT is usually not a recommended investigation for this condition. However, this case report highlights the benefit of FDG-PET/CT in identifying the site of inflammatory pathology. It is also known to identify the exact site of inflammation where steroid or local anesthetic injection can be administered to alleviate pain, especially in patients with multilevel vertebral involvement. PMID:27385901

  10. [The peroperative isotopic location of osteoid osteomas and other lesions exhibiting increased uptake on scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Augereau, B; Wioland, M; De Labriolle-Vaylet, C; Padovani, J P; Martin, T; Verneret, C; Apoil, A; Milhaud, G

    1988-01-01

    The technique, advantages and pitfalls of the isotopic localization and control during operation in orthopaedic surgery were evaluated throughout 28 interventions on lesions, which exhibited an increased uptake of a radioactive bone-seeker: the dimethyl-aminodiphosphonate, provisionally designated SF44 (Laboratoires Solabco, Coutras, France). For bone scanning, following the injection of this radiopharmaceutical that increased by 25% the lesion to normal bone ratio compared to the data for the diphosphonates in current use, the localization of lesions at surgical sites was carried out with the use of a sterilisable small radiation probe of a circular cross section 2 mm in diameter (Quartz et Silice, Paris, France). The probe was connected to a portable electronic device that converted the rates of radioactive disintegration into an acoustic signal, which increased with increasing radioactivity (Novelec, Meylan, France). The method was atraumatic and has proved to be useful at various times of the operation. More often, it was used to locate the lesion on the exposed bone. It enabled monitoring the progress of excisions and allowed to shorten their dimensions. The method was of great value at the end of the intervention for ensuring a complete excision as indicated by the lack of any residual focus of increased uptake detectable on the periphery of the operative site. Isotopic control during an operation is fully efficient to locate osteoid osteomas and other circumscribed lesions of the skeleton that give rise to an increased uptake of radioactivity.

  11. Role of proteoglycans in the onset of calcification

    SciTech Connect

    Tellone, C.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to inquire if the presence or absence of proteoglycans or their chemical subunits had a direct effect on the onset of calcification. High density spot cultures of limb bud mesenchyme obtained from mouse embryos on the 12th day of gestation were exposed to medium containing 30 mM phosphate. Calcium deposits observed after staining by the von Kossa method were confined to the non-cartilagenous intenodular areas. Electron microscopy illustrated that a large proportion of the calcium deposits were associated with collagen fibrils. A significant increase in the uptake of /sup 45/Ca was observed in cultures supplemented with 30 mM phosphate. Atomic absorption analysis of the cultures showed that they contained 2.00 ng calcium/ug DNA. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-glucosamine into glycosaminoglycans (GAG) was significantly reduced by phosphate and both extruded and cell associated GAG were affected. Exposure of mineralizing cultures to a biologically active anticalculus agent, ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, resulted in a significant reduction in /sup 45/Ca uptake, providing confidence that the culture did response as a biological system. These data suggest that under the conditions employed, proteoglycans in the extracellular environment of limb bud mesenchyme inhibit calcium deposition. The inhibitory effect was observed only when proteoglycans were added as polymeric aggregates. The culture system employed was unable to detect the inhibitory effects, if any, of proteoglycan monomers or the subunits of proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfate.

  12. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n . 31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity . 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity . 50%). The positive predictive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  13. Comparison of bone scan and radiograph sensitivity in the detection of steroid-induced ischemic necrosis of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, J.J.; Alderson, P.O.; Zizic, T.M.; Hungerford, D.S.; Densereaux, J.Y.; Gober, A.; Wagner, H.N.

    1983-04-01

    A prospective study of bone scanning for detection of ischemic necrosis of bone (INB) was performed in 36 patients (97% female, age range 16-36 yrs.) with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE). Since the hips, knees, and shoulders are usually affected by INB in patients with SLE, 300 K converging collimator images of these joints were obtained on film and in digital format 2 to 3 hours after the injection of 20 mCi (740 MBq) of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate. All patients underwent radiography of the joints, and 10 had intraosseous pressure determinations in the marrow space of affected joints (n=31) for independent assessment of INB. Scans showed abnormally increased joint activity in 28 of the 36 patients. A total of 97 joints showed abnormalities, 19% in the hips, 34% in the knees, and 47% in the shoulders. Twenty-four of 27 joints with elevated bone marrow pressure (BMP) had abnormal scans (sensitivity = 89%), and scans were abnormal in 2 of 4 joints with normal pressures (specificity = 50%). The positive predicitive value of the scans compared with BMP measurements was 92% (24/26). Eleven of 27 joints with abnormal BMP had abnormal radiographs, a sensitivity of 41%.

  14. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S.; Endres, Christopher J.; Foss, Catherine A.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Jung, Hyeyun; Goddard, James S.; Lee, Seung Joon; McKisson, John; Smith, Mark F.; Stolin, Alexander V.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a ^99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, ^99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand ^123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of ^123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  15. Molecular Imaging of Conscious, Unrestrained Mice with AwakeSPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Endres, Christopher; Foss, Catherine; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Jung, Hyeyun; Goddard Jr, James Samuel; Lee, Seung Joon; McKisson, John; Smith, Mark F.; Stolin, Alexander; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Pomper, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a SPECT imaging system, AwakeSPECT, to enable molecular brain imaging of untrained mice that are conscious, unanesthetized, and unrestrained. We accomplished this with head tracking and motion correction techniques. Methods: The capability of the system for motion-corrected imaging was demonstrated with a 99mTc-pertechnetate phantom, 99mTcmethylene diphosphonate bone imaging, and measurement of the binding potential of the dopamine transporter radioligand 123I-ioflupane in mouse brain in the awake and anesthetized (isoflurane) states. Stress induced by imaging in the awake state was assessed through measurement of plasma corticosterone levels. Results: AwakeSPECT provided high-resolution bone images reminiscent of those obtained from CT. The binding potential of 123I-ioflupane in the awake state was on the order of 50% of that obtained with the animal under anesthesia, consistent with previous studies in nonhuman primates. Levels of stress induced were on the order of those seen in other behavioral tasks and imaging studies of awake animals. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the feasibility of SPECT molecular brain imaging of mice in the conscious, unrestrained state and demonstrate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia on radiotracer uptake.

  16. [Radionuclide therapy for the treatment of skeletal metastases of urological malignancies: a forgotten therapy?].

    PubMed

    Badawi, J K

    2012-08-01

    Many patients suffering from urological or non-urological malignancies develop bone metastases. One symptom often found is severe skeletal pain which siginificantly lowers the quality of life. Further symptoms are pathological fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia. The systemic radiopharmaceutical therapy represents an important systemic treatment option, in addition to chemotherapy, hormone therapy, external beam radiation, bisphosphonates and analgesics. The radionuclide therapy is rarely used and often used in a later phase of disease, mainly known for the bone pain palliation. This review article should help remind physicians to use this interesting therapy. It focuses on the common radionuclides Strontium-89-chloride, Samarium-153-EDTMP (ethylene-diamine-tetra-methylene-phosphonate) and Rhenium-186-HEDP (hydroxyethylidene-diphosphonate), their physical characteristics and differences, contraindications of the therapy like spinal cord compression and side effects. Additionally, potential tumoricidal activity and improvement of survival are discussed when using the radionuclides repetitively or in combination. The European and German guidelines are included. Furthermore, the combination of radionuclides and bisphosphonates or chemotherapy are briefly discussed, based on available clinical studies. Additionally, alpharadin (radium-223 chloride) is discussed, an experimental radiopharmaceutical under clinical evaluation, which emits alpha-radiation. In phase III clinical trials, it was shown to significantly increase the median overall survival in patients with bone metastases from advanced prostate cancer. PMID:22875692

  17. Scintigraphic detection of bone and joint infections with indium-111-labeled nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G

    SciTech Connect

    Oyen, W.J.; Claessens, R.A.; van Horn, J.R.; van der Meer, J.W.; Corstens, F.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The utility of indium-111-({sup 111}In) labeled immunoglobulin G (IgG) to detect infection of bone and adjacent tissues was investigated. Proof of infection was obtained by cultures taken at surgery. All 32 patients showed focally increased uptake on the technetium-99m- (99mTc) methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphies. Labeled immunoglobulin correctly identified presence, location, extent and soft-tissue involvement of the suspected inflammatory site. In these patients, focally increasing accumulation was noted over 48 hr. Discrimination between infection and sterile inflammatory lesions was not possible. Two fractures, 6-mo-old, and an aseptic loosening of a total-hip prosthesis were not visualized. Side effects after the immunoglobulin administration were not observed. Radiolabeled immunoglobulin is a new and safe radiopharmaceutical for the investigation of infectious bone and joint disease. The sensitivity of this agent appears at least as high as that of labeled leukocytes. However, labeled immunoglobulin can easily be prepared in every nuclear medicine department.

  18. Infrared Spectra of Human Breast Tumor Tissue and Experimental Animal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Belkov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, H. V.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.; Butra, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used Fourier transform IR spectroscopy methods to conduct comparative studies of human breast tumors and sarcoma 180 tumor grafted into mice. The IR spectral parameters used to identify tumor tissue in mice with the sarcoma 180 strain proved to be identical to the parameters for human breast tissue in cancer. In the presence of a malignant tumor in humans, the most intense C=O vibrational bands in the protein molecules are observed in the interval 1710-1680 cm-1. For a benign tumor, in the IR spectra of breast tissue the intense bands are located in the interval 1670-1650 cm-1. We spectroscopically monitored the diagnosis and the chemotherapy process using the model of sarcoma 180 in mice. As the therapeutic drugs, we used synthesized coordination compounds based on palladium complexes with diphosphonic acid derivatives. We demonstrate the promising potential of palladium complexes with zoledronic acid as an effective cytostatic. In therapy using a palladium complex with zoledronic acid, the effect of tumor growth inhibition is accompanied by a change in its spectral characteristics. The parameters of the IR spectra for tumor tissue after treatment are close to those of the IR spectra for healthy tissue.

  19. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  20. Mechanism of localization of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Dewanjee, M K; Kahn, P C

    1976-07-01

    The gross and subcellular localizations of 99mTc-labeled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in myocardial infarcts were studied in a rabbit model. Experiments utilizing double-nuclide labeling were carried out using a useful mapping technique. Concentration of the various chelates decreases in an expected manner from the center of the infarcted area toward its periphery, but it is higher near the epicardial surface than toward the endocardium. Technetium-99m-pyrophosphate is concentrated in the same infarcted areas as 45Ca ion or 32P-pyrophosphate, but to a much greater degree. The uptake is dependent on both the degree of necrosis and residual blood flow. Gel filtration experiments with rabbit serum indicate that 99mTc-tagged pyrophosphate, tetracycline, and diphosphonate are mainly protein-bound, whereas 32P-pyrophosphate is not. Subcellular localization studies show that 99mTc-tetracycline and 99mTc-pyrophosphate are bound primarily to soluble protein, and only a small fraction is associated with nuclei, mitochondria, and microsomes. The uptake of technetium chelates in myocardial infarcts may be due to the formation of polynuclear complexes with denatured macromolecules rather than to the deposition of calcium in mitochrondria. PMID:178842

  1. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  2. Precipitation and dissolution of calcium phosphonates for the enhancement of squeeze lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, F.H.; Fogler, H.S.

    1995-08-01

    Injection of scale inhibitors into a formation is a commonly used technique to prevent scale formation during oil production. The success of a squeeze treatment often is determined by its effective lifetime in inhibiting scale in a reservoir system, and this lifetime is dictated by the retention/release mechanism of inhibitor in the reservoir. This paper focuses on a study of the precipitation/dissolution of calcium 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) in a porous medium to elucidate the important factors that affect the release of this precipitate. Experiments carried out in ceramic cores indicate that precipitation squeezes offer longer squeeze lifetimes and more HEDP retention than adsorption squeezes. Micromodel experiments show that the calcium-HEDP precipitate placed in porous media is made up of long, fibrous particles preferentially situated in pore throats. The elution from micromodels indicates that slow dissolution of apparently strong pore-throat plugs dictates the long tailing region. Finally, multiple-shut-in experiments performed in ceramic cores show that, while the amount of calcium-HEDP retention per shut-in does not increase with successive shut-ins, an enhanced returns effect is observed with respect to the squeeze lifetime.

  3. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Nour, S; El-Sharkawy, A; Burnett, W C; Horwitz, E P

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of > 30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a "hold back" carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference. PMID:15388106

  4. [Palliative surgery for bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Oetiker, R F; Meier, G; Hefti, F; Bereiter, H

    2001-12-01

    Advances in the treatment of patients who have bone metastases are an issue of high importance to the orthopaedic surgeon. Early diagnosis requires knowledge of the pathogenesis of bone metastases. A primary route of metastatic cells is via Batson's vertebral vein plexus. An understanding of the pathophysiology enables the surgeon to plan effective treatment. As many patients continue to survive for prolonged periods following the detection of bone metastases, it is important to plan treatment that relieves pain and is functional. In long bones non-operative treatment with radiotherapy, patient education to avoid excessive torsional loads and systemic chemotherapy or hormonal therapy as well as diphosphonates are utilized for small lesions with less than 25 percent of the cortical diameter. The indications for surgical treatment include lesions with elevated fracture risk according to Mirels score. Special emphasis is led on the surgical treatment of spinal metastasis. Early and effective treatment improves the remaining quality of life in patients with metastatic bone disease. However a firm knowledge of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology helps the clinician in making an early diagnosis. Nevertheless the orthopaedic surgeon must recognize the need to approach management of these patients from a multidisciplinary perspective in cooperation with the oncologist, radiotherapist, rehabilitation medicine specialist, radiologist, and pathologist. The cooperation among all members of the team will assure the best possible care for the patient who has metastatic bone disease. PMID:11797537

  5. Rigidity of microtubules is increased by stabilizing agents

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Microtubules are rigid polymers that contribute to the static mechanical properties of cells. Because microtubules are dynamic structures whose polymerization is regulated during changes in cell shape, we have asked whether the mechanical properties of microtubules might also be modulated. We measured the flexural rigidity, or bending stiffness, of individual microtubules under a number of different conditions that affect the stability of microtubules against depolymerization. The flexural rigidity of microtubules polymerized with the slowly hydrolyzable nucleotide analogue guanylyl-(alpha, beta)- methylene-diphosphonate was 62 +/- 9 x 10(-24) Nm2 (weighted mean +/- SEM); that of microtubules stabilized with tau protein was 34 +/- 3 x 10(-24) Nm2; and that of microtubules stabilized with the antimitotic drug taxol was 32 +/- 2 x 10(-24) Nm2. For comparison, microtubules that were capped to prevent depolymerization, but were not otherwise stabilized, had a flexural rigidity of 26 +/- 2 x 10(-24) Nm2. Decreasing the temperature from 37 degrees C to approximately 25 degrees C, a condition that makes microtubules less stable, decreased the stiffness of taxol-stabilized microtubules by one-third. We thus find that the more stable a microtubule, the higher its flexural rigidity. This raises the possibility that microtubule rigidity may be regulated in vivo. In addition, the high rigidity of an unstabilized, GDP-containing microtubule suggests that a large amount of energy could be stored as mechanical strain energy in the protein lattice for subsequent force generation during microtubule depolymerization. PMID:7642706

  6. Idiopathic nasal bone osteitis: A preliminary report on a recently recognized entity.

    PubMed

    Shkedy, Yotam; Ronen, Ohad; Gips, Sarah; Front, Avi; Marshak, Tal; Uri, Nechama

    2016-08-01

    Osteitis of the nasal bones is a rare disease; when it occurs, it usually has a known etiology. To the best of our knowledge, idiopathic nasal bone osteitis (NBO) has not been described before. We conducted a study to analyze the behavior of idiopathic NBO and its outcome and to determine a cutoff level for diagnosis using technetium-99m-methylene-diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) bone scanning. This retrospective, controlled analysis involved 9 women (mean age: 44 yr) who had been admitted to an otolaryngology department in Israel with idiopathic NBO over a 5-year period. Clinical evaluation, isotopic evaluation, and computed tomography were done. A lesion-to-nonlesion ratio was calculated between an area of interest on the nasal bone and a reference point (L/R ratio). The same ratio was calculated for a control group of 20 subjects. All the Tc-MDP scans in the study group were suggestive of osteitis. Intravenous antibiotic treatment was effective in all cases. A high degree of accuracy was achieved with cutoff L/R ratios of 2.05 for planar views and 2.34 for single-photon emission computed tomography views. PMID:27551852

  7. Molecular modeling in scale control -- An experimental verification and its limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Bendiksen, B.; Gill, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    This work centers on the use of molecular modeling to study inhibition of alkaline earth scales such as calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate. The molecular modeling studies have shown the interaction of phosphonates with varied crystal faces of the scales. The software makes it possible to visualize the important crystal faces and match the geometry of the inhibitor to the crystal planes that determine the morphology of the resulting solid. Molecular Dynamics (MD) calculations can reveal specific interactions of inhibitors with scale surfaces. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) between scale inhibition and calculated quantities have been used to build models that help to predict the structure of new scale inhibitors. Interaction energies of phosphonates over the surfaces of crystals can show differences in binding of phosphonate to specific crystal faces. The relative binding energies can be correlated to effectiveness in scale inhibition, and verified by experiment. However, simple energy calculations do not always explain the complicated process of scale inhibition. Comparison is made of the effectiveness of two phosphonates, hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonic acid (HEDP) and amino methylene phosphonate (AMP), in scale inhibition of CaCO{sub 3} and CaSO{sub 4}. Relative energy (E{sub rel}) calculations are used to demonstrate molecular modeling for scale inhibition studies.

  8. Pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA, (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP--an evaluation of three imaging techniques in patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.E.; Lazarus, C.R.; Wraight, P.; Sampson, C.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nine patients with histologically proven medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were imaged using pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid ((V)DMSA), (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Technetium-99m (V)DMSA demonstrated most of the tumor sites in eight patients with proven metastases, with an overall sensitivity of 95% in lesion detection. Iodine-131 MIBG showed definite uptake in some of the tumor sites in three of the nine patients imaged, with equivocal uptake seen in a further one patient, with sensitivity of only 11% for lesion detection. Technetium-99m MDP demonstrated bony metastases only, in four of the patients imaged yielding a sensitivity of 61%. Technetium-99m (V)DMSA has been demonstrated in this study to be a useful imaging agent in patients with MCT, showing uptake in significantly more lesions and with better imaging qualities than (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and with the ability to detect soft tissue as well as bony metastases.

  9. Polymer-based separations: Synthesis and application of polymers for ionic and molecular recognition. Annual performance report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    During this period, focus was on design and synthesis of bifunctional polymers for complexing metal ions from aqueous solutions; this could provide a means for separating radioactive and toxic metal ions from contaminated waste water as well as valuable metals from dilute ore processing streams. The synthesis of bifunctional polymers required a new preparative technique; bifunctional interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) was an important part of the studies. In the preparation, a pre-formed crosslinked polymer is contacted with a solution of monomers, and a second network was polymerized within the first. Imidazole ligands were used. A new resin, prepared with a macrocyclic sorbed within polystyrene beads modified with sulfonic acid ligands, extracted Cu(II) 10--100-fold. Maximum metal ion complexation rates depend on a balance between chemical interactions and physical parameters (matrix porosity, rigidity). A novel ion exchange resin (Diphonix{trademark}) has been produced which displays both ionic selectivity (diphosphonic acid ligands) and rapid complexation rates (sulfonic acid ligands).

  10. Poly[bis-[μ(2)-(dimethyl-aza-nium-yl)methyl-enediphospho-nato]magnesium].

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiao-Sheng; Deng, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Yu-Hui; Du, Zi-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, [Mg(C(3)H(10)NO(6)P(2))(2)](n), synthesized by a hydro-thermal method, adopts a one-dimensional polymeric chain structure and is isotypic with the previously reported Cd complex based on the ligand N,N-dimethyl-amino-methane-1,1-diphospho-nic acid (H(4)L). The asymmetric unit contains one half Mg(2+) ion and one H(3)L(-) anion. The unique Mg(2+) ion lies on an inversion center and is octa-hedrally coordinated by O atoms from six phospho-nate groups of four different H(3)L(-) anions. Each H(3)L(-) anion, with one protonated N atom and two phospho-nate OH groups, serves as a tridentate ligand. Two of its six phospho-nate O atoms chelate to a Mg(2+) cation in a bidentate fashion, while a third O atom bridges to a neighbouring Mg(2+) ion. The inter-connection of Mg(2+) ions by the H(3)L(-)anions leads to the formation of a polymer chain along the a axis in which the adjacent Mg(2+) ions are doubly bridged by two equivalent H(3)L(-) anions. These discrete chains are further assembled into a three-dimensional supra-molecular network via O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the non-coordin-ated phospho-nate O atoms and the protonated N atoms. PMID:21522287

  11. Poly[[tri-μ-aqua-do-deca-aqua-tris-(μ3-1-hy-droxy-ethyl-idene-1,1-di-phospho-nato)tricalcium(II)tripalladium(II)] penta-hydrate].

    PubMed

    Kutsenko, Irina P; Kozachkova, Alexandra N; Tsaryk, Natalia V; Pekhnyo, Vasily I; Rusanova, Julia A

    2014-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[CaPd{CH3OHC(PO3)2}(H2O)5]·5/3H2O} n , consists of one half of the complex [Pd{CH3OHC(PO3)2}](2-) anion (point group symmetry m..), one Ca(2+) cation [site symmetry (.2.)] that is surrounded by three water mol-ecules (one of which is on the same rotation axis) and by three disordered lattice water mol-ecules. The anions form a trinuclear metallocycle around a crystallographic threefold rotation axis. The cations are related by a twofold rotation axis to form a [Ca2(H2O)10](2+) dimer. The slightly distorted square-planar coordination environment of the Pd(II) atoms in the complex anions is formed by O atoms of the bidentate chelating phospho-nate groups of the 1-hy-droxy-ethyl-idene-1,1-di-phospho-nate ligands. In the crystal, cations are bound to anions through -Ca-O-P-O- bonds, as well as through O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional polymer. The structure is completed by five disordered solvent mol-ecules localized in cavities within the framework. PMID:25249877

  12. A solitary pulmonary ground-glass nodule in adult systemic langerhans’ cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Yunyuan; Fan, Li; Liu, Shiyuan

    2015-01-01

    During a thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan, a 36-year-old male was diagnosed with a solitary oval pulmonary mixed ground-glass nodule in the right upper lobe of the lung. The edge of the nodule was well-defined, and its largest axial size was approximately 1.1×0.9 cm2. This nodule was slightly lobulated, but not obviously speculated. Solid components, micro-cystic lucency shadow, small high-density rings and tiny vascular branches were all visible in the nodule. During hospitalization, a technetium 99 m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m MDP) bone scan was performed, which showed a skeletal foci with abnormal uptake in the left iliac. A pulmonary lobectomy of the right upper lobe of the lung by video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed. In post-operative pathological photomicrographs, proliferative Langerhans’ cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes were found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of S-100 protein, CD1a, and CD68 antigen all stained positive. Since Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH) that is also associated with isolated mixed ground-glass nodules is relatively rare, such a multi-systemic LCH case as identified herein, is reported. PMID:26722574

  13. Improving lanthanide nanocrystal colloidal stability in competitive aqueous buffer solutions using multivalent PEG-phosphonate ligands.

    PubMed

    Cao, Pengpeng; Tong, Lemuel; Hou, Yi; Zhao, Guangyao; Guerin, Gerald; Winnik, Mitchell A; Nitz, Mark

    2012-09-01

    The range of properties available in the lanthanide series has inspired research into the use of lanthanide nanoparticles for numerous applications. We aim to use NaLnF(4) nanoparticles for isotopic tags in mass cytometry. This application requires nanoparticles of narrow size distribution, diameters preferably less than 15 nm, and robust surface chemistry to avoid nonspecific interactions and to facilitate bioconjugation. Nanoparticles (NaHoF(4), NaEuF(4), NaGdF(4), and NaTbF(4)) were synthesized with diameters from 9 to 11 nm with oleic acid surface stabilization. The surface ligands were replaced by a series of mono-, di-, and tetraphosphonate PEG ligands, whose synthesis is reported here. The colloidal stability of the resulting particles was monitored over a range of pH values and in phosphate containing solutions. All of the PEG-phosphonate ligands were found to produce non-aggregated colloidally stable suspensions of the nanoparticles in water as judged by DLS and TEM measurements. However, in more aggressive solutions, at high pH and in phosphate buffers, the mono- and diphosphonate PEG ligands did not stabilize the particles and aggregation as well as flocculation was observed. However, the tetraphosphonate ligand was able to stabilize the particles at high pH and in phosphate buffers for extended periods of time.

  14. A clinical perspective on common forms of acquired heterotopic ossification

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, D.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The clinical courses of heterotopic ossification (HO) as a consequence of trauma and central nervous system insults have many similarities as well as dissimilarities. Detection is commonly noted at two months. The incidence of clinically significant HO is 10%-20%. Approximately 10% of the HO is massive and causes severe restriction in joint motion or ankylosis. The most common sign and symptom are decreased range of motion and pain. The locations are the proximal limbs and joints. Sites of HO about a joint may vary according to the etiology of the HO. Roentgenographic evolution of HO occurs during a six-month period in the majority of patients. Treatment modalities include diphosphonates, indomethacin, radiation, range of motion exercises, and surgical excision. Surgical timing differs according to etiology: traumatic HO may be resected at six months; spinal cord injury HO is excised at one year; and traumatic brain injury HO is removed at 1.5 years. A small number of patients have progression of HO with medicinal treatment and recurrence after resection. The patients seem recalcitrant to present treatment methods regardless of the HO etiology. 117 refs.

  15. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Brian; Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth. L.

    2008-06-10

    The dissolution of synthetic boehmite (?-AlOOH) by 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) was examined in a series of batch adsorption/dissolution experiments. Additionally, the leaching behavior of {sup 233}U(VI) from boehmite was examined as a function of pH and HEDPA concentration. The results are discussed in terms of sludge washing procedures that may be utilized during underground tank waste remediation. In the pH range 4 to 10, complexation of Al(III) by HEDPA significantly enhanced dissolution of boehmite. This phenomenon was especially pronounced in the neutral pH region where the solubility of aluminum, in the absence of complexants, is limited by the formation of sparsely soluble aluminum hydroxides. At pH higher than 10, dissolution of synthetic boehmite was inhibited by HEDPA, likely due to sorption of Al(III):HEDPA complexes. Addition of HEDPA to equilibrated U(VI)-synthetic boehmite suspensions yielded an increase in the aqueous phase uranium concentration. Partitioning of uranium between the solid and aqueous phase is described in terms of U(VI):HEDPA speciation and dissolution of the boehmite solid phase.

  16. Multistep organic synthesis of modular photosystems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Quite extensive synthetic achievements vanish in the online supporting information of publications on functional systems. Underappreciated, their value is recognized by experts only. As an example, we here focus in on the recent synthesis of multicomponent photosystems with antiparallel charge-transfer cascades in co-axial hole- and electron-transporting channels. The synthetic steps are described one-by-one, starting with commercial starting materials and moving on to key intermediates, such as asparagusic acid, an intriguing natural product, as well as diphosphonate “feet”, and panchromatic naphthalenediimides (NDIs), to finally reach the target molecules. These products are initiators and propagators for self-organizing surface-initiated polymerization (SOSIP), a new method introduced to secure facile access to complex architectures. Chemoorthogonal to the ring-opening disulfide exchange used for SOSIP, hydrazone exchange is then introduced to achieve stack exchange, which is a “switching” technology invented to drill giant holes into SOSIP architectures and fill them with functional π-stacks of free choice. PMID:23015840

  17. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Gula, M.; Harvey, J.

    1996-12-31

    Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom`s Diphonix {reg_sign} resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds.

  18. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  19. U.S. manned space flight: The first twenty years - A biomedical status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietlein, L. F.; Johnston, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the biomedical problems facing man in space have been brought into sharper focus. Space motion sickness is presently the most serious problem. Its etiology remains obscure, but the 'sensory conflict' theory appears most plausible. No valid predictive tests of susceptibility exist and presently medication for prevention or mitigation of symptoms must be relied on. Adaptation/biofeedback techniques may prove useful. Cardiovascular 'deconditioning' may be effectively attenuated by use of anti-g suits or plasma expanding techniques. Recent bedrest simulation studies would seem to indicate that concerns about chronically elevated central venous pressure during space flight are unfounded. The loss of red cell mass in space flight appears to be self-limited, independent of mission duration, and not of clinical concern, based on recent Soviet experiences. And finally, clodronate, a new diphosphonate effective in preventing hypercalciuria and negative calcium balance in normal human bedrested subjects, may prove effective in preventing or lessening skeletal mineral loss in space.

  20. Multiple-Step Humidity-Induced Single-Crystal to Single-Crystal Transformations of a Cobalt Phosphonate: Structural and Proton Conductivity Studies.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhong-Sheng; Bao, Song-Song; Wang, Xi-Zhang; Hu, Zheng; Zheng, Li-Min

    2016-04-01

    Humidity-induced multiple-step single-crystal to single-crystal (SC-SC) transformations are observed in the cobalt phosphonate (NH4)3[Co2(bamdpH)2(HCOO)(H2O)2] (1), where bamdpH4 is (benzylazanediyl)bis(methylene)diphosphonic acid, [C6H5CH2N(CH2PO3H2)2]. Under high-humidity conditions (95% RH), compound 1 experiences hydrolysis at 60 °C which is accompanied by the transformation from a double-chain structure of compound 1 into a single-chain structure of [Co(bamdpH2)(H2O)2]·2H2O (2). When the humidity is below 10% RH, part of the lattice water in compound 2 can be released, forming a third phase, [Co(bamdpH2)(H2O)2]·H2O (3). The structural transformation processes have been monitored by infrared and proton conductivity measurements.

  1. Application of supported liquid membranes for removal of uranium from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Rickert, P.G.; Hodgson, K.M.; Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA )

    1989-01-01

    The separation of uranium from Hanford site groundwater as studied by hollow-fiber supported liquid membranes, SLM. The carrier bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid, H(DTMPep), contained in the commercial extractant Cyanex{trademark} 272 was used as a membrane carrier, because of its selectivity for U over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent, 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid, HEDPA, was used as stripping agent. Polypropylene hollow-fibers and n-dodecane were used as polymeric support and diluent, respectively. Laboratory scale hollow-fiber modules were employed in a recycling mode, using as feed synthetic groundwater at pH 2, to confirm the capability of the proposed SLM system to separate and concentrate U(VI) in the strip solution. Information was obtained on the U(VI) concentration factor and on the long-term performance of the SLMs. Encouraging results were obtained both with a conventional module and with a module containing a carrier solution reservoir. Industrial scale modules were used at Hanford to test the SLM separation of U(VI) from real contaminated groundwater. The uranium concentration was reduced from approximately 3500 ppB to about 1 ppB in a few hours. 9 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Os Trigonum - Sheer Incidental or Quite Significant? Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography's Role in a Case of Ankle Impingement.

    PubMed

    Chokkappan, Kabilan; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Subramanian, Manickam; Kannivelu, Anbalagan

    2015-01-01

    Accessory ossicles are widely prevalent in the ankle and foot. Although they are often asymptomatic, they can present clinically with symptoms at times. When they occur bilaterally in a patient who presents with unilateral complaints, it is clinically difficult to attribute the symptoms to the presence of these common anatomic variants. One needs specific imaging to assess the clinical relevance of the accessory ossicles, in order to tailor the treatment plan. The case presented in this article is one such example, where the patient presented with chronic unilateral ankle pain and initial radiographs revealed bilateral os trigonum and os subtibiale. He underwent a technetium-99m methyl diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scan and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The Tc-99m MDP scan showed a focal uptake in the ankle of concern. SPECT/CT complemented the finding by exactly localizing the uptake to the posterior subtalar joint and around the os trigonum, thereby pointing to the diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome.

  3. Os Trigonum – Sheer Incidental or Quite Significant? Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography's Role in a Case of Ankle Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Chokkappan, Kabilan; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Subramanian, Manickam; Kannivelu, Anbalagan

    2015-01-01

    Accessory ossicles are widely prevalent in the ankle and foot. Although they are often asymptomatic, they can present clinically with symptoms at times. When they occur bilaterally in a patient who presents with unilateral complaints, it is clinically difficult to attribute the symptoms to the presence of these common anatomic variants. One needs specific imaging to assess the clinical relevance of the accessory ossicles, in order to tailor the treatment plan. The case presented in this article is one such example, where the patient presented with chronic unilateral ankle pain and initial radiographs revealed bilateral os trigonum and os subtibiale. He underwent a technetium-99m methyl diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scan and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The Tc-99m MDP scan showed a focal uptake in the ankle of concern. SPECT/CT complemented the finding by exactly localizing the uptake to the posterior subtalar joint and around the os trigonum, thereby pointing to the diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome. PMID:26420993

  4. Laxative Related Primary Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis Identified by Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Asokendaran, Marcus; Lenzo, Nat Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with tumor calcinosis where hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) was suspected given her extensive history of malignancy. Plain X-rays did not show reveal the typical periarticular calcification but did show appearances consistent with HPOA. Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) is a sensitive investigation in the detection of hypertrophic osteoarthopathy but did not show findings characteristics of HPOA like bilateral symmetrical increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical along the cortical margins of the long bones. The final diagnosis of tumor calcinosis was only made after low dose computerized tomography chest showed a moderated sized amorphous calcified cluster in the apical segment of the right upper lobe consistent. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy continues to be a useful investigation for both common and rare conditions like tumor calcinosis. The unusual three phase bone scan finding of diffuse activity throughout both lung fields, which turned to out to be tumoral calcinosis is highlighted in this case. PMID:27651742

  5. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  6. Development of more efficacious {Tc}-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  7. Moderate zinc supplementation during prolonged steroid therapy exacerbates bone loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Rozy; Bansal, S C; Khandelwal, N; Rai, D V; Dhawan, D K

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the influence of zinc on bone mineral metabolism in prednisolone-treated rats. Disturbance in bone mineral metabolism was induced in rats by subjecting them to prednisolone treatment for a period of 8 weeks. Female rats aged 6-8 weeks weighing 150 to 200 g were divided into four treatment groups, viz., normal control, prednisolone-treated (40 mg/kg body weight orally, thrice a week), zinc-treated (227 mg/L in drinking water, daily), and combined prednisolone + zinc-treated groups. Parameters such as changes in mineral levels in the bone and serum, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone 99m-technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) uptake were studied in various treatment groups. Prednisolone treatment caused an appreciable decrease in calcium levels both in the bone and serum and also in bone dry weight, BMC, and BMD in rats. Prednisolone-treated rats when supplemented with zinc showed further reduction in calcium levels, bone dry weight, BMD, and BMC. The study therefore revealed that moderate intake of zinc as a nutritional supplement during steroid therapy could enhance calcium deficiency in the body and accelerate bone loss. PMID:25022244

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a new layered organic inorganic hybrid nickel(II) 1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide bis-phosphonate, exhibiting canted antiferromagnetism, with Tc˜21 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Elvira M.; Bellitto, Carlo; Gómez García, Carlos J.; Righini, Guido

    2008-05-01

    A new Ni(II) layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound of formula Ni 2[(NDI-BP)(H 2O) 2]·2H 2O has been prepared in very mild conditions from N, N'- bis(2-phosphonoethyl)napthalene-1,4:5,8-tetracarboximide (NDI-BP ligand) and NiCl 2. The X-ray powder structure characterization of the title compound suggests a pillared layered organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The distance between the organic and inorganic layers has been found to be 17.8 Å. The inorganic layers consist of corner sharing [NiO 5(H 2O)] octahedra and they are pillared by the diphosphonate groups. DC and AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and field indicate the presence of 2D antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest-neighbor Ni(II) ions below 100 K. A long-range magnetic ordering at Tc˜21 K has been established and is attributed to the presence of spin canting. AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature at different frequencies confirm the occurrence of the magnetic ordering temperature at T=21 K and the presence of a slight structural disorder in the title compound.

  9. Laxative Related Primary Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis Identified by Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Asokendaran, Marcus; Lenzo, Nat Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with tumor calcinosis where hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) was suspected given her extensive history of malignancy. Plain X-rays did not show reveal the typical periarticular calcification but did show appearances consistent with HPOA. Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) is a sensitive investigation in the detection of hypertrophic osteoarthopathy but did not show findings characteristics of HPOA like bilateral symmetrical increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical along the cortical margins of the long bones. The final diagnosis of tumor calcinosis was only made after low dose computerized tomography chest showed a moderated sized amorphous calcified cluster in the apical segment of the right upper lobe consistent. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy continues to be a useful investigation for both common and rare conditions like tumor calcinosis. The unusual three phase bone scan finding of diffuse activity throughout both lung fields, which turned to out to be tumoral calcinosis is highlighted in this case.

  10. Heterologous expression of plant vacuolar pyrophosphatase in yeast demonstrates sufficiency of the substrate-binding subunit for proton transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.J.; Zhen, R.G.; Rea, P.A. )

    1994-06-21

    The membrane bounding the vacuole of plant cells contains two electrogenic proton pumps. These are the vacuolar H[sup +]-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.3), an enzyme common to all eukaryotes, and a vacuolar H[sup +]-translocating pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.1), which is ubiquitous in plants but otherwise known in only a few phototrophic bacteria. Although the substrate-binding subunit of the vacuolar H[sup +]-pyrophosphatase has been identified and purified and cDNAs encoding it have been isolated and characterized, the minimal unit competent in pyrophosphate (PPi)-energized H[sup +] translocation is not known. Here the authors address this question and show that heterologous expression of the cDNA (AVP) encoding the substrate-binding subunit of the vacuolar H[sup +]-pyrophosphatase from the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in the production of vacuolarly localized functional enzyme active in PPi-dependent H[sup +] translocation. Since the heterologously expressed pump is indistinguishable from the native plant enzyme with respect to PPi hydrolysis, H[sub +] translocation, activation by potassium, and selective inhibition by calcium and 1,1-diphosphonates, it is concluded that all of the known catalytic functions of the enzyme map to the one subunit encoded by AVP.

  11. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-12-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan uptake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogeneous uptake on the scan.

  12. Intravenous pamidronate for treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy during breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Siminoski, K; Fitzgerald, A A; Flesch, G; Gross, M S

    2000-10-01

    A 39-year-old woman presented in the first month of pregnancy with reflex sympathetic dystrophy involving both lower legs. Symptoms became so severe that she could not walk unassisted, and the pain worsened after delivery. Radiographs showed patchy reduction in apparent density in the tarsal bones and around the ankles and knees. Uptake was increased in these areas on technetium methylene diphosphonate bone scan. Bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) was reduced in the spine, hip, and radius. Biochemical tests were normal except for an increase in urinary excretion of the N-telopeptide cross-linking region of type I collagen (NTx). Because the patient wanted to continue breast-feeding, intravenous pamidronate was administered at monthly intervals. Breast milk was collected for 48 h after the infusion. The pain began to decrease soon after drug administration was initiated, and it was virtually gone by 6 months. NTx excretion fell by 78% and bone density increased by as much as 18.9% over the 6-month treatment interval. The baby was healthy and grew normally. Milk expressed after the first treatment was assayed for pamidronate content by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. None was detected (limit of quantitation, 0.4 micromol/liter). This case shows that pamidronate may be considered for treatment of lactating women.

  13. New polymer-supported ion-complexing agents: design, preparation and metal ion affinities of immobilized ligands.

    PubMed

    Alexandratos, Spiro D

    2007-01-31

    Polymer-supported reagents are comprised of crosslinked polymer networks that have been modified with ligands capable of selective metal ion complexation. Applications of these polymers are in environmental remediation, ion chromatography, sensor technology, and hydrometallurgy. Bifunctional polymers with diphosphonate/sulfonate ligands have a high selectivity for actinide ions. The distribution coefficient for the uranyl ion from 1 M nitric acid is 70,000, compared to 900 for the monophosphonate/sulfonate polymer and 200 for the sulfonic acid ion-exchange resin. A bifunctional trihexyl/triethylammonium polymer has a high affinity and selectivity for pertechnetate and perchlorate anions from groundwater. In one example, its distribution coefficient for perchlorate ions in the presence of competing anions is 3,300,000, compared to 203,180 for a commercially available anion-exchange resin. Polystyrene modified with N-methyl-D-glucamine ligands is capable of selectively complexing arsenate from groundwater. It complexes 99% of the arsenate present in a solution of 100 mg/L arsenate with 560 mg/L sulfate ions. Its selectivity is retained even in the presence of 400 mg/L phosphate. There is no affinity for arsenate above pH 9, allowing for the polymer to be regenerated with moderate alkali solution. In studies aimed at developing a Hg(II)-selective resin, simple amine resins were found to have a high Hg(II) affinity and that affinity is dependent upon the solution pH and the counterion.

  14. Quantitative bone and 67Ga scintigraphy in the differentiation of necrotizing external otitis from severe external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.; Gips, S.; Front, A.; Meyer, S.W.; Hardoff, R. )

    1991-06-01

    Qualitative technetium Tc 99m bone scintigraphy using phosphate compounds and gallium 67 scintigraphy were described as a helpful means in diagnosing necrotizing external otitis (NEO). They were, however, claimed to be nonspecific. Quantitative Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and gallium 67 scintigraphy were performed in eight patients with NEO and in 20 patients with severe external otitis, in order to prove usefulness of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of NEO. Ratios of lesion to nonlesion for bone scintigraphy were 1.67 {plus minus} 0.16 in patients with NEO and 1.08 {plus minus} 0.09 in patients with severe external otitis, and for gallium 67 scintigraphy they were 1.35 {plus minus} 0.24 in NEO patients and 1.05 {plus minus} 0.03 in patients with severe external otitis. There was no difference in uptake between diabetic patients with severe external otitis and nondiabetic patients. The scintigraphic studies were also evaluated using a qualitative scoring method (scores 0 to +4), according to the intensity of the radiopharmaceutical uptake. This method was found to be inferior in the diagnosis of NEO compared with the quantitative method. We conclude that lesion-to-nonlesion ratios greater than 1.5 and 1.3 on bone and gallium 67 scintigraphy, respectively, are indicative of NEO. Quantitative bone scintigraphy, which is quicker to perform, may be used as a single imaging modality for the diagnosis of NEO.

  15. Evaluation of osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich fibrin

    PubMed Central

    Tumer, Celal; Ugur, Omer; Vatankulu, Betul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) improved the healing of extraction sockets. Study Design: A total of 20 patients with bilateral soft tissue impacted mandibular third molars were included in this study. The left and right third molars were extracted during the same session. Subsequently, the PRF membrane was randomly administered to one of the extraction sockets, whereas the contra lateral sockets were left without treatment. On postoperative 30. and 90. days, panoramic images and bone scintigrams were taken to evaluate the bone healing between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets. Also, periodontal evaluation was performed in the same control sessions. Dependent group t test for paired samples was used for statistical analysis. Results: The average increase in technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake as an indication of enhanced bone healing did not differ significantly between PRF-treated and non-PRF-treated sockets 30 and 90 days post operatively. Radio opacity that can show the bone healing on panoramic images were measured by Image J programmer and they did not differ significantly. Also periodontal values did not differ significantly. Conclusions: PRF might not lead to enhanced bone healing in impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets 30 and 90 days after surgery. It is thought that PRF has the potential characteristics of an autologous fibrin matrix and can accelerate the healing. To better understand the effects of PRF on healing, further research is warranted with larger sample sizes. Key words:PRF, scintigraphy, healing, extraction sockets. PMID:25475771

  16. Oxygen pre-breathing decreases dysbaric diseases in UW sheep undergoing hyperbaric exposure.

    PubMed

    Sobakin, A S; Wilson, M A; Lehner, C E; Dueland, R T; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A P

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and animals to increased pressure as in a disabled submarine (DISSUB) can saturate the body's tissues with dissolved N2 as compressed air is breathed. Decompression-induced bubble formation in the long bone marrow cavity may lead to a bone compartment syndrome resulting in bone ischemia and necrosis. We tested oxygen pre-breathing prior to decompression in sheep to assess the effect upon dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) induction in a DISSUB simulation experiment. A total of sixteen adult female sheep were used throughout the experiment. Four sheep were used as controls without oxygen pre-breathing. All sheep (99 +/- 14 kg SD) underwent dry chamber air exposure at 60 fsw (2.79 atm abs) (.2827 MPa) for 24 h followed by oxygen (88-92%) pre-breathing (15-min, 1-h, and 2-h and air for control) before "dropout" decompression at 30 fsw/min (0.91 atm/min). 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans of the distal (radii and tibiae) long bones were used to detect "hot spots" of remodeling suggestive of DON lesions. Alizarin complexone fluorochrome was injected to visualize sites of metabolic activity indicating DON repair of both the proximal and distal long bones (radii, tibiae, femora, and humeri). Our findings showed that the amount of alizarin complexone deposition and bone scan uptake was greater in sheep with shorter oxygen pre-breathing times than those undergoing longer pre-breathing dives (p = 0.0056 and p = 0.001, for one and two hour pre-breathes respectively). Proximal limb bones (femur, humerus) displayed less alizarin complexone deposition than the distal radius and tibia (p < 0.0001).

  17. Functional investigation of bone implant viability using radiotracers in a new model of osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schiper, Luis; Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski; da Silva Badaró, Roberto José; de Oliveira, Erica Aparecida; Chavez, Victor E. Arana; Chinen, Elisangela; Faintuch, Joel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Conventional imaging methods are excellent for the morphological characterization of the consequences of osteonecrosis; however, only specialized techniques have been considered useful for obtaining functional information. To explore the affinity of radiotracers for severely devascularized bone, a new mouse model of isolated femur implanted in a subcutaneous abdominal pocket was devised. To maintain animal mobility and longevity, the femur was harvested from syngeneic donors. Two technetium-99m-labeled tracers targeting angiogenesis and bone matrix were selected. METHODS: Medronic acid and a homodimer peptide conjugated with RGDfK were radiolabeled with technetium-99m, and biodistribution was evaluated in Swiss mice. The grafted and control femurs were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days, including computed tomography (CT) and histological analysis. RESULTS: Radiolabeling achieved high (>95%) radiochemical purity. The biodistribution confirmed good blood clearance 1 hour after administration. For 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC)-E-[c(RGDfK)2, remarkable renal excretion was observed compared to 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP), but the latter, as expected, revealed higher bone uptake. The results obtained in the control femur were equal at all time points. In the implanted femur, 99mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2 uptake was highest after 15 days, consistent with early angiogenesis. Regarding 99mTc-MDP in the implant, similar uptake was documented at all time points, consistent with sustained bone viability; however, the uptake was lower than that detected in the control femur, as confirmed by histology. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Graft viability was successfully diagnosed using radiotracers in severely ischemic bone at all time points. 2) Analogously, indirect information about angiogenesis could be gathered using 999mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2. 3) These techniques appear promising and warrant further studies to determine their potential clinical applications. PMID

  18. Aqueous corrosion of phosphide minerals from iron meteorites: a highly reactive source of prebiotic phosphorus on the surface of the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew A; Lauretta, Dante S

    2005-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of aqueous corrosion of Fe-phosphide under conditions relevant to the early Earth. The results strongly suggest that iron meteorites were an important source of reactive phosphorus (P), a requirement for the formation of P-based life. We further demonstrate that iron meteorites were an abundant source of phosphide minerals early in Earth history. Phosphide corrosion was studied in five different solutions: deionized water, deionized water buffered with sodium bicarbonate, deionized water with dissolved magnesium and calcium chlorides, deionized water containing ethanol and acetic acid, and deionized water containing the chlorides, ethanol, and acetic acid. Experiments were performed in the presence of both air and pure Ar gas to evaluate the effect of atmospheric chemistry. Phosphide corrosion in deionized water results in a metastable mixture of mixed-valence, P-bearing ions including pyrophosphate and triphosphate, key components for metabolism in modern life. In a pH-buffered solution of NaHCO(3), the condensed and reduced species diphosphonate is an abundant corrosion product. Corrosion in ethanol- and acetic acid-containing solutions yields additional P-bearing organic molecules, including acetyl phosphonate and a cyclic triphosphorus molecule. Phosphonate is a major corrosion product of all experiments and is the only P-bearing molecule that persists in solutions with high concentrations of magnesium and calcium chlorides, which suggests that phosphonate may have been a primitive oceanic source of P. The stability and reactivity of phosphonate and hypophosphite in solution were investigated to elucidate reaction mechanisms and the role of mineral catalysts on P-solution chemistry. Phosphonate oxidation is rapid in the presence of Fe metal but negligible in the presence of magnetite and in the control sample. The rate of hypophosphite oxidation is independent of reaction substrate.

  19. Functional Sorbents for Selective Capture of Plutonium, Americium, Uranium, and Thorium in Blood

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Wiacek, Robert J.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-09-01

    Nano-engineered solid sorbents for chelation of actinides (239Pu, 241Am, uranium, thorium) from human blood were developed and evaluated in vitro. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMSTM), are hybrid materials created from attachment of organic moieties onto extremely high surface area mesoporous silica. The organic moieties known to be effective at capturing actinides including three isomers of hydroxypyridinone, diphosphonic acid, acetamide phosphonic acid, glycinyl urea, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetate analog were evaluated. SAMMS are being reported elsewhere as potential candidates for orally administered drug for radionuclide decorporation. Herein, actinide decorporation of SAMMS in blood were evaluated to assess their viability for sorbent hemoperfusion in renal insufficient patients, whose kidney clear radionuclides at very slow rate. Sorption affinity (Kd), sorption rate, selectivity, and stability of SAMMS were measured in batch contact experiments. An isomer of hydroxypyridinone (3,4-HOPO) on SAMMS demonstrated the highest affinity for decorporation of all four actinides and outperformed the DTPA analog on SAMMS and on commercial resins by a factor of 103-fold in term of affinity. A fifty percent reduction of actinides in blood was achieved within minutes with no evidence of protein fouling and material leaching in blood after 24 hr of contact time. Less than 0.4 wt.% of Si was dissolved from 3,4-HOPO-SAMMS across the pH of 0 to 8. The engineered form of SAMMS (bead format) was further evaluated in a 100-fold scaled-down hemoperfusion device and showed no blood clotting after 2 hr. A 0.2 g of SAMMS could reduce 50 wt.% of 100 ppb uranium in 50 mL of plasma in just 18 min and that of 500 dpm mL-1 in just 24 min. 3,4-HOPO-SAMMS has a long shelf-life in air and at room temperature for at least 8 years, indicating their feasibility for stockpiling in preparedness for emergency.

  20. In vivo role of phagocytic synovial lining cells in onset of experimental arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lent, P. L.; Van den Hoek, A. E.; Van den Bersselaar, L. A.; Spanjaards, M. F.; Van Rooijen, N.; Dijkstra, C. D.; Van de Putte, L. B.; Van den Berg, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo role of phagocytic synovial lining cells (SLC) was studied in acute experimental arthritis in the mouse. SLCs were selectively depleted by injecting liposomes encapsulating the drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate (CL2MDP, Clodronate). Optimal depletion of phagocytic lining cells occurred 7 days after CL2MDP liposome injection. Eliciting an immune complex-mediated arthritis in SLC-depleted knee joints largely prevented inflammation if compared to control arthritic knee joints. Joint swelling and influx of inflammatory cells into the joint cavity was markedly diminished. Cartilage damage, in this model related to influx of inflammatory cells, was significantly decreased. Reduced influx of inflammatory cells (mainly polymorphonuclear neutrophils) was correlated to a decreased production of chemotactic factors as measured in washouts of arthritic joints in a two-compartment Transwell system. Interleukin-1-driven chemotactic factors seem to be involved. Interleukin-1 levels were significantly lowered in SLC-depleted arthritic knee joints as compared to controls. Injection of recombinant murine interleukin-1 in SLC-depleted knee joints caused less influx of inflammatory cells as compared to injection into control knee joints. A specific damage of CL2MDP liposome treatment to synovial blood vessels was excluded as intraarticular injection of human recombinant C5a in lining-depleted knee joints showed similar influx of inflammatory cells if compared to human recombinant C5a injection in control knee joints. This study indicates that in immune complex-mediated arthritis, phagocytic lining cells regulate the onset of the inflammatory response. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8214013

  1. Post-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head predicted by preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid scan: an experimental and clinical study. [Rabbits; patients

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.H.

    1983-07-01

    Technetium-99m antimony colloid was used to visualize the bone marrow of the head of the femur within twenty-four hours after interruption of the blood supply by subcapital osteotomy and section of the ligamentum teres in thirteen rabbits and within twenty-four hours after a subcapital fracture in thirty patients. Of the rabbits, all showed loss of marrow radioactivity over the affected femoral head. Bone-imaging with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate, in contrast, failed to demonstrate any abnormality in the avascular head of the femur for as long as forty-eight hours after osteotomy. This difference between the marrow scan and the bone scan was attributed to earlier loss of function in the marrow cells than in the osteocytes. The thirty patients who had a preoperative scan within twenty-four hours after sustaining a subcapital fracture were treated by internal fixation with a Richards screw and plate and were followed for as long as two years, or until the patient died or radiographs showed evidence of avascular necrosis. The preoperative technetium-99m antimony-colloid activity in the head of the fractured femur was normal in sixteen patients and absent in fourteen; two of the fourteen had no activity in either hip, which precluded assessment of the fractured hip in these patients. In fifteen of the sixteen hips, preservation of the uptake in the marrow of the head of the fractured femur preoperatively predicted normal healing. Late segmental collapse developed in the remaining hip. In eleven of the twelve patients who had loss of marrow activity in the femoral head preoperatively, avascular necrosis developed within two years.

  2. Multi-technique imaging of bone metastases: spotlight on PET-CT.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gurdip K; Cook, Gary J

    2016-07-01

    There is growing evidence that molecular imaging of bone metastases with positron-emission tomography (PET) can improve diagnosis and treatment response assessment over current conventional standard imaging methods, although cost-effectiveness has not been assessed. In most cancer types, 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG)-PET is an accurate method for detecting bone metastases. For example, in breast cancer, combined (18)F-FDG-PET and computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive at detecting bone metastases than (99m)technetium (Tc)-labelled diphosphonate planar bone scintigraphy (BS) and there is increasing evidence to support the use of serial (18)F-FDG-PET for the assessment of osseous response to treatment. Preliminary data suggest improved diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FDG-PET-CT in a number of other malignancies including lung, thyroid, head and neck, gastro-oesophageal cancers, and osteosarcoma. As a bone-specific tracer, there is accumulating evidence to support the use of sodium (18)F-fluoride ((18)F-NaF) PET-CT in the diagnosis of skeletal metastases in breast and prostate cancer, although relatively little data are available to support its use for assessment of treatment response. In prostate cancer, (11)C-choline and (18)F-choline PET-CT have better specificities than (18)F-NaF-PET-CT, but equivalent sensitivities in the detection of bone metastases. We review the current literature for staging and response assessment of bone metastases in different cancers.

  3. Kupffer cell-independent acute hepatocellular oxidative stress and decreased bile formation in post-cold-ischemic rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Suematsu, M; Shimazu, M; Kato, Y; Sano, T; Makino, N; Hirano, K I; Naito, M; Wakabayashi, G; Ishimura, Y; Kitajima, M

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine distribution and time history of oxidative stress during the hyperacute period of reperfusion in the liver grafts undergoing cold ischemia and to investigate roles of Kupffer cells as a potential oxidant source. Rat livers were harvested at 4 degrees C in University of Wisconsin solution and followed by reperfusion with Krebs-Henseleit buffer under monitoring bile excretion. To investigate oxidative changes, laser-confocal microfluorography was performed in reperfused livers preloaded with dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, a fluorescence precursor sensing intracellular hydroperoxide generation. Livers undergoing the 16-hour cold storage displayed an impaired recovery of bile acid-dependent bile output concurrent with a marked increase in hydroperoxide generation in hepatocytes, which occurred as early as 5 minutes after the onset of reperfusion, whereas the status of lobular perfusion was well maintained. Pretreatment with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a Kupffer cell-depleting reagent, did neither alter the reperfusion-induced periportal oxidative changes nor improve the recovery of bile output in the graft. On the other hand, EPCK, a hepatotropic antioxidant composed of vitamin E phosphate ester bound to vitamin C, not only diminished the oxidative changes but also improved the reduction of bile acid-dependent bile output. Furthermore, the reagent was capable of inhibiting H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in cultured hepatocytes. These results suggest that hepatocytes constitute a major site of the oxidative insult triggered through Kupffer cell-independent mechanisms and serve as an important cellular component to be protected by antioxidant therapeutics.

  4. Northeast utilities, Millstone station experience with Eichrom Industries` Diphonix{trademark} selective ion exchange resin in liquid radwaste processing, update, May 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Peiffer, D.; Jassin, L.

    1995-11-01

    The three nuclear units at Millstone station, GE BRW (unit 1), C-E PRW (unit 2) and Westinghouse PWR (unit 3), have completed a series of bench top and side stream pilot scale tests of Eichrom`s DiphoniXTm resin, a novel gel type ion exchange resin. This testing was part of an overall optimization of their radwaste systems. The optimization also included a review of coagulants and cesium specific materials. The project has been so successful that Millstone now operates with Diphonix resin in Unit 2 and is expanding its use to Unit 1. These installations provide Millstone with an effective means of minimizing spent resin generation from their liquid radwaste systems and provide an effective means of minimizing the activity discharged into the environment. The liquid radwaste processed by these systems contains sodium, calcium, chloride and sulfate ions at concentrations approximately one billion times those of the radioactive components present. Standard mixed bed resins are exhausted by exchanging the sodium, calcium, chloride and sulfate ions. The resin`s exchange capacity is consumed by the common ions allowing the radioactive components to pass through. The result is the need to replace resin beds at a much higher frequency than desirable. Diphonix resin differs from typical cation exchange resin through its unique combination of diphosphonic acid and sulfonic acid functional groups which exhibit selectivity for Co, Zn and other transition metals over sodium and calcium (2). Samples of radwaste liquids from each Millstone unit were passed through laboratory scale columns of Diphonix resin. These tests demonstrated that Diphonix resin was capable of removing all detectable cationic Co-58, Co-60 and Zn-65. In another test, a side stream was taken from the discharge of unit I`s radwaste system carbon bed effluent and passed through a column of Diphonix resin over a period of months.

  5. Periprosthetic joint infections: a clinical practice algorithm

    PubMed Central

    VOLPE, LUIGI; INDELLI, PIER FRANCESCO; LATELLA, LEONARDO; POLI, PAOLO; YAKUPOGLU, JALE; MARCUCCI, MASSIMILIANO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) accounts for 25% of failed total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) and 15% of failed total hip arthroplasties (THAs). The purpose of the present study was to design a multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm to detect a PJI as cause of a painful TKA or THA. Methods from April 2010 to October 2012, 111 patients with suspected PJI were evaluated. The study group comprised 75 females and 36 males with an average age of 71 years (range, 48 to 94 years). Eighty-four patients had a painful THA, while 27 reported a painful TKA. The stepwise diagnostic algorithm, applied in all the patients, included: measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels; imaging studies, including standard radiological examination, standard technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan (if positive, confirmation by LeukoScan was obtained); and joint aspiration with analysis of synovial fluid. Results following application of the stepwise diagnostic algorithm, 24 out of our 111 screened patients were classified as having a suspected PJI (21.7%). CRP and ESR levels were negative in 84 and positive in 17 cases; 93.7% of the patients had a positive technetium-labeled bone scan, and 23% a positive LeukoScan. Preoperative synovial fluid analysis was positive in 13.5%; analysis of synovial fluid obtained by preoperative aspiration showed a leucocyte count of > 3000 cells μ/l in 52% of the patients. Conclusions the present study showed that the diagnosis of PJI requires the application of a multimodal diagnostic protocol in order to avoid complications related to surgical revision of a misdiagnosed “silent” PJI. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25750905

  6. In vivo manipulation (depletion versus activation) of testicular macrophages: central and local effects.

    PubMed

    Gaytan, F; Bellido, C; Morales, C; García, M; van Rooijen, N; Aguilar, E

    1996-07-01

    Testicular macrophages are a relevant cell type for the regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The availability of liposome technology allows in vivo manipulation of macrophages in order to analyze their role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. In this study, adult (70 days of age) and prepubertal (22 days of age) rats were injected intratesticularly with liposomes containing either dichloromethylene diphosphonate (C12MDP) to deplete testicular macrophages or muramyl tripeptide (MTP-PE) to activate them. Control rats were injected with the corresponding volumes of 0.9% NaCl. Animals were killed 10 days after treatment. Adult rats injected bilaterally or unilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed increased serum LH and testosterone concentrations, as well as increased testosterone concentrations in the testicular interstitial fluid. In unilaterally injected rats, testosterone concentrations in the interstitial fluid were higher in the macrophage-containing testes than in the contralateral, macrophage-depleted testes. Adult rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of testicular macrophages, whereas the number of Leydig cells was unchanged. Serum LH concentrations were decreased, but no changes were found in testosterone concentrations. Prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed decreased numbers of Leydig cells. However, serum LH and testosterone concentrations were increased. Otherwise, prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of macrophages and Leydig cells, as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. These data suggest that testicular macrophage-derived factors act at two different levels in the pituitary-testicular axis: first, at a central level by inhibiting LH secretion, and secondly, at a local level by stimulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

  7. Evaluating disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis using 99mtc-glucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Manolios, Nicholas; Ali, Marina; Camden, Bradley; Aflaky, Elham; Pavic, Katrina; Markewycz, Andrew; De Costa, Robert; Angelides, Socrates

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of a novel radiotracer, 99mTc-glucosamine, in assessing disease activity of both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients with RA (nine males and 16 females) and 12 patients with AS (all male) at various stages of disease were recruited for the study. A clinical history and examination was performed, followed by the measurement of hematological, biochemical, and autoimmune serological parameters to assess disease activity. 99mTc-glucosamine was intravenously administered and scans were compared with other imaging modalities, including plain X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bone scans. Results In patients with AS, 99mTc-glucosamine scans were more capable of identifying active disease and differentiating between inflammatory and non-inflammatory causes. In patients with RA, 99mTc-glucosamine accumulated at all known sites of disease involvement. Uptake was most pronounced in patients with active untreated disease. The relative tracer activity in the involved joints increased with time compared with that in the adjoining soft tissue, liver, and cardiac blood pool. Using Spearman’s correlation coefficient, there was a positive correlation among glucosamine scan scores, C-reactive protein (p=0.048), and clinical assessment (p=0.003), which was not noted with bone scans. Conclusion The radiotracer was well tolerated by all patients, with no adverse reactions. 99mTc-glucosamine imaging could detect spinal inflammation in AS. With respect to RA, 99mTc-glucosamine was a viable alternative to 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate nuclear bone scans for imaging inflamed joints and had the added advantage of demonstrating a significant clinical correlation between disease activity and scan findings. PMID:27708974

  8. Scintigraphic Evaluation of the Stump Region After Extremity Amputation and the Effect of Scintigraphy on Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sadic, Murat; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Cinar, Alev; Koca, Gokhan; Demirel, Koray; Comak, Aylin; Ozyurt, Sinem; Yildirim, Sule; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the stump region with scintigraphy and compared the correlation of treatment modalities and scintigraphic results. Methods Sixty-eight cases with extremity amputation were included in the study. Amputation applied cases underwent four-phase Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate scintigraphy. Groups were performed according to the scanning time after amputation and amputation regions. After scintigraphic evaluation, results were recorded into five groups: osteomyelitis, soft-tissue infection, reactive changes secondary to surgery, chronic osteomyelitis, and normal. Post-surgical treatment modalities of the patients were determined and compared with scintigraphic results. Results In the scintigraphic evaluation of stump regions of the 68 amputated cases, 34 patients had acute osteomyelitis, one had chronic osteomyelitis, 16 had soft-tissue infection, and eight had changes secondary to the surgery. Nine of 68 cases had normal scintigraphic features. In the scintigraphic evaluation, 43 patients took antibiotic treatment and 16 had surgery. There was a strong correlation between scintigraphic results and treatment approach (P < 0.0001, r = 0.803) by means of preferred therapy and effectiveness of the therapy according to the scintigraphic results. Scintigraphy need increases with age after amputation and a negative correlation between patient age and scintigraphic need was found (P < 0.02, r = -0.339). There was no pathology in the follow-up in the cases that were scintigraphically normal. Conclusion Bone scintigraphy is a cost-effective, non-invasive, and efficient method that directs treatment in the evaluation of the stump region after amputation. PMID:26858796

  9. [Radioprotection and environmental pollution by the use of the radionuclides 89Sr, 186Re, and 153Sm for pain palliation in metastatic bone diseases. Related calculations].

    PubMed

    Sbonias, Evangelos

    2005-01-01

    Due to the fact that the existing commercial analgesic drugs are not able to reduce effectively the pain caused by the metastatic bone disease, the use of radiopharmaceuticals with avidity to selectively localize in the metastatic skeletal sites, such as strondium-89 chloride (89Sr-Cl2), rhenium-186-hydroxy ethylene diphosphonate (186Re-HEDP), and samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene (153Sm-EDTMP), is widely accepted. However this medical application may be dangerous for the occupied personnel and more for general public, if radioactive waste is not properly disposed. In the following article we try to estimate the degree and the significance of that risk. For that reason we discuss the physical properties of these radionuclides and their distribution in the body of the patient. We conclude that 89Sr is not harmful for the physician, the attending personnel or those who live with the patient, because it radiates beta-radiation, while its gamma-radiation is negligeable. The radionuclides 186Re and 153Sm besides beta-radiation, also emit a perceptible amount of gamma-radiation. It has been shown that the exposure to gamma-radiation from these radionuclides of the physician, the attending personnel or those who live with the patient is very low as compared to the internationally accepted radioprotection limits. However the environmental contamination per treatment by either of these three radionuclides is not negligeable in comparison to the national and international accepted limits. Patients that are not in good clinical condition may pose an additional contamination danger to those attending them. For limiting radiocontamination, the annual number of treatments by the above three previous radionuclides, should be considered according to the ALARA principle in relation with the correct handling of these patients, and also considering the fundamentals of radioprotection. PMID:16142246

  10. 18F-Labeled NaF PET-CT in Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Preoperative Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Liangjun; Zong, Zhen; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2016-04-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of F-labeled sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET-CT with 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in patients with preoperative lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer (n = 181) were examined with F-NaF PET-CT, and another 167 patients with lung cancer were examined with Tc-MDP SPECT. F-NaF PET-CT and Tc-MDP SPECT were evaluated by 2 experienced readers. Lesions were graded on a scale of 0 (degenerative lesion) to 4 (definite BM), and equivocal lesions were determined as indifferent (grade 3). Based on patient-based analysis, there were only 4 equivocal patients in F-NaF PET-CT detection. However, in Tc-MDP SPECT detection, there were 19 equivocal patients, which indicated a significant difference in terms of occurrence ratio (χ = 9.005, P = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). Based on lesions-based analysis, SPECT produced 26 equivocal lesions of 333 lesions, but PET-CT produced only 5 equivocal lesions of 991 lesions. PET-CT was significantly better than SPECT in the aspect of producing equivocal patients (χ = 58.141, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). F-NaF PET-CT is a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection of BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. It is better than conventional Tc-MDP SPECT in detecting BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer.

  11. A Freeze-Dried Kit for the Preparation of (188)Re-HEDP for Bone Pain Palliation: Preparation and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Madhava B; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan; Kameswaran, Mythili; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Aswathy, K K; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    (188)Re-HEDP is an established radiopharmaceutical used for pain palliation in patients with osseous metastasis. Considering commercial availability of (188)W/(188)Re generator, the accessibility to a lyophilized kit would make preparation of this radiopharmaceutical feasible at the hospital radiopharmacy having access to a generator. A protocol for the preparation of a single-vial lyophilized hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) kit was developed and its consistency was checked by preparing six batches. Each sterile lyophilized kit prepared as per the protocol contained 9 mg of HEDP, 3 mg of gentisic acid, and 4 mg of SnCl2.2H2O. Randomly selected kits from all six batches were subjected to thorough quality control tests that were passed by all batches. (188)Re-HEDP could be prepared by addition of 1 mL of freshly eluted Na(188)ReO4 (up to 3700 MBq) containing 1 μmol of carrier ReO4(-) (perrhenate) and heating at 100°C for 15 minutes. (188)Re-HEDP with >95% radiochemical purity could be consistently prepared using the lyophilized kits. Sterile (188)Re-HEDP prepared using the lyophilized kit was evaluated in patients with osseous metastasis. Post-therapy images of the patient were compared with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and found to be satisfactory. The bone-to-background as well as tumor-to-normal bone uptake ratio was found to be significant. All patients who received therapy reported significant pain relief within a week to 10 days post-administration of (188)Re-HEDP.

  12. Acute lethal toxicity following passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Savoy, A C; Lupan, D M; Manalo, P B; Roberts, J S; Schlageter, A M; Weinhold, L C; Kozel, T R

    1997-05-01

    Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans alters the course of murine cryptococcosis. During studies of passive immunization for treatment of murine cryptococcosis, we noted the occurrence of an acute, lethal toxicity. Toxicity was characterized by scratching, lethargy, respiratory distress, collapse, and death within 20 to 60 min after injection of antibody. The toxic effect was observed only in mice with a cryptococcal infection and was reduced or absent in the early and late stages of disease. The clinical course and histopathology were consistent with those for shock. There was considerable variation between mouse strains in susceptibility to toxicity. Swiss Webster mice from the Charles River colony were most susceptible, followed by C3H/He, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. DBA/2 mice and Swiss Webster mice from the Simonsen colony were resistant. Acute toxicity was mimicked by injection of preformed complexes of MAb and purified polysaccharide. The toxic effect was also produced by injection of MAbs into mice that were preloaded with polysaccharide. The toxic effect was not blocked by treatment of mice with chloropheniramine or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibodies or by depletion of complement components via pretreatment with cobra venom factor. Toxicity was reduced by treatment of mice with high doses of epinephrine, dexamethasone, or chlorpromazine. Finally, the toxic effect was completely blocked by treatment of mice with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2170 BS or by pretreatment of mice with the liposome-encapsulated drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a procedure which depletes macrophages from the spleen and liver.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a new layered organic-inorganic hybrid nickel(II) 1,4:5,8-naphthalenediimide bis-phosphonate, exhibiting canted antiferromagnetism, with T{sub c}{approx}21 K

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Elvira M. Bellitto, Carlo; Gomez Garcia, Carlos J. Righini, Guido

    2008-05-15

    A new Ni(II) layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound of formula Ni{sub 2}[(NDI-BP)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].2H{sub 2}O has been prepared in very mild conditions from N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)napthalene-1,4:5,8-tetracarboximide (NDI-BP ligand) and NiCl{sub 2}. The X-ray powder structure characterization of the title compound suggests a pillared layered organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The distance between the organic and inorganic layers has been found to be 17.8 A. The inorganic layers consist of corner sharing [NiO{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)] octahedra and they are pillared by the diphosphonate groups. DC and AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and field indicate the presence of 2D antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the nearest-neighbor Ni(II) ions below 100 K. A long-range magnetic ordering at T{sub c}{approx}21 K has been established and is attributed to the presence of spin canting. AC magnetic measurements as a function of temperature at different frequencies confirm the occurrence of the magnetic ordering temperature at T=21 K and the presence of a slight structural disorder in the title compound. - Graphical abstract: A new layered hybrid organic-inorganic Ni(II) N,N'-bis(2-phosphonoethyl)-naphthalene 1,4:5,8 tetracarboxydiimide complex has been synthesized and characterized. Magnetic measurements as a function of temperature and at different fields show that the compound is magnetically ordered below T{sub c}{approx}21 K.

  14. Selective Removal of Lanthanides from Natural Waters, Acidic Streams and Dialysate

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Koonsiripaiboon, View; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-09-15

    The increased demand for the lanthanides in commercial products result in increased production of lanthanide containing ores, increasing public exposure to the lanthanides, both from various commercial products and from production wastes/effluents. This work investigates lanthanide (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Lu) binding properties of self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silica supports (SAMMS®) that were functionalized with diphosphonic acid (DiPhos), acetamide phosphonic acid (AcPhos), propionamide phosphonic acid (ProPhos), and 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) from natural waters (river, ground, and sea waters), acid solutions (to mimic certain industrial process streams), and dialysate and compares their performance to a high surface area activated carbon. The properties include sorption affinity, capacity, and sorption kinetics. Stability and regenerability of SAMMS materials were also investigated. Going from the acid side over to the alkaline side, the AcPhos- and DiPhos-SAMMS maintain their outstanding affinity for lanthanides, which enable the use of the materials in the systems where the pH may fluctuate. While the activated carbon is as effective as 1,2-HOPO-SAMMS for capturing lanthanides in natural (alkaline) waters, it has no affinity in acid solutions (pH 2.4) and low affinity in carbonate-rich dialysate. Over 99% of 100 ug/L of Gd in dialysate was removed by the ProPhos-SAMMS after ten minutes. SAMMS can be regenerated with an acid wash (0.5 M HCl) without losing the binding properties, for a number of regeneration cycles. In acid solutions, PhoPhos- and 1,2-HOPO-SAMMS have differing affinity along the lanthanide series, suggesting their potential for chromatographic lanthanide separations. Thus, SAMMS materials have a great potential to be used as sorbents in large scale treatment of lanthanides, lanthanide separation prior to analytical instruments, and sorbent dialyzers for lanthanide clearances.

  15. 18F-Labeled NaF PET-CT in Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Preoperative Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Liangjun; Zong, Zhen; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2016-04-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of F-labeled sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET-CT with 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in patients with preoperative lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer (n = 181) were examined with F-NaF PET-CT, and another 167 patients with lung cancer were examined with Tc-MDP SPECT. F-NaF PET-CT and Tc-MDP SPECT were evaluated by 2 experienced readers. Lesions were graded on a scale of 0 (degenerative lesion) to 4 (definite BM), and equivocal lesions were determined as indifferent (grade 3). Based on patient-based analysis, there were only 4 equivocal patients in F-NaF PET-CT detection. However, in Tc-MDP SPECT detection, there were 19 equivocal patients, which indicated a significant difference in terms of occurrence ratio (χ = 9.005, P = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). Based on lesions-based analysis, SPECT produced 26 equivocal lesions of 333 lesions, but PET-CT produced only 5 equivocal lesions of 991 lesions. PET-CT was significantly better than SPECT in the aspect of producing equivocal patients (χ = 58.141, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). F-NaF PET-CT is a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection of BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. It is better than conventional Tc-MDP SPECT in detecting BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. PMID:27100456

  16. Injection of guanosine and adenosine nucleotides into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells

    PubMed Central

    Bolsover, S. R.; Brown, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    1. Several nucleotide and nucleotide analogues had striking effects when pressure-injected into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells. The poorly hydrolysable GTP analogues guanosine 5′-0-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS), guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) and guanylyl (β, γ methylene) diphosphonate (Gpp[CH2]p) produced large increases in the frequency of `discrete events' that were recorded from photoreceptors in darkness. This effect was only observed after the injected cell was exposed to light. Injection of the ATP analogue ATPγS had effects similar to those of the GTP analogues. 2. We conclude that GTPγS, Gpp[NH]p, Gpp[CH2]p and ATPγS act at a common site to cause a light-dependent, long-term activation of the excitation mechanism of the photoreceptor. 3. Injection of GTP or GDP at pH 4.8 was followed by a smooth, transient depolarization that was observed neither when GTP at pH 7.5 was injected nor when ATP, 5′GMP or 2-[N-morpholino] ethane sulphonic acid (MES) were injected at pH 4.8. The reversal potential of the current induced by GTP injection was significantly more positive than the reversal potential of the light-induced current. 4. We conclude that GTP injection induces changes of membrane conductance either in addition to, or different from, the light-induced change of membrane conductance. 5. Injection of the ATP analogue adenylyl imidodiphosphate (App[NH]p), and the pyrophosphate analogue imidodiphosphate (p[NH]p) produced a drastic decrease in the sensitivity of photoreceptors to light. This decrease in sensitivity was partially reversed when the concentration of calcium ions in the bathing medium was reduced. 6. We suggest that App[NH]p and p[NH]p injections act by increasing the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium ions. PMID:7153930

  17. A new reconstruction strategy for image improvement in pinhole SPECT.

    PubMed

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Watabe, Hiroshi; Aoi, Toshiyuki; Kim, Kyeong Min; Teramoto, Noboru; Hayashi, Takuya; Sohlberg, Antti; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Iida, Hidehiro

    2004-08-01

    Pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is able to provide information on the biodistribution of several radioligands in small laboratory animals, but has limitations associated with non-uniform spatial resolution or axial blurring. We have hypothesised that this blurring is due to incompleteness of the projection data acquired by a single circular pinhole orbit, and have evaluated a new strategy for accurate image reconstruction with better spatial resolution uniformity. A pinhole SPECT system using two circular orbits and a dedicated three-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximisation (3D-OSEM) reconstruction method were developed. In this system, not the camera but the object rotates, and the two orbits are at 90 degrees and 45 degrees relative to the object's axis. This system satisfies Tuy's condition, and is thus able to provide complete data for 3D pinhole SPECT reconstruction within the whole field of view (FOV). To evaluate this system, a series of experiments was carried out using a multiple-disk phantom filled with 99mTc solution. The feasibility of the proposed method for small animal imaging was tested with a mouse bone study using 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Feldkamp's filtered back-projection (FBP) method and the 3D-OSEM method were applied to these data sets, and the visual and statistical properties were examined. Axial blurring, which was still visible at the edge of the FOV even after applying the conventional 3D-OSEM instead of FBP for single-orbit data, was not visible after application of 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data. 3D-OSEM using two-orbit data dramatically reduced the resolution non-uniformity and statistical noise, and also demonstrated considerably better image quality in the mouse scan. This system may be of use in quantitative assessment of bio-physiological functions in small animals.

  18. The inhibition of crystal growth of mirabilite in aqueous solutions in the presence of phosphonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavouraki, A. I.; Koutsoukos, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    The formation of sodium sulfate decahydrate (Mirabilite) has been known to cause serious damages to structural materials both of modern and of historical buildings. Methods which can retard or completely suppress the development of mirabilte crystals are urgently needed especially as remedies or preventive measures for the preservation of the built cultural heritage. In the present work we present results on the effect of the presence of phosphonate compounds on the kinetics of crystal growth from aqueous supersaturated solutions at 18 °C using the seeded growth technique. The phosphonate compounds tested differed with respect to the number of ionizable phosphonate groups and with respect to the number of amino groups in the respective molecules. The crystal growth process was monitored by the temperature changes during the exothermic crystallization of mirabilite in the stirred supersaturated solutions. The crystal growth of mirabilite in the presence of: (1-hydroxyethylidene)-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), amino tri (methylene phosphonic acid) (ATMP), hexamethylenediaminetetra (methylene)phosphonic acid (HTDMP), and diethylene triamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid)(DETPMP) over a range of concentrations between 0.1-5% w/w resulted in significant decrease of the rates of mirabilite crystal growth. All phosphonic compounds tested reduced the crystallization rates up to 60% in comparison with additive-free solutions. The presence of the test compounds did not cause changes of the mechanism of crystal growth which was surface diffusion controlled, as shown by the second order dependence of the rates of mirabilite crystal growth on the relative supersaturation. The excellent fit of the measured rates to a kinetic Langmuir-type model suggested that the activity of the tested inhibitors could be attributed to the adsorption and subsequent reduction of the active crystal growth sites of the seed crystals. In all cases, the inhibitory activity was reduced with

  19. Bone Positron Emission Tomography with or without CT Is More Accurate than Bone Scan for Detection of Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Jin; Kim, Sang Eun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Na18F bone positron emission tomography (bone PET) is a new imaging modality which is useful for the evaluation of bone diseases. Here, we compared the diagnostic accuracies between bone PET and bone scan for the detection of bone metastasis (BM). Materials and Methods Sixteen cancer patients (M:F = 10:6, mean age = 60 ± 12 years) who underwent both bone PET and bone scan were analyzed. Bone PET was conducted 30 minutes after the injection of 370 MBq Na18F, and a bone scan was performed 3 hours after the injection of 1295 MBq 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. Results In the patient-based analysis (8 patients with BM and 8 without BM), the sensitivities of bone PET (100% = 8/8) and bone scan (87.5% = 7/8) were not significantly different (p > 0.05), whereas the specificity of bone PET (87.5% = 7/8) was significantly greater than that of the bone scan (25% = 2/8) (p < 0.05). In the lesion-based analysis (43 lesions in 14 patients; 31 malignant and 12 benign), the sensitivity of bone PET (100% = 31/31) was significantly greater than that of bone scan (38.7% = 12/31) (p < 0.01), and the specificity of bone PET (75.0% = 9/12) was also significantly higher than that of bone scan (8.3% = 1/12) (p < 0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that bone PET was significantly more accurate than the bone scan in the patient (p = 0.0306) and lesion (p = 0.0001) based analyses. Conclusion Na18F bone PET is more accurate than bone scan for BM evaluation. PMID:23690722

  20. T cells and macrophages in Trypanosoma brucei-related glomerulopathy.

    PubMed Central

    van Velthuysen, M L; Mayen, A E; van Rooijen, N; Fleuren, G J; de Heer, E; Bruijn, J A

    1994-01-01

    In a previous study, susceptibility for Trypanosoma brucei-related glomerulopathy in mice was shown to be dependent on non-major histocompatibility complex genes. Glomerular disease in this model could not be explained by the production of autoantibodies alone. In order to analyze which part of the defense system, in addition to the B-cell compartment, is involved in the development of this infection-related glomerular disease, groups of athymic (BALB/c rnu/rnu), splenectomized, or macrophage-depleted BALB/c mice were inoculated with T. brucei parasites. Polyclonal B-cell activation, invariably observed in infected BALB/c mice, was absent in BALB/c rnu/rnu mice. Glomerular disease in athymic mice, however, as defined by albuminuria and deposition of immune complexes, was not different from that seen in euthymic infected BALB/c mice. Splenectomy prior to inoculation of parasites led to a decreased incidence of albuminuria in 40% of the animals, whereas splenectomy 21 days after inoculation reduced albuminuria significantly, suggesting a role for spleen cells in the induction of glomerular disease. After macrophage depletion with liposome-encapsulated dichlorodimethylene-diphosphonate, infected BALB/c mice developed significantly higher albuminuria levels for a period up to 2 weeks after depletion. Therefore, it was concluded that the development of T. brucei-related glomerular disease is independent of thymus-matured T cells, while the involvement of macrophages in the development of proteinuria is inhibitory rather than disease inducing. Spleen cells other than thymus-dependent T cells, B cells, and macrophages should be investigated for their role in the pathogenesis of this glomerulopathy. Images PMID:7913696

  1. T cells and macrophages in Trypanosoma brucei-related glomerulopathy.

    PubMed

    van Velthuysen, M L; Mayen, A E; van Rooijen, N; Fleuren, G J; de Heer, E; Bruijn, J A

    1994-08-01

    In a previous study, susceptibility for Trypanosoma brucei-related glomerulopathy in mice was shown to be dependent on non-major histocompatibility complex genes. Glomerular disease in this model could not be explained by the production of autoantibodies alone. In order to analyze which part of the defense system, in addition to the B-cell compartment, is involved in the development of this infection-related glomerular disease, groups of athymic (BALB/c rnu/rnu), splenectomized, or macrophage-depleted BALB/c mice were inoculated with T. brucei parasites. Polyclonal B-cell activation, invariably observed in infected BALB/c mice, was absent in BALB/c rnu/rnu mice. Glomerular disease in athymic mice, however, as defined by albuminuria and deposition of immune complexes, was not different from that seen in euthymic infected BALB/c mice. Splenectomy prior to inoculation of parasites led to a decreased incidence of albuminuria in 40% of the animals, whereas splenectomy 21 days after inoculation reduced albuminuria significantly, suggesting a role for spleen cells in the induction of glomerular disease. After macrophage depletion with liposome-encapsulated dichlorodimethylene-diphosphonate, infected BALB/c mice developed significantly higher albuminuria levels for a period up to 2 weeks after depletion. Therefore, it was concluded that the development of T. brucei-related glomerular disease is independent of thymus-matured T cells, while the involvement of macrophages in the development of proteinuria is inhibitory rather than disease inducing. Spleen cells other than thymus-dependent T cells, B cells, and macrophages should be investigated for their role in the pathogenesis of this glomerulopathy. PMID:7913696

  2. Serum osteocalcin (BGP) in tumor-associated hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Body, J J; Cleeren, A; Pot, M; Borkowski, A

    1986-12-01

    Serum osteocalcin (BGP) is a new marker of bone turnover that reportedly evaluates bone formation. Thus, its measurement could assess the bone formation rate in tumor-associated hypercalcemia. We measured concentrations of BGP and other parameters of bone metabolism in 54 untreated hypercalcemic cancer patients as compared to 109 healthy subjects. Primary tumor sites were breast (19), lung (11), head and neck (6), multiple myeloma (3), kidney (2), and various (11) or multiple (2). Mean BGP levels were higher in the hypercalcemic subjects, 4.6 +/- 0.4 (SEM) ng/ml, than in the normal subjects, 3.6 +/- 0.1 ng/ml (p less than .05), and were normalized in the 22 patients who could be reevaluated after successful treatment of hypercalcemia with intravenous aminohydroxypropylidene diphosphonate (APD). There was no correlation of BGP levels with age, sex, or renal function. Compared with the Gaussian distribution in the normal subjects, there was a considerable scatter of the data in hypercalcemic patients, suggesting the existence of defined subgroups with abnormally low or abnormally high values. However, we found no significant relationship of BGP concentrations with tumor site or histology or with bone metastatic involvement. We found also no significant correlation between concentrations of serum BGP and total or ionized calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parameters of bone resorption, and indices of parathyroid function. In summary, serum BGP levels were slightly elevated in tumor-associated hypercalcemia and were normalized after successful treatment of hypercalcemia. More importantly, BGP concentrations varied widely even in the subgroups of patients with hypercalcemia accompanying massive bone metastatic involvement or in the patients without detectable skeletal metastases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Syntheses and structures of uranyl ethylenediphosphonates: from layers to elliptical nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tao; Yang, Weiting; Wang, Hao; Dang, Song; Pan, Qing-Jiang; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2013-06-17

    A family of uranium diphosphonates have been hydrothermally synthesized through the reaction of ethylenediphosphonic acid (EDP, H4L) and uranyl nitrate/zinc uranyl acetate in the presence of organic templates, such as tetraethyl ammonium (NEt4(+)), 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy), and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The UO2(2+) in UO2(H2O)(H2L)(EDP-U1) is equatorially five-coordinated by four phosphonate groups and one aqua ligand, forming a pentagonal bipyramid. Each EDP ligand is doubly protonated and chelates three UO2(2+), resulting in a layered structure. Compounds (NEt4)2(UO2)3(HL)2(H2L)·4H2O (EDP-U2) and (H2bipy)UO2L (EDP-U3) have the same layered structure in which NEt4(+) and protonated bipy fill in the uranyl-phosphonate interlayers, respectively, and play a role to balance the negative charges. Different from that in EDP-U1, the UO2(2+) exists in the form of a UO6 tetragonal bipyramid and is surrounded by four different EDP ligands in EDP-U2 and EDP-U3. (Hphen)2(UO2)2(H2L)3 (EDP-U4) features a three-dimensional framework structure with large elliptical channels along the c axis (1.3 × 1.1 nm(2)). Monoprotonated phen molecules fill in these channels and hold together through strong π···π interactions. All of the four compounds have been characterized by IR and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Their characteristic emissions have been attributed as transition properties of uranyl cations. The ion-exchange study indicates that [Co(en)3](3+) could partially replace the protonated phen molecules.

  4. Syntheses and structures of uranyl ethylenediphosphonates: from layers to elliptical nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tao; Yang, Weiting; Wang, Hao; Dang, Song; Pan, Qing-Jiang; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2013-06-17

    A family of uranium diphosphonates have been hydrothermally synthesized through the reaction of ethylenediphosphonic acid (EDP, H4L) and uranyl nitrate/zinc uranyl acetate in the presence of organic templates, such as tetraethyl ammonium (NEt4(+)), 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy), and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The UO2(2+) in UO2(H2O)(H2L)(EDP-U1) is equatorially five-coordinated by four phosphonate groups and one aqua ligand, forming a pentagonal bipyramid. Each EDP ligand is doubly protonated and chelates three UO2(2+), resulting in a layered structure. Compounds (NEt4)2(UO2)3(HL)2(H2L)·4H2O (EDP-U2) and (H2bipy)UO2L (EDP-U3) have the same layered structure in which NEt4(+) and protonated bipy fill in the uranyl-phosphonate interlayers, respectively, and play a role to balance the negative charges. Different from that in EDP-U1, the UO2(2+) exists in the form of a UO6 tetragonal bipyramid and is surrounded by four different EDP ligands in EDP-U2 and EDP-U3. (Hphen)2(UO2)2(H2L)3 (EDP-U4) features a three-dimensional framework structure with large elliptical channels along the c axis (1.3 × 1.1 nm(2)). Monoprotonated phen molecules fill in these channels and hold together through strong π···π interactions. All of the four compounds have been characterized by IR and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Their characteristic emissions have been attributed as transition properties of uranyl cations. The ion-exchange study indicates that [Co(en)3](3+) could partially replace the protonated phen molecules. PMID:23701415

  5. Development and Pharmacological Evaluation of New Bone-Targeted (99m)Tc-Radiolabeled Bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Tseligka, Eirini D; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas S; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-07-01

    A novel bisphosphonate, 1-(3-aminopropylamino)ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (3), was coupled to the tridentate chelators di-2-picolylamine, 2-picolylamine-N-acetic acid, iminodiacetic acid, 3-((2-aminoethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-((2-carboxyethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid to form ligands 6, 9, 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Organometallic complexes of the general formula [Re/(99m)Tc(CO)3(κ(3)-L)] were synthesized, where L denotes ligand 6, 9, 11, 15, or 19. The rhenium complexes were prepared at the macroscopic level and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The technetium-99m organometallic complexes were synthesized in high yield and were identified by comparative reversed-phase HPLC with their Re analogues. The (99m)Tc tracers were stable in vitro and exhibited binding to hydroxyapatite. In biodistribution studies, all of the (99m)Tc complexes exhibited high bone uptake superior to that of 25, which is the directly (99m)Tc-labeled bisphosphonate 3, and comparable to that of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). The tracers [(99m)Tc(CO)3(6)] (26), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(9)] (27), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(11)] (28), and [(99m)Tc(CO)3(15)] (29) exhibited higher bone/blood ratios than (99m)Tc-MDP. 26 had the highest bone uptake at 1 h p.i. The new bisphosphonates showed no substantial growth inhibitory capacity in PC-3, Saos-2, and MCF-7 established cancer cell lines at low concentrations. Incubation of 26 with the same cancer cell lines indicated a rapid and saturated uptake. The promising properties of 26-29 indicate their potential for use as bone-imaging agents. PMID:27170456

  6. A Freeze-Dried Kit for the Preparation of (188)Re-HEDP for Bone Pain Palliation: Preparation and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Madhava B; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan; Kameswaran, Mythili; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Aswathy, K K; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    (188)Re-HEDP is an established radiopharmaceutical used for pain palliation in patients with osseous metastasis. Considering commercial availability of (188)W/(188)Re generator, the accessibility to a lyophilized kit would make preparation of this radiopharmaceutical feasible at the hospital radiopharmacy having access to a generator. A protocol for the preparation of a single-vial lyophilized hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) kit was developed and its consistency was checked by preparing six batches. Each sterile lyophilized kit prepared as per the protocol contained 9 mg of HEDP, 3 mg of gentisic acid, and 4 mg of SnCl2.2H2O. Randomly selected kits from all six batches were subjected to thorough quality control tests that were passed by all batches. (188)Re-HEDP could be prepared by addition of 1 mL of freshly eluted Na(188)ReO4 (up to 3700 MBq) containing 1 μmol of carrier ReO4(-) (perrhenate) and heating at 100°C for 15 minutes. (188)Re-HEDP with >95% radiochemical purity could be consistently prepared using the lyophilized kits. Sterile (188)Re-HEDP prepared using the lyophilized kit was evaluated in patients with osseous metastasis. Post-therapy images of the patient were compared with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and found to be satisfactory. The bone-to-background as well as tumor-to-normal bone uptake ratio was found to be significant. All patients who received therapy reported significant pain relief within a week to 10 days post-administration of (188)Re-HEDP. PMID:27183437

  7. Functional interactions between nucleotide binding domains and leukotriene C4 binding sites of multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1).

    PubMed

    Payen, Lea; Gao, Mian; Westlake, Christopher; Theis, Ashley; Cole, Susan P C; Deeley, Roger G

    2005-06-01

    Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) is a member of the "C" branch of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. The NH(2)-proximal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of MRP1 differs functionally from its COOH-proximal domain (NBD2). NBD1 displays intrinsic high-affinity ATP binding and little ATPase activity. In contrast, ATP binding to NBD2 is strongly dependent on nucleotide binding by NBD1, and NBD2 is more hydrolytically active. We have demonstrated that occupancy of NBD2 by ATP or ADP markedly decreased substrate binding by MRP1. We have further explored the relationship between nucleotide and substrate binding by examining the effects of various ATP analogs and ADP trapping, as well as mutations in conserved functional elements in the NBDs, on the ability of MRP1 to bind the photoactivatable, high-affinity substrate cysteinyl leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4))(.) Overall, the results support a model in which occupancy of both NBD1 and NBD2 by ATP results in the formation of a low-affinity conformation of the protein. However, nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs (beta,gamma-imidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate and adenylylmethylene diphosphonate) failed to substitute for ATP or adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS) in decreasing LTC(4) photolabeling. Furthermore, mutations of the signature sequence in either NBD that had no apparent effect on azido-ATP binding abrogated the formation of a low-affinity substrate binding state in the presence of ATP or ATPgammaS. We suggest that the effect of these mutations, and possibly the failure of some ATP analogs to decrease LTC(4) binding, may be attributable to an inability to elicit a conformational change in the NBDs that involves interactions between the signature sequence and the gamma-phosphate of the bound nucleotide.

  8. Selective removal of lanthanides from natural waters, acidic streams and dialysate

    PubMed Central

    Yantasee, Wassana; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, R. Shane; Wiacek, Robert J.; Koonsiripaiboon, View; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    The increased demand for the lanthanides in commercial products result in increased production of lanthanide containing ores, which increases public exposure to the lanthanides, both from various commercial products and from production wastes/effluents. This work investigates lanthanide (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd and Lu) binding properties of self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous silica supports (SAMMS™), that were functionalized with diphosphonic acid (DiPhos), acetamide phosphonic acid (AcPhos), propionamide phosphonic acid (Prop-Phos), and 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO), from natural waters (river, ground and sea waters), acid solutions (to mimic certain industrial process streams), and dialysate. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of the lanthanide sorption, as well as regenerability of SAMMS materials were investigated. Going from the acid side over to the alkaline side, the AcPhos- and DiPhos-SAMMS maintain their outstanding affinity for lanthanides, which enable the use of the materials in the systems where the pH may fluctuate. In acid solutions, Prop-Phos- and 1,2-HOPO-SAMMS have differing affinity along the lanthanide series, suggesting their use in chromatographic lanthanide separation. Over 95% of 100 µg/L of Gd in dialysate was removed by the Prop-Phos-SAMMS after 1 min and 99% over 10 min. SAMMS can be regenerated with an acid wash (0.5 M HCl) without losing the binding properties. Thus, they have a great potential to be used as in large-scale treatment of lanthanides, lanthanide separation prior to analytical instruments, and in sorbent dialyzers for treatment of acute lanthanide poisoning. PMID:19345006

  9. Effect of EHDP on calcium accumulation and technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Buja, L.M.; Tofe, A.J.; Parkey, R.W.; Francis, M.D.; Lewis, S.E.; Kulkarni, P.V.; Bonte, F.J.; Willerson, J.T.

    1981-11-01

    Ethane-l-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) inhibits bone mineral growth. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that EHDP would interfere with the process of calcium uptake and deposition in evolving myocardial infarction and thereby influence other parameters, including technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) uptake and scintigraphic visualization of the infarcts. Permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was produced in beagles. In seven dogs, serum EHDP was maintained at 10-15 ..mu..g/ml for 24 hours by continuous i.v. infusion, and seven control dogs were infused with saline. The Tc-99m PYP was infected 2 hours before sacrifice. EHDP-treated dogs showed a mild decrease (20%) in mean calcium content of infarcted myocardium (102.4 +/- 6.4 ..mu..g (+/- SEM) per gram wet weight (n = 51) vs 126.7 +/- 9.5 (n = 49) (p < 0.05)). These dogs showed a prominent decrease (37%) in mean Tc-99m PYP content of infarcted myocardium (18.2 +/- 1.4 (% dose/g x 10/sup -3/) (n = 46) vs 28.9 +/- 4.3 (n = 46) (p < 0.005)) and a marked decrease (65%) in infarct-to-normal ratio (6.1 +/- 0.9 (n = 6) vs 15.9 +/- 3.7 (n = 6) (p < 0.05)). Positive relationships were demonstrated between myocardial Tc-99m PYP and calcium levels in the EHDP-treated dogs (r = 0.69) and the control dogs (r = 0.77). Infarct size and regional myocardial blood flow changes were similar in the EHDP-treated and control dogs. The average grade (0-4+) of the Tc-99m PYP myocardial scintigrams for infarcts greater than 3.5 g was 2.4 +/- 0.2 for control dogs and 1.1 +/- 0.4 for EHDP-treated dogs (p < 0.05). Thus, EHDP infusion at the dose tested produced a mild decrease in calcium accumulation in canine infarcts; however, it produced a greater reduction in Tc-99m PYP uptake in the infarcts.

  10. Which metabolic imaging, besides bone scan with 99mTc-phosphonates, for detecting and evaluating bone metastases in prostatic cancer patients? An open discussion.

    PubMed

    Bombardieri, E; Setti, L; Kirienko, M; Antunovic, L; Guglielmo, P; Ciocia, G

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer bone metastases occur frequently in advanced cancer and this is matter of particular attention, due to the great impact on patient's management and considering that a lot of new emerging therapeutic options have been recently introduced. Imaging bone metastases is essential to localize lesions, to establish their size and number, to study characteristics and changes during therapy. Besides radiological imaging, nuclear medicine modalities can image their features and offer additional information about their metabolic behaviour. They can be classified according to physical characteristics, type of detection, mechanism of uptake, availability for daily use. The physiopathology of metastases formation and the mechanisms of tracer uptake are essential to understand the interpretation of nuclear medicine images. Therefore, radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases can be classified in agents targeting bone (99mTc-phosphonates, 18F-fluoride) and those targeting prostatic cancer cells (18F-fluoromethylcholine, 11C-choline, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose). The modalities using the first group of tracers are planar bone scan, SPECT or SPECT/CT with 99mTc-diphosphonates, and 18F-fluoride PET/CT, while the modalities using the second group include 18F/11C-choline derivatives PET/CT, 18F-FDG PET/CT and PET/CT scans with several other radiopharmaceuticals described in the literature, such as 18F/11C-acetate derivatives, 18F-fluoro-5α-dihydrotestosterone (FDHT), 18F-anti-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), 18F-2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyluracil (FMAU) and 68Ga-labeled-prostate specific membrane antigen (PMSA) PET/TC. However, since data on clinical validation for these last novel modalities are not conclusive and/or are not still sufficient in number, at present they can be still considered as promising tools under evaluation. The present paper considers the nuclear modalities today available for the clinical routine. This overview wants

  11. Evaluation of chelating ion-exchange resins for separating Cr(III) from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Augusto, Cátia M; Quina, Margarida J; Gando-Ferreira, Licínio M

    2009-09-30

    In this study two chelating resins containing iminodiacetic acid groups (Amberlite IRC 748 and Diaion CR 11) and a chelating resin based on sulfonic and diphosphonic acid groups (Diphonix) were investigated in order to separate Cr(III) from industrial effluents produced in hard and decorative electroplating. Samples of two industrial plants were characterized during a period of about one year and a half in terms of the metals content (Cr, Cu, Na, Ca, Fe and Ni), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and pH. Some of the physical properties of the resins, namely the moisture content, apparent density, intraparticle porosity and the particle size distribution were also evaluated. To quantify the sorption capacity of the resins, batch experiments were performed using synthetic solutions of Cr(III), as well as solutions of Fe in the case of Diphonix. The Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms enabled a good description of the ion-exchange equilibrium data, and the maximum sorption capacity determined for Amberlite and Diaion was 3.6 mequiv./g(dry resin). For Diphonix that parameter was 3.4 mequiv./g(dry resin). The Diphonix resin exhibits a high selectivity for transition metals (Fe, Ni) over the chromium trivalent. Therefore, it was screened as the most suitable for selectively removing those metal impurities from chromium electroplating effluents. For this resin, the sorption capacity is strongly dependent on the initial pH of the solution. Though, high regeneration efficiencies of Diphonix for stripping Cr(III) were found by using a mixture of NaOH/H(2)O(2). The mathematical model tested for describing the dynamics of the process allowed a good fitting to the experimental data and enabled the estimation of effective pore diffusivity of Cr(III). The saturations of Diphonix with industrial effluents demonstrated that the breakthrough capacity of the resin is affected by the presence of other species in solution

  12. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and (18)F-NaF-PET/CT in men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Kim, Chun K; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Hainer, Jon; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Kantoff, Philip; den Abbeele, Annick D Van; Seltzer, Steven; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate (18)F-labeled-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG-) and (18)F-labeled-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF-) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as biomarkers in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Nine men (53-75 years) in a phase 1 trial of abiraterone and cabozantinib had (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging ((99m)Tc-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan and abdominal/pelvic CT) at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy. Baseline disease was classified as widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid (1 site), or non-(18)F-FDG-avid. Metabolic response was classified using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Treatment response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) guidelines and days on trial (DOT) were recorded. All men were followed for 1 year or until progression. Four men had (18)F-FDG-avid disease: two with widespread (DOT 53 and 76) and two with oligometastatic disease (DOT 231 and still on trial after 742+ days). Five men had non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease; three remained stable or improved (2 still on trial while one discontinued for non-oncologic reasons; DOT 225-563+), and 2 progressed (DOT 285 and 532). Despite the small sample size, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in progression free survival (PFS) between men with widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid and non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease (p < 0.01). All men had (18)F-NaF-avid disease. Neither (18)F-NaF-avid disease extent nor intensity was predictive of treatment response. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may be superior to (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging in men with mCRPC on abiraterone and cabozantinib. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may have potential to stratify men into 3 groups (widespread vs. oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid vs. non-(18)F-FDG-avid mCRPC) to tailor therapy. Further evaluation is

  13. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections.

    PubMed

    Love, C; Palestro, C J

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ((67)Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging. Although they are useful, each of these tests has limitations. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive but not specific, especially when underlying osseous abnormalities are present. (67)Ga accumulates in tumour, trauma, and in aseptic inflammation; furthermore, there is typically an interval of 1-3 days between radiopharmaceutical injection of and imaging. Currently, this agent is used primarily for spinal infections. Except for the spine, WBC imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. The in vitro leukocyte labelling process requires skilled personnel, is laborious, and is not always available. Complementary marrow imaging is usually required to maximise accuracy. Not surprisingly, alternative radiopharmaceuticals are continuously being investigated. Radiolabelled anti-granulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, investigated as in vivo leukocyte labelling agents, have their own limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for diagnosing spinal infections. Radiolabelled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, have shown promise as infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) is very useful in musculoskeletal infection. Sensitivities of more than 95% and specificities ranging from 75-99% have been

  14. Three bisphosphonate ligands improve the water solubility of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Abdul Ghani, Siti Fatimah; Wright, Michael; Paramo, Juan Gallo; Bottrill, Melanie; Green, Mark; Long, Nicholas; Thanou, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Synthesised Quantum Dots (QDs) require surface modification in order to improve their aqueous dispersion and biocompatibility. Here, we suggest bisphosphonate molecules as agents to modify the surface of QDs for improved water solubility and biocompatibility. QDs_TOPO (CdSe/ZnS-trioctylphosphine oxide) were synthesised following modification of the method of Bawendi et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B, 1997, 101, 9463-9475). QDs surface modification is performed using a ligand exchange reaction with structurally different bisphosphonates (BIPs). The BIPs used were ethylene diphosphonate (EDP), methylenediphosphonate (MDP) and imidodiphosphonate (IDP). After ligand exchange, the QDs were extensively purified using centrifugation, PD-10 desalting columns and mini dialysis filters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescent spectroscopy have been used to characterise the size and optical properties of the QDs. Cell toxicity was investigated using MTT (tetrazolium salt) and glutathione assays and intracellular uptake was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and assessed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). QDs_TOPO and QDs-capped with BIPs (QDs_BIPs) were successfully synthesised. TEM showed the size and morphology of the QDs to be 5-7 nm with spherical shape. The stabilised QDs_BIPs showed significantly improved dispersion in aqueous solutions compared to QDs_TOPO. The cytotoxicity studies showed very rapid cell death for cells treated by QDs_TOPO and a minor effect on cell viability when QDs_BIPs were applied to the cells. Both EDP- and MDP-modified QDs did not significantly increase the intracellular levels of glutathione. In contrast, IDP-modified QDs substantially increased the intracellular glutathione levels, indicating potential cadmium leakage and inability of IDP to adequately cap and stabilise the QDs. EDP- and MDP-modified QDs were taken up by IGROV-1 (ovarian cancer) cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy, however, the

  15. [Clinical experience with rhenium-188 HEDP therapy for metastatic bone pain].

    PubMed

    Róka, R; Séra, T; Pajor, L; Thurzó, L; Láng, J; Csernay, L; Pávics, L

    2000-05-01

    Rhenium-188 hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (Re-188 HEDP) is a new radiopharmaceutical for treatment of metastatic bone pain. Re-188 is a generator-produced radionuclide emitting high energy beta and gamma rays and having a relative short physical half-life makes it of especially interesting for therapeutic purpose. Seven patients (pts) with multiple painful bone metastases were treated with Re-188 HEDP. Five pts with prostate cancer and 2 pts with breast cancer received a fixed activity of 3000 MBq of Re-188 HEDP intravenously in two steps. Complete blood counts were determined, blood chemistry examinations and urine-analysis were performed before and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 weeks following the treatment. A visual analogue score, a verbal rating scale, the Spitzer index and the Karnofsky score were used to assess pain and performance status. Three hours after Re-188 HEDP administration at 1 m from the anterior mid-trunk of the pts gamma and at the patient body surface beta-radiation dose measurements were made, together with urine radioactivity measurements. Three pts become pain-free, 2 pts exhibited partial pain improvement and 1 patient gave no response to the Re-188 HEDP therapy. In 1 patient due to central nervous system metastasis the modification of the pain intensity could not be evaluated. Three pts displayed a flare reaction within 1 week after the treatment. Transient decreases in platelet and white blood cell counts were observed. There were no significant changes in the liver and renal functions. Radiation dose rate values of 6.3 +/- 1.0 microSv/h for gamma, and of 183 +/- 40 s-1 for beta-radiation were found. 25-32% of the administered dose was eliminated via the urinary tract in the first three hours. The preliminary data suggests that Re-188 HEDP is an effective radiopharmaceutical in treatment for metastatic bone pain. An administered activity of 3000 MBq can bring about a pain reduction without causing any clinically significant bone marrow toxicity

  16. Miscellaneous cancers (lung, thyroid, renal cancer, myeloma, and neuroendocrine tumors): role of SPECT and PET in imaging bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Chua, Sue; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Cook, Gary J R

    2009-11-01

    In this review, we assess the current role of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the imaging of skeletal metastatic disease from a miscellaneous group of malignancies, including lung, thyroid, and renal carcinomas; multiple myeloma; and neuroendocrine tumors, and consider how recent advances may enhance their effectiveness in this area. Bone scintigraphy using technetium-labeled diphosphonates has long been the mainstay of functional imaging of bony metastases, but is of limited value in myeloma and aggressive osteolytic metastases, and has the limitation of relatively poor specificity. SPECT, as a tomographic imaging technique, produces three-dimensional images of tracer distribution from multiplanar images. Its application to bone scintigrams greatly aids accurate anatomic localization and sensitivity in detection of foci of tracer uptake. SPECT can equally be applied to scintigrams using radiotracers, which are specific for particular groups of tumors, such as somatostatin analogs for neuroendocrine tumors. The advent of combined SPECT/computed tomography (CT) systems has further enhanced the accuracy of SPECT in all these malignancies. PET uses positron-emitting radiotracers and achieves a higher spatial resolution than single-photon imaging. Its high resolution and coverage of the entire body have made it a highly effective technique for the evaluation of skeletal metastatic disease, particularly when combined with CT. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-PET/CT now forms part of routine staging for many carcinomas, such as non-small-cell lung carcinomas, and may obviate the need for routine staging scintigraphy in these patients. As uptake of the most common PET radiotracer, (18)F-FDG, is dependent on the increased cellular metabolism of most tumors, it may enable earlier detection of metastatic foci than bone scintigraphy, which relies on detecting an osteoblastic response. Another significant

  17. Functional sorbents for selective capture of plutonium, americium, uranium, and thorium in blood.

    PubMed

    Yantasee, Wassana; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Creim, Jeffery A; Pattamakomsan, Kanda; Wiacek, Robert J; Fryxell, Glen E; Addleman, R Shane; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-09-01

    Self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) are hybrid materials created from attachment of organic moieties onto very high surface area mesoporous silica. SAMMS with surface chemistries including three isomers of hydroxypyridinone, diphosphonic acid, acetamide phosphonic acid, glycinyl urea, and diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) analog were evaluated for chelation of actinides ((239)Pu, (241)Am, uranium, thorium) from blood. Direct blood decorporation using sorbents does not have the toxicity or renal challenges associated with traditional chelation therapy and may have potential applications for critical exposure cases, reduction of nonspecific dose during actinide radiotherapy, and for sorbent hemoperfusion in renal insufficient patients, whose kidneys clear radionuclides at a very slow rate. Sorption affinity (K(d)), sorption rate, selectivity, and stability of SAMMS were measured in batch contact experiments. An isomer of hydroxypyridinone (3,4-HOPO) on SAMMS demonstrated the highest affinity for all four actinides from blood and plasma and greatly outperformed the DTPA analog on SAMMS and commercial resins. In batch contact, a fifty percent reduction of actinides in blood was achieved within minutes, and there was no evidence of protein fouling or material leaching in blood after 24 h. The engineered form of SAMMS (bead format) was further evaluated in a 100-fold scaled-down hemoperfusion device and showed no blood clotting after 2 h. A 0.2 g quantity of SAMMS could reduce 50 wt.% of 100 ppb uranium in 50 mL of plasma in 18 min and that of 500 dpm mL(-1) in 24 min. 3,4-HOPO-SAMMS has a long shelf-life in air and at room temperature for at least 8 y, indicating its feasibility for stockpiling in preparedness for an emergency. The excellent efficacy and stability of SAMMS materials in complex biological matrices suggest that SAMMS can also be used as orally administered drugs and for wound decontamination. By changing the organic groups of

  18. 18F-Labeled NaF PET-CT in Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Preoperative Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Liangjun; Zong, Zhen; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compared the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-labeled sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET-CT with 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in patients with preoperative lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer (n = 181) were examined with 18F-NaF PET-CT, and another 167 patients with lung cancer were examined with 99mTc-MDP SPECT. 18F-NaF PET-CT and 99mTc-MDP SPECT were evaluated by 2 experienced readers. Lesions were graded on a scale of 0 (degenerative lesion) to 4 (definite BM), and equivocal lesions were determined as indifferent (grade 3). Based on patient-based analysis, there were only 4 equivocal patients in 18F-NaF PET-CT detection. However, in 99mTc-MDP SPECT detection, there were 19 equivocal patients, which indicated a significant difference in terms of occurrence ratio (χ2 = 9.005, P = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). Based on lesions-based analysis, SPECT produced 26 equivocal lesions of 333 lesions, but PET-CT produced only 5 equivocal lesions of 991 lesions. PET-CT was significantly better than SPECT in the aspect of producing equivocal patients (χ2 = 58.141, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). 18F-NaF PET-CT is a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection of BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. It is better than conventional 99mTc-MDP SPECT in detecting BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. PMID:27100456

  19. Cerium(IV), neptunium(IV), and plutonium(IV) 1,2-phenylenediphosphonates: correlations and differences between early transuranium elements and their proposed surrogates.

    PubMed

    Diwu, Juan; Wang, Shuao; Liao, Zuolei; Burns, Peter C; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2010-11-01

    The in situ hydrothermal reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) and Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) in the presence of 1,2-phenylenediphosphonic acid (PhP2) results in the crystallization of Np[C(6)H(4)(PO(3)H)(2)](2)·2H(2)O (NpPhP2) and Pu[C(6)H(4)(PO(3)H)(PO(3)H(2))][C(6)H(4)(PO(3)H)(PO(3))]·2H(2)O (PuPhP2), respectively. Similar reactions have been explored with Ce(IV) resulting in the isolation of the Ce(IV) phenylenediphosphonate Ce[C(6)H(4)(PO(3)H)(PO(3)H(2))][C(6)H(4)(PO(3)H)(PO(3))]·2H(2)O (CePhP2). Single crystal diffraction studies reveal that although all these three compounds all crystallize in the triclinic space group P1̅, only PuPhP2 and CePhP2 are isotypic, whereas NpPhP2 adopts a distinct structure. In the cerium and plutonium compounds edge-sharing dimers of MO(8) polyhedra are bridged by the diphosphonate ligand to create one-dimensional chains. NpPhP2 also forms chains. However, the NpO(8) units are monomeric. The protonation of the ligands is also different in the two structure types. Furthermore, the NpO(8) polyhedra are best described as square antiprisms (D(4d)), whereas the CeO(8) and PuO(8) units are trigonal dodecahedra (D(2d)). Bond-valence parameters of R(o) = 1.972 and b = 0.538 have been derived for Np(4+) using a combination of the data reported in this work with that available in crystallographic databases. The UV-vis-NIR absorption spectra of NpPhP2 and PuPhP2 are also reported and used to confirm the tetravalent oxidation states.

  20. Role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on intestinal phosphate absorption in rats with a normal vitamin D supply.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, R; Fleisch, H; Bonjour, J P

    1977-09-01

    In vitamin D-deficient rats, impaired intestinal phosphorus (P) absorption can be corrected by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)[1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)]. In the present study, it was investigated whether changes in 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) production can influence intestinal P transport also in animals with a normal supply of vitamin D. The intestinal P absorption was evaluated in rats using both the in situ duodenal loop technique and the determination of the overall gastrointestinal absorption under three conditions known to influence the production of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3): (a) variation in dietary P, (b) thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) with or without administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH), and (c) treatment with disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP). In all circumstances changes in duodenal absorption paralleled the changes in the overall fractional absorption. (a) Lowering dietary P stimulated P absorption. (b) TPTX decreased P absorption. This effect was corrected either by the administration of PTH or by the administration of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). (c) EHDP, when given at a dose known to inhibit 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) formation, decreased the duodenal P absorption in both intact and TPTX animals. This effect was corrected by 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). In the TPTX-EHDP-treated animals, the administration of PTH did not rectify the low duodenal P absorption. These results support the thesis that, in rats with normal vitamin D supply, variations in the endogenous production of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) change the rate of P absorption. However, these changes are in such magnitude that they are of relatively small importance when compared to the effect of variation in the dietary intake of P. These results also strongly suggest that the action of PTH on duodenal P transport is mediated by its effect on 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) production, inasmuch as the effect of the hormone is abolished after blocking the renal 1-hydroxylation with EHDP.

  1. Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy-current standards.

    PubMed

    Petrova, N L; Edmonds, M E

    2008-01-01

    It is extremely important to have a high index of suspicion for Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy (CN) and to encourage early presentation of the patient. This should be followed by a rapid diagnosis and early intervention, and with such a modern approach many CN can now be healed and deformity prevented. CN can be divided into two phases: acute active phase and chronic stable phase. The acute active phase includes those patients presenting early with normal X-ray and those presenting later with deformity and radiological changes of CN. The acute phase is characterized by unilateral erythema and oedema. The foot is at least 2 degrees C hotter than the contralateral foot. Patients should have initially an X-ray examination which, at this time, may be normal. We then proceed to two investigations: initially a technetium diphosphonate bone scan, which will detect early evidence of bone damage and also locate the site of this damage. If the result of the bone scan is positive, we would proceed to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, which would describe in more detail the nature of the bony damage. The aim of treatment is immobilization in a plaster cast until there is no longer evidence on X-ray of continuing bone destruction, and the foot temperature is within 2 degrees C of the contralateral foot. An alternative treatment is a prefabricated walking cast, such as the Aircast. A randomized controlled study of a single 90 mg pamidronate infusion has shown a significant reduction of the markers of bone turnover and skin temperature in treated, compared with control subjects although the fall in skin temperature was similar in both groups. There was a similar finding in a recent study with alendronate. Calcitonin has also been used in the acute stage and there was a more rapid transition to the stable chronic phase in the treated group compared with controls. In the chronic stable phase, the foot is no longer warm and red. There may still be oedema but the

  2. A chemiluminescent assay for hydroperoxide level of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide fraction purified by two Sep-Pak cartridges in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Seya, K; Ohkohchi, N; Shibuya, H; Satoh, M; Oikawa, K; Fukumori, T; Satomi, S; Motomura, S

    2000-08-15

    A chemiluminescent assay for hydroperoxide level of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH) fraction purified from biological samples was presented. This method utilized of two Sep-Pak cartridges. A lipid soluble fraction was isolated from each homogenized tissue or blood by Folch's method. The mixture of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and PCOOH was separated from the lipid soluble fraction by a Sep-Pak silica cartridge. A Sep-Pak tC18 cartridge made complete separation of both PCOOH and PC possible. The hydroperoxide level of PCOOH fraction was quantified by the reaction with ferrous ion using 2-methyl-6-[p-methoxyphenyl]-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin++ +-3-one as a chemiluminescent dye. The mixture of positional isomers, 1-hexadecanoyl-2-[9, or 10-hydroperoxyl octadecanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was used as an authentic standard. The good recovery rate for authentic PCOOH of 87.1 +/- 11.6% (mean +/- S.E., n = 4) was obtained by using two Sep-Pak cartridges. Linear calibration curve was obtained in the range from 2.5 to 20 nmol, and the detection limit of the standard was 10 pmol (signal-to-noise ratio > 3). This method was applied to the investigation of the lipid peroxidation induced by reperfusion of the liver with cold preservation, mimicking liver transplantation in rats. The effect of liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate (LEDD), which eliminate of Kupffer cells to prevent the generation of oxygen radicals on the lipid peroxidation, was compared with the untreated group as a control. After 1 h reperfusion at 37 degrees C the hydroperoxide level obtained the liver without preservation in the untreated group was 12.4 +/- 2.4 nmol/100 mg lipid (n = 4) and levels increased significantly by prolongation of the preservation time. On the other hand, the hydroperoxide level in the LEDD treated group did not change up to 24 h preservation. These results suggest that this improved assay for hydroperoxide level of PCOOH fraction in biological

  3. H2O2/UV-C treatment of textile preparation wastewater: kinetic investigation on alternative combinations of commercial textile preparation auxiliaries.

    PubMed

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Shayin, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Four different textile preparation effluents were simulated to examine the applicability of the hydrogen peroxide/ultraviolet-C (H2O2/UV-C) advanced oxidation process for the treatment of real textile preparation (desizing, scouring and bleaching) wastewater bearing the non-ionic surfactant nonyl phenol decaethoxylate (NP-10). In the absence of any textile preparation chemical, NP-10 degradation was complete in 15 min (rate coefficient: 0.22 min(-1)) accompanied by 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) (rate coefficient: 0.026 min(-1)) and 57% total organic carbon (TOC) (rate coefficient: 0.014 min(-1)) removals achieved after 60 min photochemical treatment. H2O2 consumption rates were not significantly affected by the introduction of carbonate and chloride ions (average rate coefficient: 0.032 min(-1)) at pH values <11.5, above which H2O2 dissociation to its conjugate base HO2(-) became pronounced. The organic, phosphonate-based sequestering agents competed with NP-10 for UV-C light absorption and HO* radicals. H2O2/UV-C oxidation of the simulated textile preparation effluent containing 3.0 g L(-1) Cl(-), 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH and 1.0 g L(-1) diethylenetriamine pentamethylene phosphonic acid (DTPMP) resulted in the worst treatment performance due to its high pH and organic carbon content. For this textile preparation effluent, NP-10 abatement was complete in 100min (rate coefficient: 0.018 min(-1)), while COD and TOC removals dropped down to only 16% and 8%, respectively, achieved after 60 min treatment. The highest H2O2/UV-C oxidation efficiency resulting in 34% COD and 28% TOC removals was obtained for the simulated textile preparation effluent comprising of 3.0 g L(-1) Cl(-), 1.5 g L(-1) NaOH and 1.0 g L(-1) 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). For this textile preparation effluent, NP-10 degradation was complete after 50 min (rate coefficient: 0.061 min(-1)) exposure to H2O2/UV-C treatment. PMID:22988612

  4. Asymptomatic Paget's disease of bone in a 62-year-old Nigerian man: three years post-alendronate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ipadeola, Arinola

    2016-01-01

    Summary Paget's disease is a chronic and progressive disorder of bone characterized by focal areas of excessive osteoclastic resorption accompanied by a secondary increase in the osteoblastic activity. Paget's disease of bone (PBD) is a rare endocrine disease especially among Africans and Asians. Hence the detection of a case in a middle-aged Nigerian is of interest. We present the case of a 62-year-old Nigerian man in apparent good health who was found to have a markedly elevated serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of 1179 U/l (reference range, 40–115 U/l) 4 years ago during a routine medical check-up in the USA. He had no history suggestive of PDB and also had no known family history of bone disease. Examination findings were not remarkable except for a relatively large head. A repeat ALP in our centre was 902 U/l (reference range, 40–120 U/l). Cranial CT scan showed diffuse cranial vault thickening consistent with Paget's disease which was confirmed by Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate. He was placed on 40 mg alendronate tablets daily for 6 months. The patient has remained asymptomatic and has been in continuing biochemical remission during the 3-year follow-up period. The most recent ALP result is 88 U/l (reference range, 30–132 U/l) in April 2015. Learning points Serum total alkaline phosphatase remains a sensitive marker of bone turnover and an isolated increase above the upper limit of normal warrants more intense scrutiny in form of investigations targeted at excluding PD.Paget's disease is very rare but can occur in the Africans as seen in this Nigerian man and most patients are asymptomatic.Asymptomatic patients can benefit from treatment if disease is active, polyostotic or the lesions are located in bones with future risk of complications such as long bones, vertebrae and skull.Bisphosphonates are still the mainstay of treatment and alendronate is a useful therapeutic option for treatment. PMID:26870373

  5. Evidence that a single monolayer tubulin-GTP cap is both necessary and sufficient to stabilize microtubules.

    PubMed Central

    Caplow, M; Shanks, J

    1996-01-01

    Evidence that 13 or 14 contiguous tubulin-GTP subunits are sufficient to cap and stabilize a microtubule end and that loss of only one of these subunits results in the transition to rapid disassembly(catastrophe) was obtained using the slowly hydrolyzable GTP analogue guanylyl-(a,b)-methylene-diphosphonate (GMPCPP). The minus end of microtubules assembled with GTP was transiently stabilized against dilution-induced disassembly by reaction with tubulin-GMPCPP subunits for a time sufficient to cap the end with an average 40 subunits. The minimum size of a tubulin-GMPCPP cap sufficient to prevent disassembly was estimated from an observed 25- to 2000-s lifetime of the GMPCPP-stabilized microtubules following dilution with buffer and from the time required for loss of a single tubulin-GMPCPP subunit from the microtubule end (found to be 15 s). Rather than assuming that the 25- to 2000-s dispersion in cap lifetime results from an unlikely 80-fold range in the number of tubulin-GMPCpP subunits added in the 25-s incubation, it is proposed that this results because the minimum stable cap contains 13 to 14 tubulin-GMPCPP subunits. As a consequence, a microtubule capped with 13-14 tubulin-GMPCPP subunits switches to disassembly after only one dissociation event (in about 15 s), whereas the time required for catastrophe of a microtubule with only six times as many subunits (84 subunits) corresponds to 71 dissociation events (84-13). The minimum size of a tubulin-GMPCPP cap sufficient to prevent disassembly was also estimated with microtubules in which a GMPCPP-cap was formed by allowing chance to result in the accumulation of multiple contiguous tubulin-GMPCPP subunits at the end, during the disassembly of microtubules containing both GDP and GMPCPP. Our observation that the disassembly rate was inhibited in proportion to the 13-14th power of the fraction of subunits containing GMPCPP again suggests that a minimum cap contains 13-14 tubulin-GMPCPP subunits. A remeasurement of

  6. Technetium-99m labelling of the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 by photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Stalteri, M A; Mather, S J

    1996-02-01

    Irradiation of antibody with ultraviolet light leads to reduction of disulphide bonds. Thus irradiation can be used to generate free thiols prior to direct labelling of antibody with technetium-99m, and has a potential advantage over methods using chemical reducing agents such as mercaptoethanol or tin, in that no purification step is needed to remove excess reducing agent. We have used the photoactivation method developed by Sykes et al. to label the anti-tumour antibody PR1A3 with 99mTc. The antibody was irradiated at 300 nm using a Rayonet photochemical reactor with eight RMR3000 lamps. In a typical experiment, the antibody solution was injected into a nitrogen-filled borosilicate glass vial and purged with nitrogen. A degassed solution containing stannous fluoride and methylene diphosphonate was then added to the antibody and the vial was irradiated. Following the irradiation, [99mTc]pertechnetate was injected into the vial and the reaction mixture was incubated for 30 min at room temperature before being analysed by size-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained using antibody concentrations ranging from 0.5mg/ml to 5mg/ml. Irradiation times as short as 5 min and tin to antibody ratios in the range between 11 and 32 microg tin per mg antibody gave high labelling yields. Labelling yields greater than 95% were obtained after storage of the photoactivated antibody at -70 degrees C for several weeks. The stability of the 99mTc-labelled photoactivated PR1A3 was similar to that of 99mTc-labelled mercaptoethanol-reduced PR1A3. The mean immunoreactive fraction was 77% for the photoactivation-labelled PR1A3, compared to 93% for PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction. Biodistribution studies were carried out using 99mTc-photoactivation-labelled PR1A3 or PR1A3 labelled by mercaptoethanol reduction in Balb/c mice and in nude mice with MKN-45 human tumour xenografts. There was

  7. Evaluation and application of Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) technique using Chelex®-100, Metsorb™ and Diphonix® binding phases in uranium mining environments.

    PubMed

    Drozdzak, Jagoda; Leermakers, Martine; Gao, Yue; Phrommavanh, Vannapha; Descostes, Michael

    2015-08-19

    A new resin- Diphonix(®) in Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) technique for the determination of uranium was investigated and compared with previously used binding phases for uranium, Chelex(®)-100 and Metsorb™. The DGT gel preparation and the elution procedure were optimized for the new resin. The U uptake on Diphonix(®) resin gel was 97.4 ± 1.5% (batch method; [U] = 20 μg L(-1); 0.01 M NaNO3; pH = 7.0 ± 0.2). The optimal eluent was found to be 1 M 1-hydroxyethane-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) with an elution efficiency of 80 ± 4.2%. Laboratory DGT study on U accumulation using a DGT samplers with Diphonix(®) resin showed a very good performance across a wide range of pH (3-9) and ionic strength (0.001-0.7 M NaNO3). Diffusion coefficients of uranium at different pH were determined using both, a diffusion cell and the DGT time-series, demonstrating the necessity of the implementation of the effective diffusion coefficients into U-DGT calculations. Diphonix(®) resin gel exhibits greater U capacity than Chelex(®)-100 and Metsorb™ binding phase gels (a Diphonix(®) gel disc is not saturated, even with loading of 10.5 μmol U). Possible interferences with Ca(2+) (up to 1.33 × 10(-2) M), PO4(3-) (up to 1.72 × 10(-4) M), SO4(2-) (up to 4.44 × 10(-3) M) and HCO3(-) (up to 8.20 × 10(-3) M) on U-DGT uptake ([U] = 20 μg L(-1)) were investigated. No effect or minor effect of Ca(2+), PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and HCO3(-) on the quantitative measurement of U by Diphonix(®)-DGT was observed. The results of this study demonstrated the DGT technique with Diphonix(®) resin is a reliable and robust method for the measurement of labile uranium species under laboratory conditions. PMID:26343428

  8. Selective Media for Actinide Collection and Pre-Concentration: Results of FY 2006 Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Warner, Marvin G.; Latesky, Stanley L.

    2006-11-17

    3] > 0.3 M. Preliminary results suggest that the Kl?ui resins can separate Pu(IV) from sample solutions containing high concentrations of competing ions. Conceptual protocols for recovery of the Pu from the resin for subsequent analysis have been proposed, but further work is needed to perfect these techniques. Work on this subject will be continued in FY 2007. Automated laboratory equipment (in conjunction with Task 3 of the NA-22 Automation Project) will be used in FY 2007 to improve the efficiency of these experiments. The sorption of actinide ions on self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports materials containing diphosphonate groups was also investigated. These materials also showed a very high affinity for tetravalent actinides, and they also sorbed U(VI) fairly strongly. Computational Ligand Design An extended MM3 molecular mechanics model was developed for calculating the structures of Kl?ui ligand complexes. This laid the groundwork necessary to perform the computer-aided design of bis-Kl?ui architectures tailored for Pu(IV) complexation. Calculated structures of the Kl?ui ligand complexes [Pu(Kl?ui)2(OH2)2]2+ and [Fe(Kl?ui)2]+ indicate a ''bent'' sandwich arrangement of the Kl?ui ligands in the Pu(IV) complex, whereas the Fe(III) complex prefers a ''linear'' octahedral arrangement of the two Kl?ui ligands. This offers the possibility that two Kl?ui ligands can be tethered together to form a material with very high binding affinity for Pu(IV) over Fe(III). The next step in the design process is to use de novo molecule building software (HostDesigner) to identify potential candidate architectures.

  9. [Nonspecific osteomyelitis in childhood and adolescence. The contribution of imaging diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Urso, S; Pacciani, E; Fariello, G; Colajacomo, M; Fassari, F M; Randisi, F; Certo, A; Liberatore, M; Pagnotta, G

    1995-09-01

    Nonspecific osteomyelitis in children and adolescents can be diagnosed in patients 2 to 16 years old and may present as acute, subacute or chronic. During the last 9 years, 40 pediatric patients (aged 2 to 16 years) affected with extra-axial inflammatory bone lesions were examined. The series of cases was then reviewed. This work was aimed at investigating the role of various imaging modalities: conventional radiology (CR), bone scan with technetium-99 methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP), scintigraphy with technetium-esamethylpropylenaminoxima labelled leukocytes (99mTc-HMPAO), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to detect the lesions, to make a differential diagnosis and to assess different disease stages. As for acute osteomyelitis (6 patients), CR showed a lytic lesion, periosteal new bone and soft tissue swelling in 4/6 patients; no abnormalities were demonstrated in the other two. Bone scan, CT and MRI depicted bone involvement. CT and MRI also showed inflammatory lesion spread to surrounding soft tissue. 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy was not performed in acute osteomyelitis, because of technical difficulties in performing the exam promptly; thus, the early diagnosis of lesion nature was made with bone biopsy. As for subacute osteomyelitis (23 patients), 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy was performed in 8/23 patients and proved to be a highly sensitive method, showing cell clusters and confirming the diagnosis of inflammatory lesion. MRI showed a focal area of intermediate-low signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences, with small focal intralesional areas of low intensity, a low-signal perifocal rim and diffusely low signal of surrounding bone marrow. T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in both the abscess lesion and bone marrow, the latter probably due to edema. In 5 patients, a paramagnetic contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) was administered during MRI and showed inhomogeneous enhancement of both the inflammatory lesion and

  10. Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years.

    PubMed

    Russell, R Graham G

    2011-07-01

    The first full publications on the biological effects of the diphosphonates, later renamed bisphosphonates, appeared in 1969, so it is timely after 40years to review the history of their development and their impact on clinical medicine. This special issue of BONE contains a series of review articles covering the basic science and clinical aspects of these drugs, written by some of many scientists who have participated in the advances made in this field. The discovery and development of the bisphosphonates (BPs) as a major class of drugs for the treatment of bone diseases has been a fascinating story, and is a paradigm of a successful journey from 'bench to bedside'. Bisphosphonates are chemically stable analogues of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and it was studies on the role of PPi as the body's natural 'water softener' in the control of soft tissue and skeletal mineralisation that led to the need to find inhibitors of calcification that would resist hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase. The observation that PPi and BPs could not only retard the growth but also the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals prompted studies on their ability to inhibit bone resorption. Although PPi was unable to do this, BPs turned out to be remarkably effective inhibitors of bone resorption, both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, and eventually in humans. As ever more potent BPs were synthesised and studied, it became apparent that physico-chemical effects were insufficient to explain their biological effects, and that cellular actions must be involved. Despite many attempts, it was not until the 1990s that their biochemical actions were elucidated. It is now clear that bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by being selectively taken up and adsorbed to mineral surfaces in bone, where they interfere with the action of the bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are internalised by osteoclasts and interfere with specific biochemical processes. Bisphosphonates can be