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Sample records for 99mtc-methylene diphosphonate mdp

  1. Structural Investigation of Technetium-Diphosphonate Complex 99mTc-MDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ling; Lin, Jian-guo; Ju, Xue-hai; Gong, Xue-dong; Luo, Shi-neng

    2011-06-01

    Density functional theory method has been employed to investigate the structures of the prototypical technetium-labeled diphosphonate complex 99mTc-MDP, where MDP represents methylenediphosphonic acid. A total of 14 trial structures were generated by allowing for the geometric, conformational, charge, and spin isomerism. Based on the optimized structures and calculated energies at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level, two stable isomers were determined for the title complex. And they were further studied systematically in comparison with the experimental structure. The basis sets 6-31G*(LANL2DZ for Tc), 6-31G*(cc-pVDZ-pp for Tc), and DGDZVP have also been employed in combination with the B3LYP functional to study the basis set effect on the geometries of isomers. The optimized structures agree well with the available experimental data, and the bond lengths are more sensitive to the basis set than the bond angles. The charge distributions were studied by the Mulliken population analysis and natural bond orbital analysis. The results reflect a significant ligand-to-metal electron donation.

  2. Technetium-99m MDP vs technetium-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate. A clinical comparison in various pathologic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Godart, G.; Durez, M.; Bevilacqua, M.; Abramovici, J.; Robience, Y.

    1986-02-01

    The performance of Tc-99m MDP vs Tc-99m dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) was evaluated in 20 patients with various skeletal bone diseases. Each patient was investigated twice, with an interval of three days between studies and using the same protocol, hence each case served as its own control. The results were: In a subjective interpretation by five independent and experienced investigators, the difference between agents was small, yet in favor of MDP. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the pooled results in 74.4% of all cases shows a higher bone lesion to normal bone ratio (BL/NB), and in 79.3% of all cases, a better bone lesion to soft tissue ratio (BL/ST) with Tc-99m MDP. When considering pathology types separately, the BL/NB ratio of Tc-99m MDP was 17.7% higher than the one of Tc-99m DPD in metastases, 9.5% higher in rheumatoid arthritis, 2.8% higher in metabolic diseases, and 24% higher in bone fractures. Student's paired t test on the pooled BL/NB ratios shows a difference of 15.5% for Tc-99m MDP, significant at P = 0.00155. The overall results of our study favor Tc-99m MDP.

  3. A comparison of skeletal uptakes of three diphosphonates by whole-body retention: concise communication.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, I; Pearson, D W; Bessent, R G; Tofe, A J; Francis, M D

    1981-10-01

    Twenty normal volunteers had measurements of 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) of three structurally related Tc-99m-labeled phosphonate skeletal imaging agents: (1-hydroxyethylidene) diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP), and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP). The average WBR values, reflecting skeletal uptake, were 18.4, 30.3, and 36.6%, respectively. These results clearly illustrate that slight alterations in diphosphonate molecular structure have a significant effect upon specificity for osseous tissue, and thus may affect skeletal image quality and the usefulness of the WBR technique in diagnosing metabolic bone disease.

  4. A comparison of bone imaging with Tc-99m DPD and Tc-99m MDP: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, U.; Kleinhans, E.; Zorn-Bopp, E.; Reuschel, W.; Muenzing, W.; Moser, E.A.; Seiderer, M.

    1982-03-01

    Bone to soft tissue (ST) ratios for both high-uptake bone (sacrum) and low-uptake bone (femoral diaphysis) were obtained with a derivative of phosphonic acid, TC-99m 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD), in 26 normal subjects and 177 patients with malignant disease but without metastases. Tests were run 2 hr after tracer injection. Similar ratios were obtained with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in 220 normal subjects and 451 patients. With MDP, the influence of incubation time (5-10 min in 416 cases, 45 min in 185 cases) on these ratios was determined. DPD was superior to MDP for both ratios. With MDP, prolonged incubation time yielded significantly enhanced ratios; however, the ratios for the DPD were still higher. With either agent and preparation, sacrum-to-ST ratios decreased with increasing subject age, and in patients with malignant disease the ratios tended to be higher than those obtained from normals.

  5. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy findings in posttransplant distal limb syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Bannas, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of posttransplant distal limb syndrome (PTDLS) representing a rare complication in kidney transplant recipients characterized by a pain syndrome of the distal extremities. A 68-year-old man with a history of kidney transplantation presented with symmetrical and incapacitating pain in the feet and knees and underwent whole-body Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy for further evaluation. Planar scintigraphy demonstrated marked tracer uptake in the distal femoral and tibial epiphyses, and magnetic resonance imaging showed corresponding osteoedema. Tc-MDP scintigraphy is a valuable tool for evaluation of the etiology of musculoskeletal pain and may demonstrate typical findings in case of PTDLS.

  6. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a

  7. The use of Tc-99m MDP bone scanning in the study of vascularized bone implants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Dee, P.; Lambruschi, P.G.; Hiebert, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The extent to which the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining bone growth in the immature animal was studied by excision and reimplantation of the upper tibia in two groups of puppies. In one group the reimplant was totally devascularized, and in a second group attempts were made to preserve the nutrient vessels to the reimplant. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) was used to assess the effectiveness with which the nutrient circulation was maintained. With one exception the Tc-99m MDP scans proved to be reliable in indicating the potential for continued growth after reimplantation. It was found that the nutrient artery alone is capable of maintaining longitudinal bone growth in metaphyseal reimplants in immature animals. Complete devascularization results in cessation of growth. The Tc-99m MDP bone scan should prove of critical importance in the assessment of free vascularized transplants of immature bone.

  8. Role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan in the diagnosis of Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Damle, Nishikant; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Arora, Arundeep; Singhal, Abhinav; Tripathi, Madhavi; Peepre, Karan

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare systemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a progressive disease of unknown etiology. The 99mtechnetium-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) bone scan is useful in finding the sites of involvement in the skeleton and is helpful in excluding other causes of bony pain. Also a scintigraphic pattern consistent with ECD should alert the physician to evaluate the patient for visceral sites of involvement using fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), as this is known to be fatal at times. PMID:25210284

  9. SUV measurement of normal vertebrae using SPECT/CT with Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Kaneta, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Nawata, Shintaro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform quantitative measurement based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in the normal vertebrae using a single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) scanner. A retrospective study of patients with cancer or joint disorders was performed. We acquired data for a group of 29 patients (8 women and 21 men; mean age, 68.2 ± 6.7 years; age range, 44-87 years) undergoing bone SPECT/CT scans with Tc-99m MDP between September and October 2015. Various SUVs were calculated based on body-weight, lean-body-weight (lbw), Japanese lean-body-weight (jlbw) and Japanese bone-mineral-content (jbmc). SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a wide range of values. Among these, the maximum body-weight based SUV showed the lowest coefficient of variation. The SUVs also showed relatively small intra-subject variability. In addition, all SUVs showed moderate and significant correlation with height. Moreover, lbw-, jlbw-, and jbmc-based SUVs of men were significantly higher than those of women. In conclusions, SUVs of normal vertebrae showed a relatively large inter-individual variability and small intra-individual variability. As a quantitative imaging biomarker, SUVs might require standardization with adequate reference data for the same subject to minimize variability. PMID:27766184

  10. Paradoxical acute hypercalcemic effect of salmon calcitonin in patients having Paget's disease of bone after treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Delmas, P D; Chapuy, M C; Meunier, P J

    1984-05-01

    The hypocalcemia following administration of calcitonin may be an index to disease activity in Paget's disease of bone. Therefore, we assessed the effect of a single injection of 100 MRC units of salmon calcitonin (SCT) on plasma calcium in 28 patients with active Paget's disease before and after 6 months of treatment with dichloromethylene diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) at a dose of 400 mg/day (3 patients), 800 mg/day (8 patients), 1.600 mg/day (9 patients) or 2.600 mg/day (8 patients). The mean SCT-induced hypocalcemia was reduced by Cl2MDP and there was a significant positive correlation between the decrease of serum calcium induced by SCT and bone resorption evaluated by the number of osteoclasts on bone biopsy taken in pagetic iliac crest. After Cl2MCP treatment, 5 patients manifested a paradoxical hypercalcemic response to SCT injection ranging from +0.3 mg/dl to +0.5 mg/dl, which was sustained over the 9 hours following injection. As these patients had a dramatic inhibition of bone resorption induced by Cl2 MDP, it is suggested that the hypercalcemic response to SCT might reflect persistence or exaggeration of the early hypercalcemic effect of CT which reportedly precedes the hypocalcemic response to SCT. PMID:6234216

  11. Estimation of Organ Absorbed Doses in Patients from 99mTc-diphosphonate Using the Data of MIRDose Software

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Cheki, Mohsen; Moslehi, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare estimation of radiation absorbed doses to patients following bone scans with technetium-99m-labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with the estimates given in MIRDose software. In this study, each patient was injected 25 mCi of 99mTc-MDP. Whole-body images from thirty patients were acquired by gamma camera at 10, 60, 90, 180 minutes after 99mTc-MDP injection. To determine the amount of activity in each organ, conjugate view method was applied on images. MIRD equation was then used to estimate absorbed doses in different organs of patients. At the end, absorbed dose values obtained in this study were compared with the data of MIRDose software. The absorbed doses per unit of injected activity (mGy/MBq × 10–4) for liver, kidneys, bladder wall and spleen were 3.86 ± 1.1, 38.73 ± 4.7, 4.16 ± 1.8 and 3.91 ± 1.3, respectively. The results of this study may be useful to estimate the amount of activity that can be administered to the patient and also showed that methods used in the study for absorbed dose calculation is in good agreement with the data of MIRDose software and it is possible to use by a clinician. PMID:23724374

  12. The Development of Diphosphonates as Significant Health Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Marion D.; Centner, Rosemary L.

    1978-01-01

    The historical development of the use of diphosphonates in detergents is presented as well as physical chemistry, physiological response, toxicology, and human clinical trials with these compounds. (BB)

  13. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  14. Calcium balance in children treated with diphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Uttley, W S; Belton, N R; Syme, J; Sheppard, H

    1975-03-01

    Serial mineral balances have been obtained in 3 children undergoing therapy with EHDP (ethane-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate) for diseases involving ectopic calcification. Although clinical outcome was not uniformly satisfactory, all cases showed an overall reduction in calcium balance. This was due to increased faecal excretion of calcium and was most marked after a long duration of therapy. Although these results conflict with reported experience in adults, they are in agreement with published observations of the effects of EHDP on calcium absorption in experimental animals.

  15. Subacute and chronic bone infections: Diagnosis using In-111, Ga-67 and Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy and radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sheikh, W.; Sfakianakis, G.N.; Mnaymneh, W.; Hourani, M.; Heal, A.; Duncan, R.C.; Burnett, A.; Ashkar, F.S.; Serafini, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    The usefulness of indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of subacute or chronic bone infection was examined in 21 orthopedic patients. In-111 WBC imaging was compared with gallium-67 and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate skeletal scintigraphy and bone radiography, all studies being performed within 1 week. In-111 WBC scintigraphy showed no definite advantage over Ga-67 scintigraphy in the identification of chronic bone infection. The two tests had the same sensitivity and similar specificity. Bone radiography had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 67%. A negative Tc-99m MDP bone scintigram ruled out infection, but because of low specific, final evaluation required performance of Ga-67 or In-111 WBC scintigraphy.

  16. Voltammetry as a virtual potentiometric sensor in modelling of a metal-ligand system and refinement of stability constants. Part 4. An electrochemical study of NiII complexes with methylene diphosphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Cukrowski, Ignacy; Mogano, Daniel M; Zeevaart, Jan Rijn

    2005-12-01

    The Ni(II)-MDP-OH system (MDP=methylene diphosphonic acid) and stability constants of complexes formed at ionic strength 0.15M at 298K were established by direct current polarography (DCP) and glass electrode potentiometry (GEP). The final M-L-OH model could only be arrived to by employing recent concept of virtual potentiometry (VP). VP-data were generated from non-equilibrium and dynamic DC polarographic technique. The VP and GEP data were refined simultaneously by software dedicated to potentiometric studies of metal complexes. Species distribution diagrams that were generated for different experimental conditions employed in this work assisted in making the final choice regarding the metal-ligand model. The model established contains ML, ML(2), ML(OH) and ML(OH)(2) with stability constants, as logbeta, 7.94+/-0.02, 13.75+/-0.02, 12.04 (fixed value), and 16.75+/-0.05, respectively. It has been demonstrated that virtual potential must be used in modelling operations (predictions of species formed) when a polarographic signal decreases significantly due to the formation of polarographically inactive species (or formation of inert complexes). The linear free energy relationships that included stability constant logK(1) for Ni(II)-MDP established in this work together with other available data were used to predict logK(1) values for Sm(III) and Ho(III) with MDP. The logK(1) values for Sm(III)-MDP and Ho(III)-MDP were estimated to be 9.65+/-0.10 and 9.85+/-0.10, respectively. PMID:16213588

  17. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  18. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  19. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  20. Adverse allergic reaction to Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, J.A.; Preston, D.F.; Stephens, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    Adverse allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals are rare but have been documented in the literature. This report presents data consistent with a definite adverse reaction to the radiopharmaceutical (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP.

  1. Pillared and open-framework uranyl diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Adelani, Pius O.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-09-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of uranium trioxide, uranyl acetate, or uranyl nitrate with 1,4-benzenebisphosphonic acid in the presence of very small amount of HF at 200 deg. C results in the formation of three different uranyl diphosphonate compounds, [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 2}OH)]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}]{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ubbp-1), [H{sub 3}O]{sub 4}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}F{sub 4}{r_brace}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-2), and {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O (Ubbp-3). The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. Ubbp-1 consists of UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged by the phosphonate moieties to form a three-dimensional pillared structure. Ubbp-2 is composed of UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged through the phosphonate oxygen atoms into one-dimensional chains that are cross-linked by the phenyl spacers into a pillared structure. The structure of Ubbp-3 is a three-dimensional open-framework with large channels containing water molecules with internal dimensions of approximately 10.9x10.9 A. Ubbp-1 and Ubbp-2 fluoresce at room temperature. - Graphical Abstract: Illustration of the three-dimensional open-framework structure of {l_brace}(UO{sub 2})[C{sub 6}H{sub 2}F{sub 2}(PO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} units, pentagonal bipyramids=green, oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, hydrogen=white. Highlights: > The influence of the uranyl salt anions and pH were critically examined in relation to structural variation. > The acetate and nitrate counter ions of uranyl may be acting as structure directing agents. > The use of rigid phenyl spacer yield

  2. Comparison of Accuracy in Calculation of Absorbed Dose to Patients Following Bone Scan with 99mTc-Marked Diphosphonates by Two Different Background Correction Methods

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Damoori, Mehri; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Moslehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of the activity quantification and the image quality in scintigraphy, scatter correction is a vital procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy in calculation of absorbed dose to patients following bone scan with 99mTc-marked diphosphonates (99mTc-MDP) by two different methods of background correction in conjugate view method. This study involved 22 patients referring to the Nuclear Medicine Center of Shahid Chamran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. After the injection of 99mTc-MDP, whole-body images from patients were acquired at 10, 60, 90, and 180 min. Organ activities were calculated using the conjugate view method by Buijs and conventional background correction. Finally, the absorbed dose was calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) technique. The results of this study showed that the absorbed dose per unit of injected activity (rad/mCi) ± standard deviation for pelvis bone, bladder, and kidneys by Buijs method was 0.19 ± 0.05, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 and by conventional method was 0.13 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.01, and 0.024 ± 0.01, respectively. This showed that Buijs background correction method had a high accuracy compared to conventional method for the estimated absorbed dose of bone and kidneys whereas, for the bladder, its accuracy was low. PMID:27014610

  3. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also

  4. Studies on the Labeling of Ethylenediaminetetramethylene Phosphonic Acid, Methylene Diphosphonate, Sodium Pyrophosphate and Hydroxyapatite with Lutetium-177 for use in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    For the treatment of skeletal metastasis, a therapeutic radionuclide tagged with a bone seeking ligand is required, while for radiation synovectomy (RS), a therapeutic radionuclide irreversibly attached to pre-formed particles of appropriate size is required. Radio lanthanides are mostly therapeutic, and ligands containing phosphate groups are predominantly bone seekers. Exploiting these facts, number of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals could be developed. Labeling of four phosphate containing materials was pursued in the present study. It was hypothesized that various (177)Lu-labeled bone-seeking complexes such as (177)Lu-ethylenediaminetetramethylene phosphonic acid (EDTMP), (177)Lu-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and (177)Lu-pyrophosphate (PYP) could be developed as agents for palliative radiotherapy of bone pain due to skeletal metastases, and (177)Lu-Hydroxyapatite (HA) could be developed as an agent for radiosynovectomy of small joints. Lyophilized kit vials of EDTMP, MDP and sodium pyrophosphate (Na-PYP) were formulated. HA particles were synthesized locally and purity was checked by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (177)Lu was labeled with EDTMP, MDP, PYP, and HA and the behavior of all was studied by radio-thin layer chromatography (TLC) radio-HPLC and radio-electrophoresis. Radio-TLC confirmed the labeling. HPLC analysis too verified the labeling. Radio-electrophoresis results depicted peaks for (177)Lu-MDP, (177)Lu-EDTMP and (177)Lu-PYP at 3.37 ± 0.06 cm, 5.53 ± 0.15 cm and 7.03 ± 0.06 cm respectively confirming negative charge on each specie as all migrated toward positive anode. All 3 methods verified the labeling. The study demonstrated that EDTMP, MDP and PYP form stable complexes with (177)Lu in injectable solution form. HA particulates could too be labeled with (177)Lu with high radiochemical yields (>98%) in suspension form. Former three could be utilized as bone-pain palliation agents for the treatment of bone metastases, and

  5. 78 FR 25699 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of... (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) from India. The period of review (POR) is April 1, 2011,...

  6. [Evaluation of multiple myeloma with bone scintigraphy using Tc 99 diphosphonate. Review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Solis, O J; Gonzales, R; De Luca, S; McKusick, K A; Potsaid, M S

    1977-04-01

    Bone Scanning using 99m Tc-Diphosphonate is another diagnostic modality in the evaluation of multiple mieloma which allows the identification of bone lesions not demonstrable by conventional radiography. The use of 99m Tc-Diphosphonate is more convenient and less harmful than other radioactive isotopes utilized before. PMID:866897

  7. Diphosphonates in the evaluation of metabolic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Fogelman, I; Smith, M L

    1982-03-01

    The bone scan may be of value in the assessment of patients with metabolic bone disease. However the superiority of the bone scan when compared to radiology in conditions such as renal osteodystrophy, osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism, and osteoporosis requires substantiation with the newer radiopharmaceuticals which have a higher affinity for bone. Two methods of quantitating skeletal uptake of tracer have been assessed to try to remove the subjective aspect of bone scan evaluation. Measurements of bone to soft tissue ratios have proved clinically disappointing, but 24 hour whole body retention of diphosphonate appears to provide a sensitive index of increased bone turnover.

  8. Severe systemic reaction to diphosphonate bone imaging agents: skin testing to predict allergic response and a safe alternative agent

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Gabatin, A.; Orzel, J.A.; Maloney, T.R.; Murnane, J.E.; Borchert, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    We describe a severe systemic reaction which occurred in a patient on two occasions after i.v. injection of chemically related diphosphonate bone imaging agents. Skin testing showed reactivity to multiple commercially available diphosphonate compounds but no significant response to pyrophosphates. A subsequent pyrophosphate bone scan resulted in no adverse reaction. Severe systemic reactions to diphosphonates can occur, skin testing may prove useful in evaluating allergic reactions, and pyrophosphates appear to be a safe alternative agent in patients proven or suspected allergic to diphosphonates.

  9. Pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)DMSA, (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP--an evaluation of three imaging techniques in patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, S.E.; Lazarus, C.R.; Wraight, P.; Sampson, C.; Maisey, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Nine patients with histologically proven medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) were imaged using pentavalent (/sup 99m/Tc)dimercaptosuccinic acid ((V)DMSA), (/sup 131/I) metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and (/sup 99m/Tc)methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Technetium-99m (V)DMSA demonstrated most of the tumor sites in eight patients with proven metastases, with an overall sensitivity of 95% in lesion detection. Iodine-131 MIBG showed definite uptake in some of the tumor sites in three of the nine patients imaged, with equivocal uptake seen in a further one patient, with sensitivity of only 11% for lesion detection. Technetium-99m MDP demonstrated bony metastases only, in four of the patients imaged yielding a sensitivity of 61%. Technetium-99m (V)DMSA has been demonstrated in this study to be a useful imaging agent in patients with MCT, showing uptake in significantly more lesions and with better imaging qualities than (/sup 131/I)MIBG, and with the ability to detect soft tissue as well as bony metastases.

  10. Water Oxidation by Ruthenium Complexes Incorporating Multifunctional Bipyridyl Diphosphonate Ligands.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan; Shaffer, David W; Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Szalda, David J; Concepcion, Javier J

    2016-07-01

    We describe herein the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium complexes with multifunctional bipyridyl diphosphonate ligands as well as initial water oxidation studies. In these complexes, the phosphonate groups provide redox-potential leveling through charge compensation and σ donation to allow facile access to high oxidation states. These complexes display unique pH-dependent electrochemistry associated with deprotonation of the phosphonic acid groups. The position of these groups allows them to shuttle protons in and out of the catalytic site and reduce activation barriers. A mechanism for water oxidation by these catalysts is proposed on the basis of experimental results and DFT calculations. The unprecedented attack of water at a neutral six-coordinate [Ru(IV) ] center to yield an anionic seven-coordinate [Ru(IV) -OH](-) intermediate is one of the key steps of a single-site mechanism in which all species are anionic or neutral. These complexes are among the fastest single-site catalysts reported to date. PMID:27166584

  11. 76 FR 772 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... India and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 19197 (April 28, 2009...-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Decision of the Court of International Trade... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic...

  12. Delayed skin rash following administration of technetium-99m diphosphonate: A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.; Sorenson, J.F.; Eisenberg, B.; Glactz, G.; Owens, D.; Hladik, W.B. III.; Curry, M.C. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors report a case of a 48-yr-old woman who developed a delayed skin rash following intravenous (i.v.) administration of technetium-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-HDP). The rash was characterized by skin biopsy, and it was concluded that the reaction was due to the diphosphonate compound. The rash resolved spontaneously without treatment. With most {sup 99m}Tc-based agents, adverse reactions are considered rare and are usually allergic in nature, but the delayed nature of this reaction is more common with diphosphonate compounds than with other radiopharmaceuticals. If a repeat examination is required, alternative agents (such as {sup 99m}Tc-pyrosphosphate) or any other diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered. An intradermal skin test may be helpful to determine the safest alternative bone agent.

  13. Thorium and uranium diphosphonates: Syntheses, structures, and spectroscopic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Adelani, Pius O.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2012-08-15

    Four new thorium and uranium diphosphonate compounds, [H{sub 3}O]{l_brace}Th{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}F{r_brace} (Thbbp-1), An{sub 2}{l_brace}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 4}PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}]{r_brace} [An=Th(IV), U(IV)] (Thbbp-2)/(U4bbp), and [(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}N][(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 4}PO{sub 3}H){sub 2}F(H{sub 2}O)] (U6bbp) have been synthesized hydrothermally using 1,4-benzenebisphosphonic acid as ligand. The crystal structures of these compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thbbp-1 and Thbbp-2 contain seven-coordinate Th(IV) within ThO{sub 6}F and ThO{sub 7} units with capped trigonal prismatic and capped octahedral geometries, respectively. U4bbp is isotypic with Thbbp-2. The structure of U6bbp contains U(VI) is the common seven-coordinate pentagonal bipyramid. - Graphical abstract: Coordination polyhedra and luminescence properties in thorium and uranium compounds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional thorium and uranium complexes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) under hydrothermal condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unusual seven-coordinate thorium complexes exhibiting capped octahedral and capped trigonal prismatic geometries.

  14. The MDP skull uptake test: A new diagnostic tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Cullum, I.; Lui, D.

    1984-01-01

    An original approach to the measurement of bone turnover is presented. With SPECT, the authors have measured in pgr/ml, the uptake of MDP by the skull in man. The Cleon 710 scanner, ring phantoms and bone biopsies were used for ultimate in vivo/in vitro count recovery correlation and calibration. A normal range for 24 patients was found: 8.5 to 19.5 pgr/ml with a mean of 14. For patients with bony metastases (12), the values were: 22.5 to 50, mean of 30. For 5 patients with osteomalacia, the values were 46 to 68, mean of 62: for 12 patients with hyperparathyroidism, the values were 37 to 48.5, mean of 43. In 3 patients with Pagets disease, the values were 58.5 to 75, with a mean of 65. In 76 patients with metastatic disease to bone, the conventional wholebody bone scan was investigated against the following: 24h wholebody retention of MDP (WBR), skull uptake as described and GFR by Cr-51-DTPA. There is a correlation between GFR and WBR - r=0.67. There is a lesser correlation between GFR and skull uptake - r=0.3. There is no correlation between skull uptake and WBR - r=0.1. The comparison of skull uptake data with normal whole body bone scans leads to a significant proportion of cancer patients with positive skull uptake data. Monostotic disease (especially if metabolic in nature) expresses itself by abnormal skull uptake even if the clinical site of abnormality lies outside the skull. This new technique is ideal as a tool to investigate phosphonate concentration in bone. With it, the authors have shown the effect of specific activity of label on skull uptake, which increases as the specific activity of labelled MDP decreases.

  15. 76 FR 19325 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...-Diphosphonic Acid from India and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 19197 (April 28... Less Than Fair Value: Sparklers From the People's Republic of China, 56 FR 20588, 20589 (May 6, 1991... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Silicon Carbide From the People's Republic of China, 59 FR......

  16. 77 FR 15357 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ...-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India (76 FR 78237). We invited parties to comment on the preliminary... from India: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 74 FR 10543 (March 11, 2009...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). This...

  17. Increase in alkaline phosphatase activity in calvaria cells cultured with diphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H

    1979-01-01

    1. Dichloromethanediphosphonate and to a lesser degree 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonate, two compounds characterized by a P-C-P bond, increased the alkaline phosphatase activity of cultured rat calvaria cells up to 30 times in a dose-dependent fashion. 2. Both diphosphonates also slightly inhibited the protein synthesis in these cells. 3. Thymidine, an inhibitor of cell division, did not inhibit the induction of the enzyme, indicating that the increase in enzyme activity was not due to the formation of a specific population of cells with high alkaline phosphatase activity. 4. The effect on alkaline phosphatase was suppressed by the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. 5. After subculturing the stimulated cells in medium without diphosphonates, the enzyme activity fell almost to the control value. 6. Bovine parathyrin diminished the enzyme activity of the control cells and the cells treated with dichloromethanediphosphonate; however, at high concentration the effect of parathyrin was greater on the diphosphonate-treated cells than on the control cells. 7. The electrophoretic behaviour, heat inactivation, inhibition by bromotetramisole or by phenylalanine, and the Km value of the induced enzyme were identical with that of the control enzyme. PMID:534490

  18. 78 FR 38941 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 19645, 19646 (April 2, 2013). On April 29, 2013, in accordance with... Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 78 FR 33052, 33054 (June 3, 2013). \\4\\ See June 4, 2013... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Rescission...

  19. 76 FR 7532 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid from India (75 FR 73042). We invited parties to comment on the preliminary...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003) (Assessment Policy Notice). This clarification... from India: Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 74 FR 10543 (March 11,...

  20. MDP: A Deinococcus Mn2+-Decapeptide Complex Protects Mice from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joan T.; Gaidamakova, Elena K.; Matrosova, Vera Y.; Grichenko, Olga; Knollmann-Ritschel, Barbara; Daly, Michael J.; Kiang, Juliann G.

    2016-01-01

    The radioprotective capacity of a rationally-designed Mn2+-decapeptide complex (MDP), based on Mn antioxidants in the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, was investigated in a mouse model of radiation injury. MDP was previously reported to be extraordinarily radioprotective of proteins in the setting of vaccine development. The peptide-component (DEHGTAVMLK) of MDP applied here was selected from a group of synthetic peptides screened in vitro for their ability to protect cultured human cells and purified enzymes from extreme damage caused by ionizing radiation (IR). We show that the peptides accumulated in Jurkat T-cells and protected them from 100 Gy. MDP preserved the activity of T4 DNA ligase exposed to 60,000 Gy. In vivo, MDP was nontoxic and protected B6D2F1/J (female) mice from acute radiation syndrome. All irradiated mice treated with MDP survived exposure to 9.5 Gy (LD70/30) in comparison to the untreated mice, which displayed 63% lethality after 30 days. Our results show that MDP provides early protection of white blood cells, and attenuates IR-induced damage to bone marrow and hematopoietic stem cells via G-CSF and GM-CSF modulation. Moreover, MDP mediated the immunomodulation of several cytokine concentrations in serum including G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-10 during early recovery. Our results present the necessary prelude for future efforts towards clinical application of MDP as a promising IR countermeasure. Further investigation of MDP as a pre-exposure prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic in radiotherapy and radiation emergencies is warranted. PMID:27500529

  1. Aggregation of dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids and its effect on metal ion extraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; Ferraro, J. R. Herlinger, A. W.; McAlister, D. R.

    1999-10-22

    Solvent extraction reagents containing the diphosphonic acid group exhibit an extraordinary affinity for tri-, tetra- and hexavalent actinides. Their use has been considered for actinide separation and pre-concentration procedures. Solvent extraction data obtained with P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methane-, ethane- and butanediphosphonic acids exhibit features that are difficult to explain without Knowledge of the aggregation state of the extractants. Information about the aggregation of the dialkyl-substituted diphosphonic acids in aromatic diluents has been obtained using the complementary techniques of vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics. The results from these techniques provide an understanding of the aggregation behavior of these extractants that is fully compatible with the solvent extraction data. The most important results and their relevance to solvent extraction are reviewed in this paper.

  2. Technetium-99m MDP imaging of acute radiation-induced inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, J.V.; Ziessman, H.A.

    1988-06-01

    Tc-99m MDP three-phase bone imaging demonstrated the acute hyperemic inflammatory soft tissue phase of radiation injury to the hand in a patient receiving radiation therapy to bone lesions of multiple myeloma.

  3. Modular Toolkit for Data Processing (MDP): A Python Data Processing Framework.

    PubMed

    Zito, Tiziano; Wilbert, Niko; Wiskott, Laurenz; Berkes, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Modular toolkit for Data Processing (MDP) is a data processing framework written in Python. From the user's perspective, MDP is a collection of supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms and other data processing units that can be combined into data processing sequences and more complex feed-forward network architectures. Computations are performed efficiently in terms of speed and memory requirements. From the scientific developer's perspective, MDP is a modular framework, which can easily be expanded. The implementation of new algorithms is easy and intuitive. The new implemented units are then automatically integrated with the rest of the library. MDP has been written in the context of theoretical research in neuroscience, but it has been designed to be helpful in any context where trainable data processing algorithms are used. Its simplicity on the user's side, the variety of readily available algorithms, and the reusability of the implemented units make it also a useful educational tool. PMID:19169361

  4. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  5. Extraosseous accumulation of bone scan tracer 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Agrawal, Archi; Zade, Anand; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Uptake in non-osseous, non-urologic tissues is occasionally found in the performance of bone scintigraphy. These uptakes reflect an atypical interaction between the radiopharmaceutical and the patient. Knowledge of the rare extraskeletal uptakes and their clinical relevance helps in better interpretation of bone scans. We report an unusual occurrence of extraosseous accumulation of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a phlebolith in bone scan, confirmed with the aid of photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography. PMID:23599599

  6. Diphosphonate thin films on zinc: Preparation, structure characterization and corrosion protection effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilbáth, A.; Bertóti, I.; Sajó, I.; Nyikos, L.; Kálmán, E.

    2008-12-01

    The reaction of water-based solution of 1,5-diphosphono-pentane (DPP) and 1,7-diphosphono-heptane (DPH) with high purity polycrystalline zinc surface was investigated at room temperature. XRD and XPS studies evidenced the formation of crystalline zinc-phosphonate film on the metal surface. The formed layers give hydrophilic properties to the surface. A conversion-type interaction of diphosphonic acid compounds with the oxidized zinc surface was unambiguously shown by XPS analysis. Conclusive results were obtained by synthesized zinc-diphosphonate model compounds imitating the ones developed on the zinc surface, revealing a simple, closely 1:1 ratio of the phosphonate groups with zinc. Reactions with both diphosphonates resulted in significant protective effect of zinc against corrosion, although the structure and quality of the formed layers exhibit marked differences. The in-depth distribution of the composition and dissimilarity of the layer thickness were determined by glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES). The corrosion inhibition was explained by the formation of insoluble zinc-phosphonate salt on the zinc surface, blocking the zinc dissolution process.

  7. Benign Brenner tumor of the ovary detected on Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.B.; McCartney, W.H.

    1984-11-01

    Many disease states, including neoplasia, have been detected by bone scanning. Among the neoplastic processes detected by bone imaging agents are ovarian tumors, both benign and malignant. This report is concerned with the visualization of a benign Brenner tumor during routine Tc-99m MDP bone scanning.

  8. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate uptake in the fetal skeleton at 30 weeks gestation

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, A.F.; Budd, R.S.; Yang, C.

    1994-08-01

    Retention of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the fetal skeleton and placenta at 30 and 32 wk gestation was observed during bone scan examination of the maternal skeleton for staging of malignant tumors. The implications and significance of these observations are discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Technetium 99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scans in children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Laxer, R.M.; Allen, R.C.; Malleson, P.N.; Morrison, R.T.; Petty, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    Eleven children with reflex neurovascular dystrophy were investigated by technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Eight of 12 scans demonstrated abnormal findings, four showing diffusely decreased uptake and four diffusely increased uptake of the radionuclide in the affected site. Three scans showed normal findings initially, as did one previously abnormal scan when repeated in the asymptomatic patient 6 months later. Diffusely abnormal findings can be helpful in the diagnosis of childhood reflex neurovascular dystrophy, but a normal scan does not exclude the diagnosis.

  10. Unusual Tc-99m MDP and I-123 MIBG images in focal pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.; Lenoir, P.; Delree, M.; Ramet, J.; Piepsz, A. )

    1990-11-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with an inflammatory syndrome. Because Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy revealed increased tracer uptake at the upper pole of the right kidney, further studies were oriented towards a diagnosis of renal or adrenal pathology. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) accumulated at the site of the abnormal MDP uptake. The diagnosis of neuroblastoma or allied disorder was excluded on the basis of other investigations and further evaluation, suggesting that the MIBG uptake was a false-positive. Findings on clinical imaging, laboratory findings, Tc-99m DMSA imaging, sonography, and CT scanning were highly suggestive of acute focal pyelonephritis.

  11. 76 FR 48142 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of... results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1... through March 31, 2010.\\1\\ The Department gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on...

  12. 75 FR 74684 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ..., 2010. \\1\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976... International Trade Administration 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of...: Effective Date: December 1, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shawn Higgins, AD/CVD Operations,...

  13. Extraosseous localization of technetium-99m MDP in benign cystic teratoma.

    PubMed

    Fuller, C; Leonard, J C

    1986-08-01

    Two cases of primary retroperitoneal benign teratoma, in which Tc-99m MDP localized in the primary tumor are presented. Localization of bone-imaging agents in neuroblastoma has been reported but, extraosseous localization of bone-imaging agents in teratomas has not been confirmed.

  14. Gene mdpC plays a regulatory role in the methyl-tert-butyl ether degradation pathway of Methylibium petroleiphilum strain PM1

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Geetika; Schmidt, Radomir; Scow, Kate M.; Denison, Michael S.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2015-01-01

    Among the few bacteria known to utilize methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a sole carbon source, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 is a well-characterized organism with a sequenced genome; however, knowledge of the genetic regulation of its MTBE degradation pathway is limited. We investigated the role of a putative transcriptional activator gene, mdpC, in the induction of MTBE-degradation genes mdpA (encoding MTBE monooxygenase) and mdpJ (encoding tert-butyl alcohol hydroxylase) of strain PM1 in a gene-knockout mutant mdpC−. We also utilized quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays targeting genes mdpA, mdpJ and mdpC to determine the effects of the mutation on transcription of these genes. Our results indicate that gene mdpC is involved in the induction of both mdpA and mdpJ in response to MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) exposure in PM1. An additional independent mechanism may be involved in the induction of mdpJ in the presence of TBA. PMID:25724531

  15. Thermodynamic Features of Benzene-1,2-Diphosphonic Acid Complexes with Several Metal Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Syouhei Nishihama; Ryan P. Witty; Leigh R Martin; Kenneth L. Nash

    2013-08-01

    Among his many contributions to the advancement of f-element chemistry and separation science, Professor Gregory R. Choppin’s research group completed numerous investigations featuring the application of distribution techniques to the determination of metal complexation equilibrium quotients. Most of these studies focused on the chemistry of lanthanide and actinide complexes. In keeping with that tradition, this report discusses the complex formation equilibrium constants for complexes of trivalent europium (Eu3+) with benzene-1,2-diphosphonic acid (H4BzDP) determined using solvent extraction distribution experiments in 0.2 M (Na,H)ClO4 media in the temperature range of 5 – 45 degrees C. Protonation constants for HnBzDP4-n and stoichiometry and stability of BzDP4- complexes with Zn2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ have also been determined using potentiometric titration (at I = 0.1 M) and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Heats of protonation of HnBzDPn-4 species have been determined by titration calorimetry. From the temperature dependence of the complex Eu3+-HnBzDPn-4 equilibrium constant, a composite enthalpy (?H = -15.1 (+/-1.0) kJ mol-1) of complexation has been computed. Comparing these thermodynamic parameters with literature reports on other diphosphonic acids and structurally similar carboxylic acids indicates that exothermic heats of complexation are unique to the Eu-BzDP system. Comparisons with thermodynamic data from the literature indicate that the fixed geometry imposed by the benzene ring enhances complex stability.

  16. Technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan. False-normal findings in elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaeffer, F.; Mikolich, D.J.; Mates, S.M.

    1987-11-01

    Hematogenous osteomyelitis is usually diagnosed by an abnormal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scan in symptomatic patients who have positive blood cultures. False-normal 99mTc bone scans have been described recently in neonates with biopsy-proved osteomyelitis. This phenomenon seems to be extremely rare in adults. Two elderly patients with hematogenous vertebral osteomyelitis had normal technetium Tc 99m diphosphonate bone scans when first evaluated. In both cases the bone scans became abnormal four to six weeks after onset of symptoms and two to four weeks after the initial normal results of the study. When suggested by the clinical picture, hematogenous osteomyelitis cannot be ruled out by a normal 99mTc bone scan at any age. Gallium scan, computed tomographic scan, or bone biopsy can be helpful in such cases.

  17. Technetium-99m APD compared with technetium-99m MDP as a bone scanning agent

    SciTech Connect

    Degrossi, O.J.; Oliveri, P.; Garcia del Rio, H.; Labriola, R.; Artagaveytia, D.; Degrossi, E.B.

    1985-10-01

    The authors have investigated the possibilities of technetium-99m-(-3-aminohydroxypropylidene)-1-1-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)APD) as a bone scanning agent in 14 normal subjects and 28 patients. Similar studies in the same normal subjects and patients were carried out with /sup 99m/Tc-methylene-bisphosphonate ((/sup 99m/Tc)MDP). The compounds were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by means of an electrolytical method; the free pertechnetate content was always under 1%. The (/sup 99m/Tc)APD T1/2 of the third component of the disappearance plasma curve in six normal subjects was 152 +/- 46 min (mean +/- s.d.), while the 24-hr whole-body retention (WBR) was 17.6% +/- 4.6. The (99mTc)MDP value of the 24-hr WBR was 28.6% +/- 3.9. The bone/soft-tissue ratio (B/ST) was investigated in eight control subjects on the eleventh thoracic and the fourth lumbar vertebrae. The B/ST ratios were similar for both APD and MDP studies. In 28 patients with suspected bone metastasis or primary bone disease, bone scintigraphy was carried out; both compounds showed similar findings and the same number of positive results. In five of these patients, the lesion/normal bone ratio was determined with values of 4.6 +/- 2.0 in APD studies and 4.8 +/- 2.3 with MDP. APD was also used in 126 patients; no adverse reactions were observed. The APD dose used i.v. for bone scanning was 200-fold less than those employed by mouth per day, for the treatment of bone disease for long periods. In our experience, APD appears to be an adequate agent for bone scintigraphy.

  18. 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT for assessment of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Habermann, Christian R

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of condylar hyperplasia diagnosed with 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT. A 21-year-old woman with facial asymmetry was referred for assessment of condylar growth activity. SPECT/CT confirmed condylar hyperactivity, and simultaneous low-dose CT contributed to the diagnosis of hemimandibular hyperplasia. SPECT/CT may become a valuable tool for the diagnosis and comprehensive assessment of condylar hyperplasia, providing both functional and morphological information. PMID:23242067

  19. Deep vein thrombosis detection by 99m TC-MDP scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Moallem, A.; Lichsztral, R.

    1984-08-01

    A new observation is reported wherein 99m Tc-MDP is incorporated into recanalizing thrombophlebitis. In one patient with subacute disease, inflammatory vascularity is appreciated during the first one to two minutes after injection. Both patients showed evidence of late phosphate uptake in their greater saphenous veins two hours later. Intravenous isotope injections may be given in an arm vein: foot injections are not required.

  20. Paucity of Nanolayering in Resin-Dentin Interfaces of MDP-based Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Zhou, L; Zhang, Z; Niu, L; Zhang, L; Chen, C; Zhou, J; Yang, H; Wang, X; Fu, B; Huang, C; Pashley, D H; Tay, F R

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembled nanolayering structures have been reported in resin-dentin interfaces created by adhesives that contain 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP). These structures have been hypothesized to contribute to bond durability. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent of nanolayering in resin-dentin interfaces after application of commercialized 10-MDP-containing self-etch and universal adhesives to human dentin. Seven commercialized adhesives were examined: Adhese Universal (Ivoclar-Vivadent), All-Bond Universal (Bisco, Inc.), Clearfil SE Bond 2, Clearfil S3 Bond Plus, Clearfil Universal Bond (all from Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc.), G-Premio Bond (GC Corp.), and Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE). Each adhesive was applied in the self-etch mode on midcoronal dentin according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Bonded specimens (n = 6) were covered with flowable resin composite, processed for transmission electron microscopy, and examined at 30 random sites without staining. Thin-film glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to detect the characteristic peaks exhibited by nanolayering (n = 4). The control consisted of 15%wt, 10%wt, and 5%wt 10-MDP (DM Healthcare Products, Inc.) dissolved in a mixed solvent (ethanol and water weight ratio 9:8, with photoinitiators). Experimental primers were applied to dentin for 20 s, covered with hydrophobic resin layer, and examined in the same manner. Profuse nanolayering with highly ordered periodicity (~3.7 nm wide) was observed adjacent to partially dissolved apatite crystallites in dentin treated with the 15% 10-MDP primer. Three peaks in the 2θ range of 2.40° (3.68 nm), 4.78° (1.85 nm), and 7.18° (1.23 nm) were identified from thin-film XRD. Reduction in the extent of nanolayering was observed in the 10% and 5% 10-MDP experimental primer-dentin interface along with lower intensity XRD peaks. Nanolayering and characteristic XRD peaks were rarely observed in

  1. Paucity of Nanolayering in Resin-Dentin Interfaces of MDP-based Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Zhou, L; Zhang, Z; Niu, L; Zhang, L; Chen, C; Zhou, J; Yang, H; Wang, X; Fu, B; Huang, C; Pashley, D H; Tay, F R

    2016-04-01

    Self-assembled nanolayering structures have been reported in resin-dentin interfaces created by adhesives that contain 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP). These structures have been hypothesized to contribute to bond durability. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent of nanolayering in resin-dentin interfaces after application of commercialized 10-MDP-containing self-etch and universal adhesives to human dentin. Seven commercialized adhesives were examined: Adhese Universal (Ivoclar-Vivadent), All-Bond Universal (Bisco, Inc.), Clearfil SE Bond 2, Clearfil S3 Bond Plus, Clearfil Universal Bond (all from Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc.), G-Premio Bond (GC Corp.), and Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE). Each adhesive was applied in the self-etch mode on midcoronal dentin according to the respective manufacturer's instructions. Bonded specimens (n = 6) were covered with flowable resin composite, processed for transmission electron microscopy, and examined at 30 random sites without staining. Thin-film glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to detect the characteristic peaks exhibited by nanolayering (n = 4). The control consisted of 15%wt, 10%wt, and 5%wt 10-MDP (DM Healthcare Products, Inc.) dissolved in a mixed solvent (ethanol and water weight ratio 9:8, with photoinitiators). Experimental primers were applied to dentin for 20 s, covered with hydrophobic resin layer, and examined in the same manner. Profuse nanolayering with highly ordered periodicity (~3.7 nm wide) was observed adjacent to partially dissolved apatite crystallites in dentin treated with the 15% 10-MDP primer. Three peaks in the 2θ range of 2.40° (3.68 nm), 4.78° (1.85 nm), and 7.18° (1.23 nm) were identified from thin-film XRD. Reduction in the extent of nanolayering was observed in the 10% and 5% 10-MDP experimental primer-dentin interface along with lower intensity XRD peaks. Nanolayering and characteristic XRD peaks were rarely observed in

  2. Neuroblastoma: Imaging evaluation by sequential Tc-99m MDP, I-131 MIBG, and Ga-67 citrate studies

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Friedman, A.; Sandler, M.P.; Kedar, A. )

    1989-07-01

    Fourteen children with histopathologically confirmed neuroblastoma underwent sequential correlative imaging studies using I-131 MIBG, Tc-99m MDP, and Ga-67 citrate during various stages of the disease. Of the patients 86% showed I-131 MIBG accumulation in the primary tumoral site, whereas 71% showed Tc-99m MDP and 79% Ga-67 citrate uptake. In 86% at least one of the two latter radiopharmaceuticals concentrated in the primary tumor. The use of all three radiopharmaceuticals raised the detection rate to 93%. Of the osseous or extraosseous metastases 100% were detected by Tc-99m MDP studies. The I-131 MIBG studies were positive in 71% of the osseous metastases and in 70% of the extraosseous metastases. No Ga-67 citrate uptake was demonstrated in osseous metastases, although one extraosseous lung metastasis concentrated this radiopharmaceutical. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging was the best method for diagnosing metastatic spread of the disease and for monitoring the results of treatment. Primary tumor uptake was best indicated by I-131 MIBG. Both Ga-67 citrate and I-131 MIBG were superior to Tc-99m MDP with regard to accurately demonstrating the extent of primary tumors. Only Tc-99m MDP indicated the relationship of these tumors to the kidneys and neighboring osseous structures, providing early screening of kidney compression. Ga-67 citrate study was mainly indicated in tumors with catecholamine depletion, which failed to concentrate the other two radiopharmaceuticals. I-131 MIBG proved especially useful in detecting neuroblastoma with negative Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate studies and also proved to be helpful with those cases in which I-131 MIBG was planned for therapy. The following strategy is suggested for evaluating neuroblastoma.

  3. Application of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid in boiler water for industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bin; Li, Mao-Dong; Zhu, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The primary method used for boiler water treatment is the addition of chemicals to industrial boilers to prevent corrosion and scaling. The static scale inhibition method was used to evaluate the scale inhibition performance of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP). Autoclave static experiments were used to study the corrosion inhibition properties of the main material for industrial boilers (20# carbon steel) with an HEDP additive in the industrial boiler water medium. The electrochemical behavior of HEDP on carbon steel corrosion control was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques. Experimental results indicate that HEDP can have a good scale inhibition effect when added at a quantity of 5 to 7 mg/L at a test temperature of not more than 100 °C. To achieve a high scale inhibition rate, the HEDP dosage must be increased when the test temperature exceeds 100 °C. Electrochemical and autoclave static experimental results suggest that HEDP has a good corrosion inhibition effect on 20# carbon steel at a concentration of 25 mg/L. HEDP is an excellent water treatment agent.

  4. Two new supramolecular metal diphosphonates: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and inhibiting effects on metallic corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholivand, Khodayar; Yaghoubi, Rouhollah; Farrokhi, Alireza; Khoddami, Shahram

    2016-11-01

    Two new divalent metal(II) aminodiphosphonates with layered structure, namely, Cu(H3L1)2·2H2O (1), [H4L1=methyl-N(CH2PO3H2)2] and Cd2(H2L2)4(2), [H4L2=n-propyl-N(CH2PO3H2)2] were synthesized and characterized. The Cu(II) ions in complex 1 are octahedrally coordinated by four oxygen atoms from two chelating ligands and two phosphonate oxygen atoms from two neighboring Cu(H3L1)2 units. The Cu(H3L1)2 units are interconnected by bridging phosphonate groups, forming a 2-D metal phosphonate layer. The structure of complex 2 contains two unique Cd(II) ions octahedrally-coordinated by six phosphonate oxygen atoms from four H2L2 diphosphonate anions. Corrosion inhibition performances of 1 and 2 were also compared with each other in order to study the effect of combinations of externally added Cd/H4L2 and Cu/H4L1 (1:1 ratio) on corrosion rates of carbon steel. It was found that at pH 3.0, Cd/H4L2 or Cu/H4L1 combinations do not have noticeable corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel. In contrast, at pH 7.0, higher corrosion inhibition efficiency was achieved for Cd/H4L2. Physical characterizations such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to study the corrosion specimens and film material.

  5. Modification of Hydroxyapatite with Ion-Selective Complexants: 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) was modified with 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), and its effect on divalent metal ion binding was determined. HAP was synthesized from calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid. After calcination, it was modified with HEDP, and the influence of time and temperature on the modification was investigated. HEDP incorporation increased as its initial solution concentration increased from 0.01 to 0.50 M. Unmodified and modified HAP were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and specific surface area analysis. Ca/P ratios, acid capacities, and phosphorus elemental analyses gave the effect of modification on composition and surface characteristics. A high reaction temperature produced new phosphonate bands at 993, 1082, and 1144 cm–1 that indicated the presence of HEDP. HAP modification at a high temperature–long reaction time had the highest HEDP loading and gave the sharpest XRD peaks. The emergence of new HAP–HEDP strands was observed in SEM images for treated samples while EDS showed high phosphorus contents in these strands. Modified HAP had a high acid capacity from the additional P–OH groups in HEDP. The P(O)OH groups maintain their ability to bind metal ions within the HAP matrix: contacting the modified HAP with 10–4 N nitrate solutions of five transition metal ions gives an affinity sequence of Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Ni(II) > Cu(II). This result is comparable to that of commercially available di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid, a common solvent extractant, and the trend is consistent with the Misono softness parameter of metal ion polarizabilities. PMID:25678741

  6. N-heterocyclic amine-directed structures and properties of two Cu(II) diphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kui-Rong; Ma, Feng; Zhu, Yu-Lan; Yu, Lin-Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Min; Yang, Yin; Duan, Wei-He

    2011-10-14

    By introducing the second organic N-heterocyclic ligands 4'-(4-pyridyl)-4,2':6',4''-terpyridine (pyterpy) and 4,4'-bipyridyl (4,4'-bipy), two examples of Cu(II)-diphosphonates, [Cu(3)(HL)(2)(Hpyterpy)(2)]·2H(2)O 1 and [Cu(4)(HL)(2)(4,4'-bipy)(H(2)O)(5)] 2 based on 1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (H(5)L = CH(3)C(OH)(PO(3)H(2))(2)), have been hydrothermally obtained and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, IR, TG-DSC. The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that compound 1 has a one-dimensional fishbone-like chain constructed by anions [Cu(3)(HL)(2)(2-)](n) while simultaneously organic cations [Hpyterpy(+)](n) suspending both sides, and compound 2 exhibits two-dimensional inorganic-organic alternate arrangement layer built from 1-D ladder-like inorganic chain with tetranuclear cluster [Cu(4)O(10)] via 4,4'-bipy linkage. The results of electrochemical measurements indicate half-wave potential of 1 (E(1/2)(1) = 1.01 V) is less than that of 2 (E(1/2)(2) = 1.20 V), indicating a good D-A system in ICT for 1. Moreover fluorescent measurements reveal that emission intensity of 1 centered at 422 nm is larger than that of 2 emitted at 420 nm, caused by intraligand π*-π emission state of organic N-heterocyclic amine (λ(ex) = 233 nm). Magnetism data indicate that compound 1 exhibits ferrimagnetic interactions between metal centers, while compound 2 has antiferromagnetic property.

  7. MDP-based resource allocation for triple-play transmission on xDSL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Lamartine V.; de Carvalho, Glaucio H. S.; Cardoso, Diego L.; de Carvalho, Solon V.; Frances, Carlos R. L.; Costa, João C. W. A.; Riu, Jaume Rius i.

    2007-09-01

    Many broadband services are based on multimedia applications, such as voice over internet protocol (VoIP), video conferencing, video on demand (VoD), and internet protocol television (IPTV). The combination "triple-play" is often used with IPTV. It simply means offering voice, video and data. IPTV and others services uses digital broadband networks such as ADSL2+ (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) and VDSL (Very High Rate DSL) to transmit the data. We have formulated a MDP (Markov Decision Process) for a triple-play transmission on DSL environment. In this paper, we establish the relationship between DSL transmission characteristics and its finite-state Markov model for a triple-play transmission system. This relationship can be used for a resource management for multimedia applications delivered through a broadband infrastructure. The solution to our optimization problem can be found using dynamic programming (DP) techniques, such as value iteration and its variants. Our study results in a transmission strategy that chooses the optimal resource allocation according the triple-play traffic requirements, defined in technical report TR-126 (Triple-Play Services Quality of Experience Requirements) from DSL Forum, minimizing quality of service (QoS) violations with respect to bandwidth. Three traffic classes (video, audio, and best effort internet data) are defined and analyzed. Our simulation results show parameters like as blocking probability for each class, link utilization and optimal control policies. The MDP-based approach provides a satisfactory way of resource management for a DSL system.

  8. Clinical Value of 99Tcm-MDP SPECT Bone Scintigraphy in the Diagnosis of Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bing; Shen, Ying; Wang, Chang-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the clinical value of 99Tcm-MDP SPECT for the diagnosis of unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH). Methods. One hundred forty-nine patients who underwent mandibular 99Tcm-MDP SPECT between January 2009 and December 2012 were studied, including 105 cases that were clinically suspected of UCH and 44 comparable cases without UCH as a control group. Results. Increased bone activity was observed in the affected condyles for all UCH patients. In the UCH group, the relative percentage uptake on the affected side was 59% (SD ± 4.3%), significantly higher than the 41% (SD ± 4.1%) uptake on the contralateral side (P<0.001). Similarly, the condyle/skull ratio was significantly higher for the affected side (1.66 ± 0.63) than for the contralateral side (1.34 ± 0.34, P < 0.01. No significant difference was found in the control group between the left and right condyles. Values for the sensitivity (95%), specificity (61%), positive (84.4%) and negative (84.6%) predictive values, and accuracy (84.5%) for 99Tcm-MDP SPECT in the diagnosis of UCH were calculated. However, for the hyperplastic condyle, no correlation was observed between the thickness of each cartilage layer and the relative uptake in the SPECT image. Conclusion. 99Tcm-MDP SPECT is accurate for diagnosing UCH and can provide a reference for treatment options. PMID:24901015

  9. Intense muscle uptake of Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m MDP in a patient with aplastic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Batte, W.G. Jr.; Yeh, S.D.; Rosenblum, M.K.; Larson, S.M. )

    1991-06-01

    An unusual distribution of Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in several muscle groups is described in a 14-year-old boy with aplastic anemia and normal renal function at the time of imaging. Although the patient did not develop musculo-skeletal signs or symptoms, a subsequent autopsy revealed widespread muscle calcification.

  10. Diagnosis of bone infection by complementary role of technetium-99m MDP and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime-leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Abdullah; El-Saban, Khaled; Al-Sakhri, Hijji

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Valuate complementary role of 99mTc-MDP bone scan and 99mTechnetium hexamethylpropylene-amineoxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of bone infection. Patients and Methods: Ninety one sites suspected to have bone infection were divided in to two groups: Group I 49 sites with current endo-prothesis; and group II 42 sites with no prosthesis. All patients were subjected to serial images of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte (99mTc-white blood cells (WBCs)), triple phase bone scan (99mTc-MDP) and plain X-ray, in addition to clinical and bacteriological assessment, together with follow-up. Results: The overall sensitivity (Sn) was found to be 34.9%, 95.4%, and 86% for plain X-ray, 99mTc-MDP, and 99mTc-WBCs respectively. Concerning specificity (Sp) was found to be 47.9%, 45.8%, and 91.7% respectively for the three imaging modalities. 99mTc-WBCs showed better Sn, Sp, and accuracy in group I (95%, 93.1% and 93.9%, respectively) compared to 40%, 41.4%, and 40.8% for plain X-ray and 90%, 62%, and 73.5% respectively for 99mTc-MDP. On the other hand, 99mTc-MDP proved to have best Sn 100% versus 78.3% and 30.4% for 99mTc-WBCs and plain X-ray respectively. Yet, Sp and accuracy was found to best for 99mTc-WBCs (89.5% and 83.3% respectively) compared to 57.9% and 42.9% for plain X-ray and 21.1% and 64.3% for 99mTc-MDP. Conclusion: Combined imaging with 99mTc-WBCs and 99mTc-MDP proved to be effective in early detection of bone infection in the presence or absence of prosthesis. PMID:23919069

  11. Marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of 2 zirconia crown systems luted with glass ionomer and MDP-based cements.

    PubMed

    Sener, Isil; Turker, Begum; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the marginal gap, cement thickness, and microleakage of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and phosphate monomer-containing resin cement (MDP-RC) under 2 zirconia crown systems (Cercon and DC-Zirkon). Forty human premolars were prepared for all-ceramic zirconia crowns with a 1 mm circumferential finish line and a 1.5 mm occlusal reduction. The crowns (n = 10 per group) from each zirconia system were randomly divided into 2 groups and cemented either with GIC (Vivaglass CEM) or MDP-RC (Panavia F 2.0) cement. The cemented crowns were thermocycled 5000 times (5°-55°C). The crowns were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually and mesiodistally. Specimens were examined under optical microscope (100X). Data were analyzed using Student t-test and chi-square tests (α = 0.05). Mean marginal gap values for Cercon (85 ± 11.4 μm) were significantly higher than for DC-Zircon (75.3 ± 13.2 μm) (P = 0.018). The mean cement thickness values of GIC (81.7 ± 13.9 μm) and MDP-RC (78.5 ± 12.5 μm) were not significantly different (P = 0.447). Microleakage scores did not demonstrate significant difference between GIC (P = 0.385) and MDP-RC (P = 0.631) under Cercon or DC-Zircon. Considering the cement thickness values and microleakage scores obtained, both zirconia crown systems could be cemented in combination with either GIC or MDP-RC.

  12. False triggering of an ultraviolet flame detector after 99mTc-MDP injection.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hisashi; Starkey, Jay

    2016-06-01

    We report a patient who set off a restroom's ultraviolet-spectrum flame detector, occurring 2.5 h after administration of radioisotope 99mTc-MDP (740 MBq) for bone scintigraphy. The radiation dose rate emitted from the patient was estimated to be about 11.82 μSv/h at a distance of 100 cm. To date, many cases have been reported of radiation detector false alarms triggered by radioisotopes administered to patients, presumably due to strengthened security measures and increased radioisotope use. Only one other case of false flame detector triggering in relation to radioisotope administration has been reported, in that case due to therapeutic radioiodine; there have been no prior reports of diagnostic (99m)Tc triggering flame detectors.

  13. Resorption of bone implants. The effect of in vivo incorporation of a diphosphonate and fluoride on resorption.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, J B; Baylink, D J

    1978-02-01

    Weanling isogenously related rats were divided into one control group, one group given a fluoride supplement of 100 parts/10(6) of F- in the drinking water, and a third group given 0.5 mg per kg body weight of phosphorus as dichloromethylene diphosphanic acid (Cl2MDP). The rats were labeled with 1 muCi per g body weight of 3H proline and 40 muCi of 45Ca. Four weeks after labeling, the animals were sacrificed and one scapula was implanted subcutaneously in the back of an isogenously related rat of the same age. The other scapula was stored in a freezer pending analysis. After another 4 weeks the implants were recovered and the radioactivity of each isotope was compared with that of the initially stored scapulae. A 30-40% loss of activity was found, reflecting a considerable loss of bone. However, this loss was significantly lower (P less than 0.01) when Cl2MDP was given to the donor animals, whereas fluoride treatment did not affect the resorption.

  14. Interobserver variability in the interpretation of myocardial images with Tc-99m-labeled diphosphonate and pyrophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Cuaron, A.; Acero, A.P.; Cardenas, M.; Huerta, D.; Rodriguez, A.; de Garay, R.

    1980-01-01

    Without prior knowledge of the significant clinical data, six observers have independently evaluated a consecutive series of 250 myocardial scans made with Tc-99m-labeled phosphates: 127 with MDP and 123 with PPi. Of the 226 patients, all having acute precordial chest pain, 169 were shown to have acute myocardial infarction while 57 suffered acute distress from other causes. The six observers, varying in their experience with nuclear medicine, compared the intensity of uptake in the heart with that in bone, and rated their impression of a positive image by a six-category scale - that is, one with five criterion levels. Results were expressed as receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, from which the optimal individual criterion level for each observer was determined. We found very high interobserver variability in the perception of the shades of myocardial concentration, although they were based on strict and apparently objective criteria. This variability has a direct influence on the overall performance of each observer. In every instance, PPi was demonstrated to be a better tracer than MDP for myocardial imaging. The bias of the experience, visual perception, and psychology of the observer at the time of the reading of the images seems to be significant, as is the presence of uncorrected visual defects. These results justify the setting of special programs to evaluateperiodically the performance of every physician who interprets studies, to establish his optimal individual criterion level instead of using a fixed criterion level to decide whether an image is positive.

  15. (99m)Tc-MDP- and (18F)-FDG-avid florid reactive periostitis ossificans mimicking recurrent osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Koh, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Ji Young; Lim, Sang Moo; Kong, Chang-Bae

    2013-06-01

    Florid reactive periostitis ossificans is a rare benign lesion usually affecting the tubular bones of the hands and feet, and its histological features may be confused with those of infection and osteosarcoma. We report a case with florid reactive periostitis ossificans of the femur showing increased tracer uptake on both Tc-MDP bone scan and F-FDG PET/CT mimicking a local recurrence in a 15-year-old patient with high-grade osteosarcoma.

  16. Factors affecting uptake and retention of technetium-99m-diphosphonate and 99m-pertechnetate in osseous, connective and soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Francis, M D; Slough, C L; Tofe, A J

    1976-06-14

    The bone scanning complex, 99mTc-Sn-EHDP, consisting of the nuclide technetium-99m, stannous ion and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate, administered intravenously is retained in soft tissues in proportion to increasing calcium content of the tissues. Within bone tissue, the retention is proportional to vascularity and to surface area of calcium phosphate in bones and not necessarily to calcium and phosphate concentration. The nuclidic agent 99mTcO4-BUT NOT THE 99MTc-diphosphonate is selectively taken up by the thyroid and this uptake can be blocked by administering sodium perchlorate. Among the connective tissues studied, the tracheal cartilage seems to have the greatest potential to calcify with increasing age of the animal and man. Soft tissue does not retain the bone scanning complex 99mTc-Sn-EHDP but does retain 99mTcO4-. PMID:182328

  17. Use of diphosphonates to correct disorders in calcium metabolism and mineral composition of bone tissue with 60-day hypokinesia in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morukov, B. V.; Zaychik, V. YE.; Ivanov, V. M.; Orlov, O. I.

    1988-01-01

    Compounds of the diphosphonate group suppress bone resorption and bone tissue metabolism, from which it was assumed that they can be used for the prevention of osteoporosis and disorders of calcium homeostasis in humans during space flight. Two compounds of this group were used for preventive purposes in 60 day hypokinesia in rats. The results showed that diphosphonates have a marked effect on calcium metabolism and the condition of the bone tissues under conditions of long term hypokinesia: they reduce the content of ionized calcium in blood, delay the loss of calcium and phosphorus by the bone tissue, and to a considerable degree prevent reduction of bone density. This confirms the possibility of using compounds of this group for correcting and preventing changes of bone tissue and mineral metabolism during long term hypokinesia.

  18. Re-framing microbicide acceptability: findings from the MDP301 trial.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M; Gafos, Mitzy; Lees, Shelley; Morar, Neetha S; Mweemba, Oliver; Ssali, Agnes; Stadler, Jonathan; Pool, Robert

    2010-08-01

    Microbicides are most usually conceptualised within a disease prevention framework and studies usually define acceptability in terms of product characteristics, willingness to use and risk reduction. This starting point has led to assumptions about microbicides which, rather than being challenged by empirical studies, have tended to foreclose the data and subsequent conceptual models. Few studies take an emic ('insider') perspective or attempt to understand how microbicides fit into the broader context of women's and men's everyday lives. As part of the integrated social science component of the MDP301 Phase III microbicide trial, in-depth interviews were conducted with female trial participants in South Africa, Zambia, Tanzania and Uganda. Women's experiences of the gel challenge several assumptions that have commonly been reiterated about microbicides. Our analysis suggests that current definitions and conceptual frameworks do not adequately account for the range of meanings that women attribute to gel. Even within the context of a clinical trial, it is possible to obtain a richer, ethnographic and cross-cultural concept of acceptability based on women's practice and emic interpretations. We now need to move beyond limited notions of acceptability and consider how microbicides fit into a more holistic picture of women's and men's sexuality and sexual health. PMID:20397079

  19. Cloud point extraction of uranium using H₂DEH[MDP] in acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Labrecque, Charles; Potvin, Sabrina; Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Larivière, Dominic

    2013-03-30

    A procedure has been developed for the cloud point extraction (CPE) of uranium (VI) using H2DEH[MDP] (P,P-di(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid) with inductively coupled plasma coupled to mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is based on the modification of the cloud point temperature using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and KI. Optimal conditions of extraction were found using a cross-optimization of every parameter (non-ionic and ionic surfactant concentrations, chelating agent concentration, pH and the extraction, and phase separation temperatures). Furthermore, the figures of merit of the methodology were assessed (limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, sensibility, and linear range) and are reported. Quantitative extraction (99 ± 0.5%) was obtained in drinking water samples over a wide range of uranium concentrations. The approach was also validated using drinking (SCP EP-L-3 and SCP EP-H-3), and wastewater (SCP EU-L-3) certified materials. Interferences from most critical anions and cations were evaluated to determine the reliability of the method. The proposed method showed robustness since its performance is maintained over a wide range of pH and metal ion concentrations.

  20. Iodine-131-labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases: II. Preliminary clinical results with iodine-131 BDP3

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhut, M.; Berberich, R.; Kimmig, B.; Oberhausen, E.

    1986-08-01

    The kinetics, dosimetry, and response of iodine-131 alpha-amino-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-diphosphonate ((/sup 131/I)BDP3) treatment were investigated with patients who had pain symptoms from bone metastases of various primary carcinoma. The blood clearance of (/sup 131/I)BDP3 was rapid. More than 90% disappeared from the blood pool at 2 hr after injection. The excretion of the activity occurred solely through the kidneys and mean total-body retention at 48 hr was 48.6%. The urinary activity showed a metabolite which must be formed by an in vivo cleavage reaction of a phosphorus-carbon bond. The uptake of in vivo cleaved (/sup 131/I)iodide in the unblocked thyroid was approximately 0.5%. The effective half-life of (/sup 131/I)BDP3 in metastatic bone (median 182 hr; range 177-205 hr) proved to be longer than in unaffected areas (145 hr; 140-165 hr). Palliative therapies were performed with 18 patients. They received doses ranging between 6 and 48 mCi (/sup 131/I)BDP3. The response was 44% complete pain relief, 6% substantial pain relief, 22% minimal improvement, and 28% no change. The duration of response ranged between 1 and 8 wk.

  1. [99mTc]diphosphonate uptake and hemodynamics in experimental arthritis: effect of naproxen in the canine carrageenan injection model.

    PubMed

    Hansen, E S; He, S Z; Søballe, K; Kjølseth, D; Henriksen, T B; Hjortdal, V E; Bünger, C

    1992-09-01

    The impact of naproxen treatment on juxta-articular hemodynamics and bone metabolism in experimental juvenile arthritis was studied in the articular carrageenan injection model. Unilateral gonarthritis was induced for 12 weeks in eight dogs receiving naproxen (dosage, 2 mg/kg) and eight controls. Regional blood flow was assessed by the microsphere method, plasma volume by the distribution space of [125I]fibrinogen, and bone metabolism by the 2-h uptake of [99mTc]diphosphonate ([99mTc]DPD). Synovial effusion was less prominent with naproxen treatment as judged by joint fluid volume and pressure. Naproxen reduced the arthritic capsular hyperemia, almost normalized a severe blood flow increase in patella and both juxta-articular epiphyses, ameliorated an expansion of plasma volume in the patella and the distal femoral epiphysis, and normalized an increased [99mTc]DPD uptake in subchondral femoral bone and the tibial cortex. Significantly increased arteriovenous shunting in the arthritic extremity was unaffected by naproxen. The study suggests that long-term cyclooxygenase inhibition offers protection against hemodynamic and metabolic changes in juxta-articular bone secondary to synovial inflammation. PMID:1500978

  2. Complexation of U(VI) with 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonicAcid (HEDPA) in Acidic to Basic Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, W A; Rao, L; Zanonato, P; Garnov, A; Powell, B A; Nash, K L

    2007-01-24

    Complexation of U(VI) with 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in acidic to basic solutions has been studied with multiple techniques. A number of 1:1 (UO{sub 2}H{sub 3}L), 1:2 (UO{sub 2}H{sub j}L{sub 2} where j = 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 and -1) and 2:2 ((UO{sub 2}){sub 2}H{sub j}L{sub 2} where j = 1, 0 and -1) complexes form, but the 1:2 complexes are the major species in a wide pH range. Thermodynamic parameters (formation constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation) were determined by potentiometry and calorimetry. Data indicate that the complexation of U(VI) with HEDPA is exothermic, favored by the enthalpy of complexation. This is in contrast to the complexation of U(VI) with dicarboxylic acids in which the enthalpy term usually is unfavorable. Results from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and {sup 31}P NMR have confirmed the presence of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:2 U(VI)-HEDPA complexes.

  3. Self-assembled monolayers of alpha,omega-diphosphonic acids on Ti enable complete or spatially controlled surface derivatization.

    PubMed

    Danahy, Michael P; Avaltroni, Michael J; Midwood, Kim S; Schwarzbauer, Jean E; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2004-06-22

    Alpha,omega-diphosphonic acids self-assemble on the native oxide surfaces of Ti or Ti-6Al-4V. Heating gives strongly bonded phosphonate monolayers. Infrared and X-ray spectroscopic and water contact angle data show that the films are bonded to the surface by one phosphonate unit; the other remains a phosphonic acid. Surface loadings were measured by quartz crystal microbalance procedures. Mechanical shear strengths for the films were also measured; these do not correlate simply with surface loadings. Films formed from 1,12-diphosphonododecane were treated with zirconium tetra(tert-butoxide) to give surface Zr complex species; derivatives of these surface complexes are stable to hydrolysis under physiological conditions and are mechanically strong. The complexation reaction can be accomplished over the entire surface; alternatively, dropwise application of the alkoxide to the surface enables spatial control of deposition. The cell attractive peptide derivative RGDC can be bound to these surface Zr alkoxide complexes through (maleimido)-alkylcarboxylate intermediates. Surfaces modified with RGDC were shown to be effective for osteoblast binding and proliferation. PMID:15986670

  4. Effect of ethane-I-hydroxy-I, I-diphosphonate on arterial calcinosis induced by hypervitaminosis D: a morphologic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, J. G.; Roy, P. E.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine changes in vascular ultrastructure of rats subjected to hypervitaminosis D with or without treatment with ethane-I-hydroxy-I, I-diphosphonate (EHDP). Five groups of rats were studied. Untreated rats were given 0.9% NaCl i.p. Sham-treated rats were given vehicle (corn oil). Treated rats were given ergocalciferol (75,000 IU i.p.) dissolved in vehicle with or without EHDP (5 mM/100 g body-weight i.p.). Rats which had been given ergocalciferol without EHDP developed hypercalcemia and demonstrated significant arterial calcinosis. A similar degree of calcinosis was not observed in rats given ergocalciferol with EHDP. EHDP appeared to inhibit arterial calcinosis; however, it did not affect plasma calcium levels. This suggests that EHDP might delay calcium influx into the cell and thereby prevent calcium overload. Our findings support the suggestion that EHDP therapy can be an effective treatment for the inhibition of dystrophic arterial calcinosis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2109995

  5. Effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on Partitioning of Np and Pu to Synthetic Boehmite

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2009-05-01

    The effect of 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) on sorption of Np(V) and Pu(V) to synthetic boehmite ({gamma}-AlOOH) was examined a function of time and pH (between 4 to 11). Sorption of both elements in boehmite suspensions (1 M NaCl, 600 mg L{sup -1} boehmite) increased with increasing pH. Sorption edges for neptunium and plutonium occurred at approximately pH 8.0 and 6.6, respectively. After steady state partitioning was reached, HEDPA was added to the neptunium-boehmite and plutonium-boehmite suspensions. Neptunium and plutonium partitioning appears to be primarily affected by the formation of soluble Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA complexes, the dissolution of boehmite promoted by HEDPA, and the precipitation of Np:HEDPA and Pu:HEDPA colloids. The results are discussed in terms of applicability of HEDPA-promoted dissolution as a waste reduction method in the treatment of sludge phases contained within high-level nuclear waste storage tanks.

  6. Infected knee prosthesis: diagnosis with In-111 leukocyte, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m MDP imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Swyer, A.J.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Forty-one possible cases of infected total knee prostheses studied with indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four of the prostheses were studied with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and 19 with Tc-99m sulfur colloid marrow scintigraphy. Nine prostheses were infected, and 32 were uninfected. The accuracy of combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid marrow imaging (95%) was higher than that of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone (78%), bone scintigraphy alone (74%), or combined labeled leukocyte and bone scintigraphy (75%). The authors conclude that combined labeled leukocyte and sulfur colloid imaging is an accurate method for diagnosis of infected knee prostheses. In this series, this technique was superior to labeled leukocyte and bone imaging, alone or in combination.

  7. Further examples of the failure of surrogates to properly model the structural and hydrothermal chemistry of transuranium elements: Insights provided by uranium and neptunium diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D; Bray, Travis H; Zhang, Wei; Haire, Richard G.; Sayler, Todd S.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    In situ hydrothermal reduction of Np(VI) to Np(IV) in the presence of methylenediphosphonic acid (C1P2) results in the crystallization of Np[CH2(PO3)2](H2O)2 (NpC1P2-1). Similar reactions have been explored with U(VI) resulting in the isolation of the U(IV) diphosphonate U[CH2(PO3)2](H2O) (UC1P2-1), and the two U(VI) diphosphonates (UO2)2[CH2(PO3)2](H2O)3 H2O (UC1P2-2) and UO2[CH2(PO3H)2](H2O) (UC1P2-3). Single crystal diffraction studies of NpC1P2-1 reveal that it consists of eight-coordinate Np(IV) bound by diphosphonate anions and two coordinating water molecules to create a polar three-dimensional framework structure wherein the water molecules reside in channels. The structure of UC1P2-1 is similar to that of NpC1P2-1 in that it also adopts a three-dimensional structure. However, the U(IV) centers are seven-coordinate with only a single bound water molecule. UC1P2-2 and UC1P2-3 both contain U(VI). Nevertheless, their structures are quite distinct with UC1P2-2 being composed of corrugated layers containing UO6 and UO7 units bridged by C1P2; whereas, UC1P2-3 is found as a polar three-dimensional network structure containing only pentagonal bipyramidal U(VI). Fluorescence measurements on UC1P2-2 and UC1P2-3 exhibit emission from the uranyl moieties with classical vibronic fine-structure.

  8. Loosening of the total knee arthroplasty: detection by radionuclide bone scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.C.; Hattner, R.S.; Murray, W.R.; Genant, H.K.

    1980-07-01

    Pain after total knee arthroplasty is a common clinical problem in orthopedics, and prosthetic loosening, often requiring surgical revision, is usually the etiology. Since standard clinical and radiographic diagnostic measures have not proven totally satisfactory, a study of the utility of bone scintigraphy to assess stability of the knee prosthesis was done. Thirty-five patients with 39 prostheses were studied. Seventeen patients with 21 total knee arthroplasties served as controls and were asymptomatic, were stable at surgery, or improved with conservative management. Eighteen knees in 18 symptomatic patients composed the experimental group. Of these, 11 knees were loose at surgery and seven have had surgery recommended. Scintigrams of the knees were obtained using /sup 99m/Tc-MDP, and ranked 0-3 corresponding to increasingly abnormal localization by three observers. Highly significant differences were observed between the abnormal and control groups (p<0.001). Reciprocal changes in sensitivity and specificity with increasingly stringent criteria were shown. While it is apparent that the bone scan cannot be used as the sole diagnostic method for evaluation of prosthetic stability, it does seem to be a useful adjunct along with clinical criteria and radiographic studies.

  9. Synthesis of Short-Chain Diols and Unsaturated Alcohols from Secondary Alcohol Substrates by the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Franziska; Schuster, Judith; Würz, Birgit; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    The Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase MdpJ of the fuel oxygenate-degrading bacterial strain Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 has been described to attack short-chain tertiary alcohols via hydroxylation and desaturation reactions. Here, we demonstrate that also short-chain secondary alcohols can be transformed by MdpJ. Wild-type cells of strain L108 converted 2-propanol and 2-butanol to 1,2-propanediol and 3-buten-2-ol, respectively, whereas an mdpJ knockout mutant did not show such activity. In addition, wild-type cells converted 3-methyl-2-butanol and 3-pentanol to the corresponding desaturation products 3-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and 1-penten-3-ol, respectively. The enzymatic hydroxylation of 2-propanol resulted in an enantiomeric excess of about 70% for the (R)-enantiomer, indicating that this reaction was favored. Likewise, desaturation of (R)-2-butanol to 3-buten-2-ol was about 2.3-fold faster than conversion of the (S)-enantiomer. The biotechnological potential of MdpJ for the synthesis of enantiopure short-chain alcohols and diols as building block chemicals is discussed. PMID:22752178

  10. Shear Bond Strength of MDP-Containing Self-Adhesive Resin Cement and Y-TZP Ceramics: Effect of Phosphate Monomer-Containing Primers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Lee, Yoon; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different phosphate monomer-containing primers on the shear bond strength between yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods. Y-TZP ceramic surfaces were ground flat with #600-grit SiC paper and divided into six groups (n = 10). They were treated as follows: untreated (control), Metal/Zirconia Primer, Z-PRIME Plus, air abrasion, Metal/Zirconia Primer with air abrasion, and Z-PRIME Plus with air abrasion. MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement was applied to the surface-treated Y-TZP specimens. After thermocycling, a shear bond strength test was performed. The surfaces of the Y-TZP specimens were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength values were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Student–Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test (P < 0.05). Results. The Z-PRIME Plus treatment combined with air abrasion produced the highest bond strength, followed by Z-PRIME Plus application, Metal/Zirconia Primer combined with air abrasion, air abrasion alone, and, lastly, Metal/Zirconia Primer application. The control group yielded the lowest results (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The application of MDP-containing primer resulted in increased bond strength between Y-TZP ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:26539485

  11. MDP(Lysyl)GDP, a nontoxic muramyl dipeptide derivative, inhibits cytokine production by activated macrophages and protects mice from phorbol ester- and oxazolone-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zunic, M; Bahr, G M; Mudde, G C; Meingassner, J G; Lam, C

    1998-07-01

    High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide are proposed to orchestrate pathophysiologic mechanism(s) associated with various inflammatory dermatoses. This study examines whether a water soluble 3-O-[N-acetylmuramyl-L-lysyl-D-iso]-2-di-on-glycine [MDP(Lysyl)GDP], a nontoxic and nonpyrogenic derivative of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), can inhibit the in vitro production of inflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide- or interferon-gamma-activated macrophages, and whether such an inhibitory effect can translate into in vivo protection of mice from irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages cultured in medium alone or in medium supplemented with MDP(Lysyl)GDP (1-100 microg per ml) expressed neither mRNA transcripts for inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nor cytokine proteins and nitric oxide activity. Incubation of the cells with either lipopolysaccharide or interferon-gamma for 6 h resulted in a significant induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA, and the accumulation of high levels of monokines and nitrites in cultures by 24 h. Co-incubation of the macrophages with lipopolysaccharide or interferon-gamma and MDP(Lysyl)GDP (1-100 microg per ml) resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of the steady-state mRNA transcripts for inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta, induced by lipopolysaccharide, but not by interferon-gamma. In mouse models of phorbol ester- and oxazolone-induced ear inflammation, topical application of MDP(Lysyl)GDP significantly suppressed ear swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, oral treatment with MDP(Lysyl)GDP at days -3, -2, and -1 before elicitation with oxazolone also significantly inhibited ear inflammation. Taken together, our findings suggest that MDP(Lysyl)GDP has the potential to be a therapeutic application in

  12. Effects of Different Surface Treatment Methods and MDP Monomer on Resin Cementation of Zirconia Ceramics an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanış, Merve Çakırbay; Akçaboy, Cihan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Resin cements are generally preferred for cementation of zirconia ceramics. Resin bonding of zirconia ceramics cannot be done with the same methods of traditional ceramics because zirconia is a silica-free material. In recent years, many methods have been reported in the literature to provide the resin bonding of zirconia ceramics. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate effects of different surface treatments and 10-metacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) monomer on shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement. Methods: 120 zirconia specimens were treated as follows: Group I: sandblasting, group II: sandblasting + tribochemical silica coating + silane, group III: sandblasting + Nd:YAG (neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser. One specimen from each group was evaluated under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Specimens in each group were bonded either with conventional resin cement Variolink II or with a MDP containing resin cement Panavia F2.0. Subgroups of bonded specimens were stored in distilled water (37°C) for 24 hours or 14 days. Following water storage shear bond strength test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a universal test machine. Then statistical analyses were performed. Results: Highest shear bond strength values were observed in group II. No significant difference between group I and III was found when Panavia F2.0 resin cement was used. When Variolink II resin cement was used group III showed significantly higher bond strength than group I. In group I, Panavia F2.0 resin cement showed statistically higher shear bond strength than Variolink II resin cement. In group II no significant difference was found between resin cements. No significant difference was found between specimens stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours and 14 days. In group I surface irregularities with sharp edges and grooves were observed. In group II less roughened surface was observed with silica particles. In group

  13. Radionuclide bone scanning in neuroblastoma: skeletal metastases and primary tumor localization of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP

    SciTech Connect

    Podrasky, A.E.; Stark, D.D.; Hattner, R.S.; Gooding, C.A.; Moss, A.A.

    1983-09-01

    Of 42 radionuclide bone scans in 35 children with neuroblastoma, 21 were abnormal for the presence of skeletal metastases. Of the 21 abnormal scans, 16 were corroborated by positive bone-marrow biopsy or clinical data. The false-negative and false-positive rates for bone scanning were 4.8% and 9.5%, respectively. Calcification of the primary tumor was seen on pretreatment computed tomographic (CT) scans in 24 (89%) of 27 cases, while only 13 (48%) of 27 were detectable by plain radiographs. Uptake of /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphate /sup 99m/Tc-MDP) by the primary tumor occurred in 20 of 27 cases, but correlation between tumor uptake and calcification was not statistically significant. All children with markedly elevated urinary vanillylmandelic acid exhibited primary tumor uptake. Survival was not affected independently by primary tumor uptake.

  14. Structural insights into the MDP binding and CARD-CARD interaction in zebrafish (Danio rerio) NOD2: a molecular dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Jitendra; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; De, Bidhan Chandra; Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Behera, Bijay Kumar; De, Sachinandan; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD2) is a key component of innate immunity that is highly specific for muramyl dipeptide (MDP)-a peptidoglycan component of bacterial cell wall. MDP recognition by NOD2-leucine rich repeat (LRR) domain activates NF-κB signaling through a protein-protein interaction between caspase activating and recruitment domains (CARDs) of NOD2 and downstream receptor interacting and activating protein kinase 2 (RIP2). Due to the lack of crystal/NMR structures, MDP recognition and CARD-CARD interaction are poorly understood. Herein, we have predicted the probable MDP and CARD-CARD binding surfaces in zebrafish NOD2 (zNOD2) using various in silico methodologies. The results show that the conserved residues Phe819, Phe871, Trp875, Trp929, Trp899, and Arg845 located at the concave face of zNOD2-LRR confer MDP recognition by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond (H-bond) interactions. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a stable association between the electropositive surface on zNOD2-CARDa and the electronegative surface on zRIP2-CARD reinforced mostly by H-bonds and electrostatic interactions. Importantly, a 3.5 Å salt bridge is observed between Arg60 of zNOD2-CARDa and Asp494 of zRIP2-CARD. Arg11 and Lys53 of zNOD2-CARDa and Ser498 and Glu508 of zRIP2-CARD are critical residues for CARD-CARD interaction and NOD2 signaling. The 2.7 Å H-bond between Lys104 of the linker and Glu508 of zRIP2-CARD suggests a possible role of the linker for shaping CARD-CARD interaction. These findings are consistent with existing mutagenesis data. We provide first insight into MDP recognition and CARD-CARD interaction in the zebrafish that will be useful to understand the molecular basis of NOD signaling in a broader perspective.

  15. Desensitization of the guinea-pig urinary bladder by the enantiomers of adenylyl 5'-(beta, gamma-methylene)-diphosphonate and by substance P.

    PubMed Central

    Hourani, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), substance P (SP) and non-cholinergic nerve stimulation contracted the guinea-pig urinary bladder. SP and two poorly-degradable analogues of ATP, the enantiomers of adenylyl 5'-(beta, gamma-methylene)-diphosphonate (AMP-PCP and L-AMP-PCP), were used to desensitize the guinea-pig bladder. Desensitization of the bladder by AMP-PCP (50 microM) or by L-AMP-PCP (50 microM) abolished the responses to ATP, and inhibited the responses to non-cholinergic nerve stimulation and to SP. The responses to histamine were unaffected. Desensitization by SP (1 microM) inhibited the responses to SP itself, but not the responses to ATP, L-AMP-PCP or non-cholinergic nerve stimulation. These results suggest that SP may act partly by releasing ATP, and support the suggestion that ATP rather than SP is the non-cholinergic stimulatory transmitter. PMID:6203588

  16. Significant 99mTc-MDP but Unimpressive 18F-NaF Gastric Activity in a Patient With Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumao; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Cai, Liang; Zhang, Yin

    2016-09-01

    A 69-year-old man with a history of low back pain for more than 4 months underwent Tc-MDP bone scan to determine the cause of the symptoms. In addition to the osseous lesions, significant activity in the stomach wall was noted. However, a subsequent F-NaF PET/CT only revealed bone lesion without increased activity in the stomach wall. The cause of the back pain was eventually confirmed due to multiple myeloma. PMID:27504809

  17. Massive Pelvic Lymphadenopathy Due to Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Incidentally Revealed on a 99mTc-MDP Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Xie, Peng

    2016-06-01

    A 58-year-old man underwent Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to evaluate the cause of diffuse bone pain. The images did not identify the exact cause of his symptoms. However, a "light bulb"-shaped urinary bladder and diffused increased activity in the scrotal region and left thigh were noted, which suggest a mass effect in the pelvis. A CT scan of the pelvis revealed soft tissue compressing the urinary bladder. A diagnosis of recurrent lymphoma was made. PMID:26828142

  18. The potential use of 99mTc-MDP bone scans to plan high-activity 186Re-HEDP targeted therapy of bony metastases from prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Binnie, David; Divoli, Antigoni; McCready, V Ralph; Dearnaley, David; Flux, Glenn

    2005-04-01

    Patients with skeletal metastases from hormone-refractory prostate cancer have shown variable responses to high-activity therapy with (186)Re-HEDP and peripheral stem cell support. In this paper, we report on the use of a novel technique to compare sequential planar images acquired post-(186)Re-HEDP therapy administration with pretherapy diagnostic (99m)Tc-MDP scans, to evaluate the turnover of the radiopharmaceutical in normal and abnormal bone. It was found that the activity in normal (i.e., disease-free) segments of the spine demonstrates a faster effective decay than that of the metastases, with the latter showing only physical decay. This study showed, for the first time, a detailed correlation in the behavior of the (99m)Tc-MDP and (186)Re-HEDP images, encouraging the possibility of using the pretherapy 99mTc-MDP scan for estimations of absorbed doses to be delivered by prescribed activities of (186)Re-HEDP.

  19. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of MDP/collagen induced arthritis rat model (MCIA) after treatment with Urtica dioica, plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, Mohammad S; Hananeh, Wael; Al-Rukibat, Raida; Okour, Omar; Boumezrag, Assia

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture in the MCIA rat model. In addition, a new pathological and clinical arthritis lesion assessment was developed. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Commercial herbal extracts were administered daily to the rats after the immunization for the course of experiment (90 days). Rats were boosted with a second collagen-MDP emulsion 60 days after the first immunization. Paws were daily evaluated macroscopically for redness, swelling, distortion, or ankylosis of the joints. On the day of sacrifice, rat paws were assessed for histopathologic changes. Herbal mixture administration decreased the clinical lesion manifestation in the MCIA rat model and led to development of similar or slightly more severe histopathological lesions compared to rats that did not receive the treatment. The clinical arthritis signs appeared as early as 13 days after the first MDP/collagen injection and with peak incidence at 20 days post-immunization. Histopathologically, animals showed changes ranging from mild to very severe. Administration of the herbal mixture used in this study had a clinical therapeutic effect on the course of the clinical manifestations in the MCIA model, but the herbal treatment had no such effect on the histopathological lesion development and even led to slightly more severe lesions. Rats in the MCIA model developed prominent clinical and histopathological changes that were comparable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lesions in humans. PMID:18421172

  20. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of MDP/collagen induced arthritis rat model (MCIA) after treatment with Urtica dioica, plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh, Mohammad S; Hananeh, Wael; Al-Rukibat, Raida; Okour, Omar; Boumezrag, Assia

    2008-04-01

    This study was done to assess the effects of Urtica dioica, Plantago major and Hypericum perforatum L herbal mixture in the MCIA rat model. In addition, a new pathological and clinical arthritis lesion assessment was developed. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were immunized with bovine type II collagen and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Commercial herbal extracts were administered daily to the rats after the immunization for the course of experiment (90 days). Rats were boosted with a second collagen-MDP emulsion 60 days after the first immunization. Paws were daily evaluated macroscopically for redness, swelling, distortion, or ankylosis of the joints. On the day of sacrifice, rat paws were assessed for histopathologic changes. Herbal mixture administration decreased the clinical lesion manifestation in the MCIA rat model and led to development of similar or slightly more severe histopathological lesions compared to rats that did not receive the treatment. The clinical arthritis signs appeared as early as 13 days after the first MDP/collagen injection and with peak incidence at 20 days post-immunization. Histopathologically, animals showed changes ranging from mild to very severe. Administration of the herbal mixture used in this study had a clinical therapeutic effect on the course of the clinical manifestations in the MCIA model, but the herbal treatment had no such effect on the histopathological lesion development and even led to slightly more severe lesions. Rats in the MCIA model developed prominent clinical and histopathological changes that were comparable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lesions in humans.

  1. Comparison of Tc-99m MDP, Tc-99m HSA and Tc-99m HIG uptake in rheumatoid arthritis and its variants.

    PubMed

    Sahin, M; Bernay, I; Basoglu, T; Canturk, F

    1999-12-01

    Tc-99m polyclonal immunoglobulin-G has been shown to be a successful agent in the depiction of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to compare the uptake behaviors of Tc-99m HIG and Tc-99m MDP in RA and variants of rheumatoid arthritis (VRA). Seventeen patients with RA and 8 patients with VRA presenting with active inflammation were included in this study. Ten subjects with well-diagnosed degenerative joint disease constituted the control group. All joints in patients were also imaged with Tc-99m HSA to evaluate the vascularization status of the joints. Tc-99m HIG and HSA scans were obtained at 2, 4 and 24 hours after the injection of 555 MBq Tc-99m HIG and 296 MBq Tc-99m HSA. Conventional bone scans were performed 4 hours after the injection of 740 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Target-to-background (T/B) ratios were obtained exclusively over the joint regions. Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios of the active joints in RA were significantly higher than those of the non-active joints and the control group (p < 0.05). Tc-99m HIG T/B ratios in active joints showed a progressive increase between 2 and 24 hour images (p < 0.05). In contrast, Tc-99m HSA T/B ratios decreased in all active joints significantly (p < 0.05) except the ankle joint region (p > 0.05). The T/B ratios in Tc-99m MDP bone scans were higher in all active joints than in non-active RA joints and joints of controls but significantly differences were only detected in wrist and elbow joints. All clinically active joints in VRA patients accumulated Tc-99m HIG and HSA, and showed increased Tc-99m MDP uptake. These joints had a very similar Tc-99m HIG retention pattern to the RA joints. The detection rate of active joint inflammation with Tc-99m HIG was much higher than that with Tc-99m MDP. The increasing Tc-99m HIG uptake ratio between 2 and 24 hours in contrast to Tc-99m HSA indicates the presence of other binding mechanisms besides increased vascularity in RA.

  2. Nearly total absence of pulmonary perfusion with corresponding technetium-99m MDP and gallium-67 uptake in a patient with mediastinal neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, I.; Koren, A.; Moguilner, G.; Dharan, M.; Siplovitch, L.

    1985-08-01

    A case of unilateral nearly total hypoperfusion of the left lung in a 13-month-old girl is presented. The combination of the lung hypoperfusion and accumulation of the Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 citrate in the same area suggested the preoperative diagnosis of mediastinal neuroblastoma. Explorative thoracotomy revealed the presence of a neuroblastoma compressing the left lung pedicle. The described scintigraphic appearance in the pediatric age group is suggested as typical of mediastinal neuroblastoma. This pathology should be included in the following gamuts in nuclear medicine: unilateral decrease or absent lung perfusion, unilateral diffuse chest uptake of Ga-67 citrate, and unilateral pulmonary uptake in bone scintigraphy.

  3. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V: Computer-simulated Tc-99m (Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role image interpretation.

  4. Studies in skeletal tracer kinetics. V. Computer-simulated Tc-99m(Sn)MDP bone-scan changes in some systemic disorders: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Charkes, N.D.; Makler, P.T. Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Using compartmental analysis techniques, we modeled the biodistribution of Tc-99m(Sn)methylene diphosphonate in humans on a computer, and by selectively perturbing appropriate rate constants, we simulated changes in contrast between bone and soft tissue in a number of systemic disorders. The model predicts low contrast in patients with moderate to marked edema, obesity, congestive heart failure, or decreased cardiac output states and high contrast with as little as 25% increase in bone avidity for the tracer. In acute renal failure without fluid-volume imbalance, image contrast should be normal. The model predicts greater contrast shortly after injection in patients with increased cardiac output, skeletal blood flow, or bone avidity; images made at these times would be indistinguishable. These simulations are in keeping with reports in the literature of bone images and bone-to-soft tissue ratios in many of these conditions, suggesting that modeling studies could play an important role in image interpretation.

  5. Dystrophic calcification in muscles of legs in calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia syndrome: Accurate evaluation of the extent with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Karunanithi, Sellam; Dhull, Varun Singh; Kumar, Kunal; Tripathi, Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old man with calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia variant scleroderma who presented with dysphagia, Raynaud's phenomenon and calf pain. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed to identify the extent of the calcification. It revealed extensive dystrophic calcification in the left thigh and bilateral legs which was involving the muscles and was well-delineated on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography. Calcinosis in scleroderma usually involves the skin but can be found in deeper periarticular tissues. Myopathy is associated with a poor prognosis.

  6. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate by fractured and osteoporotic bone after a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Montes, M.; Zielezny, M.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of a pulse dose of Vitamin D/sub 3/ on uptake of (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP by fractured and osteoporotic bone, respectively, was compared with D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by normal bone in rats. At 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively, after femoral fracture, basal uptake was significantly increased at the fracture site by 336.8, 276.1, and 183.5%, respectively, over the contralateral control site. D/sub 3/-treated rats had lower uptakes than untreated controls at all three fracture sites and at 12 of 15 normal bone sites but analysis of variance showed the uptake differences were not significant. Cortisone-induced osteoporosis caused a significant decrease in basal uptake. The decrease occurred in all nine bone areas studied. D/sub 3/ caused a significant increase in uptake by these osteoporotic bones, but a significant decrease in uptake by the same bones in normal controls. Thus, D/sub 3/ had an effect on uptake by the bone lesion, osteoporosis, that differed from D/sub 3/'s effect on uptake by fracture or normal bone.

  7. Bacterial degradation of tert-amyl alcohol proceeds via hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol by employing the tertiary alcohol desaturase function of the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase MdpJ.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H; Rohwerder, Thore

    2012-03-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed.

  8. Bacterial Degradation of tert-Amyl Alcohol Proceeds via Hemiterpene 2-Methyl-3-Buten-2-ol by Employing the Tertiary Alcohol Desaturase Function of the Rieske Nonheme Mononuclear Iron Oxygenase MdpJ

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Judith; Schäfer, Franziska; Hübler, Nora; Brandt, Anne; Rosell, Mònica; Härtig, Claus; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary alcohols, such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-amyl alcohol (TAA) and higher homologues, are only slowly degraded microbially. The conversion of TBA seems to proceed via hydroxylation to 2-methylpropan-1,2-diol, which is further oxidized to 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid. By analogy, a branched pathway is expected for the degradation of TAA, as this molecule possesses several potential hydroxylation sites. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, a likely candidate catalyst for hydroxylations is the putative tertiary alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ. However, by comparing metabolite accumulations in wild-type strains of L108 and PM1 and in two mdpJ knockout mutants of strain L108, we could clearly show that MdpJ is not hydroxylating TAA to diols but functions as a desaturase, resulting in the formation of the hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The latter is further processed via the hemiterpenes prenol, prenal, and 3-methylcrotonic acid. Likewise, 3-methyl-3-pentanol is degraded via 3-methyl-1-penten-3-ol. Wild-type strain L108 and mdpJ knockout mutants formed isoamylene and isoprene from TAA and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, respectively. It is likely that this dehydratase activity is catalyzed by a not-yet-characterized enzyme postulated for the isomerization of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol and prenol. The vitamin requirements of strain L108 growing on TAA and the occurrence of 3-methylcrotonic acid as a metabolite indicate that TAA and hemiterpene degradation are linked with the catabolic route of the amino acid leucine, including an involvement of the biotin-dependent 3-methylcrotonyl coenzyme A (3-methylcrotonyl-CoA) carboxylase LiuBD. Evolutionary aspects of favored desaturase versus hydroxylation pathways for TAA conversion and the possible role of MdpJ in the degradation of higher tertiary alcohols are discussed. PMID:22194447

  9. Bone resorption, metastasis, and diphosphonates

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 17 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiotherapy of Bone Lesions; Methodological Problems; Treatment of Bone Metastasis with Antiresorptive Drugs; Control of Bone Cancer Pain; and Chemotherapy of Bone Metastases.

  10. Compression type stress fracture of femoral neck with equivocal X-ray features diagnosed on 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT in a case of trivial hip pain

    PubMed Central

    Vitalkar, Saurabh; Manglunia, Ashmi S.; Kulkarni, Arvind; Puranik, Ameya D.

    2016-01-01

    Stress insufficiency fracture is usually diagnosed clinically and on the basis of routine X-ray imaging findings. However, the absence of any known predisposing factors and negative or occult radiographic findings pose diagnostic challenges. We report the case of an elderly male patient who presented with a chief complaint of trivial left hip pain and with equivocal radiographic findings. Triphasic 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography helped in arriving at the diagnosis of stress insufficiency fracture involving femoral neck. PMID:27385898

  11. Effect of various surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia after thermal aging.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mutlu; Nijhuis, Henk; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of chairside and laboratory types of surface conditioning methods on the adhesion of dual-cure resin cement with MDP functional monomer to zirconia ceramic after thermocycling. Disk-shaped (diameter: 10 mm, thickness: 2 mm) Y-TZP ceramics (Lava, 3M ESPE) were used (N=40) and finished with wet 1200-grit silicon carbide abrasive paper. Specimens were randomly divided into four experimental groups according to the following surface conditioning methods (n=10 per group): Group 1--Chairside airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm Al2O2 + Alloy Primer (Kuraray); Group 2--Airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm Al2O3 + Cesead II Opaque Primer (Kuraray); Group 3--Airborne particle abrasion with 50-microm A12O3 + Silano-Pen + silane coupling agent (Bredent); Group 4--Laboratory tribochemical silica coating (110-microm Al2O3 + 110-microm SiOx) (Rocatec) + silane coupling agent (ESPE-Sil). Adhesive cement, Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray), was bonded incrementally to the ceramic surfaces using polyethylene molds (diameter: 3.6 mm, height: 5 mm). All specimens were thermocycled (5 and 55 degrees C, 6,000 cycles) and subjected to shear bond strength test (1 mm/min). Data were statistically analyzed (one-way ANOVA, alpha=0.05), whereby no significant differences were found among the four groups (8.43+/-1.3, 8.98+/-3.6, 12.02+/-6.7, and 8.23+/-3.8 MPa) (p=0.1357). Therefore, the performance of chairside conditioning methods used for zirconia was on par with the laboratory alternative tested.

  12. Relationship of inorganic pyrophosphatase and para-nitrophenylphosphatase activities of alkaline phosphatase in the microsomal fraction of isolated odontoblasts.

    PubMed

    Granström, G

    1982-08-01

    Some properties of inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPiase EC 3.6.1.1.) and para-nitrophenylphosphatase (p-NPPase EC 3.1.3.1) in the microsomal fraction of odontoblasts were investigated. The ratio of Mg2+:p-NPP and Mg2+:PPi for optimal enzyme activities was 1:1. A mutual substrate competition for PPiase and p-NPPase was described. In the presence of 0.1 mM EDTA, Mg2+ alone was not able to reactivate p-NPPase or PPiase. Instead, Zn2+ and Co2+ reactivated the PPiase, indicating they might act as cofactors for the enzyme. Mg2+ increased the PPiase activity, probably because Mg PP2-i was the true substrate for the enzyme. The diphosphonates ethane-1-hydroxy 1,1 diphosphonate (EHDP), methane diphosphonate (MDP) and dichloromethane diphosphonate (Cl2MDP) inhibited the PPiase activity.

  13. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 2-diethanolamino-4,8-diheptamethyleneimino-2-(N-aminoethyl-N-ethanolamino)-6-(N,N-diethanolamino)pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine-fluorescein conjugate (8MDP-fluor), as a novel equilibrative nucleoside transporter probe.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenwei; Buolamwini, John K

    2011-06-15

    Nucleoside transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins that play critical roles in physiological nucleoside and nucleobase fluxes, and influence the efficacy of many nucleoside chemotherapy drugs. Fluorescent reporter ligands/substrates have been shown to be useful in the analysis of nucleoside transporter (NT) protein expression and discovery of new NT inhibitors. In this study, we have developed a novel dipyridamole (DP)-based equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) fluorescent probe. The potent ENT1 and ENT2 inhibitor analogue of dipyridamole, 2,6-bis(diethanolamino)-4,8-diheptamethyleneiminopyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine (4, 8MDP), was modified to replace one β-hydroxyethyl group of the amino substituent at the 2-position with a β-aminoethyl group and then conjugated through the amino group to 6-(fluorescein-5-carboxamido)hexanoyl moiety to obtain a new fluorescent molecule, 2-diethanolamino-4,8-diheptamethyleneimino-2-(N-aminoethyl-N-ethanolamino)-6-(N,N-diethanolamino)pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine-fluorescein conjugate, designated 8MDP-fluorescein (8MDP-fluor, 6). The binding affinities of 8MDP-fluor at ENT1 and ENT2 are reflected by the uridine uptake inhibitory K(i) values of 52.1 nM and 285 nM, respectively. 8MDP-fluor was successfully demonstrated to be a flow cytometric probe for ENT1 comparable to the nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) analogue ENT1 fluorescent probe SAENTA-X8-fluorescein (SAENTA-fluor, 1). This is the first reported dipyridamole-based ENT1 fluorescent probe, which adds a novel tool for probing ENT1, and possibly ENT2.

  14. Positive gallium-67 citrate uptake in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Creagh, M.F.; Nunan, T.O.

    1988-04-01

    Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon bone condition with characteristic radiologic features. It is well known that there is increased uptake of Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) and methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in fibrous dysplasia. There are no reports of uptake of Ga-67 citrate by fibrous dysplasia. A case is reported in which positive Ga-67 uptake was seen in a patient with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia.

  15. Two-phase whole-body skeletal scintigraphy in children--revisiting the usefulness of the early blood pool phase.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Neha; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Majd, Massoud

    2013-10-01

    The usefulness of whole-body blood pool imaging as part of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy in detection of marrow infiltrative processes and unexpected soft-tissue and visceral abnormalities is demonstrated via illustrative case examples. Technical aspects of this simple and fast scanning technique are also highlighted.

  16. Radionuclide bone scanning in the diagnosis and management of condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Harris, S A; Quayle, A A; Testa, H J

    1984-06-01

    Four patients with maxillo-mandibular facial dysharmony and four controls were evaluated by 99Tcm-MDP (methyl diphosphonate) scintiscanning. The scintiscans in all patients with dysharmony showed positive uptake of the tracer indicating the increased degree of activity in the condylar region of the mandible. The significance of this is discussed. PMID:6241664

  17. Rejection of intradermally injected syngeneic tumor cells from mice by specific elimination of tumor-associated macrophages with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate, followed by induction of CD11b(+)/CCR3(-)/Gr-1(-) cells cytotoxic against the tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Ibata, Minenori; Yu, Zhiqian; Shikama, Yosuke; Endo, Yasuo; Miyauchi, Yasunori; Nakamura, Masanori; Tashiro-Yamaji, Junko; Miura-Takeda, Sayako; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Okada, Masashi; Ueda, Koichi; Kubota, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ryotaro

    2009-12-01

    Tumor cell expansion relies on nutrient supply, and oxygen limitation is central in controlling neovascularization and tumor spread. Monocytes infiltrate into tumors from the circulation along defined chemotactic gradients, differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and then accumulate in the hypoxic areas. Elevated TAM density in some regions or overall TAM numbers are correlated with increased tumor angiogenesis and a reduced host survival in the case of various types of tumors. To evaluate the role of TAMs in tumor growth, we here specifically eliminated TAMs by in vivo application of dichloromethylene diphosphonate (DMDP)-containing liposomes to mice bearing various types of tumors (e.g., B16 melanoma, KLN205 squamous cell carcinoma, and 3LL Lewis lung cancer), all of which grew in the dermis of syngeneic mouse skin. When DMDP-liposomes were injected into four spots to surround the tumor on day 0 or 5 after tumor injection and every third day thereafter, both the induction of TAMs and the tumor growth were suppressed in a dose-dependent and injection number-dependent manner; and unexpectedly, the tumor cells were rejected by 12 injections of three times-diluted DMDP-liposomes. The absence of TAMs in turn induced the invasion of inflammatory cells into or around the tumors; and the major population of effector cells cytotoxic against the target tumor cells were CD11b(+) monocytic macrophages, but not CCR3(+) eosinophils or Gr-1(+) neutrophils. These results indicate that both the absence of TAMs and invasion of CD11b(+) monocytic macrophages resulted in the tumor rejection.

  18. Abnormal scintigraphic evolution in AA hepatic amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lomena, F.; Rosello, R.; Pons, F.; Grau, M.; Garcia, A.; Catafau, A.; Setoain, J.

    1988-03-01

    A patient with AA amyloidosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis showed intense liver uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone imaging. The biopsy showed hepatic amyloid deposition. A repeat bone scan with Tc-99m MDP 1 year later was negative, although the clinical signs and liver function tests of the patient had not changed. A mechanism might exist, other than the affinity of amyloid to calcium, which would explain the extraosseous uptake of pyrophosphates and diphosphonates in organs and soft tissues affected by systemic amyloidosis.

  19. Bone and muscle atrophy with suspension of the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Marsh, C.; Evans, H.; Johnson, P.; Schneider, V.; Jhingran, S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to identify a suitable model for the study of muscle atrophy due to suspension in space, a modified version of the Morey tail suspension model was used to measure the atrophic responses of rat bone and muscle to 14-30 days of unloading of the hindlimbs. The progress of atrophy was measured by increases in methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake. It is found that bone uptake of methylene diphosphonate followed a phasic pattern similar to changes in the bone formation rate of immobilized dogs and cats. Increased MDP uptake after a period of 60 days indicated an accelerated bone metabolism. Maximum muscle atrophy in the suspended rats was distinctly different from immobilization atrophy. On the basis of the experimental results, it is concluded that the tail suspension model is an adequate simulation of bone atrophy due to suspension.

  20. Radiophosphate visualization of the foreign body reaction to wear debris from total knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Rosenthall, L

    1987-05-01

    Three patients with total knee arthroplasties, in which the tibial and patellar articulating surfaces consisted of a polyethylene-carbon fiber composite, demonstrated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) deposition in the intraarticular space, whereas, the gallium-67 citrate images were normal. This was shown to be due to a synovial giant cell foreign body reaction to particulate carbon fiber debris in one patient who required surgical revision of the prosthesis.

  1. Mixed-valent diruthenium diphosphonate with kagomé structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Li, Yi-Zhi; Zheng, Li-Min

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the first example of diruthenium phosphonate with kagomé structure, namely, [NH3(CH2)4NH3][Ru2(hedpH(0.5))2].2H2O (hedp = 1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonate). The compound contains kagomé layers that are linked by very strong hydrogen bonds into a nanoscale kagomé structure. Ferromagnetic interactions are mediated between the paramagnetic diruthenium units.

  2. Accumulation of technetium-99m MDP in an intramuscular hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Mandell, G A; Harcke, H T; Davis, N

    1986-07-01

    The accumulation of a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical on delayed imaging in a hemangioma has not been described previously. The variable scintigraphic findings of hemangiomas are described in detail. PMID:3731647

  3. Unsupervised MDP Value Selection for Automating ITS Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamper, John; Barnes, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    We seek to simplify the creation of intelligent tutors by using student data acquired from standard computer aided instruction (CAI) in conjunction with educational data mining methods to automatically generate adaptive hints. In our previous work, we have automatically generated hints for logic tutoring by constructing a Markov Decision Process…

  4. A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.

  5. TC MDP bone scan in evaluation of painful scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Nilegaonkar, Sujit; Sonar, Sameer; Ranade, Ashish; Khadilkar, Madhav

    2010-04-01

    A 18-year-old male presented with low back ache. The patient was investigated and was diagnosed to have painful scoliosis. X-ray and other examinations could not reveal any diagnosis. The patient was referred to undergo bone scan on clinical suspicion of osteoid osteoma and to rule out stress fracture if any. Planar bone scan was performed, which showed a lesion in L3 vertebra and was further evaluated with SPECT (Single photon emission computed tomography) study to characterize the lesion. On SPECT examination, the classical features of osteoid osteoma, the double density sign (11), was noted in the pars interarticularis region. These findings were confirmed by a CT scan, which showed a sclerotic lesion in pars interarticularis of L3 vertebra. The patient was posted for operation and was relieved of symptoms in the postoperative follow-up.

  6. Solid state coordination chemistry of the oxofluorovanadium-diphosphonate system in the presence of Cu(II)-tetrapyridylpyrazine complex cations. The crystal structures of [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4FO 8(HO 3PCH 2PO 3) 2], [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4F 6O 6(O 3PCH 2CH 2PO 3)], and [Cu 2(tpyprz){HO 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3H}][V 2F 2O 5] (tpyprz=tetra-4-pyridylpyrazine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, Wayne; Golub, Vladimir; O'Connor, Charles J.; Zubieta, Jon

    2007-09-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of V 2O 5, Cu(CH 3CO 2) 2·H 2O, tetrapyridylpyrazine (tpyprz), HF and the appropriate diphosphonic acid yielded a series of compounds of the {Cu(tpyprz)}/VOFzn-/{OP(CH)nPO} family of materials. The structure of [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4F 6O 6(HO 3PCH 2PO 3) 2] ( 1) is one-dimensional, constructed from mixed valence {V3VVFO(HOPCHPO)2} clusters linked through {Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2} 4+ rods. The two-dimensional [{Cu 2(tpyprz)(H 2O) 2}V 4F 6O 6(O 3PCH 2CH 2PO 3)] ( 2) is constructed from {VFO(OPCHCHPO)}n4n- chains crosslinked by {Cu 2(tpyprz))(H 2O) 2} 4+ rods; mixed valence {V2VV2IVFO(OPCHCHPO)} clusters are embedded in the network. Compound 3, [Cu 2(tpyprz){HO 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3H}][V 2F 2O 5], consists of [Cu(tpyprz){HOP(CH)3POH}]n2n+ chains and isolated {V 2F 2O 5} 2- anions. Structures 1- 3 are compared to the structures of the analogous series {Cu(bisterpy)}/VOFzn-/{OP(CH)nPO}, where bisterpy is 2,2':4':4″:2″,2‴-quaterpyridine, 6',6″-di-2-pyridinyl. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities of 2 and 3 are also discussed.

  7. 18F-Labeled NaF PET-CT in Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Preoperative Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Liangjun; Zong, Zhen; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2016-04-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of F-labeled sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET-CT with 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in patients with preoperative lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer (n = 181) were examined with F-NaF PET-CT, and another 167 patients with lung cancer were examined with Tc-MDP SPECT. F-NaF PET-CT and Tc-MDP SPECT were evaluated by 2 experienced readers. Lesions were graded on a scale of 0 (degenerative lesion) to 4 (definite BM), and equivocal lesions were determined as indifferent (grade 3). Based on patient-based analysis, there were only 4 equivocal patients in F-NaF PET-CT detection. However, in Tc-MDP SPECT detection, there were 19 equivocal patients, which indicated a significant difference in terms of occurrence ratio (χ = 9.005, P = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). Based on lesions-based analysis, SPECT produced 26 equivocal lesions of 333 lesions, but PET-CT produced only 5 equivocal lesions of 991 lesions. PET-CT was significantly better than SPECT in the aspect of producing equivocal patients (χ = 58.141, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). F-NaF PET-CT is a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection of BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. It is better than conventional Tc-MDP SPECT in detecting BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer.

  8. 18F-Labeled NaF PET-CT in Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Preoperative Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rao, Liangjun; Zong, Zhen; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2016-04-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of F-labeled sodium fluoride (F-NaF) PET-CT with 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in patients with preoperative lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer (n = 181) were examined with F-NaF PET-CT, and another 167 patients with lung cancer were examined with Tc-MDP SPECT. F-NaF PET-CT and Tc-MDP SPECT were evaluated by 2 experienced readers. Lesions were graded on a scale of 0 (degenerative lesion) to 4 (definite BM), and equivocal lesions were determined as indifferent (grade 3). Based on patient-based analysis, there were only 4 equivocal patients in F-NaF PET-CT detection. However, in Tc-MDP SPECT detection, there were 19 equivocal patients, which indicated a significant difference in terms of occurrence ratio (χ = 9.005, P = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). Based on lesions-based analysis, SPECT produced 26 equivocal lesions of 333 lesions, but PET-CT produced only 5 equivocal lesions of 991 lesions. PET-CT was significantly better than SPECT in the aspect of producing equivocal patients (χ = 58.141, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). F-NaF PET-CT is a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection of BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. It is better than conventional Tc-MDP SPECT in detecting BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. PMID:27100456

  9. Radionuclide evaluation of free vascularized bone graft viability. [/sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate

    SciTech Connect

    Lisbona, R.; Rennie, W.R.J.; Daniel, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    Free vascularized bone grafting is a new technique applied to the reconstructive surgery of long bones affected by aggressive benign or malignant processes, as well as traumatic deficiencies. These bone lesions may be treated by en bloc excision and replacement with fibular segments or osteocutaneous flaps from the groin isolated on their vascular pedicle. Microvascular anastomosis of the pedicle at the recipient site is necessary. Radionuclide bone imaging is unique in the assessment of the free vascularized bone graft because postoperative graft uptake of radiopharmaceutical reflects patent anastomoses and segmental bone viability.

  10. Two novel metal–organic coordination polymers based on diphosphonate and oxalate: Synthesis, structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Qing-Jun; Zheng, Yue-Qing Zhou, Lin-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Lin

    2015-07-15

    Two 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonato and oxalic acid bridged coordination polymers (H{sub 2}en)[Co{sub 3}(H{sub 2}zdn){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) and Cd{sub 2}(H{sub 2}zdn)(ox){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O) (2) (2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid=H{sub 5}zdn; oxalic acid=H{sub 2}ox) were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by the infrared (IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analyses (EA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compound 1 is bridged by phosphonate anions to 1D chain, and further linked by oxalate anions to 2D layer. Compound 2 is bridged by O–P–O units of H{sub 5}zdn to the layer, and then pillared by oxalate anions to generate 3D frameworks. Compound 1 shows anti-ferromagnetic behaviors analyzed with the temperature-dependent zero-field ac magnetic susceptibilities, while compound 2 exhibits an influence on the luminescent property. - Graphical abstract: Linked by oxalate, two zoledronate-based metal–organic frameworks are synthesized, which exhibits the different frameworks. Magnetism and luminescent properties have been studied. The weak antiferromagnetic coupling is conducted in 1. - Highlights: • Compound 1 and 2 are first linked by oxalate anion based on zoledronic acid. • Compound 1 generates a classic “dia Diamond” (6{sup 6}) topology. • Compound 2 exhibits a (4{sup 4}·6{sup 2})(4{sup 4}·6{sup 6}) topology. • Magnetism and luminescent properties of 1 and 2 have been studied, respectively.

  11. 76 FR 78237 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 76 FR 30912 (May 27, 2011). On May 31, 2010, we... From South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732 (November 19, 1997) (Plate from South Africa). To determine... 773(a)(7)(B) of the Act. See Plate from South Africa, 62 FR at 61732- 33. \\2\\ Where NV is based...

  12. 78 FR 40099 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ...; 2011- 2012; Intent to Revoke Order (in Part), 78 FR 25699 (May 2, 2012) (Preliminary Results). DATES... Preliminary Results.\\3\\ No comments were submitted. \\3\\ See Preliminary Results, 78 FR at 25700. Scope of the... FR 19197 (April 28, 2009). Determination To Revoke Order, In Part The Department may revoke, in...

  13. Indium-111-chloride and three-phase bone scintigraphy: A comparison for imaging experimental osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskinson, J.J.; Daniel, G.B.; Patton, C.S. )

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the utility of indium-111-chloride ({sup 111}In-Cl) imaging in detecting osteomyelitis complicating surgical or fracture sites, the proximal tibia of 11 dogs were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus after creation of a cortical defect. The contralateral limb served as a sham-operated control. Animals were serially imaged by radiography, three-phase technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scintigraphy, and {sup 111}In-Cl scintigraphy. There was a significant difference between infected (1.93) and noninfected (1.32) limb's tibia/femur count density ratios on 24-hr (p = 0.0001) and 72-hr (p = 0.0001) {sup 111}In-Cl images. A smaller difference was found for 99mTc-MDP bone-phase tibia/femur ratios (p = 0.0199). Using receiver operator characteristic analysis of tibia/femur ratios, a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 88%, and positive (75%) and negative (79%) predictive values were determined for the 24-hr {sup 111}In-Cl images. Indium-111-chloride was superior to 99mTc-MDP in differentiating infected and noninfected operative sites.

  14. Supercritical carbon dioxide-soluble ligands for extracting actinide metal ions from porous solids (EMSP Project Number 64965)

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Barrans, Jr., R. E.; Herlinger, A. W.; Brennecke, J. F.

    2000-04-24

    parallel those of the dialkyl-substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids, specifically, the P,P{prime}-bis(2-ethylhexyl)alkylenediphosphonic acids, H{sub 2}DEH[ADP]. Infrared spectroscopy and molecular mechanics methods have been employed to obtain information about the structures of the dimers of P,P{prime}-di-[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propylene]methylenediphosphonic acid, H{sub 2}TMSP[MDP], and its propylene analog. Infrared spectroscopy has also been employed to provide qualitative information on the binding of various metal ions by H{sub 2}TMSP[MDP]. The metal complexation properties of this ligand have been found to be similar to those of di-(2-ethylhexyl)methylenediphosphonic acid, examined previously. Studies of the extraction of various cations (e.g., Fe(III), Th(IV), Am(III)) by H{sub 2}TMSP[MDP] and its ethylene analog in conventional organic diluents (e.g., o-xylene) indicate that the extraction behavior of the silyl-derivatized diphosphonic acids closely mimics that of conventional alkylenediphosphonic acids. Thus, derivatization has no adverse impact on the complexation or extraction properties of the diphosphonic acids.

  15. Bone scanning in assessing viability of vascularized skeletal tissue transplants. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, R.A.; Dief, H.; Greyson, N.D.; Kawano, H.; Gross, A.E.; Langer, F.; Halloran, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and eight bone scans using /sup 99m/Technetium methylene diphosphonate (MDP) were performed in rats undergoing vascularized and nonvascularized syngeneic and allogeneic transplants of the hind limb, and in control animals. A six-level system of grading the radionuclide uptake in the graft was used to evaluate healing or complications of the transplantation. Bone scanning was superior to other modalities in assessing viability of the graft. Bone scans were able to: (1) immediately confirm vascular patency, thus obviating angiography; (2) demonstrate differences in the rate of repair in syngeneic and allogeneic nonvascularized grafts; (3) sequentially assess vascularized allograft rejection; and (4) document long-term effects, such as bone atrophy due to disuse and early epiphyseal maturity.

  16. A study of stress-free living bone and its application to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Spira, M.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of animals and human subjects in weightless space flight (Skylab and COSMOS) document altered bone metabolism. Bone metabolism is affected by a number of local and systemic factors. The calcification and growth of transplanted bone is independent of local muscle, nervous, and mechanical forces; therefore, transplanted bone would provide data on the role of local vs. systematic factors. Bone metabolism in living transplanted bone, devoid of stress, was investigated as a possible tool for the investigation of countermeasures against disuse bone loss. An animal model using Sprague-Dawley rats was developed for transplantation of femur bone tissue on a nutrient vascular pedicel. The long term course of these implants was assessed through the measure of regional and total bone mineral, blood flow, and methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake. Clomid, an estrogen agonist/antagonist, was shown to protect bone from disuse loss of minerals by retarding trabecular and cortical resorption.

  17. Occult neuroblastoma presenting with opsomyoclonus: utility of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farrelly, C.; Daneman, A.; Chan, H.L.S.; Martin, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The clinical and radiographic findings in 10 children with neuroblastoma presenting with opsomyoclonus are described and the literature is reviewed. Children with opsomyoclonus are often a diagnostic dilemma, as they may not have a palpable tumor or increased urinary catecholamines. Computed tomography (CT) is the most sensitive imaging method in locating tumors (100%) compared with plain radiography of the chest and abdomen (sensitivity 40%), excretory urography (50%), and /sup 99m/Tc radionuclide bone scans (50%). Since most neuroblastomas are solitary lesions that may arise in the adrenal glands or along the sympathetic chain from the neck down into the pelvis, the policy is to use plain radiography, sonography, and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans for the preliminary investigations of patients with opsomyoclonus. Body CT can then be tailored to suit the needs of the individual patients.

  18. Multiple Metastasis-Like Bone Lesions in Scintigraphic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunlei; Liu, Hongbiao; Hou, Haifeng; Zhang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Multiple benign osteolytic lesions are very hard to differentiate from disseminated bone metastasis. Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) demonstrates multiple lesions with increased uptake in any bone involved. Even combined with medical history and multiple imaging results, such as MRI and CT, the clinical diagnosis of metastasis lesion remains as a challenge. These clinical characteristics are similar to multiple malignant bone metastases and therefore affect the following treatment procedures. In this paper, we analyzed multiple benign osteolytic lesions, like eosinophilic granuloma (EG), multiple myeloma (MM), disseminated tuberculosis, fibrous dysplasia, or enchondroma, occurring in our daily clinical work and concluded that additional attention should be paid before giving the diagnosis of multiple bone metastases. PMID:22505821

  19. BiasMDP: Carrier lifetime characterization technique with applied bias voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Paul M. Simon, Daniel K.; Dirnstorfer, Ingo; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2015-02-09

    A characterization method is presented, which determines fixed charge and interface defect densities in passivation layers. This method bases on a bias voltage applied to an electrode on top of the passivation layer. During a voltage sweep, the effective carrier lifetime is measured by means of microwave detected photoconductivity. When the external voltage compensates the electric field of the fixed charges, the lifetime drops to a minimum value. This minimum value correlates to the flat band voltage determined in reference impedance measurements. This correlation is measured on p-type silicon passivated by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stacks with different fixed charge densities and layer thicknesses. Negative fixed charges with densities of 3.8 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} and 0.7 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} are determined for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers without and with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} interface, respectively. The voltage and illumination dependencies of the effective carrier lifetime are simulated with Shockley Read Hall surface recombination at continuous defects with parabolic capture cross section distributions for electrons and holes. The best match with the measured data is achieved with a very low interface defect density of 1 × 10{sup 10 }eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample with HfO{sub 2} interface.

  20. Unusual appearance for urinary bladder obstruction detected with 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Chadwick L; Sharma, Akash

    2015-12-01

    Unanticipated but clinically significant nonosseous findings can be detected during routine bone scintigraphy. We present a case of an 83-year-old man who presented with a pathologic fracture of the right femur. Whole-body bone scintigraphy for osseous staging revealed intense radiotracer accumulation in the kidneys and ureters but no activity within the urinary bladder. The patient had not voided for 14 hours. A Foley catheter was inserted, and more than 2000 mL of urine was drained, most consistent with urinary bladder obstruction. Subsequent repeat images demonstrated marked reduction of the renal and ureteral activity with trace activity in the urinary bladder.

  1. Gangrenous Leg in a Patient With Diabetes on MDP Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Evbuomwan, Osayande; Akinwale Ayeni, Olusegun; Dhoodhat, Shireen; Di Tamba Vangu, Mboyo

    2016-05-01

    Diabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease frequently experience gangrene of the lower limbs. It has been suggested that a bone scan is useful in differentiating viable from nonviable tissues in patients with extensive peripheral gangrene and thus can help determine the appropriate level of amputation in such patients. We present a 68-year-old diabetic woman with right breast cancer, who was referred to our facility for a bone scan as part of her metastatic workup. Bone scan findings revealed absolute photon deficiency in the distal half of her left lower limb. PMID:26828148

  2. Lymphatic spread of osteosarcoma shown by Tc-99m-MDP scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, S.

    1980-12-01

    Osteosarcoma usually spreads via the blood stream, resulting in pulmonary and skeletal metastases. The value of bone imaging in the management of these patients is widely accepted. Less commonly, the disease spreads via the lymphatics. Such a case is reported to show that bone imaging will detect progressive involvement of the lymph nodes.

  3. Is bone mineral density measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry affected by gamma rays?

    PubMed

    Xie, Liang-Jun; Li, Jian-Fang; Zeng, Feng-Wei; Jiang, Hang; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Chen, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the gamma rays emitted from the radionuclide effect bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. Nine subjects (mean age: 56 ± 17.96 yr) scheduled for bone scanning underwent BMD measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Hologic/Discovery A) before and 1, 2, and 4 h after injection of technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP). Ten subjects (mean age: 41 ± 15.47 yr) scheduled for therapy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with iodine-131 underwent BMD measurement before and 2 h after therapeutic radionuclide administration. All patients were given whole body BMD measurement, including head, arm, ribs, lumbar spine, pelvis, and leg sites. Besides, patients who referred to radioiodine therapy were given total hip and femoral neck BMD measurement as well. No statistically significant changes in BMD values were detected after 99mTc-MDP and iodine-131 administration for all measurement sites (p > 0.05), and individual difference of BMD before and after radionuclide imaging or therapy was less than the least significant change in lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. In conclusion, BMD measurements are not influenced by the gamma rays emitted from technetium-99m and iodine-131. DXA bone densitometry may be performed simultaneously with bone scanning and radioiodine therapy.

  4. Idiopathic nasal bone osteitis: A preliminary report on a recently recognized entity.

    PubMed

    Shkedy, Yotam; Ronen, Ohad; Gips, Sarah; Front, Avi; Marshak, Tal; Uri, Nechama

    2016-08-01

    Osteitis of the nasal bones is a rare disease; when it occurs, it usually has a known etiology. To the best of our knowledge, idiopathic nasal bone osteitis (NBO) has not been described before. We conducted a study to analyze the behavior of idiopathic NBO and its outcome and to determine a cutoff level for diagnosis using technetium-99m-methylene-diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) bone scanning. This retrospective, controlled analysis involved 9 women (mean age: 44 yr) who had been admitted to an otolaryngology department in Israel with idiopathic NBO over a 5-year period. Clinical evaluation, isotopic evaluation, and computed tomography were done. A lesion-to-nonlesion ratio was calculated between an area of interest on the nasal bone and a reference point (L/R ratio). The same ratio was calculated for a control group of 20 subjects. All the Tc-MDP scans in the study group were suggestive of osteitis. Intravenous antibiotic treatment was effective in all cases. A high degree of accuracy was achieved with cutoff L/R ratios of 2.05 for planar views and 2.34 for single-photon emission computed tomography views. PMID:27551852

  5. Os Trigonum - Sheer Incidental or Quite Significant? Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography's Role in a Case of Ankle Impingement.

    PubMed

    Chokkappan, Kabilan; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Subramanian, Manickam; Kannivelu, Anbalagan

    2015-01-01

    Accessory ossicles are widely prevalent in the ankle and foot. Although they are often asymptomatic, they can present clinically with symptoms at times. When they occur bilaterally in a patient who presents with unilateral complaints, it is clinically difficult to attribute the symptoms to the presence of these common anatomic variants. One needs specific imaging to assess the clinical relevance of the accessory ossicles, in order to tailor the treatment plan. The case presented in this article is one such example, where the patient presented with chronic unilateral ankle pain and initial radiographs revealed bilateral os trigonum and os subtibiale. He underwent a technetium-99m methyl diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scan and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The Tc-99m MDP scan showed a focal uptake in the ankle of concern. SPECT/CT complemented the finding by exactly localizing the uptake to the posterior subtalar joint and around the os trigonum, thereby pointing to the diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome.

  6. Os Trigonum – Sheer Incidental or Quite Significant? Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography's Role in a Case of Ankle Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Chokkappan, Kabilan; Srinivasan, Sivasubramanian; Subramanian, Manickam; Kannivelu, Anbalagan

    2015-01-01

    Accessory ossicles are widely prevalent in the ankle and foot. Although they are often asymptomatic, they can present clinically with symptoms at times. When they occur bilaterally in a patient who presents with unilateral complaints, it is clinically difficult to attribute the symptoms to the presence of these common anatomic variants. One needs specific imaging to assess the clinical relevance of the accessory ossicles, in order to tailor the treatment plan. The case presented in this article is one such example, where the patient presented with chronic unilateral ankle pain and initial radiographs revealed bilateral os trigonum and os subtibiale. He underwent a technetium-99m methyl diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scan and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The Tc-99m MDP scan showed a focal uptake in the ankle of concern. SPECT/CT complemented the finding by exactly localizing the uptake to the posterior subtalar joint and around the os trigonum, thereby pointing to the diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome. PMID:26420993

  7. 75 FR 73042 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1,1-Diphosphonic Acid From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 29976 (May 28, 2010). On June 11, 2010, we... From South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61732 (November 19, 1997) (Plate from South Africa). To determine... 773(a)(7)(B) of the Act. See Plate from South Africa, 62 FR at 61732- 33. \\2\\ Where NV is based...

  8. 75 FR 78967 - 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 74 FR 10545 (March 11, 2009) (``Final... China: Notice of Decision of the Court of International Trade Not in Harmony AGENCY: Import... United States Court of International Trade (``CIT'') sustained the remand determination made by...

  9. Structural, spectral and magnetic studies of two Co(II)-N-heterocyclic diphosphonates based on multinuclear units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen; Ma, Kui-Rong; Zhang, Yu; Kan, Yu-He; Li, Rong-Qing; Hu, Hua-You

    2016-01-01

    Two examples of Co(II)-N-heterocyclic coordination polymers based on 1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonic acid (H5L = CH3C(OH)(PO3H2)2), namely 0.5(H3NCH2CH2NH3)·[Co6(Cl2)(H3L)2(H2L)(HL)(2,2‧-bipy)6] 1 and 2(NH4)·[Co3(HL)2(H2O)2(phen)2]·2(H2O) 2, have been solvothermally obtained by introducing the second ligands 2,2‧-bipyridine/1,10-phenanthroline (2,2‧-bipy/phen) and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), elemental analysis, IR, TG-DSC. The single-crystal X-ray diffractions show that compound 1 possesses a 0-D structure with hexa-nuclear cluster [Co6(O-P-O)8] built through single/double O-P-O bridges and compound 2 displays a 1-D ladder-like chain structure with magnetic topology building blocks [Co4(O-P-O)4]n. Then H-bonding and π-π stacking interactions further expand the two low-dimensional structures into three-dimensional supramolecular frameworks. Fluorescent measurements reveal that both the maximum emission peaks of 1-2 are centered at 423 nm, mainly deriving from intraligand π*-π transition state of N-heterocyclic ligand 2,2‧-bipy/phen, respectively. Magnetism data indicate that 1 exhibits antiferromagnetic behavior within hexa-nuclear Co(II) clusters, while 2 shows weak ferromagnetic interactions in 1-D topology Co(II)-chain, showing promising potential as magnetic materials.

  10. Splenic uptake of both technetium-99m diphosphonate and technetium-99m sulfur colloid in sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, L.L.; Brittin, G.M. )

    1989-08-01

    A 19-year-old black woman with sickle cell beta degrees thalassemia had experienced more than 100 hospital admissions for sickle cell crisis and aseptic necrosis of both femoral heads. Her spleen was enlarged threefold and accumulated both radiocolloid and bone-seeking agent on two occasions, demonstrating an exception to the rule in sickle cell anemia that spleens that take up bone-seeking agents demonstrate functional asplenia. In the context of fever, left upper quadrant pain, and splenomegaly, the pattern of calcification in the patient's spleen as revealed in ultrasound and CT studies suggested possible abscess and led to unnecessary splenectomy. The nuclear medicine studies did not support this diagnosis. Nuclear medicine physicians should not be misled by splenic findings of sickle cell thalassemia (and possibly of other heterozygous sickle cell disorders) that differ from those of the more familiar homozygous sickle cell anemia.

  11. 18F-Labeled NaF PET-CT in Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Preoperative Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Liangjun; Zong, Zhen; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xinchong; Yi, Chang; Zhang, Xiangsong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compared the diagnostic accuracy of 18F-labeled sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) PET-CT with 99m-technetium methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect bone metastases (BMs) in patients with preoperative lung cancer. Patients with lung cancer (n = 181) were examined with 18F-NaF PET-CT, and another 167 patients with lung cancer were examined with 99mTc-MDP SPECT. 18F-NaF PET-CT and 99mTc-MDP SPECT were evaluated by 2 experienced readers. Lesions were graded on a scale of 0 (degenerative lesion) to 4 (definite BM), and equivocal lesions were determined as indifferent (grade 3). Based on patient-based analysis, there were only 4 equivocal patients in 18F-NaF PET-CT detection. However, in 99mTc-MDP SPECT detection, there were 19 equivocal patients, which indicated a significant difference in terms of occurrence ratio (χ2 = 9.005, P = 0.03). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). Based on lesions-based analysis, SPECT produced 26 equivocal lesions of 333 lesions, but PET-CT produced only 5 equivocal lesions of 991 lesions. PET-CT was significantly better than SPECT in the aspect of producing equivocal patients (χ2 = 58.141, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT was significantly better than that of SPECT when equivocal reading was categorized as malignant or benign (P < 0.05). 18F-NaF PET-CT is a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection of BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. It is better than conventional 99mTc-MDP SPECT in detecting BM in patients with preoperative lung cancer. PMID:27100456

  12. In vivo role of phagocytic synovial lining cells in onset of experimental arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Lent, P. L.; Van den Hoek, A. E.; Van den Bersselaar, L. A.; Spanjaards, M. F.; Van Rooijen, N.; Dijkstra, C. D.; Van de Putte, L. B.; Van den Berg, W. B.

    1993-01-01

    The in vivo role of phagocytic synovial lining cells (SLC) was studied in acute experimental arthritis in the mouse. SLCs were selectively depleted by injecting liposomes encapsulating the drug dichloromethylene diphosphonate (CL2MDP, Clodronate). Optimal depletion of phagocytic lining cells occurred 7 days after CL2MDP liposome injection. Eliciting an immune complex-mediated arthritis in SLC-depleted knee joints largely prevented inflammation if compared to control arthritic knee joints. Joint swelling and influx of inflammatory cells into the joint cavity was markedly diminished. Cartilage damage, in this model related to influx of inflammatory cells, was significantly decreased. Reduced influx of inflammatory cells (mainly polymorphonuclear neutrophils) was correlated to a decreased production of chemotactic factors as measured in washouts of arthritic joints in a two-compartment Transwell system. Interleukin-1-driven chemotactic factors seem to be involved. Interleukin-1 levels were significantly lowered in SLC-depleted arthritic knee joints as compared to controls. Injection of recombinant murine interleukin-1 in SLC-depleted knee joints caused less influx of inflammatory cells as compared to injection into control knee joints. A specific damage of CL2MDP liposome treatment to synovial blood vessels was excluded as intraarticular injection of human recombinant C5a in lining-depleted knee joints showed similar influx of inflammatory cells if compared to human recombinant C5a injection in control knee joints. This study indicates that in immune complex-mediated arthritis, phagocytic lining cells regulate the onset of the inflammatory response. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:8214013

  13. In vivo manipulation (depletion versus activation) of testicular macrophages: central and local effects.

    PubMed

    Gaytan, F; Bellido, C; Morales, C; García, M; van Rooijen, N; Aguilar, E

    1996-07-01

    Testicular macrophages are a relevant cell type for the regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The availability of liposome technology allows in vivo manipulation of macrophages in order to analyze their role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. In this study, adult (70 days of age) and prepubertal (22 days of age) rats were injected intratesticularly with liposomes containing either dichloromethylene diphosphonate (C12MDP) to deplete testicular macrophages or muramyl tripeptide (MTP-PE) to activate them. Control rats were injected with the corresponding volumes of 0.9% NaCl. Animals were killed 10 days after treatment. Adult rats injected bilaterally or unilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed increased serum LH and testosterone concentrations, as well as increased testosterone concentrations in the testicular interstitial fluid. In unilaterally injected rats, testosterone concentrations in the interstitial fluid were higher in the macrophage-containing testes than in the contralateral, macrophage-depleted testes. Adult rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of testicular macrophages, whereas the number of Leydig cells was unchanged. Serum LH concentrations were decreased, but no changes were found in testosterone concentrations. Prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed decreased numbers of Leydig cells. However, serum LH and testosterone concentrations were increased. Otherwise, prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of macrophages and Leydig cells, as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. These data suggest that testicular macrophage-derived factors act at two different levels in the pituitary-testicular axis: first, at a central level by inhibiting LH secretion, and secondly, at a local level by stimulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

  14. Association of non-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome with adenocarcinoma lung on 99mTc-MDP bone scan

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Nishikant A; Tripathi, Madhavi; Singhal, Abhinav; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Praveen; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Jana, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is usually associated with trauma. Rarely, it may be seen in association with malignancies. We present here the bone scan and X-ray findings in the case of a 56-year-male-patient with adenocarcinoma lung who also had non-traumatic CRPS without involvement of the stellate ganglion. The case highlights the fact that spontaneous development of reflex sympathetic dystrophy may be associated with a neoplastic etiology. PMID:24019656

  15. Delayed massive soft tissue uptake of Tc-99m MDP after radiation therapy for cancer of the breast

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.T.; Steuart, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    A patient with a history of breast cancer and known lung metastases was referred for a bone scan to investigate the cause of severe neck and right shoulder pain. The bone scan showed massive uptake of the radiopharmaceutical in the soft tissue surrounding the right shoulder. A review of the patient`s history indicated that the patient had undergone radiation therapy to the right upper thorax and breast area 14 months previously and an acute radiation dermatitis of the proximal right arm and shoulder had developed. This had long since resolved. Physical examination and plain radiographs of the right shoulder and humerus failed to demonstrated any abnormality. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Evaluation of extremity pain in children using technetium-99m MDP bone scan: A general hospital experience

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.M.; Rothschild, P.A.; Kernek, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of three-phase bone scan in detection of significant pathology i.e., osteomyelitis (OM), septic joint, cellulitis, etc., in children with symptoms of extremity pain. A total of 100 consecutive patients (age 9 days - 16 yrs, 63 boys and 37 girls) were studied. The authors reviewed their scans, x-rays and hospital records. The final diagnoses were based on the findings of needle aspiration, surgical drainage, biopsy, culture, and on the therapeutic response. In 87%, sufficiently long clinical follow-up was available to confirm the final diagnoses. In the remaining 13%, the symptoms resolved quickly and follow-up was not felt necessary. The scan was essential in pinpointing the lesions in pts with referred or nonlocalizing extremity pain. The +ve and -ve predictive values of the scan and OM were 89% and 96% respectively. One spiral fracture was misinterpreted as diffuse OM. One ''Subacute epiphyseal OM'' was not detected. In two cases, cellulitis and septic joint obscured underlying OM. Prior antibotic therapy resulted in one equivocal scan. Although less sensitive (29%) in early OM, radiographs play an important complimentary role. Bone scans detected underlying pathology for extremity pain in 61% of all pts studied.

  17. Effects of acepromazine on three-phase 99mTc-MDP bone imaging in 11 horses.

    PubMed

    Solano, Mauricio; Welcome, Jeremy; Johnson, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Horses undergoing skeletal scintigraphy can have decreased radiopharmaceutical bone uptake in the limbs. This reduces the diagnostic value of the scan. The aim of the present study was to measure the changes in count density caused by vasodilatation and increased blood flow associated with intravenous injection of acepromazine during bone scintigraphy in normal horses. A three-phase bone scan was performed twice in 11 adult horses to study the effects of acepromazine on the count density of the resultant scintigrams. With acepromazine, there was a statistically significant mean difference of 12 s for initial blood flow and 21 s for peak flow. The time to initial blood flow and time to peak flow occurred earlier for the scans in which acepromazine was used. There were no significant differences in the bone to soft tissue ratios during the soft tissue and bone phases of the scan between procedures. Intravenous administration of acepromazine increases peripheral blood flow causing an earlier onset of the vascular phase during the three-phase bone scan. Acepromazine did not increase the count density of the bone phase scintigrams. As expected, the vasodilatation and increased blood flow associated with intravenous injection of acepromazine affected the count density of the vascular phase of the bone scan.

  18. Functional investigation of bone implant viability using radiotracers in a new model of osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schiper, Luis; Faintuch, Bluma Linkowski; da Silva Badaró, Roberto José; de Oliveira, Erica Aparecida; Chavez, Victor E. Arana; Chinen, Elisangela; Faintuch, Joel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Conventional imaging methods are excellent for the morphological characterization of the consequences of osteonecrosis; however, only specialized techniques have been considered useful for obtaining functional information. To explore the affinity of radiotracers for severely devascularized bone, a new mouse model of isolated femur implanted in a subcutaneous abdominal pocket was devised. To maintain animal mobility and longevity, the femur was harvested from syngeneic donors. Two technetium-99m-labeled tracers targeting angiogenesis and bone matrix were selected. METHODS: Medronic acid and a homodimer peptide conjugated with RGDfK were radiolabeled with technetium-99m, and biodistribution was evaluated in Swiss mice. The grafted and control femurs were evaluated after 15, 30 and 60 days, including computed tomography (CT) and histological analysis. RESULTS: Radiolabeling achieved high (>95%) radiochemical purity. The biodistribution confirmed good blood clearance 1 hour after administration. For 99mTc-hydrazinonicotinic acid (HYNIC)-E-[c(RGDfK)2, remarkable renal excretion was observed compared to 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP), but the latter, as expected, revealed higher bone uptake. The results obtained in the control femur were equal at all time points. In the implanted femur, 99mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2 uptake was highest after 15 days, consistent with early angiogenesis. Regarding 99mTc-MDP in the implant, similar uptake was documented at all time points, consistent with sustained bone viability; however, the uptake was lower than that detected in the control femur, as confirmed by histology. CONCLUSIONS: 1) Graft viability was successfully diagnosed using radiotracers in severely ischemic bone at all time points. 2) Analogously, indirect information about angiogenesis could be gathered using 999mTc-HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)2. 3) These techniques appear promising and warrant further studies to determine their potential clinical applications. PMID

  19. Development and Pharmacological Evaluation of New Bone-Targeted (99m)Tc-Radiolabeled Bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Makris, George; Tseligka, Eirini D; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas S; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Papagiannopoulou, Dionysia

    2016-07-01

    A novel bisphosphonate, 1-(3-aminopropylamino)ethane-1,1-diyldiphosphonic acid (3), was coupled to the tridentate chelators di-2-picolylamine, 2-picolylamine-N-acetic acid, iminodiacetic acid, 3-((2-aminoethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid, and 2-((2-carboxyethyl)thio)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid to form ligands 6, 9, 11, 15, and 19, respectively. Organometallic complexes of the general formula [Re/(99m)Tc(CO)3(κ(3)-L)] were synthesized, where L denotes ligand 6, 9, 11, 15, or 19. The rhenium complexes were prepared at the macroscopic level and characterized by spectroscopic methods. The technetium-99m organometallic complexes were synthesized in high yield and were identified by comparative reversed-phase HPLC with their Re analogues. The (99m)Tc tracers were stable in vitro and exhibited binding to hydroxyapatite. In biodistribution studies, all of the (99m)Tc complexes exhibited high bone uptake superior to that of 25, which is the directly (99m)Tc-labeled bisphosphonate 3, and comparable to that of (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP). The tracers [(99m)Tc(CO)3(6)] (26), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(9)] (27), [(99m)Tc(CO)3(11)] (28), and [(99m)Tc(CO)3(15)] (29) exhibited higher bone/blood ratios than (99m)Tc-MDP. 26 had the highest bone uptake at 1 h p.i. The new bisphosphonates showed no substantial growth inhibitory capacity in PC-3, Saos-2, and MCF-7 established cancer cell lines at low concentrations. Incubation of 26 with the same cancer cell lines indicated a rapid and saturated uptake. The promising properties of 26-29 indicate their potential for use as bone-imaging agents. PMID:27170456

  20. Hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Features of Tumoral Calcinosis in Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Asokumar, Premkumar; Malaikkal, Anjali; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is an uncommon ectopic calcification syndrome. TC is a benign condition characterized by the presence of large calcific soft tissue deposits occurring predominantly in a periarticular location. It generally occurs as a complication of renal dialysis or trauma, and is rarely seen in familial and sporadic cases. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method for diagnosing TC. We report a case of year old female with. She underwent bone scintigraphy to see the sites of involvement, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in soft tissue in bilateral thigh and gluteal region. Hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the pelvis and thigh localized tracer uptake to the calcification in the gluteal and thigh region. PMID:26097427

  1. Hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Features of Tumoral Calcinosis in Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Asokumar, Premkumar; Malaikkal, Anjali; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2015-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is an uncommon ectopic calcification syndrome. TC is a benign condition characterized by the presence of large calcific soft tissue deposits occurring predominantly in a periarticular location. It generally occurs as a complication of renal dialysis or trauma, and is rarely seen in familial and sporadic cases. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method for diagnosing TC. We report a case of year old female with. She underwent bone scintigraphy to see the sites of involvement, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in soft tissue in bilateral thigh and gluteal region. Hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of the pelvis and thigh localized tracer uptake to the calcification in the gluteal and thigh region.

  2. Three bisphosphonate ligands improve the water solubility of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Abdul Ghani, Siti Fatimah; Wright, Michael; Paramo, Juan Gallo; Bottrill, Melanie; Green, Mark; Long, Nicholas; Thanou, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Synthesised Quantum Dots (QDs) require surface modification in order to improve their aqueous dispersion and biocompatibility. Here, we suggest bisphosphonate molecules as agents to modify the surface of QDs for improved water solubility and biocompatibility. QDs_TOPO (CdSe/ZnS-trioctylphosphine oxide) were synthesised following modification of the method of Bawendi et al. (J. Phys. Chem. B, 1997, 101, 9463-9475). QDs surface modification is performed using a ligand exchange reaction with structurally different bisphosphonates (BIPs). The BIPs used were ethylene diphosphonate (EDP), methylenediphosphonate (MDP) and imidodiphosphonate (IDP). After ligand exchange, the QDs were extensively purified using centrifugation, PD-10 desalting columns and mini dialysis filters. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescent spectroscopy have been used to characterise the size and optical properties of the QDs. Cell toxicity was investigated using MTT (tetrazolium salt) and glutathione assays and intracellular uptake was imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and assessed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). QDs_TOPO and QDs-capped with BIPs (QDs_BIPs) were successfully synthesised. TEM showed the size and morphology of the QDs to be 5-7 nm with spherical shape. The stabilised QDs_BIPs showed significantly improved dispersion in aqueous solutions compared to QDs_TOPO. The cytotoxicity studies showed very rapid cell death for cells treated by QDs_TOPO and a minor effect on cell viability when QDs_BIPs were applied to the cells. Both EDP- and MDP-modified QDs did not significantly increase the intracellular levels of glutathione. In contrast, IDP-modified QDs substantially increased the intracellular glutathione levels, indicating potential cadmium leakage and inability of IDP to adequately cap and stabilise the QDs. EDP- and MDP-modified QDs were taken up by IGROV-1 (ovarian cancer) cells as shown by fluorescence microscopy, however, the

  3. Laxative Related Primary Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis Identified by Bone Scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Asokendaran, Marcus; Lenzo, Nat Patrick

    2016-09-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with tumor calcinosis where hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) was suspected given her extensive history of malignancy. Plain X-rays did not show reveal the typical periarticular calcification but did show appearances consistent with HPOA. Bone scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) is a sensitive investigation in the detection of hypertrophic osteoarthopathy but did not show findings characteristics of HPOA like bilateral symmetrical increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical along the cortical margins of the long bones. The final diagnosis of tumor calcinosis was only made after low dose computerized tomography chest showed a moderated sized amorphous calcified cluster in the apical segment of the right upper lobe consistent. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy continues to be a useful investigation for both common and rare conditions like tumor calcinosis. The unusual three phase bone scan finding of diffuse activity throughout both lung fields, which turned to out to be tumoral calcinosis is highlighted in this case. PMID:27651742

  4. Role of FDG PET/CT in Baastrup's disease

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Padma; Palaniswamy, Shanmuga Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Baastrup's disease is a benign condition, which presents as chronic low back pain. It is also known as “kissing spine syndrome” and refers to close approximation of adjacent spinous processes producing inflammation and back pain. This condition is often misdiagnosed, resulting in incorrect treatment and persistence of symptoms. Diagnosis of Baastrup's disease is verified with clinical examination and imaging studies. Conventionally, clinicians resort to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of spine rather than X-ray or computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of back pain. MRI can additionally identify flattening, sclerosis, enlargement, cystic lesions, and bone edema at the articulating surfaces of the two affected spinous processes. Studies have reported that 18Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) can detect a bursitis or an inflammation as a form of stress reaction despite a negative MRI and 99mTc Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan. PET/CT is usually not a recommended investigation for this condition. However, this case report highlights the benefit of FDG-PET/CT in identifying the site of inflammatory pathology. It is also known to identify the exact site of inflammation where steroid or local anesthetic injection can be administered to alleviate pain, especially in patients with multilevel vertebral involvement. PMID:27385901

  5. Scintigraphic detection of bone and joint infections with indium-111-labeled nonspecific polyclonal human immunoglobulin G

    SciTech Connect

    Oyen, W.J.; Claessens, R.A.; van Horn, J.R.; van der Meer, J.W.; Corstens, F.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The utility of indium-111-({sup 111}In) labeled immunoglobulin G (IgG) to detect infection of bone and adjacent tissues was investigated. Proof of infection was obtained by cultures taken at surgery. All 32 patients showed focally increased uptake on the technetium-99m- (99mTc) methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphies. Labeled immunoglobulin correctly identified presence, location, extent and soft-tissue involvement of the suspected inflammatory site. In these patients, focally increasing accumulation was noted over 48 hr. Discrimination between infection and sterile inflammatory lesions was not possible. Two fractures, 6-mo-old, and an aseptic loosening of a total-hip prosthesis were not visualized. Side effects after the immunoglobulin administration were not observed. Radiolabeled immunoglobulin is a new and safe radiopharmaceutical for the investigation of infectious bone and joint disease. The sensitivity of this agent appears at least as high as that of labeled leukocytes. However, labeled immunoglobulin can easily be prepared in every nuclear medicine department.

  6. A solitary pulmonary ground-glass nodule in adult systemic langerhans’ cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Yunyuan; Fan, Li; Liu, Shiyuan

    2015-01-01

    During a thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan, a 36-year-old male was diagnosed with a solitary oval pulmonary mixed ground-glass nodule in the right upper lobe of the lung. The edge of the nodule was well-defined, and its largest axial size was approximately 1.1×0.9 cm2. This nodule was slightly lobulated, but not obviously speculated. Solid components, micro-cystic lucency shadow, small high-density rings and tiny vascular branches were all visible in the nodule. During hospitalization, a technetium 99 m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m MDP) bone scan was performed, which showed a skeletal foci with abnormal uptake in the left iliac. A pulmonary lobectomy of the right upper lobe of the lung by video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed. In post-operative pathological photomicrographs, proliferative Langerhans’ cells, eosinophils and lymphocytes were found. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of S-100 protein, CD1a, and CD68 antigen all stained positive. Since Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (LCH) that is also associated with isolated mixed ground-glass nodules is relatively rare, such a multi-systemic LCH case as identified herein, is reported. PMID:26722574

  7. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  8. Laxative Related Primary Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis Identified by Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Asokendaran, Marcus; Lenzo, Nat Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with tumor calcinosis where hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) was suspected given her extensive history of malignancy. Plain X-rays did not show reveal the typical periarticular calcification but did show appearances consistent with HPOA. Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) is a sensitive investigation in the detection of hypertrophic osteoarthopathy but did not show findings characteristics of HPOA like bilateral symmetrical increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical along the cortical margins of the long bones. The final diagnosis of tumor calcinosis was only made after low dose computerized tomography chest showed a moderated sized amorphous calcified cluster in the apical segment of the right upper lobe consistent. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy continues to be a useful investigation for both common and rare conditions like tumor calcinosis. The unusual three phase bone scan finding of diffuse activity throughout both lung fields, which turned to out to be tumoral calcinosis is highlighted in this case. PMID:27651742

  9. Moderate zinc supplementation during prolonged steroid therapy exacerbates bone loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Rozy; Bansal, S C; Khandelwal, N; Rai, D V; Dhawan, D K

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the influence of zinc on bone mineral metabolism in prednisolone-treated rats. Disturbance in bone mineral metabolism was induced in rats by subjecting them to prednisolone treatment for a period of 8 weeks. Female rats aged 6-8 weeks weighing 150 to 200 g were divided into four treatment groups, viz., normal control, prednisolone-treated (40 mg/kg body weight orally, thrice a week), zinc-treated (227 mg/L in drinking water, daily), and combined prednisolone + zinc-treated groups. Parameters such as changes in mineral levels in the bone and serum, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone 99m-technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) uptake were studied in various treatment groups. Prednisolone treatment caused an appreciable decrease in calcium levels both in the bone and serum and also in bone dry weight, BMC, and BMD in rats. Prednisolone-treated rats when supplemented with zinc showed further reduction in calcium levels, bone dry weight, BMD, and BMC. The study therefore revealed that moderate intake of zinc as a nutritional supplement during steroid therapy could enhance calcium deficiency in the body and accelerate bone loss. PMID:25022244

  10. Laxative Related Primary Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis Identified by Bone Scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Asokendaran, Marcus; Lenzo, Nat Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with tumor calcinosis where hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy (HPOA) was suspected given her extensive history of malignancy. Plain X-rays did not show reveal the typical periarticular calcification but did show appearances consistent with HPOA. Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) is a sensitive investigation in the detection of hypertrophic osteoarthopathy but did not show findings characteristics of HPOA like bilateral symmetrical increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical along the cortical margins of the long bones. The final diagnosis of tumor calcinosis was only made after low dose computerized tomography chest showed a moderated sized amorphous calcified cluster in the apical segment of the right upper lobe consistent. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy continues to be a useful investigation for both common and rare conditions like tumor calcinosis. The unusual three phase bone scan finding of diffuse activity throughout both lung fields, which turned to out to be tumoral calcinosis is highlighted in this case.

  11. Bone Scan "Hot Spot" at the Superior Lateral Orbital Margin Fronto-zygomatic Suture Uptake Characterized with Tc-99m MDP SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Thang, S P; Tan, A E H; Goh, A S W

    2011-07-01

    Findings of a solitary "hot spot" at the superior lateral orbital margin on bone scan scintigraphy is not uncommonly seen, and is often dismissed as a benign lesion. However, the exact etiology is indeterminate. We present two cases in which hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging was able to characterize and localize this uptake, demonstrating correlation to the right fronto-zygomatic suture.

  12. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF BASELINE [18F] FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY AND 99mTc-MDP BONE SCAN IN PROGRESSING METASTATIC PROSTATE CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Gustavo S.P.; Schöder, Heiko; Ravizzini, Gregory C.; Gönen, Mithat; Humm, John; Morris, Michael J.; Scher, Howard I.; Larson, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic and prognostic value of FDG PET and bone scans (BS) in the assessment of osseous lesions in patients with progressing prostate cancer. Experimental Design In a prospective imaging trial, 43 patients underwent FDG PET and BS prior to experimental therapies. Bone scan index (BSI) and standardized uptake value (SUV) on FDG PET were recorded. Patients were followed until death (n=36) or at least 5 years (n=7). Imaging findings were correlated with survival. Results Osseous lesions were detected in 39 patients on BS and 32 on FDG PET (p=0.01). Follow-up was available for 105 FDG-positive lesions, and 84 (80%) became positive on subsequent BS. Prognosis correlated inversely with SUV (median survival 14.4 vs. 32.8 mos if SUVmax > 6.10 vs. ≤ 6.10, p=0.002) and BSI (14.7 vs. 28.2 mos if BSI >1.27 vs. < 1.27; p=0.004). Only SUV was an independent factor in multivariate analysis. In castrate resistant patients combining a nomogram for progressive prostate cancer with SUV dichotomized patients into a high vs. low risk group (median survival 14.4 vs. 34.6 mos, p=.015) more prognostic than either nomogram or SUV alone. Conclusion The current study of progressive prostate cancer confirms earlier work that BSI is a strong prognostic factor. Most FDG-only lesions at baseline become detectable on follow-up BS, suggesting their strong clinical relevance. FDG SUV is an independent prognostic factor and provides complementary prognostic information. PMID:20975102

  13. The twenty-four/four hour ratio (T/F ratio) of Tc-99m MDP uptake in patients with bone metastases and degenerative changes

    SciTech Connect

    Israel, O.; Kleinhaus, U.; Keren, R.; Frankel, A.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Normal and metastatic bone differ in their histological structure. Normal bone is mainly lamellar while metastatic bone formation is made in a large part out of new woven bone. The woven bone has a much larger surface area than the more stable lamellar bone and it is lined with metabolically active osteoblasts. The crystalline structures in the woven bone are smaller and have a larger surface area available for absorption. Uptake of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals continues in new woven bone longer than in the lamellar bone. Bone scintigraphy was performed in 89 patients at four hours and 24 hours using a digital camera. The lesion to non lesion (L/N) ratio was determined using the camera computer. The T/F ratio was calculated: T/F=((L/N)-24)/((L/N)-4). Three groups were investigated. In 15 patients with metastatic bone carcinoma, T/F ratio was 1.46 +- 0.4. In 47 patients with degenerative joint disease the T/F ratio was 1.05 +- 0.06. In 27 patients with treated metastatic bone carcinoma the T/F ratio was 1.12 +- 0.13. The T/F ratio is significantly (p<0.001) different in patients with metastases compared to patients with benign degenerative disease. Chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment cause significant (p<0.001) reduction in the T/F ratio. The T/F ratio may have a potential in differentiating degenerative from neoplastic diseases and in the evaluation of patients with bone metastases undergoing treatment.

  14. Evaluating bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]) based polymer ligand film (PLF) for plutonium and uranium extraction

    DOE PAGES

    Rim, Jung H.; Armenta, Claudine E.; Gonzales, Edward R.; Unlu, Kenan; Peterson, Dominic S.

    2015-09-12

    This paper describes a new analyte extraction medium called polymer ligand film (PLF) that was developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. PLF is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and quickly extracts analytes. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure for chemically isolating radionuclides for determination through alpha spectroscopy. The PLF system was effective for plutonium and uranium extraction. The PLF was capable of co-extracting or selectively extracting plutonium over uranium depending on the PLF composition. As a result, the PLF and electrodeposited samples had similar alpha spectra resolutions.

  15. Evaluating bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]) based polymer ligand film (PLF) for plutonium and uranium extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Rim, Jung H.; Armenta, Claudine E.; Gonzales, Edward R.; Unlu, Kenan; Peterson, Dominic S.

    2015-09-12

    This paper describes a new analyte extraction medium called polymer ligand film (PLF) that was developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. PLF is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and quickly extracts analytes. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure for chemically isolating radionuclides for determination through alpha spectroscopy. The PLF system was effective for plutonium and uranium extraction. The PLF was capable of co-extracting or selectively extracting plutonium over uranium depending on the PLF composition. As a result, the PLF and electrodeposited samples had similar alpha spectra resolutions.

  16. Segmentation and Visual Analysis of Whole-Body Mouse Skeleton microSPECT

    PubMed Central

    Khmelinskii, Artem; Groen, Harald C.; Baiker, Martin; de Jong, Marion; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Whole-body SPECT small animal imaging is used to study cancer, and plays an important role in the development of new drugs. Comparing and exploring whole-body datasets can be a difficult and time-consuming task due to the inherent heterogeneity of the data (high volume/throughput, multi-modality, postural and positioning variability). The goal of this study was to provide a method to align and compare side-by-side multiple whole-body skeleton SPECT datasets in a common reference, thus eliminating acquisition variability that exists between the subjects in cross-sectional and multi-modal studies. Six whole-body SPECT/CT datasets of BALB/c mice injected with bone targeting tracers 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) and 99mTc-hydroxymethane diphosphonate (99mTc-HDP) were used to evaluate the proposed method. An articulated version of the MOBY whole-body mouse atlas was used as a common reference. Its individual bones were registered one-by-one to the skeleton extracted from the acquired SPECT data following an anatomical hierarchical tree. Sequential registration was used while constraining the local degrees of freedom (DoFs) of each bone in accordance to the type of joint and its range of motion. The Articulated Planar Reformation (APR) algorithm was applied to the segmented data for side-by-side change visualization and comparison of data. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed algorithm, bone segmentations of extracted skeletons from the correspondent CT datasets were used. Euclidean point to surface distances between each dataset and the MOBY atlas were calculated. The obtained results indicate that after registration, the mean Euclidean distance decreased from 11.5±12.1 to 2.6±2.1 voxels. The proposed approach yielded satisfactory segmentation results with minimal user intervention. It proved to be robust for “incomplete” data (large chunks of skeleton missing) and for an intuitive exploration and comparison of multi-modal SPECT/CT cross

  17. Oxygen pre-breathing decreases dysbaric diseases in UW sheep undergoing hyperbaric exposure.

    PubMed

    Sobakin, A S; Wilson, M A; Lehner, C E; Dueland, R T; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A P

    2008-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and animals to increased pressure as in a disabled submarine (DISSUB) can saturate the body's tissues with dissolved N2 as compressed air is breathed. Decompression-induced bubble formation in the long bone marrow cavity may lead to a bone compartment syndrome resulting in bone ischemia and necrosis. We tested oxygen pre-breathing prior to decompression in sheep to assess the effect upon dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) induction in a DISSUB simulation experiment. A total of sixteen adult female sheep were used throughout the experiment. Four sheep were used as controls without oxygen pre-breathing. All sheep (99 +/- 14 kg SD) underwent dry chamber air exposure at 60 fsw (2.79 atm abs) (.2827 MPa) for 24 h followed by oxygen (88-92%) pre-breathing (15-min, 1-h, and 2-h and air for control) before "dropout" decompression at 30 fsw/min (0.91 atm/min). 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans of the distal (radii and tibiae) long bones were used to detect "hot spots" of remodeling suggestive of DON lesions. Alizarin complexone fluorochrome was injected to visualize sites of metabolic activity indicating DON repair of both the proximal and distal long bones (radii, tibiae, femora, and humeri). Our findings showed that the amount of alizarin complexone deposition and bone scan uptake was greater in sheep with shorter oxygen pre-breathing times than those undergoing longer pre-breathing dives (p = 0.0056 and p = 0.001, for one and two hour pre-breathes respectively). Proximal limb bones (femur, humerus) displayed less alizarin complexone deposition than the distal radius and tibia (p < 0.0001).

  18. Periprosthetic joint infections: a clinical practice algorithm

    PubMed Central

    VOLPE, LUIGI; INDELLI, PIER FRANCESCO; LATELLA, LEONARDO; POLI, PAOLO; YAKUPOGLU, JALE; MARCUCCI, MASSIMILIANO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) accounts for 25% of failed total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) and 15% of failed total hip arthroplasties (THAs). The purpose of the present study was to design a multidisciplinary diagnostic algorithm to detect a PJI as cause of a painful TKA or THA. Methods from April 2010 to October 2012, 111 patients with suspected PJI were evaluated. The study group comprised 75 females and 36 males with an average age of 71 years (range, 48 to 94 years). Eighty-four patients had a painful THA, while 27 reported a painful TKA. The stepwise diagnostic algorithm, applied in all the patients, included: measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels; imaging studies, including standard radiological examination, standard technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scan (if positive, confirmation by LeukoScan was obtained); and joint aspiration with analysis of synovial fluid. Results following application of the stepwise diagnostic algorithm, 24 out of our 111 screened patients were classified as having a suspected PJI (21.7%). CRP and ESR levels were negative in 84 and positive in 17 cases; 93.7% of the patients had a positive technetium-labeled bone scan, and 23% a positive LeukoScan. Preoperative synovial fluid analysis was positive in 13.5%; analysis of synovial fluid obtained by preoperative aspiration showed a leucocyte count of > 3000 cells μ/l in 52% of the patients. Conclusions the present study showed that the diagnosis of PJI requires the application of a multimodal diagnostic protocol in order to avoid complications related to surgical revision of a misdiagnosed “silent” PJI. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:25750905

  19. A Freeze-Dried Kit for the Preparation of (188)Re-HEDP for Bone Pain Palliation: Preparation and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Madhava B; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan; Kameswaran, Mythili; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Aswathy, K K; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    (188)Re-HEDP is an established radiopharmaceutical used for pain palliation in patients with osseous metastasis. Considering commercial availability of (188)W/(188)Re generator, the accessibility to a lyophilized kit would make preparation of this radiopharmaceutical feasible at the hospital radiopharmacy having access to a generator. A protocol for the preparation of a single-vial lyophilized hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) kit was developed and its consistency was checked by preparing six batches. Each sterile lyophilized kit prepared as per the protocol contained 9 mg of HEDP, 3 mg of gentisic acid, and 4 mg of SnCl2.2H2O. Randomly selected kits from all six batches were subjected to thorough quality control tests that were passed by all batches. (188)Re-HEDP could be prepared by addition of 1 mL of freshly eluted Na(188)ReO4 (up to 3700 MBq) containing 1 μmol of carrier ReO4(-) (perrhenate) and heating at 100°C for 15 minutes. (188)Re-HEDP with >95% radiochemical purity could be consistently prepared using the lyophilized kits. Sterile (188)Re-HEDP prepared using the lyophilized kit was evaluated in patients with osseous metastasis. Post-therapy images of the patient were compared with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and found to be satisfactory. The bone-to-background as well as tumor-to-normal bone uptake ratio was found to be significant. All patients who received therapy reported significant pain relief within a week to 10 days post-administration of (188)Re-HEDP.

  20. A Freeze-Dried Kit for the Preparation of (188)Re-HEDP for Bone Pain Palliation: Preparation and Preliminary Clinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Madhava B; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan; Kameswaran, Mythili; Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Aswathy, K K; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2016-05-01

    (188)Re-HEDP is an established radiopharmaceutical used for pain palliation in patients with osseous metastasis. Considering commercial availability of (188)W/(188)Re generator, the accessibility to a lyophilized kit would make preparation of this radiopharmaceutical feasible at the hospital radiopharmacy having access to a generator. A protocol for the preparation of a single-vial lyophilized hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) kit was developed and its consistency was checked by preparing six batches. Each sterile lyophilized kit prepared as per the protocol contained 9 mg of HEDP, 3 mg of gentisic acid, and 4 mg of SnCl2.2H2O. Randomly selected kits from all six batches were subjected to thorough quality control tests that were passed by all batches. (188)Re-HEDP could be prepared by addition of 1 mL of freshly eluted Na(188)ReO4 (up to 3700 MBq) containing 1 μmol of carrier ReO4(-) (perrhenate) and heating at 100°C for 15 minutes. (188)Re-HEDP with >95% radiochemical purity could be consistently prepared using the lyophilized kits. Sterile (188)Re-HEDP prepared using the lyophilized kit was evaluated in patients with osseous metastasis. Post-therapy images of the patient were compared with (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan and found to be satisfactory. The bone-to-background as well as tumor-to-normal bone uptake ratio was found to be significant. All patients who received therapy reported significant pain relief within a week to 10 days post-administration of (188)Re-HEDP. PMID:27183437

  1. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Madhavan, Devdas; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma.

  2. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate uptake in the brachialis muscle hematoma in a patient with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder mimicking bone metastasis evaluated by single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Mohanan, Vyshakh; Madhavan, Devdas; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of 79-year-old male with prostate cancer and coagulation disorder presented with left shoulder pain. He underwent bone scintigraphy to rule out metastasis, which showed intense foci of tracer activity in the left axilla. Hybrid single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of the shoulder region localized tracer uptake to the left brachialis muscle hematoma. PMID:24379534

  3. Isolation and characterization of TgVP1, a type I vacuolar H+-translocating pyrophosphatase from Toxoplasma gondii. The dynamics of its subcellular localization and the cellular effects of a diphosphonate inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Drozdowicz, Yolanda M; Shaw, Michael; Nishi, Manami; Striepen, Boris; Liwinski, Helene A; Roos, David S; Rea, Philip A

    2003-01-10

    Here we report the isolation and characterization of a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase), TgVP1, from an apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii, a parasitic protist that is particularly amenable to molecular and genetic manipulation. The 816-amino acid TgVP1 polypeptide is 50% sequence-identical (65% similar) to the prototypical type I V-PPase from Arabidopsis thaliana, AVP1, and contains all the sequence motifs characteristic of this pump category. Unlike AVP1 and other known type I enzymes, however, TgVP1 contains a 74-residue N-terminal extension encompassing a 42-residue N-terminal signal peptide sequence, sufficient for targeting proteins to the secretory pathway of T. gondii. Providing that the coding sequence for the entire N-terminal extension is omitted from the plasmid, transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with plasmid-borne TgVP1 yields a stable and functional translation product that is competent in aminomethylenediphosphonate (AMDP)-inhibitable K(+)-activated pyrophosphate (PP(i)) hydrolysis and PP(i)-energized H(+) translocation. Immunofluorescence microscopy of both free and intracellular T. gondii tachyzoites using purified universal V-PPase polyclonal antibodies reveals a punctate apical distribution for the enzyme. Equivalent studies of the tachyzoites during host cell invasion, by contrast, disclose a transverse radial distribution in which the V-PPase is associated with a collar-like structure that migrates along the length of the parasite in synchrony with and in close apposition to the penetration furrow. Although treatment of T. gondii with AMDP concentrations as high as 100 microm had no discernible effect on the efficiency of host cell invasion and integration, concentrations commensurate with the I(50) for the inhibition of TgVP1 activity in vitro (0.9 microm) do inhibit cell division and elicit nuclear enlargement concomitant with the inflation and eventual disintegration of acidocalcisome-like vesicular structures. A dynamic association of TgVP1 with the host cell invasion apparatus is invoked, one in which the effects of inhibitory V-PPase substrate analogs are exerted after rather than during host cell invasion.

  4. Syntheses, structure and magnetic properties of pillared layered diphosphonates: M2(O 3PC 6H 4PO 3)(H 2O) 2 ( M=Co II, Ni II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Gao, Song; Zheng, Li-Min

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the hydrothermal syntheses of two isostructural metal bisphosphonates: M2(O 3PC 6H 4PO 3)(H 2O) 2 [ M=Co II ( 1), Ni II ( 2)]. Single-crystal structure determination of compound 1 revealed a pillared layered structure in which the phenyl groups connect the inorganic layers of cobalt phosphonate. Crystal data for 1: orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a=19.306(5), b=4.8293(12), c=5.6390(14) Å, V=525.7(2) Å 3, Z=2. Magnetic susceptibility data indicate that antiferromagnetic interactions are mediated in both cases.

  5. Modulation of natural killer cytotoxicity by muramyl dipeptide and trehalose dimycolate incorporated in squalane droplets.

    PubMed

    Masihi, K N; Lange, W; Rohde-Schulz, B

    1987-01-01

    The effect on natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity of splenic cells from BALB/c mice pretreated i.v. with squalane-in-water preparations of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), trehalose dimycolate (TDM), or the combination of MDP-plus-TDM was investigated. MDP or TDM augmented the NK cytotoxicity which peaked 48 h after the pretreatment whereas the combination of MDP and TDM induced an inhibition of the NK activity. Infection with influenza virus, a potent stimulator of NK cells, after the pretreatment with biological response modifiers resulted in a markedly enhanced NK activity on day 2 in MDP and control groups. Mice pretreated with TDM or the combination of MDP and TDM showed only moderate NK activity which peaked on day 3 after influenza infection. The NK activity was susceptible to asialo GM1 and complement treatment. The cytotoxicity of MDP-plus-TDM cells could be significantly enhanced after treatment with anti-macrophage monoclonal antibody and complement. NK activity induced by MDP or TDM was reduced by mixing MDP-plus-TDM cells. Addition of adherent cell-depleted MDP-plus-TDM suspension to MDP or TDM cells had a NK restorative effect. Splenic cells from mice pretreated 2 days earlier with MDP or TDM, but not MDP-plus-TDM, generated enhanced levels of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

  6. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, Ankur; Kaminski, Michael D.; Nunez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  7. Diphonix: A new ion exchange resin for the treatment of industrial waste streams, contaminated groundwaters, and mixed-wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.

    1994-03-01

    The resin contains geminally substituted diphosphonic acid functional groups; it is synthesized by copolymerization of a tetralkylvinylidene diphosphonate with styrene, divinylbenzene, and acrylonitrile, followed by deesterifaction by refluxing with conc. HCl (the nitrile group is hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid). The diphosphonic acid functional dominates the resin behavior toward metal ions; it has strong affinity for actinides in all oxidation states, even in 10 M HNO{sub 3} and high salt concentrations. (Efficient agents for stripping actinides from Diphonix all have a strong complexing agent containing the gem-diphosphonic acid functionality.) Diphonix can also remove heavy, toxi metals in high salt concentrations. 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  8. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT and (18)F-NaF-PET/CT in men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Kim, Chun K; Gerbaudo, Victor H; Hainer, Jon; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Kantoff, Philip; den Abbeele, Annick D Van; Seltzer, Steven; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate (18)F-labeled-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG-) and (18)F-labeled-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF-) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) as biomarkers in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Nine men (53-75 years) in a phase 1 trial of abiraterone and cabozantinib had (18)F-FDG-PET/CT, (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging ((99m)Tc-labeled-methylene-diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan and abdominal/pelvic CT) at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy. Baseline disease was classified as widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid (1 site), or non-(18)F-FDG-avid. Metabolic response was classified using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Treatment response using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1, Prostate Cancer Working Group 2 (PCWG2) guidelines and days on trial (DOT) were recorded. All men were followed for 1 year or until progression. Four men had (18)F-FDG-avid disease: two with widespread (DOT 53 and 76) and two with oligometastatic disease (DOT 231 and still on trial after 742+ days). Five men had non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease; three remained stable or improved (2 still on trial while one discontinued for non-oncologic reasons; DOT 225-563+), and 2 progressed (DOT 285 and 532). Despite the small sample size, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in progression free survival (PFS) between men with widespread (18)F-FDG-avid, oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid and non-(18)F-FDG-avid disease (p < 0.01). All men had (18)F-NaF-avid disease. Neither (18)F-NaF-avid disease extent nor intensity was predictive of treatment response. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may be superior to (18)F-NaF-PET/CT and standard imaging in men with mCRPC on abiraterone and cabozantinib. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may have potential to stratify men into 3 groups (widespread vs. oligometastatic (18)F-FDG-avid vs. non-(18)F-FDG-avid mCRPC) to tailor therapy. Further evaluation is

  9. Toxicological actions of plant-derived and anthropogenic methylenedioxyphenyl-substituted chemicals in mammals and insects.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) substituent is a structural feature present in many plant chemicals that deter foraging by predatory insects and herbivores. With increasing use of herbal extracts in alternative medicine, human exposure to MDP-derived plant chemicals may also be significant. Early studies found that most MDP agents themselves possess relatively low intrinsic toxicity, but strongly influence the actions of other xenobiotics in mammals and insects by modulating cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-dependent biotransformation. Thus, after exposure to MDP chemicals an initial phase of CYP inhibition is followed by a sustained phase of CYP induction. In insects CYP inhibition by MDP agents underlies their use as pesticide synergists, but analogous inhibition of mammalian CYP impairs the clearance of drugs and foreign compounds. Conversely, induction of mammalian CYP by MDP agents increases xenobiotic oxidation capacity. Exposure of insects to MDP-containing synergists in the environment, in the absence of coadministered pesticides, may also enhance xenobiotic detoxication. Finally, although most MDP agents are well tolerated, several, typified by safrole, aristolochic acid, and MDP-kavalactones, are associated with significant toxicities, including the risk of hepatotoxicity or tumorigenesis. Thus, the presence of MDP-substituted chemicals in the environment may produce a range of direct and indirect toxicities in target and nontarget species.

  10. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  11. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  12. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  13. Method for the chromatographic separation of cations from aqueous samples

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.

    1998-12-22

    An extraction chromatographic material is described for extracting metal cations from a liquid stream. The extraction chromatographic material is prepared by adsorbing a diesterified methane-diphosphonic acid on an inert particulate support. 7 figs.

  14. 75 FR 16426 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...: Assessment of Antidumping Duties, 68 FR 23954 (May 6, 2003), the Department has clarified its practice with... Proceedings France: Sorbitol, A-427-001 4/1/09-3/31/10 India: 1-Hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-Diphosphonic Acid...

  15. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  16. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  17. Proposed criteria for mixed-dust pneumoconiosis: definition, descriptions, and guidelines for pathologic diagnosis and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Honma, Koichi; Abraham, Jerrold L; Chiyotani, Keizo; De Vuyst, Paul; Dumortier, Pascal; Gibbs, Allen R; Green, Francis H Y; Hosoda, Yutaka; Iwai, Kazuro; Williams, William Jones; Kohyama, Norihiko; Ostiguy, Gaston; Roggli, Victor L; Shida, Hisao; Taguchi, Osamu; Vallyathan, Val

    2004-12-01

    We defined mixed-dust pneumoconiosis (MDP) pathologically as a pneumoconiosis showing dust macules or mixed-dust fibrotic nodules (MDF), with or without silicotic nodules (SN), in an individual with a history of exposure to mixed dust. We defined the latter arbitrarily as a mixture of crystalline silica and nonfibrous silicates. According to our definition of MDP, therefore, MDF should outnumber SN in the lung to make a pathologic diagnosis of MDP. In the absence of confirmation of exposure, mineralogic analyses can be used to support the pathologic diagnosis. The clinical diagnosis of MDP requires the exclusion of other well-defined pneumoconioses, including asbestosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hematite miners' pneumoconiosis, welders' pneumoconiosis, berylliosis, hard metal disease, silicate pneumoconiosis, diatomaceous earth pneumoconiosis, carborundum pneumoconiosis, and corundum pneumoconiosis. Typical occupations associated with the diagnosis of MDP include metal miners, quarry workers, foundry workers, pottery and ceramics workers, and stonemasons. Irregular opacities are the major radiographic findings in MDP (ILO 1980), in contrast to silicosis, in which small rounded opacities predominate. Clinical symptoms of MDP are nonspecific. MDP must be distinguished from a variety of nonoccupational interstitial pulmonary disorders. PMID:15619211

  18. A 25 kDa polypeptide is the ligand for p185neu and is secreted by activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tarakhovsky, A; Zaichuk, T; Prassolov, V; Butenko, Z A

    1991-12-01

    Medium conditioned by mouse peritoneal macrophages, activated by muramyl dipeptide (MDP), was used as a possible source of p185neu-specific ligand. MDP-activated macrophage-conditioned medium (MDP-CM) was shown to induce p185neu down-regulation in NEU-expressing NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent and temperature-sensitive manner. To exclude the possibility of an indirect action of proteins/metabolites present in MDP-CM on p185neu turnover, a ligand-trapping approach was used. Secreted NEU protein possessing only the extracellular domain but lacking transmembrane and protein kinase domains was expressed in HeLa cells and then purified from conditioned medium, using affinity chromatography on WGA-Sepharose. Co-incubation of the truncated, soluble NEU protein preparation with MDP-CM abolished MDP-CM-induced p185neu down-regulation and reduced self-phosphorylation. It is concluded that a putative p185neu-specific ligand is produced by macrophages activated by MDP. Using MDP-CM, the presence of a 25 kDa polypeptide distinct from EGF, PDGF, FGF, IGF, TGF-alpha and TGF-beta and TNF-alpha, could be demonstrated by decorating a Western blot with soluble NEU and anti-NEU antibodies. Thus, a 25 kDa (non-reduced) p185neu ligand has been described.

  19. Variance-penalized Markov decision processes: dynamic programming and reinforcement learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2014-08-01

    In control systems theory, the Markov decision process (MDP) is a widely used optimization model involving selection of the optimal action in each state visited by a discrete-event system driven by Markov chains. The classical MDP model is suitable for an agent/decision-maker interested in maximizing expected revenues, but does not account for minimizing variability in the revenues. An MDP model in which the agent can maximize the revenues while simultaneously controlling the variance in the revenues is proposed. This work is rooted in machine learning/neural network concepts, where updating is based on system feedback and step sizes. First, a Bellman equation for the problem is proposed. Thereafter, convergent dynamic programming and reinforcement learning techniques for solving the MDP are provided along with encouraging numerical results on a small MDP and a preventive maintenance problem.

  20. A gait index may underestimate changes of gait: a comparison of the Movement Deviation Profile and the Gait Deviation Index.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI. PMID:23521124

  1. A gait index may underestimate changes of gait: a comparison of the Movement Deviation Profile and the Gait Deviation Index.

    PubMed

    Barton, Gabor J; Hawken, Malcolm B; Holmes, Gill; Schwartz, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the Movement Deviation Profile (MDP) and Gait Deviation Index (GDI) to detect gait changes was compared in a child with cerebral palsy who underwent game training. Conventional gait analysis showed that sagittal plane angles became mirrored about normality after training. Despite considerable gait changes, the GDI showed minimal change, while the MDP detected a difference equal to a shift between 10-9 on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire scale. Responses of the GDI and MDP were examined during a synthetic transition of the patient's curves from before intervention to a state mirrored about normality. The GDI showed a symmetric response on the two opposite sides of normality but the neural network based MDP gave an asymmetric response reflecting faithfully the unequal biomechanical consequences of joint angle changes. In conclusion, the MDP can detect altered gait even if the changes are missed by the GDI.

  2. Protective effect of neoglycoprotein-conjugated muramyl dipeptide against Leishmania donovani infection: the role of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, K; Das, P K

    1997-06-01

    Active targeting of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) to macrophages was studied by conjugation with the neoglycoprotein, mannosyl human serum albumin (mannose-HSA) using visceral leishmaniasis as the model macrophage disease. Conjugation did not decrease the affinity of the neoglycoprotein for macrophage mannose receptor. Mannose-HSA-MDP was 50 times more efficient than free MDP in inhibiting the growth of Leishmania donovani inside peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, in a 60-day murine model of visceral leishmaniasis, 95% of the spleen parasite burden was reduced by mannose-HSA-MDP at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day given for 4 days. Free MDP at a similar dose had very little effect. In vitro exposure of MDP caused enhanced generation of O2- by macrophages, whereas generation of nitric oxide (NO) was not induced. The elevated antileishmanial activity of MDP-treated macrophages in culture was abrogated by O2- scavengers. In contrast, considerably enhanced amounts of NO and O2- were generated from macrophages of mannose-HSA-MDP-treated animals, and their splenocytes secreted soluble factors providing all the signals required for the induction of NO biosynthesis. The increase in NO production was paralleled by a concomitant increase in antileishmanial activity, which was reversed by NO synthesis inhibitors. Splenocyte supernatants treated with anti-IFN-gamma or anti-TNF-alpha Abs suppressed inducible NO generation by macrophages. Moreover, i.v. administration of anti-IFN-gamma and anti-TNF-alpha along with mannose-HSA-MDP greatly reduced protection against L. donovani infection. Neoglycoprotein-conjugated MDP, therefore, activated mouse macrophages in vivo to kill L. donovani, and this may depend on the physiologic generation of NO induced by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. PMID:9164956

  3. [Nonspecific osteomyelitis in childhood and adolescence. The contribution of imaging diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Urso, S; Pacciani, E; Fariello, G; Colajacomo, M; Fassari, F M; Randisi, F; Certo, A; Liberatore, M; Pagnotta, G

    1995-09-01

    Nonspecific osteomyelitis in children and adolescents can be diagnosed in patients 2 to 16 years old and may present as acute, subacute or chronic. During the last 9 years, 40 pediatric patients (aged 2 to 16 years) affected with extra-axial inflammatory bone lesions were examined. The series of cases was then reviewed. This work was aimed at investigating the role of various imaging modalities: conventional radiology (CR), bone scan with technetium-99 methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP), scintigraphy with technetium-esamethylpropylenaminoxima labelled leukocytes (99mTc-HMPAO), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to detect the lesions, to make a differential diagnosis and to assess different disease stages. As for acute osteomyelitis (6 patients), CR showed a lytic lesion, periosteal new bone and soft tissue swelling in 4/6 patients; no abnormalities were demonstrated in the other two. Bone scan, CT and MRI depicted bone involvement. CT and MRI also showed inflammatory lesion spread to surrounding soft tissue. 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy was not performed in acute osteomyelitis, because of technical difficulties in performing the exam promptly; thus, the early diagnosis of lesion nature was made with bone biopsy. As for subacute osteomyelitis (23 patients), 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy was performed in 8/23 patients and proved to be a highly sensitive method, showing cell clusters and confirming the diagnosis of inflammatory lesion. MRI showed a focal area of intermediate-low signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences, with small focal intralesional areas of low intensity, a low-signal perifocal rim and diffusely low signal of surrounding bone marrow. T2-weighted images showed high signal intensity in both the abscess lesion and bone marrow, the latter probably due to edema. In 5 patients, a paramagnetic contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) was administered during MRI and showed inhomogeneous enhancement of both the inflammatory lesion and

  4. Biocompatibility, degradability, bioactivity and osteogenesis of mesoporous/macroporous scaffolds of mesoporous diopside/poly(l-lactide) composite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhulin; Ji, Jiajin; Tang, Songchao; Qian, Jun; Yan, Yonggang; Yu, Baoqing; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive mesoporous diopside (m-DP) and poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) composite scaffolds with mesoporous/macroporous structure were prepared by the solution-casting and particulate-leaching method. The results demonstrated that the degradability and bioactivity of the mesoporous/macroporous scaffolds were significantly improved by incorporating m-DP into PLLA, and that the improvement was m-DP content-dependent. In addition, the scaffolds containing m-DP showed the ability to neutralize acidic degradation products and prevent the pH from dropping in the solution during the soaking period. Moreover, the scaffolds containing m-DP enhanced attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells, which were also m-DP content-dependent. Furthermore, the histological and immunohistochemical analysis results showed that the scaffolds with m-DP significantly promoted new bone formation and improved the materials degraded in vivo, indicating good biocompatibility. The results suggested that the mesoporous/macroporous scaffolds of the m-DP/PLLA composite with osteogenesis had a potential for bone regeneration. PMID:26378120

  5. Adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and BMI change among U.S. adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Calvo, Nerea; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Falbe, Jennifer; Hu, Frank B.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Among adults, the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is inversely related to body mass index (BMI). Data are lacking on adherence to the MDP among youth in the United States and whether the MDP is related to weight change in that group. Objective To assess whether adherence to the MDP was associated with BMI change among adolescents. To examine temporality we studied the association between baseline and 2–3 year changes in adherence to the MDP with concurrent changes in BMI, as well as subsequent changes in BMI over a 7-year period. Methods We prospectively followed 6 002 females and 4 916 males in the Growing Up Today Study 2, aged 8–15 in 2004, living across the United States. Data were collected by questionnaire in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2011. Dietary intake was assessed by the Youth/Adolescent Questionnaire. The KidMed Index was derived to measure the adherence to the MDP. We used generalized estimating equations with repeated measures within subjects to assess the association between MDP and BMI change. Results A two-point increment in the KidMed Index was independently associated with a lower gain in BMI (−0.04 kg/m2; p=0.001). A greater increase in adherence to the KidMed Index was independently related to a lower gain in BMI in both the concurrent (p-for-trend<0.001) and the subsequent period (p-for-trend=0.002). Conclusions Adherence to MDP was inversely associated with change in BMI among adolescents. 2-year improvement in adherence to MDP was independently associated with less steep gain in the BMI in both the concurrent and the subsequent period. PMID:27102053

  6. Effect of the Acidic Dental Resin Monomer 10-methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate on Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Haejin; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-11-01

    Although 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) is frequently used as an acidic resin monomer in dental adhesives, its effect on dental pulp cells (DPCs) has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10-MDP on the inflammatory response and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs at minimally toxic concentrations. We found that 10-MDP caused the release of inflammatory cytokines including NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 10-MDP reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodule formation and mRNA expression of odontoblastic differentiation markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, osterix and Runx2 in a concentration-dependent manner with low toxicity. In addition, 10-MDP induced activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated whether the effect of 10-MDP was related to the induction of HO-1 and found that treatment with a selective inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the production of 10-MDP-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inhibition of differentiation markers. Pre-treatment with either a GSH synthesis inhibitor or antioxidants blocked 10-MDP-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, the results of this study showed that minimally toxic concentrations of 10-MDP promoted an inflammatory response and suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction through MAPK and NF-κB signalling.

  7. Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Day, John W; Boesch, Donald F; Clairain, Ellis J; Kemp, G Paul; Laska, Shirley B; Mitsch, William J; Orth, Kenneth; Mashriqui, Hassan; Reed, Denise J; Shabman, Leonard; Simenstad, Charles A; Streever, Bill J; Twilley, Robert R; Watson, Chester C; Wells, John T; Whigham, Dennis F

    2007-03-23

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita showed the vulnerability of coastal communities and how human activities that caused deterioration of the Mississippi Deltaic Plain (MDP) exacerbated this vulnerability. The MDP formed by dynamic interactions between river and coast at various temporal and spatial scales, and human activity has reduced these interactions at all scales. Restoration efforts aim to re-establish this dynamic interaction, with emphasis on reconnecting the river to the deltaic plain. Science must guide MDP restoration, which will provide insights into delta restoration elsewhere and generally into coasts facing climate change in times of resource scarcity.

  8. Recent advances in the chemistry and applications of the Diphonix resins

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gula, M.

    1997-10-01

    The Diphonix class of ion exchange resins is characterized by the presence of geminally substituted diphosphonic acid groups chemically bonded to a polymer matrix. Regular Diphonix contains gem-diphosphonic groups chemically bonded to a sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene matrix. Modification of the properties of Regular Diphonix are achieved by the introduction of additional functional groups such as anion exchange groups in Diphonix-A and phenolic groups in Diphonix-CS. Diphosil has a silica matrix in which the gem-diphosphonic groups are chemically bonded to an organic polymer graft that surrounds the silica particles. Applications of the Diphonix resins range from treatment of a variety of radioactive waste to iron control in hydrometallurgy and semiconductor manufacture.

  9. 78 FR 51191 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...: American Veterinary Medical Association Draft Advisory Opinion 2013-09: Special Operations Speaks PAC and...) Audit Division Recommendation Memorandum on the Mississippi Democratic Party PAC (MDP) (A11-10)...

  10. 78 FR 20133 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Bull Mountain Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze a Master Development Plan (MDP) that proposes to drill up to 150... bisected by State Highway 133. The proposal is to drill up to 146 natural gas wells and 4 water...

  11. Multiresolution dynamic predictor based on neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Li, Ching-Chung; Sun, Mingui; Sclabassi, Robert J.

    1996-03-01

    We present a multiresolution dynamic predictor (MDP) based on neural networks for multi- step prediction of a time series. The MDP utilizes the discrete biorthogonal wavelet transform to compute wavelet coefficients at several scale levels and recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to form a set of dynamic nonlinear models for prediction of the time series. By employing RNNs in wavelet coefficient space, the MDP is capable of predicting a time series for both the long-term (with coarse resolution) and short-term (with fine resolution). Experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the MDP for multi-step prediction of intracranial pressure (ICP) recorded from head-trauma patients. This approach has applicability to quasi- stationary signals and is suitable for on-line computation.

  12. Preparation of 186Re-perrhenate for nuclear medical purposes.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, M

    1982-02-01

    The preparation of 186Re perrhenic acid from metallic rhenium-186 is achieved by the oxidation of 186Re with H2O2. Neutralization with aqueous ammonia and evaporation of the solvent yielded pure NH4 186ReO4. As an example of its applicability to nuclear medicine the 186Re-MDP complex was formed by the tin-reduction method and tested for its bone affinity in rabbits. The 186Re-MDP complex formation proved to be pH dependent, with almost no 186Re-MDP complex being formed at neutral pH whereas 92.6% of the nuclide was complexed to MDP at pH 1.4 indicating the necessity for a sufficiently low pH for rapid 186Re-complex formation. PMID:7061167

  13. A new strategy for synthesizing AgInS₂ quantum dots emitting brightly in near-infrared window for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lianjiang; Liu, Shuiping; Li, Xiaoqiang; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Shen, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy for fabricating water-dispersible AgInS2 quantum dots (QDs) with bright near-infrared (NIR) emission is demonstrated. A type of multidentate polymer (MDP) was synthesized and utilized as a compact capping ligand for the AgInS2 QDs. Using silver nitrate, indium acetate and sulfur-hydrazine hydrate complex as the precursors, MDP-capping AgInS2 QDs were synthesized in aqueous solution at room temperature. Characterization indicates that the MDP-capping AgInS2 QDs are highly photoluminescent in NIR window and possess good photostability. Also, the QDs are stable in different media and have low cytotoxicity. Nude mice photoluminescence imaging shows that the MDP-capping AgInS2 QDs can be well applied to in vivo imaging. These readily prepared NIR fluorescent nanocrystals have huge potential for biomedical applications. PMID:25499228

  14. Recovery of Uranium from Seawater: Preparation and Development of Polymer-Supported Extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Spiro, Alexandratos

    2013-12-01

    A new series of polymer-supported extractants is proposed for the removal and recovery of uranium from seawater. The objective is to produce polymers with improved stability, loading capacity, and sorption kinetics compared to what is found with amidoximes. The target ligands are diphosphonates and aminomethyldiphosphonates. Small molecule analogues, especially of aminomethyldiphos-phonates, have exceptionally high stability constants for the uranyl ion. The polymeric diphosphonates will have high affinities due to their ability to form six-membered rings with the uranyl ion while the aminomethyldiphosphonates may have yet higher affinities due to possible tridentate coordination and their greater acidity. A representative set of the polymers to be prepared are indicated.

  15. Bone single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography disclosing chronic uterine perforation with intrauterine device migration into the anterior wall of the bladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Extraosseous uptake of 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is a common situation of variable clinical relevance. Case presentation A 52-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our department for breast cancer staging. A 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone scan was performed and showed focal pelvic hyperfixation that disclosed intrauterine device migration into the anterior wall of the bladder on single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography. Conclusion This observation confirms the major role of single photon emission computed tomography with computed tomography in achieving an exact diagnosis. PMID:23759143

  16. Arthritis-inducing ability of a synthetic adjuvant, N-acetylmuramyl peptides, and bacterial disaccharide peptides related to different oil vehicles and their composition.

    PubMed Central

    Kohashi, O; Tanaka, A; Kotani, S; Shiba, T; Kusumoto, S; Yokogawa, K; Kawata, S; Ozawa, A

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic adjuvant, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP), failed to produce polyarthritis with a wide dose range in a water-in-oil emulsion of mineral oil such as liquid paraffin, Drakeol, or heavy mineral oil. MDP, however, produced moderate to severe arthritis with almost 100% incidence in a water-in-oil emulsion made up of Difco incomplete adjuvant, which consists of Bavol F as an oil vehicle and Arlacel A as an emulsifier. N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-L-isoglutamine did not produce arthritis, whereas 4,6-diacetyl-MDP produced the disease. Bacterial peptidoglycans, such as disaccharide peptides which were N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanine and N-acetylglucosaminyl-6,o-acetyl-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutaminyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanine, also produced polyarthritis with low incidence in Difco oil but not in the other mineral oils described above. MDP and bacterial disaccharide peptides were able to produce the disease even in the latter mineral oil only when the concentration of Arlacel A was increased from 15% to 20 to 30% in the oil. We concluded that one of the minimal essential structures responsible for development of this disease is MDP, although the role of the oil vehicle remained uncertain, and there is no direct correlation between granulona formation and arthritogenicity of MDP. PMID:7399708

  17. Arabidopsis MICROTUBULE DESTABILIZING PROTEIN40 Is Involved in Brassinosteroid Regulation of Hypocotyl Elongation[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianling; Zhang, Jin; Yuan, Ming; Ehrhardt, David W.; Wang, Zhiyong; Mao, Tonglin

    2012-01-01

    The brassinosteroid (BR) phytohormones play crucial roles in regulating plant cell growth and morphogenesis, particularly in hypocotyl cell elongation. The microtubule cytoskeleton is also known to participate in the regulation of hypocotyl elongation. However, it is unclear if BR regulation of hypocotyl elongation involves the microtubule cytoskeleton. In this study, we demonstrate that BRs mediate hypocotyl cell elongation by influencing the orientation and stability of cortical microtubules. Further analysis identified the previously undiscovered Arabidopsis thaliana MICROTUBULE DESTABILIZING PROTEIN40 (MDP40) as a positive regulator of hypocotyl cell elongation. BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1, a key transcription factor in the BR signaling pathway, directly targets and upregulates MDP40. Overexpression of MDP40 partially rescued the shorter hypocotyl phenotype in BR-deficient mutant de-etiolated-2 seedlings. Reorientation of the cortical microtubules in the cells of MDP40 RNA interference transgenic lines was less sensitive to BR. These findings demonstrate that MDP40 is a key regulator in BR regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation and mediates hypocotyl growth. This study reveals a mechanism involving BR regulation of microtubules through MDP40 to mediate hypocotyl cell elongation. PMID:23115248

  18. Bilateral acute pyogenic conjunctivitis with iritis induced by unilateral topical application of bacterial peptidoglycan muramyl dipeptide in adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Langford, Marlyn P; Foreman, Bridgett D; Srur, Lana; Ganley, James P; Redens, Thomas B

    2013-11-01

    The factors responsible for the conjunctivitis and iritis associated with acute ocular infection and post enteric inflammatory disease are not fully known. The pro-inflammatory activity of unilateral topical application of muramyl dipeptide (MDP; the smallest bio-active Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component) was investigated in adult rabbits. The resultant bilateral conjunctivitis/iritis and pyogenic responses were characterized. Bilateral symptoms were graded by slit lamp examinations; tear fluid, Schirmer tests (tear production), blood and aqueous humor (AH) samples were obtained from MDP-treated and untreated rabbits. MDP concentration, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity (GGT; key enzyme in glutathione recapture, xenobiotic detoxification, eicosanoid synthesis and neutrophil function), protein concentration, and tear cell density, cytology, and immunofluorescent antibody reactivity to GGT and calreticulin (CRT; MDP-binding protein) were determined. MDP was cleared from ipsilateral tears and serum by 6 h, but was undetected in mock-treated contralateral tears. Bilateral signs of acute transient pyogenic conjunctivitis, characterized by tearing, lid edema, conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis and leukocytic infiltrate with iritis (erythema and aqueous flare) were detected. Milder symptoms occurred in the mock-treated contralateral eyes. Bilateral symptoms, tear production, tear protein, GGT activity, and mucopurulent discharge (containing up to 2.5-5.0 × 10(6) cells/mL) were elevated 4-8 h post MDP and resolved to near pre-treatment levels by 24 h. Tear GGT activity and protein levels were higher in MDP-treated and mock-treated contralateral eyes than in eyes of untreated adult rabbits (p's < 0.001). Elevated tear GGT activity was associated with histopathology and increased vascular and epithelial permeability to serum protein, GGT-positive epithelia cells, macrophages and heterophils. Repeat MDP applications induced recurrent

  19. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of DI-[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propylene] alkylenediphosphonic acids.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith-Dzielawa, J. A.; Barrans, R. E., Jr.; McAlister, D. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Herlinger, A. W.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ. of Chicago

    2000-01-01

    A homologous series of alkylenediphosphonic acids was successfully esterified with 3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propanol to the symmetrically-substituted diesters. The procedure, which has general applicability for incorporating silicon heteroatoms into diphosphonic acids, utilizes the esterification reagent dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide (DCC) to activate the acid. The aggregation properties of the di-[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propylene] alkylenediphosphonic acids were measured in toluene and 1-decanol.

  1. Quantitative scintigraphy in diagnosis and management of plantar fasciitis (Calcaneal periostitis): concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, J.R.; Black, C.M.; Chapman, A.H.; Statham, J.; Hughes, G.R.V.; Lavender, J.P.

    1980-07-01

    We have found that Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate imaging of the heel is of diagnostic value in the painful heel syndrome, permitting positive identification of the site of inflammation in cases where radiography is unhelpful. With this technique, tracer uptake in the heel is susceptible to quantification, allowing a serial and objective assessment of response to therapy.

  2. The Bisphosphonate Story: From Detergents to Bone Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2004-01-01

    Marion D. Francis and Rosemary L. Centner tell the story of a special group of compounds, developments at their home company, Procter and Gamble, and contributions by researchers in Europe and the U.S., in "The Development of Diphosphonates as Significant Health Care Products."

  3. Substrate analogues for isoprenoid enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Stremler, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Diphosphonate analogues of geranyl diphosphate, resistant to degradation by phosphatases, were found to be alternate substrates for the reaction with farnesyl diphosphate synthetase isolated from avian liver. The difluoromethane analogue was shown to be the better alternate substrate, in agreement with solvolysis results which indicate that the electronegativity of the difluoromethylene unit more closely approximates that of the normal bridging oxygen. The usefulness of the C/sub 10/ difluoro analogue, for detecting low levels of isoprenoid enzymes in the presence of high levels of phosphatase activity, was demonstrated with a cell-free preparation from lemon peel. A series of C/sub 5/ through C/sub 15/ homoallylic and allylic diphosphonates, as well as two 5'-nucleotide diphosphonates, was prepared in high overall yield using the activation-displacement sequence. Radiolabeled samples of several of the allylic diphosphonates were prepared with tritium located at C1. A series of geraniols, stereospecifically deuterated at C1, was prepared. The enantiomeric purities and absolute configurations were determined by derivatization as the mandelate esters for analysis by /sup 1/H NMR. The stereochemistry of the activation-displacement sequence was examined using C1-deuterated substrates.

  4. Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several methodological issues with non-randomized comparative clinical studies have been raised, one of which is whether the methods used can adequately identify uncertainties that evolve dynamically with time in real-world systems. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of different combinations of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments and combinations of TCM and Western medicine interventions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by using Markov decision process (MDP) theory. MDP theory appears to be a promising new method for use in comparative effectiveness research. Methods The electronic health records (EHR) of patients with AIS hospitalized at the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between May 2005 and July 2008 were collected. Each record was portioned into two "state-action-reward" stages divided by three time points: the first, third, and last day of hospital stay. We used the well-developed optimality technique in MDP theory with the finite horizon criterion to make the dynamic comparison of different treatment combinations. Results A total of 1504 records with a primary diagnosis of AIS were identified. Only states with more than 10 (including 10) patients' information were included, which gave 960 records to be enrolled in the MDP model. Optimal combinations were obtained for 30 types of patient condition. Conclusion MDP theory makes it possible to dynamically compare the effectiveness of different combinations of treatments. However, the optimal interventions obtained by the MDP theory here require further validation in clinical practice. Further exploratory studies with MDP theory in other areas in which complex interventions are common would be worthwhile. PMID:22400712

  5. Membrane dipeptidase is the receptor for a lung-targeting peptide identified by in vivo phage display.

    PubMed

    Rajotte, D; Ruoslahti, E

    1999-04-23

    In vivo phage display is a powerful method to study organ- and tissue-specific vascular addresses. Using this approach, peptides capable of tissue-specific homing can be identified by performing a selection for that trait in vivo. We recently showed that the CGFECVRQCPERC (termed GFE-1) peptide can selectively bind to mouse lung vasculature after an intravenous injection. Our aim in the present study was to identify the receptor for this lung-homing peptide. By using affinity chromatography, we isolated a 55-kDa lung cell-surface protein that selectively binds to the GFE-1 peptide. Protein sequencing established the identity of the receptor as membrane dipeptidase (MDP), a cell-surface zinc metalloprotease involved in the metabolism of glutathione, leukotriene D4, and certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Phage particles displaying the GFE-1 peptide selectively bind to COS-1 cells transfected with the murine MDP cDNA. Moreover, the synthetic GFE-1 peptide could inhibit MDP activity. By establishing MDP as the receptor for the GFE-1 peptide, our results suggest potential applications for both MDP and the GFE-1 peptide in delivery of compounds to the lungs. This work also demonstrates that cell-surface proteases can be involved in tissue-specific homing.

  6. Optimized distributed computing environment for mask data preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byoung-Sup; Bang, Ju-Mi; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kang, Sun; Jang, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yo-Han; Ki, Won-Tai; Choi, Seong-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2005-11-01

    As the critical dimension (CD) becomes smaller, various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are widely adopted. In developing sub-100nm devices, the complexity of optical proximity correction (OPC) is severely increased and applied OPC layers are expanded to non-critical layers. The transformation of designed pattern data by OPC operation causes complexity, which cause runtime overheads to following steps such as mask data preparation (MDP), and collapse of existing design hierarchy. Therefore, many mask shops exploit the distributed computing method in order to reduce the runtime of mask data preparation rather than exploit the design hierarchy. Distributed computing uses a cluster of computers that are connected to local network system. However, there are two things to limit the benefit of the distributing computing method in MDP. First, every sequential MDP job, which uses maximum number of available CPUs, is not efficient compared to parallel MDP job execution due to the input data characteristics. Second, the runtime enhancement over input cost is not sufficient enough since the scalability of fracturing tools is limited. In this paper, we will discuss optimum load balancing environment that is useful in increasing the uptime of distributed computing system by assigning appropriate number of CPUs for each input design data. We will also describe the distributed processing (DP) parameter optimization to obtain maximum throughput in MDP job processing.

  7. GDSII considered harmful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Alfred J.; Boone, Robert E.; Grobman, Warren D.; Browning, Clyde

    2002-03-01

    In recent years mask data preparation (MDP) has been complicated by a number of factors, including the introduction of resolution enhancement technologies such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase shift masks. These complications not only have led to significant increases in file sizes and computer runtimes, but they have also created an urgent need for data management tools -- MDP automation. Current practices rely on point solutions to specific problems, such as OPC; use outdated, proprietary, non-standard, informal or inefficient data formats; and just barely manage portions of the data flow via low-level scripting. Without automation, MDP requires human intervention, which leads to longer cycle times and more errors. Without adequate data interchange formats, automation cannot succeed. This paper examines MDP processes and data formats, and suggests opportunities for improvement. Within the context of existing data formats, we examine the effect of inadequate (e.g., proprietary) data formats on MDP flow. We also examine the closest thing to an open, formal, standard data format--GDSII--and suggest improvements and even a replacement based on the extensible markup language (XML).

  8. An agile mask data preparation and writer dispatching approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-tung; Chen, Y. S.; Hsin, S. C.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Schulze, Steffen F.

    2004-08-01

    An agile mask data preparation (MDP) approach is proposed to cut re-fracture cycle time as incurred by mask writer dispatching policy changes. Shorter re-fracture cycle time increases the flexibility of mask writer dispatching, as a result, mask writer's capacity can be utilized to its optimum. Preliminary results demonstrate promising benefits in MDP cycle time reduction and writer dispatching flexibility improvement. The agile MDP can save up to 40% of re-fracture cycle time. OASIS (Open Artwork System Interchange Standard) was proposed to address the GDSII file size explosion problem. However, OASIS has yet to gain wide acceptance in the mask industry. The authors envision OASIS adoption by the mask industry as a three-phase process and identify key issues of each phase from the mask manufacturer's perspective. As a long-term MDP flow reengineering project, an agile MDP and writer dispatching approach based on OASIS is proposed. The paper describes the results of an extensive evaluation on OASIS performance compared to that of GDSII, both original GDSII and post-OPC GDSII files. The file size of eighty percent of the original GDSII files is more than ten times larger compared to that of its OASIS counterpart.

  9. Impact of extended maceration and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines: characterization of proanthocyanidin distribution, anthocyanin extraction, and chromatic properties.

    PubMed

    Casassa, L Federico; Larsen, Richard C; Beaver, Christopher W; Mireles, Maria S; Keller, Markus; Riley, William R; Smithyman, Russell; Harbertson, James F

    2013-07-01

    The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ~73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution. PMID:23789791

  10. Hydrolysis of S-aryl-cysteinylglycine conjugates catalyzed by porcine kidney cortex membrane dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Poon, James C H; Josephy, P David

    2012-12-01

    Following conjugation with glutathione, xenobiotics are converted into cysteinylglycine conjugates, cysteine conjugates, and finally, mercapturic acids. The structural factors determining the activities of dipeptidases for the metabolism of toxicologically-relevant cysteinylglycine conjugates are not well understood. We purified porcine kidney cortex membrane dipeptidase (MDP) to homogeneity, via phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-mediated cleavage of the protein's membrane anchor and cilastatin affinity chromatography. The homodimeric structure of the MDP protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The cysteinylglycine conjugates of 1-(chloromethyl)naphthalene, 4-nitrobenzyl chloride, and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene were synthesized and HPLC separation methods for their quantitation were developed. MDP catalyzed the hydrolysis of all three conjugates, but the rate of this activity was strongly dependent on the nature of the substituent on the cysteine sulfur atom.

  11. Engineering of cysteine residues leads to improved production of a human dipeptidase enzyme in E. coli.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Ronan; Razzaque, Rafia; Hu, Xuejun; Hollingshead, Susan K; Wall, J Gerard

    2009-10-01

    Low yields, poor folding efficiencies and improper disulfide bridge formation limit large-scale production of cysteine-rich proteins in Escherichia coli. Human renal dipeptidase (MDP), the only human beta-lactamase known to date, is a homodimeric enzyme, which contains six cysteine residues per monomer. It hydrolyses penem and carbapenem beta-lactam antibiotics and can cleave dipeptides containing amino acids in both D: - and L: -configurations. In this study, MDP accumulated in inactive form in high molecular weight, disulfide-linked aggregates when produced in the E. coli periplasm. Mutagenesis of Cys361 that mediates dimer formation and Cys93 that is unpaired in the native MDP led to production of soluble recombinant enzyme, with no change in activity compared with the wild-type enzyme. The removal of unpaired or structurally inessential cysteine residues in this manner may allow functional production of many multiply disulfide-linked recombinant proteins in E. coli.

  12. Comparison of life history traits of Tanais dulongii (Tanaidacea: Tanaididae) in natural and artificial marine environments of the south-western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbold, Carlos E.; Obenat, Sandra M.; Spivak, Eduardo D.

    2015-06-01

    Tanaidaceans are small benthic crustaceans with a strictly benthic life cycle and low dispersion rates, so they are good candidates to evaluate the effects of environment over life history strategies and reproductive biology. In this work, we studied two populations of Tanais dulongii (Audouin, 1826) that live in two contrasting habitats in order to determine whether they differ in life history traits. The animals were obtained by systematic sampling in a rocky shore with a lower anthropic impact (La Estafeta: LE) and a polluted area (Mar del Plata harbour: MdP) from March 2011 to March 2012. Seawater temperature and salinity did not differ between sites, but MdP showed more acid and hypoxic conditions than LE. Population density was homogeneous and lower in MdP (ca. 20 ind/100 gr) than that in LE where density varied between 250 and 800 ind/100 gr. Reproductive individuals and juveniles were always present, and both populations showed two main recruitment periods: the first in spring in both populations, and the second in summer in MdP but in autumn-winter in LE. In both populations, sex ratio was strongly female-biased. Juveniles, females and males from LE had larger sizes than that from MdP and reached their sexual differentiation at larger sizes. The estimated lifespan was about 9 and 12 months in MdP and LE, respectively. This study suggests that the differences observed between populations of T. dulongii in life history traits are intimately related to environmental differences in pH and dissolved oxygen between habitats, but should not be discarded a synergistic effect of temperature, organic pollution, food availability and predation pressure.

  13. Purification and characterization of a novel phloretin-2′-O-glycosyltransferase favoring phloridzin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingjing; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Panxue; Xu, Ying; Wang, Yutang; Wei, Xinyuan; Fan, Mingtao

    2016-01-01

    Phloretin-2′-O-glycosyltransferase (P2′GT) catalyzes the last glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of phloridzin that contributes to the flavor, color and health benefits of apples and processed apple products. In this work, a novel P2′GT of Malus x domestica (MdP2′GT) with a specific activity of 46.82 μkat/Kg protein toward phloretin and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) at an optimal temperature of 30 °C and pH 8.0 was purified from the engineered Pichia pastoris broth to homogeneity by anion exchange chromatography, His-Trap affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The purified MdP2′GT was low N-glycosylated and secreted as a stable dimer with a molecular mass of 70.7 kDa in its native form. Importantly, MdP2′GT also exhibited activity towards quercetin and adenosine diphosphate glucose (ADPG), kaempferol and UDPG, quercetin and UDP-galactose, isoliquiritigenin and UDPG, and luteolin and UDPG, producing only one isoquercitrin, astragalin, hyperoside, isoliquiritin, or cynaroside, respectively. This broad spectrum of activities make MdP2′GT a promising biocatalyst for the industrial preparation of the corresponding polyphenol glycosides, preferably for their subsequent isolation and purification. Besides, MdP2′GT displayed the lowest Km and the highest kcat/Km for phloretin and UDPG compared to all previously reported P2′GTs, making MdP2′GT favor phloridzin synthesis the most. PMID:27731384

  14. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH)2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH)4. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were −583.892 (NaOH), −569.048 [Ca(OH)2], −547.393 (MgO), and −530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH)4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH)2 > MgO > Zr(OH)4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH)4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH)4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic. PMID:27785013

  15. Growth failure after recurrent fever in young guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Madu, S C; Faurie, A; Pettifor, J M; Laburn, H P

    2007-03-16

    Infection causes fever and suppression of appetite, a combination of effects which threatens normal growth in infected children. We have used an animal model to study the effects on growth of recurrent simulated Gram-positive bacterial infection. After weaning, 10 guinea pig pups underwent surgery under general anaesthesia for the implantation of temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters and thereafter were assigned to receive intramuscular injections of either 50 microg/kg muramyl dipeptide (MDP), or sterile saline. During a 30-day period corresponding to their rapid growth phase, the pups were given eight injections. MDP resulted in fevers of about 1.5 degrees C on each occasion, but no significant change in body temperature occurred after saline injections. Food intake was suppressed during each febrile episode such that 24-h intake was significantly lower on days of injections of MDP, compared to days between MDP injections in the same animals, and compared to that of animals injected with saline. The rate of weight gain of the MDP-injected guinea pigs was significantly lower than that of the control group and failed even to achieve a rate similar to the saline-injected group in their more adult-like growth phase. Plasma zinc concentration was significantly lower in MDP-compared to saline-injected animals sampled 8 days after the last injection. Our results show that recurrent fever during the growth phase of young guinea pigs results in irreversible growth failure, and that reduced food intake on days when the animals were febrile was at least partly responsible for this reduced rate of growth.

  16. Press formability YAG laser welded TRIP/DP tailored blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaka, A.; Sugimoto, K. I.; Kobayashi, M.; Makii, K.; Ikeda, S.

    2004-06-01

    In the present work, to improve the press formability of the combination of the TRIP steel and ferrite-martensite dual-phase (DP) steel, the mechanical properties and press formability (stretch-formability) of YAG laser welded TRIP/DP tailored blanks were investigated. An as-cold-rolled sheet steel with the chemical composition of (0.1 0.3)C 1.5Si 1.5Mn (mass%) was used in this study. For comparison, 0.14C 0.22Si 1.78Mn (mass%) DP steel was also prepared. The quenched DP steel is called MDP0, and the tempered MDP0 steel is called MDP4. For butt welding, the blank obtained after the heat treatment was cut using a fine cutter, and YAG laser processing equipment was used. The press formability was evaluated from the maximum stretch-height (Hmax). Tensile tests and stretch forming tests have been conducted for laser butt welded joints obtained from the combination of the different steel. The Hmax value of the MDP0 steel was not controlled at the strength level of the DP steel, and was not different from the Hmax value of the MDP4 steel. It is thought that this was assisted to TRIP of the TDP steel because the tensile strength of the TDP steel is consequentially lower than that of the MDP0 steel. High ductility and the high stretch-formability were able to be secured by the high strength TRIP/DP tailored blanks.

  17. Hybrid Discrete-Continuous Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Zhengzhu; Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) model that features both discrete and continuous state variables. We extend previous work by Boyan and Littman on the mono-dimensional time-dependent MDP to multiple dimensions. We present the principle of lazy discretization, and piecewise constant and linear approximations of the model. Having to deal with several continuous dimensions raises several new problems that require new solutions. In the (piecewise) linear case, we use techniques from partially- observable MDPs (POMDPS) to represent value functions as sets of linear functions attached to different partitions of the state space.

  18. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  19. Tl-201 uptake in bone and soft tissue involvement of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, B; Mavi, A; Ozkal, S; Itil, O; Havitcioglu, H; Ozaksoy, D; Yilmaz, M; Kaya, G C

    2001-06-01

    The authors describe a 38-year-old man who was referred to the nuclear medicine department because of pain and swelling of his fingers in both hands. Tc-99m MDP and Tl-201 scans were performed to evaluate the lesions. A Tc-99m MDP bone scan showed hyperemia and increased uptake in the lesions. A Tl-201 scan showed marked uptake in both early and delayed images in the lesions of his fingers. Bone biopsy and histologic examination confirmed sarcoidosis. This case indicates that Tl-201 uptake can be seen in bone lesions resulting from sarcoidosis. PMID:11353294

  20. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-05-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided.

  1. Curative properties of muramyl dipeptide in experimental Naegleria meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, A; Lederer, E

    1986-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba which causes a fatal meningoencephalitis in man. Mice injected with the immunostimulant MDP or an attenuated 11RX strain of Salmonella enteritidis showed some resistance to an intranasal challenge with N. fowleri. In addition it was observed that some of the mice infected with N. fowleri and showing symptoms of naegleria meningoencephalitis, given a single injection of MDP were cured of this disease. Our findings suggest that the use of immunostimulants could be a new approach in the quest for therapeutic agents for this disease. PMID:3538525

  2. Minimal stimulation using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist and recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone versus GnRH antagonist multiple-dose protocol in low responders undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kim, So-Ra; Cheon, Yong-Pil; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2009-12-01

    This prospective randomized study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of minimal stimulation using recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) and GnRH antagonist compared with GnRH antagonist multiple-dose protocol (MDP) in low responders undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Our study demonstrated that minimal stimulation in natural cycles provides similar pregnancy rates to the GnRH antagonist MDP with fewer dose and days of rhFSH used and thus can be a cost-effective alternative as a last chance before oocyte donation in low responders.

  3. Use of radionuclide method in preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of osteoid osteoma of the spine. Case report

    SciTech Connect

    Israeli, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Horoszowski, H.; Farine, I.

    1983-05-01

    A 24-year-old man with persistent low back pain and right sciatica, was found to have an osteoid osteoma of the right pedicle of the second lumbar vertebra. /sup 99m/Tc-MDP bone scan and CAT scan produced an early diagnosis of the lesion. Intraoperative /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in vitro combined with imaging and quantitative activity measurements were useful for accurate localization and complete removal. The method is simple and can be performed in every nuclear medicine department, with no need for special operating room facilities.

  4. Method for digesting spent ion exchange resins and recovering actinides therefrom using microwave radiation

    DOEpatents

    Maxwell, III, Sherrod L.; Nichols, Sheldon T.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for digesting diphosphonic acid substituted cation exchange resins that have become loaded with actinides, rare earth metals, or heavy metals, in a way that allows for downstream chromatographic analysis of the adsorbed species without damage to or inadequate elution from the downstream chromatographic resins. The methods of the present invention involve contacting the loaded diphosphonic acid resin with concentrated oxidizing acid in a closed vessel, and irradiating this mixture with microwave radiation. This efficiently increases the temperature of the mixture to a level suitable for digestion of the resin without the use of dehydrating acids that can damage downstream analytical resins. In order to ensure more complete digestion, the irradiated mixture can be mixed with hydrogen peroxide or other oxidant, and reirradiated with microwave radiation.

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Soluble Ligands for Extracting Actinide Metal Ions from Porous Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, Mark L.; Barrans Jr., Richard E.; Herlinger, Albert; Brennecke, Joan F.

    1999-06-01

    The focus of the effort during the project period from 9/16/98 to 6/15/99 has been on the synthesis, aggregation, and coordination chemistry of silyl-containing diphosphonic acids that potentially could be useful as solvent extraction reagents in supercritical CO2. A homologous series of alkylenediphosphonic acids was esterified with 3-(trimethylsilyl)-1- propanol to the symmetrically-substituted diesters. The silicon-containing alcohol 3- (trimethylsilyl)-1-propanol was chosen for esterification of the diphosphonic acids because it contains both a silyl group and a trimethylene linker. Separating the trimethylsilyl from the organo-functional group by three carbon atoms is optimal for achieving chemical stability and synthetic accessibility. The synthesis of these compounds utilizes methodology that relies on dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as the esterification reagent to activate the acid.

  6. Actinide phosphonate complexes in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1993-10-01

    Complexes formed by actinides with carboxylic acids, polycarboxylic acids, and aminopolycarboxylic acids play a central role in both the basic and process chemistry of the actinides. Recent studies of f-element complexes with phosphonic acid ligands indicate that new ligands incorporating doubly ionizable phosphonate groups (-PO{sub 3}H{sub 2}) have many properties which are unique chemically, and promise more efficient separation processes for waste cleanup and environmental restoration. Simple diphosphonate ligands form much stronger complexes than isostructural carboxylates, often exhibiting higher solubility as well. In this manuscript recent studies of the thermodynamics and kinetics of f-element complexation by 1,1 and 1,2 diphosphonic acid ligands are described.

  7. Methods of IR spectroscopy in monitoring of chemotherapy of oncological pathologies using palladium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Bel'kov, M. V.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Pekhn'o, V. I.; Kozachkova, A. N.; Tsarik, N. V.; Kutsenko, I. P.; Sharykina, N. I.

    2014-11-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is used to study mammary-gland tissues of mice with a sarcoma tumor (strain 180). Spectral features that are typical of malignant tumors are revealed in the FTIR spectra in the sarcoma-tumor tissues. Tumor tissues are studied after treatment using coordination compounds based on palladium complexes with 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid and zoledronic acid. A therapeutic effect is not revealed after treatment using palladium complex with 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid. The suppression of tumor growth amounts to 59% when palladium complexes with zoledronic acid are used. Suppression of tumor growth is accompanied by variations in spectral characteristics. With respect to diagnostic features, the FTIR spectra of tumor tissues after treatment with the palladium complexes with zoledronic acid are similar to the FTIR spectra of tissues that are free of malignant tumors. Specific spectroscopic characteristics that make it possible to control the chemotherapy of oncological pathologies are determined.

  8. Insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia misdiagnosed as cellulitis in three patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Straaton, K.V.; Lopez-Mendez, A.; Alarcon, G.S. )

    1991-07-01

    We describe 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who presented with diffuse pain, swelling, and erythema of the distal aspect of the lower extremity, suggestive of either cellulitis or thrombophlebitis, but were found to have insufficiency fractures of the distal tibia. The value of technetium-99m diphosphonate bone scintigraphy in the early recognition of these fractures and a possible explanation for the associated inflammatory symptoms are discussed.

  9. [Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu

    2013-03-01

    (99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

  10. The bone scan.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Arnold I; Koshy, June; Morey, Jose; Lin, Cheryl; DiPoce, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Bone imaging continues to be the second greatest-volume nuclear imaging procedure, offering the advantage of total body examination, low cost, and high sensitivity. Its power rests in the physiological uptake and pathophysiologic behavior of 99m technetium (99m-Tc) diphosphonates. The diagnostic utility, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of 99m-Tc bone imaging for benign conditions and tumors was established when only planar imaging was available. Currently, nearly all bone scans are performed as a planar study (whole-body, 3-phase, or regional), with the radiologist often adding single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Here we review many current indications for planar bone imaging, highlighting indications in which the planar data are often diagnostically sufficient, although diagnosis may be enhanced by SPECT. (18)F sodium fluoride positron emission tomography (PET) is also re-emerging as a bone agent, and had been considered interchangeable with 99m-Tc diphosphonates in the past. In addition to SPECT, new imaging modalities, including (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose, PET/CT, CT, magnetic resonance, and SPECT/CT, have been developed and can aid in evaluating benign and malignant bone disease. Because (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose is taken up by tumor cells and Tc diphosphonates are taken up in osteoblastic activity or osteoblastic healing reaction, both modalities are complementary. CT and magnetic resonance may supplement, but do not replace, bone imaging, which often detects pathology before anatomic changes are appreciated. We also stress the importance of dose reduction by reducing the dose of 99m-Tc diphosphonates and avoiding unnecessary CT acquisitions. In addition, we describe an approach to image interpretation that emphasizes communication with referring colleagues and correlation with appropriate history to significantly improve our impact on patient care.

  11. Identification of hydroxyapatite crystals in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P B; McCarty, D J

    1979-04-01

    A semiquantitative technique employing (14C) ethane-1-hydroxy 1, -1-diphosphonate (EHDP) binding has been used to detect crystals, presumably hydroxyapatite, in human synovial fluid samples which were handled to prevent the formation of artifactual mineral phase. Binding material was found in 29% of non-inflammatory and in none of inflammatory joint fluids. Nuclide binding material was strongly correlated with the presence of CPPD crystals and with radiographic evidence of cartilaginous degeneration. PMID:106859

  12. Increased skeletal:renal uptake ratio. [Bone-seekers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, T.H.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-08-01

    Twenty-four patients with increased skeletal:renal uptake ratios of /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate were studied. Increased uptake was central in metastatic prostate carcinoma, peripheral in hematologic disorders, and heterogeneous in Paget disease and fibrous dysplasia. There was no discernible redistribution of skeletal uptake in patients with renal failure. Absence of both renal and bladder activity was not observed in patients with normal renal function. An increased ratio was always abnormal and frequently indicated diffuse bone disease.

  13. Fibrodysplasia ossificance progressiva: A familial presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Shwetal Uday; Sahoo, Sarita; Manglunia, Ashmi; Tilve, Gundu Hari

    2015-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a rare disorder progressing to ossification of tissues causing disability. We report a case of father and daughter in a family presenting with this condition. The diagnosis was made with X-rays. However, Technetium-99m Methylene Diphosphonate bone scan showed extensive extra-osseous localization of tracer suggesting ossification of multiple ligaments, tendons, muscles and connective tissue. PMID:26170583

  14. /sup 99m/Tc-DPD uptake in juvenile hemarthrosis. Scintimetry and autoradiography of the knee in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.S.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Noer, I.; Christensen, S.B.; Holm, I.E.; Buenger, C.

    1989-03-01

    The pathogenesis of subchondral bone lesions and growth plate affection in hemophilic arthropathy was studied in puppies by means of repeated regional /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry and contact autoradiography. Unilateral hemarthrosis of the knee was induced by biweekly intraarticular injections of autologous blood for 12 weeks. Hemarthrosis caused an early (2 to 4 weeks) decrease in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate in the juxtaarticular growth plates (ratio 0.7) and a delayed (8 to 10 weeks) increase in epiphyseal uptake (ratio 1.5). In a recovery phase after hemarthrosis, growth plate uptake returned to normal, while the epiphyseal uptake remained elevated for 8 to 10 weeks. By contact autoradiography, the growth plate uptake was localized to the calcification layer at the metaphyseal aspect of the growth plates, while the epiphyseal uptake mainly was seen in the thin subchondral and subsynovial bone layer and around osteophytes. The changes in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate following hemarthrosis for 3 months were reversible and could be ascribed to the presence of synovial inflammation.

  15. Regulatory site of inorganic pyrophosphatase. Interaction with substrate analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Baikov, A.A.; Pavlov, A.R.; Avaeva, S.M.

    1986-08-10

    The effect of four PP/sub 1/ analogs with the structure PXP (X = N, C), phosphate, and the complex Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 4/PP/sub 1/ on the activity of inorganic pyrophosphatase from baker's yeast was studied over a wide range of substrate (Mg-PP/sub 1/) concentrations (lower limit 0.5 ..mu..M). The enzyme activity decreased in the presence of imidodiphosphate, hydroxymethane diphosphonate (PC(OH)P), and P/sub 1/, and a double reciprocal plot of the rate of hydrolysis of Mg-PP/sub 1/ versus its concentration became linear. Small amounts of methane diphosphonate (PCP), ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (0.1-1..mu..M), and Cr(H/sub 2/O)/sub 4/PP/sub 1/ (10 ..mu..M) activated the enzyme almost 2-fold by a competitive mechanism. The activation was due to an increase in the affinity of the protein for the activating Mg/sup 2 +/ ion. Ultrafiltration showed that the pyrophosphatase molecule has 2.1 and 3.1 binding sites for PCP and PC(OHP)P, respectively. These results confirm the hypothesis that the enzyme contains a regulatory site whose occupation by PP/sub 1/, P/sub 1/, and substrate analogs increases the affinity of the protein for the activating metal.

  16. Bone marrow metastases from alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with impressive FDG PET/CT finding but less-revealing bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jigang; Zhen, Lishi; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    An 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was performed in a 26-year-old man with a known alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma for staging. The PET/CT scan showed abnormally increased FDG activity involving almost all bones in the imaged regions. In contrast, 99mTc-MDP whole-body bone scan demonstrated only very limited bone metastases.

  17. Stimulatory effects of muramyl dipeptide upon neutrophils isolated from a local bacterial infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, P. M.; Maier, K. G.; Melton, L.; Polk, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in vivo upon the local inflammatory response to a bacterial challenge. In addition to quantitative bacteriology of the tissues surrounding an infected suture, polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) involved in the local inflammatory response were extracted and estimations made of their number, viability and phagocytic activity. Fewer bacteria were recovered from the muscle around the suture in MDP-treated animals compared to placebo-treated controls (P less than 0.02), although there was no difference in the number of bacteria on the suture itself. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes were present in greater numbers (P less than 0.01), more PMNs were viable (P less than 0.01) and more PMNs had visibly phagocytosed bacteria (P less than 0.01) in the MDP group compared to the placebo group. These data indicate that MDP enhances the local inflammatory response to infection with increased influx, viability and phagocytic activity of PMNs, resulting in improved local control of a test bacterial challenge. PMID:3318904

  18. Proteasomal Degradation of Nod2 Protein Mediates Tolerance to Bacterial Cell Wall Components*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Biswas, Amlan; Liu, Yuen-Joyce; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system serves as the first line of defense by detecting microbes and initiating inflammatory responses. Although both Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are important for this process, their excessive activation is hazardous to hosts; thus, tight regulation is required. Endotoxin tolerance is refractory to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and serves as a host defense mechanism against septic shock caused by an excessive TLR4 response during Gram-negative bacterial infection. Gram-positive bacteria as well as their cell wall components also induce shock. However, the mechanism underlying tolerance is not understood. Here, we show that activation of Nod2 by its ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in the bacterial cell wall, induces rapid degradation of Nod2, which confers MDP tolerance in vitro and in vivo. Nod2 is constitutively associated with a chaperone protein, Hsp90, which is required for Nod2 stability and protects Nod2 from degradation. Upon MDP stimulation, Hsp90 rapidly dissociates from Nod2, which subsequently undergoes ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The SOCS-3 protein induced by Nod2 activation further facilitates this degradation process. Therefore, Nod2 protein stability is a key factor in determining responsiveness to MDP stimulation. This indicates that TLRs and NLRs induce a tolerant state through distinct molecular mechanisms that protect the host from septic shock. PMID:23019338

  19. Evaluation in femoral neck fracture scintimetry: modes of region of interest selection and influence on results

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, S.; Mesko, L.; Stroemqvist, B.; Thorngren, K.G.

    1985-04-01

    Different sized ROIs within the femoral head and different modes of calculation were used in (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP scintimetry after femoral neck fracture. In preoperative scintimetry, correction for increased trochanteric uptake gave the best discrimination, whereas in postoperative scintimetry the direct ratio fractured/intact femoral head was superior. The change in ROI size had little influence.

  20. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Project Activity in Engineering and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Cole, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The School of Engineering and Design Multidisciplinary Project (MDP) at Brunel University is a one week long project based activity involving first year undergraduate students from across the School subject areas of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Design. This paper describes the main aims of the…

  1. Intraperitoneal Administration of Muramyl Dipeptide β-Heptylglycoside to Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Female Mice Modulates Production of Th1/Th2/Th17/Tr1 Cytokines by Splenocytes Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhin, O V; Artem'eva, K A; Boltovskaya, M N; Bunyatyan, K A; Inviyayeva, E V; Vinnitskii, L I; Karaulov, A V

    2015-05-01

    Muramyl dipeptide β-heptylglycoside (C7MDP) was administered to non-pregnant CBA female mice and pregnant mice after non-abortion-prone mating (CBA×BALB/c) and mating associated with a high rate of spontaneous abortion (CBA×DBA/2). In non-pregnant females, C7MDP increased the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, IFNγ, TNFα, and GM-CSF at constant production of IL-1α and IL-10. C7MDP increased the production of IL-10 and IL-17 and suppressed the production of IFNγ on day 8 of gestation in non-abortion-prone mouse couples and stimulated the synthesis of IL-4 and IFNγ, reduced IL-5 production, and slightly increased IL-1α secretion after abortion-prone mating. On day 14 of gestation, C7MDP elevated the yield of IL-2, IL-4, IFNγ, TNFα, and GM-CSF in CBA×BALB/c and CBA×DBA/2 couples and IL-17 in the fi rst variant of mating. PMID:26033590

  2. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of a Natural Insecticide on Basic Montmorillonite K10 Clay. Green Chemistry in the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dintzner, Matthew R.; Wucka, Paul R.; Lyons, Thomas W.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the clay-catalyzed condensation of sesamol and other phenols with 3-methyl-2-butenal to give methylenedioxyprecocene (MDP) and other chromenes is presented. The clay-catalyzed microwave-assisted condensation of sesamol with 3-methyl-2-butenal is appropriate for incorporation into undergraduate organic laboratory…

  3. Acute lymphocytic leukemia presented as back pain and revealed by bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Gwal, Kriti; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2013-08-01

    A previously healthy 8-year-old girl underwent MDP bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible spondylolysis due to worsening back pain. Unexpectedly, the bone scan images revealed intense activity in several thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, which was not consistent with spondylolysis. Further examinations proved that the patient had acute lymphocytic leukemia.

  4. Real-life assessment of the multidimensional nature of dyspnoea in COPD outpatients.

    PubMed

    Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Gilet, Hélène; Aguilaniu, Bernard; Devillier, Philippe; Didier, Alain; Perez, Thierry; Pignier, Christophe; Arnould, Benoit; Similowski, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Dyspnoea is a prominent symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent multidimensional dyspnoea questionnaires like the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP) individualise the sensory and affective dimensions of dyspnoea. We tested the MDP in COPD outpatients based on the hypothesis that the importance of the affective dimension of dyspnoea would vary according to clinical characteristics.A multicentre, prospective, observational, real-life study was conducted in 276 patients. MDP data were compared across various categories of patients (modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score, COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) airflow obstruction categories, GOLD "ABCD" categories, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)). Univariate and multivariate regressions were conducted to explore factors influencing the affective dimension of dyspnoea. Cluster analysis was conducted to create homogeneous patient profiles.The MDP identified a more marked affective dimension of dyspnoea with more severe mMRC, CAT, 12-item Short-Form Health Survey mental component, airflow obstruction and HADS. Multivariate analysis identified airflow obstruction, depressive symptoms and physical activity as determinants of the affective dimension of dyspnoea. Patients clustered into an "elderly, ex-smoker, severe disease, no rehabilitation" group exhibited the most marked affective dimension of dyspnoea.An affective/emotional dimension of dyspnoea can be identified in routine clinical practice. It can contribute to the phenotypic description of patients. Studies are needed to determine whether targeted therapeutic interventions can be designed and whether they are useful.

  5. Aerosol delivery of muramyl dipeptide to rodent lungs.

    PubMed

    Pettis, R J; Hall, I; Costa, D; Hickey, A J

    2000-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the single most serious infectious disease worldwide. The respiratory tract is the primary site of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB). A number of immunogenic components of the cell wall of MTB, if delivered to the lungs as aerosols, can be used to study the local immune response. The site of deposition of these aerosols can be employed to control their residence time in the lungs. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) aerosols were delivered to alveolar macrophages in the lungs of rodents. Guinea pig macrophages harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were examined by differential interference contrast microscopy for morphological changes indicative of activation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for the presence of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), and total protein content. Rat alveolar macrophages were studied for the production of nitric oxide, by induction of nitric oxide synthase. Twenty-four hours following exposure to an aerosol of MDP, alveolar macrophages exhibited morphological characteristics (spreading and pseudopodia), enzyme activity (NAG 50% above control), and production of the reactive intermediate nitric oxide. Rat macrophages subjected to aerosol exposure to MDP when challenged with a second dose of MDP or lipopolysaccharide exhibited a linear dose response as measured by nitric oxide production. These studies indicate that the topical delivery of an MTB bacterial cell wall component, muramyl dipeptide, results in activation of alveolar macrophages. This approach may be useful in elucidating elements of the immune response to MTB.

  6. Bone and Gallium scintigraphy in primary malignant and benign bone tumors of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Sepahdari, S.; Martin, W.B.; Ryan, J.; Simon, M.; Kirchner, P.

    1985-05-01

    A six yer prospective evaluation of 129 patients suspected of having a primary bone tumor included Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy followed by Ga-67 imaging at 48-72 hours. Blood pool images were part of bone scintigraphy in nearly half of the patients. Extent and intensity of tracer uptake in tumor and adjacent bone and joints were recorded for each tracer by two observers blind to the diagnosis. Tissue samples obtained in every patient by biopsy or tumor excision after scintigraphy, revealed 72 malignant and 57 benign bone tumors. The bone scan was positive in 95% (69/72) of malignancies. The scintigraphic intensity of benign and malignant lesions was comparable with both Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67. On the other hand, bone scintigraphy showed 72% (52/72) of bone malignancies to have abnormal proximal and distal bone/joint uptake whereas the Ga-67 images revealed this in only 6% (4/65) of malignancies. Benign lesions manifested this enhanced contiguous bone/joint uptake on only 8% (5/55) of bone and 0% of Ga-67 scans. This study concludes positive bone, blood pool, or Ga-67 images have less specificity for malignancy than the presence of increased Tc-99m MDP deposition in a contiguous bone/joint, but negative scintigraphic results strongly favor a benign lesion. Ga-67 was more accurate than Tc-99m MDP in portraying intraosseous extent of malignant tumors; however, this is now preferably done with C.T.

  7. The Role of 99mTc-Annexin V Apoptosis Scintigraphy in Visualizing Early Stage Glucocorticoid-Induced Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Rui; Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Lei; Bai, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To validate the ability of 99mTc-Annexin V to visualize early stage of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis by comparing with 99mTc-MDP bone scanning. Methods. Femoral head necrosis was induced in adult New Zealand white rabbits by intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone. 99mTc-Annexin scintigraphy and 99mTc-MDP scans were performed before and 5, 6, and 8 weeks after methylprednisolone administration. Rabbits were sacrificed at various time points and conducted for TUNEL and H&E staining. Results. All methylprednisolone treated animals developed femoral head necrosis; at 8 weeks postinjection, destruction of bone structure was evident in H&E staining, and apoptosis was confirmed by the TUNEL assay. This was matched by 99mTc-Annexin V images, which showed a significant increase in signal over baseline. Serial 99mTc-Annexin V scans revealed that increased 99mTc-Annexin V uptake could be observed in 5 weeks. In contrast, there was no effect on 99mTc-MDP signal until 8 weeks. The TUNEL assay revealed that bone cell apoptosis occurred at 5 weeks. Conclusion. 99mTc-Annexin V is superior to 99mTc-MDP for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in the rabbit and may be a better strategy for the early detection of glucocorticoid-induced femoral head necrosis in patients. PMID:26989689

  8. Difficulty of diagnosing infected hypertrophic pseudarthrosis by radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjipavlou, A.; Lisbona, R.; Rosenthall, L.

    1983-02-01

    Hypertrophic pseudarthrosis was studied with /sup 99m/Tc MDP and /sup 67/Ga citrate in 11 patients. Two of the 11 pseudarthroses were complicated by infection. A high concentration of both radiopharmaceuticals was obtained at all 11 sites and their distribution patterns were identical. It was therefore impossible to distinguish the infected from the noninfected pseudarthroses by using /sup 67/Ga.

  9. Enhanced resistance to Sendai virus infection in DBA/2J mice with a botanical drug combination (Sinupret).

    PubMed

    Schmolz, M; Ottendorfer, D; März, R W; Sieder, C

    2001-09-01

    It was investigated whether the botanical drug combination Sinupret is able to modulate the resistance of mice to a respiratory tract infection with Sendai virus (Parainfluenza viridae) if given prophylactically to the animals. Three doses of Sinupret drops (SD) and Sinupret tablets (ST, p.o.), and two active controls, the chemical secretolytic ambroxol (p.o.) and the immunomodulator Muramyldipeptide (MDP, i.v.) were used. Test and reference substances were applied at days - 3 and -1 before infection, except MDP, which was given once on day--before infection. CD4+ and CD8 + lymphocyte subpopulations were measured after infection as indicators of immunological treatment response. Groups of 20 mice each were infected by intranasal application of Sendai virus under anaesthesia. We found that the 1 x and 5 x human doses of Sinupret drops significantly prolonged the survival times (p < 0.05) compared to placebo. Additionally, ambroxol and MDP were comparably less effective. In all groups, changes in CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte subpopulations of the peripheral blood were observed, but no clear relationship to the treatment results was seen. It was concluded that Sinupret increases the resistance to an experimentally induced respiratory tract infection in mice. Moreover, the effect of Sinupret was superior to that of an immunostimulant (MDP) and of a synthetic secretagogue (ambroxolhydrochloride).

  10. The Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway Negatively Regulates Nod2-Mediated NF-kB Pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing proteins (Nods) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved moieties of bacterial peptidoglycan and activate downstream signaling pathways including NF-kB pathway. Here, we show that Nod2 agonist MDP induces Ak...

  11. Cross-tolerization between Nod1 and Nod2 signaling results in reduced refractoriness to bacterial infection in Nod2-deficient macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Gi; Park, Jong-Hwan; Daignault, Stephanie; Fukase, Koichi; Núñez, Gabriel

    2008-09-15

    Nod2 is an intracellular innate immune receptor that plays a role in host defense and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. We show in this study that macrophages rendered refractory to TLR4 and Nod2 signaling by exposure to LPS and muramyl dipeptide (MDP) exhibit impaired TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in response to pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as well as commensal bacteria including Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. Surprisingly, Nod2 deficiency was associated with impaired tolerization in response to pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Mechanistically, reduced tolerization of Nod2-null macrophages was mediated by recognition of bacteria through Nod1 because it was abolished in macrophages deficient in Nod1 and Nod2. Consistently, Nod2-null macrophages tolerant to LPS and MDP showed enhanced production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 as well as increased NF-kappaB and MAPK activation in response to the dipeptide KF1B, the Nod1 agonist. Furthermore, reduced tolerization of Nod2-deficient macrophages in response to bacteria was abolished when mutant macrophages were also rendered tolerant to the Nod1 ligand. Finally, MDP stimulation induced refractoriness not only to MDP, but also to iE-DAP stimulation, providing a mechanism to explain the reduced tolerization of Nod2-deficient macrophages infected with bacteria. These results demonstrate that cross-tolerization between Nod1 and Nod2 leads to increase recognition of both pathogenic and commensal bacteria in Nod2-deficient macrophages pre-exposed to microbial ligands.

  12. Human NOD2 Recognizes Structurally Unique Muramyl Dipeptides from Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Mirjam; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Le, Phuonganh; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Aaron W.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Belisle, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens via pattern recognition receptors. One such receptor, NOD2, via recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), triggers a distinct network of innate immune responses, including the production of interleukin-32 (IL-32), which leads to the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). NOD2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human leprosy, yet it is not clear whether Mycobacterium leprae, which has a distinct MDP structure, can activate this pathway. We investigated the effect of MDP structure on the innate immune response, finding that infection of monocytes with M. leprae induces IL-32 and DC differentiation in a NOD2-dependent manner. The presence of the proximal l-Ala instead of Gly in the common configuration of the peptide side chain of M. leprae did not affect recognition by NOD2 or cytokine production. Furthermore, amidation of the d-Glu residue did not alter NOD2 activation. These data provide experimental evidence that NOD2 recognizes naturally occurring structural variants of MDP. PMID:27297389

  13. A Novel Syndrome of Mandibular Hypoplasia, Deafness, and Progeroid Features Associated with Lipodystrophy, Undescended Testes, and Male Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Shastry, Savitha; Simha, Vinaya; Godbole, Koumudi; Sbraccia, Paolo; Melancon, Serge; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Novelli, Giuseppe; Kroiss, Matthias; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Context: Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is an autosomal recessive progeroid disorder associated with type A (partial) or B (generalized) lipodystrophy and is due to mutations in lamin A/C (LMNA) or zinc metalloproteinase (ZMPSTE24) genes. Objective: The objective of the study was to report a novel syndrome with some overlapping features with MAD. Results: We report seven patients with mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features (MDP), and associated lipodystrophy. These patients have similar features to MAD patients such as hypoplastic mandible, beaked nose, stiff joints, and sclerodermatous skin. However, the patients did not harbor any disease causing variants in LMNA or ZMPSTE24 and showed distinct characteristics such as sensorineural hearing loss and absence of clavicular hypoplasia and acroosteolysis. All males with MDP had undescended testes and were hypogonadal. One adult female showed lack of breast development. Skinfold thickness, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for body fat distribution revealed a lack of lipodystrophy in a prepubertal female but a progressive loss of sc fat presenting with partial lipodystrophy in young adults and generalized lipodystrophy in older patients. Conclusions: Patients with MDP syndrome have a few overlapping but some distinct clinical features as compared with MAD, suggesting that it is a novel syndrome. The molecular basis of MDP syndrome remains to be elucidated. PMID:20631028

  14. Improving diabetes care and outcomes: the secondary benefits of a public health-managed care research collaboration.

    PubMed

    Desai, Jay; Solberg, Leif; Clark, Cynthia; Reger, Laurel; Pearson, Teresa; Bishop, Don; Roberts, Martha; Sniegowski, Russ; O'Connor, Patrick

    2003-11-01

    The project improving Diabetes Care through Empowerment, Active Collaboration and Leadership (IDEAL) is a collaborative translational research project of the Minnesota Diabetes Program (MDP) at the Minnesota Department of Health and HealthPartners (HP), a large managed care organization. The research was designed to test a quality improvement model to improve diabetes care delivery and outcomes in primary care clinics, but the collaboration was structured from the beginning to maximize potential secondary effects. The MDP and HP participated jointly in every aspect of the project. Personnel from other health care systems and academic and quality improvement organizations also participated in IDEAL. Secondary effects included heightened priority for diabetes care improvement at HP and within its medical group, along with an increased emphasis on a population approach for both of these organizations. Simultaneously, the MDP developed a better understanding of the issues and potential for improving care in primary care clinics, medical groups, and managed care organizations. These benefits resulted in further collaboration between the MDP, HP, and other managed care, health care, and quality improvement organizations in Minnesota. Thus, Project IDEAL has been a successful collaboration of public health and managed care whose contribution to improved diabetes care in Minnesota health systems extends far beyond the original scope of the project.

  15. Low Molecular Weight Procyanidins from Grape Seeds Enhance the Impact of 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy on Caco-2 Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Ker Y.; Howarth, Gordon S.; Bindon, Keren A.; Kennedy, James A.; Bastian, Susan E. P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Grape seed procyanidins (PC) are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE) have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP) combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2). Design SixPC fractions (F1-F6) were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature) and ripe (mature), utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay. Results All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05), but F2 and F3 (mDP 2–6) were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining) on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27–73% (P<0.05). Mature seed PC fractions (F1–F4) significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60–83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05). Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65–68% and mature fractions = 83–87%) compared to 5-FU alone (37%). Conclusions PCs of mDP 2–6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4)not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs. PMID

  16. Analysis of human blood monocyte activation at the level of gene expression. Expression of alpha interferon genes during activation of human monocytes by poly IC/LC and muramyl dipeptide

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Human monocytes were activated to secrete alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) by poly IC/LC but not by other monocyte activators, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP). In contrast, monocytes were activated to secrete fibroblast growth factor (FGF) release by MDP but not by poly IC/LC. The amount of total RNA present in unactivated and activated human monocytes was similar. Using two 32P-labeled cDNA probes (pLM001 and HuIFN-alpha 2) for human IFN-alpha genes in hybridization studies, we analyzed messenger RNA species from this gene family in activated human monocytes. After activation with poly IC/LC, two other mRNA species (2.8 and 5.5 kb) were detected in addition to the 1.0 kb mRNA normally associated with IFN-alpha secretion. Unexpectedly, monocytes activated with MDP also contained 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA. There was associated with this 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA, found in MDP-activated monocytes, appreciable levels of intracellular IFN-alpha activity in the absence of detectable secreted IFN-alpha. Thus the secretion of IFN-alpha in activated human monocytes can be correlated with the appearance of a 1.0 kb mRNA species after poly IC/LC exposure. Secretion appears to be defective in MDP-stimulated monocytes even though they contain active intracellular IFN-alpha apparently translated from the 2.8 kb mRNA. PMID:3838335

  17. Identification of high density lipoprotein-binding proteins, including a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane dipeptidase, in rat lung and type II pneumocytes.

    PubMed

    Witt, W; Kolleck, I; Rüstow, B

    2000-06-01

    Numerous communications have indicated that specific binding proteins for high density lipoprotein (HDL) exist in addition to the well characterized candidate HDL receptor SR-BI, but structural information was presented only in a few cases, and most of the work was aimed at the liver and steroidogenic glands. In this study, we purified two HDL-binding proteins by standard procedures from rat lung tissue. One of these membrane glycoproteins was identified by N-terminal sequencing and with specific antibodies as HB2, a previously described HDL-binding protein, whereas the other one was identified as a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane dipeptidase (MDP). The apparent dissociation constant of the HDL binding was determined by solid phase assay to be 2.1 microg/ml (HB2) and 25 microg/ml (MDP). MDP also exerts affinity to low density lipoprotein (LDL) on ligand blots, and competition between HDL and LDL was observed, but analysis by solid phase assay showed that very high concentrations of LDL are required. The physiologic relevance of this effect is therefore questionable. The level in type II pneumocyte membranes of both binding proteins, MDP and HB2, increased when the plasma lipoprotein concentration was reduced by treatment of rats with 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine, consistent with a function to facilitate lipid uptake in vivo. The binding proteins were also dramatically upregulated by feeding rats a vitamin E-depleted diet. Vitamin E uptake requires interaction between HDL and type II cells, suggesting a role of HB2 and MDP also in this process.

  18. Pivotal role of NOD2 in inflammatory processes affecting atherosclerosis and periodontal bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huaiping; Zelkha, Sami; Burkatovskaya, Marina; Gupte, Rohit; Leeman, Susan E.; Amar, Salomon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) signaling in atherosclerosis and periodontal bone loss using an Apolipoprotein E−/− (ApoE−/−) mouse model based on the proposed role of NOD2 in inflammation. NOD2−/−ApoE−/− and ApoE−/− mice fed a standard chow diet were given an oral gavage of Porphyromonas gingivalis for 15 wk. NOD2−/−ApoE−/− mice exhibited significant increases in inflammatory cytokines, alveolar bone loss, cholesterol, and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and the heart compared with ApoE−/− mice. In contrast, ApoE−/− mice injected i.p. with Muramyl DiPeptide (MDP) to stimulate NOD2 and given an oral gavage of P. gingivalis displayed a reduction of serum inflammatory cytokines, alveolar bone loss, cholesterol, and atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta and aortic sinus compared with ApoE−/− mice orally challenged but injected with saline. A reduction in body weight gain was observed in ApoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with MDP compared with ApoE−/− mice fed a high-fat diet but injected with saline. MDP treatment of bone marrow-derived macrophages incubated with P. gingivalis increased mRNA expressions of NOD2, Toll-like receptor 2, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and receptor-interacting protein-2 but reduced the expressions of inhibitor of NF-κB kinase-β, NF-κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3, and TNF-α protein levels compared with saline control, highlighting pathways involved in MDP antiinflammatory effects. MDP activation of NOD2 should be considered in the treatment of inflammatory processes affecting atherosclerosis, periodontal bone loss ,and possibly, diet-induced weight gain. PMID:24324141

  19. Control of IgE responses. II. Isotype specific suppression of peak hapten specific IgE antibody forming cell responses in BPO-KLH sensitized mice after oral administration of muramyldipeptide or murabutide.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Chice, S M; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-01-01

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB), a pyrogen free derivative of MDP, suppressed BPO specific IgE antibody forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. To induce IgE responses, BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with BPO-KLH (10 micrograms) in alum on days 0 and 21, or on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). Mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA antibody forming cells (AFC) in lymphoid organs determined in ELISPOT assay. With either immunization schedule, oral treatment with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO specific IgE AFC responses within 48 h (65-100%). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype specific, dose dependent and transient. The suppression was also route specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB was given by gavage, and not when injected s.c. These results show that peak antigen specific IgE responses can be suppressed in vivo, in isotype specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. Pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic suppression of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE mediated diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  20. Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people <50 years of age, in obese participants, and when the alcohol, meat, and olive oil components were excluded from the score. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, adherence to the MDP, as defined by rMED, was associated with a small reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this European population. PMID:21788627

  1. Comprehensive Fault Tolerance and Science-Optimal Attitude Planning for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Ali

    Spacecraft operate in a harsh environment, are costly to launch, and experience unavoidable communication delay and bandwidth constraints. These factors motivate the need for effective onboard mission and fault management. This dissertation presents an integrated framework to optimize science goal achievement while identifying and managing encountered faults. Goal-related tasks are defined by pointing the spacecraft instrumentation toward distant targets of scientific interest. The relative value of science data collection is traded with risk of failures to determine an optimal policy for mission execution. Our major innovation in fault detection and reconfiguration is to incorporate fault information obtained from two types of spacecraft models: one based on the dynamics of the spacecraft and the second based on the internal composition of the spacecraft. For fault reconfiguration, we consider possible changes in both dynamics-based control law configuration and the composition-based switching configuration. We formulate our problem as a stochastic sequential decision problem or Markov Decision Process (MDP). To avoid the computational complexity involved in a fully-integrated MDP, we decompose our problem into multiple MDPs. These MDPs include planning MDPs for different fault scenarios, a fault detection MDP based on a logic-based model of spacecraft component and system functionality, an MDP for resolving conflicts between fault information from the logic-based model and the dynamics-based spacecraft models〝 and the reconfiguration MDP that generates a policy optimized over the relative importance of the mission objectives versus spacecraft safety. Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) methods for the decomposition of the planning and fault detection MDPs are applied. To show the performance of the MDP-based frameworks and ADP methods, a suite of spacecraft attitude planning case studies are described. These case studies are used to analyze the content and

  2. Research of the multimodal brain-tumor segmentation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yisu; Chen, Wufan

    2015-12-01

    It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. A new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance.

  3. Automatic clustering and population analysis of white matter tracts using maximum density paths.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-08-15

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  4. Use of Inverse Reinforcement Learning for Identity Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Roy; Bao, Jonathan; Beling, Peter; Horowitz, Barry

    2011-01-01

    We adopt Markov Decision Processes (MDP) to model sequential decision problems, which have the characteristic that the current decision made by a human decision maker has an uncertain impact on future opportunity. We hypothesize that the individuality of decision makers can be modeled as differences in the reward function under a common MDP model. A machine learning technique, Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL), was used to learn an individual's reward function based on limited observation of his or her decision choices. This work serves as an initial investigation for using IRL to analyze decision making, conducted through a human experiment in a cyber shopping environment. Specifically, the ability to determine the demographic identity of users is conducted through prediction analysis and supervised learning. The results show that IRL can be used to correctly identify participants, at a rate of 68% for gender and 66% for one of three college major categories.

  5. Splenic regulation of the murine pulmonary lymph node response.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, E M; Abramoff, P; Fink, J N; Calvanico, N J

    1987-01-01

    Exposure to intratracheal immunization and aerosolization with soluble antigen plus murmayl-dipeptide (MDP) induces the development of plaque-forming cells in the pulmonary draining lymph nodes of two of three inbred mouse strains. Splenectomy before immunization led to a heightened plaque-forming cell response in the two responder mouse strains. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from one strain exposed to sperm whale myoglobin via the respiratory tract revealed the presence of antigen-specific suppressor cells. These observations suggest that the spleen may play a role in the down-regulation of an immune response elicited in the pulmonary draining lymph nodes by exposure of the respiratory tract to soluble antigens plus MDP. PMID:3308230

  6. Osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: differentiation by combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Amundsen, T.R.; Siegel, M.J.; Siegel, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    Clinical records and scintigrams were reviewed of 18 patients with sickle cell hemoglobinophaties who had undergone combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy during 22 separate episodes of suspected osseous infection. The combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis in four studies. Of 18 studies in patients with infarction, the combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted in 16 and showed either no local accumulation of Ga-67 or less accumulation than that of Tc-99m MDP at symptomatic sites. In the other two studies, the scintigrams were falsely interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis and showed congruent, increased accumulation of both Tc-99, MDP and Ga-67. This pattern must be considered indeterminate. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of technetium and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means to distinguish osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies.

  7. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio

    2016-09-15

    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation).

  8. Scintigraphic findings in a Brodie's abscess.

    PubMed

    Silva, F; Laguna, R; Acevedo, M; Ruíz, C; Orduña, E

    1995-10-01

    A 9-year-old girl had a 6-month history of left hip pain. Radiographs of the left hip showed a metaphyseal osteolytic lesion with sclerotic borders in the femoral neck. Tc-99m MDP bone imaging and a Ga-67 scan showed focal areas of increased activity in the left femoral neck. These areas of increased uptake corresponded to a lytic area on x-rays, which was due to a Brodie's abscess. The combination of Tc-99m MDP bone and Ga-67 imaging has been widely used in the confirmation of bone infection, increasing the accuracy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. However, nuclear scintigraphy has not been previously reported in the confirmation of a Brodie's abscess.

  9. Automatic Clustering and Population Analysis of White Matter Tracts using Maximum Density Paths

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Villalon-Reina, Julio; Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a framework for population analysis of white matter tracts based on diffusion-weighted images of the brain. The framework enables extraction of fibers from high angular resolution diffusion images (HARDI); clustering of the fibers based partly on prior knowledge from an atlas; representation of the fiber bundles compactly using a path following points of highest density (maximum density path; MDP); and registration of these paths together using geodesic curve matching to find local correspondences across a population. We demonstrate our method on 4-Tesla HARDI scans from 565 young adults to compute localized statistics across 50 white matter tracts based on fractional anisotropy (FA). Experimental results show increased sensitivity in the determination of genetic influences on principal fiber tracts compared to the tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Our results show that the MDP representation reveals important parts of the white matter structure and considerably reduces the dimensionality over comparable fiber matching approaches. PMID:24747738

  10. False Suggestion of Malignant Transformation of Benign Bone Tumor by 18F-FDG PET/CT: A Potential Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Ren; Kuo, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Cheng-Nan; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-10-01

    A 68-year-old man underwent serial F-FDG PET/CT scan follow-up for lung cancer. Then 5.5 years after the initial F-FDG PET/CT scan, the presumed benign bone tumor in the left clavicle showed markedly increased FDG uptake during follow-up; in contrast, the Tc-MDP bone scan paradoxically exhibited no apparent interval change since last bone scan 5.5 years earlier. He underwent a CT-guided biopsy, and the pathological diagnosis was benign fibrous histiocytoma. The result was consistent with the lack of progression in Tc-MDP bone scan, whereas the F-FDG PET/CT scan gave a false-positive impression of malignant transformation. PMID:27556801

  11. Acute effects of radiation therapy on indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake in bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Vega, A.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1989-11-01

    We recently performed ({sup 99m}Tc)MDP bone and {sup 111}In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy on a patient receiving radiation therapy to the lower cervical and upper thoracic spine. While the bone images revealed only minimally increased activity in the radiation port, leukocyte images revealed diffuse, intensely increased uptake in this same region. Radiation therapy should be included in the differential diagnosis of increased bone marrow activity on {sup 111}In leukocyte images.

  12. The Biophysical Characterisation and SAXS Analysis of Human NLRP1 Uncover a New Level of Complexity of NLR Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Luigi; Holland, Louise; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Kunzelmann, Simone; Esposito, Diego

    2016-01-01

    NOD-like receptors represent an important class of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory signalling pathways. They function as danger sensors and initiate inflammatory responses and the production of cytokines. Since NLR malfunction results in chronic inflammation and auto-immune diseases, there is a great interest in understanding how they work on a molecular level. To date, a lot of insight into the biological functions of NLRs is available but biophysical and structural studies have been hampered by the difficulty to produce soluble and stable recombinant NLR proteins. NLRP1 is an inflammasome forming NLR that is believed to be activated by binding to MDP and induces activation of caspase 1. Here, we report the identification of a soluble fragment of NLRP1 that contains the NACHT oligomerization domain and the putative MDP-sensing LRR domain. We describe the biophysical and biochemical characterization of this construct and a SEC-SAXS analysis that allowed the calculation of a low resolution molecular envelope. Our data indicate that the protein is constitutively bound to ATP with a negligible ability to hydrolyse the triphosphate nucleotide and that it adopts a monomeric extended conformation that is reminiscent of the structure adopted by NLRC4 in the inflammasome complex. Furthermore, we show that the presence of MDP is not sufficient to promote self-oligomerization of the NACHT-LRR fragment suggesting that MDP may either bind to regions outside the NACHT-LRR module or that it may not be the natural ligand of NLRP1. Taken together, our data suggest that the NLRP1 mechanism of action differs from that recently reported for other NLRs. PMID:27727326

  13. Activation of nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 exacerbates a murine model of proteoglycan-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, H. L.; Jann, M. M.; Glant, T. T.; Martin, T. M.; Planck, S. R.; van Eden, W.; van Kooten, P. J. S.; Flavell, R. A.; Kobayashi, K. S.; Rosenbaum, J. T.; Davey, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to its role in innate immunity, nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) has been shown to play a suppressive role in models of colitis. Notably, mutations in NOD2 cause the inherited granulomatous disease of the joints called Blau syndrome, thereby linking NOD2 with joint disease as well. However, the role of NOD2 in joint inflammation has not been clarified. We demonstrate here that NOD2 is functional within the mouse joint and promotes inflammation, as locally or systemically administered muramyl dipeptide (MDP; the NOD2 agonist) resulted in significant joint inflammation that was abolished in NOD2-deficient mice. We then sought to investigate the role of NOD2 in a mouse model of inflammatory arthritis dependent on adaptive immunity using TCR-transgenic mice whose T cells recognized the dominant epitope of proteoglycan (PG). Mice immunized with PG in the presence of MDP developed a more severe inflammatory arthritis and histopathology within the joints. Antigen-specific activation of splenocytes was enhanced by MDP with respect to IFN-γ production, which would be consistent with the Th1-mediated disease in vivo. Intriguingly, NOD2 deficiency did not alter the PG-induced arthritis, indicating that NOD2 does not play an essential role in this model of joint disease when it is not activated by MDP. In conclusion, we demonstrate that in a model of inflammatory arthritis dependent on T and B cell priming, NOD2 activation potentiates disease. However, the absence of NOD2 does not alter the course of inflammatory arthritis, in contrast to models of intestinal inflammation. PMID:19129483

  14. Zirconia: cementation of prosthetic restorations. Literature review

    PubMed Central

    GARGARI, M.; GLORIA, F.; NAPOLI, E.; PUJIA, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim of the work Aim of the work was to execute a review of the international literature about the cementation of zirconia restorations, analyzing the properties of the cements most commonly used in clinical activities. Materials and methods It was performed, through PubMed, a bibliographic search on the international literature of the last 10 years using the following limits: studies in English, in vitro studies, randomized clinical trial, reviews, meta-analysis, guide-lines. Were excluded from the search: descriptive studies, case reports, discussion articles, opinion’s leader. Results From studies results that common surface treatments (silanization, acid etching) are ineffective on zirconia because it has an inert surface without glassy component (on which this surface treatments act primarily), instead the sandblasting at 1atm with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) results significantly effective for the resulting roughening that increase the surface energy and the wettability of the material. Furthermore it has been shown that zinc phosphate-based cements, Bis-GMA-based and glass-ionomer cements can’t guarantee a stable long-term adhesion, instead resin cements containing phosphate monomer 10-methacryloyloxyidecyl-dihyidrogenphosphate (MDP) have shown higher adhesion and stability values than the other cements. In particular, it has seen that bond strength of zirconia copings on dentin, using MDP-based cement, is about 6,9MPa; this value is comparable to that obtained with gold copings cementation. Conclusions Analyzed studies have led to the following conclusions: sandblasting with aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is the best surface treatment to improve adhesion between resin cements and zirconia; resin cements containing phosphate ester monomers 10-methacryloyloxyidecyl-dihyidrogenphosphate (MDP) have shown in the studies an higher bond strength and stability after ageing treatment; the best procedure for cementing zirconia restorations results the combination of

  15. The Value of SPECT/CT in Monitoring Prefabricated Tissue-Engineered Bone and Orthotopic rhBMP-2 Implants for Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Miao; Peng, Xin; Mao, Chi; Tian, Jia-he; Zhang, Shu-wen; Xu, Fang; Tu, Jing-jing; Liu, Sheng; Hu, Min; Yu, Guang-yan

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering shows good prospects for mandibular reconstruction. In recent studies, prefabricated tissue-engineered bone (PTEB) by recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs) applied in vivo has found to be an effective alternative for autologous bone grafts. However, the optimal time to transfer PTEB for mandibular reconstruction is still not elucidated. Thus, here in an animal experiment of rhesus monkey, the suitable transferring time for PTEB to reconstruct mandibular defects was evaluated by 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT, and its value in monitoring orthotopic rhBMP-2 implants for mandibular reconstruction was also evaluated. The result of SPECT/CT showed higher 99mTc-MDP uptake, indicating osteoinductivity, in rhBMP-2 incorporated demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) implants than those without BMP stimulation. 99mTc-MDP uptake of rhBMP-2 implant peaked at 8 weeks following implantation while CT showed the density of these implants increased after 13 weeks’ prefabrication. Histology confirmed that mandibular defects were repaired successfully with PTEB or orthotopically rhBMP-2 incorporated CHA implants, in accordance with SPECT/CT findings. Collectively, data shows 99mTc-MDP SPECT/CT is a sensitive and noninvasive tool to monitor osteoinductivity and bone regeneration of PTEB and orthotopic implants. The PTEB achieved peak osteoinductivity and bone density at 8 to 13 weeks following ectopic implantation, which would serve as a recommendable time frame for its transfer to mandibular reconstruction. PMID:26340447

  16. Effect of Heat-Killed Escherichia coli, Lipopolysaccharide, and Muramyl Dipeptide Treatments on the Immune Response Phenotype and Allergy in Neonatal Pigs Sensitized to the Egg White Protein Ovomucoid

    PubMed Central

    Schmied, Julie; Rupa, Prithy; Garvie, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Predisposition to food allergies may reflect a type 2 immune response (IR) bias in neonates due to the intrauterine environment required to maintain pregnancy. The hygiene hypothesis states that lack of early environmental stimulus leading to inappropriate development and bias in IR may also contribute. Here, the ability of heat-killed Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or muramyl dipeptide (MDP) to alter IR bias and subsequent allergic response in neonatal pigs was investigated. Three groups of three litters of pigs (12 pigs/litter) were given intramuscular injections of E. coli, LPS, MDP, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (control) and subsequently sensitized to the egg white allergen ovomucoid using an established protocol. To evaluate change in IR bias, immunoglobulin isotype-associated antibody activity (AbA), concentrations of type 1 and 2 and proinflammatory cytokines released from mitogen-stimulated blood mononuclear cells, and the percentage of T-regulatory cells (T-regs) in blood were measured. Clinical signs of allergy were assessed after oral challenge with egg white. The greatest effect on IR bias was observed in MDP-treated pigs, which had a type 2-biased phenotype by isotype-specific AbA, cytokine production, and a low proportion of T-regs. LPS-treated pigs had decreased type 1- and type 2-associated AbA. E. coli-treated pigs displayed increased response to Ovm as AbA and had more balanced cytokine profiles, as well as the highest proportion of T-regs. Accordingly, pigs treated with MDP were more susceptible to allergy than PBS controls, while pigs treated with LPS were less susceptible. Treatment with E. coli did not significantly alter the frequency of clinical signs. PMID:23081818

  17. Design and synthesis of novel prodrugs of 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidenecytidine activated by membrane dipeptidase overexpressed in tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Kohchi, Yasunori; Hattori, Kazuo; Oikawa, Nobuhiro; Mizuguchi, Eisaku; Isshiki, Yoshiaki; Aso, Kohsuke; Yoshinari, Kiyoshi; Shirai, Haruyoshi; Miwa, Masanori; Inagaki, Yukiko; Ura, Masako; Ogawa, Kotaroh; Okabe, Hisafumi; Ishitsuka, Hideo; Shimma, Nobuo

    2007-04-15

    DNA microarray analysis comparing human tumor tissues with normal tissues including hematopoietic progenitor cells resulted in identification of membrane dipeptidase as a prodrug activation enzyme. Novel prodrugs of 2'-deoxy-2'-methylidenecytidine (DMDC) including compound 23 that are activated by membrane dipeptidase (MDP) preferentially in tumor tissue were designed and synthesized to generate the active drug, DMDC, after hydrolysis of the dipeptide bond followed by spontaneous cyclization of the promoiety.

  18. Sacroiliitis as a sole manifestation of Brucella melitensis infection in a child

    SciTech Connect

    Miron, D.; Garty, I.; Tal, I.; Horovitz, Y.; Kedar, A.

    1987-06-01

    A case of a 12-year-old boy with sacroiliitis documented by positive Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67 scans is described. Isolation of brucella melitensis from the blood and bone marrow established the diagnosis. He responded promptly to docycycline therapy. Throughout the course of his disease this boy had neither fever nor other signs of brucellosis, and x-ray was normal.

  19. Sink filling, inulin metabolizing enzymes and carbohydrate status in field grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    van Arkel, Jeroen; Vergauwen, Rudy; Sévenier, Robert; Hakkert, Johanna C; van Laere, André; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Koops, Andries J; van der Meer, Ingrid M

    2012-10-15

    Inulin is a fructose-based polymer that is isolated from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) taproots. The degree of polymerization (DP) determines its application and hence the value of the crop. The DP is highly dependent on the field conditions and harvest time. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective to understand the regulation of inulin metabolism and the process that determines the chain length and inulin yield throughout the whole growing season. Metabolic aspects of inulin production and degradation in chicory were monitored in the field and under controlled conditions. The following characteristics were determined in taproots: concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose, the inulin mean polymer length (mDP), yield, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in inulin metabolism. Inulin synthesis, catalyzed by sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.100) (1-FFT), started at the onset of taproot development. Inulin yield as a function of time followed a sigmoid curve reaching a maximum in November. Inulin reached a maximum mDP of about 15 in September, than gradually decreased. Based on the changes observed in the pattern of inulin accumulation, we defined three different phases in the growing season and analyzed product formation, enzyme activity and gene expression in these defined periods. The results were validated by performing experiments under controlled conditions in climate rooms. Our results show that the decrease in 1-SST that starts in June is not regulated by day length and temperature. From mid-September onwards, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) decreased gradually although inulin yield still increased. The decrease in mDP combined with increased yield results from fructan exohydrolase activity, induced by low temperature, and the back transfer activity of 1-FFT. Overall, this study provides background information on how to improve

  20. Synergistic effects of NOD1 or NOD2 and TLR4 activation on mouse sickness behavior in relation to immune and brain activity markers.

    PubMed

    Farzi, Aitak; Reichmann, Florian; Meinitzer, Andreas; Mayerhofer, Raphaela; Jain, Piyush; Hassan, Ahmed M; Fröhlich, Esther E; Wagner, Karin; Painsipp, Evelin; Rinner, Beate; Holzer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nuclear-binding domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are sensors of bacterial cell wall components to trigger an immune response. The TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a strong immune activator leading to sickness and depressed mood. NOD agonists are less active but can prime immune cells to augment LPS-induced cytokine production. Since the impact of NOD and TLR co-activation in vivo has been little studied, the effects of the NOD1 agonist FK565 and the NOD2 agonist muramyl dipeptide (MDP), alone and in combination with LPS, on immune activation, brain function and sickness behavior were investigated in male C57BL/6N mice. Intraperitoneal injection of FK565 (0.001 or 0.003mg/kg) or MDP (1 or 3mg/kg) 4h before LPS (0.1 or 0.83mg/kg) significantly aggravated and prolonged the LPS-evoked sickness behavior as deduced from a decrease in locomotion, exploration, food intake and temperature. When given alone, FK565 and MDP had only minor effects. The exacerbation of sickness behavior induced by FK565 or MDP in combination with LPS was paralleled by enhanced plasma protein and cerebral mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) as well as enhanced plasma levels of kynurenine. Immunohistochemical visualization of c-Fos in the brain revealed that NOD2 synergism with TLR4 resulted in increased activation of cerebral nuclei relevant to sickness. These data show that NOD1 or NOD2 synergizes with TLR4 in exacerbating the immune, sickness and brain responses to peripheral immune stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that the known interactions of NLRs and TLRs at the immune cell level extend to interactions affecting brain function and behavior.

  1. Applicability of different scoring systems in outcome prediction of patients with mixed drug poisoning-induced coma

    PubMed Central

    Eizadi Mood, Nastaran; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Khalili-Dehkordi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mixed drugs poisoning (MDP) is common in the emergency departments. Because of the limited number of intensive care unit beds, recognition of risk factors to divide the patients into different survival groups is necessary. Poisoning due to ingestion of different medications may have additive or antagonistic effects on different parameters included in the scoring systems; therefore, the aim of the study was to compare applicability of the different scoring systems in outcomes prediction of patients admitted with MDP-induced coma. Methods: This prospective, observational study included 93 patients with MDP-induced coma. Clinical and laboratory data conforming to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), Modified APACHE II Score (MAS), Mainz Emergency Evaluation Scores (MEES) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were recorded for all patients on admission (time0) and 24 h later (time24). The outcome was recorded in two categories: Survived with or without complication and non-survived. Discrimination was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: The mortality rate was 9.7%. Mean of each scoring system was statistically significant between time0 and time24 in the survivors. However, it was not significant in non-survivors. Discrimination was excellent for GCS24 (0.90±0.05), APACHE II24 (0.89±0.01), MAS24 (0.86±0.10), and APACHE II0 (0.83±0.11) AUC. Conclusion: The GCS24, APACHE II24, MAS24, and APACHE II0 scoring systems seem to predict the outcome in comatose patients due to MDP more accurately. GCS and MAS may have superiority over the others in being easy to perform and not requiring laboratory data. PMID:22223905

  2. Synthesis by-products from the Wacker oxidation of safrole in methanol using rho-benzoquinone and palladium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Klass, G

    2006-12-20

    This paper reports the identification of a number of by-products, which are produced during the Wacker oxidation of safrole to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using rho-benzoquinone and palladium chloride when methanol is utilised as the solvent. Also described is the retrieval of these compounds from illicit samples from a clandestine laboratory, which was uncovered in South Australia in September 2003.

  3. Computerized tomographic determination of spinal bone mineral content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, C. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1980-01-01

    The aims of the study were three-fold: to determine the magnitude of vertebral cancellous mineral loss in normal subjects during bedrest, to compare this loss with calcium balance and mineral loss in peripheral bones, and to use the vertebral measurements as an evaluative criterion for the C12MDP treatment and compare it with other methods. The methods used are described and the results from 14 subjects are presented.

  4. Improving access to oral health care services among underserved populations in the U.S.: is there a role for mid-level dental providers?

    PubMed

    Shaefer, H Luke; Miller, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    Nearly one-third of U.S. citizens lack access to basic preventive and primary oral health care services, which is primarily the result of the high costs of care and the uneven geographic distribution of dental providers. This article examines the case for and against one possible solution to address these barriers to oral health care: the introduction of a mid-level dental provider (MDP) position within the dental field.

  5. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). PMID:26001298

  6. The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons of the community, 1987-2013: From agricultural policy to social inclusion policy?

    PubMed

    Caraher, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The European Union Food Distribution programme for the Most Deprived Persons (MDP) of the community ran from 1987 until 2013. It was funded from Common Agricultural Policy budgets. The programme initially made use of surplus foods from the food mountains resulting from intervention stocks. This food was then distributed through aid agencies within member states, coordinated at a national government level. Reform of the CAP and global rises in food prices resulted in an increase in budget from €300 to €500 million Euros in 2010 with the added power to buy food on the open market. This led to a formal challenge to the scheme on the basis that buying goods on the open market shifted the emphasis from an agricultural/financial basis to a social one. A court ruling found that because the program was no longer used for removing surpluses the link to agriculture policy has become tenuous and therefore had no basis in community law. As a result of this legal challenge a number of policy compromises ensured the MDP would continue until the end of 2013 with a reduced budget. The scheme has been superseded by a new scheme in March 2014 called the Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD). This is seen as a social programme. The way that policy and politics developed and changed the MDP programme are set out. The article tracks its move from being an agricultural policy to a social welfare one. The key policy players and actors in this move are set out as are the changing context and policy frameworks. The replacement of the MDP by FEAD is discussed as is how intensive lobbying in 2012/13 resulted in the development of a new Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD).

  7. Visualization of the liver, gallbladder, and intestine on bone scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Sherkow, L.; Ryo, U.Y.; Fabich, D.; Patel, G.C.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    Images of the liver, gallbladder, and/or intestine were visualized on bone scans on several occasions. Radiopharmaceutical quality control data, including molybdenum-99 and aluminum ion content in the Tc-99m eluate, free unbound Tc-99m, and hydrolyzed reduced Tc-99m in the labeled MDP, were all satisfactory. A minor defect in the quality of the Tc-99m generator was considered to be the probable cause of the unusual localization of the bone imaging agent.

  8. Chemistry of technetium. Elaboration of the mechanism of action of skeletal imaging agents and development of technetium Schiff base complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jurisson, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Tc-99m skeletal imaging agents contain diphosphonate ligands coordinated to a technetium center. To investigate the chemistry of coordinated diphosphonates, complexes of the type ((en)/sub 2/Co(O/sub 2/P(OH)C(R)(R')P(OH)O/sub 2/)/sup n+/ have been synthesized and characterized. The affinities of these species for calcium ion in solution have been determined and found to be dependent on the substituents, R and R', of the diphosphonate moiety. The single crystal X-ray structural determination of ((en)/sub 2/Co(O/sub 2/P(OH)CH/sub 2/P(OH)O/sub 2/)ClO/sub 4/ x 2H/sub 2/O illustrates the configuration of a coordinated diphosphonate in the solid state and allows for the implication of possible binding modes of this species to the calcium ion in solution. A series of Tc(V) complexes containing tetradentate Schiff base ligands (derived from diamines and either acetylacetonates or salicylaldehyde) has been synthesized and characterized. An investigation of the reactivity of the Tc(V)-Schiff base complexes with phosphines led to the development of a series of Tc(III)-Schiff base complexes containing two coordinated phosphine ligands, i.e., tr-(Tc(Schiff base)(PRR')/sub 2/)PF/sub 6/. These complexes show intriguing redox behavior in that they exhibit both reversible Tc(III)/Tc(II) and Tc(III)/Tc(IV) couples. The substituents on the Schiff base and phosphine ligands have significant effects on the redox potentials of the technetium(III) center and on the MTLCT bands observed for these complexes. Those substituents which make the Schiff base and phosphine ligands better sigma donors make the Tc(III) more difficult to reduce to Tc(II) and easier to oxidize to Tc(IV). The relatonship between the energy of the MTLCT band and the E/sup 0/ values for these complexes is linear with slopes to unity, suggesting that the ligands contribute equally to these properties.

  9. Osteopetrosis: radiological & radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis.

  10. Functionalized polymers for binding to solutes in aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.

    2006-11-21

    A functionalized polymer for binding a dissolved molecule in an aqueous solution is presented. The polymer has a backbone polymer to which one or more functional groups are covalently linked. The backbone polymer can be such polymers as polyethylenimine, polyvinylamine, polyallylamine, and polypropylamine. These polymers are generally water-soluble, but can be insoluble when cross-linked. The functional group can be for example diol derivatives, polyol derivatives, thiol and dithiol derivatives, guest-host groups, affinity groups, beta-diphosphonic acids, and beta-diamides

  11. Progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (Engelmann disease): scintigraphic-radiographic-clinical correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, B.; Murphy, W.A.; Whyte, M.P.

    1981-07-01

    Four patients (2 males, 2 females; ages 15-47 yrs.) with variable clinical, radiographic, and scintigraphic manifestations of progressive diaphyseal dysplasia (PDD) or Engelmann disease were studied with 99mTc methylene diphosphonate bone imaging and radiographic skeletal surveys. Comparison of the results of the two imaging procedures showed that some affected bones were scintigraphically normal but radiographically abnormal and vice versa. These findings suggest that the lesions of PDD may mature, causing a significant decrease in disease activity, and that abnormally increased radiopharmaceutical accumulation during bone scintigraphy appears to be a sensitive indicator of disease activity.

  12. Prevention of space flight induced soft tissue calcification and disuse osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor S.; Leblanc, Adrian; Huntoon, Carolyn L.

    1990-01-01

    Medical complications such as renal stone formation, increased uric acid output, and disuse osteoporosis are discussed. A series of experiments was conducted in order to study and eventually reduce these flight hazards. Attempts to prevent the negative calcium balance and loss of calcaneal density during prolonged bed rest had only a limited success. Of the five biochemical regiments tested, only diphosphonate applied in a high dose had a positive effect in elliminating mineral losses. It is found that clodronate can prevent disuse osteoporosis and that fluoride can enhance bone formation. It is concluded that exercises, combined with pharmaceutical agents, are beneficial during long-duration space missions.

  13. Uptake of actinides and other ions by Diphosil, a new silica-based chelating ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; D`Arcy, K.A.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Trochimczuk

    1996-06-01

    After adsorption of actinides on a phosphonic acid resin, it may be desirable to leave the actinides on the resin. It may be preferable that the polymeric resin matrix be replaced by an inorganic material, in order to prevent formation of radiolytic gases from the organic polymer. A new version of the Diphonix resin has been prepared, where the chelating diphosphonic acid groups are grafted to a silica support. This material is called Diphosil, for Diphonix on silica. This paper reports some results on equilibrium and kinetics of uptake of a number of actinide species and other metal ions of nuclear, environmental, or hydrometallurgical interest by Diphosil.

  14. Heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans) and lower-extremity swelling mimicking deep-venous disease

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Rudd, T.G.; Nelp, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    A quadriplegic patient with a swollen leg was suspected of having deep-venous thrombosis, and was studied with radionuclide venography (RNV) and contrast venography. Focal narrowing of the femoral vein, seen on RNV, was due to extrinsic compression. Although soft-tissue radiographs were normal, Tc-99m diphosphonate imaging established the diagnosis of early heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans), which was responsible for the venous compression. Clinically this inflammatory process can mimic deep-venous thrombosis, and should be considered in evaluating patients at risk for both heterotopic bone formation and deep-venous thrombosis.

  15. Immunoadjuvant action of liposomes: comparison with other adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Gregoriadis, G; Panagiotidi, C

    1989-02-01

    Dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV liposomes) composed of equimolar phospholipid and cholesterol and containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used together with free BSA to immunize Balb/C mice. Primary and secondary immune responses (IgG1) to the liposomal antigen, as measured by ELISA in mouse sera, were similar for egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and distearoyl phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) DRV, and much greater than those elicited by free BSA. The adjuvanticity of PC DRV was compared with that of aluminium salts (alum), complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and N-acetyl muramyl-L-threonyl-D-isoglutamine ([Thr1]MDP), the latter used as such or in a liposome form co-entrapped with the antigen. DRV (with or without co-entrapped [Thr1]MDP), and alum were equally strong in producing primary and secondary immune responses (IgG1) to BSA. Such responses were significantly higher than those achieved with CFA and [Thr1]MDP alone. The implications of these results for the potential role of liposomes as immunological adjuvants in vaccines are discussed. PMID:2714847

  16. Multimodal brain-tumor segmentation based on Dirichlet process mixture model with anisotropic diffusion and Markov random field prior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use.

  17. Ag85A DNA Vaccine Delivery by Nanoparticles: Influence of the Formulation Characteristics on Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Poecheim, Johanna; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Collin, Nicolas; Borchard, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The influence of DNA vaccine formulations on immune responses in combination with adjuvants was investigated with the aim to increase cell-mediated immunity against plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A. Different ratios of pDNA with cationic trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology and physicochemical characteristics (size, zeta potential, loading efficiency and pDNA release profile) applied in vitro for cellular uptake studies and in vivo, to determine the dose-dependent effects of pDNA on immune responses. A selected pDNA/TMC nanoparticle formulation was optimized by the incorporation of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as an immunostimulatory agent. Cellular uptake investigations in vitro showed saturation to a maximum level upon the increase in the pDNA/TMC nanoparticle ratio, correlating with increasing Th1-related antibody responses up to a definite pDNA dose applied. Moreover, TMC nanoparticles induced clear polarization towards a Th1 response, indicated by IgG2c/IgG1 ratios above unity and enhanced numbers of antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T-cells in the spleen. Remarkably, the incorporation of MDP in TMC nanoparticles provoked a significant additional increase in T-cell-mediated responses induced by pDNA. In conclusion, pDNA-loaded TMC nanoparticles are capable of provoking strong Th1-type cellular and humoral immune responses, with the potential to be further optimized by the incorporation of MDP. PMID:27626449

  18. Relationships between Degree of Polymerization and Antioxidant Activities: A Study on Proanthocyanidins from the Leaves of a Medicinal Mangrove Plant Ceriops tagal

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Chao; Tam, Nora Fung-yee; Lin, Yi-Ming; Ding, Zhen-Hua; Chai, Wei-Ming; Wei, Shu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Tannins from the leaves of a medicinal mangrove plant, Ceriops tagal, were purified and fractionated on Sephadex LH-20 columns. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), reversed/normal high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDT-TOF MS) analysis showed that the tannins were predominantly B-type procyanidins with minor A-type linkages, galloyl and glucosyl substitutions, and a degree of polymerization (DP) up to 33. Thirteen subfractions of the procyanidins were successfully obtained by a modified fractionation method, and their antioxidant activities were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method. All these subfractions exhibited potent antioxidant activities, and eleven of them showed significantly different mean DP (mDP) ranging from 1.43±0.04 to 31.77±1.15. Regression analysis demonstrated that antioxidant activities were positively correlative with mDP when around mDP <10, while dropped and then remained at a level similar to mDP = 5 with around 95 µg ml−1 for DPPH scavenging activity and 4 mmol AAE g−1 for FRAP value. PMID:25313980

  19. Squalene and squalane emulsions as adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Allison, A C

    1999-09-01

    Microfluidized squalene or squalane emulsions are efficient adjuvants, eliciting both humoral and cellular immune responses. Microfluidization stabilizes the emulsions and allows sterilization by terminal filtration. The emulsions are stable for years at ambient temperature and can be frozen. Antigens are added after emulsification so that conformational epitopes are not lost by denaturation and to facilitate manufacture. A Pluronic block copolymer can be added to the squalane or squalene emulsion. Soluble antigens administered in such emulsions generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes able to lyse target cells expressing the antigen in a genetically restricted fashion. Optionally a relatively nontoxic analog of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or another immunomodulator can be added; however, the dose of MDP must be restricted to avoid systemic side effects in humans. Squalene or squalane emulsions without copolymers or MDP have very little toxicity and elicit potent antibody responses to several antigens in nonhuman primates. They could be used to improve a wide range of vaccines. Squalene or squalane emulsions have been administered in human cancer vaccines, with mild side effects and evidence of efficacy, in terms of both immune responses and antitumor activity.

  20. Direct and simultaneous quantification of tannin mean degree of polymerization and percentage of galloylation in grape seeds using diffuse reflectance fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christos; Kyraleou, Maria; Voskidi, Eleni; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Taranilis, Petros A; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2015-02-01

    The direct and simultaneous quantitative determination of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the degree of galloylation (%G) in grape seeds were quantified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). The results were compared with those obtained using the conventional analysis employing phloroglucinolysis as pretreatment followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV and mass spectrometry detection. Infrared spectra were recorded in solid state samples after freeze drying. The 2nd derivative of the 1832 to 1416 and 918 to 739 cm(-1) spectral regions for the quantification of mDP, the 2nd derivative of the 1813 to 607 cm(-1) spectral region for the degree of %G determination and PLS regression were used. The determination coefficients (R(2) ) of mDP and %G were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding values of the root-mean-square error of calibration were found 0.506 and 0.692, the root-mean-square error of cross validation 0.811 and 0.921, and the root-mean-square error of prediction 0.612 and 0.801. The proposed method in comparison with the conventional method is simpler, less time consuming, more economical, and requires reduced quantities of chemical reagents and fewer sample pretreatment steps. It could be a starting point for the design of more specific models according to the requirements of the wineries. PMID:25588697

  1. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2) to 17.31 (fraction F11). There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP) and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038), respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9) was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11). PMID:21541049

  2. Multimodal brain-tumor segmentation based on Dirichlet process mixture model with anisotropic diffusion and Markov random field prior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use. PMID:25254064

  3. Optimal Navigation of Self-Propelled Colloids in Microstructured Mazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuguang; Bevan, Michael

    Controlling navigation of self-propelled microscopic `robots' subject to random Brownian motion in complex microstructured environments (e.g., porous media, tumor vasculature) is important to many emerging applications (e.g., enhanced oil recovery, drug delivery). In this work, we design an optimal feedback policy to navigate an active self-propelled colloidal rod in complex mazes with various obstacle types. Actuation of the rods is modelled based on a light-controlled osmotic flow mechanism, which produces different propulsion velocities along the rod's long axis. Actuator-parameterized Langevin equations, with soft rod-obstacle repulsive interactions, are developed to describe the system dynamics. A Markov decision process (MDP) framework is used for optimal policy calculations with design goals of colloidal rods reaching target end points in minimum time. Simulations show that optimal MDP-based policies are able to control rod trajectories to reach target regions order-of-magnitudes faster than uncontrolled rods, which diverges as maze complexity increases. An efficient multi-graph based implementation for MDP is also presented, which scales linearly with the maze dimension.

  4. Efficient Pseudorandom-Function Modes of a Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Shoichi; Kuwakado, Hidenori

    This article discusses the provable security of pseudo-random-function (PRF) modes of an iterated hash function using a block cipher. The iterated hash function uses the Matyas-Meyer-Oseas (MMO) mode for the compression function and the Merkle-Damgård with a permutation (MDP) for the domain extension transform. It is shown that the keyed-via-IV mode and the key-prefix mode of the iterated hash function are pseudorandom functions if the underlying block cipher is a pseudorandom permutation under a related-key attack with respect to the permutation used in MDP. More precisely, the key-prefix mode also requires that EIV(K) ⊕ K is pseudoramdom, where E is the underlying block cipher, IV is the fixed initial value of the hash function, and K is a secret key. It is also confirmed that the MMO compression function is the best choice with MDP among the block-cipher-based compression functions in the Preneel-Govaerts-Vandewalle model in terms of the provable security.

  5. A public-private partnership for malaria control: lessons from the Malarone Donation Programme.

    PubMed Central

    Oyediran, A. B. O. Olukayode; Ddumba, Edward M.; Ochola, Samuel A.; Lucas, Adetokunbo O.; Koporc, Kim; Dowdle, Walter R.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, Glaxo Wellcome offered to donate up to a million treatment courses annually of Malarone, a new antimalarial, with a view to reducing the global burden of malaria. The Malarone Donation Programme (MDP) was established the following year. Eight pilot sites were selected in Kenya and Uganda to develop and evaluate an effective, locally sustainable donation strategy that ensured controlled and appropriate use of Malarone. The pilot programme targeted individuals who had acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria that had not responded to first-line treatments with chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Of the 161 079 patients clinically diagnosed at the pilot sites as having malaria, 1101 (0.68%) met all the conditions for participation and received directly observed treatment with Malarone. MDP had a positive effect at the pilot sites by improving the diagnosis and management of malaria. However, the provision of Malarone as a second-line drug at the district hospital level was not an efficient and effective use of resources. The number of deaths among children and adults ineligible for MDP at the pilot sites suggested that high priority should be given to meeting the challenges of malaria treatment at the community level. PMID:12471403

  6. The use of SPECT to evaluate growth cessation of the mandible in unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pripatnanont, P; Vittayakittipong, P; Markmanee, U; Thongmak, S; Yipintsoi, T

    2005-06-01

    In unilateral condylar hyperplasia, for surgical intervention to be effective, the status of condylar bone growth has to be assessed correctly. Previously this assessment relied on serial clinical observations. This study aimed to evaluate the MDP-SPECT method of assessing condylar growth in unilateral condylar hyperplasia. Twenty-six MDP-SPECT of the mandible had been performed; 21 were diagnosed as condylar hyperplasia and five as non-mandibular disease. Three isotope parameters: isotope counts, pixel counts and counts per pixel were summed for each condyle per subject. The percentage difference in isotope uptake of the three parameters between the two condyles was calculated as the ratio of the combined counts of the two sides. These differences significantly correlated with each other (Pearson r=0.78-0.98) and with the clinical status of bone growth (Spearman rho=0.72-0.86). There was a significant difference for the count per pixel between the 'growing' condyle (transaxial, T: 15.05+/-7.14, coronal, C: 12.29+/-7.88), the 'no further growth' condyle (T: 5.22+/-4.08, C: 5.67+/-3.88) and the 'normal' condyle (T: 0.82+/-0.76, C: 1.34+/-0.66). This method was able to separate 'active growth' from 'growth cessation' of the condyle by a single MDP-SPECT of the mandible. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:16053843

  7. Enhanced Component Performance Study: Motor-Driven Pumps 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an enhanced performance evaluation of motor-driven valves (MDPs) at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The data used in this study are based on the operating experience failure reports from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for the component reliability as reported in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The MDP failure modes considered for standby systems are failure to start, failure to run less than or equal to 1 hour, and failure to run more than 1 hour; for normally running systems, the failure modes considered are failure to start and failure to run. An 8 hr unreliability estimate is also calculated and trended. The component reliability estimates and the reliability data are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for reliability are provided for the entire active period. One statistically significant increasing trend was identified in the MDP results for standby MDP run hours per reactor critical year. Statistically significant decreasing trends were identified for unreliability (for standby and normally running systems) frequency of failure-to-start events for standby systems and failure probability for standby systems.

  8. Direct and simultaneous quantification of tannin mean degree of polymerization and percentage of galloylation in grape seeds using diffuse reflectance fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christos; Kyraleou, Maria; Voskidi, Eleni; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Taranilis, Petros A; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2015-02-01

    The direct and simultaneous quantitative determination of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the degree of galloylation (%G) in grape seeds were quantified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). The results were compared with those obtained using the conventional analysis employing phloroglucinolysis as pretreatment followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV and mass spectrometry detection. Infrared spectra were recorded in solid state samples after freeze drying. The 2nd derivative of the 1832 to 1416 and 918 to 739 cm(-1) spectral regions for the quantification of mDP, the 2nd derivative of the 1813 to 607 cm(-1) spectral region for the degree of %G determination and PLS regression were used. The determination coefficients (R(2) ) of mDP and %G were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding values of the root-mean-square error of calibration were found 0.506 and 0.692, the root-mean-square error of cross validation 0.811 and 0.921, and the root-mean-square error of prediction 0.612 and 0.801. The proposed method in comparison with the conventional method is simpler, less time consuming, more economical, and requires reduced quantities of chemical reagents and fewer sample pretreatment steps. It could be a starting point for the design of more specific models according to the requirements of the wineries.

  9. Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis: diagnostic value of radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Adatepe, M.H.; Powell, O.M.; Isaacs, G.H.; Nichols, K.; Cefola, R.

    1986-11-01

    Hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (HPVO) continues to be a diagnostic problem for clinicians due to nonspecific presentation of the disease (1,2). We reviewed our experience of the last 10 years to determine the diagnostic usefulness of radionuclide bone studies in this disease. We found 15 patients whose primary diagnosis was HPVO. Of the 15 patients, 12 had (99mTc)MDP bone scans which were all positive. Five of the 12 patients had positive (/sup 67/Ga)citrate scans and one patient with chronic active HPVO had negative /sup 67/Ga and (/sup 111/In)WBC bone images. At the same time, three patients' spine x-rays and one patient's CT scan of the vertebra were normal. Additionally, in three patients spine x-rays were interpreted as consistent with degenerative joint disease that contributed to the delay of the diagnosis. We conclude that when HPVO is suspected an abnormal (99mTc)MDP bone image increases the probability of the disease, even if the x-rays and CT scans of the spine are normal. An abnormal /sup 67/Ga image following an abnormal 99mTc bone image increases the specificity of the diagnosis. Normal (99mTc)MDP and (/sup 67/Ga)citrate bone images of the vertebra virtually exclude the diagnosis of HPVO.

  10. Multimodal Brain-Tumor Segmentation Based on Dirichlet Process Mixture Model with Anisotropic Diffusion and Markov Random Field Prior

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wufan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use. PMID:25254064

  11. Immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G responses in BALB/c mice to conjugated outer membrane extracts of four Salmonella serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Kudrna, D A; Teresa, G W; Arnzen, J M; Beard, K S

    1985-01-01

    Outer membranes (OMs) of Salmonella enteritidis, S. anatum, S. typhimurium, and S. infantis were extracted and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to form a large macromolecular antigen. The antigen consisted of OM proteins and lipopolysaccharide and was designated 4-OMP-LPS. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracted OMs from each serotype revealed differences in protein profiles. S. enteritidis and S. infantis possessed a greater variety of proteins than did S. anatum and S. typhimurium. Immunizations with 4-OMP-LPS in phosphate-buffered saline (4-OMP-LPS-C) and 4-OMP-LPS emulsified with muramyl dipeptide in the oil phase of a hexadecane-water emulsion (4-OMP-LPS-MDP) revealed that BALB/c mice were capable of eliciting specific primary and secondary immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG responses. Both antigen preparations were capable of eliciting IgM and IgG specific for the cell surfaces of each live Salmonella serotype. Also, 4-OMP-LPS-MDP and 4-OMP-LPS-C were capable of evoking a substantial anamnestic response. Adsorption studies revealed that the combined serotypes had the antigenic capacity to adsorb up to 94% of the antibodies, but 4-OMP-LPS-MDP antibodies were more effectively adsorbed than were 4-OMP-LPS-C antibodies. Adsorption of pooled antiserum with heterologous bacteria yielded a variety of adsorption profiles. PMID:4030094

  12. The modulation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 alpha and glucose levels with GMDP and other analogues of muramyl dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, T A; Moreno, C; Ivanyi, J; Aston, R

    1994-02-01

    Immunomodulatory agent muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and seven of its analogues were tested for ability to counteract the toxic actions of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in experimental mouse models. Female BALB/c mice were presensitized with Corynebacterium parvum (P. acnes) and given MDP or equimolar doses of one of its analogues after 2 weeks, followed by intravenous challenge with LPS 18 h later. This treatment produced a sharp increase in blood cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha) levels 4 h after LPS administration followed by a decline to control values after 6 h. Four analogues, GMDP, threonylMDP, GMDPBenz and GMDPOBut, were able to reduce the level of cytokines induced with LPS. For most of the analogues, the higher doses reduced the levels of TNF-alpha but slightly increased the concomitant IL-1 alpha levels. GMDP was the most effective compound tested in terms of reduction of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha levels, as well as for reduction of the hypoglycaemia caused by the administration of LPS. PMID:8167010

  13. Ag85A DNA Vaccine Delivery by Nanoparticles: Influence of the Formulation Characteristics on Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Poecheim, Johanna; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Collin, Nicolas; Borchard, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The influence of DNA vaccine formulations on immune responses in combination with adjuvants was investigated with the aim to increase cell-mediated immunity against plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85A. Different ratios of pDNA with cationic trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles were characterized for their morphology and physicochemical characteristics (size, zeta potential, loading efficiency and pDNA release profile) applied in vitro for cellular uptake studies and in vivo, to determine the dose-dependent effects of pDNA on immune responses. A selected pDNA/TMC nanoparticle formulation was optimized by the incorporation of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as an immunostimulatory agent. Cellular uptake investigations in vitro showed saturation to a maximum level upon the increase in the pDNA/TMC nanoparticle ratio, correlating with increasing Th1-related antibody responses up to a definite pDNA dose applied. Moreover, TMC nanoparticles induced clear polarization towards a Th1 response, indicated by IgG2c/IgG1 ratios above unity and enhanced numbers of antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T-cells in the spleen. Remarkably, the incorporation of MDP in TMC nanoparticles provoked a significant additional increase in T-cell-mediated responses induced by pDNA. In conclusion, pDNA-loaded TMC nanoparticles are capable of provoking strong Th1-type cellular and humoral immune responses, with the potential to be further optimized by the incorporation of MDP. PMID:27626449

  14. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist delivered directly and by gene therapy inhibits matrix degradation in the intact degenerate human intervertebral disc: an in situ zymographic and gene therapy study

    PubMed Central

    Le Maitre, Christine L; Hoyland, Judith A; Freemont, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Data implicate IL-1 in the altered matrix biology that characterizes human intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. In the current study we investigated the enzymic mechanism by which IL-1 induces matrix degradation in degeneration of the human IVD, and whether the IL-1 inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) will inhibit degradation. A combination of in situ zymography (ISZ) and immunohistochemistry was used to examine the effects of IL-1 and IL-1Ra on matrix degradation and metal-dependent protease (MDP) expression in explants of non-degenerate and degenerate human IVDs. ISZ employed three substrates (gelatin, collagen, casein) and different challenges (IL-1β, IL-1Ra and enzyme inhibitors). Immunohistochemistry was undertaken for MDPs. In addition, IL-1Ra was introduced into degenerate IVD explants using genetically engineered constructs. The novel findings from this study are: IL-1Ra delivered directly onto explants of degenerate IVDs eliminates matrix degradation as assessed by multi-substrate ISZ; there is a direct relationship between matrix degradation assessed by ISZ and MDP expression defined by immunohistochemistry; single injections of IVD cells engineered to over-express IL-1Ra significantly inhibit MDP expression for two weeks. Our findings show that IL-1 is a key cytokine driving matrix degradation in the degenerate IVD. Furthermore, IL-1Ra delivered directly or by gene therapy inhibits IVD matrix degradation. IL-1Ra could be used therapeutically to inhibit degeneration of the IVD. PMID:17760968

  15. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  16. Control of IgE responses. 4. Isotype-specific suppression of peak BPO-specific IgE antibody-forming cell responses and of BPO-specific IgE in serum by muramyldipeptide or murabutide after administration to mice by gavage.

    PubMed

    Auci, D L; Carucci, J A; Chice, S M; Smith, M C; Dukor, P; Durkin, H G

    1993-01-01

    Muramyldipeptide (MDP) and murabutide (MB) suppressed hapten-specific IgE antibody-forming cell (AFC) responses in vivo. IgE responses were induced in BALB/c mice by intraperitoneal injection with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) (10 micrograms) in aluminum hydroxide gel (Alum) on days 0, 21 and 42. On day 44, mice were fed (gavage) or injected subcutaneously with varying concentrations of MDP or MB (0.1-500 mg/kg). The mice were killed on days 45-70, and the numbers of BPO-specific IgM, IgG1, IgE, and IgA AFC in various lymphoid organs were determined in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. In addition, levels of BPO-specific IgE in serum were determined by ELISA. Data are expressed as AFC/10(7) cells or as micrograms/ml. Feeding with MDP or MB on day 44 suppressed BPO-specific IgE AFC responses and serum levels of BPO-specific IgE within 48 h (day 46) (65-100% and approximately 50% decrease, respectively). With both molecules, the suppression was IgE isotype-specific, dose-dependent and transient. The suppression was also route-specific since it was obtained only when MDP or MB were given by gavage, and not when injected subcutaneously. These results show that peak antigen-specific IgE responses can be downregulated in vivo, in isotype-specific fashion, by a clearly defined class of molecules, MDP and MB, one of which, MB, is a candidate for clinical studies in man. The mechanism of suppression probably involves the modulation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and mucosal immunity. The clinical implications are that pharmacologic agents of this type may be suitable for use in the therapeutic or prophylactic downregulation of IgE and, hence, in the therapy of IgE-mediated diseases in man such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, and other atopic diseases.

  17. Heat treatment of pre-hydrolyzed silane increases adhesion of phosphate monomer-based resin cement to glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rodrigo Furtado; Cotes, Caroline; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Leite, Fabíola Pessoa Pereira; Özcan, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different forms of heat treatment on a pre-hydrolyzed silane to improve the adhesion of phosphate monomer-based (MDP) resin cement to glass ceramic. Resin and feldspathic ceramic blocks (n=48, n=6 for bond test, n=2 for microscopy) were randomly divided into 6 groups and subject to surface treatments: G1: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + MDP resin cement (Panavia F); G2: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G3: Silane + Heat Treatment (oven) + Panavia F; G4: HF 9.6% for 20 s + Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G5: Silane + Heat Treatment (hot air) + Panavia F; G6: Silane + Panavia F. Microtensile bond strength (MTBS) test was performed using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). After debonding, the substrate and adherent surfaces were analyzed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to categorize the failure types. Data were analyzed statistically using two-way test ANOVA and Tukey's test (=0.05). Heat treatment of the silane containing MDP, with prior etching with HF (G2: 13.15 ± 0.89a; G4: 12.58 ± 1.03a) presented significantly higher bond strength values than the control group (G1: 9.16 ± 0.64b). The groups without prior etching (G3: 10.47 ± 0.70b; G5: 9.47 ± 0.32b) showed statistically similar bond strength values between them and the control group (G1). The silane application without prior etching and heat treatment resulted in the lowest mean bond strength (G6: 8.05 ± 0.37c). SEM analysis showed predominantly adhesive failures and EDS analysis showed common elements of spectra (Si, Na, Al, K, O, C) characterizing the microstructure of the glass-ceramic studied. Heat treatment of the pre-hydrolyzed silane containing MDP in an oven at 100 °C for 2 min or with hot air application at 50 ± 5 ºC for 1 min, was effective in increasing the bond strength values between the ceramic and resin cement containing MDP.

  18. Properties of inorganic pyrophosphatase of pig scapula cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Felix, R; Fleisch, H

    1975-01-01

    The properties of a highly purified inorganic pyrophosphatase (pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase; EC 3.6.1.1) from pig scapula cartilage were studied. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 66 000 and a pH optimum of 7-8. It was markedly activated by magnesium, but not, or only to a much smaller degree, by other metal ions. PP1 was the only substrate found and had a Km value of 11 muM. The enzyme was not inhibited by phosphate and other inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase such as CN- minus, amino acids and theophylline; it was slightly inhibited by tartrate, formaldehyde and ammonium molybdate and strongly inhibited by F- minus, Ca2+ and other metal ions. The properties of the enzyme in the presence of concentrations of PP1 present in plasma (3.5 muM) were similar to those found at higher (2 mM) concentrations of PP1. The diphosphonates ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and dichloromethylenediphosphonate inhibited the enzyme in the presence of low PP1 concentrations. The characteristics of this enzyme are therefore similar to pyrophosphatases from other sources, such as from yeast and erythrocytes, and do not support a specific role of this enzyme in the calcification process. PMID:239696

  19. Actinide recovery method -- Large soil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell , S.L. III

    2000-04-25

    There is a need to measure actinides in environmental samples with lower and lower detection limits, requiring larger sample sizes. This analysis is adversely affected by sample-matrix interferences, which make analyzing soil samples above five-grams very difficult. A new Actinide-Recovery Method has been developed by the Savannah River Site Central Laboratory to preconcentrate actinides from large-soil samples. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), a 1994 R and D 100 winner, is used to preconcentrate the actinides from large soil samples, which are bound powerfully to the resin's diphosphonic acid groups. A rapid microwave-digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively eliminates interfering matrix components from the soil matrix. The microwave-digestion technique is more effective and less tedious than catalyzed hydrogen peroxide digestions of the resin or digestion of diphosphonic stripping agents such as HEDPA. After resin digestion, the actinides are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid which can be loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, such as TEVA Resin, U-TEVA Resin or TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). Small, selective extraction columns do not generate large volumes of liquid waste and provide consistent tracer recoveries after soil matrix elimination.

  20. Diphonix{trademark} Resin: A review of its properties and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gula, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The recently developed Diphonix{trademark} resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. It has potential applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. Influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results studies on the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions.

  1. Effect of the high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Shim, S.S.; Leung, G.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was done to study the effects of high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip and to further our knowledge of its physiologic basis. We have used established methods of study, including bone scans, microangiography, isotope clearance and perosseous venography, and based upon the results of these studies, we have reached certain conclusions. First, high femoral osteotomy increases the blood flow and vascularity in the hip joint, the femoral head and neck and the great trochanter. Second, bone scanning techniques using /sup 99m/Tc labeled diphosphonate have shown increased uptake in the femoral head and neck after high femoral osteotomy. The localization was done using a Digital Gamma III computer, and the activity on the osteotomy side at two weeks was 3.5 times as great as on the control side. By 16 weeks postoperatively, there was still two times as much activity on the osteotomy side. Third, microangiography showed increased vascularity both at the osteotomy site and in the femoral head and neck and the greater trochanter on that side. Such an increase in vascularity first became evident two weeks after osteotomy and persisted during the four month period studied. Fourth, the results of the /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate clearance study showed a 25 per cent increase in femoral head blood flow on the operative side. Fifth, perosseous venography of the femoral head and neck showed a marked increase in venous drainage through the osteotomy site in the immediate postosteotomy stage.

  2. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  3. Reactivity of a New Zirconium Phosphonate Phase, Zr 2(O 3P-CH 2CH 2-bipyridinium-CH 2CH 2-PO 3) X6·2H 2O, Toward Organic and Inorganic Monophosphonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Lori A.; Burgmeyer, Scott J.

    1999-11-01

    We report that zirconium viologen diphosphonate, (Zr2(O3P-CH2CH2-bipyridinium-CH2CH2-PO3)X6·2H2O), where X=halide ion, ZrVP, will react with a variety of phosphonates (H2O3P-R, where R=OH, H, CH3, C6H5) under mild conditions, producing a disordered porous phase. This is in sharp contrast to the observed reactivity of the more common zirconium phosphonate phases: the α-phase group (IVB) layered phosphonates Zr(O3PR)2 (whose structures are based upon α-(Zr(O3POH)2·H2O), α-ZrP) are resistant to reaction with monophosphonates while γ-Zr(O4P)(O2P(OH)2)·2H2O, γ-ZrP, undergoes topotactic ligand exchange with mono- and di-phosphonates to form ordered porous materials. We follow the reaction by X-ray powder diffraction and IR and UV spectroscopies and investigate the porous nature of the resulting solids through ion-exchange and N2 adsorption experiments.

  4. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated from Fresh Produce Marketed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Shanker P; Wang, Hua; Adams, Jennifer K; Feng, Peter C H

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella continues to rank as one of the most costly foodborne pathogens, and more illnesses are now associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Microbiological Data Program (MDP) sampled select commodities of fresh fruit and vegetables and tested them for Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria. The Salmonella strains isolated were further characterized by serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. This article summarizes the Salmonella data collected by the MDP between 2002 and 2012. The results show that the rates of Salmonella prevalence ranged from absent to 0.34% in cilantro. A total of 152 isolates consisting of over 50 different serotypes were isolated from the various produce types, and the top five were Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana, S. enterica subspecies arizonae (subsp. IIIa) and diarizonae (subsp. IIIb), and S. enterica serotypes Newport, Javiana, and Infantis. Among these, Salmonella serotypes Newport and Javiana are also listed among the top five Salmonella serotypes that caused most foodborne outbreaks. Other serotypes that are frequent causes of infection, such as S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were also found in fresh produce but were not prevalent. About 25% of the MDP samples were imported produce, including 65% of green onions, 44% of tomatoes, 42% of hot peppers, and 41% of cantaloupes. However, imported produce did not show higher numbers of Salmonella-positive samples, and in some products, like cilantro, all of the Salmonella isolates were from domestic samples. About 6.5% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to the antimicrobial compounds tested, but no single commodity or serotype was found to be the most common carrier of resistant strains or of resistance. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the produce isolates showed similarities with Salmonella isolates from meat samples and from outbreaks, but

  5. α-Tocopherols modify the membrane dipole potential leading to modulation of ligand binding by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sterenn; Davis, Benjamin M; Richens, Joanna L; Vere, Kelly-Ann; Petrov, Peter G; Winlove, C Peter; O'Shea, Paul

    2015-08-01

    α-Tocopherol (vitamin E) has attracted considerable attention as a potential protective or palliative agent. In vitro, its free radical-scavenging antioxidant action has been widely demonstrated. In vivo, however, vitamin E treatment exhibits negligible benefits against oxidative stress. α-Tocopherol influences lipid ordering within biological membranes and its derivatives have been suggested to inhibit the multi-drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This study employs the fluorescent membrane probe, 1-(3-sulfonatopropyl)-4-[β[2-(di-n-octylamino)-6-naphthyl]vinyl] pyridinium betaine, to investigate whether these effects are connected via influences on the membrane dipole potential (MDP), an intrinsic property of biological membranes previously demonstrated to modulate P-gp activity. α-Tocopherol and its non-free radical-scavenging succinate analog induced similar decreases in the MDP of phosphatidylcholine vesicles. α-Tocopherol succinate also reduced the MDP of T-lymphocytes, subsequently decreasing the binding affinity of saquinavir for P-gp. Additionally, α-tocopherol succinate demonstrated a preference for cholesterol-treated (membrane microdomain enriched) cells over membrane cholesterol-depleted cells. Microdomain disruption via cholesterol depletion decreased saquinavir's affinity for P-gp, potentially implicating these structures in the influence of α-tocopherol succinate on P-gp. This study provides evidence of a microdomain dipole potential-dependent mechanism by which α-tocopherol analogs influence P-gp activity. These findings have implications for the use of α-tocopherol derivatives for drug delivery across biological barriers.

  6. Identification of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine analogs encountered in clandestine tablets.

    PubMed

    Furnari, C; Ottaviano, V; Rosati, F; Tondi, V

    1998-03-01

    Recently, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine derivatives have been encountered in the Italian illicit market, mainly in form of tablets. Among this class of substances small modifications of the molecule may result in a wide range of derivatives and analogs some of which are not yet listed as controlled substances in the Italian schedules. Due to the structural similarity some of these molecules have a gas chromatographic behavior and mass spectra that only slightly differ. In the present work, an analytical strategy is proposed to achieve the identification of analogs within this class of molecules. In seized material sent by the Court of Law of Rome to our laboratories a number of tablets engraved with different symbols (e.g., 'Dollar', 'Fido Dido' and 'Bomb') were submitted to analysis in order to establish whether they contained drugs of abuse. The analytical techniques employed for this purpose were UV spectrophotometry and thin-layer chromatography which provided information suggesting that the tablets contained a methylenedioxyamphetamine. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection indicated that the main ingredient differed from the molecules of the same class already known. Finally, capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the native molecules and their pentafluoropropionic acid derivatives, performed with both, electron impact and chemical ionization, allowed the identification, in each tablet, of three molecules: the N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MDP-2-MB, MBDB), the 1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MDP-2-B) and the N,N-dimethyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MDP-2-MMB). PMID:9627975

  7. Human Fetal Membranes Generate Distinct Cytokine Profiles in Response to Bacterial Toll-Like Receptor and Nod-Like Receptor Agonists1

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Mai; Potter, Julie A.; Gysler, Stefan M.; Han, Christina S.; Guller, Seth; Norwitz, Errol R.; Abrahams, Vikki M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial infection-associated inflammation is thought to be a major cause of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1B (IL1B), can weaken fetal membranes (FM) by upregulating matrix metalloproteinases and inducing apoptosis. The mechanism by which infection leads to inflammation at the maternal–fetal interface and subsequent preterm birth is thought to involve innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRR), such as the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and Nod-like receptors (NLR), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The objective of this study was to determine the cytokine profile generated by FMs in response to the bacterial TLR and NLR agonists peptidoglycan (PDG; TLR2), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; TLR4), flagellin (TLR5), CpG ODN (TLR9), iE-DAP (Nod1), and MDP (Nod2). PDG, LPS, flagellin, iE-DAP, and MDP triggered FMs to generate an inflammatory response, but the cytokine profiles were distinct for each TLR and NLR agonist, and only IL1B and RANTES were commonly upregulated in response to all five PAMPs. CpG ODN, in contrast, had a mild stimulatory effect only on MCP-1 and primarily downregulated basal FM cytokine production. IL1B secretion induced by PDG, LPS, flagellin, iE-DAP, and MDP was associated with its processing. Furthermore, FM IL1B secretion in response to TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 activation was caspase 1-dependent, whereas Nod1 and Nod2 induced IL1B secretion independent of caspase 1. These findings demonstrate that FMs respond to different bacterial TLR and NLR PAMPs by generating distinct inflammatory cytokine profiles through distinct mechanisms that are specific to the innate immune PRR activated. PMID:24429216

  8. Bond strength to high-crystalline content zirconia after different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Grace M Dias; Silva, Nelson R F A; Paulillo, Luis A M S; De Goes, Mario F; Rekow, E Dianne; Thompson, Van P

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of primers, luting systems and aging on bond strength to zirconium oxide substrates. Eighteen zirconia discs (19.5 x 4 mm) were polished and treated (n = 3) either with a MDP primer (Md) or with a MDP and VBATDT primer (MV). In the control group (n = 3) no surface chemical treatment was performed. Zirconia specimens were cemented to prepolymerized composite discs utilizing resin cements - RelyX Unicem or Panavia 21 (RU and Pa, respectively). After 24 h, samples were sectioned for microtensile testing and returned to water at 37 degrees C for two different periods before being tested: 72 h or 60 days + thermocycling (5-55 degrees C/5000 cycles). Bond strength testing was performed at 1 mm/min. Values in MPa were analyzed through ANOVA and Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) (p > 0.05). The application of MV primer resulted in the highest bond strength (22.77 MPa), statistically superior to Md primer (12.78 MPa), and control groups presented the lowest values (9.17 MPa). When luting systems were compared, RU promoted the highest bond strength (16.07 MPa) in comparison with Pa (13.75 MPa). The average bond strength decrease after aging (9.35 MPa) when compared with initial values (20.46 MPa). The results presented by this in vitro study suggest that a chemical surface treatment based on the MDP and VBATDT combination may improve bond strength between zirconia and luting system, without any previous mechanical treatment, depending on the luting system used. This chemical treatment may result in a reliable alternative to achieve adequate and durable bond strength.

  9. Hierarchical approximate policy iteration with binary-tree state space decomposition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Liu, Chunming; Yang, Simon X; Hu, Dewen

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, approximate policy iteration (API) has attracted increasing attention in reinforcement learning (RL), e.g., least-squares policy iteration (LSPI) and its kernelized version, the kernel-based LSPI algorithm. However, it remains difficult for API algorithms to obtain near-optimal policies for Markov decision processes (MDPs) with large or continuous state spaces. To address this problem, this paper presents a hierarchical API (HAPI) method with binary-tree state space decomposition for RL in a class of absorbing MDPs, which can be formulated as time-optimal learning control tasks. In the proposed method, after collecting samples adaptively in the state space of the original MDP, a learning-based decomposition strategy of sample sets was designed to implement the binary-tree state space decomposition process. Then, API algorithms were used on the sample subsets to approximate local optimal policies of sub-MDPs. The original MDP was decomposed into a binary-tree structure of absorbing sub-MDPs, constructed during the learning process, thus, local near-optimal policies were approximated by API algorithms with reduced complexity and higher precision. Furthermore, because of the improved quality of local policies, the combined global policy performed better than the near-optimal policy obtained by a single API algorithm in the original MDP. Three learning control problems, including path-tracking control of a real mobile robot, were studied to evaluate the performance of the HAPI method. With the same setting for basis function selection and sample collection, the proposed HAPI obtained better near-optimal policies than previous API methods such as LSPI and KLSPI.

  10. The role of Mediterranean diet on the risk of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosetti, C; Turati, F; Pont, A Dal; Ferraroni, M; Polesel, J; Negri, E; Serraino, D; Talamini, R; Vecchia, C La; Zeegers, M P

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Mediterranean diet has been shown to have a beneficial role on various neoplasms, but data are scanty on pancreatic cancer. Methods: We analysed data from two case–control studies conducted in Italy between 1983 and 2008, including 362 and 326 pancreatic cancer cases and 1552 and 652 hospital-controls, respectively. A Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) summarising major characteristics of the Mediterranean diet was used in the two studies separately and overall. Two further scores of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were applied in the second study only, the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence Index (MDP) and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI). Results: Odds ratios (ORs) for increasing levels of the scores (i.e., increasing adherence) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Odds ratio for a MDS score ⩾6 compared with <3 was 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34–0.95) in the first study, 0.51 (95% CI 0.29–0.92) in the second study, and 0.48 (95% CI 0.35–0.67) overall. A trend of decreasing risk was observed also for the MDP and MAI the ORs for the highest vs the lowest quintile being 0.44 (95% CI 0.27–0.73) for MDP and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42–1.11) for the MAI. The results were consistent across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and diabetes. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that a priori-defined scores measuring adherence to the Mediterranean diet are favourably associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:23928660

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Serotypes Isolated from Fresh Produce Marketed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Shanker P; Wang, Hua; Adams, Jennifer K; Feng, Peter C H

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella continues to rank as one of the most costly foodborne pathogens, and more illnesses are now associated with the consumption of fresh produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Microbiological Data Program (MDP) sampled select commodities of fresh fruit and vegetables and tested them for Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Listeria. The Salmonella strains isolated were further characterized by serotype, antimicrobial resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profile. This article summarizes the Salmonella data collected by the MDP between 2002 and 2012. The results show that the rates of Salmonella prevalence ranged from absent to 0.34% in cilantro. A total of 152 isolates consisting of over 50 different serotypes were isolated from the various produce types, and the top five were Salmonella enterica serotype Cubana, S. enterica subspecies arizonae (subsp. IIIa) and diarizonae (subsp. IIIb), and S. enterica serotypes Newport, Javiana, and Infantis. Among these, Salmonella serotypes Newport and Javiana are also listed among the top five Salmonella serotypes that caused most foodborne outbreaks. Other serotypes that are frequent causes of infection, such as S. enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were also found in fresh produce but were not prevalent. About 25% of the MDP samples were imported produce, including 65% of green onions, 44% of tomatoes, 42% of hot peppers, and 41% of cantaloupes. However, imported produce did not show higher numbers of Salmonella-positive samples, and in some products, like cilantro, all of the Salmonella isolates were from domestic samples. About 6.5% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to the antimicrobial compounds tested, but no single commodity or serotype was found to be the most common carrier of resistant strains or of resistance. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the produce isolates showed similarities with Salmonella isolates from meat samples and from outbreaks, but

  12. Radioisotope bone scanning in a case of sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cinti, D.C.; Hawkins, H.B.; Slavin, J.D. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    The application of radioisotope scanning to osseous involvement from systemic sarcoidosis has been infrequently described in the scientific literature. Most commonly, the small bones of the hands and feet are affected if sarcoidosis involves the skeleton. Nonetheless, there are also occasional manifestations of sarcoid in the skull, long bones, and vertebral bodies. This paper describes a case of sarcoid involving the lung parenchyma with multiple lesions in the skull and ribs demonstrated by bone scanning with Tc-99m MDP. Following treatment with steroids, the bone scan showed complete resolution of the rib lesions and almost complete resolution of the lesions in the calvarium.

  13. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  14. An Approach for Dynamic Optimization of Prevention Program Implementation in Stochastic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuncheol; Prabhu, Vittal

    The science of preventing youth problems has significantly advanced in developing evidence-based prevention program (EBP) by using randomized clinical trials. Effective EBP can reduce delinquency, aggression, violence, bullying and substance abuse among youth. Unfortunately the outcomes of EBP implemented in natural settings usually tend to be lower than in clinical trials, which has motivated the need to study EBP implementations. In this paper we propose to model EBP implementations in natural settings as stochastic dynamic processes. Specifically, we propose Markov Decision Process (MDP) for modeling and dynamic optimization of such EBP implementations. We illustrate these concepts using simple numerical examples and discuss potential challenges in using such approaches in practice.

  15. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  16. Allocating conservation resources between areas where persistence of a species is uncertain.

    PubMed

    McDonald-Madden, Eve; Chadès, Iadine; McCarthy, Michael A; Linkie, Matthew; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-04-01

    Research on the allocation of resources to manage threatened species typically assumes that the state of the system is completely observable; for example whether a species is present or not. The majority of this research has converged on modeling problems as Markov decision processes (MDP), which give an optimal strategy driven by the current state of the system being managed. However, the presence of threatened species in an area can be uncertain. Typically, resource allocation among multiple conservation areas has been based on the biggest expected benefit (return on investment) but fails to incorporate the risk of imperfect detection. We provide the first decision-making framework for confronting the trade-off between information and return on investment, and we illustrate the approach for populations of the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) in Kerinci Seblat National Park. The problem is posed as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), which extends MDP to incorporate incomplete detection and allows decisions based on our confidence in particular states. POMDP has previously been used for making optimal management decisions for a single population of a threatened species. We extend this work by investigating two populations, enabling us to explore the importance of variation in expected return on investment between populations on how we should act. We compare the performance of optimal strategies derived assuming complete (MDP) and incomplete (POMDP) observability. We find that uncertainty about the presence of a species affects how we should act. Further, we show that assuming full knowledge of a species presence will deliver poorer strategic outcomes than if uncertainty about a species status is explicitly considered. MDP solutions perform up to 90% worse than the POMDP for highly cryptic species, and they only converge in performance when we are certain of observing the species during management: an unlikely scenario for many

  17. Tc-99m hexamethylpropylene-amine oxine (HM-PAO) uptake in a bone metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, H.; Jinnouchi, S.; Sameshima, M.; Uwada, O.; Watanabe, K.

    1988-08-01

    Uptake of Tc-99m Hexamethylpropylene-amine Oxine (HM-PAO) was seen in bone metastases from carcinoma of the lung. The uptake was prominent when compared to Tc-99m MDP, I-123 IMP, and Ga-67 citrate. Brain imaging with Tc-99m HM-PAO and N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP) is now frequently performed. Uptake of these agents has been reported in brain tumors and melanomas. In this report, uptake of Tc-99m HM-PAO in a metastatic lesion in bone is discussed.

  18. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  19. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT False-Positive Tracer Uptake in Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Nanabala, Raviteja; Pillai, M R A; T A, Hari

    2016-10-01

    65-year-old man with left-sided pelvic pain on evaluation was found to have features suggestive of either Paget disease or prostatic bone metastasis of the left hemipelvis based on Tc-MDP bone scan and MRI. Ga-PSMA PET/CT to assess the possibility of primary prostate cancer and if present to stage it helped to rule out prostate cancer because of absence of focal abnormal increased tracer uptake in the prostate gland. However, false-positive tracer uptake was noted in the left hemipelvis, which was subject to biopsy and histopathologically proven to be Paget disease involvement. PMID:27556797

  20. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.; Glab, L.B.; Burger, M. )

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  1. Detection of melorheostosis in a young lady with upper limb pain on Three Phase Bone Scintigram/SPECT-CT.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Aamna; Khalid, Madeeha; Khawar, Saquib

    2016-01-01

    Melorheostosis is a benign, noninheritable bone dysplasia characterized by its classic radiographic features of dense, flowing hyperostosis. It frequently affects one limb, usually the lower extremity and rarely the axial skeleton. A 26-year-old lady with obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome and scalp dandruff presented with a long standing history of upper extremity pain and inability to adduct the arm completely. A Tc-99m MDP whole body and SPECT/CT scan performed for suspected fibrous dysplasia showed increased radiotracer uptake in densely sclerotic humeral and radial melorheostosis. This case highlighted the role of SPECT/CT imaging in this rare condition. PMID:27252746

  2. Detection of melorheostosis in a young lady with upper limb pain on Three Phase Bone Scintigram/SPECT-CT

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Aamna; Khalid, Madeeha; Khawar, Saquib

    2016-01-01

    Summary Melorheostosis is a benign, noninheritable bone dysplasia characterized by its classic radiographic features of dense, flowing hyperostosis. It frequently affects one limb, usually the lower extremity and rarely the axial skeleton. A 26-year-old lady with obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome and scalp dandruff presented with a long standing history of upper extremity pain and inability to adduct the arm completely. A Tc-99m MDP whole body and SPECT/CT scan performed for suspected fibrous dysplasia showed increased radiotracer uptake in densely sclerotic humeral and radial melorheostosis. This case highlighted the role of SPECT/CT imaging in this rare condition. PMID:27252746

  3. DUOX2 promotes the elimination of the Klebsiella pneumoniae strain K5 from T24 cells through the reactive oxygen species pathway.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huixia; Wu, Qi; Yang, Huijun

    2015-08-01

    Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) plays a major role in host defense in intestinal and airway epithelial cells through the reactive oxygen species (ROS) pathway. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a uropathogen that causes urinary tract infections. It is not known whether DUOX2 plays a role in host defense in bladder cancer epithelial cells. It is also not known whether Klebsiella pneumoniae invades T24 human bladder carcinoma cells and whether DUOX2 plays a role in eliminating the Klebsiella pneumoniae strain K5 through the ROS pathway in T24 cells. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the infectious capability of the Klebsiella pneumoniae K5 strain and the immunity-promoting capability of DUOX2 in T24 cells. We quantified the number of viable intracellular bacteria using the plate count method. DUOX2 expression was evaluated by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) following treatment with or without multiple cytokines, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), muramyl dipeptide (MDP), N-acetylmuramyl-D-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP-DD), H2O2 inhibitor, catalase (CAT), the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), or siRNA targeting DUOX2 (siDUOX2). The levels of ROS in the T24 cells infected with the K5 strain were examined following treatment with DPI, CAT or siDUOX2. Our results revealed that DUOX2 expression increased and the number of viable intracellular bacteria decreased in the T24 cells following infection with the K4 bacteria. Treatment with the cytokines and MDP and PMA also induced DUOX2 expression and decreased the number of viable intracellular bacteria. The levels of ROS also increased following treatment with the cytokines and MDP and PMA. However, when the cells were treated with the inhibitors (DPI or CAT), these effects were all reversed. Our data demonstrated that DUOX2 played an important role in innate immunity against bacterial cytoinvasion through the

  4. Detection of brain metastasis with 68Ga-labeled PSMA ligand PET/CT: a novel radiotracer for imaging of prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Kumar, Rajiv; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Brain metastasis in prostate cancer is rare and not expected at initial presentation especially when the patient is asymptomatic for the same. A 45-year-old male patient undergoing initial evaluation for newly diagnosed prostatic adenocarcinoma was referred to our department for 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy. As part of the study protocol, he also underwent Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx)-[Ga-68(HBED-CC)] (68Ga-PSMA) PET/CT, which revealed tracer accumulation in brain lesions, apart from localization in the primary, lymph node, and bone metastases. A subsequent MR evaluation confirmed brain metastases.

  5. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT False-Positive Tracer Uptake in Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, Arun; Joy, Ajith; Nanabala, Raviteja; Pillai, M R A; T A, Hari

    2016-10-01

    65-year-old man with left-sided pelvic pain on evaluation was found to have features suggestive of either Paget disease or prostatic bone metastasis of the left hemipelvis based on Tc-MDP bone scan and MRI. Ga-PSMA PET/CT to assess the possibility of primary prostate cancer and if present to stage it helped to rule out prostate cancer because of absence of focal abnormal increased tracer uptake in the prostate gland. However, false-positive tracer uptake was noted in the left hemipelvis, which was subject to biopsy and histopathologically proven to be Paget disease involvement.

  6. Comparison of antibody avidity and titre elicited by peptide as a protein conjugate or as expressed in vaccinia.

    PubMed Central

    Lew, A M; Anders, R F; Edwards, S J; Langford, C J

    1988-01-01

    The immunogenicity of a malaria peptide presented in various forms was tested in terms of the quality and quantity of the antibody response in rabbits. Peptide conjugated to a protein carrier, diphtheria toxoid (DT), required strong adjuvants (e.g. muramyl dipeptide, MDP and Freund's adjuvant, FCA) to elicit high levels of antibody with high avidity. Alum was a poor adjuvant, producing the lowest titre and avidity of antibody compared with all the other groups. Peptide expressed in vaccinia (and without carrier) produced intermediate levels of antibody but the avidity of the antibodies produced were comparable to that produced by peptide conjugates given with muramyl dipeptide. PMID:3056855

  7. Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin: Production-scale applications in radioactive waste treatment and iron control in copper electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Dreisinger, D.B.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-12-31

    Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin has been phased through synthetic scale-up, pilot testing, and production installation in radioactive waste treatment and hydrometallurgical applications. The geminal diphosphonic acid groups of Diphonix resin allow selective retention by cation-exchange and/or chelation. The resin is effective at low pH where sulfonic and carboxylic acid resins are ineffective. Diphonix resin has been used in nuclear facilities to reduce actinide concentrations in radioactive waste effluents and to reduce waste volumes. The high retention of iron(III) by Diphonix resin in acidic sulfate media has led to an installation capable of removing one ton of iron per day from a copper electrowinning stream. This iron control process diminishes cobalt losses in the electrowinning circuit and significantly reduces operating costs. The authors will discuss the development of these Diphonix resin applications.

  8. Radioisotope scanning in osseous sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-labeled pyrophosphate or diphosphonate compounds and gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) are two radionuclide scanning agents that are in widespread use in clinical practice. Technetium-99m pyrophosphate is used extensively for bone scanning to detect metastatic bone disease, benign bone tumors, osteomyelitis, benign hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and Paget's disease. Only two reports describe abnormal /sup 99m/Tc/ pyrophosphate bone scans in four patients with osseous sarcoidosis. Gallium-67 scans are used primarily to localize neoplastic or inflammatory lesions anywhere in the body. In recent years /sup 67/Ga scans have also been used to detect the presence of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis, but there are no reports describing abnormal uptake of gallium in patients with osseous sarcoidosis. This report describes experience with radioisotope scanning in two patients with osseous sarcoidosis.

  9. Osteosclerotic and osteolytic manifestations of hyperparathyroidism in a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Kalpa Jyoti; Sehgal, Aditi Khurana; Jaiman, Ashish; Sethi, Ravinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is the first differential diagnosis when a patient presents with asymptomatic hypercalcemia. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can be as grave as skeletal, cardiovascular, and neuropsychological changes. Skeletal manifestations are relatively common, and patient may present with generalized or focal bone pains, fragility fractures, subperiosteal bone resorption, and osteolytic lesions like brown tumors and salt and pepper appearance of the skull. However, focal osteosclerotic lesions of the skull are rare findings in hyperparathyroidism. Only a few cases of associated osteosclerosis are reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of Tc99m SestaMIBI positive parathyroid adenoma with coexisting osteolytic and osteosclerotic skull lesions on Tc99m methylene diphosphonate bone scan.

  10. Pathological clavicular fracture as first presentation of renal cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yan; Wang, Jin; Li, Huan; Guo, Peng; Xu, Jian-Fa; Feng, He-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of all cancer cases. RCCs usually metastasize to the lungs, bones, liver, or brain. Only <1% of patients with bone metastases manifested clavicular RCC metastases. Thus, clavicular metastasis as the initial presentation of RCC is extremely rare. We report a patient with RCC metastasis to the left clavicle, which was first presented with pain caused by a pathological fracture. Magnetic resonance image revealed a renal tumor, and technetium-99m–methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy showed multiple osseous metastases. The patient eventually underwent surgery to remove the lateral end of the left clavicle and right kidney. Histopathology revealed renal tumor and clear cell carcinoma in the clavicle. Finally, we review 17 cases of clavicular metastases originating from different malignancies. PMID:26779378

  11. Pathological clavicular fracture as first presentation of renal cell carcinoma: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yan; Wang, Jin; Li, Huan; Guo, Peng; Xu, Jian-Fa; Feng, He-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of all cancer cases. RCCs usually metastasize to the lungs, bones, liver, or brain. Only <1% of patients with bone metastases manifested clavicular RCC metastases. Thus, clavicular metastasis as the initial presentation of RCC is extremely rare. We report a patient with RCC metastasis to the left clavicle, which was first presented with pain caused by a pathological fracture. Magnetic resonance image revealed a renal tumor, and technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy showed multiple osseous metastases. The patient eventually underwent surgery to remove the lateral end of the left clavicle and right kidney. Histopathology revealed renal tumor and clear cell carcinoma in the clavicle. Finally, we review 17 cases of clavicular metastases originating from different malignancies.

  12. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  13. An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R. |; Horwitz, E.P.; Hodgson, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. An application of supported liquid membranes for removal of inorganic contaminants from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R. Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA ); Horwitz, E.P. ); Hodgson, K.M. )

    1991-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the results of an investigation on teh use of supported liquid membranes for the removal of uranium (VI) and some anionic contaminants (technetium(VII), chromium(VI) and nitrates) from the Hanford site groundwater. As a membrane carrier for U(VI), bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid was selected because of its high selectivity over calcium and magnesium. The water soluble complexing agent 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid was used as stripping agent. For the anionic contaminants the long-chain aliphatic amines Primene JM-T (primary)., Amberlite LA-1 (secondary) and trilaurylamine (tertiary) were investigated as membrane carriers. Among these amines, Amberlite LA-2 proved to be the most effective carrier for the simultaneous removal of the investigated anion contaminants. A good long-term stability (at least one month) of the liquid membranes was obtained, especially in the uranium(VI) removal. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. 99mTc direct labeling of anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies: quality control and preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    De Castiglia, S G; Duran, A; Fiszman, G; Horenstein, A L

    1995-04-01

    The anti-carcinoembryonic B2C114 monoclonal antibody was radiolabeled with 99mTc by a direct method and quality control tested in vitro by instant thin layer chromatography, gel column scanning and cellulose acetate electrophoresis and assessed in vivo for radioimmunodetection on a murine spontaneous mammary carcinoma. The optimal results of percent 99mTc bound to protein were obtained at a dithiothreitol:antibody molar ratio ranging from 800:1 to 1000:1 and at a methylene diphosphonate:stannous fluoride weight ratio of 4.3:1. Although cysteine removed up to 18% of the label during the first 4 h, the stability of the tracer appeared to be excellent in human serum at 37 degrees C and when challenged with DTPA. 99mTc-labeled B2C114 demonstrated good and specific in vivo tumor targeting.

  16. A mechanism for enhancing ionic accessibility into selective ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.; Shelley, C.A.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.

    1998-07-01

    A bifunctional monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin with high capacity has been synthesized. Metal ion studies have been carried out with europium, americium, and ferric nitrate in solutions of varying acidity, with and without sodium nitrate added. The bifunctional resin complexes far higher levels of Eu(III) from 0.5 and 1 N nitric acid than the monofunctional phosphonic acid resin. It is postulated that the sulfonic acid ligand provides an access mechanism for the metal ions into the polymer matrix by hydrating the matrix and preventing its collapse in high ionic strength solutions thus allowing for rapid ionic complexation by the selective phosphonic acid ligands. The bifunctional monophosphonic/sulfonic acid resin has both ligands bound to a polystyrene support. It complexes higher levels of metal ions than a comparable resin differing only by having the monophosphonic acid ligand directly bound to the C-C backbone. Results are compared to a diphosphonic/sulfonic acid resin.

  17. Comparison of bone scans and radiography for detecting bone neoplasms in dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Merickel, B.S.; Rebar, A.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    Radioisotopic bone scans and radiography were used to detect bone neoplasms in 144 dogs that inhaled alpha-particle-emitting /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles. Radiography was used routinely to survey the skeleton of the dogs. Nineteen dogs developed bone neoplasms; 17 of these were studied with bone scans and radiography; both methods showed a high degree of success in detecting bone neoplasms. Predominant regions of occurrence have been the lumbar region of the spine and the humerus. The bone scanning method used gamma-camera detection of IV injected 99mTc-labeled methylene diphosphonate. All neoplasms detected radiographically also were identified by bone scans. In addition, 3 lesions confirmed histologically as osteosarcomas were detected by bone scanning, but were missed by radiography. Bone scanning was a more sensitive means for the detection of bone neoplasms than were routine radiographic procedures.

  18. Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for AluminumDissolution in Tank Waste Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Martin, Leigh

    2006-01-04

    Batch adsorption/dissolution experiments were conducted toexamine the interactions between 233U(VI) and a synthetic aluminumoxyhydroxide (boehmite, g-AlOOH) in 1.0M NaCl suspensions containing1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA). In the pH range 4 to 9,complexation of Al(III) by HEDPA significantly enhanced dissolution ofboehmite. This phenomenon was especially pronounced in the neutral pHregion where the solubility of aluminum, in the absence of complexants,is limited by the formation of sparsely soluble aluminum hydroxides. Athigh pH levels, dissolution of synthetic boehmite was inhibited by HEDPA,likely due to sorption of Al(III)/HEDPA complexes. Addition of HEDPA toequilibrated U(VI)-synthetic boehmite suspensions yielded an increase inthe aqueous phase uranium concentration. The concentration of uraniumcontinually increased over 59 days. Partitioning of uranium between thesolid and aqueous phase was found to correlate well with HEDPApartitioning.

  19. Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

  20. Metastatic clear cell variant of renal cell carcinoma of the mandible: Review and case report.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajaz; Jahan, Shahi; Najar, Latief; Hassan, Shahid; Mohammad, Manzoor

    2016-01-01

    A case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to the mandible is reported. A 22-year-old man consulted us for hypoesthesia of the right lower lip. Panorama X-ray film showed a radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular body. A diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the mandible from the right kidney was made after evaluation by computed tomography and bone scan with Tc99 methyl diphosphonate which also revealed multiple bone metastases. Histologically diagnosis was clear cell variant of RCC. Patient has been put on radiotherapy for symptomatic treatment and a molecularly targeted drug. The therapy effectively stopped the progressive growth of oral and other metastatic lesions. The quality of life is relatively well maintained with tolerable adverse effects. The patient is still on our follow-up with an improved quality of life. PMID:27563625

  1. Polymer-Supported Reagents: The Role of Bifunctionality in the Design of Ion-Selective Complexants

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S. D.

    2001-06-01

    The importance of multi-functionality in the preparation of ion-selective polymers is evident from the structure of enzymes where specific metal ions are bound through cooperative interactions among different amino acids. In synthetic polymers, ionic selectivity is enhanced when a chemical reaction is superimposed on an ion-exchange process. The concept of reactive ion exchange has been extended through the synthesis of crosslinked polymers whose metal ion selectivity is a function of reduction, coordination or precipitation reactions as determined by various covalently bound ligands. Development of three classes of dual mechanism bifunctional polymers, a new series of bifunctional diphosphonate polymers, and novel bifunctional ion-selective polymers with enhanced ionic accessibility has been accomplished.

  2. Flotation performances and adsorption mechanism of α-hydroxyoctyl phosphinic acid to cassiterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangxu; Zhong, Hong; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Guangyi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the flotation performances and adsorption mechanism of α-hydroxyoctyl phosphinic acid (HPA) to cassiterite were investigated by adsorption experiments, micro-flotation tests, zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The micro-flotation results indicated that compared with styrene phosphonic acid (SPA), diphosphonic acid (DPA), benzohydroxamic acid (BHA) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA), HPA exhibited excellent collecting power to cassiterite and superior selectivity against magnetite or hematite over a wide pH range. The results of adsorption experiments and zeta potential deduced that HPA chemisorb on cassiterite surfaces. The results of FTIR inferred HPA chemisorb onto cassiterite surfaces through its P and O atoms with the P-H and O-H bonds broken. XPS analysis further demonstrated HPA react with Sn species by formation of Sn-O-P and Sn-P bond.

  3. Management of metastatic bone disease of the acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Issack, Paul S; Kotwal, Suhel Y; Lane, Joseph M

    2013-11-01

    Metastatic acetabular disease can be severely painful and may result in loss of mobility. Initial management may consist of diphosphonates, narcotic analgesics, radiation therapy, protected weight bearing, cementoplasty, and radiofrequency ablation. Patients with disease affecting large weight-bearing regions of the acetabulum and with impending failure of the hip joint are unlikely to gain much relief from nonsurgical treatment and interventional procedures. The profound osteopenia of the acetabulum, limited healing potential of the fracture, and projected patient life span and function necessitate surgical techniques that provide immediate stable fixation to reduce pain and restore ambulatory function. Current reconstructive procedures, including cemented total hip arthroplasty, the saddle or periacetabular endoprosthesis, and porous tantalum implants, are based on the quality of remaining acetabular bone as well as the patient's level of function and general health. Well-executed acetabular reconstructions can provide durable hip joints with good pain relief and function.

  4. Investigation of some green compounds as corrosion and scale inhibitors for cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Farooqi, I.H.; Saini, P.A. )

    1999-05-01

    The performance of an open-recirculating cooling system, an important component in most industries, is affected by corrosion and scale formation. Numerous additives have been used in the past for the control of corrosion and scale formation. Effects of the naturally occurring compounds azadirachta indica (leaves), punica granatum (shell), and momordica charantia (fruits), on corrosion of mild steel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) were assessed using weight loss, electrochemical polarization, and impedance techniques. Extracts of the compounds exhibited excellent inhibition efficiencies comparable to that of hydroxyethylidine diphosphonic acid (HEDP), the most preferred cooling water inhibitor. The compounds were found effective under static and flowing conditions. Extracts were quite effective in retarding formation of scales, and the maximum antiscaling efficiency was exhibited by the extract of azadirachta indica (98%). The blowdown of the cooling system possessed color and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Concentrations of these parameters were reduced by an adsorption process using activated carbon as an adsorbent.

  5. Plutonium(IV) and plutonium(VI) extraction by 1-hydroxy-6-N-octylcarboxamide-2-(1H)-pyridinone

    SciTech Connect

    Romanovski, V.V.; Hoffman, D.C. |; White, D.J.; Xu, J.; Raymond, K.N.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) from nitric acid media by the promising new extractant 1-hydroxy-6-N-octylcarboxamide-2(1H)-pyridinone (octyl-1,2-HOPO) has been investigated. The effects of nitric acid, sodium, aluminum and iron(III) nitrates on extraction have been examined. Octyl-1,2-HOPO exhibits high specificity for Pu(IV) over a wide range of acidity and ionic strength. The affinity of octyl-1,2-HOPO for Pu(VI) is much less than for Pu(IV). However, the extraction of Pu(VI) is possible from acidic as well as from highly salted media. Two water soluble ligands, 1-hydroxyethane-1,1,-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and H(2,2)-1,2-HOPO, have been shown to be very effective for back extraction.

  6. Effect of estrogen/gestagen and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 therapy on bone formation in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, K.; Riis, B.; Christiansen, C.

    1986-12-01

    The effect of two different estrogen/gestagen regimens and 24R,25-(OH)2-cholecalciferol on bone formation was studied in a randomized trial with 144 healthy postmenopausal women. Urinary excretion (UE) of /sup 99m/technetium-diphosphonate and serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) was determined before and then once a year for 2 years of treatment. Both estimates of bone formation showed highly significant decreases (p less than .001) to normal premenopausal levels in women receiving unopposed 17 beta-estradiol or in a sequential combination with progestagen, whereas unchanged high values were found in the groups receiving 24R,25-(OH)2D3 and placebo. The data show that bone turnover increases in early postmenopausal women concomitantly with the loss of bone mass, and that hormonal substitutional therapy normalizes the total skeletal turnover as well as preventing bone loss.

  7. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  8. Inhibition effect of phosphorus-based chemicals on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanhui; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili

    2013-01-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater (MWW) could supply a viable alternative water resource for cooling water systems. Inorganic salts in the concentrated cooling water pose a great challenge to corrosion control chemicals. In this study, the inhibition effect of 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTCA) on corrosion of carbon steel in secondary-treated MWW was investigated by the means of potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of inhibitors. The corrosion rates of carbon steel were 1.5, 0.8, 0.2 and 0.5 mm a(-1) for blank, HEDP, ATMP and PBTCA samples at 50 mg L(-1), respectively. The phosphorus-based chemicals could adsorb onto the surface of the carbon steel electrode, form a coat of protective film and then protect the carbon steel from corrosion in the test solution.

  9. The os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P; Collier, B D; Carrera, G F

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  10. Os trigonum syndrome: use of bone scan in the diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.P.; Collier, B.D.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-08-01

    The os trigonum is an accessory bone of the foot found in 7% of the normal adult population. It is located at the posterolateral projection of the talus, and can occasionally give rise to symptoms of acute and chronic unexplained ankle pain. We report three patients, one with acute fracture and two with chronic ankle symptoms. Technetium 99 methylene diphosphonate showed intense focal uptake at the posterior talus pointing to the os trigonum as the site of symptoms. It was excised in two patients with complete relief. The third went on to develop an asymptomatic nonunion. We recommend bone scanning as a procedure that is helpful in delineating obscure pain in the ankle that may be due to chronic irritative nonunion of the os trigonum.

  11. Treating the Aging Spine.

    PubMed

    Choma, Theodore J; Rechtine, Glenn; McGuire, Robert A; Brodke, Darrel S

    2016-01-01

    Demographic trends make it incumbent on orthopaedic spine surgeons to recognize the special challenges involved in caring for older patients with spine pathology. Unique pathologies, such as osteoporosis and degenerative deformities, must be recognized and treated. Recent treatment options and recommendations for the medical optimization of bone health include vitamin D and calcium supplementation, diphosphonates, and teriparatide. Optimizing spinal fixation in elderly patients who have osteoporosis is critical; cement augmentation of pedicle screws is promising. In the management of geriatric odontoid fractures, nonsurgical support with a collar may be considered for low-demand patients, whereas surgical fixation is favored for high-demand patients. Management of degenerative deformity must address sagittal plane balance, which includes consideration of pelvic incidence. Various osteotomies may prove helpful in this setting. PMID:27049195

  12. Treating the Aging Spine.

    PubMed

    Choma, Theodore J; Rechtine, Glenn R; McGuire, Robert A; Brodke, Darrel S

    2015-12-01

    Demographic trends make it incumbent on orthopaedic spine surgeons to recognize the special challenges involved in caring for older patients with spine pathology. Unique pathologies, such as osteoporosis and degenerative deformities, must be recognized and dealt with. Recent treatment options and recommendations for the medical optimization of bone health include vitamin D and calcium supplementation, diphosphonates, and teriparatide. Optimizing spinal fixation in elderly patients with osteoporosis is critical; cement augmentation of pedicle screws is promising. In the management of geriatric odontoid fractures, nonsurgical support with a collar may be considered for the low-demand patient, whereas surgical fixation is favored for high-demand patients. Management of degenerative deformity must address sagittal plane balance, including consideration of pelvic incidence. Various osteotomies may prove helpful in this setting. PMID:26510625

  13. Radionuclide bone scanning of osteosarcoma: falsely extended uptake patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.

    1982-07-01

    The pathologic specimens of 18 osteosarcomas of long bones were examined to correlate histologic abnormalities with abnormalities seen on preoperative /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate bone scans. Seven scans accurately represented the extent of the tumor. Eleven scans disclosed increased activity extending beyond the radiographic abnormalities. In eight of these, there was no occult tumor extension and in the other three, the scan activity did not accurately portray the skip metastases that were present. Therefore, these 11 scans demonstrated the falsely extended pattern of uptake beyond the true limits of the tumors. Pathologic slides were available for 10 of the 11 areas of bone that exhibited extended uptake. In two instances, there was no pathologic abnormality. In the other eight cases we found marrow hyperemia, medullary reactive bone, or periosteal new bone. This is the first description of these histologic abnormalities of medullary bone in areas of extended uptake on radionuclide bone scans.

  14. Clinical utility of (18)F-fluoride PET/CT in benign and malignant bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxin; Schiepers, Christiaan; Lake, Ralph; Dadparvar, Simin; Berenji, Gholam R

    2012-01-01

    (18)F labeled sodium fluoride is a positron-emitting, bone seeking agent with more favorable skeletal kinetics than conventional phosphate and diphosphonate compounds. With the expanding clinical usage of PET/CT, there is renewed interest in using (18)F-fluoride PET/CT for imaging bone diseases. Growing evidence indicates that (18)F fluoride PET/CT offers increased sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy in evaluating metastatic bone disease compared to (99m)Tc based bone scintigraphy. National Oncologic PET Registry (NOPR) has expanded coverage for (18)F sodium fluoride PET scans since February 2011 for the evaluation of osseous metastatic disease. In this article, we reviewed the pharmacological characteristics of sodium fluoride, as well as the clinical utility of PET/CT using (18)F-fluoride in both benign and malignant bone disorders.

  15. Gallium scanning in Paget's disease of bone: effect of calcitonin

    SciTech Connect

    Waxman, A.D.; McKee, D.; Siemsen, J.K.; Singer, F.R.

    1980-02-01

    Calcitonin has been used in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone, and serum alkaline phosphatase level and 24 hr urinary hydroxyproline excretion have been used to follow therapeutic response. The radionuclide bone scan has been used as a visual indicator; however, there is some uncertainty as to its value in following changes in disease activity. Four patients with both serial technetium phosphate bone scans and serial gallium studies were studied. In each case the beneficial effect of calcitonin was demonstrated more accurately with gallium than with technetium diphosphonate. Since biochemical changes in Paget's disease are believed to be mediated at the cellular level and gallium uptake depends on cellular activity, it is proposed that gallium uptake is more appropriate measure of the activity of Paget's disease than a noncellular marker such as a technetium-containing bone scan agent.

  16. Diphonix{reg_sign} resin: A review of its properties and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gula, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The recently developed Diphonix{reg_sign} resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing seminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible for specificity (recognition) for a number of metal cations. The Diphonix resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the tetra- and hexavalent oxidation states. Therefore the resin has potential for applications in TRU and mixed waste treatment and characterization, and in the development of new procedures for rapid actinide preconcentration and separation from environmental samples. Metal uptake studies have been extended to alkaline earth cations, to transition and post-transition metal species, and to metal sorption from neutral or near neutral solutions. Also the kinetic behavior of the resin has been investigated in detail. In view of the above applications the influence of the most commonly occurring matrix constituents (Na, Ca, Al, Fe, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, oxalic and phosphoric acids) on the uptake of actinide ions has been measured. This review paper summarizes the most important results obtained in the studies on the properties of the Diphonix resin and gives an overview of the applications already in existence or under development in the fields of mixed waste treatment, actinide separation procedures, treatment of radwaste from nuclear power and fuel processing plants, and removal of iron from copper electrowinning solutions.

  17. Synthetic and structural investigations of mercurous and mercuric organophosphonates and phenylarsonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalwar, Nitin Balkrushna; Vidyasagar, Kanamaluru

    2016-11-01

    The following twelve mercurous and mercuric organophosphomates, bis/diphosphonates and phenylarsonates have been isolated and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, 13C-and 31P NMR, infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods: Hg2(HO3PC6H5)2(1), Hg2(HO3P(C6H4)PO3H)(2), Hg2(HO3P(C6H4)2PO3H)(3), Hg2(HO3P(CH2)4PO3H)(4), Hg2(O3PC6H5)·H2O(5), (Hg2)2(O3P(CH2)2PO3)(6), (Hg2)2(O3P(CH2)3PO3)(7), Hg(O3PC6H5)·H2O(8), Hg(O3PCH2C6H5)·H2O(9), Hg(O3AsC6H5)·H2O(10), Hg3(O3AsC6H5)2(HO3AsC6H5)2(11) and (Hg2)Hg3(O3P(C6H4)PO3)2·2H2O(12). Compounds 1-7 are the first examples of mercurous phosphonates and di/bisphosphonates. They contain Hg2O6 units, which consist of Hg22+ cations with Hg-Hg bond of ~2.5 Å length. Phenylphosphonates 1 and 5 are layered compounds, whereas bis/diphosphonates 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 have pillared-layered and three-dimensional structures. Compounds 8-11 are layered mercuric phosphonates and phenylarsonates. Compound 12 is a three-dimensional mixed-valent mercury phenylenebisphosphonate.

  18. Bisphosphonate treatment and dental implants: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de-Freitas, Nayara-Ribeiro; de-Moura, Marcos-Boaventura; Veloso-Guedes, Cizelene-do-Carmo-Faleiros; Simamoto-Júnior, Paulo-César; de-Magalhães, Denildo

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze articles that studied patients submitted to diphosphonates therapy and who received dental implants before, during or after bisphosphonate (BP) treatment, compared to healthy patients, analyzing the increase of failure and loss of implants or bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) incidence. Material and Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement was used in this study. The clinical question in “PICO” format was: In patients under bisphosphonate therapy, do dental implants placement, compared to healthy patients, increase the failure and loss of implants or bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw incidence? PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for articles published up until April 15, 2015 using a combination of MeSH terms and their Entry terms. Results The search resulted in 375 articles. After selection according to the eligibility criteria, 15 studies fulfilled were included (eight retrospective, one prospective and six case series), with a total of 1339 patients analyzed, 3748 implants placed, 152 loss of implants and 78 cases of BRONJ. Conclusions Due to the lack of randomized clinical trials looking at this theme, further studies with longer follow-up are needed to elucidate the remaining questions. Thus, it is wise to be careful when planning dental implant surgery in patients undergoing bisphosphonate therapy because of the risk of developing BRONJ as well as occurring failure of implant. Moreover, complete systemic condition of the patient must be also taking into considering when such procedures are performed. Key words:Bisphosphonates, diphosphonates, dental implants, osteonecrosis. PMID:27475681

  19. Assessment of MSFC's supervisory training programs and courses. [marshall space flight center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindley, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    Courses and special programs to train supervisors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) were to determine the adequacy of the present MSFC Supervisory Training Program and to recommend changes, if appropriate. The content, procedures, and student evaluations of the required Office of Personnel Management (OPM) 80 hours training for supervisors, the optional 120 hours, the MSFC Management Development Program (MDP), NASA's Management Education Program (MEP), various OPM and special contract programs, pertinent procedural guidelines, regulations, and letters, as well as various MSFC computer reports which indicate who took what training were analyzed. Various interviews with MSFC personnel involved in training are included. Recommendations consist of: (1) the choice of courses selected for the basic required OPM 80 hours be improved; (2) the optional 120 hours be discontinued and a shorter module be developed dealing with managerial decision making and human relations skills; (3) the MDP and MEP be continued as at present; and (4) that a broad array of developmental strategies be incorporated to provide a variety of opportunities for supervisory improvement.

  20. Context transfer in reinforcement learning using action-value functions.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Amin; Nadjar Araabi, Babak; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of context transfer in reinforcement learning tasks. Context transfer, as defined in this paper, implies knowledge transfer between source and target tasks that share the same environment dynamics and reward function but have different states or action spaces. In other words, the agents learn the same task while using different sensors and actuators. This requires the existence of an underlying common Markov decision process (MDP) to which all the agents' MDPs can be mapped. This is formulated in terms of the notion of MDP homomorphism. The learning framework is Q-learning. To transfer the knowledge between these tasks, the feature space is used as a translator and is expressed as a partial mapping between the state-action spaces of different tasks. The Q-values learned during the learning process of the source tasks are mapped to the sets of Q-values for the target task. These transferred Q-values are merged together and used to initialize the learning process of the target task. An interval-based approach is used to represent and merge the knowledge of the source tasks. Empirical results show that the transferred initialization can be beneficial to the learning process of the target task. PMID:25610457

  1. Unusual mixed gonadal dysgenesis associated with Müllerian duct persistence, polygonadia, and a 45,X/46,X,idic(Y)(p) karyotype.

    PubMed

    Queipo, Gloria; Nieto, Karem; Grether, Patricia; Frías, Sara; Alvarez, Rebeca; Palma, Icela; Eraña, Luis; Peña, Yolanda R; Kofman-Alfaro, Susana

    2005-08-01

    Mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) is a developmental anomaly in which most of the patients have a dysgenetic testis, a contralateral streak and a 45,X/46,XY karyotype. This entity involves an heterogeneous group of gonadal and phenotypic abnormalities with a wide clinical spectrum. The phenotype depends on the ratio of testicular tissue which induces virilization. Although the karyotype in these patients is 45,X/46,XY, no genotype-phenotype correlation has been found to date. Müllerian ducts persistence (MDP) in MGD is rare; however, four patients with both entities and different karyotypes have been described. Here we present the data on a newborn patient with an atypical MGD associated with MDP, two left testes, a gonadal streak on the right, and absence of Wolffian derivatives. PCR analysis identified all the Y-derived sequence tested in the father, while the patient had them all except the AZF b,c regions which were lost. FISH analysis of the paternal Y chromosome documented Yq paracentric inversion while the patient's karyotype was 45,X/46,X,idic(Yp). No mutations were observed in MIS/MISRII genes.

  2. Multi-core advantages for mask data preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, Johnny; Nogatch, John

    2009-04-01

    Smaller design pattern feature sizes continue to increase mask data file sizes, which increases mask data processing (MDP) times. To satisfy the need for faster turn-around-time, MDP has progressively migrated from single-computer computation, to multi-threading, and then to distributed processing on multiple computers. The availability of low cost multi-core processors can be used advantageously to reduce Mask Data Preparation runtime. Compared to single core processors, multi-core processor have higher performance, however, total available memory and I/O bandwidth need to be increased proportionally with the additional cores. Memory per core and available I/O bandwidth limit the maximum number of cores that can be effective with distributed processing. When a single job is broken down to 2 or more tasks, the granularity of the tasks influences the efficiency of the processing. Smaller tasks allow for smaller memory footprint, better distribution of tasks and increased scalability, but increase input file access time and reduce output data compaction. By choosing a combination of multi-threading and distributed processing, faster run-time and better scalability can be achieved, as compared to either technique alone. The optimal configuration depends on the number of cores per processor, number of processors and memory per core.

  3. Drug-Triggered and Cross-Linked Self-Assembling Nanofibrous Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Shi, Siyu; Wang, Benjamin K.; Li, I-Che; Jalan, Abhishek A.; Sarkar, Biplab; Wickremasinghe, Navindee C.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of multidomain peptides (MDP) can be tailored to carry payloads that modulate the extracellular environment. Controlled release of growth factors, cytokines, and small-molecule drugs allows for unique control of in vitro and in vivo responses. In this study, we demonstrate this process of ionic cross-linking of peptides using multivalent drugs to create hydrogels for sustained long-term delivery of drugs. Using phosphate, heparin, clodronate, trypan, and suramin, we demonstrate the utility of this strategy. Although all multivalent anions result in good hydrogel formation, demonstrating the generality of this approach, suramin led to the formation of the best hydrogels per unit concentration and was studied in greater detail. Suramin ionically cross-linked MDP into a fibrous meshwork as determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We measured material storage and loss modulus using rheometry and showed a distinct increase in G′ and G″ as a function of suramin concentration. Release of suramin from scaffolds was determined using UV spectroscopy and showed prolonged release over a 30 day period. Suramin bioavailability and function were demonstrated by attenuated M1 polarization of THP-1 cells compared to positive control. Overall, this design strategy has allowed for the development of a novel class of polymeric delivery vehicles with generally long-term release and, in the case of suramin, cross-linked hydrogels that can modulate cellular phenotype. PMID:25831137

  4. Modified skin window technique for the extended characterisation of acute inflammation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marks, D. J. B.; Radulovic, M.; McCartney, S.; Bloom, S.; Segal, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To modify the skin window technique for extended analysis of acute inflammatory responses in humans, and demonstrate its applicability for investigating disease. Subjects 15 healthy subjects and 5 Crohn’s patients. Treatment Skin windows, created by dermal abrasion, were overlaid for various durations with filter papers saturated in saline, 100 ng/ml muramyl dipeptide (MDP) or 10 μg/ml interleukin-8 (IL-8). Methods Exuded leukocytes were analyzed by microscopy, immunoblot, DNA-bound transcription factor arrays and RT-PCR. Inflammatory mediators were quantified by ELISA. Results Infiltrating leukocytes were predominantly neutrophils. Numerous secreted mediators were detectable. MDP and IL-8 enhanced responses. Many signalling proteins were phosphorylated with differential patterns in Crohn’s patients, notably PKC α/β hyperphosphorylation (11.3 ± 3.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.9 units, P < 0.02). Activities of 44 transcription factors were detectable, and sufficient RNA isolated for expression analysis of over 400 genes. Conclusions The modifications enable broad characterisation of inflammatory responses and administration of exogenous immunomodulators. PMID:17522815

  5. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

  6. The Need of Terahertz Cameras for Standardizing Sensitivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Hosako, Iwao; Ishi, Tsutomu; Minamide, Hiroaki; Otani, Chiko; Sekine, Norihiko

    2014-08-01

    The applicability of a blackbody source to sensitivity measurements and calibration of an uncooled Terahertz (THz) focal plane array (FPA) is discussed, but the combination of a blackbody source and a band-pass filter may not be suitable for these purposes. Two ways to measure the minimum detectable power (MDP) of uncooled THz-FPAs are described and compared when used with strong THz sources such as a quantum cascade laser (QCL). The MDP is defined as the radiant power that produces a signal-to-noise ratio of unity in the output of a THz imager that uses a THz-FPA operating at a TV frame rate. One method (method 1) is based on the hypothesis that the beam pattern of the THz source is close to a Gaussian pattern. In another method (method 2), the signal level of the background in an image that does not contain a THz source is subtracted from the signal of the image. While method 2 is more flexible, how large the signals coming from THz source should be, as compared with the noise level, remains to be defined. Finally, based on issues with the current non-uniformity correction (NUC) technique, specifications are proposed for THz source power and wobbling technique to obtain uniform illumination for an ideal NUC technique.

  7. Investigation of the effect of gelatine, egg albumin and cross-flow microfiltration on the phenolic composition of Pinotage wine.

    PubMed

    Oberholster, A; Carstens, L M; du Toit, W J

    2013-06-01

    The effect of fining and cross-flow microfiltration on the phenolic composition of red wine was investigated. Both gelatine (G) and egg albumin (EA) fining decreased the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of tannin significantly by 26.4% and 25.2%, respectively, compared to the control (C). Cross-flow microfiltration (CF) also decreased the mDP significantly by 25%. Thus, the fining agents and cross-flow microfiltration selectively removed the highly polymerised phenols. After 3.5 months of bottle ageing, differences between the different treatments and the control decreased. CF had the most significant effect on the flavan-3-ol and polymeric phenol (tannin) content of the wines compared to the control followed by G fining. CF and EA treatments significantly decreased the total pigment content compared to C. CF was also the only treatment that could be distinguished from the other treatments by sensory analysis. All treatments improved clarity of the wines with cross-flow microfiltration having the largest effect. PMID:23411243

  8. Technetium-99m and rhenium-188 complexes with one and two pendant bisphosphonate groups for imaging arterial calcification.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Jayanta Kumar; Berry, David; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Sunassee, Kavitha; de Rosales, Rafael Torres Martin; Shanahan, Catherine; Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    The first (99m)Tc and (188)Re complexes containing two pendant bisphosphonate groups have been synthesised, based on the mononuclear M(v) nitride core with two dithiocarbamate ligands each with a pendant bisphosphonate. The structural identity of the (99)Tc and stable rhenium analogues as uncharged, mononuclear nitridobis(dithiocarbamate) complexes was determined by electrospray mass spectrometry. The (99m)Tc complex showed greater affinity for synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite, and greater stability in biological media, than the well-known but poorly-characterised and inhomogeneous bone imaging agent (99m)Tc-MDP. It gave excellent SPECT images of both bone calcification (mice and rats) and vascular calcification (rat model), but the improved stability and the availability of two pendant bisphosphonate groups conferred no dramatic advantage in imaging over the conventional (99m)Tc-MDP agent in which the bisphosphonate group is bound directly to Tc. The (188)Re complex also showed preferential uptake in bone. These tracers and the biological model of vascular calcification offer the opportunity to study the biological interpretation and clinical potential of radionuclide imaging of vascular calcification and to deliver radionuclide therapy to bone metastases.

  9. The synthesis and characterisation of MDMA derived from a catalytic oxidation of material isolated from black pepper reveals potential route specific impurities.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Christopher M; Breadon, Thomas W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the chemical synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from piperonal prepared via a catalytic ruthenium tetroxide oxidation of piperine extracted from black pepper. A variety of oxidation conditions were experimented with including different solvent systems and co-oxidants. A sample of prepared piperonal was successfully converted into MDMA via 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDP2NP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) and the impurities within each product characterised by GC-MS to give a contaminant profile of the synthetic pathway. Interestingly, it was discovered that a chlorinated analogue of piperonal (6-chloropiperonal) was created during the oxidation process by an as yet unknown mechanism. This impurity reacted alongside piperonal to give chlorinated analogues of each precursor, ultimately yielding 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-Cl-MDMA) as an impurity within the MDMA sample. The methodology developed is a simple way to synthesise a substantial amount of precursor material with easy to obtain reagents. The results also show that chlorinated MDMA analogues, previously thought to be deliberately included adulterants, may in fact be route specific impurities with potential application in determining the origin and synthesis method of seized illicit drugs. PMID:27162021

  10. Glycosylation efficiency of Asn-Xaa-Thr sequons is independent of distance from the C-terminus in membrane dipeptidase.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Adrian R; Hooper, Nigel M

    2003-09-01

    In vitro transcription/translation studies with model proteins have shown that glycosylation of Asn-Xaa-Thr sequons is reduced when the sequon is within 60 residues of the C-terminus of the protein. We have previously shown that in living cells N-glycosylation of the prion protein (PrP) is also abolished when its Asn-Ile-Thr and Asn-Phe-Thr sequons are less than 60 residues from the C-terminus (Walmsley and Hooper [2003] Biochemical Journal, 370, 351-355). To investigate whether sequon distance to the C-terminus is a general determinant of N-glycosylation in living cells, Asn-Ile/Phe-Thr sequons were introduced into another glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored protein, membrane dipeptidase (MDP), at similar distances from the C-terminus as those in PrP. When expressed in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line, the introduced sequons were fully N-glycosylated even when they were less than 60 residues from the C-terminus in both GPI-anchored and secreted forms of MDP. These data demonstrate that the utilization of sequons in some proteins is independent of their distance from the C-terminus.

  11. LEAD: a methodology for learning efficient approaches to medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Saif J; Das, Tapas K

    2006-04-01

    Determining the most efficient use of diagnostic tests is one of the complex issues facing medical practitioners. With the soaring cost of healthcare, particularly in the US, there is a critical need for cutting costs of diagnostic tests, while achieving a higher level of diagnostic accuracy. This paper develops a learning based methodology that, based on patient information, recommends test(s) that optimize a suitable measure of diagnostic performance. A comprehensive performance measure is developed that accounts for the costs of testing, morbidity, and mortality associated with the tests, and time taken to reach diagnosis. The performance measure also accounts for the diagnostic ability of the tests. The methodology combines tools from the fields of data mining (rough set theory, in particular), utility theory, Markov decision processes (MDP), and reinforcement learning (RL). The rough set theory is used in extracting diagnostic information in the form of rules from the medical databases. Utility theory is used in bringing various nonhomogenous performance measures into one cost based measure. An MDP model together with an RL algorithm facilitates obtaining efficient testing strategies. The methodology is implemented on a sample problem of diagnosing solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). The results obtained are compared with those from four alternative testing strategies. Our methodology holds significant promise to improve the process of medical diagnosis.

  12. Simulated digestion of proanthocyanidins in grape skin and seed extracts and the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Labra, Javiera

    2013-08-15

    This study investigated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and composition of flavan-3-ols from red grape skin and seed extracts (raw and purified, which are high in proanthocyanidins (PAs)). In addition, the effects of digestion on the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of these extracts were evaluated. The extracts were digested with a mixture of pepsin-HCl for 2 h, followed by a 2 h incubation with pancreatin and bile salts including a cellulose dialysis tubing (molecular weight cut-off 12 kDa) at 37°C with shaking in the dark and under N2. Under gastric conditions, the mean degree of polymerisation (mDP) of seed extracts, raw (mDP≈6, p<0.05), and purified (mDP≈10, p<0.05) was stable. The mDP of the raw skin extracts increased from 19 to 25 towards the end of the digestion. The PAs were significantly degraded (up to 80%) during the pancreatic digestion, yielding low-molecular-weight compounds that diffused into the serum-available fraction (mDP≈2). The overall mass transfer coefficient (K) of the seed extracts was 10(-7) m(2)/s. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, over 80% of ACE inhibition by raw seed and skin extracts was preserved. However, the purified seed and skin extracts lost their ability to inhibit ACE after intestinal digestion.

  13. Optimising a balloon-borne polarimeter in the hard X-ray domain: From the PoGOLite Pathfinder to PoGO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, M.; Jackson, M.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Takahashi, H.; Pearce, M.

    2016-09-01

    PoGOLite is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter dedicated to the study of point sources. Compton scattered events are registered using an array of plastic scintillator units to determine the polarisation of incident X-rays in the energy range 20-240 keV. In 2013, a near circumpolar balloon flight of 14 days duration was completed after launch from Esrange, Sweden, resulting in a measurement of the linear polarisation of the Crab emission. Building on the experience gained from this Pathfinder flight, the polarimeter is being modified to improve performance for a second flight in 2016. Such optimisations, based on Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations, take into account the source characteristics, the instrument response and the background environment which is dominated by atmospheric neutrons. This paper describes the optimisation of the polarimeter and details the associated increase in performance. The resulting design, PoGO+, is expected to improve the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (MDP) for the Crab from 19.8% to 11.1% for a 5 day flight. Assuming the same Crab polarisation fraction as measured during the 2013 flight, this improvement in MDP will allow a 5σ constrained result. It will also allow the study of the nebula emission only (Crab off-pulse) and Cygnus X-1 if in the hard state.

  14. 4-methylideneimidazole-5-one-containing aminomutases in enediyne biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Jeremy R; Shen, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Many natural products contain unusual aromatic β-amino acids or moieties derived therefrom. The biosynthesis of these β-amino acids was first elucidated during a biosynthetic study of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027, when an enzyme, SgcC4, was discovered to convert L-tyrosine to (S)-β-tyrosine. SgcC4 is similar in sequence and structure to 4-methylideneimidazole-5-one (MIO)-containing ammonia lyases. Whereas the ammonia lyases use the electrophilic power of the MIO group to catalyze the release of ammonia from aromatic amino acids to generate α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids as final products, SgcC4 retains the α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid and amine as intermediates and reappends the amino group to the β-carbon, affording a β-amino acid as the final product. The study of SgcC4 led to the subsequent discovery of other MIO-containing aminomutases with altered substrate specificity and product stereochemistry, including MdpC4 from the biosynthetic pathway of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic maduropeptin. This chapter describes protocols for the enzymatic and structural characterization of these MIO-containing aminomutases as exemplified by SgcC4 and MdpC4. These protocols are applicable to the study of other aminomutases.

  15. Synthesis and antitumor activity of conjugates of muramyldipeptide or normuramyldipeptide with hydroxyacridine/acridone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dzierzbicka, Krystyna; Kołodziejczyk, Aleksander M

    2003-01-01

    A series of MDP (muramyldipeptide) or nor-MDP (normuramyldipeptide) analogues modified at the C-terminus post of the molecule by a formation of an ester bond between the carboxylic group of isoglutamine and the hydroxyl function of the respective derivatives of 4-carboxamide-acridine/9-acridone or 1-nitro-9-hydroxyalkylaminoacridines were synthesized as potential anticancer agents. The compounds O-(1-O-benzyl-N-acetyl-muramyl-l-alanyl-d-gamma-isoglutaminyl)-9-(ethylamino)-1-nitroacridine ester 3j and O-(1-O-benzyl-N-acetyl-muramyl-l-alanyl-d-gamma-isoglutaminyl)-9-propylamino-1-nitroacridine ester 3k exhibited high in vitro cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cell lines, prostate cancer and AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL). Analogue 3j was also active in vivo in the hollow fiber assay. Antitumor activity of both compounds were tested in vivo against difference human tumor xenograft, but only analogue 3k showed in vivo activity against sc UACC-62 melanoma in mice.

  16. Condylar hyperplasia: correlation of histological and scintigraphic features.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Horner, K; Testa, H J; Lloyd, J J; Sloan, P

    1994-05-01

    Scintigaphy using 99mTc-MDP is widely advocated as a method of diagnosis and presurgical assessment of patients with condylar hyperplasia. A previous study has demonstrated that hyperplasia of the mandibular condyle is characterized histologically by the presence of an uninterrupted layer of undiffentiated germinative mesenchyme cells, a layer of hypertrophic cartilage and the presence of islands of chondrocytes in the subchondral trabecular bone. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was any association between the degree of 99mTc-MDP uptake and the histological features of condylar hyperplasia. The parameters examined were trabecular bone volume, depth of cartilage islands and the presence of forming and resorbing surfaces. The images were analyzed by three experienced observers, who ranked the images according to degree of asymmetry between sides and the degree of uptake on the affected side. There was a significant correlation between the proportions of resorbing and osteoid covered bone surfaces and scintigraphic appearances. The rank correlations were rs = 0.55 (P = 0.3) between the resorptive surfaces and degree of symmetry and rs = 0.53 (P = 0.04) between the osteoid surfaces and absolute uptake. The correlation was higher for both methods (rs = 0.64 in each case) when the osteoid surface and resorptive surface measurements were combined. The results indicate that visual examination of radioisotope bone scans by experienced observers is a valid form of assessment of bone activity in condylar hyperplasia. PMID:7835500

  17. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP.

  18. Effect of metal primers and tarnish treatment on bonding between dental alloys and veneer resin

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Seung-Sik; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metal primers on the bonding of dental alloys and veneer resin. Polyvinylpyrrolidone solution's tarnish effect on bonding strength was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disk-shape metal specimens (diameter 8 mm, thickness 1.5 mm) were made from 3 kinds of alloy (Co-Cr, Ti and Au-Ag-Pd alloy) and divided into 4 groups per each alloy. Half specimens (n=12 per group) in tarnished group were immersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone solution for 24 hours. In Co-Cr and Ti-alloy, Alloy Primer (MDP + VBATDT) and MAC-Bond II (MAC-10) were applied, while Alloy Primer and V-Primer (VBATDT) were applied to Au-Ag-Pd alloys. After surface treatment, veneering composite resin were applied and shear bond strength test were conducted. RESULTS Alloy Primer showed higher shear bond strength than MAC-Bond II in Co-Cr alloys and Au-Ag-Pd alloy (P<.05). However, in Ti alloy, there was no significant difference between Alloy Primer and MAC-Bond II. Tarnished Co-Cr and Au-Ag-Pd alloy surfaces presented significantly decreased shear bond strength. CONCLUSION Combined use of MDP and VBATDT were effective in bonding of the resin to Co-Cr and Au-Ag-Pd alloy. Tarnish using polyvinylpyrrolidone solution negatively affected on the bonding of veneer resin to Co-Cr and Au-Ag-Pd alloys. PMID:26576256

  19. Protocols and participatory democracy in a 'North-South' product development partnership.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Catherine M

    2012-09-01

    Global product development partnerships (PDPs) for new health technologies have become an increasingly important part of the science and development landscape over the past two decades. Polarised positions are adopted by those scrutinising the power and governance of these public-private formations; on the one hand, they are seen as successful social technology innovations, on the other as regressive and imperialistic regimes of neo-colonialism. Answering recent calls for research to examine the actors, governance, context and dynamics of PDPs, this article presents a sociological case study of one particular partnership, the Microbicides Development Programme (MDP). Interviews were conducted with a cross-section of programme staff in the UK and Zambia, and discourses analysed through a Foucauldian lens of governmentality. This article suggests that two tools of government were central to MDP's cohesiveness: institutional discourses of participatory democracy and capacity building and scientific protocols. Through these material-semiotic tools, the scientific community, junior operational researchers and the funder were successfully enrolled into the programme and governed by a central body based in the UK. This article draws on Nikolas Rose's work to discuss these socio-scientific discourses as technologies of government, and provides a non-dualistic account of power and governance in a North-South PDP. PMID:22384948

  20. Performances of THz cameras with enhanced sensitivity in sub-terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Ishi, Tsutomu; Kurashina, Seiji; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Isoyama, Goro; Kato, Ryukou; Irizawa, Akinori; Kawase, Keigo

    2015-05-01

    Uncooled microbolometer-type 640x480 and 320x240 Terahertz (THz) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with enhanced sensitivity in sub-THz region are developed, and incorporated into 640x480 and 320x240 cameras, respectively. The pixel in the THz-FPA has such a structure that an area sensitive to electromagnetic wave is suspended above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC). A thin metallic layer is formed on the top of the sensitive area, while a thick metallic layer is formed on the surface of ROIC. The structure composed of the thin metallic layer and the thick metallic layer behaves as an optical cavity. The THz-FPAs reported in this paper have a modified pixel structure which has several times longer optical-cavity length than NEC's previous pixel does, by forming a thick SiN layer on the ROIC. The extended optical-cavity structure is favorable for detecting electromagnetic wave with lower frequency. Consequently, the Minimum Detectable Power per pixel (MDP) is improved ten times in sub-THz region, especially 0.5-0.6 THz. This paper presents spectral frequency dependences of MDP values for THz-FPA with the modified pixel structure and THz-FPA with the previous pixel structure, using THz free electron laser (FEL) developed by Osaka University. The modification of pixel structure extends high sensitivity region to lower frequency region, such as sub-THz region, and the wider spectral coverage of THz camera surely expands its applicability

  1. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    PubMed

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised.

  2. Challenges and requirements of mask data processing for multi-beam mask writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; Lee, Dong Hyun; Park, Sinjeung; Lee, SookHyun; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Shin, In Kyun; Jeon, Chan Uk

    2015-07-01

    To overcome the resolution and throughput of current mask writer for advanced lithography technologies, the platform of e-beam writer have been evolved by the developments of hardware and software in writer. Especially, aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) for unprecedented extension of optical lithography and the needs of low sensitivity resist for high resolution result in the limit of variable shaped beam writer which is widely used for mass production. The multi-beam mask writer is attractive candidate for photomask writing of sub-10nm device because of its high speed and the large degree of freedom which enable high dose and dose modulation for each pixel. However, the higher dose and almost unlimited appetite for dose modulation challenge the mask data processing (MDP) in aspects of extreme data volume and correction method. Here, we discuss the requirements of mask data processing for multi-beam mask writer and presents new challenges of the data format, data flow, and correction method for user and supplier MDP tool.

  3. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness. PMID:27523714

  4. The synthesis and characterisation of MDMA derived from a catalytic oxidation of material isolated from black pepper reveals potential route specific impurities.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Christopher M; Breadon, Thomas W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the chemical synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from piperonal prepared via a catalytic ruthenium tetroxide oxidation of piperine extracted from black pepper. A variety of oxidation conditions were experimented with including different solvent systems and co-oxidants. A sample of prepared piperonal was successfully converted into MDMA via 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDP2NP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) and the impurities within each product characterised by GC-MS to give a contaminant profile of the synthetic pathway. Interestingly, it was discovered that a chlorinated analogue of piperonal (6-chloropiperonal) was created during the oxidation process by an as yet unknown mechanism. This impurity reacted alongside piperonal to give chlorinated analogues of each precursor, ultimately yielding 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-Cl-MDMA) as an impurity within the MDMA sample. The methodology developed is a simple way to synthesise a substantial amount of precursor material with easy to obtain reagents. The results also show that chlorinated MDMA analogues, previously thought to be deliberately included adulterants, may in fact be route specific impurities with potential application in determining the origin and synthesis method of seized illicit drugs.

  5. On the Statistical Analysis of X-ray Polarization Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, T. E.; Kallman, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    In many polarimetry applications, including observations in the X-ray band, the measurement of a polarization signal can be reduced to the detection and quantification of a deviation from uniformity of a distribution of measured angles of the form alpha plus beta cosine (exp 2)(phi - phi(sub 0) (0 (is) less than phi is less than pi). We explore the statistics of such polarization measurements using both Monte Carlo simulations as well as analytic calculations based on the appropriate probability distributions. We derive relations for the number of counts required to reach a given detection level (parameterized by beta the "number of sigma's" of the measurement) appropriate for measuring the modulation amplitude alpha by itself (single interesting parameter case) or jointly with the position angle phi (two interesting parameters case). We show that for the former case when the intrinsic amplitude is equal to the well known minimum detectable polarization (MDP) it is, on average, detected at the 3sigma level. For the latter case, when one requires a joint measurement at the same confidence level, then more counts are needed, by a factor of approximately equal to 2.2, than that required to achieve the MDP level. We find that the position angle uncertainty at 1sigma confidence is well described by the relation sigma(sub pi) equals 28.5(degrees) divided by beta.

  6. Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Kassara, Stella; Kennedy, James A; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2013-11-27

    The impact of wine pH and closure type on color, tannin concentration, and composition was investigated. A single vintage of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was divided into three batches, the pH was adjusted to 3.2, 3.5 or 3.8, and the wines were bottled under screw caps with either SaranTin (ST) or Saranex (Sx) liners. After 24 months, the tannin concentration, tannin percent yield (relating to the proportion of acid-labile interflavan bonds), and the mean degree of polymerization (mDp) had decreased significantly, all of which can contribute to the softening of wine astringency with aging. The higher pH wines contained less percent (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate subunits, whereas the Sx pH 3.2 wines were significantly lower in percent yield and mDp than the other wines. Overall, the tannin structure and wine color of the lower pH wines (pH 3.2) bottled under Sx screw caps changed more rapidly with aging than those of the higher pH wines (pH 3.8) bottled under ST screw caps.

  7. Web Mapping for Promoting Interaction and Collaboration in Community Land Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenendaal, B.; Dhliwayo, M.

    2013-10-01

    There is an inherent advantage of geographic information Systems (GIS) and mapping in facilitating dialogue between experts and non-experts during land use plan development. Combining visual mapping information and effective user interaction can result in considerable benefits for developing countries like Botswana. Although the adoption of information and communication technologies has lagged behind that for developed countries, initiatives by the Botswana government in providing suitable information infrastructures, including internet and web based communications, are enabling multiple users to interact and collaborate in community land planning. A web mapping application was developed for the Maun Development Plan (MDP) in the Okavango Delta region in Botswana. It was designed according to requirements of land planners and managers and implemented using ArcGIS Viewer for Flex. Land planners and managers from two organisations in Maun involved in the development of the MDP were asked to evaluate the web mapping tools. This paper describes the results of implementation and some preliminary results of the web mapping evaluation.

  8. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.

  9. Composition of phenolic compounds in a Portuguese pear (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) and changes after sun-drying.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dulcineia; Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Renard, Catherine M G C; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2002-07-31

    The composition of phenolic compounds of a Portuguese pear cultivar (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) was determined by HPLC after thioacidolysis. The average concentration of phenolic compounds in pear harvested at commercial maturity stage was 3.7 g per kg of fresh pulp. Procyanidins were the predominant phenolics (96%), with a mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of 13-44; hydroxycinnamic acids (2%), arbutin (0.8%), and catechins (0.7%) were also present. The most abundant monomer in the procyanidin structures was (-)-epicatechin (99%), which was found as extension and terminal units; (+)-catechin (1%) was found only as a terminal unit. Sun-drying of these pears caused a decrease of 64% (on a dry pulp basis) in the total amount of native phenolic compounds. Hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins showed the largest decrease; the B2 procyanidin was not found at all in the sun-dried pear. Less affected were arbutin and catechins. In the sun-dried pear, the procyanidins with high mDP became unextractable in the solvents used.

  10. An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

    2015-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (p<0.05). The effects of enzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples.

  11. A preliminary characterization of Aglianico (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape proanthocyanidins and evaluation of their reactivity towards salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, A; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L; Moio, L

    2014-12-01

    The flavan-3-ol and proanthocyanidin composition of Aglianico seeds and skins were for the first time determined by HPLC-MS in comparison with the international grapes Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Monomers [(+)-catechin C, (-)-epicatechin EC, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, ECG] and oligomers [B1, B2, B3, B4 dimers and trimer C1] were identified and quantified in grape extracts. In order to evaluate the reactivity towards salivary proteins of model wine solutions of seeds and skins monomeric/oligomeric and polymeric fractions, the Saliva Precipitation Index (SPI) was carried out. Fractions were also analyzed for their mean degree of polymerization (mDP), percentage of galloylation (%G) and of prodelphinidin (%P) by phloroglucinolysis. Aglianico was the most effective in precipitating proteins than Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, mainly for the high percentage of galloylation of grape fractions. The mDP and the percentage of ECG in terminal units resulted to significantly contribute to the precipitation of salivary proteins by grape proanthocyanidins.

  12. NOD2 Down-Regulates Colonic Inflammation by IRF4-Mediated Inhibition of K63-Linked Polyubiquitination of RICK and TRAF6

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tomohiro; Asano, Naoki; Meng, Guangxun; Yamashita, Kouhei; Arai, Yasuyuki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fuss, Ivan J; Kitani, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Chiba, Tsutomu; Strober, Warren

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that polymorphisms of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene, a major risk factor in Crohn's disease (CD), lead to loss of NOD2 function. However, a molecular explanation of how such loss of function leads to increased susceptibility to CD has remained unclear. In a previous study exploring this question we reported that activation of NOD2 in human dendritic cells by its ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) negatively regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we show that NOD2 activation results in increased interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) expression and binding to TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and receptor interacting serine-threonine kinase (RICK). We then show that such binding leads to IRF4-mediated inhibition of Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and RICK and thus to down-regulation of NF-κB activation. Finally, we demonstrate that protection of mice from the development of experimental colitis by MDP or IRF4 administration is accompanied by similar IRF4-mediated effects on polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and RICK in colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells. These findings thus define a mechanism of NOD2-mediated regulation of innate immune responses to intestinal microflora that could explain the relation of NOD2 polymorphisms and resultant NOD2 dysfunction to CD. PMID:24670424

  13. Improvement of mask write time for curvilinear assist features at 22nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimura, Aki; Bork, Ingo; Kiuchi, Taiichi; Komagata, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yasutoshi; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Hara, Daisuke

    2010-09-01

    In writing 22nm logic contacts with 193nm immersion, curvilinear sub-resolution assist features will be desirable on masks. Curvilinear sub-resolution assist features are good for high volume chips where the wafer volume outweighs considerations for mask write times. For those chips, even 40 hour write times are tolerated for mask writing. For lower-volume production of SOC designs, such write times are economically unacceptable. 8 to 12 hours of write times are feasible for these designs. Previous papers at 2010 Photomask Japan described model-based mask data preparation (MB-MDP) techniques using circular apertures on production e-beam writers writing curvilinear ideal ILT patterns that reduced e-beam write-times by nearly a factor of two over conventional approach writing Manhattanized ILT patterns. This puts the curvilinear assist features within the realm of high-volume production. However, the write times are still too long for SOC designs. This paper describes a new technique that reduces mask write time further. Resist-exposed SEM images will be shown, written by JEOL JBX-3200MV. E-beam shot count comparisons for an ideal ILT mask pattern will be made with the conventional methods, demonstrating a 44% decrease in blanking time. In addition, a comparison study is shown indicating that an ideal ILT mask pattern that would take 63 hours with conventional fracturing can be written in about 14 hours using MB-MDP. AIMS projected images demonstrate the pattern fidelity on the wafer.

  14. Software structure and its performance on FOCAS instrument control, a MOS design, and an analyzing package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Kosugi, George; Takata, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Aoki, Kentaro; Asai, Ryo; Ohyama, Youichi; Kawabata, Koji; Inata, Motoko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Taguchi, Hiroko; Ebizuka, Noboru; Yadoumaru, Yasushi; Ozawa, Tomohiko; Iye, Masanori

    2000-06-01

    Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph (FOCAS) is completed and now waiting for a commissioning run on the Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea. We have developed a software system that includes the control of FOCAS instruments, Multiple Object Slits (MOS) design, and an analyzing package especially for evaluating performances of FOCAS. The control software system consists of several processes: a network interface process, user interface process, a central control engine process, a command dispatcher process, local control units, and a data acquisition system. These processes are mutually controlled by passing messages of commands and their status each other. The control system is also connected to Subaru Observation Software System to achieve high efficiency and reliability of observations. We have two off-line systems: a MOS design program, MDP, and an analyzing package. The MDP is a utility software to select spectroscopy targets in the field of view of FOCAS easily through its GUI and to design MOS plates efficiently. The designed MOS parameters are sent to a laser cutter to make a desirable MOS plate. A special package enables prompt performance check and evaluation of the FOCAS itself during a commissioning period. We describe the overall structure of FOCAS software with some GUI samples.

  15. Is it worth investing in mental health promotion and prevention of mental illness? A systematic review of the evidence from economic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Zechmeister, Ingrid; Kilian, Reinhold; McDaid, David

    2008-01-01

    Background While evidence on the cost of mental illness is growing, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of programmes in the areas of mental health promotion (MHP) and mental disorder prevention (MDP). The paper aims at identifying and assessing economic evaluations in both these areas to support evidence based prioritisation of resource allocation. Methods A systematic review of health and non health related bibliographic databases, complemented by a hand search of key journals and analysis of grey literature has been carried out. Study characteristics and results were qualitatively summarised. Economic evaluations of programmes that address mental health outcome parameters directly, those that address relevant risk factors of mental illness, as well as suicide prevention interventions were included, while evaluations of drug therapies were excluded. Results 14 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. They varied in terms of topic addressed, intervention used and study quality. Robust evidence on cost-effectiveness is still limited to a very small number of interventions with restricted scope for generalisability and transferability. The most favourable results are related to early childhood development programmes. Conclusion Prioritisation between MHP and MDP interventions requires more country and population-specific economic evaluations. There is also scope to retrospectively add economic analyses to existing effectiveness studies. The nature of promotion and prevention suggests that innovative approaches to economic evaluation that augment this with information on the challenges of implementation and uptake of interventions need further development. PMID:18211677

  16. Simultaneous multi-design point approach to gas turbine on-design cycle analysis for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutte, Jeffrey Scott

    Gas turbine engines for aircraft applications are required to meet multiple performance and sizing requirements, subject to constraints established by the best available technology level, that are both directly and indirectly associated with the aerothermodynamic cycle. The performance requirements and limiting values of constraints that are considered by the cycle analyst conducting an engine cycle design occur at multiple operating conditions. The traditional approach to cycle analysis chooses a single design point with which to perform the on-design analysis. Additional requirements and constraints not transpiring at the design point must be evaluated in off-design analysis and therefore do not influence the cycle design. Such an approach makes it difficult to design the cycle to meet more than a few requirements and limits the number of different aerothermodynamic cycle designs that can reasonably be evaluated. Engine manufacturers have developed computational methods to create aerothermodynamic cycles that meet multiple requirements, but such methods are closely held secrets of their design process. This thesis presents a transparent and publicly available on-design cycle analysis method for gas turbine engines which generates aerothermodynamic cycles that simultaneously meet performance requirements and constraints at numerous design points. Such a method provides the cycle analyst the means to control all aspects of the aerothermodynamic cycle and provides the ability to parametrically create candidate engine cycles in greater numbers to comprehensively populate the cycle design space. The cycle design space represents all of the candidate engine cycles that meet the performance requirements for a particular application from which a "best" engine can be selected. This thesis develops the multi-design point on-design cycle analysis method labeled simultaneous MDP. The method is divided into three different phases resulting in an 11 step process to generate a

  17. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  18. The Mectizan Donation Program: 20 years of successful collaboration - a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Colatrella, B

    2008-09-01

    Merck is a global research-driven pharmaceutical company that, throughout its history, has devoted considerable effort to bringing its medicines, vaccines, expertise and experience to people in need around the world. Its primary responsibilities are: to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines and vaccines that address major burdens of illness globally and/or address specific poor or vulnerable groups; to develop long-term business models that help its products reach as many people as possible; and to promote and participate in partnerships with governments, multilateral and non-governmental organizations, other private-sector organizations and communities, to build healthcare capacity and to address specific health and development challenges around the world. Merck believes that responding to global health challenges is a strategic and humanitarian necessity and that, through public-private partnerships, significant progress can be achieved. Twenty years ago, in October 1987, before collaboration between public and private sectors was common, Merck launched the Mectizan Donation Program (MDP) - a unique, multisectoral coalition involving Merck, the Mectizan Expert Committee (MEC), the Task Force for Child Survival and Development, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the United Nations Children's Fund, national ministries of health, more than 35 non-governmental development organizations, and thousands of local community healthworkers - to treat a debilitating, disfiguring and often blinding disease called onchocerciasis (river blindness). Through this programme, Merck made the commitment to donate Mectizan (ivermectin) for as long as needed and wherever needed, to combat this disease. Since the MDP's inception in 1987, Merck has donated >1800 million tablets of Mectizan, with >530 million treatments for onchocerciasis administered since 1987. The programme currently reaches >68 million people in Africa, Latin American and Yemen annually

  19. Microbolometer Terahertz Focal Plane Array and Camera with Improved Sensitivity in the Sub-Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Ishi, Tsutomu; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito

    2015-10-01

    A pixel in an uncooled microbolometer terahertz (THz) focal plane array (FPA) has a suspended structure above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) substrate. An optical cavity structure is formed between a thin metallic layer deposited on the suspended structure and a thick metallic layer deposited on the ROIC surface. The geometrical optical cavity length for our previous pixel structure, 3-4 μm, is extended three times, so that responsivity can be increased in the sub-THz region. This modification is carried out by depositing a thick SiN layer on the thick metallic layer. The modified pixel structure is applied to 640 × 480 and 320 × 240 THz-FPAs with 23.5 μm pixel pitch. Minimum detectable powers per pixel (MDP) are evaluated for these FPAs at 4.3, 2.5, 0.6, and 0.5 THz, and the MDP values are found to be improved by a factor of ten at 0.6 and 0.5 THz. The MDP values of the THz-FPAs developed in this work are compared with those of other THz detectors, such as uncooled antenna-coupled CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) THz-FPAs and cooled bolometer arrays. It is found that our THz-FPAs are more sensitive in the sub-THz region than the CMOS THz-FPAs, while they are much less sensitive than the cooled bolometer arrays. These THz-FPAs are incorporated into a 640 × 480 THz camera and 320 × 240 THz camera, and imaging equipment is developed. The equipment consists of a linearly polarized sub-THz source, a collimator lens, a beam homogenizer, two wire grids, a quarter-wave plate, and two THz cameras, and sub-THz images are demonstrated. It should be mentioned for the equipment that imaging of transmission and reflection is realized by moving only the quarter-wave plate, and the reflection image is taken along a direction normal to a sample surface so that the reflection image is hardly deformed.

  20. Induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against respiratory syncytial virus by inactivated virus supplemented with TLR9 and NOD2 ligands.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Muhammad; Wilschut, Jan; de Haan, Aalzen

    2012-01-11

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most important viral cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and children worldwide and also forms a serious threat in the elderly. The development of RSV vaccine, however, has been hampered by the disastrous outcome of an earlier trial using an inactivated and parenterally administered RSV vaccine which did not confer protection but rather primed for enhanced disease upon natural infection. Mucosal administration does not seem to prime for enhanced disease, but non-replicating RSV antigen does not induce a strong mucosal immune response. We therefore investigated if mucosal immunization with inactivated RSV supplemented with innate receptor ligands, TLR9 (CpG ODN) and NOD2 (L18-MDP) through the upper or total respiratory tract is an effective and safe approach to induce RSV-specific immunity. Our data show that beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated RSV (BPL-RSV) supplemented with CpG ODN and L18-MDP potentiates activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in vitro, as demonstrated by NF-κB induction in a model APC cell line. In vivo, BPL-RSV supplemented with CpG ODN/L18-MDP ligands induces local IgA responses and augments Th1-signature IgG2a subtype responses after total respiratory tract (TRT), but less efficient after upper respiratory tract (intranasal, IN) immunization. Addition of TLR9/NOD2 ligands to the inactivated RSV also promoted affinity maturation of RSV-specific IgG antibodies and shifted T cell responses from mainly IL-5-secreting cells to predominantly IFN-γ-producing cells, indicating a Th1-skewed response. This effect was seen for both IN and TRT immunization. Finally, BPL-RSV supplemented with TLR9/NOD2 ligands significantly improved the protection efficacy against a challenge with infectious virus, without stimulating enhanced disease as evidenced by lack of eotaxin mRNA expression and eosinophil infiltration in the lung. We conclude that mucosal immunization with inactivated RSV

  1. The Mectizan Donation Program: 20 years of successful collaboration - a retrospective.

    PubMed

    Colatrella, B

    2008-09-01

    Merck is a global research-driven pharmaceutical company that, throughout its history, has devoted considerable effort to bringing its medicines, vaccines, expertise and experience to people in need around the world. Its primary responsibilities are: to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines and vaccines that address major burdens of illness globally and/or address specific poor or vulnerable groups; to develop long-term business models that help its products reach as many people as possible; and to promote and participate in partnerships with governments, multilateral and non-governmental organizations, other private-sector organizations and communities, to build healthcare capacity and to address specific health and development challenges around the world. Merck believes that responding to global health challenges is a strategic and humanitarian necessity and that, through public-private partnerships, significant progress can be achieved. Twenty years ago, in October 1987, before collaboration between public and private sectors was common, Merck launched the Mectizan Donation Program (MDP) - a unique, multisectoral coalition involving Merck, the Mectizan Expert Committee (MEC), the Task Force for Child Survival and Development, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank, the United Nations Children's Fund, national ministries of health, more than 35 non-governmental development organizations, and thousands of local community healthworkers - to treat a debilitating, disfiguring and often blinding disease called onchocerciasis (river blindness). Through this programme, Merck made the commitment to donate Mectizan (ivermectin) for as long as needed and wherever needed, to combat this disease. Since the MDP's inception in 1987, Merck has donated >1800 million tablets of Mectizan, with >530 million treatments for onchocerciasis administered since 1987. The programme currently reaches >68 million people in Africa, Latin American and Yemen annually

  2. GDS-based Mask Data Preparation Flow: Data Volume Containment by Hierarchical Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Steffen F.; LaCour, Pat; Buck, Peter D.

    2002-12-01

    As the industry enters the development of the 65nm node the pressure on the data path and tapeout flow is growing. Design complexity and increased deployment of resolution enhancement techniques (RET) result in rapidly growing file sizes, which turns what used to be the relatively simple task of mask data preparation into a real bottleneck. This discussion introduces the data preparation scheme in the mask house and analyzes its evolution. Mask data preparation (MDP) has evolved from a flow that only needed to support a single mask lithography tool data format (MEBES) with minimal data alteration steps to one which requires the support of many mask lithography tool data formats and at the same time requires significant data alteration to support the increased precision necessary for today"s advanced masks.. However, the MDP flow developed around the MEBES format and it"s derivatives still exists. The design community has migrated towards the use of hierarchical data formats and processes to control file size and processing time. MDP, which from a file size and process complexity point of view is beginning to look more and more like the advanced RET operations performed on the data prior to mask manufacturing, is still standardized on a flat data format that is poorly optimized for a growing number of mask lithography tools. Based on examples it will be shown how this complicates the data handling further. An alternate data preparation flow accommodating the larger files and re-gaining flexibility for turnaround time (TAT) and throughput management is suggested. This flow utilizes the hierarchical GDS-II format as the exchange format for mask data preparation. It complements the existing flow for the most complex designs. The introduction of a hierarchical exchange format enables the transfer of a number of necessary data preparation steps into the hierarchical domain. Data processing strategies are discussed. The paper illustrates the benefit of hierarchical

  3. An innovative algorithm for panoramic representation in observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luison, Cristian; Aquilanti, Valeria; Riccobono, Aldo; Liberace, Claudio

    2013-06-01

    This document presents the study and test carried out for the development of an innovative algorithm designed to create a panoramic representation of the scene scanned by observation systems operating with passive sensors. The purpose of the algorithm is to represent 360° of scene using staring sensors mounted on stabilized or semi-stabilized platforms, without requirements on video output, both in terms of the transmission format and in terms of frame rate. The algorithm is real-time and does not require step-and-stare technique or special systems to scan the scene. The architecture of the algorithm requires a very low computational cost for the electronics contained in a Multi-Functional Display (MDP) used in defense applications. The algorithm has been implemented and tested on the JANUS NAVAL system, where the results were very satisfactory. Today, a patent is pendent.

  4. Efficacy and Safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA in Patients with Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tao; Shuang, Wei-bing; Jia, Dong-dong; Zhang, Min; Tong, Xu-nan; Yang, Wei-dong; Jia, Xu-ming; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) affects the quality of life (QoL) of millions of individuals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with NDO using a network meta-analytic approach, which can also quantify and compare the efficacy of onabotulinumtoxinA across different dosages. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and the Controlled Trials Register were searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to a control for NDO in adult patients. The primary outcome was the mean number of urinary incontinence (UI) episodes per week. Urodynamic parameters included the maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) and the maximum detrusor pressure (MDP). The safety of onabotulinumtoxinA was determined by the incidence of various frequent adverse events (AEs). Two authors extracted data independently, and the statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results A total of 1,915 patients from six randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis. The onabotulinumtoxinA-treated groups had a significantly decreased mean number of urinary incontinence episodes per week (at week 6) (onabotulinumtoxinA200U: MD: -10.72, 95% CI: -13.4 to -8.04, P<0.00001; 300 U: MD: -11.42, 95% CI: -13.91 to -8.93, P<0.00001), MDP (200 U: MD: -33.46, 95% CI: -39.74 to -27.18, P<0.00001; 300 U: MD: -31.72, 95% CI: -37.69 to -25.75, P<0.00001), and greater increased MCC (200 U: MD: 141.30, 95% CI: 121.28 to 161.32, P<0.00001; 300 U: MD: 151.39, 95% CI: 130.43 to 172.34, P<0.00001) compared to the placebo-treated groups. However, there were no significant differences between the onabotulinumtoxinA-treated groups for the number of weekly UI episodes at 6 weeks (MD: 0.08, 95% CI: -2.57 to 2.73, P = 0.95). Similarly, we also observed that there were no significant differences in MCC (MD: -9.97, 95% CI: -33.15 to 13.20, P = 0.40) and MDP (MD: -1.86, 95% CI: -8.09 to 4.37, P = 0

  5. Probabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Michael T.; Blackmore, Lars; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto; Newman, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new algorithm for probabilistic motion planning in arbitrary, uncertain vector fields, with emphasis on high-level planning for Montgolfiere balloons in the atmosphere of Titan. The goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude--and what horizontal actuation, if any is available on the vehicle--to use to reach a goal location in the fastest expected time. The winds can vary greatly at different altitudes and are strong relative to any feasible horizontal actuation, so the incorporation of the winds is critical for guidance plans. This paper focuses on how to integrate the uncertainty of the wind field into the wind model and how to reach a goal location through the uncertain wind field, using a Markov decision process (MDP). The resulting probabilistic solutions enable more robust guidance plans and more thorough analysis of potential paths than existing methods.

  6. Clinical Impact of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in a Patient With Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcelo A; Viana, Publio; Santos, Allan; Bastos, Diogo; Etchebehere, Elba; Cerri, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    A 64-year-old man with history of prostate adenocarcinoma underwent radical prostatectomy in 2003. He remained with undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels until 2014, when he then presented rising serum PSA levels and performed a Tc-MDP bone scan that was negative for metastases. In August 2015, his PSA was 4.89 ng/dL, and restaging images with pelvic MR and F-FDG PET/CT were both negative. Therefore, the patient underwent a Ga-PSMA PET/CT that showed marked tracer uptake in a single mediastinal lymph node. Histopathology demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma secondary to prostate cancer, altering patient management to hormone therapy instead of pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:27276202

  7. Osteogenetic activity in composite grafts of demineralized compact bone and marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Wittbjer, J.; Palmer, B.; Rohlin, M.; Thorngren, K.G.

    1983-03-01

    The effects of a composite graft of autologous marrow and demineralized autologous compact bone on the healing of a surgically created bone defect were observed in adult rabbits. A segment of the radius was bilaterally resected, demineralized, and replaced. On one side the bone graft was supplemented with autologous marrow. The new bone formation was measured 14 and 28 days after operation by roentgenography, including planimetry with scintigraphy and autoradiography using /sup 99m/Tc-labelled MDP. The composite graft, i.e., demineralized compact bone and marrow, had a significantly higher (p less than 0.01) bone formation rate 14 days after operation compared with the graft with demineralized compact bone in the opposite radius. At 28 days, however, there were no differences between the sides. Viable autologous marrow cells and demineralized autologous compact bone graft accelerate the rate of osteogenesis, but only at the beginning of the healing process.

  8. Tin-117m-labeled stannic (Sn/sup 4 +/) chelate of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) for application in diagnosis and therapy

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Richards, P.

    1983-08-25

    The radiopharmaceutical reagents of this invention and the class of Tin-117m radiopharmaceuticals are therapeutic and diagnostic agents that incorporate gamma-emitting nuclides that localize in bone after intravenous injection in mammals (mice, rats, dogs, and rabbits). Images reflecting bone structure or function can then be obtained by a scintillation camera that detects the distribution of ionizing radiation emitted by the radioactive agent. Tin-117m-labeled chelates of stannic tin localize almost exclusively in cortical bone. Upon intravenous injection of the reagent, the preferred chelates are phosphonate compounds, preferable, PYP, MDP, EHDP, and DTPA. This class of reagents is therapeutically and diagnostically useful in skeletal scintigraphy and for the radiotherapy of bone tumors and other disorders.

  9. Applications of Classifying Bidding Strategies for the CAT Tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruman, Mark L.; Narayana, Manjunath

    In the CAT Tournament, specialists facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers with the intention of maximizing profit from commission and other fees. Each specialist must find a well-balanced strategy that allows it to entice buyers and sellers to trade in its market while also retaining the buyers and sellers that are currently subscribed to it. Classification techniques can be used to determine the distribution of bidding strategies used by all traders subscribed to a particular specialist. Our experiments showed that Hidden Markov Model classification yielded the best results. The distribution of strategies, along with other competition-related factors, can be used to determine the optimal action in any given game state. Experimental data shows that the GD and ZIP bidding strategies are more volatile than the RE and ZIC strategies. An MDP framework for determining optimal actions given an accurate distribution of bidding strategies is proposed as a motivator for future work.

  10. The Angle of Louis. A potential pitfall (''Louie's Hot Spot'') in bone scan interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Shapiro, E.E.

    1984-06-01

    Evaluation of 100 consecutive Tc-99m MDP bone scans revealed in 36 patients a well defined area of increased accumulation of radiotracer at the Angle of Louis--the palpable ridge along the anterior surface of the sternum at the fibrocartilaginous junction of the sternum and manubrium. Twenty-five of the 36 patients had comparison radiographs; all were normal. None had sternal pain or a prior history of chest trauma. Increased uptake at the Angle of Louis (''Louie's Hot Spot'') is a relatively common finding (36%) and should be recognized as a normal bone scan finding. It should not be confused with increased uptake due to an osseous abnormality, i.e., metastasis, degenerative disease, trauma, etc.

  11. CORRELATION OF LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE WITH PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijoy K.; Das, Karobi; Jiloha, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    SUMMARY The present study was carried out to test our hypothesis that linguistic competence may importantly determine the manifest symptomatology as well as type of schizophrenia and neurosis. A test of linguistic competence constructed by us after two tryouts and consisting of eight subtests, namely colour naming, naming filial relationships and household objects, TAT (mean lengh of utterance and total number of morphenes), picture arrangement, temporal and spatial relationships, similarities and vocabulary was administered to 15 patients each of acute, paranoid and chronic schizophrenia; manic depressive psychosis; and anxiety, hysterical and obsessive compulsive neurosis. On analysis of variance, the groups differed significantly on household objects, TAT(total morphemes), temporal and spatial relationships and vocabulary. Obsessive compulsive neurotics, paranoid schizophrenics and anxiety neurotics scored highest while chronic schizophrenics and MDP scored lowest on these subtests. The study thus suggests that these illnesses may be phenomenological correlates of high and low linguistic competence, respectively. PMID:21927103

  12. Tin-117m-labeled stannic (Sn.sup.4+) chelates

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Meinken, George E.; Richards, Powell

    1985-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical reagents of this invention and the class of Tin-117m radiopharmaceuticals are therapeutic and diagnostic agents that incorporate gamma-emitting nuclides that localize in bone after intravenous injection in mammals (mice, rats, dogs, and rabbits). Images reflecting bone structure or function can then be obtained by a scintillation camera that detects the distribution of ionizing radiation emitted by the radioactive agent. Tin-117m-labeled chelates of stannic tin localize almost exclusively in cortical bone. Upon intravenous injection of the reagent, the preferred chelates are phosphonate compounds, preferable, PYP, MDP, EHDP, and DTPA. This class of reagents is therapeutically and diagnostically useful in skeletal scintigraphy and for the radiotherapy of bone tumors and other disorders.

  13. A case of multiple bone fractures due to the use of topical corticosteroid therapy for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Gönül, Engin

    2015-06-01

    A 45-year-old man who had psoriasis had applied topical clobetasol 17 propionate ointment on his whole body 2-3 times a week after the bath for 20 years. Physical examination showed abdominal distension, atrophy all over the skin, psoriatic plaques on the trunk, and extremities and multiple striae on the shoulders and legs. Morning plasma cortisol level and ACTH stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis of hypothalamic insufficiency. Bone mineral densitometry showed severe osteoporosis. Multiple bone fractures in the vertebrae and costa were detected on lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, the (99)Tc MDP whole-body bone scan, and thoracoabdominal computerized tomography imaging. Topical corticosteroid therapies have possible local and/or systemic side effects such as atrophy, telangiectasia, hypertricosis, and suppression of pituitary-adrenal axis. We present an interesting case with multiple bone fractures caused by long-time topical corticosteroid use.

  14. Timing of testing and treatment for asymptomatic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Kırkızlar, Eser; Faissol, Daniel M.; Griffin, Paul M.; Swann, Julie L.

    2010-07-01

    Many papers in the medical literature analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening for diseases by comparing a limited number of a priori testing policies under estimated problem parameters. However, this may be insufficient to determine the best timing of the tests or incorporate changes over time. In this paper, we develop and solve a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model for a simple class of asymptomatic diseases in order to provide the building blocks for analysis of a more general class of diseases. We provide a computationally efficient method for determining a cost-effective dynamic intervention strategy that takes into account (i) the results of the previous test for each individual and (ii) the change in the individual’s behavior based on awareness of the disease. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by applying the results to screening decisions for Hepatitis C (HCV) using medical data, and compare our findings to current HCV screening recommendations.

  15. Decision making model for lifecycle assessment of lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle - A case study for smart electric bus project in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thein, Sabai; Chang, Yoon Seok

    2014-03-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is part of our everyday life. There are many automobiles invented today that operates by Li-ion batteries. The issue with batteries is that they lose capacity and reliability over time as they are charged and discharged. This paper introduces a lifecycle assessment system for Li-ion EV battery considering the condition of each battery which helps decision making. The proposed research concerns not only for the ad-hoc condition but also regular condition of the Li-ion EV battery. We apply the Markov Decision Process (MDP) with selected policies for the measurement of each stage probability. The result shows that we could monitor product aging status with the proposed algorithm. It also shows that the calculated product life span was longer than the general warranty time period.

  16. Comparison of bone and gallium-67 imaging in heroin users' arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Bittini, A.; Dominguez, P.L.; Martinez Pueyo, M.L.; Lopez Longo, F.J.; Monteagudo, I.; Carreno, L.

    1985-12-01

    Nine cases of primary septic arthritis in heroin addicts are reported. Fibrous and cartilaginous joint localizations are prominent (four sternoarticular, three sacroiliac, one sacroccocygeal, and one knee). In all patients but one, conventional roentgenographic studies were negative. In six cases the causative agent was Staphylococcus aureus and in two cases, Candida albicans. In one case, it could not be determined. Our clinical observations, correlating the radioisotopic studies, suggest that in the first week of evolution the diagnostic procedure of choice is the (67Ga)citrate scintigram. Indeed, during this period the (99Tc)MDP bone scan is usually negative. The early demonstration and localization of the disease, together with the rapid bacteriologic diagnosis, allows for an early and more appropriate antibiotic treatment and better results.

  17. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  18. Structure characterization and anti-tyrosinase mechanism of polymeric proanthocyanidins fractionated from kiwifruit pericarp.

    PubMed

    Chai, Wei-Ming; Shi, Yan; Feng, Hui-Ling; Xu, Lian; Xiang, Zhi-Hao; Gao, Yu-Sen; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2014-07-01

    To provide information on the structure, activity, and structure-activity relationship of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) pericarp proanthocyanidins (PAs), they were separated into three fractions. These fractions were further identified by MALDI-TOF MS and HPLC-ESI-MS methods. Spectra results revealed that they are complex mixtures of B-type propelargonidins, procyanidins, procyanidins gallate, and prodelphinidins. Enzymatic activity analysis showed that these compounds strongly inhibit the activity of tyrosinase, indicating that they are reversible and mixed-type inhibitors of the enzyme. The results obtained from fluorescence quenching showed PAs inhibit the enzyme activity by interacting with substrate and enzyme. This study confirmed that the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of PAs produces a positive effect on their anti-tyrosinase activity. In addition, the antioxidant analysis indicated that PAs possess potent antioxidant activity. These conclusions mean kiwifruit pericarp PAs may be explored as insecticides, food preservatives, and cosmetic additives.

  19. Preserved Flora and Organics in Impact Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Harris, R. Scott; Clemett, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Zarate, M.

    2014-01-01

    At least seven glass-bearing strata of varying ages occur at different horizons in the Pampean sediments of Argentina dating back to the Miocene. In a strict sense, these impact glasses are melt-matrix breccias composed of partially digested minerals clasts and basement fragments indicative of crater excavation. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating yield ages (+/- 2 sigma) of 6 +/- 2 Ka, 114 +/- 26 Ka, 230 +/- 30 Ka, 445 +/- 21 Ka, 3.27 +/- 0.08 Ma (near Mar del Plata = MdP), 5.28 +/- 0.04 Ma, and 9.21 +/- 0.08 Ma (near Chasico = CH) Where found in place (not reworked), these ages are consistent with the local stratigraphy and faunal assemblages. A striking property of some of these impact glasses is the encapsulation of preserved fragments of floral (and even soft-tissue faunal remains). Here we identify retained organics and describe a likely process of encapsulation and preservation.

  20. Nurse exposure doses resulted from bone scintigraphy patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunçman, Duygu; Kovan, Bilal; Poyraz, Leyla; ćapali, Veli; Demir, Bayram; Türkmen, Cüneyt

    2016-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy is used for displaying the radiologic undiagnosed bone lesions in nuclear medicine. It's general indications are researching bone metastases, detection of radiographically occult fractures, staging and follow-up in primary bone tumors, diagnosis of paget's disease, investigation of loosening and infection in orthopedic implants. It is applied with using 99mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals (e.g 99m Tc MDP,99mTc HEDP and 99mTc HMDP). 20 -25 mCi IV radiotracer was injected into vein and radiotracer emits gamma radiation. Patient waits in isolated room for about 3 hours then a gamma camera scans radiation area and creates an image. When some patient's situation is not good, patients are hospitalized until the scanning because of patients' close contact care need. In this study, measurements were taken from ten patients using Geiger Muller counter. After these measurements, we calculated nurse's exposure radiations from patient's routine treatment, examination and emergency station.

  1. Effect of cell division inhibitors on polyclonal activation can vary according to the target cell used.

    PubMed

    Löwy, I; Chedid, L

    1979-01-01

    The effects of inhibitors of cell division on polyclonal stimulation induced either by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or by a synthetic adjuvant, MDP, were compared, using different target cells. Doses of colchicine that prevented 3H-thymidine incorporation also prevented the induction of antibodies against TNP and against an altered self antigen: bromelain-treated mouse red blood cells (br-MRBC). Under identical conditions, incubation with cytosine arabinoside (CA) strongly prevented the induction of anti-TNP PFC and to a lesser degree anti-SRBC PFC. However, the number of anti br-MRBC PFC was unchanged even when a dose of CA which inhibits totally the incorporation of 3H-thymidine was used. Our findings indicate that the general term "polyclonal stimulation" may concern at least two different types of cell populations and therefore we strongly stress the importance of choosing similar targets in comparative experiments.

  2. Transition-Independent Decentralized Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Raphen; Silberstein, Shlomo; Lesser, Victor; Goldman, Claudia V.; Morris, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There has been substantial progress with formal models for sequential decision making by individual agents using the Markov decision process (MDP). However, similar treatment of multi-agent systems is lacking. A recent complexity result, showing that solving decentralized MDPs is NEXP-hard, provides a partial explanation. To overcome this complexity barrier, we identify a general class of transition-independent decentralized MDPs that is widely applicable. The class consists of independent collaborating agents that are tied up by a global reward function that depends on both of their histories. We present a novel algorithm for solving this class of problems and examine its properties. The result is the first effective technique to solve optimally a class of decentralized MDPs. This lays the foundation for further work in this area on both exact and approximate solutions.

  3. Effect of carrier selection on immunogenicity of protein conjugate vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoites.

    PubMed Central

    Que, J U; Cryz, S J; Ballou, R; Fürer, E; Gross, M; Young, J; Wasserman, G F; Loomis, L A; Sadoff, J C

    1988-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines against the sporozoite stage of Plasmodium falciparum were synthesized by covalently coupling the recombinant protein R32 [with the one-letter amino acid code of MDP-[(NANP)15NVDP]2LR] to tetanus toxoid, cholera toxin, choleragenoid, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A. Conjugates were produced by using adipic acid dihydrazide as a spacer molecule and carbodiimide as a coupling agent. The molar ratio of R32 to carrier protein ranged from 2.5:1 to 8.4:1. These conjugates were found to be stable, nontoxic, and nonpyrogenic. When adsorbed onto Al(OH)3, all conjugates were capable of inducing anti-R32 antibody. Conjugates made with either cholera toxin or Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin A were significantly more immunogenic than those constructed with tetanus toxoid or choleragenoid. However, the magnitude of the immune response to the R32 moiety was not governed by the antibody response to the carrier protein. Images PMID:3047062

  4. Measuring X-Ray Polarization in the Presence of Systematic Effects: Known Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, Ronald F.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2012-01-01

    The prospects for accomplishing x-ray polarization measurements of astronomical sources have grown in recent years, after a hiatus of more than 37 years. Unfortunately, accompanying this long hiatus has been some confusion over the statistical uncertainties associated with x-ray polarization measurements of these sources. We have initiated a program to perform the detailed calculations that will offer insights into the uncertainties associated with x-ray polarization measurements. Here we describe a mathematical formalism for determining the 1- and 2-parameter errors in the magnitude and position angle of x-ray (linear) polarization in the presence of a (polarized or unpolarized) background. We further review relevant statistics including clearly distinguishing between the Minimum Detectable Polarization (MDP) and the accuracy of a polarization measurement.

  5. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  6. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding. PMID:26787123

  7. Factors affecting the bond strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins to base metal materials

    PubMed Central

    TANOUE, Naomi; MATSUDA, Yasuhiro; YANAGIDA, Hiroaki; MATSUMURA, Hideo; SAWASE, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective The shear bond strengths of two hard chairside reline resin materials and an auto-polymerizing denture base resin material to cast Ti and a Co-Cr alloy treated using four conditioning methods were investigated. Material and Methods Disk specimens (diameter 10 mm and thickness 2.5 mm) were cast from pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. The specimens were wet-ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air-dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1) air-abraded with 50-70-µm grain alumina (CON); 2) 1) + conditioned with a primer, including an acidic phosphonoacetate monomer (MHPA); 3) 1) + conditioned with a primer including a diphosphate monomer (MDP); 4) treated with a tribochemical system. Three resin materials were applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. Results The strengths decreased after thermocycling for all combinations. Among the resin materials assessed, the denture base material showed significantly (p<0.05) greater shear bond strengths than the two reline materials, except for the CON condition. After 10,000 thermocycles, the bond strengths of two reline materials decreased to less than 10 MPa for both metals. The bond strengths of the denture base material with MDP were sufficient: 34.56 MPa for cast Ti and 38.30 for Co-Cr alloy. Conclusion Bonding of reline resin materials to metals assessed was clinically insufficient, regardless of metal type, surface treatment, and resin composition. For the relining of metal denture frameworks, a denture base material should be used. PMID:24037070

  8. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Down-Regulates NOD Signaling and Inflammatory Response in Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinghua; Liao, Jianyi; Huang, Jie; Li, Yi Ping; Huang, Shungen; Zhou, Huiting; Xie, Yi; Pan, Jian; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on expression and function of NOD1 and NOD2 in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), in an attempt to clarify whether NOD1 and NOD2 signaling is involved in the modulation of host innate immunity against postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from pediatric CHD patients at five different time points: before CPB, immediately after CPB, and 1, 3, and 7 days after CPB. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to measure the expression of NOD1 and NOD2, their downstream signaling pathways, and inflammatory cytokines at various time points. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNF-α levels in response to stimulation with either the NOD1 agonist Tri-DAP or the NOD2 agonist MDP were significantly reduced after CPB compared with those before CPB, which is consistent with a suppressed inflammatory response postoperatively. The expression of phosphorylated RIP2 and activation of the downstream signaling pathways NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 upon Tri-DAP or MDP stimulation in PBMCs were substantially inhibited after CPB. The mRNA level of NOD1 and protein levels of NOD1 and NOD2 were also markedly decreased after CPB. Our results demonstrated that NOD-mediated signaling pathways were substantially inhibited after CPB, which correlates with the suppressed inflammatory response and may account, at least in part, for the increased risk of postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. PMID:27622570

  9. The identification of novel and differentially expressed apple-tree genes under low-temperature stress using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Du, Fan; Xu, Jia-Ning; Li, Da; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Low temperature is a major environmental constraint on the production of apples worldwide. An apple rootstock with high cold tolerance was selected to identify genes related to stress tolerance. The transcriptional profiles of the genes in the leaves were examined after various intervals of exposure to cold stress. We obtained three libraries of 14,219, 11,176 and 16,116 tag-mapped predicted coding sequences at three time points (0, 1 and 6 h) during cold stress. In the two time periods, which were from 0 to 1 h and from 1 to 6 h, 139 and 1,085 genes were upregulated, and 1,499 and 381 genes were downregulated, respectively. These groups included a large number of unknown genes. The distribution of genes indicated cold adaptation in the plant. Most of the differential expression genes (DEGs) had temporal specificity and significantly different expression changes at different time points. The classification of DEGs by GO category and KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the DEGs are involved in numerous biological pathways, including metabolism, plant-pathogen interaction and signal transduction. Eleven randomly selected tag-mapped genes were examined by qRT-PCR. The results of the qRT-PCR were in accordance with the transcriptional profiles. The most upregulated gene (MDP0000198054) from 0 to 1 h encodes a dehydration-responsive element-binding protein/C-repeat factor (DREB/CBF). In this study, MDP0000198054 and related genes involved in the cold stress response were discussed. These results could provide new insights into the stress tolerance mechanisms of apple rootstocks.

  10. Longitudinal diet quality is not associated with depressive symptoms in a cohort of middle-aged Australian women.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jun S; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Hure, Alexis J; McEvoy, Mark; Byles, Julie; Attia, John

    2016-03-14

    There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001-2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2-3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2-3-year intervals during 2001-2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=-0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=-0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding.

  11. Development of an Open Rotor Cycle Model in NPSS Using a Multi-Design Point Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and Subsonic Fixed Wing Project are focused on developing concepts and technologies which may enable dramatic reductions to the environmental impact of future generation subsonic aircraft (Refs. 1 and 2). The open rotor concept (also referred to as the Unducted Fan or advanced turboprop) may allow the achievement of this objective by reducing engine emissions and fuel consumption. To evaluate its potential impact, an open rotor cycle modeling capability is needed. This paper presents the initial development of an open rotor cycle model in the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) computer program which can then be used to evaluate the potential benefit of this engine. The development of this open rotor model necessitated addressing two modeling needs within NPSS. First, a method for evaluating the performance of counter-rotating propellers was needed. Therefore, a new counter-rotating propeller NPSS component was created. This component uses propeller performance maps developed from historic counter-rotating propeller experiments to determine the thrust delivered and power required. Second, several methods for modeling a counter-rotating power turbine within NPSS were explored. These techniques used several combinations of turbine components within NPSS to provide the necessary power to the propellers. Ultimately, a single turbine component with a conventional turbine map was selected. Using these modeling enhancements, an open rotor cycle model was developed in NPSS using a multi-design point approach. The multi-design point (MDP) approach improves the engine cycle analysis process by making it easier to properly size the engine to meet a variety of thrust targets throughout the flight envelope. A number of design points are considered including an aerodynamic design point, sea-level static, takeoff and top of climb. The development of this MDP model was also enabled by the selection of a simple power

  12. Two apextrin-like proteins mediate extracellular and intracellular bacterial recognition in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Yan, Xinyu; Yang, Ping; Li, Jun; Xu, Weiya; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Ruihua; Yu, Yingcai; Yuan, Shaochun; Chen, Shangwu; Luo, Guangbin; Xu, Anlong

    2014-09-16

    Animals exploit different germ-line-encoded proteins with various domain structures to detect the signature molecules of pathogenic microbes. These molecules are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the host proteins that react with PAMPs are called pattern recognition proteins (PRPs). Here, we present a novel type of protein domain structure capable of binding to bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and the minimal PGN motif muramyl dipeptide (MDP). This domain is designated as apextrin C-terminal domain (ApeC), and its presence was confirmed in several invertebrate phyla and subphyla. Two apextrin-like proteins (ALP1 and ALP2) were identified in a basal chordate, the Japanese amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum (bj). bjALP1 is a mucosal effector secreted into the gut lumen to agglutinate the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus via PGN binding. Neutralization of secreted bjALP1 by anti-bjALP1 monoclonal antibodies caused serious damage to the gut epithelium and rapid death of the animals after bacterial infection. bjALP2 is an intracellular PGN sensor that binds to TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and prevents TRAF6 from self-ubiquitination and hence from NF-κB activation. MDP was found to compete with TRAF6 for bjALP2, which released TRAF6 to activate the NF-κB pathway. BjALP1 and bjALP2 therefore play distinct and complementary functions in amphioxus gut mucosal immunity. In conclusion, discovery of the ApeC domain and the functional analyses of amphioxus ALP1 and ALP2 allowed us to define a previously undocumented type of PRP that is represented across different animal phyla.

  13. Electrochemical Na+ and Ca2+ gradients drive coupled-clock regulation of automaticity of isolated rabbit sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cells.

    PubMed

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Maltsev, Victor A; Yaniv, Yael; Bychkov, Rostislav; Yaeger, Daniel; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Spurgeon, Harold A; Lakatta, Edward G

    2016-07-01

    Coupling of an intracellular Ca(2+) clock to surface membrane ion channels, i.e., a "membrane clock, " via coupling of electrochemical Na(+) and Ca(2+) gradients (ENa and ECa, respectively) has been theorized to regulate sinoatrial nodal cell (SANC) normal automaticity. To test this hypothesis, we measured responses of [Na(+)]i, [Ca(2+)]i, membrane potential, action potential cycle length (APCL), and rhythm in rabbit SANCs to Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibition by the digitalis glycoside, digoxigenin (DG, 10-20 μmol/l). Initial small but significant increases in [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i and reductions in ENa and ECa in response to DG led to a small reduction in maximum diastolic potential (MDP), significantly enhanced local diastolic Ca(2+) releases (LCRs), and reduced the average APCL. As [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i continued to increase at longer times following DG exposure, further significant reductions in MDP, ENa, and ECa occurred; LCRs became significantly reduced, and APCL became progressively and significantly prolonged. This was accompanied by increased APCL variability. We also employed a coupled-clock numerical model to simulate changes in ENa and ECa simultaneously with ion currents not measured experimentally. Numerical modeling predicted that, as the ENa and ECa monotonically reduced over time in response to DG, ion currents (ICaL, ICaT, If, IKr, and IbNa) monotonically decreased. In parallel with the biphasic APCL, diastolic INCX manifested biphasic changes; initial INCX increase attributable to enhanced LCR ensemble Ca(2+) signal was followed by INCX reduction as ENCX (ENCX = 3ENa - 2ECa) decreased. Thus SANC automaticity is tightly regulated by ENa, ECa, and ENCX via a complex interplay of numerous key clock components that regulate SANC clock coupling.

  14. Monitoring simultaneous photocatalytic-ozonation of mixture of pharmaceuticals in the presence of immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles using MCR-ALS: Identification of intermediates and multi-response optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Khataee, Alireza; Naseri, Abdolhosein; Aber, Soheil

    2015-02-01

    The present study has focused on the degradation of a mixture of three pharmaceuticals, i.e. methyldopa (MDP), nalidixic acid (NAD) and famotidine (FAM) which were quantified simultaneously during photocatalytic-ozonation process. The experiments were conducted in a semi-batch reactor where TiO2 nanoparticles (crystallites mean size 8 nm) were immobilized on ceramic plates irradiated by UV-A light in the proximity of oxygen and/or ozone. The surface morphology and roughness of the bare and TiO2-coated ceramic plates were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An analytical methodology was successfully developed based on both recording ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra during the degradation process and a data analysis using multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). This methodology enabled the researchers to obtain the concentration and spectral profiles of the chemical compounds which were involved in the process. A central composite design was used to study the effect of several factors on multiple responses namely MDP removal (Y1), NAD removal (Y2) and FAM removal (Y3) in the simultaneous photocatalytic-ozonation of these pharmaceuticals. A multi-response optimization procedure based on global desirability of the factors was used to simultaneously maximize Y1, Y2 and Y3. The results of the global desirability revealed that 8 mg/L MAD, 8 mg/L NAD, 8 mg/L FAM, 6 L/h ozone flow rate and a 30 min-reaction time were the best conditions under which the optimized values of various responses were Y1 = 95.03%, Y2 = 84.93% and Y3 = 99.15%. Also, the intermediate products of pharmaceuticals generated in the photocatalytic-ozonation process were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

  15. The two faces of Alba: the evolutionary connection between proteins participating in chromatin structure and RNA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, L; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Anantharaman, Vivek

    2003-01-01

    Background There is considerable heterogeneity in the phyletic patterns of major chromosomal DNA-binding proteins in archaea. Alba is a well-characterized chromosomal protein from the crenarchaeal genus Sulfolobus. While Alba has been detected in most archaea and some eukaryotic taxa, its exact functions in these taxa are not clear. Here we use comparative genomics and sequence profile analysis to predict potential alternative functions of the Alba proteins. Results Using sequence-profile searches, we were able to unify the Alba proteins with RNase P/MRP subunit Rpp20/Pop7, human RNase P subunit Rpp25, and the ciliate Mdp2 protein, which is implicated in macronuclear development. The Alba superfamily contains two eukaryote-specific families and one archaeal family. We present different lines of evidence to show that both eukaryotic families perform functions related to RNA metabolism. Several members of one of the eukaryotic families, typified by Mdp2, are combined in the same polypeptide with RNA-binding RGG repeats. We also investigated the relationships of the unified Alba superfamily within the ancient RNA-binding IF3-C fold, and show that it is most closely related to other RNA-binding members of this fold, such as the YhbY and IF3-C superfamilies. Based on phyletic patterns and the principle of phylogenetic bracketing, we predict that at least some of the archaeal members may also possess a role in RNA metabolism. Conclusions The Alba superfamily proteins appear to have originated as RNA-binding proteins which formed various ribonucleoprotein complexes, probably including RNase P. It was recruited as a chromosomal protein possibly only within the crenarchaeal lineage. The evolutionary connections reported here suggest how a diversity of functions based on a common biochemical basis emerged in proteins of the Alba superfamily. PMID:14519199

  16. Adjuvanted, antigen loaded N-trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles for nasal and intradermal vaccination: adjuvant- and site-dependent immunogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Bal, Suzanne M; Slütter, Bram; Verheul, Rolf; Bouwstra, Joke A; Jiskoot, Wim

    2012-03-12

    N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles have been shown to increase the immunogenicity of subunit antigens after nasal and intradermal administration. This work describes a second generation of TMC nanoparticles containing ovalbumin as a model antigen (TMC/OVA nanoparticles) and an immunopotentiator (TMC/OVA/immunopotentiator nanoparticles). The selection of immunopotentiators included Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS), PAM(3)CSK(4) (PAM), CpG DNA, the NOD-like receptor 2 ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and the GM1 ganglioside receptor ligand, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). The TMC/OVA/immunopotentiator nanoparticles were characterised physico-chemically and their immunogenicity was assessed by determining the serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a titres and secretory IgA levels in nasal washes after intradermal and nasal vaccination in mice. After nasal vaccination, TMC/OVA nanoparticles containing LPS or MDP elicited higher IgG, IgG1 and sIgA levels than non-adjuvanted TMC/OVA particles, whereas nanoparticles containing CTB, PAM or CpG did not. After intradermal vaccination, the TMC/OVA/CpG and TMC/OVA/LPS nanoparticles provoked higher IgG titres than plain TMC/OVA particles. Altogether, our results show that co-encapsulation of an additional immunopotentiator with the antigen into TMC nanoparticles can further improve the immunogenicity of the vaccine. However, the strength and quality of the response depends on the immunopotentiator as well as the route of administration.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-12-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant 'Blondee' (BLO) and its red-skin parent 'Kidd's D-8' (KID), the original name of 'Gala', to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the DEGs uncovered a network module of 34 genes highly correlated (r=0.95, P=9.0×10(-13)) with anthocyanin contents. Although 12 of the 34 genes in the WGCNA module were characterized and known of roles in anthocyanin, the remainder 22 appear to be novel. Examining the expression of ten representative genes in the module in 14 diverse apples revealed that at least eight were significantly correlated with anthocyanin variation. MdMYB10 (MDP0000259614) and MdGST (MDP0000252292) were among the most suppressed module member genes in BLO despite being undistinguishable in their corresponding sequences between BLO and KID. Methylation assay of MdMYB10 and MdGST in fruit skin revealed that two regions (MR3 and MR7) in the MdMYB10 promoter exhibited remarkable differences between BLO and KID. In particular, methylation was high and progressively increased alongside fruit development in BLO while was correspondingly low and constant in KID. The methylation levels in both MR3 and MR7 were negatively correlated with anthocyanin content as well as the expression of MdMYB10 and MdGST. Clearly, the collective repression of the 34 genes explains the loss-of-colour in BLO while the methylation in MdMYB10 promoter is likely causal for the mutation.

  18. Production mask composition checking flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Wang, Alice; Lin, Roger; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The mask composition checking flow is an evolution of the traditional mask rule check (MRC). In order to differentiate the flow from MRC, we call it Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC). The mask house does MRC only to identify process limitations including writing, etching, metrology, etc. There still exist many potential errors that could occur when the frame, main circuit and dummies all together form a whole reticle. The MDCC flow combines the design rule check (DRC) and MRC concepts to adapt to the complex patterns in today's wafer production technologies. Although photomask data has unique characteristics, the MRC tool in Calibre® MDP can easily achieve mask composition by using the Extended MEBES job deck (EJB) format. In EJB format, we can customize the combination of any input layers in an IC design layout format, such as OASIS. Calibre MDP provides section-based processing for many standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands that support DRC-like checks on mask data. Integrating DRC-like checking with EJB for layer composition, we actually perform reticle-level DRC, which is the essence of MDCC. The flow also provides an early review environment before the photomask pattern files are available. Furthermore, to incorporate the MDCC in our production flow, runtime is one of the most important indexes we consider. When the MDCC is included in the tape-out flow, the runtime impact is very limited. Calibre, with its multi-threaded processes and good scalability, is the key to achieving acceptable runtime. In this paper, we present real case runtime data for 28nm and 14nm technology nodes, and prove the practicability of placing MDCC into mass production.

  19. Formation of alkenes via degradation of tert-alkyl ethers and alcohols by Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108 and Methylibium spp.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Franziska; Muzica, Liudmila; Schuster, Judith; Treuter, Naemi; Rosell, Mònica; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H; Rohwerder, Thore

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial degradation pathways of fuel oxygenates such as methyl tert-butyl and tert-amyl methyl ether (MTBE and TAME, respectively) have already been studied in some detail. However, many of the involved enzymes are still unknown, and possible side reactions have not yet been considered. In Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1, and Methylibium sp. strain R8, we have now detected volatile hydrocarbons as by-products of the degradation of the tert-alkyl ether metabolites tert-butyl and tert-amyl alcohol (TBA and TAA, respectively). The alkene isobutene was formed only during TBA catabolism, while the beta and gamma isomers of isoamylene were produced only during TAA conversion. Both tert-alkyl alcohol degradation and alkene production were strictly oxygen dependent. However, the relative contribution of the dehydration reaction to total alcohol conversion increased with decreasing oxygen concentrations. In resting-cell experiments where the headspace oxygen content was adjusted to less than 2%, more than 50% of the TAA was converted to isoamylene. Isobutene formation from TBA was about 20-fold lower, reaching up to 4% alcohol turnover at low oxygen concentrations. It is likely that the putative tert-alkyl alcohol monooxygenase MdpJ, belonging to the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron enzymes and found in all three strains tested, or an associated enzymatic step catalyzed the unusual elimination reaction. This was also supported by the detection of mdpJK genes in MTBE-degrading and isobutene-emitting enrichment cultures obtained from two treatment ponds operating at Leuna, Germany. The possible use of alkene formation as an easy-to-measure indicator of aerobic fuel oxygenate biodegradation in contaminated aquifers is discussed. PMID:21742915

  20. Electrochemical Na+ and Ca2+ gradients drive coupled-clock regulation of automaticity of isolated rabbit sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cells.

    PubMed

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Maltsev, Victor A; Yaniv, Yael; Bychkov, Rostislav; Yaeger, Daniel; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Spurgeon, Harold A; Lakatta, Edward G

    2016-07-01

    Coupling of an intracellular Ca(2+) clock to surface membrane ion channels, i.e., a "membrane clock, " via coupling of electrochemical Na(+) and Ca(2+) gradients (ENa and ECa, respectively) has been theorized to regulate sinoatrial nodal cell (SANC) normal automaticity. To test this hypothesis, we measured responses of [Na(+)]i, [Ca(2+)]i, membrane potential, action potential cycle length (APCL), and rhythm in rabbit SANCs to Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibition by the digitalis glycoside, digoxigenin (DG, 10-20 μmol/l). Initial small but significant increases in [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i and reductions in ENa and ECa in response to DG led to a small reduction in maximum diastolic potential (MDP), significantly enhanced local diastolic Ca(2+) releases (LCRs), and reduced the average APCL. As [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i continued to increase at longer times following DG exposure, further significant reductions in MDP, ENa, and ECa occurred; LCRs became significantly reduced, and APCL became progressively and significantly prolonged. This was accompanied by increased APCL variability. We also employed a coupled-clock numerical model to simulate changes in ENa and ECa simultaneously with ion currents not measured experimentally. Numerical modeling predicted that, as the ENa and ECa monotonically reduced over time in response to DG, ion currents (ICaL, ICaT, If, IKr, and IbNa) monotonically decreased. In parallel with the biphasic APCL, diastolic INCX manifested biphasic changes; initial INCX increase attributable to enhanced LCR ensemble Ca(2+) signal was followed by INCX reduction as ENCX (ENCX = 3ENa - 2ECa) decreased. Thus SANC automaticity is tightly regulated by ENa, ECa, and ENCX via a complex interplay of numerous key clock components that regulate SANC clock coupling. PMID:27208164

  1. [The effect of calcium and vitamin D deficiency in the food on the uptake and retention of 99mTc-methylenediphosphonate and 85Sr in the bones in rats].

    PubMed

    Kapitola, J; Jahoda, I; Kobos, L

    1990-05-01

    The effects of vitamin D-free diet with low Ca content on 24 hours' 99mTc-methylendiphosphonate retention (in the whole body and tibia), long-term the whole body 85Sr retention and 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis of femur and tibia in rats (at the same time in certain experiments femur density and weight after incineration were established) were followed. The whole body 99mTc-MDP retention increases significantly as early as the third day of the diet administration, retention in tibia and the whole body is in further 2 experiments increased after 1, 2 and 4 weeks of the diet (density decreases from the first or the second week). The whole body 85Sr retention is significantly increased as early as after 2 days of the diet, the great difference against controls only slowly decreases after discontinuation of low-Ca diet. Further experiment followed 2 hours' 85Sr catchment in femur and tibia samples after 2, 5, 10 and 20 days of diet--catchment increase is significant after 20 days (bone density and ash weight is significantly decreased after 10 and 20 days of diet). Thus retention of both osteotrophic substances in bone is as a result of low Ca diet increased. This reaction is in case with 85Sr expected, in that of 99mTc-MDP it suggests a possible relation of the catchment and mineral component of osseous tissue. Increased retention of both the substances obviously fails to be related to local blood circulation which was in this situation in our previous experiments decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2371530

  2. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-12-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant 'Blondee' (BLO) and its red-skin parent 'Kidd's D-8' (KID), the original name of 'Gala', to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the DEGs uncovered a network module of 34 genes highly correlated (r=0.95, P=9.0×10(-13)) with anthocyanin contents. Although 12 of the 34 genes in the WGCNA module were characterized and known of roles in anthocyanin, the remainder 22 appear to be novel. Examining the expression of ten representative genes in the module in 14 diverse apples revealed that at least eight were significantly correlated with anthocyanin variation. MdMYB10 (MDP0000259614) and MdGST (MDP0000252292) were among the most suppressed module member genes in BLO despite being undistinguishable in their corresponding sequences between BLO and KID. Methylation assay of MdMYB10 and MdGST in fruit skin revealed that two regions (MR3 and MR7) in the MdMYB10 promoter exhibited remarkable differences between BLO and KID. In particular, methylation was high and progressively increased alongside fruit development in BLO while was correspondingly low and constant in KID. The methylation levels in both MR3 and MR7 were negatively correlated with anthocyanin content as well as the expression of MdMYB10 and MdGST. Clearly, the collective repression of the 34 genes explains the loss-of-colour in BLO while the methylation in MdMYB10 promoter is likely causal for the mutation. PMID:26417021

  3. Two apextrin-like proteins mediate extracellular and intracellular bacterial recognition in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangrui; Huang, Shengfeng; Yan, Xinyu; Yang, Ping; Li, Jun; Xu, Weiya; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Ruihua; Yu, Yingcai; Yuan, Shaochun; Chen, Shangwu; Luo, Guangbin; Xu, Anlong

    2014-09-16

    Animals exploit different germ-line-encoded proteins with various domain structures to detect the signature molecules of pathogenic microbes. These molecules are known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and the host proteins that react with PAMPs are called pattern recognition proteins (PRPs). Here, we present a novel type of protein domain structure capable of binding to bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and the minimal PGN motif muramyl dipeptide (MDP). This domain is designated as apextrin C-terminal domain (ApeC), and its presence was confirmed in several invertebrate phyla and subphyla. Two apextrin-like proteins (ALP1 and ALP2) were identified in a basal chordate, the Japanese amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum (bj). bjALP1 is a mucosal effector secreted into the gut lumen to agglutinate the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus via PGN binding. Neutralization of secreted bjALP1 by anti-bjALP1 monoclonal antibodies caused serious damage to the gut epithelium and rapid death of the animals after bacterial infection. bjALP2 is an intracellular PGN sensor that binds to TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and prevents TRAF6 from self-ubiquitination and hence from NF-κB activation. MDP was found to compete with TRAF6 for bjALP2, which released TRAF6 to activate the NF-κB pathway. BjALP1 and bjALP2 therefore play distinct and complementary functions in amphioxus gut mucosal immunity. In conclusion, discovery of the ApeC domain and the functional analyses of amphioxus ALP1 and ALP2 allowed us to define a previously undocumented type of PRP that is represented across different animal phyla. PMID:25187559

  4. Transcriptome analysis of an apple (Malus × domestica) yellow fruit somatic mutation identifies a gene network module highly associated with anthocyanin and epigenetic regulation

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, Islam; Liang, Dong; Xu, Kenong

    2015-01-01

    Using RNA-seq, this study analysed an apple (Malus×domestica) anthocyanin-deficient yellow-skin somatic mutant ‘Blondee’ (BLO) and its red-skin parent ‘Kidd’s D-8’ (KID), the original name of ‘Gala’, to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the mutation. A total of 3299 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between BLO and KID at four developmental stages and/or between two adjacent stages within BLO and/or KID. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the DEGs uncovered a network module of 34 genes highly correlated (r=0.95, P=9.0×10–13) with anthocyanin contents. Although 12 of the 34 genes in the WGCNA module were characterized and known of roles in anthocyanin, the remainder 22 appear to be novel. Examining the expression of ten representative genes in the module in 14 diverse apples revealed that at least eight were significantly correlated with anthocyanin variation. MdMYB10 (MDP0000259614) and MdGST (MDP0000252292) were among the most suppressed module member genes in BLO despite being undistinguishable in their corresponding sequences between BLO and KID. Methylation assay of MdMYB10 and MdGST in fruit skin revealed that two regions (MR3 and MR7) in the MdMYB10 promoter exhibited remarkable differences between BLO and KID. In particular, methylation was high and progressively increased alongside fruit development in BLO while was correspondingly low and constant in KID. The methylation levels in both MR3 and MR7 were negatively correlated with anthocyanin content as well as the expression of MdMYB10 and MdGST. Clearly, the collective repression of the 34 genes explains the loss-of-colour in BLO while the methylation in MdMYB10 promoter is likely causal for the mutation. PMID:26417021

  5. Differential effect of vitamin D on NOD2- and TLR-induced cytokines in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Dionne, S; Calderon, M R; White, J H; Memari, B; Elimrani, I; Adelson, B; Piccirillo, C; Seidman, E G

    2014-11-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates defective innate immunity in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). Ineffectual NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2) is the most common susceptibility gene contributing to CD. Vitamin D (vD), a potent modulator of innate and adaptive immunity, induces NOD2 gene expression and its downstream function. We hypothesized that the hormonal form of vD (1,25D) could beneficially modulate innate immune function in CD. Using peripheral mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DCs) from CD, it was found that 1,25D decreased Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced cytokine production and enhanced cytokine levels induced by muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the NOD2 ligand. 1,25D increased the synergistic effect provided by NOD2 and TLR co-activation on interleukin (IL)-10, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Whereas 1,25D inhibits Mo-DC TLR-induced cytokines, co-stimulation of NOD2 results in increased IL-10 and IL-23. IL-12p70 was completely abrogated by 1,25D. 1,25D similarly modulated cytokine production by immune cells in ulcerative colitis patients and healthy controls. Mo-DCs from CD patients heterozygous for NOD2 mutations had a response similar to those from patients without NOD2 mutations. Immune cells from patients homozygous for the 1007 fs mutation were unresponsive to MDP and 1,25D. Our in vitro data support 1,25D as a potential modulator of immunity. However, these results cannot be extrapolated to CD patients without further controlled studies.

  6. Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and European cranberry (Vaccinium microcarpon) proanthocyanidins: isolation, identification, and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Kylli, Petri; Nohynek, Liisa; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita; Leppänen, Tiina; Welling, Jukka; Moilanen, Eeva; Heinonen, Marina

    2011-04-13

    European, small-fruited cranberries (Vaccinium microcarpon) and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were characterized for their phenolic compounds and tested for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiadhesive, and antiinflammatory effects. The main phenolic compounds in both lingonberries and cranberries were proanthocyanidins comprising 63-71% of the total phenolic content, but anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and flavonols were also found. Proanthocyanidins are polymeric phenolic compounds consisting mainly of catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin units. In the present study, proanthocyanidins were divided into three groups: dimers and trimers, oligomers (mDP 4-10), and polymers (mDP > 10). Catechin, epicatechin, A-type dimers and trimers were found to be the terminal units of isolated proanthocyanidin fractions. Inhibitions of lipid oxidation in liposomes were over 70% and in emulsions over 85%, and in most cases the oligomeric or polymeric fraction was the most effective. Polymeric proanthocyanidin extracts of lingonberries and cranberries were strongly antimicrobial against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas they had no effect on other bacterial strains such as Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Escherichia coli. Polymeric fraction of cranberries and oligomeric fractions of both lingonberries and cranberries showed an inhibitory effect on hemagglutination of E. coli, which expresses the M hemagglutin. Cranberry phenolic extract inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, but it had no major effect on iNOS of COX-2 expression. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL cranberry phenolic extract inhibited LPS-induced IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α production. Lingonberry phenolics had no significant effect on IL-1β production but inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production at a concentration of 100 μg/mL similarly to cranberry phenolic extract. In conclusion the phenolics, notably

  7. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions – Changes in Accuracy over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS) has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven’t been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2) to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time. Methods This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT) and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP). Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials. Findings Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase. Interpretation The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame. Conclusions Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their

  8. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Down-Regulates NOD Signaling and Inflammatory Response in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi Ping; Huang, Shungen; Zhou, Huiting; Xie, Yi; Pan, Jian; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on expression and function of NOD1 and NOD2 in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), in an attempt to clarify whether NOD1 and NOD2 signaling is involved in the modulation of host innate immunity against postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from pediatric CHD patients at five different time points: before CPB, immediately after CPB, and 1, 3, and 7 days after CPB. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to measure the expression of NOD1 and NOD2, their downstream signaling pathways, and inflammatory cytokines at various time points. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNF-α levels in response to stimulation with either the NOD1 agonist Tri-DAP or the NOD2 agonist MDP were significantly reduced after CPB compared with those before CPB, which is consistent with a suppressed inflammatory response postoperatively. The expression of phosphorylated RIP2 and activation of the downstream signaling pathways NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 upon Tri-DAP or MDP stimulation in PBMCs were substantially inhibited after CPB. The mRNA level of NOD1 and protein levels of NOD1 and NOD2 were also markedly decreased after CPB. Our results demonstrated that NOD-mediated signaling pathways were substantially inhibited after CPB, which correlates with the suppressed inflammatory response and may account, at least in part, for the increased risk of postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. PMID:27622570

  9. Influence of abuse history on gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, B; Van Oudenhove, L; Fischler, B; Vandenberghe, J; Caenepeel, P; Janssens, J; Tack, J

    2009-01-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders have elevated rates of sexual or physical abuse, which may be associated with altered rectal sensorimotor function in irritable bowel syndrome. The aim was to study the association between abuse history and gastric sensorimotor function in functional dyspepsia (FD). We studied gastric sensorimotor function with barostat (sensitivity, compliance and accommodation) and gastric emptying test in 233 consecutive FD patients from a tertiary care centre (162 women, mean age 41.6 +/- 0.9). Patients filled out self-report questionnaires on history of sexual and physical abuse during childhood or adulthood. Eighty-four patients (out of 198, 42.4%) reported an overall history of abuse [sexual and physical in respectively 30.0% (60/200) and 20.3% (42/207)]. FD patients reporting general as well as severe childhood sexual abuse have significantly lower discomfort thresholds during gastric distension [respectively 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 7.5 +/- 1.0 mmHg above minimal distending pressure (MDP), P = 0.014 and 10.5 +/- 0.4 vs 6.6 +/- 1.2 mmHg above MDP, P = 0.007]. The corresponding intra-balloon volume was also significantly lower (respectively 579 +/- 21 vs 422 +/- 59 mL, P = 0.013 and 579 +/- 19 vs 423 +/- 79 mL, P = 0.033). Gastric accommodation was significantly more pronounced in patients reporting rape during adulthood (91 +/- 12 vs 130 +/- 40 mL, P = 0.016). Abuse history was not associated with differences in gastric emptying. A history of abuse is associated with alterations in gastric sensorimotor function in FD. Particularly sexual abuse, rather than physical abuse, may influence gastric sensitivity and motor function. PMID:18694440

  10. Hydrothermal syntheses, structures and characterizations of two luminescent cadmium(II) complexes with p-xylenediphosphonic acid and N-donor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Yanqiong; Hu Jin; Zhang Hanhui; Chen Yiping

    2012-02-15

    Two novel cadmium diphosphonates [Cd(cis-H{sub 4}BDPP)(2,2 Prime -bipy){sub 2}]{center_dot}(trans-H{sub 2}BDPP)]{sub n} (1) and [Cd(trans-H{sub 2}BDPP)(phen)]{sub n} (2) (H{sub 4}BDPP=p-xylenediphosphonic acid, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, 2,2 Prime -bipy=2,2 Prime -bipyridine) were hydrothermally synthesized from p-xylenediphosphonic acid and CdSO{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O with phen or 2,2 Prime -bipy as second ligand components and characterized by means of elemental analyses, IR, TG analysis, luminescence spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consists of a novel one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal [Cd(cis-H{sub 4}BDPP)(2,2 Prime -bipy){sub 2}] chains and trans-H{sub 2}BDPP anions. Compound 2 possesses a three-dimensional architecture built from double zigzag -Cd-O-P-O-Cd- chains pillared by trans-p-xylylenediphosphonate ligands from four different directions. There are hexagonal channels running along the c-axis and the coordinated phen ligands suspend in the hexagonal channels. The results indicate that p-xylenediphosphonic acid can adopt varied coordination modes and conformations in the formation of the complexes and the influence of the N-donor ligands on the structure of the complexes is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Two new cadmium diphosphonates were obtained by using two different auxiliary ligands. The influence of the N-donor ligands on the structure of the complexes is discussed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first example of cadmium(II)-p-xylenediphosphonates templated by second ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of size of the auxiliary ligand on the structure of cadmium p-xylenediphosphonates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cis and trans configurations of p-xylenediphosphonates exist in the same crystal structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three-dimensional 4-connected framework with PtS network topology.

  11. Bone scan: Indium-WBC correlation in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the foot

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, B.; Wrege, S.S.; Altman, M.I.; Moore, J.W. )

    1989-11-01

    A retrospective study was performed of 20 podiatric cases using technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate three-phase bone scans along with indium-111 oxine leukocyte scans, as needed, to determine the presence and extent of osteomyelitis of the foot. Using criteria developed at our institution, the authors attempt to provide a mechanism to make a reliable diagnosis for osteomyelitis that has been supported by surgical/pathologic confirmation of long-term clinical follow-up. The sensitivity, using bone scans alone, was 100%, and specificity was 47%. Correlating bone and indium-111 leukocyte scans yielded a sensitivity of 100% with a specificity raised to 81%. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were used in 40% of cases when a definitive diagnosis for osteomyelitis could not be made on the basis of the three-phase bone scan or clinical presentation alone. Indium-111 leukocyte scans were also helpful in delineating the extent of the disease process. The authors present a standard technique for a 5-hour delayed imaging in the three-phase bone scan, as well as marking the foot in the indium-111 leukocyte scan with three routine views obtained for each imaging procedure, to ensure clinical accuracy.

  12. Nitrogen mustard up-regulates Bcl-2 and GSH and increases NTP and PCr in HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Boddie, A. W.; Constantinou, A.; Williams, C.; Reed, A.

    1998-01-01

    We hypothesized that unexplained increases in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) observed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) after treatment of tumours by DNA-damaging agents were related to chemotherapy-induced up-regulation of the bcl-2 gene and DNA damage prevention and repair processes. To test this hypothesis, we treated HT-29 cells with 10(-4) M nitrogen mustard (HN2) and performed sequential perchloric acid extractions in replicate over 0-18 h. By reference to an internal standard (methylene diphosphonic acid), absolute changes in 31P-detectable high-energy phosphates in these extracts were determined and correlated with changes in bcl-2 protein levels, cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis and total cellular glutathione (GSH) (an important defence against DNA damage from alkylating agents). After HN2 administration, bcl-2 protein levels in the HT-29 cell line rose at 2 h. Cell viability declined to 25% within 18 h, but apoptosis measured using fluorescence techniques remained in the 1-4% range. Increased cell division was noted at 4 h. Two high-energy interconvertible phosphates, NTP (P < or = 0.006) and phosphocreatine (PCr) (P < or = 0.0002), increased at 2 h concurrently with increased levels of bcl-2 protein and glutathione. This study demonstrates that bcl-2 and glutathione are up-regulated by HN2 and links this to a previously unexplained 31P MRS phenomenon: increased NTP after chemotherapy. Images Figure 6 PMID:9652754

  13. Ribbing disease: Uncommon cause of a common symptom

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Nishikant Avinash; Patnecha, Manish; Kumar, Praveen; Gadodia, Ankur; Subbarao, Kiran; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Ribbing disease is a rare form of sclerosing dysplasia characterized by benign endosteal and periosteal bone growth confined to the diaphyses of the long bones, usually the tibiae and femora. It occurs after puberty and is more commonly seen in women. The most common presenting symptom is pain that is usually self-limited; however, progression is known. The etiology and optimal treatment for the disease are as yet undefined. We present here the case of a 31-year-old woman with clinical, radiological and bone scan manifestations of Ribbing disease corroborated by bone biopsy. Radiographs demonstrated cortical thickening of the diaphyses of both tibiae. 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed intense irregular uptake in diaphyseal region of both tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical thickening with bone marrow edema in bilateral tibial diaphysis with minimal adjacent soft tissue edema. Bone biopsy revealed predominantly dense lamellar bone with irregular sized and spaced haversian systems. Serum and urine markers of bone metabolism were within normal limits. The patient was treated with analgesics, and had partial relief from pain. Medullary rimming is the next treatment option in case pain progresses. This report emphasizes the role of bone scan in the diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:21969779

  14. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Nour, S; El-Sharkawy, A; Burnett, W C; Horwitz, E P

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of > 30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a "hold back" carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference.

  15. Palliative therapy with I-131 labeled bezylidenediphosphonic acid: In vivo kinetics and response to pain induced by bone metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhut, M.; Berberich, R.; Kimmig, B.; Oberhausen, E.; Georgi, P.; Zum Winkel, K.

    1985-05-01

    I-131 labeled ..cap alpha..-amino-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)diphosphonic acid (BDP3) was recently suggested as a palliative acting radiopharmaceutical against pain syndromes associated with disseminated bone metastases. Such an application was supported by the in vivo kinetics of I-131-BDP3 in rats. The authors investigated the palliative effectiveness of I-131-BDP3 in 18 patients with typical pain symptoms induced by bone metastases of various primary carcinoma. The blood clearance was rapid. More than 90% disappeared from the blood pool at 4 hr after injection. The excretion of the activity occured solely through the kidneys and the median total body retention at 48 hr was 51% (range 30-64%). The thyroid activity decreased during therapy indicating no cleavage reactions as long as I-131-BDP3 is bound to the bone tissue. The binding of I-131-BDP3 to bone is very long since the effective half life was in the order of magnitude of the physical half life. Additionally the effective half lifes in the metastatic ares (median 182 hr; range 177-205 hr) proved to be longer than in unaffected areas (145 hr; 140-165 hr). The palliative therapies were performed with doses of 6 - 48 mCi. The response amounted to 44% complete pain relief, 6% substantial pain relief, 22% minimal improvement and 28% no change. The duration of response ranged between 1 and 8 weeks.

  16. Bone scintigraphy in evaluating the viability of composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and free non-revascularized periosteal grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, A.; Weiland, A.J.; Ostrup, L.T.

    1982-07-01

    Researchers studied the value of bone scintigraphy in the assessment of anastomotic patency and bone-cell viability in free bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses in twenty-seven dogs. The dogs were divided into three different groups, and scintigraphy was carried out using technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate in composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and periosteal grafts placed in different recipient beds. The viability of the grafts were evaluated by histological examination and fluorescence microscopy after triple labeling with oxytetracycline on the first postoperative day, alizarin complexone on the fourth postoperative day, and DCAF on the eleventh postoperative day. A positive scintiscan within the first week following surgery indicated patent microvascular anastomoses, and histological study and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that bone throughout the graft was viable. A positive scintiscan one week after surgery or later does not necessarily indicate microvascular patency or bone-cell survival, because new bone formed by creeping substitution on the surface of a dead bone graft can result in this finding.

  17. Bone stress lesions in ballet dancers: scintigraphic assessment.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, A R; Treves, S T; Micheli, L

    1988-04-01

    Ballet dancers are athletes susceptible to ligamentous and bony injury. We reviewed retrospectively the bone scans (technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate) of 23 ballet dancers with pain in the back and/or lower extremities to determine the usefulness of scintigraphy in the detection of stress lesions of bone. The scintigraphic studies in 19 dancers identified multiple areas of stress injury in both symptomatic and asymptomatic locations. Thirteen dancers had 22 stress fractures (microfractures of trabeculae with associated bone repair) manifested by an intense focus of increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical, and 19 dancers had stress reactions (areas of accelerated remodeling and resorption of bone) demonstrated by diffusely increased uptake of radiotracer. Ten of the 13 dancers with stress fractures were symptomatic and six of the 19 dancers with stress reactions were symptomatic. The radiographs of 10 dancers with positive bone scans were normal or showed no distinction between acute and chronic injuries. Stress fractures were most prevalent in the feet, and stress reactions were most prevalent in the tibiae. The study confirmed that ballet dancers sustain significant bone stress in their legs and feet. Our results show that scintigraphy can be used to detect stress fractures and stress reactions at both symptomatic and asymptomatic sites in this population.

  18. Stabilization of Metal-Loaded Ion-Exchange Resin with a Porous Silica Supporter Through Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I-T. Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.; Kim, J-H.

    2003-02-25

    A new ion exchanger with porous silica as a supporting material and diphosphonic acid as a functional chelating group has been developed at ANL for the effective removal of transition metals and actinide ions from very acidic radioactive liquid wastes. The applicability of this resin for the treatment of low- and/or intermediate-level aqueous waste from nuclear power plants (NPP) has not been reported in scientific literature, but is under study now in Korea. The major radioisotopes in NPP radioactive liquid waste are Cs and Co in neutral pH ranges. This study on the thermal stabilization of metal-loaded waste resin has been carried out in parallel with the sorption experiment. Thermal treatment of metal (Co, Cs or U) loaded resin was accomplished to see the possibility of enhancing the safety and stability of the final product during transportation and disposal. In this paper, characteristics of the metal-loaded resins before and after heat treatment at three different thermal conditions were investigated and compared with each other to see the effectiveness of the thermal treatment method.

  19. U.S. manned space flight: the first twenty years, a biomedical status report.

    PubMed

    Dietlein, L F; Johnston, R S

    1981-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the biomedical problems facing man in space have been brought into sharper focus. Space motion sickness is presently our most serious problem. Its etiology remains obscure, but the "sensory conflict" theory appears most plausible. No valid predictive tests of susceptibility exist and presently we must rely on medication for prevention or mitigation of symptoms. Adaptation/biofeedback techniques may prove useful. Cardiovascular "deconditioning" may be effectively attenuated by use of anti-g suits or plasma expanding techniques. Recent bedrest simulation studies would seem to indicate that concerns about chronically elevated central venous pressure during space flight are unfounded. The loss of red cell mass in space flight appears to be self-limited, independent of mission duration, and not of clinical concern, based on recent Soviet experiences. And finally, clodronate, a new diphosphonate effective in preventing hypercalciuria and negative calcium balance in normal human bedrested subjects, may prove effective in preventing or lessening skeletal mineral loss in space.

  20. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, J.S.; Rosenfield, N.S.; Hoffer, P.B.; Downing, D.

    1986-03-01

    This retrospective study was done to determine the value of combined bone (technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate) and gallium-67 citrate imaging in selected children with complicated clinical situations. Thirty-one children were evaluated for suspected osteomyelitis by bone scan followed within 4 days by a gallium scan. These 31 children represented a subpopulation in whom the Tc-99m scan is known to be potentially unreliable in diagnosing acute osteomyelitis. Eight children had acute osteomyelitis by strict criteria, while 23 did not. The bone scan successfully identified five of the eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in ten of the other 23. The gallium scan correctly identified all eight with osteomyelitis but was positive in seven of the other 23. The gallium scan was significantly less specific when the suspected lesion was in the extremities compared with central locations; causes of false-positive gallium scans included fracture and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Combined gallium and bone scanning increased accuracy of the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis. Both tests may, however, be abnormal in conditions other than osteomyelitis. These findings emphasize the importance of correlating all imaging studies in detection of osteomyelitis.