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Sample records for 99tcm labeled cyclic

  1. Pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 99Tcm-labelled monoclonal antibody B43.13 in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, S A; Baum, R P; Niesen, A; Madiyalakan, R; Korz, W; Sykes, T R; Sykes, C J; Hör, G; McEwan, A J; Noujaim, A A

    1997-09-01

    OVAREX MAb B43.13 is a new radiopharmaceutical based on a monoclonal antibody (MAb-B43.13) known to recognize CA 125, a tumour antigen associated with epithelial ovarian cancer. This MAb is capable of facile radiolabelling with 99Tcm and has been shown previously to localize in the tumours of ovarian cancer patients. The present study was initiated to measure the pharmacokinetics of this MAb in the serum of 10 patients with primary or metastatic ovarian cancer. A two-compartment model was found to be best at representing the biodistribution of the 99Tcm-labelled MAb, yielding a 2.6 h distribution phase half-life and a 31.3 h elimination phase half-life. The serum and renal clearances for 99Tcm-MAb-B43.13 were 121 and 53 ml h-1 respectively. These parameters were compared with a similar model developed from the serum values of the MAb itself (determined using an ELISA detection method). Based on the serum pharmacokinetics of 99Tcm-MAb-B43.13 and whole-body planar gamma camera images, an estimate of the radiation dose from 99Tcm was calculated using standard MIRD schema. The organs demonstrating significant 99Tcm uptake included the liver, kidneys, heart and spleen. The whole-body dose was similar to other 99Tcm-labelled MAbs.

  2. Beta decay of 99Tcm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alburger, D. E.; Richards, P.; Ku, T. H.

    1980-02-01

    The emission of β rays from 6.02-h 99Tcm has been detected with an intermediate-image magnetic spectrometer. β-ray components with end-point energies of 434.8+/-2.6 keV (β0) to the 99Ru ground state and 346.7+/-2.0 keV (β1) to the 90-keV state were found with intensities per decay of (1.0+/-0.3) × 10-5 for β0 and (2.6+/-0.5) × 10-5 for β1. In the Kurie plot analysis the unique first-forbidden "α" shape was assumed for β0 and an allowed shape was assumed for β1. Values of f1t=9.39+/-0.11 for β0 and f0t=8.66+/-0.08 for β1 were derived. γ rays of 322, 233, and 140 keV were observed in a calibrated Ge(Li) detector with relative source intensities of I322:I233:I140=(1.13+/-0.09)×10-6:(0.95+/-0.17)×10-7:1.000. The total β-ray branching of 3.7 × 10-5 results in a negligible correction to dosage calculations in the use of 99Tcm for diagnostic nuclear medicine. RADIOACTIVITY 99Tcm: measured Eβ, Iβ, and Iγ magnetic spectrometer, Ge(Li); deduced decay scheme.

  3. A simple computer programme for biokinetic study of 99Tcm-radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Imran, M B; Khurshid, S J; Anwar, K

    1994-02-01

    A simple programme has been written in GW BASIC to calculate the percentage activity of 99Tcm-radiopharmaceuticals in different tissues after biodistribution. The programme is efficient, easy to handle and produces a permanent record in terms of a final report.

  4. Is computer-aided interpretation of 99Tcm-HMPAO leukocyte scans better than the naked eye?

    PubMed

    Almer, S; Peters, A M; Ekberg, S; Franzén, L; Granerus, G; Ström, M

    1995-04-01

    In order to compare visual interpretation of inflammation detected by leukocyte scintigraphy with that of different computer-aided quantification methods, 34 patients (25 with ulcerative colitis and 9 with endoscopically verified non-inflamed colonic mucosa), were investigated using 99Tcm-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcm-HMPAO) leukocyte scintigraphy and colonoscopy with biopsies. Scintigrams were obtained 45 min and 4 h after the injection of labelled cells. Computer-generated grading of seven colon segments using four different methods was performed on each scintigram for each patient. The same segments were graded independently using a 4-point visual scale. Endoscopic and histological inflammation were scored on 4-point scales. At 45 min, a positive correlation was found between endoscopic and scan gradings in individual colon segments when using visual grading and three of the four computer-aided methods (Spearman's rs = 0.30-0.64, P < 0.001). Histological grading correlated with visual grading and with two of the four computer-aided methods at 45 min (rs = 0.42-0.54, P < 0.001). At 4 h, all grading methods correlated positively with both endoscopic and histological assessment. The correlation coefficients were, in all but one instance, highest for the visual grading. As an inter-observer comparison to assess agreement between the visual gradings of two nuclear physicians, 14 additional patients (9 ulcerative colitis, 5 infectious enterocolitis) underwent leukocyte scintigraphy. Agreement assessed using kappa statistics was 0.54 at 45 min (P < 0.001). Separate data concerning the presence/absence of active inflammation showed a high kappa value (0.74, P < 0.001). Our results showed that a simple scintigraphic scoring system based on assessment using the human eye reflects colonic inflammation at least as well as computer-aided grading, and that highly correlated results can be achieved between different investigators.

  5. A simplified determination of glomerular filtration rate with 99Tcm-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Galli, G; Rufini, V; Meduri, G

    1994-10-01

    Using 99Tcm-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) an acceptable estimate of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be obtained in adult patients by the equation GF (ml/min) = (0.14 x W + 5) x 1000 x k, where W is the 'ideal' body mass (kg) and k the slope determined by two plasma samples. This has been verified in comparison with the results of the Russell (two samples) and Christensen (one sample) methods in 50 patients. The procedure, which does not require determination of the injected dose, could be useful in patients undergoing sequential renal scintigraphy with 99Tcm-DTPA, for example, to check a doubtful value of glomerular filtration obtained by external counting.

  6. Serial changes in regional blood flow in the cerebrum and cerebellum of stroke patients imaged by 99Tcm-HMPAO SPET.

    PubMed

    Lin, W Y; Kao, C H; Wang, P Y; Changlai, S P; Wang, S J

    1996-03-01

    Luxury perfusion is a well-known phenomenon that can mask ischaemic lesions in patients with cerebral infarction, thus making diagnosis difficult. In this study, we evaluated the incidence of luxury perfusion over a 3-week period following a stroke episode. The usefulness of crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) as a complementary feature in the diagnosis of cerebral infarction was also evaluated using 99Tcm-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99TcmHMPAO) brain single photon emission tomography (SPET). Twelve patients diagnosed as having a hemispheric ischaemic stroke of the middle cerebral arterial territory were enrolled in the study. Each patient underwent a total of four 99Tcm-HMPAO brain SPET examinations, 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks following the stroke episode. Our results show that the incidence of luxury perfusion was 67% (8/12) after 1 week, 75% (9/12) after 2 weeks and 83% (10/12) after 3 weeks. The incidence of CCD was 33% (4/12) after 1 day, 50% (6/12) after 1 week, 42% (5/12) after 2 weeks and 33% (4/12) after 3 weeks. We conclude that the detection of cerebral infarction is difficult 2 weeks or more after a stroke episode. The interval between the stroke episode and examination must be considered when reading the 99Tcm-HMPAO image. In addition, CCD may be helpful for the diagnosis of cerebral infarction within the first week after a stroke episode, especially in cases of an unidentified ischaemic region on the 99Tcm-HMPAO hemispheric image. However, the value of CCD is limited 2 weeks or more following the stroke episode.

  7. The absent kidney in 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram: a dramatic reversible consequence of contrast nephrotoxicity superimposed on renal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kayani, I; Groves, A M; Syed, R; Nagabushan, N; Pakzad, F; Prvulovich, E M; Bomanji, J B

    2005-04-01

    99Tcm-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renogram is a robust imaging technique used to delineate upper urinary tract obstruction. The changes observed on the renogram are often reversible on relief of obstruction. We present two cases illustrating the extreme consequence of contrast nephrotoxicity on pre-existing obstructed kidneys. In one case, this led to severe impairment of perfusion and uptake observed on 99Tcm-MAG3 renogram and in the second case virtual non-visualization of the obstructed kidney. Subsequent treatment of obstruction, led to dramatic improvement in renal function. It is important for clinicians, nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists to be aware of the potential of contrast nephrotoxicity in obstructed kidneys.

  8. [Diagnostic value of MRI versus 99Tcm-MDP bone scan in osseous metastasis of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Zhou, Luyi; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Qiao; Deng, Houfu

    2014-08-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the diagnostic value of MRI versus 99 Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99 Tcm- MDP) bone scan (BS) for osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The computer-based retrieval was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library and Ovid data bases to search for trials about diagnosing osseous metastases of prostate cancer with MRI and 99Tc"m-MDP BS. Selected with time acceptance and time exclusion criteria, the data quality were evaluated with QUADAS quality assessment tool and collected. We used the Meta-Disc software to conduct meta-analysis, and then calculated the pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), drew the summary receiving operating characteristic (SROC) curve, and measured the area under curve (AUC) and Q value. Then five studies were included, involving 353 patients. The pooled sensitivity of MRI and BS was 0. 95 (95% CI 0. 90~0. 98) and 0. 67 (95% CI 0. 58~0. 75), respectively. The pooled specificity was 0. 97 (95% CI 0. 94~0. 99) and 0. 88 (95% CI 0. 83~0. 91), respectively. The pooled DOR was 402.99 (95% CI 119. 05 ~1364. 15) and 23. 85 (95% CI 1. 32~431. 48), respectively. The AUC was 0. 990 1 and 0. 624 1, respectively. The Q was 0. 958 7 and 0. 593 8. It can well be concluded that MRI is more effective than 99 Tcm-MDP BS in the diagnosis of osseous metastases in patients with prostate cancer.

  9. Diselenide-Labeled Cyclic Polystyrene with Multiple Responses: Facile Synthesis, Tunable Size, and Topology.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhaoxiong; Lu, Weihong; Gao, Feng; Pan, Xiangqiang; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Zhengbiao; Zhu, Xiulin

    2016-05-01

    Diselenide-containing polymers have attracted more and more attention due to their redox sensitivity and bioapplication. In this work, a bifunctional diselenocarbonate is prepared and used to mediate the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, producing α,ω-selenocarbonate-labeled telechelic polystyrene. Based on effective aminolysis of the terminal selenocarbonates and the followed spontaneous oxidation coupling reaction of diselenols, monoblock cyclic polystyrene linked by one diselenide bond and multiblock cyclic copolymer linked by several diselenide bonds are prepared by manipulating the concentration of α,ω-telechelic polystyrene in solution. The progress of aminolysis and the subsequent spontaneous oxidation of selenols to diselenides are monitored by UV-vis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and NMR characterizations, confirming the cyclic topologies of the resultant polymers (monocyclic or multiblock cyclic polymer). The monoblock cyclic or multiblock polymers show redox sensitivity, which can be converted to linear polymer by reducing or oxidizing agent. Moreover, the obtained monoblock cyclic polymer or multiblock cyclic copolymer can be transformed to each other under UV irradiation by adjusting the concentration of the cyclic polystyrene. For the first time, this work provides an alternative and promising approach to realize the topological transformation of polymers by installing multiresponsive diselenide moities into the backbone of cyclic polymer.

  10. 99Tcm-MIBI single photon emission tomography (SPET) for detecting myocardial ischaemia and necrosis in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sciammarella, M G; Fragasso, G; Gerundini, P; Maffioli, L; Cappelletti, A; Margonato, A; Savi, A; Chierchia, S

    1992-12-01

    The ability of 99Tcm-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) single photon emission tomography (SPET) to detect myocardial ischaemia and necrosis was assessed in 56 patients (45 male, 11 female, aged 55 +/- 5 years), with clinically recognized ischaemic heart disease (IHD). All underwent coronary angiography (CA) and left ventriculography (LV). SPET images were obtained at rest and at peak exercise (Modified Bruce) 90 min after injection of 99Tcm-MIBI (650-850 MBq). Data were acquired in 30 min over 180 degrees (from 45 degrees RAO to 45 degrees LPO) with no correction for attenuation, using a 64 x 64 matrix. The presence of persistent (P) or reversible (R) perfusion defects (PD) was then correlated to the resting and exercise ECG and to the results of CA and LV. Of the 56 patients, 34 had reversible underperfusion (RPD), 46 persistent underperfusion (PPD) and 31 had both. The occurrence of RPD correlated well with the occurrence of exercise-induced ST segment depression and/or angina (27 patients of 34 patients, 79%) and with the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) (33 of 44, 73%). In 45 of 46 patients (98%) PPD corresponded to akinetic or severely hypokinetic segments (LV) usually explored by ECG leads exhibiting diagnostic Q waves (42 of 46 patients, 91%). The scan was normal both at rest and after stress in four of 11 patients with no CAD, and in two of 45 patients with CAD. Finally, an abnormal resting scan was seen in seven of 11 patients with normal coronary arteries, of whom six had regional wall motion abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Labels, cognomes, and cyclic computation: an ethological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, it has widely been assumed by linguists that there is a single computational operation, Merge, which is unique to language, distinguishing it from other cognitive domains. The intention of this paper is to progress the discussion of language evolution in two ways: (i) survey what the ethological record reveals about the uniqueness of the human computational system, and (ii) explore how syntactic theories account for what ethology may determine to be human-specific. It is shown that the operation Label, not Merge, constitutes the evolutionary novelty which distinguishes human language from non-human computational systems; a proposal lending weight to a Weak Continuity Hypothesis and leading to the formation of what is termed Computational Ethology. Some directions for future ethological research are suggested. PMID:26089809

  12. The use of 99Tcm-DTPA aerosol and caesium iodide mini-scintillation detectors in the assessment of lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Keavey, P M; Hasan, A; Au, J; Dark, J H

    1997-01-01

    Lung injury is a well-documented adverse effect of cardiopulmonary bypass. The mechanism of injury is not fully understood, but pulmonary hypoxia may be a factor. Post-operative pulmonary epithelial permeability (PEP) in ventilated versus non-ventilated lungs was measured within 2 h of return to the intensive care unit using a 99Tcm-diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol technique. A portable scintillation detector system was required. Sodium iodide detectors have been used previously with this technique but are cumbersome. This study used mini caesium iodide detectors (Oakfield Instruments, Oxon, UK), which can be attached directly to the patient and are more suited to the intensive care setting. The clearance half-time from lung to blood (T1/2LB) was measured in 31 patients (62 lungs). The mean (+/- S.E.M.) clearance half-times were 42.3 +/- 2.7 and 45.7 +/- 3.8 min for non-ventilated and ventilated lungs respectively, with a mean difference of 3.4 +/- 3.1 min (P > 0.05). We conclude that, using this technique, no significant difference in PEP is observed between ventilated and non-ventilated lungs in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

  13. The importance of 99Tcm-DMSA renal scintigraphy in the follow-up of acute pyelonephritis in children: comparison with urographic data.

    PubMed

    Lavocat, M P; Granjon, D; Guimpied, Y; Dutour, N; Allard, D; Prevôt, N; Dubois, F

    1998-07-01

    At present, 99Tcm-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy is the most sensitive examination for the detection of parenchymal damage during acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children. This prospective study had three aims: (1) to evaluate the medium-term evolution of the scintigraphic abnormalities, to find a prognostic criterion of scintigraphic evolution; (2) to assess the correlation between the severity of early or late scintigraphic damage and selected clinical factors; and (3) to compare the permanent scintigraphic renal scars with intravenous urography (IVU) 2 years after the acute infection. Seventy-four children (mean age 32 months), presenting with a first clinical episode of pyelonephritis and an initial scintigraphic abnormality, were included in the study. Patients with a history of urinary tract infection (UTI), uropathy other than vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) and a relapse of acute pyelonephritis were excluded. All children underwent control scintigraphy (mean 9 months after APN) and 43 had an IVU (mean 26 months after APN). Fifty-seven children (77%) still have scintigraphic abnormalities of varying severity (7 atrophic kidneys). Initial relative DMSA uptake of less than 45% results in a worse scintigraphic prognosis. The age of the child has no bearing on the severity of the initial renal involvement or on the evolution of the scintigraphic abnormalities. The rapid introduction of antibiotics (< 12 h) significantly improves the scintigraphic prognosis (P < 0.01). The presence of reflux (n = 39) leads to more serious initial damage, but we did not find any effect on later evolution in this study, in which all reflux was low grade in nature. Among the 43 children who had an IVU, 5 showed typical urographic and scintigraphic renal scars in the corresponding region and 38 showed a normal IVU with 28 cases of scintigraphic abnormalities. A DMSA scan is more sensitive than IVU for the detection of renal scarring after a first episode of APN.

  14. A label-free and high-efficient GO-based aptasensor for cancer cells based on cyclic enzymatic signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunyi; Liu, Juan; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Song; Kong, Jilie

    2017-05-15

    A label-free and high-efficient graphene oxide (GO)-based aptasensor was developed for the detection of low quantity cancer cells based on cell-triggered cyclic enzymatic signal amplification (CTCESA). In the absence of target cells, hairpin aptamer probes (HAPs) and dye-labeled linker DNAs stably coexisted in solution, and the fluorescence was quenched by the GO-based FÖrster resonance energy transfer (FRET) process. In the presence of target cells, the specific binding of HAPs with the target cells triggered a conformational alternation, which resulted in linker DNA complementary pairing and cleavage by nicking endonuclease-strand scission cycles. Consequently, more cleaved fragments of linker DNAs with more the terminal labeled dyes could show the enhanced fluorescence because these cleaved DNA fragments hardly combine with GOs and prevent the FRET process. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that this GO-based aptasensor exhibited selective and sensitive response to the presence of target CCRF-CEM cells in the concentration range from 50 to 10(5) cells. The detection limit of this method was 25 cells, which was approximately 20 times lower than the detection limit of normal fluorescence aptasensors without amplification. With high sensitivity and specificity, it provided a simple and cost-effective approach for early cancer diagnosis.

  15. Sulfonation of Tyrosine as a Method to Improve Biodistribution of Peptide-Based Radiotracers: Novel (18)F-Labelled Cyclic RGD Analogues.

    PubMed

    Haskali, Mohammad Baqir; Denoyer, Delphine; Noonan, Wayne; Cullinane, Carleen; Rangger, Christine; Pouliot, Normand; Haubner, Roland; Roselt, Peter D; Hicks, Rodney J; Hutton, Craig A

    2017-02-13

    The labeling of peptides with positron emitting radionuclides has long held the promise of a wide range of PET agents possessing high affinity and selectivity. Not surprisingly, controlling the biodistribution of these agents has proven to be a major challenge in their successful application. Modification of peptide hydrophilicity in order to increase renal clearance has been a common endeavor to improve overall biodistribution. Herein, we examine the effect of site-specific sulfonation of tyrosine moieties in cyclic(RGDyK) peptides as a means to enhance their hydrophilicity and improve their biodistribution. The novel sulfonated cyclic(RGDyK) peptides were conjugated directly to 4-nitrophenyl 2-[18F]fluoropropionate and the biodistribution of the radiolabeled peptides was compared with that of their non-sulfonated, clinically relevant counterparts, [18F]GalactoRGD and [18F]FPPRGD2. Site-specific sulfonation of the tyrosine residues was shown to increase hydrophilicity and improve biodistribution of the RGD peptides, despite contributing just 79 Da towards the MW, compared with 189 Da for both the 'Galacto' and mini-PEG moieties, suggesting this may be a broadly applicable approach to enhancing biodistribution of radiolabelled peptides.

  16. Impact of Multiple Negative Charges on Blood Clearance and Biodistribution Characteristics of 99mTc-Labeled Dimeric Cyclic RGD Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    the multiple negative charges have a significant impact on the blood clearance kinetics and tumor uptake of 99mTc-labeled dimeric cyclic RGD peptides. PMID:25144854

  17. On-resin synthesis of an acylated and fluorescence-labeled cyclic integrin ligand for modification of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Hassert, Rayk; Hoffmeister, Peter-Georg; Pagel, Mareen; Hacker, Michael; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides show remarkable affinity and specificity to integrin receptors and mediate important physiological effects in tumor angiogenesis. Additionally, they are one of the keyplayers in improving the biocompatibility of biomaterials. The fully biodegradable polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is frequently used for biomedical implants and can be applied as nanoparticles for drug delivery. The aim of this work was the generation of a lipidated c[RGDfK] peptide including a second functionality for coating of hydrophobic PLGA. Therefore, we established a general and straightforward strategy for the introduction of two different modifications into the same c[RGDfK] peptide. This allowed the generation of a palmitoylated integrin-binding lipopeptide that shows high affinity to PLGA. Additionally, we coupled 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein to the second site for modification to enable sensitive quantification of the immobilized lipopeptide on PLGA. In conclusion, we present a synthesis protocol that enables the preparation of c[RGDfK] lipopeptides with a strong affinity to PLGA and an additional site for modifications. This will provide the opportunity to introduce a variety of effector molecules site-specifically to the c[RGDfK] lipopeptide, which will enable the introduction of multifunctionality into c[RGDfK]-coated PLGA devices or nanoparticles.

  18. Cyclic Voltammetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dennis H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a simple experiment that has become popular in chemical research because it can provide useful information about redox reactions in a form which is easily obtained and interpreted. Discusses principles of the method and illustrates its use in the study of four electrode reactions. (Author/JN)

  19. In Vivo PET Imaging of the Cancer Integrin αvβ6 Using (68)Ga-Labeled Cyclic RGD Nonapeptides.

    PubMed

    Notni, Johannes; Reich, Dominik; Maltsev, Oleg V; Kapp, Tobias G; Steiger, Katja; Hoffmann, Frauke; Esposito, Irene; Weichert, Wilko; Kessler, Horst; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Expression of the cellular transmembrane receptor αvβ6 integrin is essentially restricted to malignant epithelial cells in carcinomas of a broad variety of lineages, whereas it is virtually absent in normal adult tissues. Thus, it is a highly attractive target for tumor imaging and therapy. Furthermore, αvβ6 integrin plays an important role for the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction and the development of fibrosis. Methods: On the basis of the (68)Ga chelators TRAP (triazacyclononane-triphosphinate) and NODAGA, we synthesized mono-, di-, and trimeric conjugates of the αvβ6 integrin-selective peptide cyclo(FRGDLAFp(NMe)K) via click chemistry. These were labeled with (68)Ga and screened regarding their suitability for in vivo imaging of αvβ6 integrin expression by PET and ex vivo biodistribution in severe combined immunodeficiency mice bearing H2009 tumor (human lung adenocarcinoma) xenografts. For these, αvβ6 integrin expression in tumor and other tissues was determined by β6 immunohistochemistry. Results: Despite the multimers showing higher αvβ6 integrin affinities (23-120 pM) than the monomers (260 pM), the best results-that is, low background uptake and excellent tumor delineation-were obtained with the TRAP-based monomer (68)Ga-avebehexin. This compound showed the most favorable pharmacokinetics because of its high polarity (log D = -3.7) and presence of additional negative charges (carboxylates) on the chelator, promoting renal clearance. Although tumor uptake was low (0.65% ± 0.04% injected dose per gram tissue [%ID/g]), it was still higher than in all other organs except the kidneys, ranging from a maximum for the stomach (0.52 ± 0.04 %ID/g) to almost negligible for the pancreas (0.07 ± 0.01 %ID/g). A low but significant target expression in tumor, lung, and stomach was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: Because of highly sensitive PET imaging even of tissues with low αvβ6 integrin expression density, we anticipate clinical

  20. Probing the conformation and 2D-distribution of pyrene-terminated redox-labeled poly(ethylene glycol) chains end-adsorbed on HOPG using cyclic voltammetry and atomic force electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Anne, Agnès; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Chovin, Arnaud; Demaille, Christophe; Taofifenua, Cécilia

    2014-03-14

    The present paper aims at illustrating how end-attachment of water-soluble flexible chains bearing a terminal functional group onto graphene-like surfaces has to be carefully tuned to ensure the proper positioning of the functional moiety with respect to the anchoring surface. The model experimental system considered here consists of a layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains, bearing an adsorbing pyrene foot and a ferrocene (Fc) redox functional head, self-assembled onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Cyclic voltammetry is used to accurately measure the chain coverage and gain insights into the microenvironment experienced by the Fc heads. Molecule-touching atomic force electrochemical microscopy (Mt/AFM-SECM) is used to simultaneously probe the chain conformation and the position of the Fc heads within the layer, and also to map the 2D-distribution of the chains over the surface. This multiscale electrochemical approach allows us to show that whereas Fc-PEG-pyrene readily self-assembles to form extremely homogeneous layers, the strongly hydrophobic nature of graphite planes results in a complex coverage-dependent structure of the PEG layer due to the interaction of the ferrocene label with the HOPG surface. It is shown that, even though pyrene is known to adsorb particularly strongly onto HOPG, the more weakly adsorbing terminal ferrocene can also act as the chain anchoring moiety especially at low coverage. However we show that beyond a critical coverage value the Fc-PEG-pyrene chains adopt an ideal "foot-on" end-attached conformation allowing the Fc head to explore a volume away from the surface solely limited by the PEG chain elasticity.

  1. Cyclic multiverses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marosek, Konrad; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Using the idea of regularization of singularities due to the variability of the fundamental constants in cosmology we study the cyclic universe models. We find two models of oscillating and non-singular mass density and pressure (`non-singular' bounce) regularized by varying gravitational constant G despite the scale factor evolution is oscillating and having sharp turning points (`singular' bounce). Both violating (big-bang) and non-violating (phantom) null energy condition models appear. Then, we extend this idea on to the multiverse containing cyclic individual universes with either growing or decreasing entropy though leaving the net entropy constant. In order to get an insight into the key idea, we consider the doubleverse with the same geometrical evolution of the two `parallel' universes with their physical evolution [physical coupling constants c(t) and G(t)] being different. An interesting point is that there is a possibility to exchange the universes at the point of maximum expansion - the fact which was already noticed in quantum cosmology. Similar scenario is also possible within the framework of Brans-Dicke theory where varying G(t) is replaced by the dynamical Brans-Dicke field φ(t) though these theories are slightly different.

  2. Plant Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Atienza, Juliana; Van Ingelgem, Carl; Roef, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the cyclic nucleotides 3′,5′-cyclic adenyl monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) in plants is now generally accepted. In addition, cAMP and cGMP have been implicated in the regulation of important plant processes such as stomatal functioning, monovalent and divalent cation fluxes, chloroplast development, gibberellic acid signalling, pathogen response and gene transcription. However, very little is known regarding the components of cyclic nucleotide signalling in plants. In this addendum, the evidence for specific mechanisms of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling is evaluated and discussed. PMID:19704553

  3. Designing cyclic universe models.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Justin; Steinhardt, Paul J; Turok, Neil

    2004-01-23

    The phenomenological constraints on the scalar field potential in cyclic models of the Universe are presented. We show that cyclic models require a comparable degree of tuning to that needed for inflationary models. The constraints are reduced to a set of simple design rules including "fast-roll" parameters analogous to the "slow-roll" parameters in inflation.

  4. Cyclic Hematopoiesis: animal models

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.B.; Lange, R.D.

    1983-08-01

    The four existing animal models of cyclic hematopoiesis are briefly described. The unusual erythropoietin (Ep) responses of the W/Wv mouse, the Sl/Sld mouse, and cyclic hematopoietic dog are reviewed. The facts reviewed indicate that the bone marrow itself is capable of influencing regulatory events of hematopoiesis.

  5. Affordable Cyclic Voltammetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Greg; Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Amend, John R.; Collins, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is an important component of the undergraduate chemical curriculum. Unfortunately, undergraduate students rarely have the opportunity to conduct experiments in cyclic voltammetry owing to the high cost of potentiostats, which are required to control these experiments. By using MicroLab data acquisition interfaces in conjunction…

  6. Novel pH-Sensitive Cyclic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Weerakkody, Dhammika; Moshnikova, Anna; El-Sayed, Naglaa Salem; Adochite, Ramona-Cosmina; Slaybaugh, Gregory; Golijanin, Jovana; Tiwari, Rakesh K.; Andreev, Oleg A.; Parang, Keykavous; Reshetnyak, Yana K.

    2016-01-01

    A series of cyclic peptides containing a number of tryptophan (W) and glutamic acid (E) residues were synthesized and evaluated as pH-sensitive agents for targeting of acidic tissue and pH-dependent cytoplasmic delivery of molecules. Biophysical studies revealed the molecular mechanism of peptides action and localization within the lipid bilayer of the membrane at high and low pHs. The symmetric, c[(WE)4WC], and asymmetric, c[E4W5C], cyclic peptides translocated amanitin, a polar cargo molecule of similar size, across the lipid bilayer and induced cell death in a pH- and concentration-dependent manner. Fluorescently-labelled peptides were evaluated for targeting of acidic 4T1 mammary tumors in mice. The highest tumor to muscle ratio (5.6) was established for asymmetric cyclic peptide, c[E4W5C], at 24 hours after intravenous administration. pH-insensitive cyclic peptide c[R4W5C], where glutamic acid residues (E) were replaced by positively charged arginine residues (R), did not exhibit tumor targeting. We have introduced a novel class of cyclic peptides, which can be utilized as a new pH-sensitive tool in investigation or targeting of acidic tissue. PMID:27515582

  7. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013. Slutsker B, et al. Breaking the cycle: Cognitive behavioral therapy and biofeedback training in a case of cyclic vomiting syndrome. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2010;15:625. Boles RG. High ...

  8. Cyclic control stick

    DOEpatents

    Whitaker, Charles N.; Zimmermann, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    A cyclic control stick of the type used in helicopters for reducing the safety hazards associated with such a mechanism in the event of a crewman being thrown violently into contact with the cyclic control stick resulting from a crash or the like. The cyclic control stick is configured to break away upon the exertion of an impact force which exceeds a predetermined value and/or is exerted for more than a momentary time duration. The cyclic control stick is also configured to be adjustable so as to locate the grip thereof as far away from the crewman as possible for safety reasons without comprising the comfort of the crewman or the use of the control stick, and a crushable pad is provided on the top of the grip for impact energy absorbing purposes.

  9. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic nucleotides based on chemiluminescence energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A K; Patel, A

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent derivative of cyclic AMP, aminobutylethylisoluminol succinyl cyclic AMP (ABEI-scAMP), was synthesized in order to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on non-radiative energy transfer. ABEI-scAMP was chemiluminescent (5.1 X 10(18) luminescent counts X mol-1 at pH 13), pure (greater than 95%) stable and immunologically active. A conventional immunoassay was established using ABEI-scAMP and a solid-phase anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G which could detect cyclic AMP at least down to 25fmol. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic AMP was established by measuring the shift in wavelength from 460 to 525nm which occurred when ABEI-scAMP was bound to fluorescein-labelled anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G. The assay was at least as sensitive as the conventional radioimmunoassay using cyclic [3H]AMP and could measure cyclic AMP over the range 1-1000nM. The homogeneous chemiluminescent energy transfer assay was also able to quantify the association and dissociation of antibody-antigen complexes. Chemiluminescence energy transfer occurred between fluorescein-labelled antibodies and several other ABEI-labelled antigens (Mr values 314-150000) including progesterone, cyclic GMP, complement component C9 and immunoglobulin G. The results provide a homogeneous immunoassay capable of measuring free cyclic AMP under conditions likely to exist inside cells. PMID:6316935

  10. Cyclic polymers from alkynes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, Christopher D.; Li, Hong; Abboud, Khalil A.; Wagener, Kenneth B.; Veige, Adam S.

    2016-08-01

    Cyclic polymers have dramatically different physical properties compared with those of their equivalent linear counterparts. However, the exploration of cyclic polymers is limited because of the inherent challenges associated with their synthesis. Conjugated linear polyacetylenes are important materials for electrical conductivity, paramagnetic susceptibility, optical nonlinearity, photoconductivity, gas permeability, liquid crystallinity and chain helicity. However, their cyclic analogues are unknown, and therefore the ability to examine how a cyclic topology influences their properties is currently not possible. We have solved this challenge and now report a tungsten catalyst supported by a tetraanionic pincer ligand that can rapidly polymerize alkynes to form conjugated macrocycles in high yield. The catalyst works by tethering the ends of the polymer to the metal centre to overcome the inherent entropic penalty of cyclization. Gel-permeation chromatography, dynamic and static light scattering, viscometry and chemical tests are all consistent with theoretical predictions and provide unambiguous confirmation of a cyclic topology. Access to a wide variety of new cyclic polymers is now possible by simply choosing the appropriate alkyne monomer.

  11. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the U.S. have food labels. On every food label you will see Serving size, number of servings, and number of calories per serving Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, ...

  12. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Monitoring of the Cyclic Voltammetric Deposition of Polyaniline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qingji; Li, Zhili; Deng, Chunyan; Liu, Meiling; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Xia, Shaoxi; Xiao, Xiaoming; Yin, Dulin; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2007-01-01

    A real-time, labeled-free and nanogram-sensitive mass sensor, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) is used to monitor a cyclic voltammetric deposition of polyaniline (PANI). The results determined that the efficiency for PANI deposition and the anion-doping ratio is calculated in one single cyclic voltammetric.

  13. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  14. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  15. Cyclic Opioid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Remesic, Michael; Lee, Yeon Sun; Hruby, Victor J

    2016-01-01

    For decades the opioid receptors have been an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. Since the first discovery of enkephalin, approximately a dozen endogenous opioid peptides have been known to produce opioid activity and analgesia, but their therapeutics have been limited mainly due to low blood brain barrier penetration and poor resistance to proteolytic degradation. One versatile approach to overcome these drawbacks is the cyclization of linear peptides to cyclic peptides with constrained topographical structure. Compared to their linear parents, cyclic analogs exhibit better metabolic stability, lower offtarget toxicity, and improved bioavailability. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies have uncovered promising compounds for the treatment of pain as well as further elucidate structural elements required for selective opioid receptor activity. The benefits that come with employing cyclization can be further enhanced through the generation of polycyclic derivatives. Opioid ligands generally have a short peptide chain and thus the realm of polycyclic peptides has yet to be explored. In this review, a brief history of designing ligands for the opioid receptors, including classic linear and cyclic ligands, is discussed along with recent approaches and successes of cyclic peptide ligands for the receptors. Various scaffolds and approaches to improve bioavailability are elaborated and concluded with a discourse towards polycyclic peptides.

  16. Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Benschoten, James J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-part experiment designed to introduce cyclic voltammetry to graduate/undergraduate students. Part 1 demonstrates formal reduction potential, redox electron transfer, diffusion coefficient, and electrochemical reversibility. Part 2 investigates electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen. Part 3 examines such experimental variables…

  17. Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... the food came from, whether the food is organic, and certain health claims. So who decides what ... make that claim. Foods that are labeled "USDA organic" are required to have at least 95% organic ...

  18. Cyclic networks of quantum gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabauy, Peter

    In this thesis we first give an introduction to the basic aspects of quantum computation followed by an analysis of networks of quantum logic gates where the qubit lines are loops (cyclic). Thus far, investigations into cyclic networks of quantum logic gates have not been examined (as far as we know) by the quantum information community. In our investigations of cyclic quantum networks we have studied simple, one and two qubit systems. The analysis includes: classifying networks into groups, the dynamics of the qubits in a cyclic quantum network, and the perturbation effects of an external qubit acting on a cyclic quantum network. The analysis will be followed by a discussion on quantum algorithms and quantum information processing with cyclic quantum networks, a novel implementation of a cyclic network quantum memory and a discussion of quantum sensors via cyclic quantum networks.

  19. Sequencing by Cyclic Ligation and Cleavage (CycLiC) directly on a microarray captured template.

    PubMed

    Mir, Kalim U; Qi, Hong; Salata, Oleg; Scozzafava, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Next generation sequencing methods that can be applied to both the resequencing of whole genomes and to the selective resequencing of specific parts of genomes are needed. We describe (i) a massively scalable biochemistry, Cyclical Ligation and Cleavage (CycLiC) for contiguous base sequencing and (ii) apply it directly to a template captured on a microarray. CycLiC uses four color-coded DNA/RNA chimeric oligonucleotide libraries (OL) to extend a primer, a base at a time, along a template. The cycles comprise the steps: (i) ligation of OLs, (ii) identification of extended base by label detection, and (iii) cleavage to remove label/terminator and undetermined bases. For proof-of-principle, we show that the method conforms to design and that we can read contiguous bases of sequence correctly from a template captured by hybridization from solution to a microarray probe. The method is amenable to massive scale-up, miniaturization and automation. Implementation on a microarray format offers the potential for both selection and sequencing of a large number of genomic regions on a single platform. Because the method uses commonly available reagents it can be developed further by a community of users.

  20. An Early Cyclic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhe, William; Biswas, Tirthibir

    2014-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive numerical study of the Emergent Cyclic Inflation scenario. This is a scenario where instead of traditional monotonic slow roll inflation, the universe expands over numerous short asymmetric cycles due to the production of entropy via interactions among different species. This is one of the very few scenarios of inflation which provides a nonsingular geodesically complete space-time and does not require any ``reheating'' mechanism. A special thanks to Loyola University for an excellent community to help this project grow.

  1. Cyclic torsion testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leese, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    Torsional fatigue testing and data analysis procedures are described. Since there are no standards governing cyclic torsion testing that are generally accepted on a widespread basis by the technical community, the different approaches that dominate current experimental activity, and the ramifications of each are discussed. Particular attention is given to the theoretical and experimental difficulties that have paced refinement and general acceptance of test procedures. Finally, specific quantities and nomenclature modelled after analagous axial fatigue properties are suggested as an effective way to communicate torsional fatigue results until accepted standards are established.

  2. Cyclic generalized projection MRI.

    PubMed

    Sarty, Gordon E

    2015-04-01

    Progress in the development of portable MRI hinges on the ability to use lightweight magnets that have non-uniform magnetic fields. An image encoding method and mathematical procedure for recovering the image from the NMR signal from non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours is given. Individual frequencies in an NMR signal from an object in a non-uniform magnetic field give rise to integrals of the object along contours of constant magnetic field: generalized projections. With closed isomagnetic field contours a simple, cyclic, direct reconstruction of the image from the generalized projections is possible when the magnet and RF transmit coil are held fixed relative to the imaged object while the RF receive coil moves. Numerical simulations, using the Shepp and Logan mathematical phantom, were completed to show that the mathematical method works and to illustrate numerical limitations. The method is numerically verified and exact reconstruction demonstrated for discrete mathematical image phantoms. Correct knowledge of the RF receive field is necessary or severe image distortions will result. The cyclic mathematical reconstruction method presented here will be useful for portable MRI schemes that use non-uniform magnets with closed isomagnetic contours along with mechanically or electronically moving the RF receive coils.

  3. [Asthma and cyclic neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Salazar Cabrera, A N; Berrón Pérez, R; Ortega Martell, J A; Onuma Takane, E

    1996-01-01

    We report a male with history of recurrent infections (recurrent oral aphtous disease [ROAD], middle ear infections and pharyngo amigdalitis) every 3 weeks since he was 7 months old. At the age of 3 years cyclic neutropenia was diagnosed with cyclic fall in the total neutrophil count in blood smear every 21 days and prophylactic antimicrobial therapy was indicated. Episodic events every 3 weeks of acute asthma and allergic rhinitis were detected at the age of 6 years old and specific immunotherapy to Bermuda grass was given during 3 years with markedly improvement in his allergic condition but not in the ROAD. He came back until the age of 16 with episodic acute asthma and ROAD. The total neutrophil count failed to 0 every 21 days and surprisingly the total eosinophil count increased up to 2,000 at the same time, with elevation of serum IgE (412 Ul/mL). Specific immunotherapy to D.pt. and Aller.a. and therapy with timomodulin was indicated. After 3 months we observed clinical improvement in the asthmatic condition and the ROAD disappeared, but the total neutrophil count did not improve. We present this case as a rare association between 2 diseases with probably no etiological relationship but may be physiopatological that could help to understand more the pathogenesis of asthma.

  4. Ethanol-induced loss of brain cyclic AMP binding proteins: correlation with growth suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, S.; Kalmus, G.

    1987-05-01

    Brain hypoplasia secondary to maternal ethanol consumption is a common fetal defect observed in all models of fetal alcohol syndrome. The molecular mechanism by which ethanol inhibits growth is unknown but has been hypothesized to involve ethanol-induced changes in the activity of cyclic-AMP stimulated protein kinase. Acute and chronic alcohol exposure elevate cyclic AMP level in many tissues, including brain. This increase in cyclic AMP should increase the phosphorylating activity of kinase by increasing the amount of dissociated (active) kinase catalytic subunit. In 7-day embryonic chick brains, ethanol-induced growth suppression was correlated with increased brain cyclic AMP content but neither basal nor cyclic AMP stimulated kinase catalytic activity was increased. However, the levels of cyclic AMP binding protein (kinase regulatory subunit) were significantly lowered by ethanol exposure. Measured as either /sup 3/H cyclic AMP binding or as 8-azido cyclic AM/sup 32/P labeling, ethanol-exposed brains had significantly less cyclic AMP binding activity (51 +/- 14 versus 29 +/- 10 units/..mu..g protein for 8-azido cyclic AMP binding). These findings suggest that ethanol's effect on kinase activity may involve more than ethanol-induced activation of adenylate cyclase.

  5. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  6. Synthesis of cyclic Py-Im polyamide libraries.

    PubMed

    Li, Benjamin C; Montgomery, David C; Puckett, James W; Dervan, Peter B

    2013-01-04

    Cyclic Py-Im polyamides containing two GABA turn units exhibit enhanced DNA binding affinity, but extensive studies of their biological properties have been hindered due to synthetic inaccessibility. A facile modular approach toward cyclic polyamides has been developed via microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis of hairpin amino acid oligomer intermediates followed by macrocyclization. A focused library of cyclic polyamides 1-7 targeted to the androgen response element (ARE) and the estrogen response element (ERE) were synthesized in 12-17% overall yield. The Fmoc protection strategy also allows for selective modifications on the GABA turn units that have been shown to improve cellular uptake properties. The DNA binding affinities of a library of cyclic polyamides were measured by DNA thermal denaturation assays and compared to the corresponding hairpin polyamides. Fluorescein-labeled cyclic polyamides have been synthesized and imaged via confocal microscopy in A549 and T47D cell lines. The IC(50) values of compounds 1-7 and 9-11 were determined, revealing remarkably varying levels of cytotoxicity.

  7. Radioiodination of Aryl-Alkyl Cyclic Sulfates

    PubMed Central

    Mushti, Chandra; Papisov, Mikhail I.

    2015-01-01

    Among the currently available positron emitters suitable for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), 124I has the longest physical half-life (4.2 days). The long half-life and well-investigated behavior of iodine in vivo makes 124I very attractive for pharmacological studies. In this communication, we describe a simple yet effective method for the synthesis of novel 124I labeled compounds intended for PET imaging of arylsulfatase activity in vivo. Arylsulfatases have important biological functions, and genetic deficiencies of such functions require pharmacological replacement, the efficacy of which must be properly and non-invasively evaluated. These enzymes, even though their natural substrates are mostly of aliphatic nature, hydrolyze phenolic sulfates to phenol and sulfuric acid. The availability of [124I]iodinated substrates is expected to provide a PET-based method for measuring their activity in vivo. The currently available methods of synthesis of iodinated arylsulfates usually require either introducing of a protected sulfate ester early in the synthesis or introduction of sulfate group at the end of synthesis in a separate step. The described method gives the desired product in one step from an aryl-alkyl cyclic sulfate. When treated with iodide, the source cyclic sulfate opens with substitution of iodide at the alkyl center and gives the desired arylsulfate monoester. PMID:23135631

  8. Cyclic AMP in prokaryotes.

    PubMed Central

    Botsford, J L; Harman, J G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is found in a variety of prokaryotes including both eubacteria and archaebacteria. cAMP plays a role in regulating gene expression, not only for the classic inducible catabolic operons, but also for other categories. In the enteric coliforms, the effects of cAMP on gene expression are mediated through its interaction with and allosteric modification of a cAMP-binding protein (CRP). The CRP-cAMP complex subsequently binds specific DNA sequences and either activates or inhibits transcription depending upon the positioning of the complex relative to the promoter. Enteric coliforms have provided a model to explore the mechanisms involved in controlling adenylate cyclase activity, in regulating adenylate cyclase synthesis, and in performing detailed examinations of CRP-cAMP complex-regulated gene expression. This review summarizes recent work focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of CRP-cAMP complex-mediated processes. For other bacteria, less detail is known. cAMP has been implicated in regulating antibiotic production, phototrophic growth, and pathogenesis. A role for cAMP has been suggested in nitrogen fixation. Often the only data that support cAMP involvement in these processes includes cAMP measurement, detection of the enzymes involved in cAMP metabolism, or observed effects of high concentrations of the nucleotide on cell growth. PMID:1315922

  9. Genetics Home Reference: cyclic neutropenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection, neutrophils release neutrophil elastase. This protein then modifies the function of certain cells and proteins to help fight the infection. ELANE gene mutations that cause cyclic neutropenia lead to an ...

  10. Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mantero, Franco; Scaroni, Carla M; Albiger, Nora M E

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) involves rhythmic fluctuations in ACTH secretion resulting in a cyclic variation of adrenal steroid production. In the majority of cases, cyclic CS is caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, but it can also be due to ectopic ACTH production or an adrenal adenoma. This condition should be strongly suspected in patients with symptoms or signs of hypercortisolism but normal cortisol levels and paradoxical responses to the dexamethasone test, that may reflect an increasing or decreasing endogenous hormone activity. Dynamic tests are best interpreted if they are performed during a sustained period of hypercortisolism. Sometimes, it is necessary to confirm the diagnosis over lengthy periods of observation. Responses to treatment must be closely monitored, interpreted and evaluated with caution because of the potential variations in steroidogenesis. An original case report of a cyclic Cushing's syndrome is presented in this review.

  11. Computer Simulation Of Cyclic Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, H. B.; Lowell, C. E.

    1990-01-01

    Computer model developed to simulate cyclic oxidation of metals. With relatively few input parameters, kinetics of cyclic oxidation simulated for wide variety of temperatures, durations of cycles, and total numbers of cycles. Program written in BASICA and run on any IBM-compatible microcomputer. Used in variety of ways to aid experimental research. In minutes, effects of duration of cycle and/or number of cycles on oxidation kinetics of material surveyed.

  12. Cyclic Cushing's syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Albiger, Nora Maria Elvira; Scaroni, Carla M; Mantero, Franco

    2007-11-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a disorder in which glucocorticoid levels are alternately normal and high, the latter occurring in episodes that can last from a few days to several months. It is more common in children than in adults. Cyclic CS may be either of the two different forms of CS (ACTH-dependent or -independent CS). Clinically, it may present with one or many symptoms, depending on the duration of disease activity and the timing of the fluctuations. A serotoninergic influence, cyclic changes in central dopaminergic tone, spontaneous episodic hemorrhage in the tumor, and the action of inflammatory cytokines with antitumor properties are some of the mechanisms suggested to explain the physiopathology of this phenomenon but the exact mechanism remains to be clarified. The cyclic pattern of hypercortisolism can delay the final diagnosis of CS and make it difficult to interpret the results of dynamic tests. Patients may have paradoxical responses to dexamethasone that can reflect increasing or decreasing levels of endogenous activity. Hormone assessments have to be repeated periodically when a diagnosis of CS is suspected. The cyclic pattern can also interfere with medical treatment because patients may show unexpected clinical and biochemical signs of hypocortisolism when cortisol secretion cyclically returns to normal, so an accurate follow-up is mandatory in these patients.

  13. Enzymatic Ugi Reaction with Amines and Cyclic Imines.

    PubMed

    Żądło-Dobrowolska, Anna; Kłossowski, Szymon; Koszelewski, Dominik; Paprocki, Daniel; Ostaszewski, Ryszard

    2016-11-07

    The application of the Ugi reaction to the construction of new peptide scaffolds is an important goal of organic chemistry. To date, there are no examples of the Ugi reaction being performed with a cyclic imine and amine simultaneously. The application of 2-substituted cyclic imines in an enzymatic three-component Ugi-type reaction provides an elegant and attractive synthesis of substituted pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives in up to 60 % yield. Results on studies of the selection of an enzyme, amount of water, and solvent used in a novel three-component Ugi reaction and the limitations thereof are reported herein. The presented methodology exploiting enzyme promiscuity in the multicomponent reaction fulfills the requirements associated with green chemistry. Several methods, such as isotope labeling and enzyme inhibition, were used to probe the possible mechanism of this complex synthesis. This research is the first example of an enzyme-catalyzed Ugi-type reaction with an imine, amine, and isocyanide.

  14. Color visualization of cyclic magnitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Alfredo; Estupiñán, Viviana

    2014-02-01

    We exploit the perceptual, circular ordering of the hues in a technique for the visualization of cyclic variables. The hue is thus meaningfully used for the indication of variables such as the azimuth and the units of the measurement of time. The cyclic (or circular) variables may be both of the continuous type or the discrete type; among the first there is azimuth and among the last you find the musical notes and the days of the week. A correspondence between the values of a cyclic variable and the chromatic hues, where the natural circular ordering of the variable is respected, is called a color code for the variable. We base such a choice of hues on an assignment of of the unique hues red, yellow, green and blue, or one of the 8 even permutations of this ordered list, to 4 cardinal values of the cyclic variable, suitably ordered; color codes based on only 3 cardinal points are also possible. Color codes, being intuitive, are easy to remember. A possible low accuracy when reading instruments that use this technique is compensated by fast, ludic and intuitive readings; also, the use of a referential frame makes readings precise. An achromatic version of the technique, that can be used by dichromatic people, is proposed.

  15. Buffering in cyclic gene networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyzin, S. D.; Kolesov, A. Yu.; Rozov, N. Kh.

    2016-06-01

    We consider cyclic chains of unidirectionally coupled delay differential-difference equations that are mathematical models of artificial oscillating gene networks. We establish that the buffering phenomenon is realized in these system for an appropriate choice of the parameters: any given finite number of stable periodic motions of a special type, the so-called traveling waves, coexist.

  16. Stimulation of phosphatidic acid of calcium influx and cyclic GMP synthesis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohsako, S; Deguchi, T

    1981-11-10

    Phosphatidic acid added to the medium markedly elevated intracellular cyclic GMP content in cultured neuroblastoma N1E 115 cells. There was a significant elevation of cyclic GMP with 1 micrograms/ml and a maximum (70-fold) elevation with 100 micrograms/ml of phosphatidic acid. Other natural phospholipids did not increase, or increased only slightly, the cyclic GMP content in the cells. The elevation of cyclic GMP content by phosphatidic acid was absolutely dependent on extracellular calcium. Phosphatidic acid stimulated the influx of calcium into neuroblastoma cells 2- to 5-fold. The pattern of the calcium influx induced by phosphatidic acid was comparable to that of cyclic GMP elevation. The stimulation of calcium influx by phosphatidic acid was also observed in cultured heart cells, indicating that phosphatidic acid acts as a calcium ionophore or opens a specific calcium-gate in a variety of cell membranes. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with phospholipase C increased 32Pi labeling of phosphatidic acid, stimulated the influx of calcium, and elevated the cyclic GMP content in the cells. Thus exogenous as well as endogenous phosphatidic acid stimulates the translocation of calcium across cell membranes and, as a consequence, induces the synthesis of cyclic GMP in the neuroblastoma cells.

  17. Cyclic peptide therapeutics: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Deyle, Kaycie; Heinis, Christian

    2017-02-26

    Cyclic peptides combine several favorable properties such as good binding affinity, target selectivity and low toxicity that make them an attractive modality for the development of therapeutics. Over 40 cyclic peptide drugs are currently in clinical use and around one new cyclic peptide drug enters the market every year on average. The vast majority of clinically approved cyclic peptides are derived from natural products, such as antimicrobials or human peptide hormones. New powerful techniques based on rational design and in vitro evolution have enabled the de novo development of cyclic peptide ligands to targets for which nature does not offer solutions. A look at the cyclic peptides currently under clinical evaluation shows that several have been developed using such techniques. This new source for cyclic peptide ligands introduces a freshness to the field, and it is likely that de novo developed cyclic peptides will be in clinical use in the near future.

  18. Results on Cyclic Signal Processing Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    8] Vaidyanathan, P. P. Multirate systems and filter banks , Prentice Hall, 1993. [9] Vaidyanathan, P. P., and Kirac, A. "Theory of cyclic filter ...91125 Abstract We present a state space description for cyclic LTI sys- tems which find applications in cyclic filter banks and wavelets. We also...in a unified way by using the realization matrix defined by the state space description. 1. INTRODUCTION Cyclic digital filters and filter banks

  19. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nossum, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  20. Soil Fumigant Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2012 updated pesticide labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find labels for each different type of fumigant: chloropicrin, dazomet, dimethyl disulfide, metam sodium/potassium, and methyl bromide.

  1. Electronic Submission of Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  2. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  3. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  4. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  5. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  6. Cyclic Pursuit in Three Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-17

    A three-dimensional version of the motion camouflage pursuit 49th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control December 15-17, 2010 Hilton Atlanta Hotel ...show that Θ is a constant value on MCB(a). Proposition 4: Consider a two-particle system operating on MCB(a) according to the closed-loop mutual CB...illustrate various types of trajectories in terms of initial conditions (` and Θ) and parameter values (a+ and a−). In our planar discussion of cyclic

  7. Cyclic Deformation in Metallic Glasses.

    PubMed

    Sha, Z D; Qu, S X; Liu, Z S; Wang, T J; Gao, H

    2015-10-14

    Despite the utmost importance and decades of experimental studies on fatigue in metallic glasses (MGs), there has been so far little or no atomic-level understanding of the mechanisms involved. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations of tension-compression fatigue in Cu50Zr50 MGs under strain-controlled cyclic loading. It is shown that the shear band (SB) initiation under cyclic loading is distinctly different from that under monotonic loading. Under cyclic loading, SB initiation takes place when aggregates of shear transformation zones (STZs) accumulating at the MG surface reach a critical size comparable to the SB width, and the accumulation of STZs follows a power law with rate depending on the applied strain. It is further shown that almost the entire fatigue life of nanoscale MGs under low cycle fatigue is spent in the SB-initiation stage, similar to that of crystalline materials. Furthermore, a qualitative investigation of the effect of cycling frequency on the fatigue behavior of MGs suggests that higher cycling frequency leads to more cycles to failure. The present study sheds light on the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of MGs that could be useful in developing strategies for their engineering applications.

  8. Plant cyclic nucleotide signalling: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Atienza, Juliana; Van Ingelgem, Carl; Roef, Luc; Maathuis, Frans Jm

    2007-11-01

    The presence of the cyclic nucleotides 3',5'-cyclic adenyl monophosphate (cAMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) in plants is now generally accepted. In addition, cAMP and cGMP have been implicated in the regulation of important plant processes such as stomatal functioning, monovalent and divalent cation fluxes, chloroplast development, gibberellic acid signalling, pathogen response and gene transcription. However, very little is known regarding the components of cyclic nucleotide signalling in plants. In this addendum, the evidence for specific mechanisms of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling is evaluated and discussed.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  17. Detection of gamma-irradiation effect on DNA and protein using magnetic sensor and cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Park, Duck-Gun; Song, Hoon; Kishore, M B; Vértesy, G; Lee, Duk-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a magnetic sensor utilizing Planar Hall Resistance (PHR) and cyclic Voltammetry (CV) for detecting the radiation effect was fabricated. Specifically, we applied in parallel a PHR sensor and CV device to monitor the irradiation effect on DNA and protein respectively. Through parallel measurements, we demonstrated that the PHR sensor and CV are sensitive enough to measure irradiation effect. The PHR voltage decreased by magnetic nanobead labeled DNA was slightly recovered after gamma ray irradiation. The behavior of cdk inhibitor protein p21 having a sandwich structure of Au/protein G/Ab/Ag/Ab was checked by monitoring the cyclic Voltammetry signal in analyzing the gamma ray irradiation effect.

  18. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  19. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  20. Cyclic GMP and Cilia Motility

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia of the lungs respond to environmental challenges by increasing their ciliary beat frequency in order to enhance mucociliary clearance as a fundamental tenant of innate defense. One important second messenger in transducing the regulable nature of motile cilia is cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP). In this review, the history of cGMP action is presented and a survey of the existing data addressing cGMP action in ciliary motility is presented. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated regulation of cGMP in ciliated cells is presented in the context of alcohol-induced cilia function and dysfunction. PMID:26264028

  1. Advances in targeting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Donald H.; Ke, Hengming; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Wang, Yousheng; Chung, Jay; Manganiello, Vincent C.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyse the hydrolysis of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, thereby regulating the intracellular concentrations of these cyclic nucleotides, their signalling pathways and, consequently, myriad biological responses in health and disease. Currently, a small number of PDE inhibitors are used clinically for treating the pathophysiological dysregulation of cyclic nucleotide signalling in several disorders, including erectile dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, acute refractory cardiac failure, intermittent claudication and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, pharmaceutical interest in PDEs has been reignited by the increasing understanding of the roles of individual PDEs in regulating the subcellular compartmentalization of specific cyclic nucleotide signalling pathways, by the structure-based design of novel specific inhibitors and by the development of more sophisticated strategies to target individual PDE variants. PMID:24687066

  2. [Cyclic Cushing's Syndrome - rare or rarely recognized].

    PubMed

    Kiałka, Marta; Doroszewska, Katarzyna; Mrozińska, Sandra; Milewicz, Tomasz; Stochmal, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic Cushing's syndrome is a type of Cushing's disease which is characterized by alternating periods of increasing and decreasing levels of cortisol in the blood. The diagnostic criteria for cyclic Cushing's syndrome are at least three periods of hypercortisolism alternating with at least two episodes of normal levels of serum cortisol concentration. The epidemiology, signs, symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of cyclic Cushing's syndrome have been discussed.

  3. Cyclic Imide Dioxime: Formation and Hydrolytic Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.O.; Vukovic, Sinisa; Custelcean, Radu; Hay, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Poly(acrylamidoximes) play an important role in the uranium extraction from seawater. The present work reports solution studies of simple analogs to address the formation and stability of two binding sites present in these polymers, open-chain amidoximes and cyclic imide dioximes, including: 1) conditions that maximize the formation of the cyclic form, 2) existence of a base-induced conversion from open-chain to cyclic form, and 3) degradation under acid and base conditions.

  4. Electron Impact Ion Fragmentation Pathways of Peracetylated C-glycoside Ketones Derived from Cyclic 1,3-diketones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monosaccharide C-glycoside ketones have been prepared by aqueous-based Knoevenagel condensation of isotopically-labeled and unlabeled aldoses with cyclic diketones, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone) and 1,3-cyclohexanedione (1,3-CHD). The reaction products and their corresponding acetyla...

  5. A cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Das, S; Saha, A K; Mukhopadhyay, N K; Glew, R H

    1986-01-01

    Leishmania donovani promastigotes labelled for 2 h with 32Pi incorporated radioactivity into at least 21 different proteins, as determined by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Pulse-chase studies with 32Pi demonstrated that the labelled proteins were in a dynamic state: some radiolabelled proteins rapidly disappeared and others appeared after the chase. The possibility of an ectokinase on the parasite was examined; incubation of intact parasites for 10 min at 25 degrees C in an osmotically buffered medium containing [gamma-32P]ATP, but not [alpha-32P]ATP, resulted in the labelling of 10 different protozoal proteins, presumably localized to the surface of the organism's plasma membrane. Intact promastigotes also catalysed the transfer of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP to histones. The histone-dependent kinase was solubilized by repeated freezing and thawing, and sonication, and purified 118-fold by chromatographing the high-speed (200,000 g, 1 h) supernatant fraction on QAE-Sephadex, Sephadex G-150 and hydroxyapatite columns. The kinase eluted as a single activity peak from all three columns. The partially purified histone-dependent kinase had the following properties: pH optimum, 7.0; optimum temperature, 37 degrees C; Km for mixed calf thymus histone, 0.15 mM; Km for ATP, 0.8 mM; preferred fractionated histone acceptors, H2b greater than H4 greater than H2a greater than H3 (H1 does not serve as an acceptor); optimum activity required 10-20 mM-Mg2+; inhibited 50-80% by 0.01 mM- and 1 mM-Ca2+; activity was not stimulated by calmodulin, cyclic AMP (1 mM) or cyclic GMP (1 mM) nor inhibited by a cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (50 micrograms/assay); apparent Mr 75,000, as determined by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration chromatography; phosphorylated exclusively serine residues. Protein kinase activity was low in the early exponential phase of the growth curve and increased 6-fold upon entry into the stationary phase. PMID:3030283

  6. Synthesis of chiral cyclic amines via Ir-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of cyclic imines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Kong, Duanyang; Wang, Rui; Hou, Guohua

    2017-04-05

    A highly enantioselective hydrogenation of cyclic imines for synthesis of chiral cyclic amines has been realized. With the complex of iridium and (R,R)-f-spiroPhos as the catalyst, a range of cyclic 2-aryl imines were smoothly hydrogenated under mild conditions without any additive to provide the corresponding chiral cyclic amines with excellent enantioselectivities of up to 98% ee. Moreover, this method could be successfully applied to the synthesis of (+)-(6S,10bR)-McN-4612-Z.

  7. Cell reorientation under cyclic stretching

    PubMed Central

    Livne, Ariel; Bouchbinder, Eran; Geiger, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical cues from the extracellular microenvironment play a central role in regulating the structure, function and fate of living cells. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the mechanisms and processes underlying this crucial cellular mechanosensitivity remains a fundamental open problem. Here we provide a novel framework for addressing cellular sensitivity and response to external forces by experimentally and theoretically studying one of its most striking manifestations – cell reorientation to a uniform angle in response to cyclic stretching of the underlying substrate. We first show that existing approaches are incompatible with our extensive measurements of cell reorientation. We then propose a fundamentally new theory that shows that dissipative relaxation of the cell’s passively-stored, two-dimensional, elastic energy to its minimum actively drives the reorientation process. Our theory is in excellent quantitative agreement with the complete temporal reorientation dynamics of individual cells, measured over a wide range of experimental conditions, thus elucidating a basic aspect of mechanosensitivity. PMID:24875391

  8. Cell reorientation under cyclic stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livne, Ariel; Bouchbinder, Eran; Geiger, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Mechanical cues from the extracellular microenvironment play a central role in regulating the structure, function and fate of living cells. Nevertheless, the precise nature of the mechanisms and processes underlying this crucial cellular mechanosensitivity remains a fundamental open problem. Here we provide a novel framework for addressing cellular sensitivity and response to external forces by experimentally and theoretically studying one of its most striking manifestations—cell reorientation to a uniform angle in response to cyclic stretching of the underlying substrate. We first show that existing approaches are incompatible with our extensive measurements of cell reorientation. We then propose a fundamentally new theory that shows that dissipative relaxation of the cell’s passively-stored, two-dimensional, elastic energy to its minimum actively drives the reorientation process. Our theory is in excellent quantitative agreement with the complete temporal reorientation dynamics of individual cells measured over a wide range of experimental conditions, thus elucidating a basic aspect of mechanosensitivity.

  9. A Cyclic Universe Numerically Realized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhe, William; Biswas, Tirthbar

    2013-04-01

    A unique way of realizing inflation has been proposed recently in the context of cyclic cosmology where the universe grows by a constant factor in each cycle. This leads to an overall exponential growth over many cycles. In a given cycle such a growth is possible if, for instance, ``heavy particles'' can decay into radiation (photons) leading to an increase in entropy. However, to sustain this mechanism over successive cycles, it is crucial to reproduce the heavy particles back through quantum scattering processes and re-establish thermal equilibrium between all the species. We attempt to prove the viability of a ``multiple bang'' scenario to produce known cosmological data as well as use it to predict fluctuations in the upcoming higher resolution plank telescope data. This paradigm opens doors for new investigations into the principles surrounding the content and origin of the universe.

  10. Labeling and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mike S.; Robertson, Craig T.; Gray-Ray, Phyllis; Ray, Melvin C.

    2003-01-01

    Index comprised of six contrasting descriptive adjectives was used to measure incarcerated youths' perceived negative labeling from the perspective of parents, teachers, and peers. Results provided partial support for hypothesis that juveniles who choose a greater number of negative labels will report more frequent delinquent involvement. Labeling…

  11. Government perspective: food labeling.

    PubMed

    Philipson, Tomas

    2005-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide.

  12. Cyclic malyl anthocyanins in Dianthus caryophyllus.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, M; Koshioka, M; Yoshida, H; Kan, Y; Fukui, Y; Koike, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2000-12-01

    3,5-Di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) pelargonidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate and a previously reported cyanidin equivalent, 3,5-di-O-(beta-glucopyranosyl) cyanidin 6''-O-4,6'''-O-1-cyclic malate were identified from petals of deep pink and red-purple flower cultivars of Dianthus caryophyllus, respectively.

  13. Cyclic metabolites: chemical and biological considerations.

    PubMed

    Erve, John C L

    2008-02-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics can sometimes generate cyclic metabolites. Such metabolites are usually the result of intramolecular reactions occurring within a primary or secondary metabolite and this chemistry may lead to unexpected structures. Intramolecular chemistry is often driven by nucleophilic groups reacting with electrophilic atoms, often carbon, although radical processes also occur. Conjugation of xenobiotics or their metabolites with endogenous thiols, such as glutathione or cysteine, introduce a reactive amino group that can lead to the formation of cyclic structures. Less common than chemically driven cyclizations are enzymatically mediated ring-closures, although this may reflect our incomplete recognition of enzymatic involvement in this step of cyclic metabolite formation. While some cyclic metabolites are biologically inactive, others are biologically active. Thus, a cyclic metabolite may display desirable pharmacology, or, contribute to toxicology. When a cyclic metabolite is identified, it is important to consider the possibility that it is an artifact, i.e. metabonate, that was formed during processing of the sample, for example, through degradation or by chemical reactions with other components present in the matrix. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, a cyclic metabolite with a different chemical scaffold from the parent structure may lead to a new series of structurally novel, biologically active molecules with the same, or different, pharmacology from the parent. This review will cover a selection of cyclic metabolites from a mechanistic point of view, and when possible, discuss their biological relevance.

  14. Cyclic Linearization and Island Repair in Sluicing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Chunan

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic Linearization is adopted to account for the island repair of Sluicing in English. The extraction of wh-phrase out of certain islands undergoes non-successive-cyclic movement, which yields conflicting ordering statements. The derivation can be rescued by deleting all ordering statements in IP, including those conflicting ones. Two arguments…

  15. Cyclic homology for Hom-associative algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Shapiro, Ilya; Sütlü, Serkan

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper we investigate the noncommutative geometry of a class of algebras, called the Hom-associative algebras, whose associativity is twisted by a homomorphism. We define the Hochschild, cyclic, and periodic cyclic homology and cohomology for this class of algebras generalizing these theories from the associative to the Hom-associative setting.

  16. Enantioselective Conjugate Allylation of Cyclic Enones

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Gerstenhaber, David A.; Berry, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Enantioselective organocatalytic 1,2-allylation of a cyclic enone followed by anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement delivered the ketone as a mixture of diastereomers. This appears to be a general method for the net enantioselective conjugate allylation of cyclic enones. PMID:21830779

  17. Mining Multi-label Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoumakas, Grigorios; Katakis, Ioannis; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    A large body of research in supervised learning deals with the analysis of single-label data, where training examples are associated with a single label λ from a set of disjoint labels L. However, training examples in several application domains are often associated with a set of labels Y ⊆ L. Such data are called multi-label.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  19. Ribosomally encoded cyclic peptide toxins from mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jonathan D; Luo, Hong; Hallen-Adams, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic peptide toxins of poisonous Amanita mushrooms are chemically unique among known natural products. Furthermore, they differ from other fungal cyclic peptides in being synthesized on ribosomes instead of by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Because of their novel structures and biogenic origins, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of the Amanita cyclic peptides presents both challenges and opportunities. In particular, a full understanding of the pathway should lead to the ability to direct synthesis of a large number of novel cyclic peptides based on the Amanita toxin scaffold by genetic engineering of the encoding genes. Here, we highlight some of the principal methods for working with the Amanita cyclic peptides and the known steps in their biosynthesis.

  20. Toward structure prediction of cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongtao; Lin, Yu-Shan

    2015-02-14

    Cyclic peptides are a promising class of molecules that can be used to target specific protein-protein interactions. A computational method to accurately predict their structures would substantially advance the development of cyclic peptides as modulators of protein-protein interactions. Here, we develop a computational method that integrates bias-exchange metadynamics simulations, a Boltzmann reweighting scheme, dihedral principal component analysis and a modified density peak-based cluster analysis to provide a converged structural description for cyclic peptides. Using this method, we evaluate the performance of a number of popular protein force fields on a model cyclic peptide. All the tested force fields seem to over-stabilize the α-helix and PPII/β regions in the Ramachandran plot, commonly populated by linear peptides and proteins. Our findings suggest that re-parameterization of a force field that well describes the full Ramachandran plot is necessary to accurately model cyclic peptides.

  1. Modeling interfacial charge transport of quantum dots using cyclic voltammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Andrew K.; Jones, Marcus

    2011-10-01

    Quantum dot applications are numerous and range from photovoltaic devices and lasers, to bio labeling. Complexities in the electronic band structure of quantum dots create the necessity for analysis techniques that can accurately and reproducibly provide their absolute band energies. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is a novel candidate for these studies and has the potential to become a useful tool in engineering new nanocrystal technology, by providing information necessary for predicting and modeling interfacial charge transfer to and from quantum dots. Advancing from previous reports of nanocrystal CV, a carbon paste electrode was utilized in an attempt to increase measured current by ensuring intimate contact between nanocrystals and the electrode. Our goal was to investigate band energies and model nanocrystal-molecule electron transfer systems.

  2. Off-Label Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drugs for off-label uses. Off-label marketing is very different from off-label use. Why ... Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or Abuse Global Health ACS CAN Sign up for Email Policies ...

  3. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  4. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1983-07-15

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  5. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H.D.

    1985-11-12

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label. 5 figs.

  6. Capacitive label reader

    DOEpatents

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  7. Mixed Strategies in cyclic competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, Ben; Pleimling, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Physicists have been using evolutionary game theory to model and simulate cyclically competing species, with applications to lizard mating strategies and competing bacterial strains. However these models assume that each agent plays the same strategy, which is called a pure strategy in game theory, until they are beaten by a better strategy which they immediately adopt. We relax this constraint of an agent playing a single strategy by instead letting the agent pick its strategy randomly from a probability distribution, which is called a mixed strategy in game theory. This scheme is very similar to multiple occupancy models seen in the literature, the major difference being that interactions happen between sites rather than within them. Choosing strategies out of a distribution also has applications to economic/social systems such as the public goods game. We simulate a model of mixed strategy and cylic competition on a one-dimensional lattice with three and four strategies and find interesting spatial and stability properties depending on how discretized the choice of strategy is for the agents. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR-1205309.

  8. Figuring Out Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk dairy products also contribute to cholesterol level. Sodium Sodium, a component of salt, is listed on the Nutrition Facts label in milligrams. Small amounts of sodium are necessary for keeping proper body fluid balance, ...

  9. Label Review Training - Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  10. Like your labels?

    PubMed

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  11. Asymmetric cyclic evolution in polymerised cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycyna, Orest; Mielczarek, Jakub; Szydłowski, Marek E-mail: jakub.mielczarek@uj.edu.pl

    2009-12-01

    The dynamical systems methods are used to study evolution of the polymerised scalar field cosmologies with the cosmological constant. We have found all evolutional paths admissible for all initial conditions on the two-dimensional phase space. We have shown that the cyclic solutions are generic. The exact solution for polymerised cosmology is also obtained. Two basic cases are investigated, the polymerised scalar field and the polymerised gravitational and scalar field part. In the former the division on the cyclic and non-cyclic behaviour is established following the sign of the cosmological constant. The value of the cosmological constant is upper bounded purely from the dynamical setting.

  12. Parallel architectures for computing cyclic convolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, C.-S.; Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.

    1983-01-01

    In the paper two parallel architectural structures are developed to compute one-dimensional cyclic convolutions. The first structure is based on the Chinese remainder theorem and Kung's pipelined array. The second structure is a direct mapping from the mathematical definition of a cyclic convolution to a computational architecture. To compute a d-point cyclic convolution the first structure needs d/2 inner product cells, while the second structure and Kung's linear array require d cells. However, to compute a cyclic convolution, the second structure requires less time than both the first structure and Kung's linear array. Another application of the second structure is to multiply a Toeplitz matrix by a vector. A table is listed to compare these two structures and Kung's linear array. Both structures are simple and regular and are therefore suitable for VLSI implementation.

  13. Cyclic hardening in bundled actin networks.

    PubMed

    Schmoller, K M; Fernández, P; Arevalo, R C; Blair, D L; Bausch, A R

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear deformations can irreversibly alter the mechanical properties of materials. Most soft materials, such as rubber and living tissues, display pronounced softening when cyclically deformed. Here we show that, in contrast, reconstituted networks of crosslinked, bundled actin filaments harden when subject to cyclical shear. As a consequence, they exhibit a mechano-memory where a significant stress barrier is generated at the maximum of the cyclic shear strain. This unique response is crucially determined by the network architecture: at lower crosslinker concentrations networks do not harden, but soften showing the classic Mullins effect known from rubber-like materials. By simultaneously performing macrorheology and confocal microscopy, we show that cyclic shearing results in structural reorganization of the network constituents such that the maximum applied strain is encoded into the network architecture.

  14. Colour cyclic code for Brillouin distributed sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floch, Sébastien; Sauser, Florian; Llera, Miguel; Rochat, Etienne

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, a colour cyclic coding (CCC) is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated for Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) distributed sensors. Compared to traditional intensity-modulated cyclic codes, the code presents an additional gain of √2 while keeping the same number of sequences as for a colour coding. A comparison with a standard BOTDA sensor is realized and validates the theoretical coding gain.

  15. Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptides for Plant Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources. PMID:25774105

  16. 16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels 10, 11, and 12 in... labeled may add the ENERGY STAR logo to those labels. (g) Distribution of labels. For each...

  17. Measuring Cyclic Error in Laser Heterodyne Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Daniel; Abramovici, Alexander; Zhao, Feng; Dekens, Frank; An, Xin; Azizi, Alireza; Chapsky, Jacob; Halverson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus have been devised for measuring cyclic errors in the readouts of laser heterodyne interferometers that are configured and operated as displacement gauges. The cyclic errors arise as a consequence of mixing of spurious optical and electrical signals in beam launchers that are subsystems of such interferometers. The conventional approach to measurement of cyclic error involves phase measurements and yields values precise to within about 10 pm over air optical paths at laser wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. The present approach, which involves amplitude measurements instead of phase measurements, yields values precise to about .0.1 microns . about 100 times the precision of the conventional approach. In a displacement gauge of the type of interest here, the laser heterodyne interferometer is used to measure any change in distance along an optical axis between two corner-cube retroreflectors. One of the corner-cube retroreflectors is mounted on a piezoelectric transducer (see figure), which is used to introduce a low-frequency periodic displacement that can be measured by the gauges. The transducer is excited at a frequency of 9 Hz by a triangular waveform to generate a 9-Hz triangular-wave displacement having an amplitude of 25 microns. The displacement gives rise to both amplitude and phase modulation of the heterodyne signals in the gauges. The modulation includes cyclic error components, and the magnitude of the cyclic-error component of the phase modulation is what one needs to measure in order to determine the magnitude of the cyclic displacement error. The precision attainable in the conventional (phase measurement) approach to measuring cyclic error is limited because the phase measurements are af-

  18. The envelope-based cyclic periodogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghesani, P.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclostationary analysis has proven effective in identifying signal components for diagnostic purposes. A key descriptor in this framework is the cyclic power spectrum, traditionally estimated by the averaged cyclic periodogram and the smoothed cyclic periodogram. A lengthy debate about the best estimator finally found a solution in a cornerstone work by Antoni, who proposed a unified form for the two families, thus allowing a detailed statistical study of their properties. Since then, the focus of cyclostationary research has shifted towards algorithms, in terms of computational efficiency and simplicity of implementation. Traditional algorithms have proven computationally inefficient and the sophisticated "cyclostationary" definition of these estimators slowed their spread in the industry. The only attempt to increase the computational efficiency of cyclostationary estimators is represented by the cyclic modulation spectrum. This indicator exploits the relationship between cyclostationarity and envelope analysis. The link with envelope analysis allows a leap in computational efficiency and provides a "way in" for the understanding by industrial engineers. However, the new estimator lies outside the unified form described above and an unbiased version of the indicator has not been proposed. This paper will therefore extend the analysis of envelope-based estimators of the cyclic spectrum, proposing a new approach to include them in the unified form of cyclostationary estimators. This will enable the definition of a new envelope-based algorithm and the detailed analysis of the properties of the cyclic modulation spectrum. The computational efficiency of envelope-based algorithms will be also discussed quantitatively for the first time in comparison with the averaged cyclic periodogram. Finally, the algorithms will be validated with numerical and experimental examples.

  19. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs): coincidence detectors acting to spatially and temporally integrate cyclic nucleotide and non-cyclic nucleotide signals.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Donald H; Wilson, Lindsay S; Rampersad, Sarah N; Hubert, Fabien; Truong, Tammy; Kaczmarek, Milosz; Brzezinska, Paulina; Freitag, Silja I; Umana, M Bibiana; Wudwud, Alie

    2014-04-01

    The cyclic nucleotide second messengers cAMP and cGMP each affect virtually all cellular processes. Although these hydrophilic small molecules readily diffuse throughout cells, it is remarkable that their ability to activate their multiple intracellular effectors is spatially and temporally selective. Studies have identified a critical role for compartmentation of the enzymes which hydrolyse and metabolically inactivate these second messengers, the PDEs (cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases), in this specificity. In the present article, we describe several examples from our work in which compartmentation of selected cAMP- or cGMP-hydrolysing PDEs co-ordinate selective activation of cyclic nucleotide effectors, and, as a result, selectively affect cellular functions. It is our belief that therapeutic strategies aimed at targeting PDEs within these compartments will allow greater selectivity than those directed at inhibiting these enzymes throughout the cells.

  20. Microfluidic chips with reversed-phase monoliths for solid phase extraction and on-chip labeling.

    PubMed

    Nge, Pamela N; Pagaduan, Jayson V; Yu, Ming; Woolley, Adam T

    2012-10-26

    The integration of sample preparation methods into microfluidic devices provides automation necessary for achieving complete micro total analysis systems. We have developed a technique that combines on-chip sample enrichment with fluorescence labeling and purification. Polymer monoliths made from butyl methacrylate were fabricated in cyclic olefin copolymer microdevices and used for solid phase extraction. We studied the retention of fluorophores, amino acids and proteins on these columns. The retained samples were subsequently labeled with both Alexa Fluor 488 and Chromeo P503, and unreacted dye was rinsed off the column before sample elution. Additional purification was obtained from the differential retention of proteins and fluorescent labels. A linear relation between the eluted peak areas and concentrations of on-chip labeled heat shock protein 90 samples demonstrated the utility of this method for on-chip quantitation. Our fast and simple method of simultaneously concentrating and labeling samples on-chip is compatible with miniaturization and desirable for automated analysis.

  1. A Deceiving Label?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    The author reports on the growing debate among educators on whether the umbrella Asian Pacific Islander label conceals disparities among Asian American students or provides political power in numbers. Nationally, experts say that support services aimed at not only Southeast Asians, but all Asian Pacific Islander students, remain scarce in higher…

  2. Cyclic transformation of orbital angular momentum modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlederer, Florian; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Malik, Mehul; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-04-01

    The spatial modes of photons are one realization of a QuDit, a quantum system that is described in a D-dimensional Hilbert space. In order to perform quantum information tasks with QuDits, a general class of D-dimensional unitary transformations is needed. Among these, cyclic transformations are an important special case required in many high-dimensional quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a cyclic transformation in the high-dimensional space of photonic orbital angular momentum (OAM). Using simple linear optical components, we show a successful four-fold cyclic transformation of OAM modes. Interestingly, our experimental setup was found by a computer algorithm. In addition to the four-cyclic transformation, the algorithm also found extensions to higher-dimensional cycles in a hybrid space of OAM and polarization. Besides being useful for quantum cryptography with QuDits, cyclic transformations are key for the experimental production of high-dimensional maximally entangled Bell-states.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  4. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides.

    PubMed

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ-NAM-2HP (1:1:1).

  5. Binary and ternary cocrystals of sulfa drug acetazolamide with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-01-01

    A novel design strategy for cocrystals of a sulfonamide drug with pyridine carboxamides and cyclic amides is developed based on synthon identification as well as size and shape match of coformers. Binary adducts of acetazolamide (ACZ) with lactams (valerolactam and caprolactam, VLM, CPR), cyclic amides (2-pyridone, labeled as 2HP and its derivatives MeHP, OMeHP) and pyridine amides (nicotinamide and picolinamide, NAM, PAM) were obtained by manual grinding, and their single crystals by solution crystallization. The heterosynthons in the binary cocrystals of ACZ with these coformers suggested a ternary combination for ACZ with pyridone and nicotinamide. Novel supramolecular synthons of ACZ with lactams and pyridine carboxamides are reported together with binary and ternary cocrystals for a sulfonamide drug. This crystal engineering study resulted in the first ternary cocrystal of acetazolamide with amide coformers, ACZ–NAM–2HP (1:1:1). PMID:27006778

  6. Cyclic cholecystokinin analogues with high selectivity for central receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, B; Pelaprat, D; Durieux, C; Dor, A; Reibaud, M; Blanchard, J C; Roques, B P

    1988-01-01

    Taking as a model the N-terminal folding of the cholecystokinin tyrosine-sulfated octapeptide [CCK-8; Asp-Tyr(SO3H)-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2] deduced from conformational studies, two cyclic cholecystokinin (CCK) analogues were synthesized by conventional peptide synthesis: Boc-D-Asp-Tyr(SO3H)-Ahx-D-Lys-Trp-Ahx-Asp-Phe-NH2 [compound I (Ahx, 2-aminohexanoic acid)] and Boc-gamma-D-Glu-Tyr(SO3H)-Ahx-D-Lys-Trp-Ahx-Asp-Phe-NH2 (compound II). The binding characteristics of these peptides were investigated on brain cortex membranes and pancreatic acini of guinea pig. Compounds I and II were competitive inhibitors of [3H]Boc[Ahx28,31]CCK-(27-33) binding to central CCK receptors and showed a high degree of selectivity for these binding sites (compound I: Ki for pancreas/Ki for brain, 179; compound II: Ki for pancreas/Ki for brain, 1979). This high selectivity was associated with a high affinity for central CCK receptors (compound I: Ki, 5.1 nM; compound II: Ki, 0.49 nM). Similar affinities and selectivities were found when 125I Bolton-Hunter-labeled CCK-8 was used as a ligand. Moreover, these compounds were only weakly active in the stimulation of amylase release from guinea pig pancreatic acini (EC50 greater than 10,000 nM) and were unable to induce contractions in the guinea pig ileum (to 10(-6) M). The two cyclic CCK analogues, therefore, appear to be synthetic ligands exhibiting both high affinity and high selectivity for central CCK binding sites. These compounds could help clarify the respective role of central and peripheral receptors for various CCK-8-induced pharmacological effects. PMID:3162318

  7. Evaluation of homogeneous electrocatalysts by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Rountree, Eric S; McCarthy, Brian D; Eisenhart, Thomas T; Dempsey, Jillian L

    2014-10-06

    The pursuit of solar fuels has motivated extensive research on molecular electrocatalysts capable of evolving hydrogen from protic solutions, reducing CO2, and oxidizing water. Determining accurate figures of merit for these catalysts requires the careful and appropriate application of electroanalytical techniques. This Viewpoint first briefly presents the fundamentals of cyclic voltammetry and highlights practical experimental considerations before focusing on the application of cyclic voltammetry for the characterization of electrocatalysts. Key metrics for comparing catalysts, including the overpotential (η), potential for catalysis (E(cat)), observed rate constant (k(obs)), and potential-dependent turnover frequency, are discussed. The cyclic voltammetric responses for a general electrocatalytic one-electron reduction of a substrate are presented along with methods to extract figures of merit from these data. The extension of this analysis to more complex electrocatalytic schemes, such as those responsible for H2 evolution and CO2 reduction, is then discussed.

  8. Cyclic Cocycles on Twisted Convolution Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    We give a construction of cyclic cocycles on convolution algebras twisted by gerbes over discrete translation groupoids. For proper étale groupoids, Tu and Xu (Adv Math 207(2):455-483, 2006) provide a map between the periodic cyclic cohomology of a gerbe-twisted convolution algebra and twisted cohomology groups which is similar to the construction of Mathai and Stevenson (Adv Math 200(2):303-335, 2006). When the groupoid is not proper, we cannot construct an invariant connection on the gerbe; therefore to study this algebra, we instead develop simplicial techniques to construct a simplicial curvature 3-form representing the class of the gerbe. Then by using a JLO formula we define a morphism from a simplicial complex twisted by this simplicial curvature 3-form to the mixed bicomplex computing the periodic cyclic cohomology of the twisted convolution algebras.

  9. The nature of solar cyclicity. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains a critical survey of work devoted to the study of the nature of solar cyclicity. The inconsistency of the representation of cyclic curves using a frequency spectrum is indicated. The useful contribution of the ideas of Wolf, Newcomb, and Waldmeier to the solution of the problem is noted. Data are cited in favor of the theory of the tidal nature of solar cyclicity developed by the author, which also takes into account the ideas of the above-mentioned authors: the continuous paired and single tidal actions of the planets and the resonance character of this action, thanks to which the approximately 10-year period of action of Jupiter and Saturn is transformed into the 11-year activity cycle.

  10. Cyclic and low temperature effects on microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissflug, V. A.; Sisul, E. V.

    1977-01-01

    Cyclic temperature and low temperature operating life tests, and pre-/post-life device evaluations were used to determine the degrading effects of thermal environments on microcircuit reliability. Low power transistor-transistor-logic gates and linear devices were included in each test group. Device metallization systems included aluminum metallization/aluminum wire, aluminum metallization/gold wire, and gold metallization/gold wire. Fewer than 2% electrical failures were observed during the cyclic and low temperature life tests and the post-life evaluations revealed approximately 2% bond pull failures. Reconstruction of aluminum die metallization was observed in all devices and the severity of the reconstruction appeared to be directly related to the magnitude of the temperature excursion. All types of bonds except the gold/gold bonds were weakened by exposure to repeated cyclic temperature stress.

  11. SICLOPPS cyclic peptide libraries in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Ali

    2017-02-28

    Cyclic peptide libraries have demonstrated significant potential when employed against challenging targets such as protein-protein interactions. While a variety of methods for library generation exist, genetically encoded libraries hold several advantages over their chemically synthesized counterparts; they are more readily accessible and allow straightforward hit deconvolution. One method for the intracellular generation of such libraries is split-intein circular ligation of peptides and proteins (SICLOPPS). Here we detail and discuss the deployment of SICLOPPS libraries for the identification of cyclic peptide inhibitors of a variety of targets.

  12. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  13. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  14. Use of forskolin to study the relationship between cyclic AMP formation and bone resorption in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, U H; Fredholm, B B; Ransjö, M

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin on bone resorption and cyclic AMP accumulation was studied in an organ-culture system by using calvarial bones from 6-7-day-old mice. Forskolin caused a rapid and fully reversible increase of cyclic AMP, which was maximal after 20-30 min. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram (30 mumol/l), enhanced the cyclic AMP response to forskolin (50 mumol/l) from a net cyclic AMP response of 1234 +/- 154 pmol/bone to 2854 +/- 193 pmol/bone (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4). The cyclic AMP level in bones treated with forskolin (30 mumol/l) was significantly increased after 24 h of culture. Forskolin, at and above 0.3 mumol/l, in the absence and the presence of rolipram (30 mumol/l), caused a dose-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation with an calculated EC50 (concentration producing half-maximal stimulation) value at 8.3 mumol/l. In 24 h cultures forskolin inhibited spontaneous and PTH (parathyroid hormone)-stimulated 45Ca release with calculated IC50 (concentration producing half-maximal inhibition) values at 1.6 and 0.6 mumol/l respectively. Forskolin significantly inhibited the release of 3H from [3H]proline-labelled bones stimulated by PTH (10 nmol/l). The inhibitory effect by forskolin on PTH-stimulated 45Ca release was significant already after 3 h of culture. In 24 h cultures forskolin (3 mumol/l) significantly inhibited 45Ca release also from bones stimulated by prostaglandin E2 (1 mumol/l) and 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (0.1 mumol/l). The inhibitory effect of forskolin on spontaneous and PTH-stimulated 45Ca release was transient. A dose-dependent stimulation of basal 45Ca release was seen in 120 h cultures, at and above 3 nmol of forskolin/l, with a calculated EC50 value at 16 nmol/l. The stimulatory effect of forskolin (1 mumol/l) could be inhibited by calcitonin (0.1 unit/ml), but was insensitive to indomethacin (1 mumol/l). Forskolin increased the release of 3H from [3H]proline-labelled bones cultured for 120 h and

  15. Strain controlled cyclic tests on miniaturized specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, R.; Džugan, J.

    2017-02-01

    The paper is dealing with strain controlled cyclic tests using a non-contact strain measurement based on digital image correlation techniques on proportional sizes of conventional specimens. The cyclic behaviour of 34CrNiMo6 high-strength steel was investigated on miniaturized round specimens with diameter of 2mm that were compared with specimens in accordance with ASTM E606 standards. The cycle asymmetry coefficient was R= -1. This application is intended to be used for life time assessment of in service components in future work which enables to carried out a group of mechanical tests from a limited amount of the experimental material. The attention was paid to confirm the suitability of the proposed size miniaturization geometry, testing set up and procedure. The test results obtained enabled to construct Manson-Coffin curves and assess fatigue parameters. The purpose of this study is to present differences between cyclic curves and cyclic parameters which have been evaluated based on conventional and miniaturized specimens.

  16. One pot solution synthesis of cyclic oligodeoxyribonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, M L; Carcuro, A; Tondelli, L; Garbesi, A; Bonora, G M

    1990-01-01

    Several cyclic oligodeoxynucleotides with different base composition and size have been prepared from 5',3'-unprotected linear precursors, using a bifunctional phosphorylating reagent. The final deprotected oligomers have been characterized by 1H- and 31P-NMR. The present procedure is particularly useful for millimolar scale syntheses. PMID:2339055

  17. Scale invariant density perturbations from cyclic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, Paul Howard

    2016-04-01

    It is shown how quantum fluctuations of the radiation during the contraction era of a comes back empty (CBE) cyclic cosmology can provide density fluctuations which re-enter the horizon during the subsequent expansion era and at lowest order are scale invariant, in a Harrison-Zel’dovich-Peebles sense. It is necessary to be consistent with observations of large scale structure.

  18. Cyclic nucleotide imaging and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Filip; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O

    2017-02-16

    The universal second messengers cyclic nucleotides 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) play central roles in cardiovascular function and disease. They act in discrete, functionally relevant subcellular microdomains which regulate, for example, calcium cycling and excitation-contraction coupling. Such localized cAMP and cGMP signals have been difficult to measure using conventional biochemical techniques. Recent years have witnessed the advent of live cell imaging techniques which allow visualization of these functionally relevant second messengers with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution at cellular, subcellular and tissue levels. In this review, we discuss these new imaging techniques and give examples how they are used to visualize cAMP and cGMP in physiological and pathological settings to better understand cardiovascular function and disease. Two primary techniques include the use of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based cyclic nucleotide biosensors and nanoscale scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM). These methods can provide deep mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP and cGMP signaling.

  19. Planar tetracoordinate carbons in cyclic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Perez, Nancy; Heine, Thomas; Barthel, Robert; Seifert, Gotthard; Vela, Alberto; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Merino, Gabriel

    2005-04-14

    [structure: see text] A series of cyclic hydrocarbons containing a planar tetracoordinate carbon atom is proposed. To rationalize the electronic factors contributing to the stability of these molecules, an analysis of the molecular orbitals and the induced magnetic field is presented.

  20. A model for cyclic mechanical reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenhai; Kong, Fang; Zhu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical force regulates a broad range of molecular interactions in biology. Three types of counterintuitive mechanical regulation of receptor–ligand dissociation have been described. Catch bonds are strengthened by constant forces, as opposed to slip bonds that are weakened by constant forces. The phenomenon that bonds become stronger with prior application of cyclic forces is termed cyclic mechanical reinforcement (CMR). Slip and catch bonds have respectively been explained by two-state models. However, they assume fast equilibration between internal states and hence are inadequate for CMR. Here we propose a three-state model for CMR where both loading and unloading regulate the transition of bonds among the short-lived, intermediate, and long-lived state. Cyclic forces favor bonds in the long-lived state, hence greatly prolonging their lifetimes. The three-state model explains the force history effect and agrees with the experimental CMR effect of integrin α5β1–fibronectin interaction. This model helps decipher the distinctive ways by which molecular bonds are mechanically strengthened: catch bonds by constant forces and CMR by cyclic forces. The different types of mechanical regulation may enable the cell to fine tune its mechanotransduction via membrane receptors. PMID:27786286

  1. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  2. Site-specific labeling of RNA at internal ribose hydroxyl groups: terbium-assisted deoxyribozymes at work.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Lea; Javadi-Zarnaghi, Fatemeh; Höbartner, Claudia

    2014-06-04

    A general and efficient single-step method was established for site-specific post-transcriptional labeling of RNA. Using Tb(3+) as accelerating cofactor for deoxyribozymes, various labeled guanosines were site-specifically attached to 2'-OH groups of internal adenosines in in vitro transcribed RNA. The DNA-catalyzed 2',5'-phosphodiester bond formation proceeded efficiently with fluorescent, spin-labeled, biotinylated, or cross-linker-modified guanosine triphosphates. The sequence context of the labeling site was systematically analyzed by mutating the nucleotides flanking the targeted adenosine. Labeling of adenosines in a purine-rich environment showed the fastest reactions and highest yields. Overall, practically useful yields >70% were obtained for 13 out of 16 possible nucleotide (nt) combinations. Using this approach, we demonstrate preparative labeling under mild conditions for up to ~160-nt-long RNAs, including spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA and a cyclic-di-AMP binding riboswitch RNA.

  3. Effects of cyclical etidronate with alfacalcidol on lumbar bone mineral density, bone resorption, and back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Ichimura, Shoichi; Matsu, Kenjiro; Uzawa, Mitsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present open-labeled, randomized, prospective study was to compare the effects of cyclical etidronate combined with alfacalcidol with those of cyclical etidronate alone on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), bone resorption, and back pain in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Forty postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, 60-86 years of age, without any vertebral fractures in the lumbar spine, were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients in each group. One group was treated with cyclical etidronate (oral etidronate 200 mg daily for 2 weeks every 3 months) and the other was given cyclical etidronate combined with alfacalcidol (cyclical etidronate plus alfacalcidol 1 Ig daily continuously). The BMD of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, urinary crosslinked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and back pain evaluated by the face scale score were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics including age, body mass index, years since menopause, lumbar BMD, urinary NTX level, and face scale score between the two treatment groups. Both treatments significantly reduced the urinary NTX level and back pain. Cyclical etidronate combined with alfacalcidol significantly increased the lumbar BMD with a more significant reduction in the urinary NTX level than cyclical etidronate alone, but cyclical etidronate alone did not significantly increase the lumbar BMD. Alleviation of back pain was similar in the two groups. These results suggest that cyclical etidronate combined with alfacalcidol appears to be more useful than cyclical etidronate alone for increasing the lumbar BMD by more markedly suppressing bone resorption in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

  4. Learning with imperfectly labeled patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of learning in pattern recognition using imperfectly labeled patterns is considered. The performance of the Bayes and nearest neighbor classifiers with imperfect labels is discussed using a probabilistic model for the mislabeling of the training patterns. Schemes for training the classifier using both parametric and non parametric techniques are presented. Methods for the correction of imperfect labels were developed. To gain an understanding of the learning process, expressions are derived for success probability as a function of training time for a one dimensional increment error correction classifier with imperfect labels. Feature selection with imperfectly labeled patterns is described.

  5. Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases in cyclic AMP-mediated vasorelaxation

    PubMed Central

    Eckly-Michel, Anita; Martin, Viviane; Lugnier, Claire

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in the effects of cyclic AMP-elevating agents on vascular smooth muscle relaxation, cyclic nucleotide dependent-protein kinase activities and ATP-induced calcium signalling ([Ca2+]i) was studied in rat aorta. Cyclic AMP-elevating agents used were a β-adrenoceptor agonist (isoprenaline), a phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor (SK&F 94120) and a PDE4 inhibitor (rolipram). In rat intact aorta, the relaxant effect induced by isoprenaline (0.01–0.3 μM) was decreased by a specific inhibitor of PKA, H-89, whereas a specific inhibitor of PKG, Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS, was without effect. No significant difference in PKA and PKG activity ratios was detected in aortic rings when isoprenaline 10 μM was used. At the same concentration, isoprenaline did not modify ATP-induced changes in [Ca2+]i in smooth muscle cells. Neither H-89 nor Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS modified this response. These findings suggest that PKA is only involved in the relaxant effect induced by low concentrations of isoprenaline (0.01–0.3 μM), whereas for higher concentrations, other mechanisms independent of PKA and PKG are involved. The relaxant effects induced by SK&F 94120 and rolipram were inhibited by Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS with no significant effect of H-89. Neither SK&F 94120, nor rolipram at 30 μM significantly modified the activity ratios of PKA and PKG. Rolipram inhibited the ATP-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]i. This decrease was abolished by Rp-8-Br-cyclic GMPS whereas H-89 had no significant effect. These results suggest that PKG is involved in the vascular effects induced by the inhibitors of PDE3 and PDE4. Moreover, since it was previously shown that PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors only increased cyclic AMP levels with no change in cyclic GMP level, these data also suggest a cross-activation of PKG by cyclic AMP in rat aorta. The combination of 5 μM SK&F 94120 with rolipram markedly

  6. Cyclic hardening in copper described in terms of combined monotonic and cyclic stress-strain curves

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, H.D. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    Hardening of polycrystalline copper subjected to tension-compression loading cycles in the plastic region is discussed with reference to changes in flow stress determined from equations describing dislocation glide. It is suggested that hardening is as a result of the accumulation of strain on a monotonic stress-strain curve. On initial loading, the behavior is monotonic. On stress reversal, a characteristic cyclic stress-strain curve is followed until the stress reaches a value in reverse loading corresponding to the maximum attained during the preceding half cycle. Thereafter, the monotonic path is followed until strain reversal occurs at completion of the half cycle. Repetition of the process results in cyclic hardening. Steady state cyclic behavior is reached when a stress associated with the monotonic stress-strain curve is reached which is equal to the stress associated with the cyclic stress-strain curve corresponding to the imposed strain amplitude.

  7. Cyclic Creep of Ultrafine-Grained Pure Cu Under Cyclic Tension Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanjun; Yang, Jingwen; Shen, Xu; Zhu, Rong

    2017-02-01

    The uniaxial ratcheting behavior of ultrafine-grained pure Cu processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated through uniaxial asymmetric cyclic stress-controlled experiments at room temperature. The effects of the mean stress and stress amplitude on the uniaxial ratcheting response and ratcheting life of the ECAP Cu were analyzed. With increasing mean stress or stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain and its rate increased, but the ratcheting life decreased. An approach based on Basquin's method was used to describe the fatigue lifetime of the ECAP pure Cu. Additionally, a power law relationship was adopted to describe the cyclic steady creep rate. Finally, the microscopic and macroscopic fracture features were examined. It was found that at high peak stresses, cyclic creep governs the overall failure process; otherwise, cyclic creep-fatigue interaction is the dominant failure mode.

  8. Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Borylation of Cyclic Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Azusa; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2010-01-01

    A rhodium-catalyzed dehydrogenative borylation of cyclic alkenes is described. This reaction provides direct access to cyclic 1-alkenylboronic acid pinacol esters, useful intermediates in organic synthesis. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling applications are also presented. PMID:20107646

  9. New Correlations Between Monotonic and Cyclic Properties of Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonfrillo, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the cyclic properties of metallic materials is often critical to correctly design structural components. However, cyclic data are not easily available in the literature, while tensile test data are easier to find in specialized sites or vendor catalogs. In this study, the cyclic strength coefficient and the cyclic strain hardening exponent of the Ramberg-Osgood law were evaluated using exclusively data obtained through monotonic tensile tests. The analyses were carried out on a large set of materials. The database used is composed of 338 alloys, mainly iron alloys, but also titanium and aluminum alloys. New subdivisions of the materials were introduced. Several original relations were suggested to correlate static and cyclic strength parameters. The evaluated values of both cyclic strength coefficient and cyclic strain hardening exponent were compared with experimental values coming from cyclic test, obtaining a satisfactory agreement and a higher accuracy if compared with similar relations found in the literature.

  10. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  11. Cyclic soft groups and their applications on groups.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Hacı; Özlü, Serif

    2014-01-01

    In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  12. Synthesis of cyclic sulfones by ring-closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei

    2002-02-07

    A general and highly efficient synthesis of cyclic sulfones based on ring-closing metathesis has been developed. The synthetic utility of the resulting cyclic sulfones was demonstrated by their participation in stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions and transformation to cyclic dienes by the Ramberg-Bäcklund reaction.

  13. Pharmacological modulation of secondary mediator systems--cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP--on inflammatory hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F Q; Teixeira, M M; Ferreira, S H

    1999-06-01

    1. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the relevance of neuronal balance of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP concentration for functional regulation of nociceptor sensitivity during inflammation. 2. Injection of PGE2 (10-100 ng paw-1) evoked a dose-dependent hyperalgesic effect which was mediated via a cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase (PKA) inasmuch as hyperalgesia was blocked by the PKA inhibitor H89. 3. The PDE4 inhibitor rolipram and RP73401, but not PDE3 and PDE5 inhibitors potentiated the hyperalgesic effects of PGE2. The hyperalgesic effect of dopamine was also enhanced by rolipram. Moreover, rolipram significantly potentiated hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8. This suggests that neuronal cyclic AMP mediates the prostanoid and sympathetic components of mechanical hyperalgesia. Moreover, in the neuron cyclic AMP is mainly metabolized by PDE4. 4. To examine the role of the NO/cyclic GMP pathway in modulating mechanical hyperalgesia, we tested the effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ. This substance counteracts the inhibitory effects of the NO donor, SNAP, on the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. 5. The ODQ potentiated hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, ODQ had no significant effect on the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2 and dopamine. This indicates that the hyperalgesic cytokines may activate soluble guanylate cyclase, which down-regulate the ability of these substances to cause hyperalgesia. This event appears not to be mediated by prostaglandin or dopamine. 6. In conclusion, the results presented in this paper confirm an association between (i) hyperalgesia and elevated levels of cyclic AMP as well as (ii) antinociception and elevated levels of cyclic GMP. The intracellular levels of cyclic AMP that enhance hyperalgesia are controlled by the PDE4 isoform and appear to result in activation of protein kinase A whereas the

  14. Cyclic plasticity and failure of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalev, I.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical approach for low-cycle fatigue prediction is presented. The approach combines a cyclic plasticity model with the finite element method and a damage accumulation criterion for ductile metals. The cyclic plasticity model is based on the concept of the combination of several yield surfaces. The surfaces are related to the material uniaxial stress-strain curve idealized by piecewise linear segments. The damage criterion is based on the Coffin-Manson formulae modified for the mean stress variation effect. It is extended to the multiaxial varying stress-strain field and applied for both the crack initiation and the crack growth processes. The stable slow crack growth rate is approximated by the damage accumulation gradient computed from the cracked finite element models. This procedure requires fatigue testing data of only smooth specimens under constant strain amplitudes. The present approach is illustrated by numerical examples of an aircraft wing stiffened panel subjected to compression, which causes material yielding and residual tension.

  15. Separation of isotopes by cyclical processes

    DOEpatents

    Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.; Weaver, Kenny

    1976-11-02

    Various isotopes of hydrogen are separated by a cyclic sorption process in which a gas stream containing the isotopes is periodically passed through a high pressure column containing a palladium sorbent. A portion of the product from the high pressure column is passed through a second column at lower pressure to act as a purge. Before the sorbent in the high pressure column becomes saturated, the sequence is reversed with the stream flowing through the former low-pressure column now at high pressure, and a portion of the product purging the former high pressure column now at low pressure. The sequence is continued in cyclic manner with the product being enriched in a particular isotope.

  16. Cyclic Oxidation Modeling and Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The cyclic oxidation process can be described as an iterative scale growth and spallation sequence by a number of similar models. Model input variable include oxide scale type and growth parameters, spalling geometry, spall constant, and cycle duration. Outputs include net weight change, the amounts of retained and spalled oxide, the total oxygen and metal consumed, and the terminal rates of weight loss and metal consumption. All models and their variations produce a number of similar characteristic features. In general, spalling and material consumption increase to a steady state rate, at which point the retained scale approaches a constant and the rate of weight loss becomes linear. For one model, this regularity was demonstrated as dimensionless, universal expressions, obtained by normalizing the variables by critical performance factors. These insights were enabled through the use of the COSP for Windows cyclic oxidation spalling program.

  17. Cyclic Cushing syndrome: definitions and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Velez, Dennis A; Mayberg, Marc R; Ludlam, William H

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) results from hypercortisolemia caused by excess adrenocorticotropic hormone production in a pituitary adenoma or ectopic tumor, or by an adrenal tumor that directly produces excess cortisol. The diagnosis can usually be ascertained with a reasonable degree of certainty based on clinical and laboratory findings of hypercortisolism. There are patients, however, in whom the production of excess cortisol exhibits a cyclic or intermittent pattern, and, as a result, the clinical symptoms may be quite complex and varied. In these patients the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be normal between cycles, and dexamethasone suppression testing may produce a paradoxical response. In the present article, the authors provide a definition of cyclic Cushing syndrome, review the causes and its potential pathophysiological mechanisms, and discuss the treatment options based on a review of the available literature.

  18. Asymmetric Redox-Annulation of Cyclic Amines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic amines such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline undergo regiodivergent annulation reactions with 4-nitrobutyraldehydes. These redox-neutral transformations enable the asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted polycyclic ring systems in just two steps from commercial materials. The utility of this process is illustrated in a rapid synthesis of (−)-protoemetinol. Computational studies provide mechanistic insights and implicate the elimination of acetic acid from an ammonium nitronate intermediate as the rate-determining step. PMID:26348653

  19. Recurrence of cyclic esotropia after surgical correction.

    PubMed

    Cahill, M; Walsh, J; McAleer, A

    1999-12-01

    Cyclic esotropia is a rare form of strabismus in which a convergent squint appears and disappears typically, but not always, in a regular 48-hour cycle. Characteristically, the convergent squint, when present, has a large angle with associated suppression and no binocular function. On normal or "nonsquinting" days, no manifest deviation is detectable (although in some cases there may be an esophoria). Physiologic diplopia is appreciated, whereas fusion and stereopsis are all normal. Amblyopia may occur in up to 20% of cases.

  20. Antitumoral cyclic peptide analogues of chlamydocin.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, E; Fauchere, J L; Atassi, G; Viallefont, P; Lazaro, R

    1993-01-01

    A series of cyclic tetrapeptides bearing the bioactive alkylating group on an epsilon-amino-lysyl function have been examined for their antitumoral activity on L1210 and P388 murine leukemia cell lines. One analogue belonging to the chlamydocin family and bearing a beta-chloroethylnitrosourea group was found to be potent at inhibiting L1210 cell proliferation and had a higher therapeutic index than the reference compound bis-beta-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU) on the in vivo P388-induced leukemia model.

  1. Cyclic spectrum based carrier recovery for OQPSK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hua; Li, Jing

    2011-10-01

    A union carrier synchronization scheme of feed-forward frequency offset estimation and PLL for OQPSK signals is discussed in this paper. A feed-forward frequency offset estimator is developed based on the cyclic spectrum of the received signal. In order to suppress channel noise, an improved strategy is proposed. Simulations show that the presented scheme can achieve steady state much more quickly than conventional Costas loop. At the same time, the steady error of the union scheme is also smaller.

  2. Cyclic change in late triassic lacustrine communities.

    PubMed

    Olsen, P E; Remington, C L; Cornet, B; Thomson, K S

    1978-08-25

    A new type of lake and shore assemblage has been found in the Late Triassic age rocks of North Carolina and Virginia (Dan River group). It includes abundant aquatic reptiles, fishes, at least seven orders of insects, crustaceans, and a diverse flora. Cyclic changes in the fauna and flora correlate with sedimentary cycles, which together reflect the repetitive development and extinction of large meromictic lakes.

  3. Accumulation of inositol phosphates and cyclic AMP in guinea-pig cerebral cortical preparations. Effects of norepinephrine, histamine, carbamylcholine and 2-chloroadenosine.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, E B; Daly, J W

    1985-11-20

    Norepinephrine and serotonin augment by about 2-fold the accumulation of cyclic [3H]AMP elicited by 2-chloroadenosine in [3H]adenine-labeled guinea-pig cerebral cortical slices. Histamine causes a 3-fold augmentation. The first two agents have no effect on cyclic AMP alone, while histamine has only a small effect alone. The augmentation of the 2-chloroadenosine response appears to be mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic, 5HT2-serotonergic and H2-histaminergic receptors. VIP-elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP are also augmented through stimulation of alpha 1-adrenergic, 5HT2-serotonergic and H1-histaminergic receptors. Activation of these amine receptors also increases the turnover of phosphatidylinositols in [3H]inositol-labeled guinea pig cerebral cortical slices. Norepinephrine causes a 5-fold, serotonin a 1.2-fold, and histamine a 2.5-fold increase in accumulations of [3H]inositol phosphates. 2-Chloroadenosine, vasoactive intestinal peptide, baclofen, and somatostatin have no effect on phosphatidylinositol turnover, nor do the last two agents augment accumulations of cyclic AMP elicited by 2-chloroadenosine. The data suggest a possible relationship between turnover of phosphatidylinositol and the augmentations of the cyclic AMP accumulations elicited by biogenic amines in brain slices.

  4. Principles of protein labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.

  5. Optimizing connected component labeling algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents two new strategies that can be used to greatly improve the speed of connected component labeling algorithms. To assign a label to a new object, most connected component labeling algorithms use a scanning step that examines some of its neighbors. The first strategy exploits the dependencies among them to reduce the number of neighbors examined. When considering 8-connected components in a 2D image, this can reduce the number of neighbors examined from four to one in many cases. The second strategy uses an array to store the equivalence information among the labels. This replaces the pointer based rooted trees used to store the same equivalence information. It reduces the memory required and also produces consecutive final labels. Using an array instead of the pointer based rooted trees speeds up the connected component labeling algorithms by a factor of 5 ~ 100 in our tests on random binary images.

  6. Externally applied cyclic strain regulates localization of focal contact components in cultured smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James J; Linderman, Jennifer J; Mooney, David J

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical regulators of cellular gene expression, yet little is understood of the mechanism whereby cells sense mechanical forces. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that mechanical strain applied to populations of cells via their adhesion substrate rapidly alters the cellular distribution of focal contact proteins. Focal contact-associated components (vinculin, a-actinin, paxillin) were assayed by immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative western blotting. Application of a single step increase in strain in multiple experiments caused overall a small change in focal contact-associated vinculin. In contrast, cyclic strain induced a large and very reproducible increase in detergent-insoluble vinculin (52% relative to static) after just 1 min of strain. Insoluble paxillin was transiently enriched with a similar time course, whereas insoluble a-actinin did not change significantly in response to cyclic strain. Rhodamine-labeled chicken vinculin added to permeabilized cells preferentially localized to focal contacts in response to cyclic strain, but not a single step increase in strain. These findings establish that insoluble levels of focal contact components are altered rapidly following application of an appropriate number of mechanical perturbations, and suggest that at least one component of the mechanism does not involve soluble intermediates.

  7. Cosmic perturbations through the cyclic ages

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Joel K.; Gratton, Steven; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-06-15

    We analyze the evolution of cosmological perturbations in the cyclic model, paying particular attention to their behavior and interplay over multiple cycles. Our key results are: (1) galaxies and large scale structure present in one cycle are generated by the quantum fluctuations in the preceding cycle without interference from perturbations or structure generated in earlier cycles and without interfering with structure generated in later cycles; (2) the ekpyrotic phase, an epoch of gentle contraction with equation of state w>>1 preceding the hot big bang, makes the universe homogeneous, isotropic and flat within any given observer's horizon; and (3) although the universe is uniform within each observer's horizon, the structure of the cyclic universe on very large scales is more complex, owing to the effects of superhorizon length perturbations, and cannot be described globally as a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. In particular, we show that the ekpyrotic contraction phase is so effective in smoothing, flattening and isotropizing the universe within the horizon that this phase alone suffices to solve the horizon and flatness problems even without an extended period of dark energy domination (a kind of low energy inflation). Instead, the cyclic model rests on a genuinely novel, noninflationary mechanism (ekpyrotic contraction) for resolving the classic cosmological conundrums.

  8. Cyclic dominance in evolutionary games: a review

    PubMed Central

    Szolnoki, Attila; Mobilia, Mauro; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Szczesny, Bartosz; Rucklidge, Alastair M.; Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    Rock is wrapped by paper, paper is cut by scissors and scissors are crushed by rock. This simple game is popular among children and adults to decide on trivial disputes that have no obvious winner, but cyclic dominance is also at the heart of predator–prey interactions, the mating strategy of side-blotched lizards, the overgrowth of marine sessile organisms and competition in microbial populations. Cyclical interactions also emerge spontaneously in evolutionary games entailing volunteering, reward, punishment, and in fact are common when the competing strategies are three or more, regardless of the particularities of the game. Here, we review recent advances on the rock–paper–scissors (RPS) and related evolutionary games, focusing, in particular, on pattern formation, the impact of mobility and the spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance. We also review mean-field and zero-dimensional RPS models and the application of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, and we highlight the importance and usefulness of statistical physics for the successful study of large-scale ecological systems. Directions for future research, related, for example, to dynamical effects of coevolutionary rules and invasion reversals owing to multi-point interactions, are also outlined. PMID:25232048

  9. Cyclic biamperometry at micro-interdigitated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Mikkelsen, Susan R

    2011-10-01

    Cyclic biamperometry was studied as an analytical method for use with commercially available, comb-type, coplanar microinterdigitated electrodes (μIDEs), using the ferri-/ferrocyanide redox couple as a model analyte. The μIDEs studied in this work were made of gold that had been deposited onto a Ti/W adhesion layer on borosilicate glass chips and had 5 and 10 μm bands with equal gap sizes. Close proximity of the two working electrodes, and their interdigitation, resulted in signal amplification by redox cycling. Results were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry, where one of the two IDE electrodes was used as the working electrode and external reference and auxiliary electrodes were used. Amplification factors of almost 20 were achieved due to redox cycling. Attempts to apply cyclic voltammetry to the μIDEs, with one of the combs as the working and the other as the auxiliary electrode, were unsuccessful due to corrosion of the auxiliary electrode comb. Results of this study, and the electrochemically unique feature of biamperometry to probe but not change the net contents of the medium under examination, suggest the applicability of scanning biamperometry at μIDEs to the very small volumes and electrochemical cell dimensions that are now of great interest.

  10. Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara da Silva, U.; Alves Lima, A. L.; Sotkov, G. M.

    2016-11-01

    The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose's Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.

  11. Label Ranking Algorithms: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vembu, Shankar; Gärtner, Thomas

    Label ranking is a complex prediction task where the goal is to map instances to a total order over a finite set of predefined labels. An interesting aspect of this problem is that it subsumes several supervised learning problems, such as multiclass prediction, multilabel classification, and hierarchical classification. Unsurprisingly, there exists a plethora of label ranking algorithms in the literature due, in part, to this versatile nature of the problem. In this paper, we survey these algorithms.

  12. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  13. Labeling conventions in isoelectronic sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Maniak, S.T.; Curtis, L.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The isoelectronic exposition of atomic structure properties involves labeling ambiguities when more than one level of the same total angular momentum and parity is present, and an energy ordered labeling of these levels can lead to apparent isoelectronic discontinuities. For example, in the recent oscillator strength calculations for S-like ions by Saloman and Kim (Phys. Rev. A 38, 577 (1988)), abrupt changes in the rates were sometimes observed between one isoelectronic element and the next. We suggest an alternative labeling scheme that removes these discontinuities and produces a smooth isoelectronic variation. This alternative labeling offers advantages for data exposition and for semiempirical interpolation and extrapolation.

  14. Effect on platelet functions of derivatives of cyclic nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Pareti, F I; Carrera, D; Mannucci, L; Mannucci, P M

    1978-04-30

    Derivatives of cyclic nucleotides were evaluated for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and the release reaction. Derivatives substituted in position 8 (mainly 8-Br-cyclic GMP) were more active than 3'-5' cyclic AMP, and their relative potency in inhibiting platelet aggregation and 14C-serotonin release was comparable to that of N62-0'-dibutyryl-cyclic AMP. Compounds substituted in position 6 or 2'-0 were not effective. The active compounds, which were also tested for their ability to stimulate platelet adenylate cyclase or to inhibit cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, did not modify the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Since previous animal experiments have shown that these derivatives cause less side effects than cyclic AMP and its dibutyryl derivative in animals, it is suggested that modification of the cyclophosphate molecule might make it possible to find compounds active only on platelet function without interfering with other biological systems.

  15. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-03-30

    Novel methods for positron emission tomography or single photon emission spectroscopy using tracer compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)napthyl Y in .beta. configuration is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, The compounds bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  16. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically approve the labels of meat and poultry products. The Agency also is consolidating the regulations that provide for the approval of labels for meat products and poultry products into a new Code of...

  17. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... amend the meat and poultry products inspection regulations to expand the circumstances in which FSIS will generically approve the labels of meat and poultry products. The Agency also is proposing to combine the regulations that provide for the approval of labels for meat products and poultry...

  18. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an alternative means to label produce. Low energy CO2 laser beams etch the surface showing the contrasting underlying layer. These etched surfaces can promote water loss and potentially allow for entry of decay organisms. The long-term effects of laser labe...

  19. Laser labeling, a safe technology to label produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Labeling of the produce has gained marked attention in recent years. Laser labeling technology involves the etching of required information on the surface using a low energy CO2 laser beam. The etching forms alphanumerical characters by pinhole dot matrix depressions. These openings can lead to wat...

  20. Cyclic AMP and the regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Mats; Harvey, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a brief review of studies that have reported therapeutic benefits of elevated cAMP on plasticity and regeneration after injury to the central nervous system (CNS). We also provide new data on the cellular mechanisms by which elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) promotes cytokine driven regeneration of adult CNS axons, using the visual system as the experimental model. cAMP is a second messenger for many intracellular signalling pathways. Elevation of cAMP in the eye by intravitreal injection of the cell permeant analogue (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; CPT-cAMP), when added to recombinant ciliary neurotrophic factor (rCNTF), significantly enhances rCNTF-induced regeneration of adult rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into peripheral nerve (PN) grafted onto transected optic nerve. This effect is mediated to some extent by protein kinase A (PKA) signalling, but CPT-cAMP also acts via PI3K/Akt signalling to reduce suppressor of cytokine signalling protein 3 (SOCS3) activity in RGCs. Another target for cAMP is the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), which can also mediate cAMP-induced axonal growth. Here we describe some novel results and discuss to what extent the pro-regenerative effects of CPT-cAMP on adult RGCs are mediated via Epac as well as via PKA-dependent pathways. We used the established PN-optic nerve graft model and quantified the survival and regenerative growth of adult rat RGCs after intravitreal injection of rCNTF in combination with a selective activator of PKA and/or a specific activator of Epac. Viable RGCs were identified by βIII-tubulin immunohistochemistry and regenerating RGCs retrogradely labelled and quantified after an injection of fluorogold into the distal end of the PN grafts, 4 weeks post-transplantation. The specific agonists of either PKA or Epac were both effective in enhancing the effects of rCNTF on RGC axonal regeneration, but interestingly, injections

  1. Regulation of intracellular cyclic AMP in skeletal muscle cells involves the efflux of cyclic nucleotide to the extracellular compartment

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Rosely Oliveira; Costa-Jr, Valter Luiz

    2003-01-01

    This report analyses the intracellular and extracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP in primary rat skeletal muscle cultures, after direct and receptor-dependent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC). Isoprenaline, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and forskolin induced a transient increase in the intracellular cyclic AMP that peaked 5 min after onset stimulation. Under stimulation with isoprenaline or CGRP, the intracellular cyclic AMP initial rise was followed by an exponential decline, reaching 46 and 52% of peak levels in 10 min, respectively. Conversely, the forskolin-dependent accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP decreased slowly and linearly, reaching 49% of the peak level in 30 min. The loss of intracellular cyclic AMP from peak levels, induced by direct or receptor-induced activation of AC, was followed by an increase in the extracellular cyclic AMP. This effect was independent on PDEs, since it was obtained in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Besides, in isoprenaline treated cells, the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol reduced both intra- and extracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP, whereas the organic anion transporter inhibitor probenecid reduced exclusively the extracellular accumulation. Together our data show that direct or receptor-dependent activation of skeletal muscle AC results in a transient increase in the intracellular cyclic AMP, despite the continuous presence of the stimulus. The temporal declining of intracellular cyclic AMP was not dependent on the cyclic AMP breakdown but associated to the efflux of cyclic nucleotide to the extracellular compartment, by an active transport since it was prevented by probenecid. PMID:12642402

  2. Virtual screening using combinatorial cyclic peptide libraries reveals protein interfaces readily targetable by cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Fergal J; O'Donovan, Darragh; Devocelle, Marc; Moran, Niamh; O'Connell, David J; Shields, Denis C

    2015-03-23

    Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but targeting these interactions with small molecules has historically been difficult. What is required are efficient combined computational and experimental screening methods to choose among a number of potential protein interfaces worthy of targeting lead macrocyclic compounds for further investigation. To achieve this, we have generated combinatorial 3D virtual libraries of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide structures, including short linear motifs (SLiMs), protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data Bank. We prepared a total of 372 reference pharmacophores, which were matched against 108,659 multiconformer cyclic peptides. After normalization to exclude nonspecific cyclic peptides, the top hits notably are enriched for mimetics of turn structures, including a turn at the interaction surface of human α thrombin, and also feature several protein-binding peptides. The top cyclic peptide hits also cover the critical "hot spot" interaction sites predicted from the interaction crystal structure. We have validated our method by testing cyclic peptides predicted to inhibit thrombin, a key protein in the blood coagulation pathway of important therapeutic interest, identifying a cyclic peptide inhibitor with lead-like activity. We conclude that protein interfaces most readily targetable by cyclic peptides and related macrocyclic drugs may be identified computationally among a set of candidate interfaces, accelerating the choice of interfaces against which lead compounds may be screened.

  3. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  4. Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofang; Ward, Christopher J.; Harris, Peter C.; Torres, Vicente E.

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of 3’–5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulate cell proliferation and fluid secretion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Since hydrolytic capacity of phosphodiesterases (PDE) far exceeds maximum rate of synthesis by adenylyl cyclases (AC), cellular levels of cAMP are more sensitive to PDE inhibition than to AC activity changes. We have used enzymatic, western blot, immunohistochemistry, PCR and biochemical assays to study activity and expression of PDE families and isoforms and expression of downstream effectors of cAMP signaling in wildtype and PKD rat and mouse kidneys. The results indicate: 1) Species specific differences in PDE expression; higher PDE activity in kidneys from mice compared to rats; higher contribution of PDE1, relative to PDE4 and PDE3, to total PDE activity of kidney lysate and lower PDE1, PDE3 and PDE4 activities in murine cystic compared to wildtype kidneys. 2) Reduced levels of several PDE1, PDE3 and PDE4 proteins despite mRNA upregulation, possibly due to increased protein degradation. 3) Increased cGMP levels in polycystic kidneys, suggesting in vivo downregulation of PDE1 activity. 4) Additive stimulatory effect of cAMP and cGMP on cystogenesis in vitro. 5) Upregulation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) subunits Iα and IIβ, PKare, CREB-1 mRNA, and CREM, ATF-1 and ICER proteins in cystic compared to wildtype kidneys. In summary, the results of this study suggest that alterations in cyclic nucleotide catabolism may render the cystic epithelium particularly susceptible to factors acting on Gs coupled receptors, account at least in part for the upregulation of cyclic nucleotide signaling in PKD, and contribute substantially to the progression of this disease. PMID:19924104

  5. Modelling water molecules inside cyclic peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiangtrong, Prangsai; Thamwattana, Ngamta; Baowan, Duangkamon

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic peptide nanotubes occur during the self-assembly process of cyclic peptides. Due to the ease of synthesis and ability to control the properties of outer surface and inner diameter by manipulating the functional side chains and the number of amino acids, cyclic peptide nanotubes have attracted much interest from many research areas. A potential application of peptide nanotubes is their use as artificial transmembrane channels for transporting ions, biomolecules and waters into cells. Here, we use the Lennard-Jones potential and a continuum approach to study the interaction of a water molecule in a cyclo[(- D-Ala- L-Ala)_4-] peptide nanotube. Assuming that each unit of a nanotube comprises an inner and an outer tube and that a water molecule is made up of a sphere of two hydrogen atoms uniformly distributed over its surface and a single oxygen atom at the centre, we determine analytically the interaction energy of the water molecule and the peptide nanotube. Using this energy, we find that, independent of the number of peptide units, the water molecule will be accepted inside the nanotube. Once inside the nanotube, we show that a water molecule prefers to be off-axis, closer to the surface of the inner nanotube. Furthermore, our study of two water molecules inside the peptide nanotube supports the finding that water molecules form an array of a 1-2-1-2 file inside peptide nanotubes. The theoretical study presented here can facilitate thorough understanding of the behaviour of water molecules inside peptide nanotubes for applications, such as artificial transmembrane channels.

  6. Universal Behavior of a Cyclic Oxidation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model has been generated to represent the iterative, discrete growth and spallation processes associated with cyclic oxidation. Parabolic growth kinetics (k(sub p)) over and a constant spall area (F(sub A)) were assumed, with spalling occurring interfacially at the thickest regions of the scale. Although most models require numerical techniques, the regularity and simplicity of this progression permitted an approximation by algebraic expressions. Normalization could now be performed to reflect all parametric effects, and a universal cyclic oxidation response was generated: W(sub u) = 1/2 {3J(sub u)(sup 1/2)+ J(sub u)(sup 3/2)} where W, is weight change normalized by the maximum and J(sub u) is the cycle number normalized by the number to reach maximum. Similarly, the total amount of metal consumed was represented by a single normalized curve. The factor [(S(sub c)-l)(raised dot)sqrt(F(sub A)k(sub p)DELTAt)] was identified as a general figure of merit, where S(sub c) is the mass ratio of oxide to oxygen and DELTAt is the cycle duration. A cyclic oxidation failure map was constructed, in normalized k(sub p)-F(sub A) space, as defined by the locus of points corresponding to a critical amount of metal consumption in a given time. All three constructions describe behavior for every value of growth rate, spall fraction, and cycle duration by means of single curves, but with two branches corresponding to the times before and after steady state is achieved.

  7. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the following... with black text. The label text shall comply with the following format requirements: (1) All... as needed for varying information. The label must be white with black text. The label shall...

  8. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  9. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  10. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  11. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  12. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  13. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  14. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  17. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  18. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  19. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  20. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the sodium content...

  1. 30 CFR 47.42 - Label contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label contents. 47.42 Section 47.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.42 Label contents. When an operator must make a label, the label must— (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  3. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  4. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  5. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  6. Cyclic groups and quantum logic gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkia, Arash; Batle, J.; Raymond Ooi, C. H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a formula for an infinite number of universal quantum logic gates, which are 4 by 4 unitary solutions to the Yang-Baxter (Y-B) equation. We obtain this family from a certain representation of the cyclic group of order n. We then show that this discrete family, parametrized by integers n, is in fact, a small sub-class of a larger continuous family, parametrized by real numbers θ, of universal quantum gates. We discuss the corresponding Yang-Baxterization and related symmetries in the concomitant Hamiltonian.

  7. Labeled Cocaine Analogs

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.

    1999-01-26

    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  8. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites

    DOEpatents

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert

    2004-03-23

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  9. Multiplex detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yacui; Zhang, Jiangyan; Tian, Jingxiao; Fan, Xiaofei; Geng, Hao; Cheng, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the homogeneous and multiplex detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) by combining molecular beacon (MB) probes and T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification. An MB probe with five base pairs in the stem region without special modification can effectively prevent the digestion by T7 exonuclease. Only in the presence of target miRNA is the MB probe hybridized with the target miRNA, and then digested by T7 exonuclease in the 5' to 3' direction. At the same time, the target miRNA is released and subsequently initiates the nuclease-assisted cyclic digestion process, generating enhanced fluorescence signal significantly. The results show that the combination of T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction and MB probe possesses higher sensitivity for miRNA detection. Moreover, multiplex detection of miRNAs was successfully achieved by designing two MB probes labeled with FAM and Cy3, respectively. As a result, the method opens a new pathway for the sensitive and multiplex detection of miRNAs as well as clinical diagnosis. Graphical Abstract A simple, highly sensitive, and specific assay was developed for the detection of microRNAs by combining molecular beacon probes with T7 exonuclease-assisted cyclic amplification reaction.

  10. Electrical Stimulation Decreases Coupling Efficiency Between Beta-Adrenergic Receptors and Cyclic AMP Production in Cultured Muscle Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. B.; Bridge, K. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of skeletal muscle cells in culture is an effective way to simulate the effects of muscle contraction and its effects on gene expression in muscle cells. Expression of the beta-adrenergic receptor and its coupling to cyclic AMP synthesis are important components of the signaling system that controls muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the goal of this project was to determine if electrical stimulation altered the beta-adrenergic response in muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells that had been grown for seven days in culture were subjected to electrical stimulation for an additional two days at a pulse frequency of 0.5 pulses/sec and a pulse duration of 200 msec. At the end of this two-day stimulation period, beta-adrenergic receptor population was measured by the binding of tritium-labeled CGP-12177 to muscle cells, and coupling to cAMP synthesis was measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA) after treating the cells for 10 min with the potent (beta)AR agonist, isoproterenol. The number of beta adrenergic receptors and the basal levels of intracellular cyclic AMP were not affected by electrical stimulation. However, the ability of these cells to synthesize cyclic AMP was reduced by approximately 50%. Thus, an enhanced level of contraction reduces the coupling efficiency of beta-adrenergic receptors for cyclic AMP production.

  11. Inter-rater reliability of cyclic and non-cyclic task assessment using the hand activity level in appliance manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Robert; Schwatka, Natalie; Gober, Jennifer; Gilkey, David; Anton, Dan; Gerr, Fred; Rosecrance, John

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) hand activity level (HAL), an observational ergonomic assessment method used to estimate physical exposure to repetitive exertions during task performance. Video recordings of 858 cyclic and non-cyclic appliance manufacturing tasks were assessed by sixteen pairs of raters using the HAL visual-analog scale. A weighted Pearson Product Moment-Correlation Coefficient was used to evaluate the agreement between the HAL scores recorded by each rater pair, and the mean weighted correlation coefficients for cyclic and non-cyclic tasks were calculated. Results indicated that the HAL is a reliable exposure assessment method for cyclic (r̄-barw = 0.69) and non-cyclic work tasks (r̄-barw = 0.68). When the two reliability scores were compared using a two-sample Student's t-test, no significant difference in reliability (p = 0.63) between these work task categories was found. This study demonstrated that the HAL may be a useful measure of exposure to repetitive exertions during cyclic and non-cyclic tasks. Relevance to industry Exposure to hazardous levels of repetitive action during non-cyclic task completion has traditionally been difficult to assess using simple observational techniques. The present study suggests that ergonomists could use the HAL to reliably and easily evaluate exposures associated with some non-cyclic work tasks. PMID:26120222

  12. Repressible extracellular phosphodiesterases showing cyclic 2',3'- and cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Hasunuma, K

    1983-01-01

    Two molecular species of repressible extracellular phosphodiesterases showing cyclic 2',3'- and cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities were detected in mycelial culture media of wild-type Neurospora crassa and purified. The two molecular species were found to be monomeric and polymeric forms of an enzyme constituted of identical subunits having molecular weights of 50,000. This enzyme had the same electrophoretic mobility as repressible acid phosphatase. The enzyme designated repressible cyclic phosphodiesterase showed pH optima of 3.2 to 4.0 with a cyclic 3',5'-AMP substrate and 5.0 to 5.6 with a cyclic 2',3'-AMP substrate. Repressible cyclic phosphodiesterase was activated by MnCl2 and CoCl2 with cyclic 2',3'-AMP as substrate and was slightly activated by MnCl2 with cyclic 3',5'-AMP. The enzyme hydrolyzed cyclic 3',5'- and cyclic 2',3'-nucleotides, in addition to bis-rho-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not certain 5' -and 3'-nucleotides. 3'-GMP and 3'-CMP were hydrolyzed less efficiently. Mutant strains A1 (nuc-1) and B1 (nuc-2), which cannot utilize RNA or DNA as a sole source of phosphorus, were unable to produce repressible cyclic phosphodiesterase. The wild type (74A) and a heterocaryon between strains A1 and B1 produced the enzyme and showed growth on orthophosphate-free media containing cyclic 2',3'-AMP or cyclic 3',5'-AMP, whereas both mutants showed little or no growth on these media. Images PMID:6311798

  13. Investigation of Cyclic Deformation and Fatigue of Polycrystalline Cu under Pure Compression Cyclic Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tzu-Yin Jean

    It is commonly accepted that fatigue crack is initiated under tensile fatigue stresses. However, practical examples demonstrate that cracks may also initiate under pure compressive fluctuating loads such as the failures observed in aircraft landing gear frames. However, the mechanism of such failures is rarely investigated. Furthermore, knowledge on cyclic deformation response under pure compressive fatigue condition is also very limited or non-existent. Our recent work already verified that fatigue cracks may nucleate from stress concentration sites under pure compression fatigue, but whether or not a form of stress concentration is always needed to initiate a crack under pure compression fatigue remains uncertain. In this study, compression fatigue tests under different peak stresses were carried out on smooth bars of fully annealed OFHC Copper. The purpose of these tests is to investigate not only the cyclic deformation response but also the possibility of crack nucleation without the stress concentrator. Results showed that overall the cyclic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution of OFHC Copper under pure compression fatigue exhibits rather dissimilar behaviour compared to those under symmetrical fatigue. The specimens hardened rapidly within 10 cycles under pure compression fatigue unlike the gradual cyclic hardening behaviour in symmetrical fatigue with the same peak stress amplitude. Compressive cyclic creep behaviour was also observed under the same testing conditions. Moreover, unlike conventional tension-compression fatigue, only moderate slip activity was detectable on the surface instead of typical PSB features detected from TEM observations. The surface observations has revealed that surface slip bands did not increase in number nor did they become more pronounced in height with increasing number of cycles. In addition, surface roughening by grain boundary extrusion was detected to become more severe as the cycling progressed. Therefore

  14. Effects of cyclic hydraulic pressure on osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Gandhi, Ronak; Wang, Liyun; You, Lidan

    2010-05-01

    Bone is able to adapt its composition and structure in order to suit its mechanical environment. Osteocytes, bone cells embedded in the calcified matrix, are believed to be the mechanosensors and responsible for orchestrating the bone remodeling process. Recent in vitro studies have shown that osteocytes are able to sense and respond to substrate strain and fluid shear. However the capacity of osteocytes to sense cyclic hydraulic pressure (CHP) associated with physiological mechanical loading is not well understood. In this study, we subjected osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells to controlled CHP of 68 kPa at 0.5 Hz, and investigated the effects of CHP on intracellular calcium concentration, cytoskeleton organization, mRNA expression of genes related to bone remodeling, and osteocyte apoptosis. We found that osteocytes were able to sense CHP and respond by increased intracellular calcium concentration, altered microtubule organization, a time-dependent increase in COX-2 mRNA level and RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio, and decreased apoptosis. These findings support the hypothesis that loading induced cyclic hydraulic pressure in bone serves as a mechanical stimulus to osteocytes and may play a role in regulating bone remodeling in vivo.

  15. Cyclical components of local rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentz, R. P.; D'Urso, M. A.; Jarma, N. M.; Mentz, G. B.

    2000-02-01

    This paper reports on the use of a comparatively simple statistical methodology to study local short time series rainfall data. The objective is to help in agricultural planning, by diminishing the risks associated with some uncertainties affecting this business activity.The analysis starts by assuming a model of unobservable components, trend, cycle, seasonal and irregular, that is well known in many areas of application. When series are in the realm of business and economics, the statistical methods popularized by the US Census Bureau US National Bureau of Economic Research are used for seasonal and cyclical estimation, respectively. The flexibility of these methods makes them good candidates to be applied in the meteorological context, and this is done in this paper for a selection of monthly rainfall time series.Use of the results to help in analysing and forecasting cyclical components is emphasized. The results are interesting. An agricultural entrepreneur, or a group of them located in a single geographical region, will profit by systematically collecting information (monthly in our work) about rainfall, and adopting the scheme of analysis described in this paper.

  16. Rf cavity primer for cyclic proton accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of this note is to describe the electrical and mechanical properites of particle accelerator rf cavities in a manner which will be useful to physics and engineering graduates entering the accelerator field. The discussion will be limited to proton (or antiproton) synchrotron accelerators or storage rings operating roughly in the range of 20 to 200 MHz. The very high gradient, fixed frequency UHF or microwave devices appropriate for electron machines and the somewhat lower frequency and broader bandwidth devices required for heavy ion accelerators are discussed extensively in other papers in this series. While it is common pratice to employ field calculation programs such as SUPERFISH, URMEL, or MAFIA as design aids in the development of rf cavities, we attempt here to elucidate various of the design parameters commonly dealt with in proton machines through the use of simple standing wave coaxial resonator expressions. In so doing, we treat only standing wave structures. Although low-impedance, moderately broad pass-band travelling wave accelerating systems are used in the CERN SPS, such systems are more commonly found in linacs, and they have not been used widely in large cyclic accelerators. Two appendices providing useful supporting material regarding relativistic particle dynamics and synchrotron motion in cyclic accelerators are added to supplement the text.

  17. Rethinking progesterone regulation of female reproductive cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kaiyu; Cui, Wei; Dhakal, Pramod; Wolfe, Michael W; Rumi, M A Karim; Vivian, Jay L; Roby, Katherine F; Soares, Michael J

    2016-04-12

    The progesterone receptor (PGR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor with key roles in the regulation of female fertility. Much has been learned of the actions of PGR signaling through the use of pharmacologic inhibitors and genetic manipulation, using mouse mutagenesis. Characterization of rats with a null mutation at the Pgr locus has forced a reexamination of the role of progesterone in the regulation of the female reproductive cycle. We generated two Pgr mutant rat models, using genome editing. In both cases, deletions yielded a null mutation resulting from a nonsense frame-shift and the emergence of a stop codon. Similar to Pgr null mice, Pgr null rats were infertile because of deficits in sexual behavior, ovulation, and uterine endometrial differentiation. However, in contrast to the reported phenotype of female mice with disruptions in Pgr signaling, Pgr null female rats exhibit robust estrous cycles. Cyclic changes in vaginal cytology, uterine histology, serum hormone levels, and wheel running activity were evident in Pgr null female rats, similar to wild-type controls. Furthermore, exogenous progesterone treatment inhibited estrous cycles in wild-type female rats but not in Pgr-null female rats. As previously reported, pharmacologic antagonism supports a role for PGR signaling in the regulation of the ovulatory gonadotropin surge, a result at variance with experimentation using genetic ablation of PGR signaling. To conclude, our findings in the Pgr null rat challenge current assumptions and prompt a reevaluation of the hormonal control of reproductive cyclicity.

  18. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  6. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  7. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  8. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label...

  9. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  10. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  11. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  12. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading: Marine...) to be designated as Blue Sky Series engines must contain the statement on the label: “Blue Sky...

  13. 16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels in appendix L. The logo must be 0.375″ wide... Environmental Protection Agency covering the televisions to be labeled may add the ENERGY STAR logo to...

  14. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  15. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  16. 21 CFR 331.80 - Professional labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Labeling § 331.80 Professional labeling..., muscle weakness, and osteomalacia. (b) Professional labeling for an antacid-antiflatulent combination...

  17. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  18. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  19. Phospholipid metabolism in zymosan stimulated human monocytes: modulation by cyclic AMP (cAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey R.W.; Manzi, R.M.; Hoffstein, S.T.

    1986-05-01

    Oxygenated products of arachidonic acid (AA) are critical components in the development of the inflammatory response. Monocytes exposed to inflammatory stimuli are capable of converting free AA into these bioactive molecules. However, the limiting step in the formation of these compounds is thought to be the mechanism responsible for the release of esterified AA from phospholipids. When (/sup 3/H) AA labeled monocytes were challenged with opsonized zymosan, 28 +/- 2% of the incorporated counts were released compared to 8 +/- 1% for the control. Upon pretreatment with isobutyl methyl xanthine (IBMX) or dibutyrl cyclic AMP (d-cAMP) zymosan stimulated AA release was markedly reduced. The IC/sub 50/'s were 4 x 10/sup -4/M and 7 x 10/sup -4/M respectively. Analysis of (/sup 3/H) AA incorporation into cellular phospholipids showed that phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) were the primary pools labeled. Loss of label from both of these pools was evident after exposure to zymosan, however, pretreatment of cells with IBMX or d-cAMP inhibited release of (/sup 3/H)AA from the PC pool but not from the PI pool. The results show that human monocytes challenged with opsonized zymosan release arachidonic acid via cAMP-dependent and independent pathways. Furthermore, they suggest that a phospholipase activity (possibly A/sub 2/) against PC is modulated by cAMP.

  20. Dependence of the Excitability of Pituitary Cells on Cyclic Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Kretschmannova, Karla; Tomic, Melanija; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate and cyclic 3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate are intracellular (second) messengers that are produced from the nucleotide triphosphates by a family of enzymes consisting of adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases. These enzymes are involved in a broad array of signal transduction pathways mediated by the cyclic nucleotide monophosphates and their kinases, which control multiple aspects of cell function through the phosphorylation of protein substrates. Here, we review the findings and working hypotheses on the role of the cyclic nucleotides and their kinases in the control of electrical activity of the endocrine pituitary cells and the plasma membrane channels involved in this process. PMID:22564128

  1. New Methods for Labeling RGD Peptides with Bromine-76

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Jia, Hong-Mei; Fang, De-Cai; Zhang, Shushu; Sun, Xilin; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Shen, Baozhong; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    Direct bromination of the tyrosine residues of peptides and antibodies with bromine-76, to create probes for PET imaging, has been reported. For peptides that do not contain tyrosine residues, however, a prosthetic group is required to achieve labeling via conjugation to other functional groups such as terminal α-amines or lysine ε-amines. The goal of this study was to develop new strategies for labeling small peptides with Br-76 using either a direct labeling method or a prosthetic group, depending on the available functional group on the peptides. A new labeling agent, N-succinimidyl-3-[76Br]bromo-2,6-dimethoxybenzoate ([76Br]SBDMB) was prepared for cyclic RGD peptide labeling. N-succinimidyl-2, 6-dimethoxybenzoate was also used to pre-attach a 2, 6-dimethoxybenzoyl (DMB) moiety to the peptide, which could then be labeled with Br-76. A competitive cell binding assay was performed to determine the binding affinity of the brominated peptides. PET imaging of U87MG human glioblastoma xenografted mice was performed using [76Br]-BrE[c(RGDyK)]2 and [76Br]-BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK)]2. An ex vivo biodistribution assay was performed to confirm PET quantification. The mechanisms of bromination reaction between DMB-c(RGDyK) and the brominating agent CH3COOBr were investigated with the SCRF-B3LYP/6-31G* method with the Gaussian 09 program package. The yield for direct labeling of c(RGDyK) and E[c(RGDyK)]2 using chloramine-T and peracetic acid at ambient temperature was greater than 50%. The yield for [76Br]SBDMB was over 60% using peracetic acid. The conjugation yields for labeling c(RGDfK) and c(RGDyK) were over 70% using the prosthetic group at room temperature. Labeling yield for pre-conjugated peptides was over 60%. SDMB conjugation and bromination did not affect the binding affinity of the peptides with integrin receptors. Both [76Br]Br-E[c(RGDyK)]2 and [76Br]BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK)]2 showed high tumor uptake in U87MG tumor bearing mice. The specificity of the imaging tracers was

  2. Approximation Algorithms for Free-Label Maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Berg, Mark; Gerrits, Dirk H. P.

    Inspired by air traffic control and other applications where moving objects have to be labeled, we consider the following (static) point labeling problem: given a set P of n points in the plane and labels that are unit squares, place a label with each point in P in such a way that the number of free labels (labels not intersecting any other label) is maximized. We develop efficient constant-factor approximation algorithms for this problem, as well as PTASs, for various label-placement models.

  3. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  4. Relaxation labeling using modular operators

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, J.S.; Frei, W.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic relaxation labeling has been shown to be useful in image processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence. The approaches taken to date have been encumbered with computationally extensive summations which generally prevent real-time operation and/or easy hardware implementation. The authors present a new and unique approach to the relaxation labeling problem using modular, VLSI-oriented hierarchical complex operators. One of the fundamental concepts of this work is the representation of the probability distribution of the possible labels for a given object (pixel) as an ellipse, which may be summed with neighboring object's distribution ellipses, resulting in a new, relaxed label space. The mathematical development of the elliptical approach will be presented and compared to more classical approaches, and a hardware block diagram that shows the implementation of the relaxation scheme using vlsi chips will be presented. Finally, results will be shown which illustrate applications of the modular scheme, iteratively, to both edges and lines. 13 references.

  5. "Off-Label" Drug Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Connecticut Attorney General for possible promotion and marketing of the off-label uses of the drug. ... cited improved energy and quality of life. The marketing of these three drugs and the doses used ...

  6. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service and the Agriculture Marketing Service have officially evaluated a meat product for ... refer to these factsheets from the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service: Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts ...

  7. How to Read Drug Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Healthy Aging > Drugs and alternative medicine Healthy Aging How to read drug labels Printer-friendly version ... html Connect with other organizations National Institute on Aging, NIH, HHS http://www.nia.nih.gov/ U.S. ...

  8. Locating the Vehicle Emissions Label

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA vehicle emissions label is entitled Vehicle Emission Control Information and contains the name and trademark of the manufacturer and an unconditional statement of compliance with EPA emission regulations.

  9. Electrothermal branding for embryo labeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Beebe, D J; Williams, A R; Easley, K D

    1997-11-01

    A novel embryo labeling technique based on electrothermal branding is developed. Two types of micro branding irons are fabricated and tested. One utilizes 25 microns tungsten wire as the heating element. The other utilizes surface micromachining techniques to fabricate polysilicon branding irons. The thermal behavior of the branding irons and the heat distributions in the embryos are analytically modeled. Micron-scale labels on unfertilized bovine embryos are achieved.

  10. Performance and carbon turnover in fast- and slow-growing broilers submitted to cyclic heat stress and fed on high-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Campos, D M B; Macari, M; Fernadez-Alarcon, M F; Nogueira, W C L; de Souza, F A; Hada, F H; Lunedo, R; Denadai, J C

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that when using similar protein/amino acid diets and environment temperature conditions, the performance and carbon turnover in muscle and liver tissues, as measured by the incorporation of stable isotopes ((13)C/(12)C), must be different between fast-growing Cobb 500® and slow-growing Label Rouge broilers. For both experiments (Cobb and Label Rouge), 21-d-old birds were distributed in a completely randomised, 3 × 3 factorial design; three environmental temperatures (cyclic heat stress ad libitum, 22°C ad libitum, and 22°C restricted) and three crude protein concentrations (189.1, 210 and 220 g/kg CP) were used. The Cobb 500® had better performance with higher concentrations of crude protein. Cyclic heat stress (a temperature factor), negatively affected this genetic strain's performance. For the Label Rouge birds, the crude protein concentrations in the diet presented inconsistent results and cyclic heat stress did not affect the performance. The carbon turnover rate was affected in the Cobb 500® strain, with a high protein content reducing carbon turnover in the evaluated tissues (liver and muscles). Feed intake had a greater impact on carbon turnover rates than cyclic heat stress. The Label Rouge birds were not affected by the evaluated factors, suggesting that genetic improvement has a leading role on tissue carbon turnover. There is a genetic influence on carbon turnover in the liver and muscle tissues of broiler chickens. In addition, genetically fast-growing broilers are more susceptible to variations in diet composition and environmental temperature than less rapidly growing animals.

  11. Investigation of Cyclic Deformation and Fatigue of Polycrystalline Cu under Pure Compression Cyclic Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Tzu-Yin Jean

    It is commonly accepted that fatigue crack is initiated under tensile fatigue stresses. However, practical examples demonstrate that cracks may initiate under pure compressive fluctuating loads, e.g. the failures observed in aircraft landing gear frames. As the mechanism of such failures is rarely investigated, there is very limited or non-existent knowledge pool on cyclic deformation response under pure compressive fatigue condition. Our recent work verified that fatigue cracks may nucleate from stress concentration sites under pure compression fatigue, but whether or not a form of stress concentration is always needed to initiate a crack remains uncertain. In this study, compression fatigue tests under different peak stresses were carried out on smooth bars of fully annealed OFHC Copper. The purpose of these tests is to investigate not only the cyclic deformation response but also the possibility of crack nucleation without the stress concentrator. Results showed that overall the cyclic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution of OFHC Copper under pure compression fatigue exhibits rather dissimilar behaviour compared to those under symmetrical fatigue. The specimens hardened rapidly within 10 cycles under pure compression fatigue unlike the gradual cyclic hardening behaviour in symmetrical fatigue with the same peak stress amplitude. Compressive cyclic creep behaviour was also observed. Moreover, TEM observation showed that only moderate slip activity was detectable on the surface instead of typical PSB features. The surface observations revealed that surface slip bands did not increase in number nor height as cycling progressed. In addition, surface roughening by grain boundary extrusion was detected to become more severe with further cycling. Therefore, the plastic strain accommodated within the samples was not mainly related to dislocation activities. Instead, the mechanism of cyclic creep response for pure compression fatigue was correlated and

  12. Biologic activity of cyclic and caged phosphates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lorke, Dietrich E; Stegmeier-Petroianu, Anka; Petroianu, Georg A

    2017-01-01

    The recognition in the early 1960s by Morifusa Eto that tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) is hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system to an intermediate that spontaneously cyclizes to a neurotoxic phosphate (saligenin phosphate ester) ignited the interest in this group of compounds. Only the ortho isomer can cyclize and clinically cause Organo Phosphate Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN); the meta and para isomers of tri-cresyl phosphate are not neuropathic because they are unable to form stable cyclic saligenin phosphate esters. This review identifies the diverse biological effects associated with various cyclic and caged phosphates and phosphonates and their possible use. Cyclic compounds that inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE), such as salithion, can be employed as pesticides. Others are neurotoxic, most probably because of inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE). Cyclic phosphates that inhibit lipases, the cyclipostins, possibly represent promising therapeutic avenues for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or microbial infections; those compounds inhibiting β-lactamase may prevent bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. Naturally occurring cyclic phosphates, such as cyclic AMP, cyclic phosphatidic acid and the ryanodine receptor modulator cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose, play an important physiological role in signal transduction. Moreover, some cyclic phosphates are GABA-antagonists, while others are an essential component of Molybdenum-containing enzymes. Some cyclic phosphates (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide) are clinically used in tumor therapy, while the coupling of therapeutic agents with other cyclic phosphates (HepDirect® Technology) allows drugs to be targeted to specific organs. Possible clinical applications of these compounds are considered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Monitoring thermoplastic composites under cyclic bending tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccardi, Simone; Meola, Carosena; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Simeoli, Giorgio; Acierno, Domenico; Russo, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    This work is concerned with the use of infrared thermography to visualize temperature variations linked to thermo-elastic effects developing over the surface of a specimen undergoing deflection under bending tests. Several specimens are herein considered, which involve change of matrix and/or reinforcement. More specifically, the matrix is either a pure polypropylene, or a polypropylene added with a certain percentage of compatibilizing agent; the reinforcement is made of glass, or jute. Cyclic bending tests are carried out by the aid of an electromechanical actuator. Each specimen is viewed, during deflection, from one surface by an infrared imaging device. As main finding the different specimens display surface temperature variations which depend on the type of material in terms of both matrix and reinforcement.

  14. Cyclic phosphatidic acid - a unique bioactive phospholipid.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuko

    2008-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (CPA) is a naturally occurring analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid mediator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The sn-2 hydroxy group of CPA forms a 5-membered ring with the sn-3 phosphate. CPA affects numerous cellular functions, including anti-mitogenic regulation of the cell cycle, induction of stress fiber formation, inhibition of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and regulation of differentiation and survival of neuronal cells. Interestingly, many of these cellular responses caused by CPA oppose those of LPA despite the activation of apparently overlapping receptor populations. Since the early 1990s, studies on CPA actions gradually developed, and we are now beginning to understand the importance of this lipid. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about CPA, including enzymatic formation of CPA, unique biological activities and biological targets of CPA, and we also explore metabolically stabilized CPA analogs.

  15. Extinction in four species cyclic competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, Ben; Pleimling, Michel

    2013-08-01

    When four species compete stochastically in a cyclic way, the formation of two teams of mutually neutral partners is observed. In this paper we study through numerical simulations the extinction processes that can take place in this system both in the well mixed case as well as on different types of lattices. The different routes to extinction are revealed by the probability distribution of the domination time, i.e. the time needed for one team to fully occupy the system. If swapping is allowed between neutral partners, then the probability distribution is dominated by very long-lived states where a few very large domains persist, each domain being occupied by a mix of individuals from species that form one of the teams. Many aspects of the possible extinction scenarios are lost when only considering averaged quantities, such as for example the mean domination time.

  16. [Cyclic imine toxin gymnodimine: a review].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-yan; Liang, Yu-bo

    2009-09-01

    Gymnodimine (GYM), an algal toxin first detected from New Zealand oysters in 1994, is identified as a cyclic imine toxin and produced by Karenia selliformis, with imino nitrogen attached on loop-coil. Imine is the poisonous functional group of the toxin. GYM has a low oral toxicity, but its acute lethal toxicity of intra-peritoneal injection for mice is very high. Up to now, few reports have been published on the detailed information about the toxicity mechanism of GYM. Based on limited literatures, this paper reviewed the GYM's structure, producer, toxicity mechanism, carrying animals, geological distribution, degradation metabolism, dose-effect relation, and risk evaluation, and proposed the further research directions on algal toxin.

  17. The prognosis of cyclical vomiting syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dignan, F; Symon, D; AbuArafeh, I; Russell, G

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—The medium term prognosis of cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) was studied to determine the proportion of affected individuals who had gone on to develop headaches fulfilling the International Headache Society criteria for migraine.
METHODS—Twenty six (76%) of 34 CVS sufferers identified from the authors' clinical records were traced, and all agreed to participate. Each child was matched to a control, and telephone interviews were conducted using a standardised questionnaire.
RESULTS—Thirteen (50%) of the subjects had continuing CVS and/or migraine headaches while the remainder were currently asymptomatic. The prevalence of past or present migraine headaches in subjects (46%) was significantly higher than in the control population (12%).
CONCLUSION—Results support the concept that CVS is closely related to migraine.

 PMID:11124785

  18. COSP - A computer model of cyclic oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, Carl E.; Barrett, Charles A.; Palmer, Raymond W.; Auping, Judith V.; Probst, Hubert B.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model useful in predicting the cyclic oxidation behavior of alloys is presented. The model considers the oxygen uptake due to scale formation during the heating cycle and the loss of oxide due to spalling during the cooling cycle. The balance between scale formation and scale loss is modeled and used to predict weight change and metal loss kinetics. A simple uniform spalling model is compared to a more complex random spall site model. In nearly all cases, the simpler uniform spall model gave predictions as accurate as the more complex model. The model has been applied to several nickel-base alloys which, depending upon composition, form Al2O3 or Cr2O3 during oxidation. The model has been validated by several experimental approaches. Versions of the model that run on a personal computer are available.

  19. Planck 2013 results support the cyclic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehners, Jean-Luc; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-06-01

    We show that results from the Planck satellite reported in 2013 are consistent with cyclic models of the Universe for natural parameter ranges (i.e. order unity dimensionless coefficients), assuming the standard entropic mechanism for generating curvature perturbations. With improved precision, forthcoming results from Planck and other experiments should be able to test the remaining parameter range and confirm or refute the core predictions, i.e. no observable primordial B-mode polarization and detectable local non-Gaussianity. A new prediction, given the Planck 2013 constraints on the bispectrum, is a sharp constraint on the local trispectrum parameter gNL; namely, the currently best-understood models predict it is negative, with gNL≲-1700.

  20. Advanced Developments in Cyclic Polymers: Synthesis, Applications, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yinghuai; Hosmane, Narayan S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the topological effect, cyclic polymers demonstrate different and unique physical and biological properties in comparison with linear counterparts having the same molecular-weight range. With advanced synthetic and analytic technologies, cyclic polymers with different topologies, e.g. multicyclic polymers, have been reported and well characterized. For example, various cyclic DNA and related structures, such as cyclic duplexes, have been prepared conveniently by click chemistry. These types of DNA have increased resistance to enzymatic degradation and have high thermodynamic stability, and thus, have potential therapeutic applications. In addition, cyclic polymers have also been used to prepare organic–inorganic hybrids for applications in catalysis, e.g. catalyst supports. Due to developments in synthetic technology, highly pure cyclic polymers could now be produced in large scale. Therefore, we anticipate discovering more applications in the near future. Despite their promise, cyclic polymers are still less explored than linear polymers like polyolefins and polycarbonates, which are widely used in daily life. Some critical issues, including controlling the molecular weight and finding suitable applications, remain big challenges in the cyclic-polymer field. This review briefly summarizes the commonly used synthetic methodologies and focuses more on the attractive functional materials and their biological properties and potential applications. PMID:26478835

  1. Variation potential influence on photosynthetic cyclic electron flow in pea

    PubMed Central

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Surova, Lyubov; Sherstneva, Oksana; Katicheva, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic electron flow is an important component of the total photosynthetic electron flow and participates in adaptation to the action of stressors. Local leaf stimulation induces electrical signals, including variation potential (VP), which inactivate photosynthesis; however, their influence on cyclic electron flow has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate VP's influence on cyclic electron flow in pea (Pisum sativum L.). VP was induced in pea seedling leaves by local heating and measured in an adjacent, undamaged leaf by extracellular electrodes. CO2 assimilation was measured using a portable gas exchange measuring system. Photosystem I and II parameters were investigated using a measuring system for simultaneous assessment of P700 oxidation and chlorophyll fluorescence. Heating-induced VP reduced CO2 assimilation and electron flow through photosystem II. In response, cyclic electron flow rapidly decreased and subsequently slowly increased. Slow increases in cyclic flow were caused by decreased electron flow through photosystem II, which was mainly connected with VP-induced photosynthetic dark stage inactivation. However, direct influence by VP on photosystem I also participated in activation of cyclic electron flow. Thus, VP, induced by local leaf-heating, activated cyclic electron flow in undamaged leaves. This response was similar to photosynthetic changes observed under the direct action of stressors. Possible mechanisms of VP's influence on cyclic flow were discussed. PMID:25610447

  2. High-Temperature Cyclic Oxidation Data, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Garlick, R. G.; Lowell, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    This first in a series of cyclic oxidation handbooks contains specific-weight-change-versus-time data and X-ray diffraction results derived from high-temperature cyclic tests on high-temperature, high-strength nickel-base gamma/gamma' and cobalt-base turbine alloys. Each page of data summarizes a complete test on a given alloy sample.

  3. Lower Confidence Interval Bounds for Coherent Systems with Cyclic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Three lower confidence interval estimation procedures for system reliability of coherent systems with cyclic components are developed and their...failure times and applied to yield a lower confidence interval procedures for the reliability of coherent systems with cyclic and continuously operating components.

  4. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED PREPARATION OF CYCLIC UREAS FROM DIAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rajender S. Varma* and Yong-Jin Kim
    Cyclic ureas are useful intermediates for a variety of pharmaceuticals and pesticides. One of the attractive approaches for the synthesis of cyclic ureas uses condensation of diamines with urea as a carbonyl source under dynamic evacuation. ...

  5. Indium-111 labeled monoclonal antibodies (Ab): The effect of DTPA conjugation on the Ab activity and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakashima, T.; Ohta, H.; Okada, K.; Yoshida, O.; Ohmomo, Y.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Ab) to human ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) were conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) using cyclic DTPA anhydride and the obtained conjugates, DTPA-Ab, were labeled with In-111. The effect of DTPA conjugation on the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity of Ab was evaluated by radioimmunoassay and Scatchard plot analysis and In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were used for the radioimmunodetection of tumor. Ab containing 1.0 DTPA molecule per Ab showed almost full retention of both the affinity constant and the maximum binding capacity. Then, 40 ..mu..Ci of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab were injected intravenously to nude mice bearing AFP-producing human testicular tumor and the resulted were compared with I-131 labeled Ab. Scintigraphy clearly revealed transplanted tumor. Localization of In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab was significantly higher than I-131 labeled Ab. Tumor to blood ratio obtained at 4 days after injection was 2.59 with In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab compared to 0.99 with I-131 labeled Ab. When more than 1.9 DTPA molecules were incorporated per Ab, the maximum binding capacity decreased, although the affinity constant was less affected. These In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab caused significantly higher liver accumulation. These results indicate that In-111 labeled DTPA-Ab at a cojugated DTPA to Ab molar ratio of 1.0 may be superior to I-131 labeled Ab for tumor imaging, but the maximum binding capacity and tissue distribution of In-111 labeled DTPA-AB are greatly dependent upon the number of DTPA molecules incorporated per Ab molecule.

  6. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  7. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  8. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  9. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  10. 21 CFR 225.180 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 225.180 Section 225.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Labeling § 225.180 Labeling. Labels shall...

  11. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... eliminated by labeling or a change in labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device... person(s) responsible for the labeling or advertising of the device specifying: (1) The deception or risk... labeling, or change in advertising if the device is a restricted device, necessary to correct the...

  12. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 156.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES General Provisions § 156.10 Labeling requirements. (a) General—(1) Contents of the label. Every pesticide product shall bear a label containing the...

  14. 40 CFR 156.10 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 156.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES General Provisions § 156.10 Labeling requirements. (a) General—(1) Contents of the label. Every pesticide product shall bear a label containing the...

  15. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... color scheme may be used for differentiating ABO Blood groups: Blood group Color of label O Blue A... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Additional Labeling Standards for Blood and Blood Components § 606.121 Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed...

  16. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  17. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  18. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  19. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  20. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label content. 211.104 Section 211.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.104 Label content. The following data and information must be on the label of all products for...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  2. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label....

  3. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Liza M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one’s own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls’ tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160

  4. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Liza M; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-07-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one's own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls' tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression.

  5. Inter-rater reliability of cyclic and non-cyclic task assessment using the hand activity level in appliance manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Robert; Schwatka, Natalie; Gober, Jennifer; Gilkey, David; Anton, Dan; Gerr, Fred; Rosecrance, John

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(®)) hand activity level (HAL), an observational ergonomic assessment method used to estimate physical exposure to repetitive exertions during task performance. Video recordings of 858 cyclic and non-cyclic appliance manufacturing tasks were assessed by sixteen pairs of raters using the HAL visual-analog scale. A weighted Pearson Product Moment-Correlation Coefficient was used to evaluate the agreement between the HAL scores recorded by each rater pair, and the mean weighted correlation coefficients for cyclic and non-cyclic tasks were calculated. Results indicated that the HAL is a reliable exposure assessment method for cyclic (r̄-bar w = 0.69) and non-cyclic work tasks (r̄-bar w = 0.68). When the two reliability scores were compared using a two-sample Student's t-test, no significant difference in reliability (p = 0.63) between these work task categories was found. This study demonstrated that the HAL may be a useful measure of exposure to repetitive exertions during cyclic and non-cyclic tasks.

  6. Radiation Effects on Cyclic AMP, Cyclic GMP, and Amino Acid Levels in the CSF of the Primate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-07

    rradiation . An analysis of brain areas obtained by biopsy of irradiated animals showed significant decreases in only the cerebellar cyclic AMP and cyclic...GMP. No appreciablk ¢±anges were found in the CSF amino acid composition. Acc. !-,’r ror UV , . c" l. __ ..:j’od I7 .... ’U r~rd0 /or cpy I NCI

  7. Cyclodepsipeptides produced by actinomycetes inhibit cyclic-peptide-mediated quorum sensing in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Desouky, Said E; Shojima, Akane; Singh, Ravindra Pal; Matsufuji, Takahisa; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Yamagaki, Tohru; Okubo, Ken-Ichi; Ohtani, Kaori; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2015-07-01

    Cyclic peptides are commonly used as quorum-sensing autoinducers in Gram-positive Firmicutes bacteria. Well-studied examples of such molecules are thiolactone and lactone, used to regulate the expression of a series of virulence genes in the agr system of Staphylococcus aureus and the fsr system of Enterococcus faecalis, respectively. Three cyclodepsipeptides WS9326A, WS9326B and cochinmicin II/III were identified as a result of screening actinomycetes culture extracts for activity against the agr/fsr system. These molecules are already known as receptor antagonists, the first two for tachykinin and the last one for endothelin. WS9326A also inhibited the transcription of pfoA regulated by the VirSR two-component system in Clostridium perfringens. Receptor-binding assays using a fluorescence-labeled autoinducer (FITC-GBAP) showed that WS9326A and WS9326B act as receptor antagonists in this system. In addition, an ex vivo assay showed that WS9326B substantially attenuated the toxicity of S. aureus for human corneal epithelial cells. These results suggest that these three natural cyclodepsipeptides have therapeutic potential for targeting the cyclic peptide-mediated quorum sensing of Gram-positive pathogens.

  8. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  9. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  10. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  11. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  12. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  13. Metrics for Labeled Markov Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desharnais, Josee; Jagadeesan, Radha; Gupta, Vineet; Panangaden, Prakash

    1999-01-01

    Partial Labeled Markov Chains are simultaneously generalizations of process algebra and of traditional Markov chains. They provide a foundation for interacting discrete probabilistic systems, the interaction being synchronization on labels as in process algebra. Existing notions of process equivalence are too sensitive to the exact probabilities of various transitions. This paper addresses contextual reasoning principles for reasoning about more robust notions of "approximate" equivalence between concurrent interacting probabilistic systems. The present results indicate that:We develop a family of metrics between partial labeled Markov chains to formalize the notion of distance between processes. We show that processes at distance zero are bisimilar. We describe a decision procedure to compute the distance between two processes. We show that reasoning about approximate equivalence can be done compositionally by showing that process combinators do not increase distance. We introduce an asymptotic metric to capture asymptotic properties of Markov chains; and show that parallel composition does not increase asymptotic distance.

  14. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, Joanna S.; MacGregor, Robert R.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Langstrom, Bengt

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  15. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-04-03

    This invention involves a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography.

  16. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1987-05-22

    This invention involved a new strategy for imaging and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide in activators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography. 2 figs.

  17. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou

    2016-04-06

    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  18. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  19. Reversible cyclic peptide libraries for the discovery of affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Menegatti, Stefano; Ward, Kevin Lawrence; Naik, Amith Dattatray; Kish, William Stanley; Blackburn, Robert Kevin; Carbonell, Ruben Guillermo

    2013-10-01

    A novel strategy is presented for the identification of cyclic peptide ligands from combinatorial libraries of reversible cyclic depsipeptides. A method for the solid-phase synthesis of individual cyclic depsipeptides and combinatorial libraries of these compounds is proposed, which employs lactic acid (Lact) and the dipeptide ester (Nα-Ac)-Ser(Ala)- as linkers for dilactonization. Upon alkaline treatment of the beads selected by screening a model library, the cyclic depsipeptides are linearized and released from the solid support to the liquid phase, to be sequenced via single-step tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The protocol presented for library synthesis provides for wide structural diversity. Two model sequences, VVWVVK and AAWAAR, were chosen to present different structural examples for depsipeptide libraries and demonstrate the process of sequence determination by mass spectrometry. Further, a case study using the IgG binding cyclic depsipeptide cyclo[(Nα-Ac)-S(A)-RWHYFK-Lact-E] is presented to demonstrate the process of library screening and sequence determination on the selected beads. Finally, a method is shown for synthesis of the irreversible cyclic peptide corresponding to the proposed depsipeptide structure, to make the ligand stable to the aqueous acid and alkaline conditions encountered in affinity chromatographic applications. The cyclic peptide ligand was synthesized on a poly(methacrylate) resin and used for chromatographic binding of the target IgG.

  20. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome: An Update Illustrated by a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hermus, Ingeborg P. M.; Willems, Stacey J. B.; Bogman, Aimée C. C. F.; Janssen, Paddy K. C.; Brabers, Leonie; Schieveld, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article presents an update on cyclic vomiting syndrome, a potentially exhausting disorder that can occur in children, adolescents, and adults and and has a huge impact on the quality of life. A structured literature search was conducted to explore the current knowledge about antipsychotics in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome. A case report is presented of a 15-year-old boy with refractory cyclic vomiting syndrome (ICD-10 criteria), who finally responded to a unique combination of risperidone and amitriptyline. Data Sources: A literature search of English articles was performed in November 2015 using PubMed and the Cochrane Library with cyclic vomiting syndrome, cyclic vomiting, risperidone, and antipsychotics as key words. All types of publications were included. The publication period covered a span from 1976 to 2014. Study Selection and Data Extraction: In total, 13 articles were found. After screening the title and abstract, only 2 were selected. Results: In the current literature, only the use of chlorpromazine in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome is mentioned. The possible underlying working mechanism of chlorpromazine is not clarified. Conclusions: Antipsychotics are hardly mentioned in the literature with regard to their antiemetic properties. Antipsychotics like risperidone, and its unique combination with amitriptyline, might be an important alternative to achieve a satisfactory treatment result in refractory cases of cyclic vomiting syndrome. PMID:27733950

  1. Phorbol esters modulate cyclic AMP accumulation in porcine thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, T.; Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Shimoda, S.

    1988-01-01

    In cultured porcine thyroid cells, during 60 min incubation phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) had no effect on basal cyclic AMP accumulation and slightly stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or forskolin. Cholera toxin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation was significantly stimulated by PMA. On the other hand, cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by prostaglandin E/sub 1/ or E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 1/ and PGE/sub 2/) was markedly depressed by simultaneous addition of PMA. These opposing effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation evoked by PGE and cholera toxin were observed in a dose-related fashion, with half-maximal effect of around 10/sup -9/ M in either case. The almost same effects of PMA on cyclic AMP accumulation in basal and stimulated conditions were also observed in freshly prepared thyroid cells. The present study was performed in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-iso-butyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), indicating that PMA affected adenylate cyclase activity. Therefore, it is suggested that PMA may modulate the production of cyclic AMP in response to different stimuli, possibly by affecting several sites in the adenylate cyclase complex in thyroid cells.

  2. Food labeling: gluten-free labeling of foods. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to define the term "gluten-free'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods. The final rule defines the term "gluten-free'' to mean that the food bearing the claim does not contain an ingredient that is a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food (i.e., 20 milligrams (mg) or more gluten per kilogram (kg) of food); or inherently does not contain gluten; and that any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food is below 20 ppm gluten (i.e., below 20 mg gluten per kg of food). A food that bears the claim "no gluten,'' "free of gluten,'' or "without gluten'' in its labeling and fails to meet the requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim will be deemed to be misbranded. In addition, a food whose labeling includes the term "wheat'' in the ingredient list or in a separate "Contains wheat'' statement as required by a section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and also bears the claim "gluten-free'' will be deemed to be misbranded unless its labeling also bears additional language clarifying that the wheat has been processed to allow the food to meet FDA requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim. Establishing a definition of the term "gluten-free'' and uniform conditions for its use in food labeling will help ensure that individuals with celiac disease are not misled and are provided with truthful and accurate information with respect to foods so labeled. We are issuing the final rule under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA).

  3. A New Component Labelling And Merging Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochovsky, Amelia F.

    1987-10-01

    Component labelling is an important part of region analysis in image processing. Component labelling consists of assigning labels to pixels in the image such that adjacent pixels are given the same labels. There are various approaches to component labelling. Some require random access to the processed image; some assume special structure of the image such as a quad tree. Algorithms based on sequential scan of the image are attractive to hardware implementation. One method of labelling is based on a fixed size local window which includes the previous line. Due to the fixed size window and the sequential fashion of the labelling process, different branches of the same object may be given different labels and later found to be connected to each other. These labels are con-sidered to be equivalent and must later be collected to correctly represent one single object. This approach can be found in [F,FE,R]. Assume an input binary image of size NxM. Using these labelling algorithms, the number of equivalent pair generated is bounded by O(N*M). The number of distinct labels is also bounded by O(N*M). There is no known algorithm that merge the equivalent label pairs in time linear to the number of pairs, that is in time bounded by O(N*M). We propose a new labelling algorithm which interleaves the labelling with the merging process. The labelling and the merging are combined in one algorithm. Merged label information is kept in an equivalent table which is used to guide the labelling. In general , the algorithm produces fewer equivalent label pairs. The combined labelling and merging algorithm is O(N*M), where NxM is the size of the image. Section II describes the algorithm. Section III gives some examples We discuss implementation issues in section IV and further discussion and conclusion are given in Section V.

  4. Cyclic Amplification of Prion Protein Misfolding

    PubMed Central

    Barria, Marcelo A; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Soto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Protein Misfolfing Cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a technique that take advantage of the nucleation-dependent prion replication process to accelerate the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in the test tube. PMCA uses ultrasound waves to fragment the PrPSc polymers, increasing the amount of seeds present in the infected sample without affecting their ability to act as conversion nucleus. Over the past 5 years PMCA has became an invaluable technique to study diverse aspects of prions. The PMCA technology has been used by several groups to understand the molecular mechanism of prion replication, the cellular factors involved in prion propagation, the intriguing phenomena of prion strains and species barriers, to detect PrPSc in tissues and biological fluids and to screen for inhibitors against prion replication. In this article we describe a detailed protocol of the PMCA technique, highlighting some of the important technical aspects to obtain a successful and reproducible application of the technology. PMID:22528092

  5. Cyclical vomiting syndrome: Recognition, assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Tan, Michelle Ln; Liwanag, Maria Janelle; Quak, Seng Hock

    2014-08-08

    Cyclical vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional, debilitating disorder of childhood frequently leading to hospitalization. Affected children usually experience a stereotypical pattern of vomiting though it may vary between different individuals. The vomiting is intense often bilious, and accompanied by disabling nausea. Identifiable precipitating factors for CVS include psychosocial stressors, infections, lack of sleep and occasionally even food triggers. Often, it may be difficult to distinguish episodes of CVS from other causes of acute abdomen and altered consciousness. Thus, the diagnosis of CVS remains largely one of exclusion. Investigations routinely done during the work-up of a child with suspected CVS include both blood and imaging modalities. Plasma lactate, ammonia, amino acid and acylcarnitine profiles as well as urine organic acid profile are indicated to exclude inborn errors of metabolism. The treatment remains challenging and targeted at prevention or shortening of the attacks and can be considered as abortive, supportive and prophylactic. Use of non-pharmacological therapy is also part of the management of CVS. The prognosis of CVS is variable. More insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder as well as role of non-pharmacological therapy is needed.

  6. Cyclic voltammetry of fast conducting electrocatalytic films.

    PubMed

    Costentin, Cyrille; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2015-07-15

    In the framework of contemporary energy challenges, cyclic voltammetry is a particularly useful tool for deciphering the kinetics of catalytic films. The case of fast conducting films is analyzed, whether conduction is of the ohmic type or proceeds through rapid electron hopping. The rate-limiting factors are then the diffusion of the substrate in solution and through the film as well as the catalytic reaction itself. The dimensionless combination of the characteristics of these factors allows reducing the number of actual parameters to a maximum of two. The kinetics of the system may then be fully analyzed with the help of a kinetic zone diagram. Observing the variations of the current-potential responses with operational parameters such as film thickness, the potential scan rate and substrate concentration allows a precise assessment of the interplay between these factors and of the values of the rate controlling factors. A series of thought experiments is described in order to render the kinetic analysis more palpable.

  7. The cyclic fatigue behavior of adhesive joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinloch, A. J.; Toh, T.

    1995-06-01

    In the last six months we have: (1) Concentrated our efforts on the fatigue failure of carbon-fiber PEEK/AFl63 lap joints, and in particular we have started to predict the life time of single-lap joints under cyclic fatigue loading. The analysis is based on data obtained from double cantilever beam (DCB) fracture mechanics tests; (2) Further, we have been successful in measuring the rate of crack growth in lap joints during fatigue fracture using ultrasonic scanning; (3) Preliminary test data on the static fracture of glass-fiber reinforced poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS)/AF163 joints have also been studied; and (4) A comparison has been made in computing the critical strain energy release rate G(sub c) for the glass-fiber PPS/AF163 joints based on the compliance method, beam theory and corrected beam theory. The last method accounts for large non-linear deflections and the associated crack root rotations along with the necessary corrections for the increase in stiffness introduced by the presence of end blocks.

  8. Copper Regulates Cyclic AMP-Dependent Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Chan, Jefferson; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Muchenditsi, Abigael; Pendyala, Venkata S.; Jia, Shang; Aron, Allegra T.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Guan, Timothy; Smaga, Lukas P.; Farhi, Samouil L.; New, Elizabeth J.; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Chang, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Cell signaling relies extensively on dynamic pools of redox-inactive metal ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and zinc, but their redox-active transition metal counterparts such as copper and iron have been studied primarily as static enzyme cofactors. Here we report that copper is an endogenous regulator of lipolysis, the breakdown of fat, which is an essential process in maintaining the body's weight and energy stores. Utilizing a murine model of genetic copper misregulation, in combination with pharmacological alterations in copper status and imaging studies in a 3T3-L1 white adipocyte model, we demonstrate that copper regulates lipolysis at the level of the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), by altering the activity of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase PDE3B. Biochemical studies of the copper-PDE3B interaction establish copper-dependent inhibition of enzyme activity and identify a key conserved cysteine residue within a PDE3-specific loop that is essential for the observed copper-dependent lipolytic phenotype. PMID:27272565

  9. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome: A Functional Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Kanwar K.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a functional disorder characterized by stereotypical episodes of intense vomiting separated by weeks to months. Although it can occur at any age, the most common age at presentation is 3-7 years. There is no gender predominance. The precise pathophysiology of CVS is not known but a strong association with migraine headaches, in the patient as well as the mother indicates that it may represent a mitochondriopathy. Studies have also suggested the role of an underlying autonomic neuropathy involving the sympathetic nervous system in its pathogenesis. CVS has known triggers in many individuals and avoiding these triggers can help prevent the onset of the episodes. It typically presents in four phases: a prodrome, vomiting phase, recovery phase and an asymptomatic phase until the next episode. Complications such as dehydration and hematemesis from Mallory Wise tear of the esophageal mucosa may occur in more severe cases. Blood and urine tests and abdominal imaging may be indicated depending upon the severity of symptoms. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy may also be indicated in certain circumstances. Management of an episode after it has started ('abortive treatment') includes keeping the patient in a dark and quiet room, intravenous hydration, ondansetron, sumatriptan, clonidine, and benzodiazepines. Prophylactic treatment includes cyproheptadine, propranolol and amitriptyline. No mortality has been reported as a direct result of CVS and many children outgrow it over time. A subset may develop other functional disorders like irritable bowel syndrome and migraine headaches. PMID:26770896

  10. Collagen network strengthening following cyclic tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Monica E; Paten, Jeffrey A; Sander, Edward A; Nguyen, Thao D; Ruberti, Jeffrey W

    2016-02-06

    The bulk mechanical properties of tissues are highly tuned to the physiological loads they experience and reflect the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of their constituent parts. A thorough understanding of the processes involved in tissue adaptation is required to develop multi-scale computational models of tissue remodelling. While extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is partly due to the changing cellular metabolic activity, there may also be mechanically directed changes in ECM nano/microscale organization which lead to mechanical tuning. The thermal and enzymatic stability of collagen, which is the principal load-bearing biopolymer in vertebrates, have been shown to be enhanced by force suggesting that collagen has an active role in ECM mechanical properties. Here, we ask how changes in the mechanical properties of a collagen-based material are reflected by alterations in the micro/nanoscale collagen network following cyclic loading. Surprisingly, we observed significantly higher tensile stiffness and ultimate tensile strength, roughly analogous to the effect of work hardening, in the absence of network realignment and alterations to the fibril area fraction. The data suggest that mechanical loading induces stabilizing changes internal to the fibrils themselves or in the fibril-fibril interactions. If such a cell-independent strengthening effect is operational in vivo, then it would be an important consideration in any multiscale computational approach to ECM growth and remodelling.

  11. Coarsening and biodiversity in cyclically competing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intoy, Ben; Pleimling, Michel

    2014-03-01

    When four species compete stochastically in a cyclic way, the formation of two teams of mutually neutral partners is observed. We study through numerical simulations the extinction processes that can take place in this system both in the well mixed case as well as on different types of lattices. The different routes to extinction are revealed by the probability distribution of the domination time, i.e. the time needed for one team to fully occupy the system. If swapping is allowed between neutral partners, then the probability distribution is dominated by very long-lived states where a few very large domains persist, each domain being occupied by a mix of individuals from species that form one of the teams. Many aspects of the possible extinction scenarios are lost when only considering averaged quantities as for example the mean domination time. We also discuss some results for a model where species, that compete in Rock-Paper-Scissor fashion, have mixed strategies rather than pure strategies. We compare the case with mixed strategy to the pure strategy case and look at similarities and differences. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation through grant DMR-1205309.

  12. A low-power arcjet cyclic lifetest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Hardy, Terry L.; Haag, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    A cyclic lifetest of a low power dc arcjet thruster using a hydrogen/nitrogen propellant mixture simulating hydrazine is currently in progress. Over 300 hr of operation have been accumulated to date in 2 hr duty cycles at a power level of about 1.15 kW, approximating that available on commercial communications satellites. A burn-in period was carried out before consistent operation was attained. After this period, the arcjet operated in a very stable fashion from cycle to cycle. At the beginning of each cycle, there was a brief starting transient followed by a rapid rise to a steady-state voltage. The steady-state voltage increased by about 5 V over the first 95 cycles. After this, it increased by only 1 V through the remainder of the test. Thrust measurements taken before the life test and again after the completion of the 144th cycle showed that both thrust, specific impulse, and arc voltage had increased over this period of operation. No life limiting mechanisms were observed during the course of the testing.

  13. Cyclic oxidation evaluation - Approaching application conditions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.; Evans, E. B.

    1973-01-01

    Review of 1000 to 1200 C cyclic oxidation testing conducted on potential aircraft gas turbine Ni-, Co-, and Fe-base alloys. Furnace and burner rig testing are discussed, and the results are compared for selected alloys. The alloys fall into two groups, depending on their Cr and Al contents. One group forms mainly Cr2O3/chromite spinel scale(s), while the other forms alpha Al2O3/aluminate spinel scale(s). Spalling on thermal cycling leading to increased metal consumption is associated with the appearance of a chromite spinel. In the case of high-velocity burner rig tests this chromite forming tendency is reinforced by Cr2O3 vaporization depleting Cr in the alloy. In both types of tests, specific weight change is used as an indirect indicator of metal attack, since direct metal loss measurements require destructive analysis. An alternative nondestructive metal loss estimating parameter, based on a tentative mass balance gravimetric approach, shows some potential.

  14. Thermophoresis of cyclic oligosaccharides in polar solvents.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Kazuya; Niether, Doreen; Wiegand, Simone; Kita, Rio

    2016-09-01

    Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which are interesting as drug delivery systems, because they can be used as containers for pharmaceutical substances. We studied the Ludwig-Soret effect of [Formula: see text]-, [Formula: see text]-, [Formula: see text]- and methyl-[Formula: see text]-cyclodextrin in water and formamide by infrared thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (IR-TDFRS). In water the Soret coefficient, S T, of [Formula: see text]-, [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-cyclodextrin increases with increasing temperature and shows a sign change from negative to positive around T = 35 (°) C, while S T of methyl-[Formula: see text]-cyclodextrin is positive in the entire investigated temperature. In formamide S T-values of all cyclodextrins coincide and show a slight decrease with temperature. We discuss the obtained results and relate the S T-values to the different hydrogen bonding capabilities of the cyclodextrins and the used solvents. It turns out that the change of S T with temperature correlates with the partition coefficient, logP, which indicates that more hydrophilic substances show a more pronounced temperature sensitivity of S T. Additionally we obtained a surprising result measuring the refractive index contrast factor with temperature, [Formula: see text] of cyclodextrins in formamide, which might be explained by a complex formation between cyclodextrins and formamide.

  15. Beyond Inflation: A Cyclic Universe Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Inflation has been the leading early universe scenario for two decades, and has become an accepted element of the successful `cosmic concordance' model. However, there are many puzzling features of the resulting theory. It requires both high energy and low energy inflation, with energy densities differing by a hundred orders of magnitude. The questions of why the universe started out undergoing high energy inflation, and why it will end up in low energy inflation, are unanswered. Rather than resort to anthropic arguments, we have developed an alternative cosmology, the cyclic universe, in which the universe exists in a very long-lived attractor state determined by the laws of physics. The model shares inflation's phenomenological successes without requiring an epoch of high energy inflation. Instead, the universe is made homogeneous and flat, and scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations are generated during an epoch of low energy acceleration like that seen today, but preceding the last big bang. Unlike inflation, the model requires low energy acceleration in order for a periodic attractor state to exist. The key challenge facing the scenario is that of passing through the cosmic singularity at t = 0. Substantial progress has been made at the level of linearised gravity, which is reviewed here. The challenge of extending this to nonlinear gravity and string theory remains.

  16. Beyond Inflation:. A Cyclic Universe Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2005-08-01

    Inflation has been the leading early universe scenario for two decades, and has become an accepted element of the successful 'cosmic concordance' model. However, there are many puzzling features of the resulting theory. It requires both high energy and low energy inflation, with energy densities differing by a hundred orders of magnitude. The questions of why the universe started out undergoing high energy inflation, and why it will end up in low energy inflation, are unanswered. Rather than resort to anthropic arguments, we have developed an alternative cosmology, the cyclic universe [1], in which the universe exists in a very long-lived attractor state determined by the laws of physics. The model shares inflation's phenomenological successes without requiring an epoch of high energy inflation. Instead, the universe is made homogeneous and flat, and scale-invariant adiabatic perturbations are generated during an epoch of low energy acceleration like that seen today, but preceding the last big bang. Unlike inflation, the model requires low energy acceleration in order for a periodic attractor state to exist. The key challenge facing the scenario is that of passing through the cosmic singularity at t = 0. Substantial progress has been made at the level of linearised gravity, which is reviewed here. The challenge of extending this to nonlinear gravity and string theory remains.

  17. Investigation of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Transport in Castor Bean Seedlings by Cyclic JCross Polarization Imaging and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidenreich, M.; Köckenberger, W.; Kimmich, R.; Chandrakumar, N.; Bowtell, R.

    1998-05-01

    NMR experiments using13C-labeled compounds offer the possibility of noninvasive monitoring of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in living plants, but are usually hampered by the low sensitivity of the13C nucleus. The problem of low sensitivity can be overcome by using the cyclicJcross polarization (CYCLCROP) technique, which allows the indirect detection of13C nuclei coupled to1H nuclei with the high NMR sensitivity of protons. We report here on methods for imaging and spectroscopy based on the CYCLCROP technique, and their use in the firstin vivoNMR study of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in castor bean seedlings (Ricinus communis L.). Comprehensive acquisition strategies for the various NMR methods are given, including the procedure for setting up the experiments. In addition, a full analysis of the effect of relaxation on the signals generated from smallJ-coupled spin systems by the CYCLCROP sequence is given, and the high sensitivity of the sequence is demonstrated. In thein vivostudy of six-day-old castor bean seedlings, we were able to measure the uptake of labeled hexoses, supplied in solution to the cotyledons, and their conversion to sucrose, as well as the transport of this sucrose in the vascular bundles. Images of the actual distribution of labeled sucrose in the hypocotyl of the seedling have also been obtained. The resulting data show some evidence for a preferential incorporation of labeled fructose in the process of sucrose synthesis, which decreases with the time of incubation.

  18. Cyclic plasticity models and application in fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalev, I.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical procedure for prediction of the cyclic plasticity effects on both the structural fatigue life to crack initiation and the rate of crack growth is presented. The crack initiation criterion is based on the Coffin-Manson formulae extended for multiaxial stress state and for inclusion of the mean stress effect. This criterion is also applied for the accumulated damage ahead of the existing crack tip which is assumed to be related to the crack growth rate. Three cyclic plasticity models, based on the concept of combination of several yield surfaces, are employed for computing the crack growth rate of a crack plane stress panel under several cyclic loading conditions.

  19. How to read food labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... 24 liters) cooked. If you eat 2 cups (0.48 liters) at a meal, you are eating 2 servings. That is 2 times the amount of the calories, fats, and other items listed on the label. Calorie information tells you the number of calories in ...

  20. Revisiting Labels: "Hearing" or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2010-01-01

    This position paper briefly presents evidence-based findings pertaining to the language of labels for people with hearing loss that relate to stigma, expectation levels, stereotypes, and self-fulfilling prophecies. These constructs are important for auditory-based practitioners, administrators, policymakers, students, families, and persons with…

  1. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  2. The Labelling Approach to Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  3. Food Allergies: Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... These eight foods are: Milk Eggs Peanuts Tree nuts (such as almonds, cashews, walnuts) Fish (such as bass, cod, flounder) Shellfish (such as crab, lobster, shrimp) Soy Wheat U.S. food labels take ... the type of tree nut (almond, walnut) or the type of crustacean shellfish ( ...

  4. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  5. Solid-phase receptor-based assay for the detection of cyclic imines by chemiluminescence, fluorescence, or colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Laura P; Vilariño, Natalia; Molgó, Jordi; Aráoz, Rómulo; Antelo, Alvaro; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luis M

    2011-08-01

    The spirolides and gymnodimines are marine phycotoxins included in the group of cyclic imines. The toxicity of these compounds to humans is still unknown, although their toxicity by intraperitoneal injection in rodents is very high. A receptor-based method was developed using the competition of the 13-desmethyl spirolide C with biotin-labeled α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the immobilization of the α-bungarotoxin-receptor complex on streptavidin-coated surfaces. The quantification of the immobilized receptor can be achieved using a specific antibody. Finally, after the addition of a secondary antibody labeled with horseradish peroxidase, three alternative substrates of this enzyme generate a chemiluminescent, fluorescent, or colorimetric signal. The assay performs well in shellfish extracts and the detection range is 5-150 nM of 13-desmethyl spirolide C in shellfish extracts, which is at least 5 times more sensitive than the existing fluorescence polarization assay. This assay can also detect gymnodimine, although with 10 times lower sensitivity than the spirolide. The detection of cyclic imines with microplate assays would be useful for screening purposes in order to reduce the number of samples to be processed by bioassays or analytical methods.

  6. Novel Bifunctional Cyclic Chelator for 89Zr Labeling–Radiolabeling and Targeting Properties of RGD Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Within the last years 89Zr has attracted considerable attention as long-lived radionuclide for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. So far desferrioxamine B (DFO) has been mainly used as bifunctional chelating system. Fusarinine C (FSC), having complexing properties comparable to DFO, was expected to be an alternative with potentially higher stability due to its cyclic structure. In this study, as proof of principle, various FSC-RGD conjugates targeting αvß3 integrins were synthesized using different conjugation strategies and labeled with 89Zr. In vitro stability, biodistribution, and microPET/CT imaging were evaluated using [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates or [89Zr]triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC). Quantitative 89Zr labeling was achieved within 90 min at room temperature. The distribution coefficients of the different radioligands indicate hydrophilic character. Compared to [89Zr]DFO, [89Zr]FSC derivatives showed excellent in vitro stability and resistance against transchelation in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution (EDTA), and human serum for up to 7 days. Cell binding studies and biodistribution as well as microPET/CT imaging experiments showed efficient receptor-specific targeting of [89Zr]FSC-RGD conjugates. No bone uptake was observed analyzing PET images indicating high in vivo stability. These findings indicate that FSC is a highly promising chelator for the development of 89Zr-based PET imaging agents. PMID:25941834

  7. Cyclic Peptidomimetics and Pseudopeptides from Multicomponent Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessjohann, Ludger A.; Rhoden, Cristiano R. B.; Rivera, Daniel G.; Vercillo, Otilie Eichler

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) that provide in the final product amides are suitable to produce peptides and peptide-like moieties. The Passerini and Staudinger reactions provide one amide bond, and the Ugi-four-component reaction generates two amides from three or even four (or more) components, respectively. The Ugi-reaction thus is most important to produce peptides and peptoids while the Passerini reaction is useful to generate depsipeptoid moieties. In order to produce cyclic peptides and pseudopeptides, the linear peptidic MCR products have to be cyclized, usually with the help of bifunctional or activatable building blocks. Orthogonal but cyclizable secondary functionalities that need no protection in isonitrile MCRs commonly include alkenes (for ring closing metathesis), azide/alkyne (for Huisgen click reactions) or dienes and enoates (Diels-Alder) etc. If MCR-reactive groups are to be used also for the cyclisation, monoprotected bifunctional building blocks are used and deprotected after the MCR, e.g. for Ugi reactions as Ugi-Deprotection-Cyclisation (UDC). Alternatively one of the former building blocks or functional groups generated by the MCR can be activated. Most commonly these are activated amides (from so-called convertible isonitriles) which can be used e.g. for Ugi-Activation-Cyclisation (UAC) protocols, or most recently for a simultaneous use of both strategies Ugi-Deprotection/Activation-Cyclisation (UDAC). These methods mostly lead to small, medicinally relevant peptide turn mimics. In an opposing strategy, the MCR is rather used as ring-closing reaction, thereby introducing a (di-)peptide moiety. Most recently these processes have been combined to use MCRs for both, linear precursor synthesis and cyclisation. These multiple MCR approaches allow the most efficient and versatile one pot synthesis of macrocyclic pseudopeptides known to date.

  8. Behavior of granular materials under cyclic shear.

    PubMed

    Mueggenburg, Nathan W

    2005-03-01

    The design and development of a parallel plate shear cell for the study of large-scale shear flows in granular materials is presented. The parallel plate geometry allows for shear studies without the effects of curvature found in the more common Couette experiments. A system of independently movable slats creates a well with side walls that deform in response to the motions of grains within the pack. This allows for true parallel plate shear with minimal interference from the containing geometry. The motions of the side walls also allow for a direct measurement of the velocity profile across the granular pack. Results are presented for applying this system to the study of transients in granular shear and for shear-induced crystallization. Initial shear profiles are found to vary from packing to packing, ranging from a linear profile across the entire system to an exponential decay with a width of approximately six bead diameters. As the system is sheared, the velocity profile becomes much sharper, resembling an exponential decay with a width of roughly three bead diameters. Further shearing produces velocity profiles which can no longer be fit to an exponential decay, but are better represented as a Gaussian decay or error function profile. Cyclic shear is found to produce large-scale ordering of the granular pack, which has a profound impact on the shear profile. There exist periods of time in which there is slipping between layers as well as periods of time in which the layered particles lock together resulting in very little relative motion.

  9. Cyclic Segregation State in Vertically Vibrated Binary Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qingfan; Pan, Beicheng; Lu, Changhong; Sun, Gang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the vertically vibrated binary granular mixtures at atmospheric pressure are studied experimentally. We find a nonstationary segregation state, of which the structure changes with time cyclically. The period of the cyclic segregation is measured and its variation with the vibration conditions is shown. The transition between the segregation states is also discussed, and a phase diagram on the plot of frequency against acceleration amplitude is given. In order to observe the effect of air flow in the segregation process, an alternative container with ventilated bottom is designed. Our experiments show that both regions of the Brazil nut segregation state and the cyclic segregation state shrink obviously by use of the latter container and disappear completely if the whole system is placed in vacuum. These results testify that the air pressure plays a positive role in both the Brazil nut effect and cyclic segregation.

  10. Cyclical Cohabitation Among Unmarried Parents in Fragile Families.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Teitler, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Building on past research suggesting that cohabitation is an ambiguous family form, the authors examined an understudied residential pattern among unmarried parents: cyclical cohabitation, in which parents have multiple cohabitation spells with each other. Using 9 years of panel data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,084), they found that 10% of all parents with nonmarital births, and nearly a quarter of those living together when the child is 9 years old, are cyclical cohabitors. Cyclically cohabiting mothers reported more material hardships than mothers in most other relationship patterns but also reported more father involvement with children. On all measures of child well-being, except grade retention, children of cyclically cohabiting parents fared no worse than children of stably cohabiting biological parents and did not differ significantly from any other group.

  11. Cyclic AMP Signaling: A Molecular Determinant of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Knott, Eric P.; Assi, Mazen; Pearse, Damien D.

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of axonal integrity during injury to the peripheral nerve system (PNS) sets into motion a cascade of responses that includes inflammation, Schwann cell mobilization, and the degeneration of the nerve fibers distal to the injury site. Yet, the injured PNS differentiates itself from the injured central nervous system (CNS) in its remarkable capacity for self-recovery, which, depending upon the length and type of nerve injury, involves a series of molecular events in both the injured neuron and associated Schwann cells that leads to axon regeneration, remyelination repair, and functional restitution. Herein we discuss the essential function of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), in the PNS repair process, highlighting the important role the conditioning lesion paradigm has played in understanding the mechanism(s) by which cyclic AMP exerts its proregenerative action. Furthermore, we review the studies that have therapeutically targeted cyclic AMP to enhance endogenous nerve repair. PMID:25177696

  12. Rapid purification of iodinated ligands for cyclic nucleotide radioimmunoassays

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    The tyrosine methyl esters of succinyl cyclic AMP and succinyl cyclic GMP were iodinated by the chloramine T method and individually applied to C18 cartridges. A solution of 1-propanol/0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.75 (17.5:82.5) was then pumped onto each cartridge and the eluate collected. A large peak of radioactivity, containing primarily the monoiodo and diiodo derivatives, was eluted. Radioactivity in peak fractions was greater than or equal to 95% the monoiodo derivative and represented 20 to 25% of the starting radioactivity. Contamination by the native cyclic nucleotide analogs was less than 5%. These peak fractions containing primarily monoiodinated products worked well in cyclic nucleotide radioimmunoassays. This fractionation required less than 30 min.

  13. Quantum Codes From Cyclic Codes Over The Ring R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinel, Alev; Güzeltepe, Murat

    2016-10-01

    Let R 2 denotes the ring F 2 + μF 2 + υ2 + μυF 2 + wF 2 + μwF 2 + υwF 2 + μυwF2. In this study, we construct quantum codes from cyclic codes over the ring R2, for arbitrary length n, with the restrictions μ2 = 0, υ2 = 0, w 2 = 0, μυ = υμ, μw = wμ, υw = wυ and μ (υw) = (μυ) w. Also, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over R2 that contains its dual. As a final point, we obtain the parameters of quantum error-correcting codes from cyclic codes over R2 and we give an example of quantum error-correcting codes form cyclic codes over R 2.

  14. The Cyclical Relationship Approach in Teaching Basic Accounting Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golen, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Shows how teachers can provide a more meaningful presentation of various accounting principles by illustrating them through a cyclical relationship approach. Thus, the students see the entire accounting relationship as a result of doing business. (CT)

  15. Safety Discrete Event Models for Holonic Cyclic Manufacturing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciufudean, Calin; Filote, Constantin

    In this paper the expression “holonic cyclic manufacturing systems” refers to complex assembly/disassembly systems or fork/join systems, kanban systems, and in general, to any discrete event system that transforms raw material and/or components into products. Such a system is said to be cyclic if it provides the same sequence of products indefinitely. This paper considers the scheduling of holonic cyclic manufacturing systems and describes a new approach using Petri nets formalism. We propose an approach to frame the optimum schedule of holonic cyclic manufacturing systems in order to maximize the throughput while minimize the work in process. We also propose an algorithm to verify the optimum schedule.

  16. A computer program for cyclic plasticity and structural fatigue analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalev, I.

    1980-01-01

    A computerized tool for the analysis of time independent cyclic plasticity structural response, life to crack initiation prediction, and crack growth rate prediction for metallic materials is described. Three analytical items are combined: the finite element method with its associated numerical techniques for idealization of the structural component, cyclic plasticity models for idealization of the material behavior, and damage accumulation criteria for the fatigue failure.

  17. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS FOR CONTROLLED POTENTIAL CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY, II,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    are described, a mechanical or motor driven unit, and an OA integrator network which is more versatile. Cyclic voltammetry appears to have great...Several practical, inexpensive, operational amplifier (OA) circuits are described which are particularly useful in single sweep and cyclic ... voltammetry at stationary electrodes. Specific adaptations of OA’s to electroanalytical instrumentation were made some time ago by Booman and coworkers and

  18. Cyclic voltammetry characterization of metal complex imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi Ning; Zheng, Ning; Osborne, Peter G; Li, Yuan Zong; Chang, Wen Bao; Wen, Mei Juan

    2002-01-01

    Polymer capable of specific binding to Cu(2+)-2, 2'-dipyridyl complex was prepared by molecular imprinting technology. The binding specificity of the polymer to the template (Cu(2+)-2, 2'-dipyridyl complex) was investigated by cyclic voltammetric scanning using the carbon paste electrode modified by polymer particles in phosphate buffer solution. Factors that influence rebinding of the imprinted polymer were explored. The results demonstrated that cyclic voltammetry was an efficient approach to explore interactions between template and imprinted polymers.

  19. Swimming in spacetime: motion by cyclic changes in body shape.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jack

    2003-03-21

    Cyclic changes in the shape of a quasi-rigid body on a curved manifold can lead to net translation and/or rotation of the body. The amount of translation depends on the intrinsic curvature of the manifold. Presuming spacetime is a curved manifold as portrayed by general relativity, translation in space can be accomplished simply by cyclic changes in the shape of a body, without any external forces.

  20. Observation of the Cyclic Water Hexamer in Solid Parahydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of-the cyclic -water hexamer, "cyc-(HO)&" expect minimal perturbations t6 the dopant’s structure and via its intfrared (IR) absorption in liquid helium ...red by = 15 cmf𔃻 from the absorptions of cyclic water clusters in liquid ihelium drolets [P. Nauta and R.E. Miller, Science 287, 293 (2600)]; this...dynamics, and hydrogen -bond (H-bond) interactions with. in- the resulting absence of permanent electric multipoles contrib- creasingg cluster size; one

  1. Microgravity changes in heart structure and cyclic-AMP metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Fine, A.; Kato, K.; Egnor, R.; Cheng, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on cardiac ultrastructure and cyclic AMP metabolism in tissues of rats flown on Spacelab 3 are reported. Light and electron microscope studies of cell structure, measurements of low and high Km phosphodiesterase activity, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity, and regulatory subunit compartmentation show significant deviations in flight animals when compared to ground controls. The results indicate that some changes have occurred in cellular responses associated with catecholamine receptor interactions and intracellular signal processing.

  2. Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions towards cyclic constrained peptidomimetics

    PubMed Central

    Koopmanschap, Gijs; Ruijter, Eelco

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the recent past, the design and synthesis of peptide mimics (peptidomimetics) has received much attention. This because they have shown in many cases enhanced pharmacological properties over their natural peptide analogues. In particular, the incorporation of cyclic constructs into peptides is of high interest as they reduce the flexibility of the peptide enhancing often affinity for a certain receptor. Moreover, these cyclic mimics force the molecule into a well-defined secondary structure. Constraint structural and conformational features are often found in biological active peptides. For the synthesis of cyclic constrained peptidomimetics usually a sequence of multiple reactions has been applied, which makes it difficult to easily introduce structural diversity necessary for fine tuning the biological activity. A promising approach to tackle this problem is the use of multicomponent reactions (MCRs), because they can introduce both structural diversity and molecular complexity in only one step. Among the MCRs, the isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs) are most relevant for the synthesis of peptidomimetics because they provide peptide-like products. However, these IMCRs usually give linear products and in order to obtain cyclic constrained peptidomimetics, the acyclic products have to be cyclized via additional cyclization strategies. This is possible via incorporation of bifunctional substrates into the initial IMCR. Examples of such bifunctional groups are N-protected amino acids, convertible isocyanides or MCR-components that bear an additional alkene, alkyne or azide moiety and can be cyclized via either a deprotection–cyclization strategy, a ring-closing metathesis, a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition or even via a sequence of multiple multicomponent reactions. The sequential IMCR-cyclization reactions can afford small cyclic peptide mimics (ranging from four- to seven-membered rings), medium-sized cyclic constructs or peptidic macrocycles

  3. Signal Classification in Fading Channels Using Cyclic Spectral Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    efficient algorithms to detect and classify an OFDM signal based on its cyclic prefix through the use of a simple autocorrelation procedure [21–23...we focus on the case of an OFDM signal transmitted with no cyclic prefix. Therefore, an intermediate stage is needed between the SOF- based ...classifications and the HOCS- based classifications. A simple yet effective method to distinguish OFDM signals from the single carrier signals in question is

  4. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  5. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in non-sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Kraus-Friedmann, N

    2000-03-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels represent a class of ion channels activated directly by the binding of either cyclic-GMP or cyclic-AMP. They carry both mono and divalent cations, but select calcium over sodium. In the majority of the cases studied, binding of cyclic nucleotides to the channel results in the opening of the channel and the influx of calcium. As a consequence, cytosolic free calcium levels increase leading to the modifications of calcium-dependent processes. This represents and important link in the chain of events leading to the physiological response. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels were discovered in sensory cell types, in the retina, and in olfactory cells, and were extensively studied in those cells. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that such channels are present not only in sensory systems, but in most, if not all, cell types where cyclic nucleotides play a role in signal transduction. A hypothesis is presented here which attributes physiological importance to these channels in non-sensory organs. Four examples of such channels in non-sensory cells are discussed in detail: those in the liver, in the heart, in the brain, and in the testis with the emphasis on the possible physiological roles that these channels might have in these organs.

  6. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  7. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  8. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  9. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  10. 21 CFR 640.94 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma Protein Fraction (Human) § 640.94 Labeling. In addition... package labels shall contain the following information: (a) The osmotic equivalent in terms of plasma,...

  11. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  12. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  13. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  14. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  15. 21 CFR 640.84 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.84 Labeling. In addition to the labeling... percent albumin is administered to a patient with marked dehydration; (d) The protein...

  16. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  17. Logos and Graphics on Pesticide Product Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are several logos that pesticide companies can add to their labels with EPA approval. The requirements and process vary, so review the guidance carefully before applying to add a logo to a product label.

  18. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  19. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  20. 40 CFR 205.158 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... color that contrasts with the background of the label. (5) The label must contain the following... Califfo CAL Carabela CAR Cimatti CIM Columbia COL E-Z Rider EZR Flying Dutchman FLY Foxi FOI Gadabout...

  1. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  2. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  3. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  4. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  5. 40 CFR 262.31 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.31 Labeling. Before transporting or offering hazardous waste for transportation off-site, a generator must label each package...

  6. Asymmetric synthesis of gem-diaryl substituted cyclic sulfamidates and sulfamides by rhodium-catalyzed arylation of cyclic ketimines.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Ebe, Yusuke; Fujimoto, Hiroto; Hayashi, Tamio

    2013-06-18

    Asymmetric addition of arylboronates to aryl-substituted cyclic ketimines proceeded in the presence of a rhodium catalyst coordinated with a chiral diene ligand to give high yields of sulfamidates and sulfamides with high enantioselectivity (up to 99% ee).

  7. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  8. Fluorescently labelled glycans and their applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongbin; Yalagala, Ravi Shekar; Yan, Fengyang

    2015-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on the synthesis and applications of fluorescently labelled carbohydrates. Due to the sensitivity of fluorescent detection, this approach provides a useful tool to study processes involving glycans. A few general categories of labelling are presented, in situ labelling of carbohydrates with fluorophores, fluorescently labelled glycolipids, fluorogenic glycans, pre-formed fluorescent glycans for intracellular applications, glycan-decorated fluorescent polymers, fluorescent glyconanoparticles, and other functional fluorescent glycans.

  9. A new class of macrocyclic lanthanide complexes for cell labeling and magnetic resonance imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan; Dai, Houquan; Merritt, Matthew E; Malloy, Craig; Pan, Cai Yuan; Li, Wen-Hong

    2005-11-23

    Lanthanide complexes have wide applications in biochemical research and biomedical imaging. We have designed and synthesized a new class of macrocyclic lanthanide chelates, Ln/DTPA-PDA-C(n), for cell labeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. Two lipophilic Gd3+ complexes, Gd/DTPA-PDA-C(n) (n = 10, 12), labeled a number of cultured mammalian cells noninvasively at concentrations as low as a few micromolar. Cells took up these agents rapidly and showed robust intensity increases in T1-weighed MR images. Labeled cells showed normal morphology and doubling time as control cells. In addition to cultured cells, these agents also labeled primary cells in tissues such as dissected pancreatic islets. To study the mechanism of cellular uptake, we applied the technique of diffusion enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (DEFRET) to determine the cellular localization of these lipophilic lanthanide complexes. After loading cells with a luminescent complex, Tb/DTPA-PDA-C10, we observed DEFRET between the Tb3+ complex and extracellular, but not intracellular, calcein. We concluded that these cyclic lanthanide complexes label cells by inserting two hydrophobic alkyl chains into cell membranes with the hydrophilic metal binding site facing the extracellular medium. As the first imaging application of these macrocyclic lanthanide chelates, we labeled insulin secreting beta-cells with Gd/DTPA-PDA-C12. Labeled cells were encapsulated in hollow fibers and were implanted in a nude mouse. MR imaging of implanted beta-cells showed that these cells could be followed in vivo for up to two weeks. The combined advantages of this new class of macrocyclic contrast agents ensure future imaging applications to track cell movement and localization in different biological systems.

  10. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, A.

    2012-09-01

    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  11. Automated labeling in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing an automated system to produce bibliographic records for its MEDLINER database. This system, named Medical Article Record System (MARS), employs document image analysis and understanding techniques and optical character recognition (OCR). This paper describes a key module in MARS called the Automated Labeling (AL) module, which labels all zones of interest (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) automatically. The AL algorithm is based on 120 rules that are derived from an analysis of journal page layouts and features extracted from OCR output. Experiments carried out on more than 11,000 articles in over 1,000 biomedical journals show the accuracy of this rule-based algorithm to exceed 96%.

  12. Labeling nuclear DNA using DAPI.

    PubMed

    Chazotte, Brad

    2011-01-01

    A number of fluorescent stains are available that label DNA and allow easy visualization of the nucleus in interphase cells and chromosomes in mitotic cells, including Hoechst, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, and acridine orange. Although not as bright as the vital Hoechst stains for DNA, DAPI has greater photostability. It is believed that DAPI associates with the minor groove of double-stranded DNA, with a preference for the adenine-thymine clusters. Cells must be permeabilized and/or fixed for DAPI to enter the cell and to bind DNA. Fluorescence increases approximately 20-fold when DAPI is bound to double-stranded DNA. This protocol describes the use of DAPI to label nuclear DNA of cells grown in culture.

  13. Radiolabeling of a cyclic RGD (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys) peptide using sodium hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent.

    PubMed

    Doll, Stephanie; Woolum, Karen; Kumar, Krishan

    2016-09-01

    A simple and rapid nonradioactive iodide labeling/radiolabeling method for peptides, using an inexpensive oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite and a cyclic peptide, cRGDyK (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys), was developed in this work. Labeling reaction was optimized by conducting experiments under variable ratios of the reagents, the reaction times, and the pH. The study demonstrated that radiolabeling of the cyclic peptide was fast and pH independent. Monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK were formed under all conditions and varied with the ratio of the reagents and the reaction time. Total percent of the iodinated cRGDyK (monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK) varied between 44 and 100 depending on the reaction conditions. Excess cyclic peptide over equal molar ratio of sodium iodide and sodium hypochlorite yielded in predominant amounts of monoiodinated cRGDyK, ie, >60% under 2:1:1 ratio and ~88% under 5:1:1 ratio of cRGDyK:sodium iodide:sodium hypochlorite.

  14. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  15. Labeling Nodes Using Three Degrees of Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sara; Goldenberg, Anna; Morris, Quaid

    2012-01-01

    The properties (or labels) of nodes in networks can often be predicted based on their proximity and their connections to other labeled nodes. So-called “label propagation algorithms” predict the labels of unlabeled nodes by propagating information about local label density iteratively through the network. These algorithms are fast, simple and scale to large networks but nonetheless regularly perform better than slower and much more complex algorithms on benchmark problems. We show here, however, that these algorithms have an intrinsic limitation that prevents them from adapting to some common patterns of network node labeling; we introduce a new algorithm, 3Prop, that retains all their advantages but is much more adaptive. As we show, 3Prop performs very well on node labeling problems ill-suited to label propagation, including predicting gene function in protein and genetic interaction networks and gender in friendship networks, and also performs slightly better on problems already well-suited to label propagation such as labeling blogs and patents based on their citation networks. 3Prop gains its adaptability by assigning separate weights to label information from different steps of the propagation. Surprisingly, we found that for many networks, the third iteration of label propagation receives a negative weight. Availability The code is available from the authors by request. PMID:23284828

  16. Learning Words from Labeling and Directive Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Maureen A.; Akhtar, Nameera; Sussman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Despite the common intuition that labeling may be the best way to teach a new word to a child, systematic testing is needed of the prediction that children learn words better from labeling utterances than from directive utterances. Two experiments compared toddlers' label learning in the context of hearing words used in directive versus labeling…

  17. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  18. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  19. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  20. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  1. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  2. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  3. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be as follows: EC02MR91.027 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  4. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  5. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  6. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be as follows: ER26ja04.000 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background color on...

  7. 40 CFR 211.105 - Label format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label format. 211.105 Section 211.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.105 Label format. (a) Unless specified otherwise in other...

  8. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... All type is centered. The band at the top of the label contains either: (A) The capital letter “B... at the top of the label shall contain the capital letter “B” followed immediately by the numerical... the black band at the top of the label shall contain the phrase “B-100 Biodiesel.” In addition,...

  9. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  11. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  13. 21 CFR 660.28 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... panel. Blood grouping reagent Color of label paper Anti-A Blue. Anti-B Yellow. Slide and rapid tube test... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.28 Labeling. In... label—(1) Color coding. The final container label of all Blood Grouping Reagents shall be...

  14. 75 FR 81943 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... comment. SUMMARY: The Commission proposes changing the effective date for its new light bulb labeling... the new label for incandescent bulbs (e.g., 75 watt bulbs) that, as of 2013, will not meet federal... current labeling requirements for ``lamps,'' commonly referred to as light bulbs, and alternative...

  15. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission extends the effective date for its new light bulb labeling... Commission exempts from the new label requirements incandescent bulbs that will not be produced after January... proposing to extend the effective date of new labeling rules for light bulbs to January 1, 2012.\\1\\ The...

  16. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  17. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  18. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  19. 30 CFR 47.43 - Label alternatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Label alternatives. 47.43 Section 47.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.43 Label alternatives. The operator...

  20. 40 CFR 600.301 - Labeling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Labeling § 600.301 Labeling... each dealer shall maintain or cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy... vehicle for which a specific label is requested which has a combined FTP/HFET-based fuel economy value,...

  1. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  3. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  4. 16 CFR 305.17 - Television labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Required Disclosures § 305.17... manufacturer may include the ENERGY STAR logo on the label as illustrated in Sample Labels 10, 11, and 12...

  5. Labels and Children's Perceptions of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.; Seavey, Carol

    1973-01-01

    The relation between type of label and perception of faces was assessed in second- and sixth-grade children. Labels associated with color increased color perception, whereas labels based on expressiveness increased differentiation of expression variations, but not color perception. (ST)

  6. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.120 Device labeling. Each...

  7. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  8. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  9. 16 CFR 1633.12 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.12 Labeling. (a) Each mattress set subject to the Standard shall bear a permanent, conspicuous, and legible label(s) containing the...

  10. 40 CFR 94.212 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.212 Labeling. (a) General... new marine engine modified from a base engine by post-manufacture marinizers in accordance with the... shall be of a color that contrasts with the background of the label: (1) The label heading:...

  11. 21 CFR 660.35 - Labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.35 Labeling. In... or end of the label, oustide of the main panel. (2) If washing the cells is required by the manufacturer, the container label shall include appropriate instructions; if the cells should not be...

  12. Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?

    PubMed

    Variyam, Jayachandran N

    2008-06-01

    The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a credible, distinctive, and easy-to-read format, the new label was expected to help consumers choose healthier, more nutritious diets. This paper examines whether the disclosure of nutrition information through the mandatory labels impacted consumer diets. Assessing the dietary effects of labeling is problematic due to the confounding of the label effect with unobserved label user characteristics. This self-selection problem is addressed by exploiting the fact that the NLEA exempts away-from-home foods from mandatory labeling. Difference-in-differences models that account for zero away-from-home intakes suggest that the labels increase fiber and iron intakes of label users compared with label nonusers. In comparison, a model that does not account for self-selection implies significant label effects for all but two of the 13 nutrients that are listed on the label.

  13. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... shall establish and maintain procedures to control labeling activities. (a) Label integrity....

  14. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  15. 9 CFR 354.73 - Retention labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retention labels. 354.73 Section 354.73 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... § 354.73 Retention labels. An inspector may use such labels, devices, and methods as may be approved...

  16. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling controls. 1271.250 Section 1271.250 Food..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a) General. You must establish and maintain procedures to control the labeling of HCT/Ps. You must...

  17. Isotope Labeling in Insect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Krishna; Dutta, Arpana; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen remarkable progress in applying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to proteins that have traditionally been difficult to study due to issues with folding, posttranslational modification, and expression levels or combinations thereof. In particular, insect cells have proved useful in allowing large quantities of isotope-labeled, functional proteins to be obtained and purified to homogeneity, allowing study of their structures and dynamics by using NMR. Here, we provide protocols that have proven successful in such endeavors. PMID:22167667

  18. CD-ROM Labeling Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-06

    was allowed to dry thoroughly before application to the disc, so that the solvent used would have dispersed. Use of this, or any adhesive is risky if...the chemical composition and solvents used are not known. Some acid based adhesives have been reported to have eaten through the disc’s protective...been specially manufactured with suitable adhesive ( beeswax ) for use with CD-ROM. Both foils can be printed with customer-labeled, generic

  19. Designer labels for plant metabolism: statistical design of isotope labeling experiments for improved quantification of flux in complex plant metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Nargund, Shilpa; Sriram, Ganesh

    2013-01-27

    Metabolic fluxes are powerful indicators of cell physiology and can be estimated by isotope-assisted metabolic flux analysis (MFA). The complexity of the compartmented metabolic networks of plants has constrained the application of isotope-assisted MFA to them, principally because of poor identifiability of fluxes from the measured isotope labeling patterns. However, flux identifiability can be significantly improved by a priori design of isotope labeling experiments (ILEs). This computational design involves evaluating the effect of different isotope label and isotopomer measurement combinations on flux identifiability, and thereby identifying optimal labels and measurements toward evaluating the fluxes of interest with the highest confidence. This article reports ILE designs for two major, compartmented plant metabolic pathways - the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt. Together, these pathways represent common motifs in plant metabolism including duplication of pathways in different subcellular compartments, reversible reactions and cyclic carbon flow. To compare various ILE designs, we employed statistical A- and D-optimality criteria. Our computations showed that 1,2-(13)C Glc is a powerful and robust label for the plant PPPs, given currently popular isotopomer measurement techniques (single quadrupole mass spectrometry [MS] and 2-D nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR]). Further analysis revealed that this label can estimate several PPP fluxes better than the popular label 1-(13)C Glc. Furthermore, the concurrent measurement of the isotopomers of hexose and pentose moieties synthesized exclusively in the cytosol or the plastid compartments (measurable through intracellular glucose or sucrose, starch, RNA ribose and histidine) considerably improves the identifiability of PPP fluxes in the individual compartments. Additionally, MS-derived isotopomer measurements outperform NMR-derived measurements in identifying PPP fluxes. The

  20. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Labels and Carton Labeling Design to Minimize Medication Errors.'' The draft guidance focuses on safety... use of the product to minimize medication errors. DATES: Although you can comment on any guidance...

  1. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  2. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  3. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  4. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  5. 40 CFR 60.536 - Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual. 60.536 Section 60.536 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for New Residential Wood Heaters § 60.536 Permanent label, temporary label, and owner's manual....

  6. The Role of Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Pathways in Cancer: Targets for Prevention and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Alexandra M.; Piazza, Gary A.; Tinsley, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than four decades, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) have been recognized as important signaling molecules within cells. Under normal physiological conditions, cyclic nucleotides regulate a myriad of biological processes such as cell growth and adhesion, energy homeostasis, neuronal signaling, and muscle relaxation. In addition, altered cyclic nucleotide signaling has been observed in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. While the distinct molecular alterations responsible for these effects vary depending on the specific cancer type, several studies have demonstrated that activation of cyclic nucleotide signaling through one of three mechanisms—induction of cyclic nucleotide synthesis, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide degradation, or activation of cyclic nucleotide receptors—is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and activate apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting cyclic nucleotide signaling can provide a strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the prevention and/or treatment of selected cancers. PMID:24577242

  7. A Material Model for the Cyclic Behavior of Nitinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, Nuno; Zipse, Achim; Schlun, Martin; Dreher, Gael

    2011-07-01

    The uniaxial behavior of Nitinol in different forms and at different temperatures has been well documented in the literature. Mathematical models for the three-dimensional behavior of this class of materials, covering superelasticity, plasticity, and shape memory effects have been previously developed. Phenomenological models embedded in FEA analysis are part of common practice today in the development of devices made out of Nitinol. In vivo loading of medical devices has cyclic characteristics. There have been some indications in the literature that cyclic loading of Nitinol modifies substantially its behavior. A consortium of several stent manufacturers, Safe Technology and Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corp., dedicated to the development of fatigue laws suitable for life prediction of Nitinol devices, has conducted an extensive experimental study of the modifications in uniaxial behavior of both Nitinol wire and tubing due to cyclic loading. The Abaqus Nitinol material model has been extended to capture some of the phenomena observed and is described in this article. Namely, a preload beyond 6% strain alters the transformation plateaus; if the cyclic load amplitude is large enough, permanent deformations (residual martensite) are observed; the lower plateau increases; and the upper plateau changes. The modifications to the upper plateau are very interesting in the sense that it appears broken: its start stress gets lowered creating a new plateau up to the highest level of cyclic strain, followed by resuming the original plateau until full transformation. Since quite often the geometry of a device at the point at which it is subjected to cyclic loading is very much dependent on the manufacturing, deployment, and preloading sequence, it is important that analyses be conducted with the original material behavior up to that point, and then with the cyclic behavior thereafter.

  8. Sources of Water to Wells for Transient Cyclic Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Pollock, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Many state agencies are currently (1995) developing wellhead protection programs. The thrust of some of these programs is to protect water supplies by determining the areas contributing recharge to water-supply wells and by specifying regulations to minimize the opportunity for contamination of the recharge water by activities at the land surface. The area contributing recharge to a discharging well is the surface area at the water table through which the water flowing to the well entered the ground-water system. In the analyses of ground-water flow systems, steady-state average conditions are commonly used to simplify the problem and make a solution tractable. However, recharge is usually cyclic in nature, with seasonal cycles and longer term climatic cycles. The effect of these cyclic stresses on the area contributing recharge to wells is quantitatively analyzed for a hypothetical alluvial valley aquifer system that is representative of a large class of ground-water systems that are extensively developed for water supply. The analysis shows that, in many cases, these cyclic changes in the recharge rates do not significantly affect the location and size of the areas contributing recharge to wells. The ratio of the mean travel time to the length of the cyclic stress period appears to be an indicator of whether the transient effects of the cyclic stress must be explicitly represented in the analysis of contributing areas to wells. For the cases examined, if the ratio of the mean travel time to the period of the cyclic stress was much greater than one, then the transient area contributing recharge to wells was similar to the area calculated using an average steady-state condition. However, cyclic stresses on systems with ratios less than one do have an effect on the location and size of the areas contributing recharge to wells.

  9. The Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Reversed Cyclic Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, David Michael Volpe

    Reversed cyclic loading, as may occur during seismic events, can cause sudden and brittle shear failures in reinforced concrete structural members. This thesis presents both experimental and analytical investigations into the behaviour of members subjected to reversed cyclic shear loading, and culminates in the development of a new, rational model to describe this behaviour. In the experimental phase of the research, ten reinforced concrete shell elements were tested under reversed cyclic in-plane shear loads. Data collected by means of several acquisition systems allowed extensive analysis of the experiments, and provided insight into the behaviour of the crack interfaces. In comparison with existing models, such as the Modified Compression Field Theory, it was found that the shear strengths of these reversed cyclically loaded specimens were as much as 25% lower than monotonic predictions. The results of the experimental program informed the development of a new analytical model, the General Crack Component Model (GCCM). The central concept of the GCCM is that the reversed cyclic behaviour of a shear panel depends on the behaviour of multiple crack systems, each with its own constitutive properties. A rigorous framework based on the principles of compatibility and equilibrium was formulated in order to allow for the appropriate combination of the stiffnesses of the three components of the model: concrete, steel, and cracks. The GCCM was validated for reversed cyclic and monotonic loading by comparison with the experimental results as well as data from other researchers. It was shown that the model provides good estimates of the behaviour of reinforced concrete subjected to reversed cyclic loads, and that it can be used as part of a larger structural analysis, ultimately helping engineers to design safer structures and more accurately assess the safety of existing construction.

  10. Cyclically amplified fluorescent detection of theophylline and thiamine pyrophosphate by coupling self-cleaving RNA ribozyme with endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Song, Jian; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Tao

    2013-10-03

    A structure-switching-based approach for the design of fluorescent biosensors from known RNA aptazymes were demonstrated for the detection of theophylline and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Taking advantages of the ability of graphene oxide (GO) to protect ssDNA from nuclease cleavage and the cyclic amplification induced by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), the amplified assay showed high sensitivity. In the presence of target, the target-dependent hammerhead aptazyme cleaves off. The released Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence was introduced into the detection system, in which a FAM labeled probe ssDNA was noncovalently assembled on GO, and the fluorescence of the dye was completely quenched. In the presence of the released sequence, the binding between the dye-labeled DNA and the SD sequence alter the conformation of dye-labeled DNA, and disturb the interaction between the dye-labeled DNA and GO, liberating dye-labeled DNA from GO. The fluorescent intensity was increased, whereupon the DNase I can cleave the free DNA in the DNA/RNA complex, thereby liberating the fluorophore and ultimately releasing the SD RNA sequence. The released SD RNA sequence then binds another DNA probe, and the cycle starts anew, which leads to significant amplification of the fluorescent signal. The strategy showed good sensitivity and the dynamic ranges were of 0.1-10 μM and 0.5-100 μM for theophylline and TPP, respectively. The approach opens up a wide range of possibilities for sensing of other small molecules in biological entities.

  11. Abandoning a label doesn’t make it disappear: The perseverance of labeling effects

    PubMed Central

    Foroni, Francesco; Rothbart, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Labels exert strong influence on perception and judgment. The present experiment examines the possibility that such effects may persist even when labels are abandoned. Participants judged the similarity of pairs of silhouette drawings of female body types, ordered on a continuum from very thin to very heavy, under conditions where category labels were, and were not, superimposed on the ordered stimuli. Consistent with earlier research, labels had strong effects on perceived similarity, with silhouettes sharing the same label judged as more similar than those having different labels. Moreover, when the labels were removed and no longer present, the effect of the labels, although diminished, persisted. It did not make any difference whether the labels were simply abandoned or, in addition, had their validity challenged. The results are important for our understanding of categorization and labeling processes. The potential theoretical and practical implications of these results for social processes are discussed. PMID:23105148

  12. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara

    2013-01-01

    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  13. Quantification of cyclic dipeptides from cultures of Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ by HRGC/MS using stable isotope dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K; Waters, Deborah M; Czerny, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role as natural preservatives in fermented food and beverage systems, reducing the application of chemical additives. Thus, investigating their antifungal compounds, such as cyclic dipeptides, has gained prominence. Previous research has primarily focussed on isolation of these compounds. However, their precise quantification will provide further information regarding their antifungal performance in a complex system. To address this, deuterated labelled standards of the cyclic dipeptides cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Pro-Pro), cyclo(Met-Pro) and cyclo(Phe-Pro) were synthesized, and stable isotope dilution assays were developed, enabling an accurate quantification of cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Pro-Pro), cyclo(Met-Pro) and cyclo(Phe-Pro) in MRS-broth and wort. Quantitative results showed that, in the Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ fermented MRS-broth, the concentrations of cyclo(Leu-Pro), cyclo(Pro-Pro) and cyclo(Phe-Pro) were significantly higher (P < 0.05), than in wort for cyclo (Leu-Pro) when compared with their controls. This indicates that the formation of these three cyclic dipeptides is related to L. brevis R2Δ metabolism. Furthermore, this represents the first report of cyclic dipeptides quantification using stable isotope dilution assays in LAB cultures both in vitro and in a food system.

  14. Topological chaos, braiding and bifurcation of almost-cyclic sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Piyush; Ross, Shane D.; Stremler, Mark A.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2012-12-01

    In certain two-dimensional time-dependent flows, the braiding of periodic orbits provides a way to analyze chaos in the system through application of the Thurston-Nielsen classification theorem (TNCT). We expand upon earlier work that introduced the application of the TNCT to braiding of almost-cyclic sets, which are individual components of almost-invariant sets [Stremler et al., "Topological chaos and periodic braiding of almost-cyclic sets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 114101 (2011)]. In this context, almost-cyclic sets are periodic regions in the flow with high local residence time that act as stirrers or "ghost rods" around which the surrounding fluid appears to be stretched and folded. In the present work, we discuss the bifurcation of the almost-cyclic sets as a system parameter is varied, which results in a sequence of topologically distinct braids. We show that, for Stokes' flow in a lid-driven cavity, these various braids give good lower bounds on the topological entropy over the respective parameter regimes in which they exist. We make the case that a topological analysis based on spatiotemporal braiding of almost-cyclic sets can be used for analyzing chaos in fluid flows. Hence, we further develop a connection between set-oriented statistical methods and topological methods, which promises to be an important analysis tool in the study of complex systems.

  15. Topological chaos, braiding and bifurcation of almost-cyclic sets.

    PubMed

    Grover, Piyush; Ross, Shane D; Stremler, Mark A; Kumar, Pankaj

    2012-12-01

    In certain two-dimensional time-dependent flows, the braiding of periodic orbits provides a way to analyze chaos in the system through application of the Thurston-Nielsen classification theorem (TNCT). We expand upon earlier work that introduced the application of the TNCT to braiding of almost-cyclic sets, which are individual components of almost-invariant sets [Stremler et al., "Topological chaos and periodic braiding of almost-cyclic sets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 114101 (2011)]. In this context, almost-cyclic sets are periodic regions in the flow with high local residence time that act as stirrers or "ghost rods" around which the surrounding fluid appears to be stretched and folded. In the present work, we discuss the bifurcation of the almost-cyclic sets as a system parameter is varied, which results in a sequence of topologically distinct braids. We show that, for Stokes' flow in a lid-driven cavity, these various braids give good lower bounds on the topological entropy over the respective parameter regimes in which they exist. We make the case that a topological analysis based on spatiotemporal braiding of almost-cyclic sets can be used for analyzing chaos in fluid flows. Hence, we further develop a connection between set-oriented statistical methods and topological methods, which promises to be an important analysis tool in the study of complex systems.

  16. Cyclic mechanical reinforcement of integrin–ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fang; Li, Zhenhai; Parks, William M.; Dumbauld, David W.; García, Andrés J.; Mould, A. Paul; Humphries, Martin J.; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cells regulate adhesion in response to internally-generated and externally-applied forces. Integrins connect the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton and provide cells with mechanical anchorages and signaling platforms. Here we show that cyclic forces applied to a fibronectin–integrin α5β1 bond switch the bond from a short-lived state with 1-s lifetime to a long-lived state with 100-s lifetime. We term this phenomenon “cyclic mechanical reinforcement” as the bond strength remembers the history of force application, accumulates over repeated cycles, but does not require force to be sustained. Cyclic mechanical reinforcement strengthens the fibronectin–integrin α5β1 bond through the RGD binding site of the ligand with the synergy binding site greatly facilitating the process. A flexible integrin hybrid domain is also important for cyclic mechanical reinforcement. Our results reveal a mechanical regulation of receptor–ligand interactions and identify a molecular mechanism for cell adhesion strengthening by cyclic forces. PMID:23416109

  17. Temperature Dependent Cyclic Deformation Mechanisms in Haynes 188 Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Castelli, Michael G.; Allen, Gorden P.; Ellis, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 and 1000 C under isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Constant mechanical strain rates (epsilon-dot) of 10(exp -3)/s and 10(exp -4)/s were examined with a fully reversed strain range of 0.8%. Particular attention was given to the effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on the stress-strain response and low cycle fatigue life. A correlation between cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural substructure was made through detailed transmission electron microscopy. Although DSA was found to occur over a wide temperature range between approximately 300 and 750 C the microstructural characteristics and the deformation mechanisms responsible for DSA varied considerably and were dependent upon temperature. In general, the operation of DSA processes led to a maximum of the cyclic stress amplitude at 650 C and was accompanied by pronounced planar slip, relatively high dislocation density, and the generation of stacking faults. DSA was evidenced through a combination of phenomena, including serrated yielding, an inverse dependence of the maximum cyclic hardening with epsilon-dot, and an instantaneous inverse epsilon-dot sensitivity verified by specialized epsilon-dot -change tests. The TMF cyclic hardening behavior of the alloy appeared to be dictated by the substructural changes occuring at the maximum temperature in the TMF cycle.

  18. Influences of cyclic loading on martensite transformation of TRIP steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, W. J.; Hu, Z. G.; Zhang, W. G.

    2013-03-01

    While austenite transformation into martensite induces increasing of the crack initiation life and restraining of the growth of fatigue cracks in cyclic-loading processes, TRIP-assisted steels have a better fatigue life than the AHSS (Advance High Strength Steels). As two key parameters in the cyclic loading process, strain amplitude and cyclic frequency are used in a kinetic transformation model to reasonably evaluate the phase transformation from austenite into martensite with the shear-band intersections theory, in which strain amplitude and cyclic frequency are related to the rate of shear-band intersection formation and the driving force of phase transformation. The results revealed that the martensite volume fraction increased and the rate of phase transformation decrease while the number of cycles increased, and the martensite volume fraction was almost constant after the number of cycles was more than 2000 times. Higher strain amplitude promotes martensite transformation and higher cyclic frequency impedes phase transformation, which are interpreted by temperature increment, the driving force of phase transformation and the rate of shearband intersection formation.

  19. Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Low severity coal liquefaction promoted by cyclic olefins offers a means of liquefying coal at low severity conditions. Lower temperature, 350[degrees]C, and lower hydrogen pressure, 500 psi, have been used to perform liquefaction reactions. The presence of the cyclic olefin, hexahydroanthracene, made a substantial difference in the conversion of Illinois No. 6 coal at these low severity conditions. The Researchperformed this quarter was a parametric evaluation of the effect of different parameters on the coal conversion and product distribution from coal. The effect of the parameters on product distribution from hexahydroanthracene was also determined. The work planned for next quarter includes combining the most effective parametric conditions for the low severity reactions and determining their effect. The second part ofthe research performed this quarter involved performing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using cyclic olefins. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using FTIR and a heated cell to determine the reaction pathway that occurs in the hydrogen donation reactions from cyclic olefins. The progress made to date includes evaluating the FTIR spectra of cyclic olefins and their expected reaction products. This work is included in this progress report.

  20. Cyclic beta-glucans of members of the family Rhizobiaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, M W; Miller, K J

    1994-01-01

    Cyclic beta-glucans are low-molecular-weight cell surface carbohydrates that are found almost exclusively in bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family. These glucans are major cellular constituents, and under certain culture conditions their levels may reach up to 20% of the total cellular dry weight. In Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species, these molecules contain between 17 and 40 glucose residues linked solely by beta-(1,2) glycosidic bonds. In Bradyrhizobium species, the cyclic beta-glucans are smaller (10 to 13 glucose residues) and contain glucose linked by both beta-(1,6) and beta-(1,3) glycosidic bonds. In some rhizobial strains, the cyclic beta-glucans are unsubstituted, whereas in other rhizobia these molecules may become highly substituted with moieties such as sn-1-phosphoglycerol. To date, two genetic loci specifically associated with cyclic beta-glucan biosynthesis have been identified in Rhizobium (ndvA and ndvB) and Agrobacterium (chvA and chvB) species. Mutants with mutations at these loci have been shown to be impaired in their ability to grow in hypoosmotic media, have numerous alterations in their cell surface properties, and are also impaired in their ability to infect plants. The present review will examine the structure and occurrence of the cyclic beta-glucans in a variety of species of the Rhizobiaceae. The possible functions of these unique molecules in the free-living bacteria as well as during plant infection will be discussed. PMID:8078434

  1. Gonadotropin stimulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and testosterone production without detectable high-affinity binding sites in purified Leydig cells from rat testis

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.S.; Bhalla, V.K. )

    1991-02-01

    Rat testicular interstitial cells were separated by three different gradient-density procedures and, with each, two biochemically and morphologically distinct cell fractions were isolated. The lighter density cells in fraction-I bound iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) with high-affinity (apparent equilibrium dissociation constant, Kd, approximately 10{sup {minus} 10} M) without producing either cyclic adenosine monophosphate or testosterone in response to hormone action. The heavier-density cells displayed morphologic features typical of Leydig cells and produced cyclic adenosine monophosphate and testosterone in the presence of hCG without detectable {sup 125}I-labeled hCG high-affinity binding. These cell fractions were further characterized by studies using deglycosylated hCG, a known antagonist to hCG action. Cell concentration-dependent studies with purified Leydig cells revealed that maximal testosterone production was achieved when lower cell concentrations (0.5 x 10(6) cells/250 microliters) were used for in vitro hCG stimulation assays. Under these conditions, the {sup 125}I-labeled hCG binding was barely detectable (2.24 fmol; 2,698 sites/cell). Furthermore, these studies revealed that the hCG-specific binding in Leydig cells is overestimated by the classic method for nonspecific binding correction using excess unlabeled hormone. An alternate method is presented.

  2. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  3. Saddle-Shaped Cyclic Indole Tetramers: 3D Electroactive Molecules.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Constanza; Monge, Ángeles; Gutiérrez-Puebla, Enrique; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Navarrete, Juan T López; Ruiz Delgado, M Carmen; Gómez-Lor, Berta

    2016-07-18

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study of a series of cyclic indole tetramers aimed at understanding the fundamental electronic properties of this 3D platform and evaluating its potential in the construction of new semiconductors. To this end, we combined absorption and Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and spectroelectrochemistry with DFT calculations. Our results suggest that this platform can be easily and reversibly oxidized. Additionally, it has a HOMO that matches very well with the workfunction of gold, therefore charge injection from a gold electrode is expected to occur without significant barriers. Interestingly, the cyclic tetraindoles allow for good electron delocalization in spite of their saddle-shaped structures. The steric constraints introduced by N-substitution significantly inhibits ring inversion of the central cyclooctatetraene unit, whereas it only barely affects the optical and electrochemical properties (a slightly higher oxidation potential and a blueshifted absorption upon alkylation are observed).

  4. Application Of Shakedown Analysis To Cyclic Creep Damage Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Peter; Jetter, Robert I; Sham, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Shakedown analysis may be used to provide a conservative estimate of local rupture and hence cyclic creep damage for use in a creep-fatigue assessment. The shakedown analysis is based on an elastic-perfectly plastic material with a temperature-dependent pseudo yield stress defined to guarantee that a shakedown solution exists which does not exceed rupture stress and temperature for a defined life. The ratio of design life to the estimated maximum cyclic life is the shakedown creep damage. The methodology does not require stress classification and is also applicable to cycles over the full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Full cyclic creep and damage analysis is the alternative when shakedown analysis appears to be excessively conservative.

  5. Cyclic tensile strain upregulates collagen synthesis in isolated tendon fascicles

    SciTech Connect

    Screen, Hazel R.C. . E-mail: H.R.C.Screen@qmul.ac.uk; Shelton, Julia C.; Bader, Dan L.; Lee, David A.

    2005-10-21

    Mechanical stimulation has been implicated as an important regulatory factor in tendon homeostasis. In this study, a custom-designed tensile loading system was used to apply controlled mechanical stimulation to isolated tendon fascicles, in order to examine the effects of 5% cyclic tensile strain at 1 Hz on cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. Sample viability and gross structural composition were maintained over a 24 h loading period. Data demonstrated no statistically significant differences in cell proliferation or glycosaminoglycan production, however, collagen synthesis was upregulated with the application of cyclic tensile strain over the 24 h period. Moreover, a greater proportion of the newly synthesised matrix was retained within the sample after loading. These data provide evidence of altered anabolic activity within tendon in response to mechanical stimuli, and suggest the importance of cyclic tensile loading for the maintenance of the collagen hierarchy within tendon.

  6. On the connection between multigrid and cyclic reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    A technique is shown whereby it is possible to relate a particular multigrid process to cyclic reduction using purely mathematical arguments. This technique suggest methods for solving Poisson's equation in 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensions with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. In one dimension the method is exact and, in fact, reduces to cyclic reduction. This provides a valuable reference point for understanding multigrid techniques. The particular multigrid process analyzed is referred to here as Approximate Cyclic Reduction (ACR) and is one of a class known as Multigrid Reduction methods in the literature. It involves one approximation with a known error term. It is possible to relate the error term in this approximation with certain eigenvector components of the error. These are sharply reduced in amplitude by classical relaxation techniques. The approximation can thus be made a very good one.

  7. Cyclic AMP system in muscle tissue during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antipenko, Y. A.; Bubeyev, Y. A.; Korovkin, B. F.; Mikhaleva, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Components of the cyclic Adenosine-cyclic-35-monophosphate (AMP) system in the muscle tissue of white rats were studied during 70-75 days of hypokinesia, created by placing the animals in small booths which restricted their movements, and during the readaptation period. In the initial period, cyclic AMP levels and the activities of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue were increased. The values for these indices were roughly equal for controls and experimental animals during the adaptation period, but on the 70th day of the experiment cAMP levels dropped, phosphodiesterase activity increased, and the stimulative effect of epinephrine on the activity of adenylate cyclase decreased. The indices under study normalized during the readaptation period.

  8. Development of a viscoelastic continuum damage model for cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. W.

    2008-12-01

    A previously developed spectrum model for linear viscoelastic behavior of solids is used to describe the rate-dependent damage growth of a time dependent material under cyclic loading. Through the use of the iterative solution of a special Volterra integral equation, the cyclic strain history is described. The spectrum-based model is generalized for any strain rate and any uniaxial load history to formulate the damage function. Damage evolution in the body is described through the use of a rate-type evolution law which uses a pseudo strain to express the viscoelastic constitutive equation with damage. The resulting damage function is used to formulate a residual strength model. The methodology presented is demonstrated by comparing the peak values of the computed cyclic strain history as well as the residual strength model predictions to the experimental data of a polymer matrix composite.

  9. Intracellular Production of Cyclic Peptide Libraries with SICLOPPS.

    PubMed

    Osher, Eliot L; Tavassoli, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic peptides are an important class of molecules that are increasingly viewed as an ideal scaffold for inhibition of protein-protein interactions (PPI). Here we detail an approach that enables the intracellular synthesis of cyclic peptide libraries of around 10(8) members. The method utilizes split intein mediated circular ligation of peptides and proteins (SICLOPPS), taking advantage of split intein splicing to cyclize a library of peptide sequences. SICLOPPS allows the ring size, set residues and number of random residues within a library to be predetermined by the user. SICLOPPS libraries have been combined with a variety of cell-based screens to identify cyclic peptide inhibitors of a variety of enzymes and protein-protein interactions.

  10. Low Severity Coal Liquefaction Promoted by Cyclic Olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Christine W. Curtis

    1998-04-09

    The development of the donor solvent technology for coal liquefaction has drawn a good deal of attention over the last three decades. The search for better hydrogen donors led investigators to a class of compounds known as cyclic olefins. Cyclic olefins are analogues of the conventional hydroaromatic donor species but do not contain aromatic rings. The cyclic olefins are highly reactive compounds which readily release their hydrogen at temperatures of 200 C or higher. Considerable effort has been o expended toward understanding the process of hydrogen donation. Most of this work was conducted in bomb reactors, with product analysis being carried out after the reaction was complete. Efforts directed towards fundamental studies of these reactions in situ are rare. The current work employs a high temperature and high pressure infrared cell to monitor in situ the concentrations of reactants and products during hydrogen release from hydrogen donor compounds.

  11. A simple method for Alexa Fluor dye labelling of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Summer Li-Xin; Tan, Hwee-Cheng; Hanson, Brendon J; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2010-08-01

    Dengue virus causes frequent and cyclical epidemics throughout the tropics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality rates. There is neither a specific antiviral treatment nor a vaccine to prevent epidemic transmission. The lack of a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease complicates these efforts. The development of methods to probe the interaction between the virus and host cells would thus be useful. Direct fluorescence labelling of virus would facilitate the visualization of the early events in virus-cell interaction. This report describes a simple method of labelling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in the sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labelling. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labelled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.

  12. Synthesis of ¹⁸F-labelled β-lactams by using the Kinugasa reaction.

    PubMed

    Zlatopolskiy, Boris D; Krapf, Philipp; Richarz, Raphael; Frauendorf, Holm; Mottaghy, Felix M; Neumaier, Bernd

    2014-04-14

    Owing to their broad spectrum of biological activities and low toxicity, β-lactams are attractive lead structures for the design of novel molecular probes. However, the synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET)-isotope-labelled β-lactams has not yet been reported. Herein, we describe the simple preparation of radiofluorinated β-lactams by using the fast Kinugasa reaction between (18)F-labelled nitrone [(18)F]-1 and alkynes of different reactivity. Additionally, (18)F-labelled fused β-lactams were obtained through the reaction of a cyclic nitrone 7 with radiofluorinated alkynes [(18)F]-6 a,b. Radiochemical yields of the Kinugasa reaction products could be significantly increased by the use of different Cu(I) ligands, which additionally allowed a reduction in the amount of precursor and/or reaction time. Model radiofluorinated β-lactam-peptide and protein conjugates ([(18)F]-10 and (18)F-labelled BSA conjugate) were efficiently obtained in high yield under mild conditions (aq. MeCN, ambient temperature) within a short reaction time, demonstrating the suitability of the developed method for radiolabelling of sensitive molecules such as biopolymers.

  13. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FORMAT) ER19JY10.019 PROTOTYPE LABEL 7 LIGHTING FACTS LABEL FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMPS CONTAINING MERCURY... MERCURY ER19JY10.021 SAMPLE LABEL 11 LIGHTING FACTS LABEL FOR GENERAL SERVICE LAMP CONTAINING MERCURY... MERCURY (TALL ORIENTATION) ER19JY10.023 SAMPLE LABEL 13 LIGHTING FACTS LABEL FOR GENERAL SERVICE...

  14. Molecular structure of cyclic deoxydiadenylic acid at atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Frederick, C A; Coll, M; van der Marel, G A; van Boom, J H; Wang, A H

    1988-11-01

    The molecular structure of a small cyclic nucleotide, cyclic deoxydiadenylic acid, has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and refined to an R factor of 7.8% at 1.0-A resolution. The crystals are in the monoclinic space group C2 with unit cell dimensions of a = 24.511 (3) A, b = 24.785 (3) A, c = 13.743 (3) A, and beta = 94.02 (2) degrees. The structure was solved by the direct methods program SHELXS-86. There are 2 independent cyclic d(ApAp) molecules, 2 hydrated magnesium ions, and 26 water molecules in the asymmetric unit of the unit cell. The two cyclic d(ApAp) molecules have similar conformations within their 12-membered sugar-phosphate backbone ring, but they have quite different appearances due to the different glycosyl torsion angles that make one molecule more compact and the other extended and open. Three of the four deoxyribose rings are in the less common C3'-endo conformation. All four phosphate groups have their phosphodiester torsion angles alpha/zeta in the gauche(+)/gauche(+) conformation. One of the cyclic d(ApAp) molecules associates with another symmetry-related molecule to form a self-intercalated dimer that is a stable structure in solution, as observed in NMR studies. Many interesting intermolecular interactions, including base-base stacking, ribose-base stacking, base pairing, base-phosphate hydrogen bonding, and metal ion-phosphate interactions, are found in the crystal lattice. This structure may be relevant for understanding the conformational potentiality of an endogenous biological regulator of cellulose synthesis, cyclic (GpGp).

  15. In vivo quantifying molecular specificity of Cy5.5-labeled cyclic 9-mer peptide probe with dynamic fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yunpeng; Yin, Jipeng; Huang, Yu; Chen, Xueli; Wang, Guodong; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Xianghan; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Liang, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    We quantified molecular specificity of Cy5.5-GX1 in vivo with dynamic fluorescence imaging to better understand its kinetic properties. According to whether or not free GX1 was injected and when it was injected, twelve of BGC-823 xenografted mice were randomly divided into three groups and underwent a 60 minute dynamic fluorescence scanning. Combined with a principal-component analysis, the binding potential (Bp) of the probe was determined by both Logan graphical analysis with reference tissue model (GARTM) and Lammertsma simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). The sum of the pharmacokinetic rate constants (SKRC) was quantified by the Gurfinkel exponential model (GEXPM). Cy5.5-GX1 specifically targeted tumor both in vitro and in vivo. We obtained similar quantification results of Bp (GARTM Bp = 0.582 ± 0.2655, SRTM Bp = 0.618 ± 0.2923), and obtained a good linear relation between the Bp value and the SKRC value. Our results indicate that the SKRC value is more suitable for an early-stage kinetic data analysis, and the Bp value depicts kinetic characteristics under the equilibrium state. Dynamic fluorescence imaging in conjunction with various kinetic models are optimal tools to quantify molecular specificity of the Cy5.5-GX1 probe in vivo. PMID:27446643

  16. Social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Susan; Armstrong, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of diagnostic labels in medicine is usually that of labelling an illness as a means of communication. Control over labelling processes in medicine is ordinarily imposed via medical schools, textbooks, education or by diagnostic manuals. Diagnostic labels often change following new discoveries in underlying pathology such as 'consumption' being relabelled as 'TB' or 'cancer'. Sub-types of broad diagnostic labels also often emerge from such discoveries e.g. 'lung cancer' or 'throat cancer'. In mental health, underlying pathology is the subject of ongoing debate spanning ideas including the brain as a faulty organ, faulty genetics and environmental problems. With controversy over pathology comes controversy over labels and the idea that labels may be used not just for communication, but as devices of social and professional control, arising out of a social process. This study explores the codification of the diagnostic label 'depression' which emerged in the twentieth-century and has proliferated with numerous sub-types over the last 40 years. The aim is to examine its social determinants and context. Medline is used as a data source for professional label usage. A range of depression sub-type labels in professional use was identified. This exercise revealed many official and 'unofficial' terms in professional use. Citation rate plots by year were then generated for these depression sub-type labels. The rise and fall of different labels are examined in relation to social determinants and context, including publication of diagnostic manuals DSM and ICD, power shifts in psychiatry, the discovery of psychiatric drugs and the shift from inpatient to community care. Exploring the changing use of official and unofficial labels over time in this way provides a novel historical perspective on the concept of depression in the late twentieth-century.

  17. Irreversibility transition of colloidal polycrystals under cyclic deformation

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Pritam Kumar; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Cyclically loaded disordered particle systems, such as granular packings and amorphous media, display a non-equilibrium phase transition towards irreversibility. Here, we investigate numerically the cyclic deformation of a colloidal polycrystal with impurities and reveal a transition to irreversible behavior driven by the displacement of dislocations. At the phase transition we observe enhanced particle diffusion, system size effects and broadly distributed strain bursts. In addition to provide an analogy between the deformation of amorphous and polycrystalline materials, our results allow to reinterpret Zener pinning of grain boundaries as a way to prevent the onset of irreversible crystal ordering. PMID:28358018

  18. Controls on Precambrian sea level change and sedimentary cyclicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Catuneanu, O.; Nelson, D. R.; Popa, M.

    2005-04-01

    Although uniformitarianism applies in a general sense to the controls on relative and global sea level change, some influences thereon were more prominent in the Precambrian. Short-term base level change due to waves and tides may have been enhanced due to possibly more uniform circulation systems on wide, low gradient Precambrian shelves. The lack of evidence for global glacial events in the Precambrian record implies that intraplate stresses and cyclic changes to Earth's geoid were more likely explanations for third-order sea level change than glacio-eustasy. Higher heat flow in the earlier Precambrian may have led to more rapid tectonic plate formation, transport and destruction, along with an increased role for hot spots, aseismic ridges and mantle plumes (superplumes), all of which may have influenced cyclic sedimentation within the ocean basins. A weak cyclicity in the occurrence of plume events has an approximate duration comparable to that of first-order (supercontinental cycle) sea level change. Second-order cyclicity in the Precambrian largely reflects the influences of thermal epeirogeny, changes to mid-ocean ridge volume as well as to ridge growth and decay rates, and cratonic marginal downwarping concomitant with either sediment loading or extensional tectonism. Third-order cycles of sea level change in the Precambrian also reflected cyclic loading/unloading within flexural foreland basin settings, and filling/deflation of magma chambers associated with island arc evolution. The relatively limited number of studies of Precambrian sequence stratigraphy allows some preliminary conclusions to be drawn on duration of the first three orders of cyclicity. Archaean greenstone basins appear to have had first- and second-order cycle durations analogous to Phanerozoic equivalents, supporting steady state tectonics throughout Earth history. In direct contrast, however, preserved basin-fills from Neoarchaean-Palaeoproterozoic cratonic terranes have first- and

  19. Design of an etch-resistant cyclic olefin photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Robert D.; Opitz, Juliann; Wallow, Thomas I.; Di Pietro, Richard A.; Hofer, Donald C.; Jayaraman, Saikumar; Hullihan, Karen A.; Rhodes, Larry F.; Goodall, Brian L.; Shick, Robert A.

    1998-06-01

    In the quest for a high performance 193 nm photoresist with robust plasma etching resistance equivalent to or better than the DUV resists of today, we have focused on the use of cyclic olefin polymers. In this paper, we will discuss monomer synthesis, polymerization approaches, polymer properties and early lithographic results of 193 nm photoresists formulated from cyclic olefin polymeric materials made from a metal-catalyzed addition polymerization process. The goal of this work is to produce a 193 nm photoresist with excellent imaging performance and etch resistance exceeding DUV resists, and in fact approaching novolak-based photoresists.

  20. Polymerization of the cyclic pyrophosphates of nucleosides and their analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tohidi, Mahrokh; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    When 2-prime-deoxythymidine 3-prime, 5-prime-cyclic diphosphate, or the cyclic pyrophosphates of the acyclic nucleoside analogs II and IV are heated to 65-85 C in the presence of imidazole, oligomers with lengths up to 20-30 are formed in excellent yield. This reaction provides a useful source of oligomers for use as templates in aqueous condensation reactions. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the oligomers are atactic. The potential significance of this reaction in prebiotic chemistry is discussed.

  1. Mesoscale modeling of molecular machines: cyclic dynamics and hydrodynamical fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Andrew; Togashi, Yuichi; Mikhailov, Alexander S; Kapral, Raymond

    2008-05-01

    Proteins acting as molecular machines can undergo cyclic internal conformational motions that are coupled to ligand binding and dissociation events. In contrast to their macroscopic counterparts, nanomachines operate in a highly fluctuating environment, which influences their operation. To bridge the gap between detailed microscopic and simple phenomenological descriptions, a mesoscale approach, which combines an elastic network model of a machine with a particle-based mesoscale description of the solvent, is employed. The time scale of the cyclic hinge motions of the machine prototype is strongly affected by hydrodynamical coupling to the solvent.

  2. Thermal cyclic durability testing of ceramic materials for turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    The thermal cyclic durability of commercial ceramic materials for turbine engines was under evaluation since 1978. Ceramic materials are exposed to cyclic diesel-fired burner exhaust at either 1204 or 1371 C (2200 or 2500 F) for up to 3500 hours. The test conditions are selected to simulate the environment experienced by the hot flow path components in an automotive gas turbine engine. The silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials tested are the same ceramic materials currently used on the AGT100 and AGT101 ceramic turbine engine program.

  3. Botulinum toxin: a novel treatment for pediatric cyclic esotropia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alistair; Jain, Saurabh

    2014-12-01

    Cyclic esotropia is a rare entity in which an esotropia presents in a regular 48-96 hour cycle, typically described as a 24-hour period of orthotropia followed by a 24-hour period of esotropia. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown. Treatment usually involves surgical correction of the manifest strabismus. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl whose cyclic esotropia was broken following injection of botulinum toxin to both medial rectus muscles. She has remained constantly esophoric for 1 year.

  4. How many molecules are required to measure a cyclic voltammogram?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutress, Ian J.; Compton, Richard G.

    2011-05-01

    The stochastic limit at which fully-reversible cyclic voltammetry can accurately be measured is investigated. Specifically, Monte Carlo GPU simulation is used to study low concentration cyclic voltammetry at a microdisk electrode over a range of scan rates and concentrations, and the results compared to the statistical limit as predicted by finite difference simulation based on Fick's Laws of Diffusion. Both Butler-Volmer and Marcus-Hush electrode kinetics are considered, simulated via random-walk methods, and shown to give identical results in the fast kinetic limit.

  5. Peptide to Peptoid Substitutions Increase Cell Permeability in Cyclic Hexapeptides.

    PubMed

    Schwochert, Joshua; Turner, Rushia; Thang, Melissa; Berkeley, Ray F; Ponkey, Alexandra R; Rodriguez, Kelsie M; Leung, Siegfried S F; Khunte, Bhagyashree; Goetz, Gilles; Limberakis, Chris; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Eng, Heather; Shapiro, Michael J; Mathiowetz, Alan M; Price, David A; Liras, Spiros; Jacobson, Matthew P; Lokey, R Scott

    2015-06-19

    The effect of peptide-to-peptoid substitutions on the passive membrane permeability of an N-methylated cyclic hexapeptide is examined. In general, substitutions maintained permeability but increased conformational heterogeneity. Diversification with nonproteinogenic side chains increased permeability up to 3-fold. Additionally, the conformational impact of peptoid substitutions within a β-turn are explored. Based on these results, the strategic incorporation of peptoid residues into cyclic peptides can maintain or improve cell permeability, while increasing access to diverse side-chain functionality.

  6. New cyclic peptides with osteoblastic proliferative activity from Dianthus superbus.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yun; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Rui; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2012-03-01

    Two new cyclic peptides, dianthins G-H (1 and 2), together with the known dianthin E (3), were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Dianthus superbus. The sequences of cyclic peptides 1 and 2 were elucidated as cyclo (-Gly(1)-Pro(2)-Leu(3)-Thr(4)-Leu(5)-Phe(6)-) and cyclo (-Gly(1)-Pro(2)-Val(3)-Thr(4)-Ile(5)-Phe(6)-), on the basis of ESI tandem mass fragmentation analysis, extensive 2D NMR methods and X-ray diffraction. The isolated three compounds all increase proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro using MTT method.

  7. Cyclical acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Akçay, A; Altun, B; Usalan, C; Ulusoy, S; Erdem, Y; Yasavul, U; Turgan, C; Caglar, S

    1999-09-01

    Endometriosis is a common disease but ureteral involvement is relatively rare. Ureteric endometriosis is mostly unilateral. Endometriotic ureteral obstruction is a serious event commonly diagnosed late and therefore associated with a major risk of hydronephrotic renal atrophy. We present the cyclical acute renal failure associated with menstruation in a patient who developed severe bilateral ureteral obstruction due to endometriosis. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but serious manifestation of endometriosis, especially if the clinical presentation is cyclical acute renal dysfunction in a premenopausal woman.

  8. Effect of interferon on concentrations of cyclic nucleotides in cultured cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, M G; Rochette-Egly, C; Castagna, M

    1979-01-01

    Constant intracellular concentrations of both adenosine 3',5'-cyclic-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) were obtained when leukemia L1210 cells were cultivated under steady-state conditions in the chemostat. In this sensitive and controlled system addition of mouse interferon resulted in a rapid (5-10 min) increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic GMP, which preceded by several hours an increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP. In contrast to the effect of interferon, addition of prostaglandin E1 induced a rapid increase in the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP without markedly affecting the intracellular concentration of cyclic GMP. It is suggested that the rapid effect of interferon on cyclic GMP plays a role in mediating some of the effects of interferon on cells. PMID:226987

  9. RNA-based fluorescent biosensors for live cell imaging of second messengers cyclic di-GMP and cyclic AMP-GMP.

    PubMed

    Kellenberger, Colleen A; Wilson, Stephen C; Sales-Lee, Jade; Hammond, Ming C

    2013-04-03

    Cyclic dinucleotides are an important class of signaling molecules that regulate a wide variety of pathogenic responses in bacteria, but tools for monitoring their regulation in vivo are lacking. We have designed RNA-based fluorescent biosensors for cyclic di-GMP and cyclic AMP-GMP by fusing the Spinach aptamer to variants of a natural GEMM-I riboswitch. In live cell imaging experiments, these biosensors demonstrate fluorescence turn-on in response to cyclic dinucleotides, and they were used to confirm in vivo production of cyclic AMP-GMP by the enzyme DncV.

  10. Chemical kin label in seabirds

    PubMed Central

    Célérier, Aurélie; Bon, Cécile; Malapert, Aurore; Palmas, Pauline; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Chemical signals yield critical socio-ecological information in many animals, such as species, identity, social status or sex, but have been poorly investigated in birds. Recent results showed that chemical signals are used to recognize their nest and partner by some petrel seabirds whose olfactory anatomy is well developed and which possess a life-history propitious to olfactory-mediated behaviours. Here, we investigate whether blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) produce some chemical labels potentially involved in kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance. To overcome methodological constraints of chemical analysis and field behavioural experiments, we used an indirect behavioural approach, based on mice olfactory abilities in discriminating odours. We showed that mice (i) can detect odour differences between individual petrels, (ii) perceive a high odour similarity between a chick and its parents, and (iii) perceive this similarity only before fledging but not during the nestling developmental stage. Our results confirm the existence of an individual olfactory signature in blue petrels and show for the first time, to our knowledge, that birds may exhibit an olfactory kin label, which may have strong implications for inbreeding avoidance. PMID:21525047

  11. Label-free molecular imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junqi; Li, Qi; Fu, Rongxin; Wang, Tongzhou; Wang, Ruliang; Huang, Guoliang

    2014-03-01

    Optical microscopy technology has achieved great improvements in the 20th century. The detection limit has reached about twenty nanometers (with near-field optics, STED, PALM and STORM). But in the application areas such as life science, medical science, clinical treatment and especially in vivo dynamic measurement, mutual restrictions still exist between numeric aperture/magnification and working distance, fluorescent dependent, and between resolution and frame rate/field size, etc. This paper explores a hyperspectral scanning super-resolution label free molecules imaging method based on the white light interferometry. The vertical detection resolution was approximate to 1 nm which is the thickness of a single molecular layer and dynamic measuring range of thickness reaches to 10 μm. The spectrum-shifting algorithm is developed for robust restructure of images when the pixels are overlapped. Micro-biochip with protein binding and DNA amplification could be detected by using this spectral scanning super-resolution molecules imaging in label free. This method has several advantages as following: Firstly, the decoding and detecting steps are combined into one step. It makes tests faster and easier. Secondly, we used thickness-coded, minimized chips instead of a large microarray chip to carry the probes. This accelerates the interaction of the biomolecules. Thirdly, since only one kind of probes are attached to our thickness-coded, minimized chip, users can only pick out the probes they are interested in for a test without wasting unnecessary probes and chips.

  12. Selective hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols to cyclic alcohols over tungsten oxide-palladium catalysts.

    PubMed

    Amada, Yasushi; Ota, Nobuhiko; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of cyclic vicinal diols such as 1,4-anhydroerythritol was conducted over catalysts containing both a noble metal and a group 5-7 transition-metal oxide. The combination of Pd and WOx allowed the removal of one of the two OH groups selectively. 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran was obtained from 1,4-anhydroerythritol in 72 and 74% yield over WOx -Pd/C and WOx -Pd/ZrO2 , respectively. The WOx -Pd/ZrO2 catalyst was reusable without significant loss of activity if the catalyst was calcined as a method of regeneration. Characterization of WOx -Pd/C with temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that Pd metal particles approximately 9 nm in size were formed on amorphous tungsten oxide particles. A reaction mechanism was proposed on the basis of kinetics, reaction results with tungsten oxides under an atmosphere of Ar, and density functional theory calculations. A tetravalent tungsten center (W(IV) ) was formed by reduction of WO3 with the Pd catalyst and H2 , and this center served as the reductant for partial hydrodeoxygenation.

  13. Label-free detection of immune complexes with myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Szittner, Z; Bentlage, A E H; Rovero, P; Migliorini, P; Lóránd, V; Prechl, J; Vidarsson, G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide proof-of-concept for quantitative and qualitative label-free detection of immune complexes through myeloid cells with imaging surface plasmon resonance. Surface plasmon resonance imaging was first applied to monitor the binding of human sera from healthy and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to immobilized citrullinated RA-specific peptide antigens, histone citrullinated peptide 2 (HCP2) and viral citrullinated peptide 2 (VCP2). Next, the binding of monocytoid cell line U937 to the resulting immune complexes on the sensor surface was monitored. As control, binding of U937 was monitored to immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses simultaneously. Cell response results were compared to results of cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (CCP2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), clinical RA diagnosis and antigen-specific antibody distribution of the samples. Human IgG3 triggered the most pronounced response, followed by IgG1 and IgG4, while IgG2 did not result in U937 cell binding. Serum samples obtained from RA patients resulted in a significantly increased cell response to VCP2 compared to healthy controls. The strength of cell response towards VCP2 immune complexes showed significant correlation with levels of antigen-specific IgA, IgG and IgG3. Cellular responses on VCP2 immune complexes showed significant association with both CCP2-based serological positivity and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria-based clinical RA diagnosis. Immunoglobulin-triggered binding of monocytoid cells can be monitored using a label-free multiplex technology. Because these binding events are presumably initiated by Fc receptors, the system provides a tool for biological detection of autoantibodies with diagnostic value, here exemplified by anti-citrullinated antibodies. This provides added information to antibody levels, as interaction with Fc-receptor-expressing cells is also affected by post-translational modification of the immunoglobulins.

  14. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes: semi-cyclic flows - addendum and corrigendum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    We present new accretion solutions of a polytropic perfect fluid onto an f(R)-gravity de Sitter-like black hole. We consider two f(R)-gravity models and obtain finite-period cyclic flows oscillating between the event and cosmological horizons as well as semi-cyclic critical flows executing a two-way motion from and back to the same horizon. Besides the generalizations and new solutions presented in this work, a corrigendum to Eur. Phys. J. C (2016) 76:280 is provided.

  15. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is centered. The band at the top of the label contains the name of the fuel. This band should measure 1″ (2.54 cm) deep. Spacing of the fuel name is 1/4″ (.64 cm) from the top of the label and 3/16.... “Helvetica black” type is used throughout. All type is centered. The band at the top of the label...

  16. Regulation of osteosarcoma EGF receptor affinity by phorbol ester and cyclic AMP

    SciTech Connect

    Borst, S.E.; Catherwood, B.D. )

    1989-04-01

    We studied the binding and degradation of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) by UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells and the regulation of EGF receptor affinity for EGF by the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and by treatments that raise intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Cell surface binding of (125I)EGF to A431 cells reached a plateau after a 30 minute incubation at 37 degrees C but was undetectable in UMR-106 cells. Degradation of (125I)EGF proceeded at a 50-fold higher rate in A431 cells on a per cell basis, but receptor-bound (125I)EGF was internalized and degraded at a 3.5-fold higher rate by UMR-106 cells on a per receptor basis. At 4 degrees C, (125I)EGF labeled a single class of surface binding sites in the UMR-106 cell. Treatment with TPA at 37 degrees C reduced subsequent cell surface binding of (125I)EGF at 4 degrees C a maximum of 80% with an IC50 of 1.25 ng/ml. Maximal TPA reduction of (125I)EGF binding was observed within 5-15 minutes and was due to a reduction in the affinity of cell surface receptors of (125I)EGF without a change in receptor density. Pretreatment of the cells for 4 h with 30 microM forskolin, 1 mM isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) plus 30 microM forskolin, or 1 mM IBMX plus 100 ng/ml parathyroid hormone (PTH) attenuated the loss in (125I)EGF binding caused by a subsequent dose of 10 ng/ml of TPA by 17% (p less than 0.0005), 39% (p less than 0.0002), and 35% (p less than 0.002), respectively.

  17. Fluorescent labeling and tracking of nanoclay.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Carlos A; Xia, Yining; Rubino, Maria; Auras, Rafael; Jayaraman, Krishnamurthy; Hotchkiss, Joseph

    2013-01-07

    We report a methodology developed to detect and track stable fluorescent-labeled nanoclay, in polymer-clay nanocomposite films, and in a contact solvent after migration testing. Fluorescein-5-maleimide (fluorescein) or tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (rhodamine) was covalently bonded to organically modified montmorillonite (o-MMT). Fluorescein- and rhodamine-labeled nanoclay showed good thermal stability up to 220 °C and the rhodamine-labeled nanoclay remained stable at 250 °C. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to confirm the tagging and to detect the fluorescent-labeled nanoclays in various systems.

  18. Component Labeling Algorithm For Video Rate Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Masumi; Shirai, Yoshio

    1987-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a raster scanning algorithm for component labeling, which enables processing under pipeline architecture. In the raster scanning algorithm, labels are provisionally assigned to each pixel of components and, at the same time, the connectivities of labels are detected at first scan. Those labels are classified into groups based on the connectivities. Finally provisional labels are updated using the result of classification and a unique label is assigned to each pixel of components. However, in the conventional algorithm, the classification process needs a vast number of operations. This prevents realizing pipeline processing. We have developed a method of preprocessing to reduce the number of provisional labels, which limits the number of label connectivities. We have also developed a new classification method whose operation is proportionate to only the number of label connectivities itself. We have made experiments with computer simulation to verify this algorithm. The experimental results show that we can process 512 x 512 x 8 bit images at video rate(1/30 sec. per 1 image) when this algorithm is implemented on hardware.

  19. Optimal design of isotope labeling experiments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Mandy, Dominic E; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling experiments (ILE) constitute a powerful methodology for estimating metabolic fluxes. An optimal label design for such an experiment is necessary to maximize the precision with which fluxes can be determined. But often, precision gained in the determination of one flux comes at the expense of the precision of other fluxes, and an appropriate label design therefore foremost depends on the question the investigator wants to address. One could liken ILE to shadows that metabolism casts on products. Optimal label design is the placement of the lamp; creating clear shadows for some parts of metabolism and obscuring others.An optimal isotope label design is influenced by: (1) the network structure; (2) the true flux values; (3) the available label measurements; and, (4) commercially available substrates. The first two aspects are dictated by nature and constrain any optimal design. The second two aspects are suitable design parameters. To create an optimal label design, an explicit optimization criterion needs to be formulated. This usually is a property of the flux covariance matrix, which can be augmented by weighting label substrate cost. An optimal design is found by using such a criterion as an objective function for an optimizer. This chapter uses a simple elementary metabolite units (EMU) representation of the TCA cycle to illustrate the process of experimental design of isotope labeled substrates.

  20. Organic labeling influences food valuation and choice.

    PubMed

    Linder, N S; Uhl, G; Fliessbach, K; Trautner, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B

    2010-10-15

    Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled "organic" in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food.

  1. Simultaneous Segmentation and Statistical Label Fusion.

    PubMed

    Asman, Andrew J; Landmana, Bennett A

    2012-02-23

    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi- atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.

  2. Interaction of Cyclic Peptides and Depsipeptides with Calmodulin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-10

    by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP cairodulin, cyclosporin A, gramicidin S, valinomycin, enniatin-B, microcystin -LR, phosphodiesterase 19...investigated the ability of other cyclic peptides: microcystin -LR (MLR) and depsipeptides, valinomycin (VLM) and enniatin-B (ENB), to bind dansylated CaM

  3. Cyclic Oxidation Testing and Modelling: A NASA Lewis Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Barrett, C. A.; Lowell, C. E.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center has been heavily involved in the cyclic oxidation of high temperature materials for 30 years. Cyclic furnace and burner rig apparati have been developed, refined, and replicated to provide a large scale facility capable of evaluating many materials by a standard technique. Material behavior is characterized by weight change data obtained throughout the test, which has been modelled in a step-wise process of scale growth and spallation. This model and a coupled diffusion model have successfully described cyclic behavior for a number of systems and have provided insights regarding life prediction and variations in the spalling process. Performance ranking and mechanistic studies are discussed primarily for superalloys and coating alloys. Similar cyclic oxidation studies have been performed on steels, intermetallic compounds, thermal barrier coatings, ceramics, and ceramic composites. The most common oxidation test was performed in air at temperatures ranging from 800 deg. to 1600 C, for times up to 10000 h, and for cycle durations of 0.1 to 1000 h. Less controlled, but important, test parameters are the cooling temperature and humidity level. Heating and cooling rates are not likely to affect scale spallation. Broad experience has usually allowed for considerable focus and simplification of these test parameters, while still revealing the principal aspects of material behavior and performance. Extensive testing has been performed to statistically model the compositional effects of experimental alloys and to construct a comprehensive database of complex commercial alloys.

  4. Error estimates of numerical solutions for a cyclic plasticity problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, W.

    A cyclic plasticity problem is numerically analyzed in [13], where a sub-optimal order error estimate is shown for a spatially discrete scheme. In this note, we prove an optimal order error estimate for the spatially discrete scheme under the same solution regularity condition. We also derive an error estimate for a fully discrete scheme for solving the plasticity problem.

  5. A Simulation of Counter-Cyclical Intervention: Some Practical Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grawe, Nathan D.; Watts, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The author introduces a simulation of counter-cyclical interventions that highlights important issues surrounding the practice of government intervention. The simulation provides experiential insight as to why economists have long debated the degree of persistence exhibited by disequilibrating shocks and connects this debate to discussions about…

  6. TANGO-Inspired Design of Anti-Amyloid Cyclic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaomeng; Brickson, Claire R; Murphy, Regina M

    2016-09-21

    β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) self-associates into oligomers and fibrils, in a process that is believed to directly lead to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. Compounds that bind to Aβ, and inhibit fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity, are of interest as an anti-Alzheimer therapeutic strategy. Peptides are particularly attractive for this purpose, because they have advantages over small molecules in their ability to disrupt protein-protein interactions, yet they are amenable to tuning of their properties through chemical means, unlike antibodies. Self-complementation and peptide library screening are two strategies that have been employed in the search for peptides that bind to Aβ. We have taken a different approach, by designing Aβ-binding peptides using transthyretin (TTR) as a template. Previously, we demonstrated that a cyclic peptide, with sequence derived from the known Aβ-binding site on TTR, suppressed Aβ aggregation into fibrils and protected neurons against Aβ toxicity. Here, we searched for cyclic peptides with improved efficacy, by employing the algorithm TANGO, designed originally to identify amyloidogenic sequences in proteins. By using TANGO as a guide to predict the effect of sequence modifications on conformation and aggregation, we synthesized a significantly improved cyclic peptide. We demonstrate that the peptide, in binding to Aβ, redirects Aβ toward protease-sensitive, nonfibrillar aggregates. Cyclic peptides designed using this strategy have attractive solubility, specificity, and stability characteristics.

  7. Multigrid and cyclic reduction applied to the Helmholtz equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brackenridge, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    We consider the Helmholtz equation with a discontinuous complex parameter and inhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions in a rectangular domain. A variant of the direct method of cyclic reduction (CR) is employed to facilitate the design of improved multigrid (MG) components, resulting in the method of CR-MG. We demonstrate the improved convergence properties of this method.

  8. Cyclical modulation of human ventricular repolarization by respiration

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ben; Gill, Jaswinder; Western, David; Gilbey, Michael P.; Bostock, Julian; Boyett, Mark R.; Zhang, Henggui; Coronel, Ruben; Taggart, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Respiratory modulation of autonomic input to the sinus node results in cyclical modulation of heart rate, known as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). We hypothesized that the respiratory cycle may also exert cyclical modulation on ventricular repolarization, which may be separately measurable using local endocardial recordings. Methods and Results: The study included 16 subjects with normal ventricles undergoing routine clinical electrophysiological procedures for supraventricular arrhythmias. Unipolar electrograms were recorded from 10 right and 10 left ventricular endocardial sites. Breathing was voluntarily regulated at 5 fixed frequencies (6, 9, 12, 15, and 30 breaths per min) and heart rate was clamped by RV pacing. Activation-recovery intervals (ARI: a surrogate for APD) exhibited significant (p < 0.025) cyclical variation at the respiratory frequency in all subjects; ARI shortened with inspiration and lengthened with expiration. Peak-to-peak ARI variation ranged from 0–26 ms; the spatial pattern varied with subject. Arterial blood pressure also oscillated at the respiratory frequency (p < 0.025) and lagged behind respiration by between 1.5 s and 0.65 s from slowest to fastest breathing rates respectively. Systolic oscillation amplitude was significantly greater than diastolic (14 ± 5 vs. 8 ± 4 mm Hg ± SD, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Observations in humans with healthy ventricles using multiple left and right ventricular endocardial recordings showed that ARI action potential duration (APD) varied cyclically with respiration. PMID:23055983

  9. A Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Richard P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for experiments that illustrate the nature of cyclic voltammetry and its application in the characterization of organic electrode processes. The experiments also demonstrate the concepts of electrochemical reversibility and diffusion-controlled mass transfer. (JN)

  10. Syntheses of Cyclic Guanidine-Containing Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuyong; De, Saptarshi; Chen, Chuo

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring guanidine derivatives frequently display medicinally useful properties. Among them, the higher order pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, the dragmacidins, the crambescidins/batzelladines, and the saxitoxins/tetradotoxins have stimulated the development of many new synthetic methods over the past decades. We provide here an overview of the syntheses of these cyclic guanidine-containing natural products. PMID:25684829

  11. Revisiting the formation of cyclic clusters in liquid ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanay, Mannix P.; Kim, Dong Hee; Fan, Haiyan

    2016-04-01

    The liquid phase of ethanol in pure and in non-polar solvents was studied at room temperature using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies together with theoretical approach. The FT-IR spectra for pure ethanol and solution in cyclohexane at different dilution stages are consistent with 1H NMR results. The results from both methods were best explained by the results of the density functional theory based on a multimeric model. It is suggested that cyclic trimers and tetramers are dominated in the solution of cyclohexane/hexane with the concentration greater than 0.5M at room temperature. In liquid ethanol, while the primary components at room temperature are cyclic trimers and tetramers, there is a certain amount (˜14%) of open hydroxide group representing the existence of chain like structures in the equilibria. The cyclic cluster model in the liquid and concentrated solution phase (>0.5M) can be used to explain the anomalously lower freezing point of ethanol (159 K) than that of water (273 K) at ambient conditions. In addition, 1H NMR at various dilution stages reveals the dynamics for the formation of cyclic clusters.

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigations into the stability of cyclic aminals

    PubMed Central

    Sawatzky, Edgar; Drakopoulos, Antonios; Rölz, Martin; Sotriffer, Christoph; Engels, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cyclic aminals are core features of natural products, drug molecules and important synthetic intermediates. Despite their relevance, systematic investigations into their stability towards hydrolysis depending on the pH value are lacking. Results: A set of cyclic aminals was synthesized and their stability quantified by kinetic measurements. Steric and electronic effects were investigated by choosing appropriate groups. Both molecular mechanics (MM) and density functional theory (DFT) based studies were applied to support and explain the results obtained. Rapid decomposition is observed in acidic aqueous media for all cyclic aminals which occurs as a reversible reaction. Electronic effects do not seem relevant with regard to stability, but the magnitude of the conformational energy of the ring system and pK a values of the N-3 nitrogen atom. Conclusion: Cyclic aminals are stable compounds when not exposed to acidic media and their stability is mainly dependent on the conformational energy of the ring system. Therefore, for the preparation and work-up of these valuable synthetic intermediates and natural products, appropriate conditions have to be chosen and for application as drug molecules their sensitivity towards hydrolysis has to be taken into account. PMID:28144295

  13. SYNERGISTIC DEGRADATION OF DENTIN BY CYCLIC STRESS AND BUFFER AGITATION

    PubMed Central

    Orrego, Santiago; Romberg, Elaine; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Secondary caries and non-carious lesions develop in regions of stress concentrations and oral fluid movement. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cyclic stress and fluid movement on material loss and subsurface degradation of dentin within an acidic environment. Rectangular specimens of radicular dentin were prepared from caries-free unrestored 3rd molars. Two groups were subjected to cyclic cantilever loading within a lactic acid solution (pH=5) to achieve compressive stresses on the inner (pulpal) or outer sides of the specimens. Two additional groups were evaluated in the same solution, one subjected to movement only (no stress) and the second held stagnant (control: no stress or movement). Exterior material loss profiles and subsurface degradation were quantified on the two sides of the specimens. Results showed that under cyclic stress material loss was significantly greater (p≤0.0005) on the pulpal side than on the outer side and significantly greater (p≤0.05) under compression than tension. However, movement only caused significantly greater material loss (p≤0.0005) than cyclic stress. Subsurface degradation was greatest at the location of highest stress, but was not influenced by stress state or movement. PMID:25637823

  14. Behavior of nonplastic silty soils under cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Ural, Nazile; Gunduz, Zeki

    2014-01-01

    The engineering behavior of nonplastic silts is more difficult to characterize than is the behavior of clay or sand. Especially, behavior of silty soils is important in view of the seismicity of several regions of alluvial deposits in the world, such as the United States, China, and Turkey. In several hazards substantial ground deformation, reduced bearing capacity, and liquefaction of silty soils have been attributed to excess pore pressure generation during dynamic loading. In this paper, an experimental study of the pore water pressure generation of silty soils was conducted by cyclic triaxial tests on samples of reconstituted soils by the slurry deposition method. In all tests silty samples which have different clay percentages were studied under different cyclic stress ratios. The results have showed that in soils having clay content equal to and less than 10%, the excess pore pressure ratio buildup was quicker with an increase in different cyclic stress ratios. When fine and clay content increases, excess pore water pressure decreases constant cyclic stress ratio in nonplastic silty soils. In addition, the applicability of the used criteria for the assessment of liquefaction susceptibility of fine grained soils is examined using laboratory test results.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1230 - Cyclic AMP test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cyclic AMP test system. 862.1230 Section 862.1230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. High-temperature cyclic oxidation data. Part 2: Turbine alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles A.; Garlick, Ralph G.

    1989-01-01

    Specific-weight-change-versus-time data and x ray diffraction results are presented derived from high temperature cyclic tests on high temperature, high strength nickel-base gamma/gamma prime and cobalt-base turbine alloys. Each page of data summarizes a complete test on a given alloy sample.