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Sample records for 9c borehole seismic

  1. Borehole seismic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seavey, R. W.

    1982-05-01

    Fracture orientation can be measured by using a triaxial geophone package located at the fracture interval within the wellbore. Seismic signals produced by the fracture can be recorded and measured to determine the direction of the fracture. A description of a borehole seismic unit and procedures to accomplish this task are reported.

  2. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  3. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Striker, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  4. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  5. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  6. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  7. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2002-05-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2002-09-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This proposal takes direct aim at this shortcoming. P/GSI is developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This array will remove the acquisition barrier to record the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore facilitate 9C reservoir imaging. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the fluid types. The data quality and the data volumes from a 400 level 3C array will allow us to develop the data processing technology necessary for high resolution reservoir imaging.

  10. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  11. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    SciTech Connect

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  12. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  13. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  14. Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive

  15. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  16. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2005-08-21

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  17. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2006-05-05

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  18. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2005-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-12-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2005-03-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently hampered by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-06-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2002-12-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-05-31

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-09-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS.

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-01-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver arrays will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2003-12-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P Paulsson

    2003-07-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A 400 LEVEL 3C CLAMPED DOWNHOLE SEISMIC RECEIVER ARRAY FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC IMAGING OF GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N.P. Paulsson

    2004-05-01

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to economically do high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology is currently frustrated by the lack of the acquisition technology necessary to record the large volumes of the high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data needed to do 3D imaging. This project takes direct aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array will remove the technical acquisition barrier for recording the necessary volumes of data to do high resolution 3D VSP or 3D cross well seismic imaging. 3D VSP and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that will allow the Gas industry to take the next step in their quest for higher resolution images of the gas reservoirs for the purpose of improving the recovery of the natural gas resources. Today only a fraction of the original Oil or Gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of the detailed compartmentalization of the oil and gas reservoirs. The 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array will allow for the economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring by allowing the economic recording of the required large data volumes that have a sufficiently dense spatial sampling. By using 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources the 400 level receiver array will furthermore allow 3D reservoir imaging using 9C data. The 9C borehole seismic data will provide P, SH and SV information for imaging of the complex deep gas reservoirs and allow quantitative prediction of the rock and the

  10. Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

  11. Evaluation of borehole electromagnetic and seismic detection of fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Suhler, S.A.; Owen, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of downhole high-frequency techniques for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. The first method used an electromagnetic wave at 30 to 300 MHz, vhf frequencies. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole vhf radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole. Similar experiments were also conducted using seismic waves at 4.5 to 6 KHz. The transmitter and the receiver in this case were located in separate boreholes. During this experiment, reflections from the slot were obtained only with the transducers oriented for shear wave illumination and detection. These results suggest that a high-frequency shear wave can also be used to detect fractures away from a borehole.

  12. Optical instruments for a combined seismic and geodetic borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark; Agnew, Duncan; Berger, Jonathan; Hatfield, William; Wyatt, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry offers displacement sensing with the unusual combination of high sensitivity, linearity, and wide dynamic range, and it can be adapted to high temperature environments. We have applied interferometric technology to inertial seismic instruments and to optical fibers for strain measurements. When combining these methods into a single borehole package the result is a system that provides three components of observatory quality seismic recordings, two components of tilt, gravity, and vertical strain. The borehole package is entirely passive with the need for only optical fibers to connect the sensor sonde with surface electronics. One of the sensors in the system is an optical fiber strainmeter, which consists of an optical fiber cable elastically stretched between two borehole anchor points separated by 100 m or more. The fiber's length is recorded optically, enabling sub-nanostrain detection of crustal deformations. A second sensor system uses laser interferometry to record the displacements of inertial mechanical suspensions - spring-mass for the vertical component and pendulums for the horizontal components - housed in a borehole sonde. The combined system is able to measure vertical and horizontal ground velocities, gravity, and tilt with sensitivities that compare favorably with any existing borehole system over time scales from 10 Hz to many days; because the downhole components are entirely passive, the instrument will have a long lifetime and could be made usable at high downhole temperatures. The simplicity and longevity of the metal and glass borehole sonde make it suitable for permanent cementation into a borehole to achieve good coupling and stability. Several versions of the borehole inertial system have been deployed on land with excellent results, and a number of our optical fiber strainmeters have been deployed - both onshore and offshore. The combined system is currently under development.

  13. Borehole prototype for seismic high-resolution exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, Rüdiger; Jaksch, Katrin; Krauß, Felix; Krüger, Kay; Groh, Marco; Jurczyk, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Target reservoirs for the exploitation of hydrocarbons or hot water for geothermal energy supply can comprise small layered structures, for instance thin layers or faults. The resolution of 2D and 3D surface seismic methods is often not sufficient to determine and locate these structures. Borehole seismic methods like vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and seismic while drilling (SWD) use either receivers or sources within the borehole. Thus, the distance to the target horizon is reduced and higher resolution images of the geological structures can be achieved. Even these methods are limited in their resolution capabilities with increasing target depth. To localize structures more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. The project SPWD -- Seismic Prediction While Drilling aims at s the development of a borehole prototype which combines seismic sources and receivers in one device to improve the seismic resolution. Within SPWD such a prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The SPWD-wireline prototype is divided into three main parts. The upper section comprises the electronic unit. The middle section includes the upper receiver, the upper clamping unit as well as the source unit and the lower clamping unit. The lower section consists of the lower receiver unit and the hydraulic unit. The total length of the prototype is nearly seven meters and its weight is about 750 kg. For focusing the seismic waves in predefined directions of the borehole axis the method of phased array is used. The source unit is equipped with four magnetostrictive vibrators. Each can be controlled independently to get a common wave front in the desired direction of exploration. Source signal frequencies up to 5000 Hz are used, which allows resolutions up to one meter. In May and September 2013 field tests with the SPWD-wireline prototype have been carried out at the KTB Deep Crustal Lab in Windischeschenbach (Bavaria). The aim was to proof the

  14. Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

  15. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  16. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of

  17. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Parra, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  18. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here

  19. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    level receiver array can be used to obtain 3D 9C data. These 9C borehole seismic data provide both compressional wave and shear wave information that can be used for quantitative prediction of rock and pore fluid types. The 400-level borehole receiver array has been deployed successfully in a number of oil and gas wells during the course of this project, and each survey has resulted in marked improvements in imaging of geologic features that are critical for oil or gas production but were previously considered to be below the limits of seismic resolution. This added level of reservoir detail has resulted in improved well placement in the oil and gas fields that have been drilled using the Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} images. In the future, the 400-level downhole seismic receiver array is expected to continue to improve reservoir characterization and drilling success in deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs.

  20. Borehole seismic imaging: A full waveform inversion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Pengxiang

    Site characterization for the design of deep foundations is crucial for ensuring a reliable and economic substructure design, as unanticipated site conditions can cause significant problems and disputes during construction. Traditional invasive exploration methods sample a small volume of material and insufficiently assess spatial variation in subsurface conditions. Established and emerging surface-based geophysical exploration methods may identify large-scale spatial variability, but fail to provide a detailed picture of the rock quality at depths where a socket is required for the design of a drilled shaft foundation. In order to compensate for the shortcomings of these methods, a new borehole-based characterization method has been developed, which creates images of the shear wave velocity profile along and around the borehole to provide credible socket material analyses and detect nearby anomalies. The proposed imaging technique is based on the time-domain full waveform inversion of elastic waves generated inside a borehole, which are captured by a string of sensors placed vertically along the borehole wall. This approach has the ability to simulate all possible wave types of seismic wavefields, and then compare these simulations with observed data to infer complex subsurface properties. This method formulates and solves the forward model of elastic wave propagation within a borehole using ABAQUS, a commercially available finite element package. The inversion is cast as a least-squares optimization problem solved using the regularized Gauss-Newton method. To test the proposed imaging technique, the present study performed comprehensive numerical studies. First, the accuracy of the forward model and the effectiveness of the inversion scheme was validated. Then, the capability of the proposed imaging technique was evaluated by inverting a series of three-dimensional (3-D) synthetic data sets, including a homogeneous model, a horizontally layered model with high

  1. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  2. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  3. Borehole-to-tunnel seismic measurements for monitoring radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukyan, Edgar; Maurer, Hansruedi; Marelli, Stefano; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Green, Alan A.

    2010-05-01

    Countries worldwide are seeking solutions for the permanent removal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) from the environment. A critical aspect of the disposal process is the need to be confident that the deposited waste is safely isolated from the biosphere. Seismic monitoring represents a potentially powerful option for non-intrusive monitoring. We conducted a series of seismic experiments in the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory, where a 1-m-diameter microtunnel simulates a HLRW repository downsized by a factor of ~2.5. The host rock at the laboratory is Opalinus clay. We had access to two water-filled boreholes, each approximately 25 m long (diameter 85 mm), with one inclined upwards and the other downwards. Both were oriented perpendicular to the microtunnel axis. Seismic signals were generated in the down-dipping borehole with a high frequency P-wave sparker source every 25 cm and received every 25 cm in the upward-dipping borehole on a multi-channel hydrophone chain. Additionally, the seismic waves were recorded on eight (100 Hz natural frequency) vertical-component geophones, mounted and distributed around the circumference of the microtunnel wall within the plane of the boreholes. The experiment was repeated with different material filling the microtunnel and under different physical conditions. So far, six experiments have been performed when the microtunnel was: a. air-filled with a dry excavation damage zone (EDZ), b. dry sand-filled with a dry EDZ, c. 50 % water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (experiments were conducted immediately after half water-saturation), d. water-saturated sand-filled with partially water-saturated EDZ (immediately after full water-saturation), e. water-saturated sand-filled with water-saturated EDZ (water was in the microtunnel for about 9.5 months), and f. water-saturated sand-filled and pressurized to 6 bars with water-saturated EDZ. The results of our seismic experiments yield several

  4. Breakthroughs in Seismic and Borehole Characterization of Basalt Sequestration Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E. C.; Hardage, Bob A.; McGrail, B. Peter; Davis, Klarissa N.

    2011-04-01

    Mafic continental flood basalts form a globally important, but under-characterized CO2 sequestration target. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the northwestern U.S. is up to 5 km thick and covers over 168,000 km2. In India, flood basalts are 3 km thick and cover greater than 500,000 km2. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the CRBG and other basalts react with formation water and super critical (sc) CO2 to precipitate carbonates, thus adding a potential mineral trapping mechanism to the standard trapping mechanisms of most other types of CO2 sequestration reservoirs. Brecciated tops of individual basalt flows in the CRBG form regional aquifers that locally have greater than 30% porosity and three Darcies of permeability. Porous flow tops are potential sites for sequestration of gigatons of scCO2 in areas where the basalts contain unpotable water and are at depths greater than 800 m. In this paper we report on the U.S. DOE Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership surface seismic and borehole geophysical characterization that supports a field test of capacity, integrity, and geochemical reactivity of CRBG reservoirs in eastern Washington, U.S.A. Traditional surface seismic methods have had little success in imaging basalt features in on-shore areas where the basalt is thinly covered by sediment. Processing of the experimental 6.5 km, 5 line 3C seismic swath included constructing an elastic wavefield model, identifying and separating seismic wave modes, and processing the swath as a single 2D line. Important findings include: (1) a wide variety of shear wave energy modes swamp the P-wave seismic records; (2) except at very short geophone offsets, ground roll overprints P-wave signal; and (3) because of extreme velocity contrasts, P-wave events are refracted at incidence angles greater than 7-15 degrees. Subsequent removal of S-wave and other noise during processing resulted in tremendous improvement in image quality. The application of wireline

  5. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  6. Borehole seismic monitoring of seismic stimulation at OccidentalPermian Ltd's -- South Wason Clear Fork Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, Tom; Majer, Ernie

    2007-04-30

    Seismic stimulation is a proposed enhanced oil recovery(EOR) technique which uses seismic energy to increase oil production. Aspart of an integrated research effort (theory, lab and field studies),LBNL has been measuring the seismic amplitude of various stimulationsources in various oil fields (Majer, et al., 2006, Roberts,et al.,2001, Daley et al., 1999). The amplitude of the seismic waves generatedby a stimulation source is an important parameter for increased oilmobility in both theoretical models and laboratory core studies. Theseismic amplitude, typically in units of seismic strain, can be measuredin-situ by use of a borehole seismometer (geophone). Measuring thedistribution of amplitudes within a reservoir could allow improved designof stimulation source deployment. In March, 2007, we provided in-fieldmonitoring of two stimulation sources operating in Occidental (Oxy)Permian Ltd's South Wasson Clear Fork (SWCU) unit, located near DenverCity, Tx. The stimulation source is a downhole fluid pulsation devicedeveloped by Applied Seismic Research Corp. (ASR). Our monitoring used aborehole wall-locking 3-component geophone operating in two nearbywells.

  7. 9C-3D seismic interpretation of the Bakken Formation, Banner Field, North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comegys, Lillian R.

    The Bakken Petroleum System is a multi-reservoir play with estimated total undiscovered resources of 3.649 BBO oil and 1.85 TCF natural gas in the United States portion of the Williston Basin (Pollastro 2008). The presence of natural fractures in all three members of the Bakken Formation have been linked to high initial production (IP) and cumulative production from the Antelope Field and better reservoir potential in the Elm Coulee Field and Sanish Fields (Sturm and Gomez 2009; Honsberger 2012; Theloy 2011). Therefore, the ability of seismic data to determine the presence, orientation, and density of natural fractures is an important achievement for petroleum exploration and exploitation. The STAMPEDE 9-component seismic survey is located in Mountrail County, North Dakota, in the Banner Field, southeast of the Parshall and Sanish Fields. It is the goal of the Reservoir Characterization Project to analyze the structural influences on reservoir properties in the STAMPEDE survey area using the compressional and pure shear seismic volumes supplemented by the public well information available on the North Dakota Industrial Commission website. Fracturing induced by basement faulting and lithology changes is detectable using multicomponent seismic data in the Stampede seismic survey. Shear wave splitting analysis delineates zones of different fracture orientation and density. These areas correlate to interpreted fault intersections and the predicted area of increased fracture frequency based on facies changes in the Middle Bakken Member and its mechanical stratigraphy. Wrench fault mechanics are at work in the study area, creating isolated convergent and divergent stress regimes in the separate fault blocks. Main fault interpretations are based on shear wave isochron mapping, wireline log mapping, seismic panel observations. Fracture interpretations were made on the analysis of shear time and amplitude anisotropy maps and the correlation of a P-wave Velocity Variation

  8. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  9. Rupture Process for Hayward Microearthquakes Inferred from Borehole Seismic Recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, T.; Dreger, D. S.; Nadeau, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in the San Francisco Bay Area, California is one of the major strands of the San Andreas fault system, extending for about 70 km. Crustal deformation along the HF is characterized by a wide variety of fault slip behaviors from aseismic creep to stick-slip earthquake including a Mw ~6.8 earthquake in 1868. We here document the high-resolution imaging of the rupture models for the recent M 3+ HF earthquakes by making use of waveforms from the Hayward Fault Network (HFN). The HFN is an array of borehole seismic instrumentation and provides an unprecedented high-resolution coverage of the earthquake source study for HF earthquakes. Using the finite-source rupture inversion with an empirical Green's function approach, we find a variety of rupture propagations including subevents, directivity, and high stress drop. Our finite-source modeling reveals a complex slip distribution for the 2013 Mw 3.2 Orinda earthquake that is characterized by a patch of slip with a maximum slip of 4 cm concentrated near the hypocenter at about 6.6 km depth, with a large secondary patch of slip (peak slip of 2 cm) centered up-dip and southeast from the hypocenter at a distance of about 400 m away. The two subevents release 43% and 23% of the total seismic moment (6.7 x 1013 N m) and the inferred peak stress drops are 18 MPa and 10 MPa. The 2011 Mw 4.0 Berkeley and 2012 Mw 4.0 El Cerrito earthquakes are marked by high stress drop. The inferred peak and mean stress drops are about 130-165 MPa and 45 MPa, respectively, which suggests that there are locally high levels of the fault strength on the HF. Our finite-source modeling suggests that the radiation efficiency determined for these two earthquakes is very low (< 0.1) and implies that majority of energy is dissipated during the earthquake rupture process.

  10. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  11. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  12. The Seafloor Borehole Array Seismic System (SEABASS) and VLF ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, R. A.; Koelsch, D. E.; Berteaux, H.; Bocconcelli, A.; Bolmer, S.; Cretin, J.; Etourmy, N.; Fabre, A.; Goldsborough, R.; Gould, M.; Kery, S.; Laurent, J.; Omnes, G.; Peal, K.; Swift, S.; Turpening, R.; Zani, C.

    1994-08-01

    The Seafloor Borehole Array Seismic System (SEABASS) has been developed to measure the pressure and threedimensional particle velocity of the VLF sound field (2 50 Hz) below the seafloor in the deep ocean. The system consists of four three-component borehole seismometers (with an optional hydrophone). a borehole digitizing unit, and a seafloor control and recording package. The system can be deployed using a wireline re-entry capability from a conventional research vessel in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) boreholes. Data from below the seafloor are acquired either onboard the research vessel via coaxial tether or remotely on the seafloor in a self-contained package. If necessary the data module from the seafloor package can be released independently and recovered on the surface. This paper describes the engineering specifications of SEABASS, the tests that were carried out, and preliminary results from an actual deep sea deployment. VLF ambient noise levels beneath the seafloor acquired on the Low Frequency Acoustic-Seismic Experiment (LFASE) are within 20 dB of levels from previous seafloor borehole seismic experiments and from land borehole measurements. The ambient noise observed on LFASE decreases by up to 12 dB in the upper 100 m of the seafloor in a sedimentary environment.

  13. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  14. High-resolution seismic exploration methods for boreholes and tunnels: experiments, results and test site design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, R.; Harms, U.; Jaksch, K.; Krüger, K.

    2012-12-01

    While surface to ground seismic exploration methods are well known, the utilization of seismic waves for underground surveying is less developed. The major challenge in subsurface seismics is the spatial ambiguity of the recorded wave field due to limited aperture of seismic source and receiver survey geometry. We developed novel imaging techniques and the appropriate measurement systems like phased array borehole sources for directional enhancement of seismic wave energy. Different procedures such as 3-component Kirchhoff-Migration and Fresnel-Volume-Migration were tested and improved to enhance the spatial resolution. The goal of these new approaches is to advance instruments for the detection of small-scale tectonic features or lithological changes in boreholes and tunnels. The key component for the experiments was the setup of our underground lab 150 m below surface (education and research mine Reiche Zeche, TU Freiberg, SE Germany). Surrounded by three galleries, the site comprises a block of homogeneous high-grade gneisses of about 50 m width and 100 m length ensuring constant environmental conditions. Along the galleries thirty 3-component geophones are anchored 1-2 m deep with a distance of 4-9 m from each other. Within this test site, two horizontal 8 ½" boreholes (20 and 30 m long) as well as a vertical hole (70 m depth) allow for 3D nearfield seismic experiments for high-resolution exploration and monitoring of geological structures.

  15. Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

  16. Near-surface velocity structure from borehole and refraction seismic surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, D.; Lawton, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic refraction and borehole reflection data have been used in conjunction with other geophysical tools to characterize the near-surface geology in the vicinity of a shallow well near Calgary, Alberta. The investigated section is comprised primarily of glacial tills and gravels. Seismic waves generated in the lower gravel units travel as compressional waves up to the till/gravel interface, where they are converted to shear waves upon transmission. Velocity structure from a reverse vertical seismic profile (RVSP) survey agrees closely with that from refraction surveying.

  17. Initial seismic observations from a deep borehole drilled into the Canadian Shield in northeast Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-09-01

    The availability of a deep borehole in northeastern Alberta provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the in situ metamorphic craton rocks. This borehole reaches a depth of 2.4 km, with 1.8 km in the crystalline rocks, and is the only known borehole allowing access into the deeper rocks of the metamorphic Canadian Shield. In 2011, a zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired to assist in the interpretation of seismic reflection data and geophysical logs. Three sets of upgoing tube waves interpreted from the raw profile correspond to the small-scale fluctuations in the borehole diameters and fracture zone in the crystalline rocks. A comparison between sonic log velocities and VSP velocities reveals a zone with increased velocity that could be due to the change in rock composition and texture in the basement rocks. The final processed profile is used to generate corridor stacks for differentiating between primary reflections and multiples in the seismic reflection profile. Analysis of the zero-offset VSP verifies existing log interpretation on the presence of fractures and the possible lithological changes in the metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield.

  18. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  19. An integrated surface and borehole seismic case study: Fort St. John Graben area, Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, R.C. . Dept. of Geology); Kuzmiski, R. ); Anderson, N.L. . Kansas Geological Survey); Richards, B.R. )

    1993-11-01

    The deltaic sandstones of the basal Kiskatinaw Formation (Stoddard Group, upper Mississippian) were preferentially deposited within structural lows in a regime characterized by faulting and structural lows in a regime characterized by faulting and structural subsidence. In the Fort St. John Graben area, northwest Alberta, Canada, these sandstone facies can form reservoirs where they are laterally sealed against the flanks of upthrown fault blocks. Exploration for basal Kiskatinaw reservoirs generally entails the acquisition and interpretation of surface seismic data prior to drilling. These data are used to map the grabens in which these sandstones were deposited, and the horst blocks which act as lateral seals. Subsequent to drilling, vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys can be run. These data supplement the surface seismic and well log control in that: (1) VSP data can be directly correlated to surface seismic data. As a result, the surface seismic control can be accurately tied to the subsurface geology; (2) multiples, identified on VSP data, can be deconvolved out of the surface seismic data; and (3) the subsurface, in the vicinity of the borehole, is more clearly resolved on the VSP data than on surface seismic control. On the Fort St. John Graben data set incorporated into this paper, faults which are not well resolved on the surface seismic data, are better delineated on VSP data. The interpretative processing of these data illustrate the use of the seismic profiling technique in the search for hydrocarbons in structurally complex areas.

  20. Microseismic Monitoring Using Surface and Borehole Seismic Stations in an Oil Field, North Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussain, I.; Al-Hashmi, S.; Al-Shijbi, Y.; Al-Saifi, M.; Al-Toubi, K.; Al-Lazki, A.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2009-05-01

    Five shallow borehole seismic stations were installed to monitor microearthquake activities in a carbonate oil field in northern Oman since 1999. This shallow network of seismic station operated continuously until 2002 after which intermittent seismic recording took place due to lack of maintenance and failure of some stations. The objectives of the study are to determine the microseismic parameters in the oil field and to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of these events to evaluate possible triggering mechanism. Well over 400 microearthquakes per year were recorded in the first three years of operation and after that the level of seismic recording fell to less than 200 microearthquakes per year due to failure of some stations. In March 2008, temporary seismic experiment consisting of five near surface seismic stations were installed in the oil field to augment the shallow network station and to evaluate surface installment of seismic instrument to monitor microseismic activities. It has been recognized that microearthquakes data such as size, spatial, and temporal distribution provide information on the pressure waves initiated by either production of or injection of fluids into reservoirs. A total of 44 local microearthquake events were analyzed and located during the temporary seismic stations deployment using a non-linear location software that allows the use of variable accurate velocity model of the subsurface. The events location is confined to oil field reservoir boundary during the recording period and more events occurring at shallow depth. The correlation coefficient between gas production and number of events is the higher compared with the oil production or water injection. The focal plane solution for the largest event in the sequence indicates normal faulting with extensional stress consistent with the existing mapped normal faults in the oil field. Microseismic signal clearly detected by the collocated sensors of the near surface

  1. Borehole seismic data processing and interpretation: New free software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung

    2015-12-01

    Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) surveying is a vital tool in subsurface imaging and reservoir characterization. The technique allows geophysicists to infer critical information that cannot be obtained otherwise. MVSP is a new MATLAB tool with a graphical user interface (GUI) for VSP shot modeling, data processing, and interpretation. The software handles VSP data from the loading and preprocessing stages to the final stage of corridor plotting and integration with well and seismic data. Several seismic and signal processing toolboxes are integrated and modified to suit and enrich the processing and display packages. The main motivation behind the development of the software is to provide new geoscientists and students in the geoscience fields with free software that brings together all VSP modules in one easy-to-use package. The software has several modules that allow the user to test, process, compare, visualize, and produce publication-quality results. The software is developed as a stand-alone MATLAB application that requires only MATLAB Compiler Runtime (MCR) to run with full functionality. We present a detailed description of MVSP and use the software to create synthetic VSP data. The data are then processed using different available tools. Next, real data are loaded and fully processed using the software. The data are then integrated with well data for more detailed analysis and interpretation. In order to evaluate the software processing flow accuracy, the same data are processed using commercial software. Comparison of the processing results shows that MVSP is able to process VSP data as efficiently as commercial software packages currently used in industry, and provides similar high-quality processed data.

  2. Borehole seismic in crystalline environment at the COSC-project in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2016-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled 2.5 km deep COSC-1 borehole. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this, the Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved case of Paleozoic collision of the Laurentia and Baltica continental plates. Surface geology and geophysical data provide knowledge about the geometry of the Caledonian structure. The reflectivity geometry of the upper crust was imaged by regional seismic data and the resistivity structure by magnetotelluric methods. The crustal model was refined by seismic pre-site surveys in 2010 and 2011 to define the exact position of the first borehole, COSC-1. The completely cored COSC-1 borehole was drilled in Central Sweden through the Seve Nappe Complex, a part of the Middle Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides that comprises units originating from the outer margin of Baltica. The upper 2350 m consist of alternating layers of highly strained felsic and calc-silicate gneisses and amphibolites. Below 1710 m the mylonite content increases successively and indicates a high strain zone of at least 800 m thickness. At ca. 2350 m, the borehole leaves the Seve Nappe Complex and enters underlying mylonitised lower grade metasedimentary units of unknown tectonostratigraphic position. The seismic survey consisted of three parts: a limited 3D-survey, a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profile) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP (MSP) experiment with sources and receivers along three surface profiles and receivers at seven different depth levels of the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source was used and activated over a period of 20 s as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. The wave field was recorded with 3

  3. Stochastic estimation of aquifer geometry using seismic refraction data with borehole depth constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Hubbard, S.S.; Gaines, D.; Korneev, V.; Baker, G.; Watson, D.

    2010-09-01

    We develop a Bayesian model to invert surface seismic refraction data with depth constraints from boreholes for characterization of aquifer geometry and apply it to seismic and borehole datasets collected at the contaminated Oak Ridge National Laboratory site in Tennessee. Rather than the traditional approach of first inverting the seismic arrival times for seismic velocity and then using that information to aid in the spatial interpolation of wellbore data, we jointly invert seismic first arrival time data and wellbore-based information, such as depths of key lithological boundaries. We use a staggered-grid finite-difference algorithm with second order accuracy in time and fourth order accuracy in space to model seismic full waveforms and use an automated method to pick the first arrival times. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to draw many samples from the joint posterior probability distribution, on which we can estimate the key interfaces and their associated uncertainty as a function of horizontal location and depth. We test the developed method on both synthetic and field case studies. The synthetic studies show that the developed method is effective at rigorous incorporation of multiscale data and the Bayesian inversion reduces uncertainty in estimates of aquifer zonation. Applications of the approach to field data, including two surface seismic profiles located 620 m apart from each other, reveal the presence of a low-velocity subsurface zone that is laterally persistent. This geophysically-defined feature is aligned with the plume axis, suggesting it may serve as an important regional preferential flow pathway.

  4. Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Sumstine, Roger L.

    2006-03-14

    A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

  5. Local fluid flow and borehole strain in the South Iceland Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, S.; Segall, P.; Ágústsson, K.; Agnew, D.

    2003-12-01

    Installation of 175 borehole strainmeters is planned for PBO. It is therefore vital to understand the behavior of existing strainmeter installations. We investigate signals recorded by three borehole dilatometers in the south Iceland seismic zone following two Mw6.5 earthquakes in June 2000. Poroelastic relaxation has been documented following these events based on InSAR and water level data [Jónsson et al., 2003, Nature]. According to poroelastic theory for a homogeneous isotropic (unfractured) medium, the anticipated post-seismic volumetric strain has the same sign as the coseismic strain step. For example, coseismic compression results in pore-pressure increases; post-earthquake fluid drainage causes additional compression. However, we find that observed strain changes vary considerably between different instruments after the earthquakes. One instrument (HEL) behaves as expected with transient strain increasing with the same sign as the coseismic strain step. Another instrument (SAU) shows partial strain relaxation, opposite in sign to the coseismic signal. The third (BUR) exhibits complete strain relaxation by 3-4 days after the earthquakes (i.e., BUR does not record any permanent strain). BUR has responded in the same fashion to three different earthquakes and two volcanic eruptions, demonstrating conclusively that the transient response is due to processes local to the borehole. Fluid drainage from cracks can explain these observations. Rapid straining results in compression (extension) of the rock and strainmeter. Fluid filled fractures near the borehole transmit normal stress, due to the relative incompressibility of water. Thus, at short time scales the instrument records a coseismic strain step. With time, however, fluid flows out of (in to) the fractures, and the normal stress transmitted across the fractures decreases (increases). As the stress relaxes the strainmeter expands (contracts), reversing the coseismic strain. Barometric responses are

  6. Using stochastic borehole seismic velocity tomography and Bayesian simulation to estimate Ni, Cu and Co grades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perozzi, Lorenzo; Gloaguen, Erwan; Rondenay, Stephane; Leite, André; McDowell, Glenn; Wheeler, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In the mining industry, classic methods to build a grade model for ore deposits are based on kriging or cokriging of grades for targeted minerals measured in drill core in fertile geological units. As the complexity of the geological geometry increases, so does the complexity of grade estimations. For example, in layered mafic or ultramafic intrusions, it is necessary to know the layering geometry in order to perform kriging of grades in the most fertile zones. Without additional information on geological framwork, the definition of fertile zones is a low-precision exercise that requires extensive experience and good ability from the geologist. Recently, thanks to computer and geophysical tool improvements, seismic tomography became very attractive for many application fields. Indeed, this non-intrusive technique allows inferring the mechanical properties of the ground using travel times and amplitude analysis of the transmitted wavelet between two boreholes, hence provide additional information on the nature of the deposit. Commonly used crosshole seismic velocity tomography algorithms estimate 2D slowness models (inverse of velocity) in the plane between the boreholes using the measured direct wave travel times from the transmitter (located in one of the hole) to the receivers (located in the other hole). Furthermore, geophysical borehole logging can be used to constrain seismic tomography between drill holes. Finally, this project aims to estimate grade of economically worth mineral by integrating seismic tomography data with respectively drill core measured grades acquired by Vale Inco for one of their mine sites in operation. In this study, a new type algorithm that combines geostatistical simulation and tomography in the same process (namely stochastic tomography) has been used. The principle of the stochastic tomography is based on the straight ray approximation and use the linear relationship between travel time and slowness to estimate the slowness

  7. Comparison of high-resolution wax-embedded and pneumatically coupled borehole seismic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Parra, J.O. )

    1993-01-01

    High quality seismic measurements at frequencies up to about 2,000 Hz are needed if projected resolution limits on the order of 1m in spatial dimension are to be realized in reservoir structure delineation, cross-well sonic logging, and shallow reverse VSP applications. While sources and detectors are critical to this goal, the authors have investigated detector requirements in an objective way to demonstrate a successful design philosophy capable of achieving unprecedented wide-band frequency response and data quality in three-component shallow-borehole sensors. Two prototype detectors were developed: a nearly ideal responding wax-embedded reference'' detector and a pneumatically coupled detector exhibiting closely comparable performance. Their approach uses a three-axis accelerometer sensor assembly installed in a borehole drilled through the weathered surface to a depth at which the ground is competent enough to support practical kilohertz wave propagation. The wax-coupled detector is planted using a meltable wax embedment to achieve a rigid, stress-free, conformal coupling at the bottom of the hole. Experimental test results show this wax-embedded detector to have excellent broadband three-component response at frequencies up to 2,500 Hz; a range heretofore unexplored for seismic applications. The pneumatically coupled detector, although limited by modal resonance distortion effects in the highest range of frequencies, demonstrated useful three-component response at frequencies up to 1,500 Hz. Tests of the two coupling techniques under identical conditions illustrate their high-quality responses and their differences. Field tests of the prototype pneumatically coupled detector in shallow reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the basic high-resolution probe design concepts.

  8. Exploring anisotropic seismic property of the seismogenic plate boundary in the Nankai Trough using a seafloor borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, E.; Kimura, T.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Takaesu, M.; Takahashi, N.; Nakano, M.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Stress state in the vicinity of a seismogenic fault would be a key parameter governing its fault dynamics. Stress analysis in a borehole such as breakout may give stress information, but drilling seismogenic fault at depth is still challenging and it is even more difficult to perform repeated stress measurements for temporal evolution of stress state. Here we consider applying seismic anisotropy as an index of stress state and by observing its temporal change to identify change of stress around the seismogenic fault. In this study, we explored techniques to assess seismic anisotropy in the Nankai Trough accretionary prism, using a borehole seismometer deployed in IODP borehole C0002G, which is located just above the Tonankai earthquake fault. The borehole seismometer is situated at about 900 m below 1966 m deep seafloor, and is operational since January 2013 when the observatory was connected to DONET seafloor cable network. We developed a technique to analyze seismic anisotropy on converted S-wave from microseismic noise records and applied the technique on the borehole seismometer records, by which we expect to evaluate temporal change of anisotropy continuously. We obtained anisotropy of a few percent. We further evaluated depth dependency of anisotropy direction and obtained the difference between the uppermost sedimentary basin and accretionary prism near the plate boundary. We also performed airgun array shooting around the borehole in November 2013 to check validity of the anisotropy result. We applied two different analysis on the airgun records, the one was P-wave seismic anisotropy from the travel time, and the other was S-wave anisotropy using converted S-wave from airgun P-wave. Preliminary results from these analysis were consistent with the microseismic noise analysis. Repeated airgun shooting is planned at the interval of a year or so to evaluate our ability to detect its temporal change.

  9. Microearthquake Observations in a 7-level Vertical Seismic Array in the TCDP Borehole, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wu, H.; Ma, K.; Oye, V.; Tanaka, H.

    2007-12-01

    In order to obtain in-situ information on slip zones of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP) drilled two vertical boreholes (A, B) and a branch hole (C) through the fault where a displacement of 12 m had occurred. The TCDP hole A is 2 km deep, and a slip zone was identified at a depth of 1111 m. Hole B (with side track, hole C) is 1.3 km deep with an identified slip zone at 1138 m. In July 2006, a 7- level vertical borehole seismic array (TCDP BHS) was installed in hole A covering a depth from 946 m to 1274 m with 50- 60 m depth intervals. For this layout, three seismometers were placed in the hanging wall and footwall, respectively. The forth one is located at the depth of 1110.28 m, close to the identified slip zone. Microearthquakes with magnitude down to -0.5 were detected by the TCDP BHS. A temporary seismic array with 10 short period seismometers around the TCDP drill site was also installed to incorporate with the TCDP BHS for the precise locations of the microearthquakes. A real-time location software (MIMO) (Oye and Roth, 2003) was used to automatically determine P- and S-wave onset times, incidence and azimuth angles and locations of the microearthquakes. Regardless of the large co-seismic slip of 12 m at the drill site during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, our preliminary studies do not show any close-by seismicity near the drill site after almost 8 years since the large earthquake happened. The microearthquakes clustered at a depth of 8-10 km, where the 30 degree dipping of the Chelungpu thrust fault becomes flat to a decollement of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust tectonic structure. As a continuous GPS survey did not observe post-slip at the large slip region, and as no seismicity was observed near the drill site, we suggest that the thrust belt above the decollement during the interseismic period seems to be locked. A Fluid Injection Test (FIT), pumping high pressure fluid into hole B and C with hole A as

  10. Characterizing the Weeks Island Salt Dome drilling of and seismic measurements from boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, A.R.; Harding, R.S.; Jacobson, R.D.; Finger, J.T.; Keefe, R.; Neal, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    A sinkhole 36 ft across, 30 ft deep was first observed in the alluvium over the Weeks Island Salt Dome (salt mine converted for oil storage by US Strategic Petroleum Reserve) May 1992. Four vertical, two slanted boreholes were drilled for diagnostics. Crosswell seismic data were generated; the velocity images suggest that the sinkhole collapse is complicated, not a simple vertical structure. The coring operation was moderately difficult; limited core was obtained through the alluvium, and the quality of the salt core from the first two vertical wells was poor. Core quality improved with better bit selection, mud, and drilling method. The drilling fluid program provided fairly stable holes allowing open hole logs to be run. All holes were cemented successfully (although it took 3 attempts in one case).

  11. An Integrated Multi-component Processing and Interpretation Framework for 3D Borehole Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Karrenbach

    2004-04-01

    This report covers the October 2003 until March 2004 time period. Work has continued successfully on several tasks 1 through 7. Most of these tasks have been executed independently. Due to availability of manpower during that time period we progressed steadily and completed some of the tasks, while others are still on going. We achieved the goals that we had set up in the task schedule. Reviewing the results of this work period indicates that our plan is on schedule and we did not encounter any unforeseen problems. The work plan will continue as projected. Several independent tasks pursuant the statement of project objectives have been executed simultaneously and are still on-going. This report summarizes the selection, test processing and test flow generation of a relevant 3D borehole seismic high-resolution test dataset. This multi-component data set is suitable for future use in this project due to data quality and unique acquisition characteristics. This report shows initial processing results that supported the data selection scheduled for Task 1. Use of real data is augmented by the creating a 3D layered synthetic geologic model in which multi-component 3D borehole seismic data were generated using 3D ray tracing. A gridded surface representation of the reflection interfaces as well as fully populated velocity grids were generated and archived. The model consists of a moderately dipping geologic setting with horizon undulations. A realistic velocity variation is used in between the three layers. Acquisition was simulated from a set of equidistant source locations at the surface of the model, while a close to vertical VSP well was used to capture the wave field data. The source pattern was close to a staggered grid pattern. Multi-component particle displacements were recorded every 50 ft down with an array length of 4,000 ft. P-P as well as P-S reflections were specified in the resulting wave field. We ensured a large enough aperture with enough fine sampling

  12. Change in Seismic Attenuation of the Nojima Fault Zone Measured Using Spectral Ratios from Borehole Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Nishigami, K.; Mori, J.

    2006-12-01

    We measured the seismic attenuation of the rock mass surrounding the Nojima fault, Japan, by estimating the P-wave quality factor, Qp, using spectral ratios derived from a multi-depth (800 m and 1800 m) seismometer array. We detected an increase of Qp in 2003-2006 compared to 1999-2000. Following the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the project "Fault Zone Probe" drilled three boreholes to depths of 500 m, 800 m, 1800 m, in Toshima, along the southern part of the Nojima fault. The 1800-m borehole was reported to reach the fault surface. One seismometer (TOS1) was installed at the bottom of the 800-m borehole in 1996 and another (TOS2) at the bottom of 1800-m borehole in 1997. The sampling rate of the seismometers is 100 Hz. The slope of the spectral ratios for the two stations plotted on a linear-log plot is -π t^{*}, where t^{*} is the travel time divided by the Qp for the path difference between the stations. For the estimation of Qp, we used events recorded by both TOS1 and TOS2 for periods of 1999-2000 and 2003-2006. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectral ratios, we first calculated spectra ratios between TOS1 and TOS2 for each event and averaged the values over the earthquakes for each period. We used the events that occurred within 10 km from TOS2, and the numbers of events are 74 for 1999-2000 and 105 for 2003-2006. Magnitudes of the events range from M0.5 to M3.1. The average value of Qp for 1999-2000 increased significantly compared to 2003-2006. The attenuation of rock mass surrounding the fault in 2003-2006 is smaller than that in 1999-2000, which suggests that the fault zone became stiffer after the earthquake. At the Nojima fault, permeability measured by repeated pumping tests decreased with time from the Kobe earthquake, infering the closure of cracks and a fault healing process occurred The increase of Qp is another piece of evidence for the healing process of the Nojima fault zone. u.ac.jp/~kano/

  13. Recordings from the deepest borehole in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Woolery, E.W.

    2006-01-01

    The recordings at the deepest vertical strong-motion array (VSAS) from three small events, the 21 October 2004 Tiptonville, Tennessee, earthquake; the 10 February 2005 Arkansas earthquake; and the 2 June 2005 Ridgely, Tennessee, earthquake show some interesting wave-propagation phenomena through the soils: the S-wave is attenuated from 260 m to 30 m depth and amplified from 30 m to the surface. The S-wave arrival times from the three events yielded different shear-wave velocity estimates for the soils. These different estimates may be the result of different incident angles of the S-waves due to different epicentral distances. The epicentral distances are about 22 km, 110 km, and 47 km for the Tiptonville, Arkansas, and Ridgely earthquakes, respectively. These recordings show the usefulness of the borehole strong-motion array. The vertical strong-motion arrays operated by the University of Kentucky have started to accumulate recordings that will provide a database for scientists and engineers to study the effects of the near-surface soils on the strong ground motion in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. More information about the Kentucky Seismic and Strong-Motion Network can be found at www.uky.edu/KGS/geologichazards. The digital recordings are available at ftp://kgsweb.uky.edu.

  14. 3D seismic imaging around the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 scientific borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Peter; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Following the successful completion of the COSC-1 drilling campaign, a number of geophysical investigations have been performed in and around the 2.5 km deep borehole. Three different seismic experiments were conducted simultaneously in the fall of 2014 to take advantage of the same source points; 1) a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) in the borehole, 2) three 2D seismic profiles across the borehole, and 3) a limited 3D seismic survey (presented here). The latter is the first 3D seismic survey on land in Scandinavia to target the Caledonian Nappes and will allow mapping a small part of the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in 3D. Furthermore, it will allow extrapolation of results from downhole logging, core analysis and other seismic surveys to structures surrounding the borehole. A total number of 429 receivers (10 Hz single component geophones) were planted with 20 m separation along 7 lines spaced 200 m apart. The total area with receivers covered approximately 1.5 km2 and was centered on the drill site. A combination of a mechanical source (a rock breaking hydraulic hammer, near offsets) and explosive charges (0.5 kg fired at 3.5 - 5 m depth, far offsets) were used. The source points were activated along roads radiating outwards from the COSC-1 drill site in a star pattern. The nominal shot spacing was 20 m (vibrating source) or 80 m (explosives) and maximum horizontal offset was about 5.75 km. The high-grade metamorphic SNC is well known from previous 2D seismic studies to be a highly reflective unit. However, due to the complex 3D geometry and lithological variation within the unit, it has not been clearly imaged. The new 3D data provide a means to image these structures in more detail and to follow the lithological and structural interfaces observed in the core into the surrounding unit. Preliminary results from the 3D processing and correlation with borehole data will be presented.

  15. 1516 meters inside the earth - observations of seismic activity in the Dead Sea basin using borehole seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, A.; Malin, P.; Shalev, E.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Sagy, A.; Shalev, E.; Bariudin, V.

    2013-12-01

    Seismological measurements, conducted at great depths of several hundred of meters or even a few km, can provide useful information that one cannot get while conducting the measurements on the surface. We take advantage of Masada Deep borehole, an abandoned oil well, for the installation of a seismometer at a large depth of 1516 m. Seismological observations since 1983, using permanent and portable stations, revealed earthquake activity along the Dead Sea fault and its proximity, which is in good agreement with geological observations of young faulting age (> 30 KY). The operation of such station will enrich the seismological database with high quality data. The study has a few goals: 1) improving the detection capabilities of small earthquakes in the Dead Sea basin; 2) improving characterization of seismic activity in the Dead Sea basin; 3) better identification of seismic activity on the Dead Sea fault and observe earthquake nucleation and rupture processes in the near field; 4) extending the Gutenberg-Richter of frequency-magnitude relationship of earthquakes into smaller magnitudes below the threshold of the Israel Seismic Network catalog. The borehole seismometer was installed in Dec. 2012. We present seismic observations of small events conducted at a depth of 1516 m, many of them were not recorded by the Israel Seismic Network.

  16. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  17. Development and Test of a 1,000 Level 3C Fiber Optic Borehole Seismic Receiver Array Applied to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P.

    2015-02-28

    To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for CCS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 a contract to design, build and test a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Paulsson, Inc. has completed a design or a unique borehole seismic system consisting of a novel drill pipe based deployment system that includes a hydraulic clamping mechanism for the sensor pods, a new sensor pod design and most important – a unique fiber optic seismic vector sensor with technical specifications and capabilities that far exceed the state of the art seismic sensor technologies. These novel technologies were all applied to the new borehole seismic system. In combination these technologies will allow for the deployment of up to 1,000 3C sensor pods in vertical, deviated or horizontal wells. Laboratory tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed during this project have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown that the system can record events at magnitudes much smaller than M-2.3 at frequencies up to 2,000 Hz. The sensors have also proved to be about 100 times more sensitive than the regular coil geophones that are used in borehole seismic systems today. The fiber optic seismic sensors have furthermore been qualified to operate at temperatures over 300°C (572°F). The fibers used for the seismic sensors in the system are used to record Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) data allowing additional value added data to be recorded simultaneously with the seismic vector sensor data.

  18. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  19. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  20. Seismically Initiated Carbon Dioxide Gas Bubble Growth in Groundwater: A Mechanism for Co-seismic Borehole Water Level Rise and Remotely Triggered Secondary Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Jackson B.

    of freshwater. Co-seismic borehole water level increases of the same magnitude were observed in Parkfield, California, and Long Valley caldera, California, in response to the propagation of a Rayleigh wave in the same amplitude and frequency range produced by the June 28, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake. Co-seismic borehole water level rise is well documented in the literature, but the mechanism is not well understood, and the results of core-scale experiments indicate that seismically initiated CO2 gas bubble nucleation and growth in groundwater is a reasonable mechanism. Remotely triggered secondary seismicity is also well documented, and the reduction of effective stress due to CO2 bubble nucleation and growth in critically loaded faults may potentially explain how, for example, the June 28, 1992 MW 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake triggered seismicity as far away as Yellowstone, Wyoming, 1250 km from the hypocenter. A numerical simulation was conducted using Euler's method and a first-order kinetic model to compute the pore fluid pressure response to confining stress excursions on a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially under-saturated aqueous CO2. The model was calibrated on the pore pressure response to a rapid drop and later recovery of the confining stress. The model predicted decreasing overpressure as the confining stress oscillation frequency increased from 0.05 Hz to 0.30 Hz, in contradiction with the experimental results and field observations, which exhibit larger excess pore fluid pressure in response to higher frequency oscillations. The limitations of the numerical model point to the important influence of non-ideal behavior arising from a discontinuous gas phase and complex dynamics at the gas-liquid interface.

  1. An Integrated Multi-component Processing and Interpretation Framework for 3D Borehole Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect

    M. Karrenbach

    2004-10-15

    in normal processing. We improved functionality by adding multiple windowing options to each of the display items. The windows can be docked or un-docked, which is advantageous in a practical sense, since the display real estate can be spread across multiple display monitors. All windows transparently tie into the same item tree and views get updated dynamically and transparently. Each display item can be associated with a particular display widget as is the case for the multi-component hodogram display widget. All tasks were performed successfully, ensuring the continued progress of this project as outlined in the original proposal. Deliverables generated during this time period consist of reporting details and synthetically modeled seismic data for a 3D layered geological model. The numerically modeled SEGY data, as well as the model representation data, are ready to be sent out to DOE facilities for archiving. Based on the successful conclusion of work performed during this three month period we continue to occasionally generate synthetically modeled 3D borehole seismic data, according to Tasks 2 and 3. At the same time we proceed to design, implement and test according to the original plan the basic data classes and the basic framework outlined in Tasks 5 through 11, as well as 16.

  2. Seismic imaging in the eastern Scandinavian Caledonides: siting the 2.5 km deep COSC-2 borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Hedin, Peter; Gee, David G.; Lorenz, Henning; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, a contribution to the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), aims to provide a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics. Scientific investigations include a range of topics, from subduction-related tectonics to the present-day hydrological cycle. COSC investigations and drilling activities are focused in central Scandinavia, where rocks from the middle to lower crust of the orogen are exposed near the Swedish-Norwegian border. Here, rock units of particular interest occur in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the so-called Middle Allochthon and include granulite facies migmatites (locally with evidence of ultra-high pressures) and amphibolite facies gneisses and mafic rocks. This complex overlies greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks of the dolerite-intruded Sarv Nappes and underlying, lower grade Jamtlandian Nappes (Lower Allochthon). Reflection seismic profiles have been an important component in the activities to image the subsurface structure in the area. Subhorizontal reflections in the upper 1-2 km are underlain and interlayered with strong west- to northwest-dipping reflections, suggesting significant east-vergent thrusting. Two 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes are a major component of the project, which will improve our understanding of the subsurface structure and tectonic history of the area. Borehole COSC-1 (IGSN: http://hdl.handle.net/10273/ICDP5054EEW1001), drilled in the summer of 2014, targeted the subduction-related Seve Nappe Complex and the contact with the underlying allochthon. The COSC-2 borehole will be located further east and will investigate the lower grade, mainly Cambro-Silurian rocks of the Lower Allochthon, the Jamtlandian decollement, and penetrate into the crystalline basement rocks to identify the source of some of the northwest-dipping reflections. A series of high-resolution seismic profiles have been acquired along a composite ca

  3. Site study plan for EDBH (Engineering Design Boreholes) seismic surveys, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, H.

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes seismic reflection surveys to run north-south and east-west across the Deaf Smith County site, and intersecting near the Engineering Design Boreholes (EDBH). Both conventional and shallow high-resolution surveys will be run. The field program has been designed to acquire subsurface geologic and stratigraphic data to address information/data needs resulting from Federal and State regulations and Repository program requirements. The data acquired by the conventional surveys will be common-depth- point, seismic reflection data optimized for reflection events that indicate geologic structure near the repository horizon. The data will also resolve the basement structure and shallow reflection events up to about the top of the evaporite sequence. Field acquisition includes a testing phase to check/select parameters and a production phase. The field data will be subjected immediately to conventional data processing and interpretation to determine if there are any anamolous structural for stratigraphic conditions that could affect the choice of the EDBH sites. After the EDBH's have been drilled and logged, including vertical seismic profiling, the data will be reprocessed and reinterpreted for detailed structural and stratigraphic information to guide shaft development. The shallow high-resulition seismic reflection lines will be run along the same alignments, but the lines will be shorter and limited to immediate vicinity of the EDBH sites. These lines are planned to detect faults or thick channel sands that may be present at the EDBH sites. 23 refs. , 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Experimental evidence for seismically initiated gas bubble nucleation and growth in groundwater as a mechanism for coseismic borehole water level rise and remotely triggered seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, Jackson B.; Cooper, Clay A.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in borehole water levels and remotely triggered seismicity occur in response to near and distant earthquakes at locations around the globe, but the mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. Experiments were conducted to show that seismically initiated gas bubble growth in groundwater can trigger a sustained increase in pore fluid pressure consistent in magnitude with observed coseismic borehole water level rise, constituting a physically plausible mechanism for remote triggering of secondary earthquakes through the reduction of effective stress in critically loaded geologic faults. A portion of the CO2 degassing from the Earth's crust dissolves in groundwater where seismic Rayleigh and P waves cause dilational strain, which can reduce pore fluid pressure to or below the bubble pressure, triggering CO2 gas bubble growth in the saturated zone, indicated by a spontaneous buildup of pore fluid pressure. Excess pore fluid pressure was measured in response to the application of 0.1-1.0 MPa, 0.01-0.30 Hz confining stress oscillations to a Berea sandstone core flooded with initially subsaturated aqueous CO2, under conditions representative of a confined aquifer. Confining stress oscillations equivalent to the dynamic stress of the 28 June 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake Rayleigh wave as it traveled through the Long Valley caldera, and Parkfield, California, increased the pore fluid pressure in the Berea core by an average of 36 ± 15 cm and 23 ± 15 cm of equivalent freshwater head, respectively, in agreement with 41.8 cm and 34 cm rises recorded in wells at those locations.

  5. The multi-parameter borehole system and high resolution seismic studies in the western part of the main Marmara Fault in the frame of MARSITE Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Yalcinkaya, Esref

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to install a multi-parameter borehole system and surface array as close to the main Marmara Fault (MMF) in the western Marmara Sea as possible, and measure continuously the evolution of the state of the fault zone surrounding the MMF and to detect any anomaly or change, which may occur before earthquakes by making use of the data from the arrays already running in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea. The multi-parameter borehole system is composed of very wide dynamic range and stable borehole (VBB) broad band seismic sensor, and incorporate strain meter, tilt meter, and temperature and local hydrostatic pressure measuring devices. The borehole seismic station uses the latest update technologies and design ideas to record "Earth tides" signals to the smallest magnitude -3 events. Additionally, a surface microearthquake observation array, consisting of 8-10 seismometers around the borehole is established to obtain continuous high resolution locations of micro-seismicity and to better understand the existing seismically active structures and their roles in local tectonic settings.Bringing face to face the seismograms of microearthquakes recorded by borehole and surface instruments portrays quite different contents. The shorter recording duration and nearly flat frequency spectrum up to the Nyquist frequencies of borehole records are faced with longer recording duration and rapid decay of spectral amplitudes at higher frequencies of a surface seismogram. The main causative of the observed differences are near surface geology effects that mask most of the source related information the seismograms include, and that give rise to scattering, generating longer duration seismograms. In view of these circumstances, studies on microearthquakes employing surface seismograms may bring on misleading results. Particularly, the works on earthquake physics and nucleation process of earthquakes requires elaborate analysis of tiny events. It is

  6. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and

  7. Firn air-content of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, from seismic velocities, borehole surveys and firn modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulessa, Bernd; Brisbourne, Alex; Booth, Adam; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Bevan, Suzanne; Luckman, Adrian; Hubbard, Bryn; Gourmelen, Noel; Palmer, Steve; Holland, Paul; Ashmore, David; Shepherd, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The rising surface temperature of Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves is strongly implicated in ice shelf disintegration, by exacerbating the compaction of firn layers. Firn compaction is expected to warm the ice column and, given sufficiently wet and compacted layers, to allow meltwater to penetrate into surface crevasses and thus enhance hydrofracture potential. Integrating seismic refraction surveys with borehole neutron and firn core density logging, we reveal vertical and horizontal changes in firn properties across Larsen C Ice Shelf. Patterns of firn air-content derived from seismic surveys are broadly similar to those estimated previously from airborne radar and satellite data. Specifically, these estimates show greater firn compaction in the north and landward inlets compared to the south, although spatial gradients in seismic-derived air-contents are less pronounced than those previously inferred. Firn thickness is less than 10 m in the extreme northwest of Larsen C, in Cabinet Inlet, yet exceeds 40 m in the southeast, suggesting that the inlet is a focus of firn compaction; indeed, buried layers of massive refrozen ice were observed in 200 MHz GPR data in Cabinet and Whirlwind Inlets during a field campaign in the 2014-15 austral summer. Depth profiles of firn density provide a reasonable fit with those derived from closely-located firn cores and neutron probe data. Our model of firn structure is driven by RACMO and includes a 'bucket'-type hydrological implementation, and simulates the depth-density profiles in the inlets well. Discrepancies between measured and modelled depth-density profiles become progressively greater towards the ice-shelf front. RACMO incorrectly simulates the particular leeward (sea-ice-influenced) microclimate of the shallow boundary layer, leading to excess melt and/or lack of snowfall. The spatial sampling density of our seismic observations will be augmented following a further field campaign in the 2016-17 austral summer

  8. Integration of borehole geophysical properties into surface multichannel seismic data sets: First results from the SCOPSCO ICDP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Baumgarten, Henrike; Wonik, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania), located on the Balkan Peninsula within the Dinaride-Hellenide-Albanide mountain belt is probably the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe (2-5 Ma). Multidisciplinary studies at Lake Ohrid prove that it is an important archive to study the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of a graben system over a long time period. Within the frame of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out in spring 2013 with more than 2000 m of sediment cores at four sites. Downhole logging was realized at each site after coring, enabling us to integrate geophysical and sedimentological data into seismic cross sections in order to get a profound knowledge of climatic and environmental changes in the catchment area. The longest record (~569 m, site DEEP), recovered in the central part of lake Ohrid likely covers the entire lacustrine succession within Lake Ohrid Basin including several Interglacial and Glacial cycles. Sedimentological analyses are still ongoing; however, the upper 260 m of the DEEP reflecting the time period between Mid-Pleistocene Transition to present. An integration of borehole geophysical data into surface seismic lines shows that sediments, within the central part of Lake Ohrid, were deposited in a deep water environment over the last 600 ka. For the uppermost sediment cover, about 50 m of penetration, a very high resolution sediment echosounder data set allows us to identify major tephra layers and track them through the entire deep basin. Furthermore, a vertical seismic profile was carried out at site DEEP resulting in a conversion from two-way-travel-time into sediment depth. One major outcome is a corridor stack of the upgoing wave that clearly shows several reflectors linked to changes of sediment properties of cores and hence environmental and climate changes in the surrounding area of Lake Ohrid Basin. Several changes from Glacial to Interglacial, and vice versa

  9. Seismic structure of oceanic crust at ODP borehole 504B: Investigating anisotropy and layer 2 characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, E. P. M.; Hobbs, R. W.; Peirce, C.; Wilson, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Fracture and fault networks in the upper oceanic crust influence the circulation of hydrothermal fluids and heat transfer between crust and ocean. These fractures form by extensional stresses, with a predominant orientation parallel to the ridge axis, creating porosity- and permeability-derived anisotropy that can be measured in terms of seismic velocity. These properties change as the crust ages and evolves through cooling, alteration and sedimentation. The rate at which these changes occur and their effects on oceanic crustal structure and hydrothermal flow patterns are currently not well constrained. The NERC-funded OSCAR project aims to understand the development of upper oceanic crust, the extent and influence of hydrothermal circulation on the crust, and the behavior of fluids flowing in fractured rock. We show P-wave velocity models centered on DSDP/ODP Hole 504B, located ~200 km south of the Costa Rica Rift, derived from data acquired during a recent integrated geophysics and oceanography survey of the Panama Basin. The data were recorded by 25 four-component OBSs deployed in a grid, that recorded ~10,000 full azimuthal coverage shots fired by a combined high- and low-frequency seismic source. Both reflection and refraction data are integrated to reveal the seismic velocity structure of the crust within the 25 km by 25 km grid. The down-hole geological structure of 6 Ma crust at 504B comprises 571.5 m of extrusive basalts overlying a 209 m transition zone of mixed pillows and dikes containing a clear alteration boundary, which grades to >1050 m of sheeted dikes. Our model results are compared with this lithological structure and other previously published results to better understand the nature of velocity changes within seismic layer 2. The data provide a 3D framework, which together with analysis of the S-wave arrivals and particle motion studies, constrain estimates of the seismic anisotropy and permeability structure of the upper oceanic crust as it

  10. Late-stage stretching and subsidence rates in the Danakil Depression, evidenced from borehole records and seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Adam; Bastow, Ian; Magee, Craig; Keir, Derek; Corti, Giacomo; Jackson, Chris; Wilkinson, Jason

    2016-04-01

    The Ethiopian and Afar Rift systems provide a globally unique opportunity to study the incipient transition from continental rifting to sea-floor spreading. A consensus has emerged that a considerable proportion of plate extension in Ethiopia is accommodated by dyke intrusion, with smaller contributions from crustal thinning. However, observations of thinned crust and a pulse in Quaternary-Recent basaltic volcanism within Ethiopia's Danakil Depression have been cited (Bastow and Keir, 2011) as evidence that localised plate stretching may mark the final stages of continent-ocean transition. We explore this hypothesis using an archive of five 2-D seismic reflection profiles, each between 7-10 km in length, and ˜120 borehole records distributed over an area of 225 km2. From depth and age relationships of key marker horizons, we also suggest local subsidence and extension rates. The borehole archive reveals extensive evaporite sequences deposited in and around an asymmetric basin, bounded to the west by a network of east-dipping normal faults. West of the basin, the maximum observed thickness of evaporites is 150 m, beneath which are deposits of clastic sediment, but a sequence of evaporites at least 900 m thick is observed at the basin centre. The sedimentary architecture of these sequences suggests deposition in a shallow salt-pan environment, with seasonal - potentially diurnal - freshening of the brine supply (Warren, 2012). Isotopic analysis of reef carbonates in the basin flank dates the last marine incursion into the Danakil Depression at 24-230ka (Lalou et al., 1970; Bonatti et al., 1971; Bannert et al., 1971), therefore the evaporite sequence must be younger than this. A key marker horizon within the evaporites is the potash-bearing Houston Formation, also distinct in borehole records given its high porosity (25-40%) and radioactivity (50-250 API units). The elevation of the Houston Formation is ˜500 m deeper in the centre of the basin than on the flank

  11. Late-stage stretching and subsidence rates in the Danakil Depression, evidenced from borehole records and seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Adam; Bastow, Ian; Magee, Craig; Keir, Derek; Corti, Giacomo; Jackson, Chris; Wilkinson, Jason

    2016-04-01

    The Ethiopian and Afar Rift systems provide a globally unique opportunity to study the incipient transition from continental rifting to sea-floor spreading. A consensus has emerged that a considerable proportion of plate extension in Ethiopia is accommodated by dyke intrusion, with smaller contributions from crustal thinning. However, observations of thinned crust and a pulse in Quaternary-Recent basaltic volcanism within Ethiopia's Danakil Depression have been cited (Bastow and Keir, 2011) as evidence that localised plate stretching may mark the final stages of continent-ocean transition. We explore this hypothesis using an archive of five 2-D seismic reflection profiles, each between 7-10 km in length, and ˜120 borehole records distributed over an area of 225 km2. From depth and age relationships of key marker horizons, we also suggest local subsidence and extension rates. The borehole archive reveals extensive evaporite sequences deposited in and around an asymmetric basin, bounded to the west by a network of east-dipping normal faults. West of the basin, the maximum observed thickness of evaporites is 150 m, beneath which are deposits of clastic sediment, but a sequence of evaporites at least 900 m thick is observed at the basin centre. The sedimentary architecture of these sequences suggests deposition in a shallow salt-pan environment, with seasonal - potentially diurnal - freshening of the brine supply (Warren, 2012). Isotopic analysis of reef carbonates in the basin flank dates the last marine incursion into the Danakil Depression at 24-230ka (Lalou et al., 1970; Bonatti et al., 1971; Bannert et al., 1971), therefore the evaporite sequence must be younger than this. A key marker horizon within the evaporites is the potash-bearing Houston Formation, also distinct in borehole records given its high porosity (25-40%) and radioactivity (50-250 API units). The elevation of the Houston Formation is ˜500 m deeper in the centre of the basin than on the flank

  12. Size of seismic events during borehole injections: the effects of source mechanisms, stress and pore pressure distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Ondovcin, T.; Zhao, P.

    2012-12-01

    The fluid injection in boreholes is usually carried out during industrial operations targeted to permeability enhacement of hydrocarbon reservoirs and geothermal heat exchangers. Pressures in the order of 10 MPa are used in order to decrease the effective normal stress that results in shearing of preexisting fractures and/or creating new tensile fractures. A part of the deformation is brittle, which is expressed in the form of small seismic events. In most cases only microearthquakes with manitudes below 2 are generated, which is namely the case of treatments in hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, treatments of geothermal fields are often associated with small magnitude earthquakes (ML from 2 to 4), which represents a concern for the seismic risk of these operations. This happened in the Soultz (France), Basel (Switzerland) and also Berlin (Salvador) geothermal projects. Interestingly, the largest events occurred after shut-in of the well, or during the latest phase of injection. However, increased seismicity usually continues even long after bleeding-off the well. The largest events occur not only late during the injections, but also far from the injection well, at the edge of the seismically activated rock volume. Recent results of the frequency-magnitude analysis of the Basel seismicity show anticorrelation of b-value with the distance from the well, which proves the tendency of larger events to occurr far from the well. Other studies show the increase of stress drops with the distance to the injection, which might indicate a common intrinsic mechanism reposnsible for these two observations. The existing data point to two apparent discrepancies: (i) the largest events occur at larger distances where the stress field is less perturbed by the fluid injection and (ii) the largest events occur after injection when the fluid pressure in the rock volume is decreasing. We use the available results of fluid injection seismicity and apply our own analyses of frequency size

  13. Anatomy of the high-frequency ambient seismic wave field at the TCDP borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Roux, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) installed a vertical seismic array between 950 and 1270 m depth in an active thrust fault environment. In this paper we analyze continuous noise records of the TCDP array between 1 and 16 Hz. We apply multiple array processing and noise correlation techniques to study the noise source process, properties of the propagation medium, and the ambient seismic wave field. Diurnal amplitude and slowness patterns suggest that noise is generated by cultural activity. The vicinity of the recording site to the excitation region, indicated by a narrow azimuthal distribution of propagation directions, leads to a predominant ballistic propagation regime. This is evident from the compatibility of the data with an incident plane wave model, polarized direct arrivals of noise correlation functions, and the asymmetric arrival shape. Evidence for contributions from scattering comes from equilibrated earthquake coda energy ratios, the frequency dependent randomization of propagation directions, and the existence of correlation coda waves. We conclude that the ballistic and scattered propagation regime coexist, where the first regime dominates the records, but the second is weaker yet not negligible. Consequently, the wave field is not equipartitioned. Correlation signal-to-noise ratios indicate a frequency dependent noise intensity. Iterations of the correlation procedure enhance the signature of the scattered regime. Discrepancies between phase velocities estimated from correlation functions and in-situ measurements are associated with the array geometry and its relative orientation to the predominant energy flux. The stability of correlation functions suggests their applicability in future monitoring efforts.

  14. a Borehole Seismic System for Active and Passive Seimsic Studies to 3 KM at Ptrc's Aquistore Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; White, D. J.; Worth, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a downhole seismic recording system for application to depths of nearly 3 km and temperatures up to 135 °C at Aquistore, an independent research and monitoring project in which liquid CO2 is being stored in a brine and sandstone water formation. The key component to this system is a set of commercially available slim-hole 3-C sondes carrying 15 Hz geophones deployable in open and cased boreholes with diameters as small as 57 mm. The system is currently hosted on a 4-conductor wireline with digital information streamed to the surface recording unit. We have further incorporated these sondes into a mobile passive monitoring unit that includes a number of redundancies such as a multiple Tbyte network accessible RAID hard-drive system (NAS) and a self-designed uninterruptible power supply. The system can be remotely controlled via the internet. The system is currently deployed covering a range of depths from 2850 m to 2910 m. Ambient temperatures at this depth are approximately 110 °C with onboard tool temperatures running at 115 °C. Data is continuously streamed to the NAS for archiving, approximately 11 GBytes of data is recorded per day at the sampling period of 0.5 ms. The lack of noise at this depth allows short data snippets to be flagged with a simple amplitude threshold criteria. The greatly reduced data volume of the snippets allows for ready access via the internet to the system for ongoing quality control. Spurious events, mostly small amplitude tube waves originating at or near the surface, are readily discounted. Active seismic measurements are carried out simultaneously but these require that an appropriately accurate independent GPS based time synchronization be used. Various experiences with event detection, orientation of sondes using both explosives and seismic vibrator, potential overheating of the surface electronics, and issues related to loss of shore power provide for a detailed case study. Aquistore, managed by the

  15. Discovery of slow earthquakes by dense high-sensitivity broadband borehole seismic observation network in Japan, NIED Hi-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, K.

    2007-12-01

    National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has constructed the nation-wide high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) with 700 borehole stations, which uniformly covers the Japanese Islands with a spacing of 20-30 km. The borehole sensor is composed of three-component high-sensitivity velocity seismometer, three-component strong motion accelerometer and horizontal component high-sensitivity accelerometer which is available to measure the ground tilt and long-period seismic waves. The sensor vessel is placed at the bottom of the borehole deeper than 100m. There are four advantages of Hi-net; high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, broadband property of sensors and high density of stations. As a result, detection capability for micro earthquakes has been dramatically improved and some new geophysical phenomena have been discovered. Most remarkable discovery by Hi-net is wide variety of slow earthquakes; non-volcanic deep low- frequency tremors (LFT) [Obara, 2002], short-term slow slip events (SSE) [Obara et al., 2004], and very low- frequency (VLF) earthquakes [Ito et al., 2007]. These slow earthquakes occur simultaneously with a certain recurrence interval at the transition zone on the deeper plate interface along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, southwest Japan. The tremor is characterized by randomly wave trains lasting for hours to weeks with a predominant frequency of around 2 Hz. The tremor activity is clustered spatially and temporally within the narrow belt-like zone. Peak of tremor activity recurs with a time interval of six months accompanying to the short-term SSE lasting for a several days. VLF earthquake has a predominant period of 20s and occurs coincident with peak of tremors. During the active stage, the source of LFT migrates with a propagation velocity of around 10km/day along the strike of the plate geometry at the downdip side of the locked seismogenic zone. The space-time property of

  16. Investigations on alluvial deposits through borehole stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and passive seismic technique (Carnic Alps, NE Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viero, Alessia; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Crema, Stefano; Fontana, Alessandro; Mozzi, Paolo; Venturini, Corrado

    2016-04-01

    their extent and the maximum depths. Two passive seismic campaigns were carried out near the borehole site and along the But valley at different elevations. The aim was to investigate the depth of the buried bedrock and therefore to indirectly characterize the thickness of alluvial deposits. We calibrated the fundamental frequency of each site by constraining average shear velocity of the alluvial sediments close to the borehole site with known stratigraphy. Eight HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio, Nakamura, 1989) were carried out, and thus a first sketch of the buried valley floor along a longitudinal profile of about 5 km was depicted. The values of the derived bedrock depth allow to quantify the differences in thickness between the alluvial deposits and the Moscardo Torrent fan deposits. This information helps to address the contribution of the debris-flow processes in damming the upper But River during the last five centuries. The results confirm the role of debris-flow deposits from the Moscardo Torrent in shaping the morphology of the valley floor of But River and show suitability of an integrated approach, encompassing log stratigraphy, geophysical surveys and analysis of historical documents, for gaining insights on the evolution of alpine valleys. Reference Nakamura, Y., 1989. A method for dynamic characteristic estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface. Quarterly Report of Railway Technical Research Institute, 30(1): 25-33.

  17. Amplitude and Frequency Experimental Field Measurements of a Rotating-Imbalance Seismic Source Associated with Changes in Lithology Surrounding a Borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Novascone; Michael J. Anderson; David M. Weinberg; Jack H. Cole

    2003-10-01

    Field measurements of the vibration amplitude of a rotating-imbalance seismic source in a liquid-filled borehole are described. The borehole was a cased oil well that had been characterized by gamma-ray cement bond and compensated neutron litho-density/gamma-ray logs. The well logs indicated an abrupt transition from shale to limestone at a depth of 2638 ft. The vibration amplitude and frequency of a rotating-imbalance seismic source was measured versus applied voltage as the source was raised from 2654 to 2618 ft through the shale–limestone transition. It was observed that the vibration amplitude changed by approximately 10% in magnitude and the frequency changed approximately 15% as the source passed the shale–limestone transition. The measurements were compared to predictions provided by a two-dimensional analytical model of a rotating-imbalance source located in a liquid-filled bore hole. It was observed that the sensitivity of the experimentally measured vibration amplitude of the seismic source to the properties of the surrounding geologic media was an order of magnitude greater than that predicted by the two-dimensional analytical model.

  18. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume III P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (III), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 390 to 1220 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 40 ft (later relocated to 27.5 ft due to visibility in borehole after rain) in Borehole C4997, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4997, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  19. Experimental Investigations Regarding the Use of Sand as an Inhibitor of Air Convection in Deep Seismic Boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holcomb, L. Gary; Sandoval, Leo; Hutt, Bob

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Tilt has been the nemesis of horizontal long period seismology since its inception. Modern horizontal long period seismometers with their long natural periods are incredibly sensitive to tilt. They can sense tilts smaller than 10 -11 radians. To most readers, this is just a very very small number, so we will begin with an example, which should help to illustrate just how small 10 -11 radians is. Suppose we have an absolutely rigid rod which is approximately 4170 kilometers long; this just happens to be the Rand McNally map scaled crow flight distance between Los Angeles and Boston. Tilting this rod 10 -11 radians corresponds to raising one end of the rod 0.0000417 meters. Alas, this is just another very very small number! However, this corresponds to slipping a little less than one third a sheet of ordinary copying paper under one end of this perfectly rigid rod. To clarify, we mean, take a sheet of paper just like the paper this report is printed on and split it a little less than one third in the thickness direction, then put it under the end of the 4170 kilometer long rod! This will tilt the rod 10 -11 radians. Real world seismometers are nowhere near the length of this rod. A KS-54000 is about two meters long. Tilting a rod only two meters long 10 -11 radians corresponds to moving one end of this rod a mere 0.00000000002 meters or 0.02 millimicrons. As one of the authors old math teachers used to say, 'That's PDS' (PDS = Pretty Damn Small). Unfortunately, the long period seismologist does not have the luxury of ignoring PDS numbers when it suits him as the mathematician frequently does. He must live in the real world in which tilts this small create severe contamination of long period seismic data. At periods longer than 20 seconds, tilt noise contaminates the long period data from all instruments installed on or near the earth's surface. Many years of experimentation revealed that installing the sensors at depth in deep mines drastically reduced

  20. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume I P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (I), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4993, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  1. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume II P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted P-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-07-06

    In this volume (II), all P-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. P-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 360 to 1400 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1180 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Compression (P) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4996, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows: Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vp Profile at Borehole C4996, Sections 4 to 6: Unfiltered P-wave records of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass, and reference receiver, Sections 7 to 9: Filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, reaction mass and reference receiver, Section 10: Expanded and filtered P-wave signals of lower vertical receiver, and Sections 11 and 12: Waterfall plots of unfiltered and filtered lower vertical receiver signals.

  2. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume IV S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    SciTech Connect

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (IV), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. S-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1300 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Shear (S) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition, a second average shear wave record was recorded by reversing the polarity of the motion of the T-Rex base plate. In this sense, all the signals recorded in the field were averaged signals. In all cases, the base plate was moving perpendicular to a radial line between the base plate and the borehole which is in and out of the plane of the figure shown in Figure 1.1. The definition of “in-line”, “cross-line”, “forward”, and “reversed” directions in items 2 and 3 of Section 2 was based on the moving direction of the base plate. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas (UT) was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. The Redpath geophone and the UT geophone were properly aligned so that one of the horizontal components in each geophone was aligned with the direction of horizontal shaking of the T-Rex base plate. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vs Profile at Borehole C4993

  3. Removal of Trigger Delays from Cross-borehole Seismic Data by Exploiting Tube Wave Coherency - A Pre-processing Tool for Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, S.; Pratt, R. G.; Maurer, H.; Smithyman, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    A cross-borehole seismic dataset was acquired using two 50 m deep test boreholes drilled into Permian age sandstones near Mels, Switzerland. The boreholes were approximately 20 m apart, and useful data frequencies between 100 Hz and 4000 Hz. The survey comprised 181 source locations and 192 receiver locations, using multiple deployments of a 24-element receiver array to ensure adequate spatial sampling. Imaging velocities and attenuation using Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) proved difficult due to the presence of significant trigger delays in the survey. Trigger delays can be solved for using either a Traveltime Tomography (TT) approach (by including additional unknowns), or a FWI approach (by individual source estimation). However, these methods introduce significant ambiguities, particularly in the presence of an unknown level of anisotropy. Moreover, the trigger delays break coherency in the common source and common receiver domains, preventing simple removal of the tube wave energy in the data. We introduce a novel method for estimating the trigger delays through cross-correlation of tube waves. Repeat records from identical source-receiver array combinations are shifted and then stacked to create a "reference dataset". We make use of the high amplitude and highly coherent tube waves, which travel at a constant velocity: receiver hole tube wave arrivals are aligned and enhanced by applying a linear moveout and an f-k filter to the common source gathers. Each physical source location is recorded by four closely spaced and interleaved receiver elements; the high level of redundancy enables recovery of a stable set of delay estimates. A similar approach is used for the common receiver gathers to remove the remaining delays between source locations. Trigger delays were corrected with a mean absolute value of 153 μs, a mean bulk shift of -41 μs and a standard deviation of 75 μs. Their removal from the raw seismic data, allowed i) the tube waves to be removed by

  4. In-situ permeability determination using borehole and seismic logging data. Final report, September 5, 1986--March 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoez, M.N.; Rieven, S.A.; Burns, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this project has been to identify, locate, and characterize in-situ fractures using downhole and surface seismic methods, the goal being to estimate the permeability of these fractures from the way that seismic waves interact with them. The work proposed under the renewal of this grand for the period of 1993--1996 included four specific areas of research. First was the use of full waveform acoustic logs and shear wave logs to characterize in-situ fractures. The second was the use of laboratory ultrasonic scale models to verify the effects of fractures and anisotropy on acoustic and shear logs. Third, the authors proposed to study methods of monitoring hydrofractures with passive seismic techniques. Finally, the authors planned to study the effect of rough fracture surfaces on fluid flow.

  5. Compressional wave character in gassy, near-surface sediments in southern Louisiana determined from variable frequency cross-well, borehole logging, and surface seismic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Wilkey, P.L.; Fasnacht, T.

    1995-06-01

    Velocity and attenuation data were used to test theoretical equations describing the frequency dependence of compressional wave velocity and attenuation through gas-rich sediments in coastal Louisiana. The cross-well data were augmented with velocities derived from a nearby seismic refraction station using a low-frequency source. Energy at 1 and 3 kHz was successfully transmitted over distances from 3.69 to 30 m; the 5 and 7-kHz data were obtained only at distances up to 20 m. Velocity tomograms were constructed for one borehole pair and covered a depth interval of 10--50 m. Results from the tomographic modeling indicate that gas-induced low velocities are present to depths of greater than 40 m. Analysis of the velocity dispersion suggests that gas-bubble resonance must be greater than 7 kHz, which is above the range of frequencies used in the experiment. Washout of the boreholes at depths above 15 m resulted in a degassed zone containing velocities higher than those indicated in both nearby refraction and reflection surveys. Velocity and attenuation information were obtained for a low-velocity zone centered at a depth of approximately 18 m. Measured attenuations of 1.57, 2.95, and 3.24 dB/m for the 3-, 5-, and 7-kHz signals, respectively, were modeled along with the velocity data using a silt-clay sediment type. Density and porosity data for the model were obtained from the geophysical logs; the bulk and shear moduli were estimated from published relationships. Modeling results indicate that gas bubbles measuring 1 mm in diameter occupy at least 25% to 35% of the pore space.

  6. Mapping DNAPL transport contamination in sedimentary and fractured rock aquifers with high resolution borehole seismic imaging Project No. SF11SS13 FY01 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, J.T.; Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E.; Williams, K.H.; Flexser, S.

    2001-12-01

    This report covers the work performed in the first year of a three-year project funded by the USDOE's Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA). The objectives of this project are to develop, demonstrate and evaluate, at appropriate field sites, the utility of high frequency seismic imaging methods to detect and characterize non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in sedimentary and fractured rock aquifers. Field tests consist of crosswell seismic tomography acquired before, during and after any remediation action that would potentially affect fluid distributions. Where feasible, other characterization data is obtained, such as crosswell radar, borehole conductivity and cone penetration testing (CPT). Crosswell data are processed to obtain tomographic images, or two-dimensional distributions, of velocity and attenuation. The interpretation of the tomograms utilizes all available site characterization data to relate the geophysical attributes to lithology and fluid phase heterogeneities. Interpretations are validated by evaluation and testing of field cores. Laboratory tests on core retrieved from surveyed locations are performed to determine the relationships between geophysical parameters and solid and fluid phase composition. In the case of sedimentary aquifers, proof of principle has been demonstrated previously in homogeneous sand-packs at the centimeter and half-meter scale (Geller and Myer, 1995; Geller et al., 2000). The field tests will provide proof-of-principle at the field-scale, by working in an unconsolidated sand aquifer with known presence of NAPL. The ability to upscale from the laboratory to the field is evaluated by conducting field measurements over a range of frequencies that overlap the lowest frequencies used in the laboratory tests. In the fractured rock case, previous field work has shown that fracture zones can be detected by crosswell seismic tomography (Daley et al., 2001; Daley et al., 2000). Laboratory studies have demonstrated

  7. Report for borehole explosion data acquired in the 1999 Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II), Southern California: Part I, description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, Gary S.; Murphy, Janice M.; Okaya, David A.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Thygesen, Kristina; Baher, Shirley A.; Ryberg, Trond; Benthien, Mark L.; Simila, Gerry; Perron, J. Taylor; Yong, Alan K.; Reusser, Luke; Lutter, William J.; Kaip, Galen; Fort, Michael D.; Asudeh, Isa; Sell, Russell; Van Schaack, John R.; Criley, Edward E.; Kaderabek, Ronald; Kohler, Will M.; Magnuski, Nickolas H.

    2001-01-01

    The Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE) is a joint project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The purpose of this project is to produce seismic images of the subsurface of the Los Angeles region down to the depths at which earthquakes occur, and deeper, in order to remedy a deficit in our knowledge of the deep structure of this region. This deficit in knowledge has persisted despite over a century of oil exploration and nearly 70 years of recording earthquakes in southern California. Understanding the deep crustal structure and tectonics of southern California is important to earthquake hazard assessment. Specific imaging targets of LARSE include (a) faults, especially blind thrust faults, which cannot be reliably detected any other way; and (b) the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins. Imaging of faults is important in both earthquake hazard assessment but also in modeling earthquake occurrence. Earthquake occurrence cannot be understood unless the earthquake-producing "machinery" (tectonics) is known (Fuis and others, 2001). Imaging the depths and configurations of sedimentary basins is important because earthquake shaking at the surface is enhanced by basin depth and by the presence of sharp basin edges (Wald and Graves, 1998, Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1995; Field and others, 2001). (Sedimentary basins are large former valleys now filled with sediment eroded from nearby mountains.) Sedimentary basins in the Los Angeles region that have been investigated by LARSE include the Los Angeles, San Gabriel Valley, San Fernando Valley, and Santa Clarita Valley basins. The seismic imaging surveys of LARSE include recording of earthquakes (both local and distant earthquakes) along several corridors (or transects) through the Los Angeles region and also recording of man-made sources along these same corridors. Man-made sources have included airguns offshore and borehole

  8. Nonlinear seismic response for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: borehole records versus one-directional three-component propagation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santisi d'Avila, Maria Paola; Semblat, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    The seismic response of surficial multilayered soils to strong earthquakes is analysed through a non-linear one-directional three-component (1D-3C) wave propagation model. The three components (3C-polarization) of the incident wave are simultaneously propagated into a horizontal multilayered soil. A 3-D non-linear constitutive relation for dry soils under cyclic loading is implemented in a quadratic line finite element model. The soil rheology is modelled by mean of a multisurface cyclic plasticity model of the Masing-Prandtl-Ishlinskii-Iwan type. Its major advantage is that the rheology is characterized by few non-linear parameters commonly available. Previous studies showed that, when comparing one to 3C unidirectional wave propagation simulations, the soil shear modulus decreases and the dissipation increases, for a given maximum strain amplitude. The 3-D loading path due to the 3C-polarization leads to multiaxial stress interaction that reduces soil strength and increases non-linear effects. Non-linearity and coupling effects between components are more obvious with decreasing seismic velocity ratio in the soil and increasing vertical to horizontal component ratio for the incident wave. This research aims at comparing computed ground motions at the surface of soil profiles in the Tohoku area (Japan) with 3C seismic signals recorded during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The 3C recorded downhole motion is imposed as boundary condition at the base of soil layer stack. Notable amplification phenomena are shown, comparing seismograms at the bottom and at the surface. The 1D-3C approach evidences the influence of the 3-D loading path and input wavefield polarization. 3C motion and 3-D stress and strain evolution are evaluated all over the soil profile. The triaxial mechanical coupling is pointed out by observing the variation of the propagating wave polarization all along the duration of seismograms. The variation of the maximum horizontal component of motion with time

  9. Stratigraphy of a proposed wind farm site southeast of Block Island: Utilization of borehole samples, downhole logging, and seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Dane P. H.

    Seismic stratigraphy, sedimentology, lithostratigraphy, downhole geophysical logging, mineralogy, and palynology were used to study and interpret the upper 70 meters of the inner continental shelf sediments within a proposed wind farm site located approximately two to three nautical miles to the southeast of Block Island, Rhode Island. Core samples and downhole logging collected from borings drilled for geotechnical purposes at proposed wind turbine sites along with seismic surveys in the surrounding area provide the data for this study. Cretaceous coastal plain sediments that consist of non-marine to marine sand, silt, and clay are found overlying bedrock at a contact depth beyond the sampling depth of this study. The upper Cretaceous sediments sampled in borings are correlated with the Magothy/Matawan formations described regionally from New Jersey to Nantucket. An unconformity formed through sub-aerial, fluvial, marine, and glacial erosion marks the upper strata of the Cretaceous sediments separating them from the overlying deposits. The majority of Quaternary deposits overlying the unconformity represent the advance, pulsing, and retreat of the Laurentide ice sheet that reached its southern terminus in the area of Block Island approximately 25,000 to 21,000 years before present. The sequence consists of a basal glacial till overlain by sediments deposited by meltwater environments ranging from deltaic to proglacial lakefloor. A late Pleistocene to early Holocene unconformity marks the top of the glacial sequence and was formed after glacial retreat through fluvial and subaerial erosion/deposition. Overlying the glacial sequence are sediments deposited during the late Pleistocene and Holocene consisting of interbedded gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Sampling of these sediments was limited and surficial reflectors in seismic profiles were masked due to a hard bottom return. However, two depositional periods are interpreted as representing fluvial and estuarine

  10. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    earthquake energy can travel through the sediments. All of these factors determine how hard the earth will shake during a major earthquake. If we can improve on our understanding of how and where earthquakes will occur, and how strong their resultant shaking will be, then buildings can be designed or retrofitted accordingly in order to resist damage and collapse, and emergency plans can be adequately prepared. In addition, SSIP will investigate the processes of rifting and magmatism in the Salton Trough in order to better understand this important plate-boundary region. The Salton Trough is a unique rift in that subsidence is accompanied by huge influxes of infilling sediment from the Colorado River. Volcanism that accompanies the subsidence here is muted by these influxes of sediment. The Salton Trough, in the central part of the Imperial Valley, is apparently made up of entirely new crust: young sediment in the upper crust and basaltic intrusive rocks in the mid-to-lower crust (Fuis and others, 1984). Similar to the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans performed by the medical industry, seismic imaging is a collection of techniques that enable scientists to obtain a picture of what is underground. The petroleum industry routinely uses these techniques to search for oil and gas at relatively shallow depths; however, the scope of this project demanded that we image as much as 30 km into the Earth’s crust. This project generated and recorded seismic waves, similar to sound waves, which move downward into the Earth and are bent (refracted) or echoed (reflected) back to the surface. SSIP acquired data in a series of intersecting lines that cover key areas of the Salton Trough. The sources of sound waves were detonations (shots) in deep boreholes, designed to create energy equivalent to magnitude 1–2 earthquakes. The study region routinely experiences earthquakes of these magnitudes, but earthquakes are not located in such a way as to permit us to create the

  11. Borehole-explosion and air-gun data acquired in the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), southern California: description of the survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Elizabeth J.; Fuis, Gary S.; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Kell, Annie M.; Kent, Graham; Driscoll, Neal W.; Goldman, Mark; Reusch, Angela M.; Han, Liang; Sickler, Robert R.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Criley, Coyn J.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Skinner, Steven M.; Slayday-Criley, Coye J.; Murphy, Janice M.; Jensen, Edward G.; McClearn, Robert; Ferguson, Alex J.; Butcher, Lesley A.; Gardner, Max A.; Emmons, Iain; Loughran, Caleb L.; Svitek, Joseph R.; Bastien, Patrick C.; Cotton, Joseph A.; Croker, David S.; Harding, Alistair J.; Babcock, Jeffrey M.; Harder, Steven H.; Rosa, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    earthquake energy can travel through the sediments. All of these factors determine how hard the earth will shake during a major earthquake. If we can improve on our understanding of how and where earthquakes will occur, and how strong their resultant shaking will be, then buildings can be designed or retrofitted accordingly in order to resist damage and collapse, and emergency plans can be adequately prepared. In addition, SSIP will investigate the processes of rifting and magmatism in the Salton Trough in order to better understand this important plate-boundary region. The Salton Trough is a unique rift in that subsidence is accompanied by huge influxes of infilling sediment from the Colorado River. Volcanism that accompanies the subsidence here is muted by these influxes of sediment. The Salton Trough, in the central part of the Imperial Valley, is apparently made up of entirely new crust: young sediment in the upper crust and basaltic intrusive rocks in the mid-to-lower crust (Fuis and others, 1984). Similar to the ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans performed by the medical industry, seismic imaging is a collection of techniques that enable scientists to obtain a picture of what is underground. The petroleum industry routinely uses these techniques to search for oil and gas at relatively shallow depths; however, the scope of this project demanded that we image as much as 30 km into the Earth’s crust. This project generated and recorded seismic waves, similar to sound waves, which move downward into the Earth and are bent (refracted) or echoed (reflected) back to the surface. SSIP acquired data in a series of intersecting lines that cover key areas of the Salton Trough. The sources of sound waves were detonations (shots) in deep boreholes, designed to create energy equivalent to magnitude 1–2 earthquakes. The study region routinely experiences earthquakes of these magnitudes, but earthquakes are not located in such a way as to permit us to create the

  12. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  13. Seismicity-induced groundwater level changes in boreholes around Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan: Effect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Takeuchi, R.; Onoe, H.; Asamori, K.; Umeda, K.; Sugihara, K.

    2011-12-01

    For improving the scientific basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, multidisciplinary researches are approached in the MIU, in which two vertical shafts are excavated in the crystalline rock mass. Groundwater levels are continuously logged in multiple boreholes, for understanding the regional groundwater flow around the MIU site. Soon after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, groundwater level changes were observed in the almost boreholes. All boreholes arranged away from the MIU (approximately 1 to 5 km) showed drawdown ranging from 1 to 5 m. Several studies (e.g. Wang, 1997, JGR; Ge and Stover, 2000, JGR; Hamiel et al., 2005, EPSL) suggest that coseismic changes of groundwater level correspond to static volumetric strain changes induced by earthquakes, i.e., drawdown/elevation of groundwater level is reflected by crustal dilatation/constriction. We calculated volumetric strain changes due to the Tohoku earthquake based on the previously-reported fault models (slip models estimated by teleseismic source inversion; Yagi and Nishimura, Univ. of Tsukuba; Poiata et al., ERI, Univ. of Tokyo). We determined crustal deformation and stress change using the program Coulomb 3.0 (Lin and Stein, 2004, JGR; Toda et al., 2005, JGR). The calculation outputs approximately 2.3E-7 strain of dilatation around the MIU. Thus the drawdown observed in the boreholes arranged away from the MIU is consistent with the volumetric strain changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake. In contrast, groundwater levels were elevated up to 15 m in the boreholes localized in the vicinity of the MIU (within 600 m). These boreholes had shown successive drawdown since the shaft excavations started in the MIU, while voluminous sump water had been released successively from the shafts. Soon after the Tohoku earthquake, volume of the sump water increased approximately ten percent. Irregular elevation of water level soon after an earthquake like the case of the MIU

  14. Determination of porosity and facies trends in a complex carbonate reservoir, by using 3-D seismic, borehole tools, and outcrop geology

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, T.G. Jr.; Comet, J.N.; Murillo, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    Mesozoic carbonate reservoirs are found in the Mediterranean Sea, off the east coast of Spain. A wide variation of porosities are found in the core samples and logs: vuggy, breccia, fractures, and cavern porosity. In addition, complex Tertiary carbonate geometries include olistostromes, breccia bodies, and reef buildups, which are found on top of Mesozoic carbonates. Predicting the porosity trends within these oil productive reservoirs requires an understanding of how primary porosity was further enhanced by secondary processes, including fractures, karstification, and dolomitization in burial conditions. Through an extensive investigation of field histories, outcrop geology, and seismic data, a series of basic reservoir styles have been identified and characterized by well log signature and seismic response. The distribution pattern of the different reservoirs styles is highly heterogeneous, but by integrating subsurface data and outcrop analogs, it is possible to distinguish field-scale and local patterns of both vertical and local variations in reservoir properties. Finally, it is important to quantify these reservoir properties through the study of seismic attributes, such as amplitude variations, and log responses at the reservoir interval. By incorporating 3-D seismic data, through the use of seismic inversion, it is possible to predict porosity trends. Further, the use of geostatistics can lead to the prediction of reservoir development within the carbonate facies.

  15. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  16. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  17. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  18. Geochemistry, petrofabrics and seismic properties of eclogites from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling boreholes in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Burlini, Luigi; Mainprice, David; Xu, Zhiqin

    2009-09-01

    We present an integrated study of geochemistry, petrofabrics and seismic properties of strongly sheared eclogites from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic terrane, eastern China. First, geochemical data characterize diverse protoliths of the studied eclogites. The positive Eu- and Sr-anomalies, negative Nb anomaly and flat portion of heavy rare earth elements in coarse-grained rutile eclogites (samples B270 and B295) suggest a cumulate origin in the continental crust, whereas the negative Nb anomaly and enrichment of light rare earth elements in retrograde eclogites (samples B504, B15 and B19) imply an origin of continental basalts or island arc basalts. Second, P-wave velocities ( Vp) of three typical eclogite samples were measured under confining pressures up to 500 MPa and temperatures to 700 °C. At 500 MPa and room temperature, the mean Vp reaches 8.50-8.53 km/s in samples B270 and B295 but drops to 7.86 km/s in sample B504, and the P-wave anisotropy changes from 1.7-2.7% to 5.5%, respectively. The pressure and temperature derivatives of Vp are larger in the retrograde eclogite than in fresh ones. Third, the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements of the eclogites reveal random crystal preferred orientation (CPO) of garnet and pronounced CPO of omphacite, which is characterized by a strong concentration of [001]-axes sub-parallel to the lineation and of (010)-poles perpendicular to the foliation. The asymmetric CPO of omphacite in sample B270 recorded a top-to-the-south shear event during subduction of the Yangtze plate. The calculated fastest Vp is generally sub-parallel to the lineation, but a different deformation environment during exhumation could form second-order variations in omphacite CPO and affect the Vp distribution in eclogites (e.g., the fastest Vp is at ~ 35° from the foliation in sample B295). Comparison between measured and calculated seismic properties

  19. Analysis of borehole breakouts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Kemeny, J.; Cook, N. G. W.

    1989-06-10

    Boreholes drilled into rock, which is subjected to stresses that amount to a significant fraction of the strength of the rock, may cause the rock to fail adjacent to the borehole surface. Often this results in the elongation of the cross section of the borehole in the direction of the minimum principal (compressive) stress orthogonal to the borehole axis. Such breakouts are valuable indicators of the direction of the minimum compressive stress orthogonal to the axis of the borehole. Their shapes may provide information about the magnitudes of both the maximum and minimum stresses relative to the strength of the rock. Borehole breakouts also may be impediments to drilling and to in situ measurement techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing. Observations and analyses of borehole breakouts raise three important questions. First, how does the shape of the borehole breakout evolve Second, why are breakout shapes stable despite the very high compressive stress concentrations that they produce Third, how is the shape of the breakout related to the magnitudes of the stresses in the rock In this paper, extensile splitting of rock in unconfined, plane strain compression is assumed to be the process of rock failure adjacent to the circumference of the borehole, by which a breakout forms. To simulate the evolution of a borehole breakout, this process is combined with a numerical boundary element analysis of the stresses around a borehole as its cross section evolves from the originally circular shape to that of a stable breakout.

  20. Developments of borehole strain observation outside China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ze-Hua; Shi, Yao-Lin

    2004-11-01

    Borehole strain observation is playing an increasingly important role in the study on the crustal movements. It has been used by many countries such as China, USA, Japan, Peru, Australia, South Africa, Iceland and Italy, in research fields of plate tectonics, earthquake, volcanic eruption, dam safety, oil field subsidence, mining collapse and so on. Borehole strainmeter has been improved rapidly and tends to get more and more components included in one probe. Based on observations by this kind of instruments, studies on seismic strain step, slow earthquake, earthquake precursor and volcanic eruption forecasting have made remarkable achievements. In the coming years, borehole strain observation is going to become one major goedetic means, together with GPS and InSAR.

  1. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  2. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  3. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  4. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  5. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  6. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  7. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  8. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  9. Drilling, logging, and testing information from borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Thamir, F.; Thordarson, W.; Kume, J.; Rousseau, J.; Long, R.; Cunningham, D.M. Jr.

    1998-09-01

    Borehole UE-25 UZ{number_sign}16 is the first of two boreholes that may be used to determine the subsurface structure at Yucca Mountain by using vertical seismic profiling. This report contains information collected while this borehole was being drilled, logged, and tested from May 27, 1992, to April 22, 1994. It does not contain the vertical seismic profiling data. This report is intended to be used as: (1) a reference for drilling similar boreholes in the same area, (2) a data source on this borehole, and (3) a reference for other information that is available from this borehole. The reference information includes drilling chronology, equipment, parameters, coring methods, penetration rates, completion information, drilling problems, and corrective actions. The data sources include lithology, fracture logs, a list of available borehole logs, and depths at which water was recorded. Other information is listed in an appendix that includes studies done after April 22, 1994.

  10. Borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Georg; Schöner, Wolfgang; Prinz, Rainer; Pfeiler, Stefan; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The overarching aim of the project 'Atmosphere - permafrost relationship in the Austrian Alps - atmospheric extreme events and their relevance for the mean state of the active layer (ATMOperm)' is to improve the understanding of the impacts of atmospheric extreme events on the thermal state of the active layer using a combined measurement and modeling approach as the basis for a long-term monitoring strategy. For this purpose, the Sonnblick Observatory at the summit of Hoher Sonnblick (3106 m.a.s.l) is particularly well-suited due to its comprehensive long-term atmospheric and permafrost monitoring network (i.a. three 20 m deep boreholes since 2007). In ATMOperm, a robust and accurate permanent monitoring of active layer thickness at Hoher Sonnblick will be set up using innovative monitoring approaches by automated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The ERT monitoring is further supplemented by additional geophysical measurements such as ground penetrating radar, refraction seismic, electromagnetic induction and transient electromagnetics in order to optimally complement the gained ERT information. On the other hand, atmospheric energy fluxes over permafrost ground and their impact on the thermal state of permafrost and active layer thickness with a particular focus on atmospheric extreme events will be investigated based on physically-based permafrost modeling. For model evaluation, the borehole temperature records will play a key role and, therefore, an in-depth quality control of the borehole temperatures is an important prerequisite. In this study we will show preliminary results regarding the borehole temperature variability at Hoher Sonnblick with focus on the active layer. The borehole temperatures will be related to specific atmospheric conditions using the rich data set of atmospheric measurements of the site in order to detect potential errors in the borehole temperature measurements. Furthermore, we will evaluate the potential of filling gaps in

  11. A borehole-to-surface electromagnetic survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tseng, H.-W.; Becker, A.; Wilt, M.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A vertical EM profiling experiment was done at the University of California Richmond Field Station, where we simulated a brine spill plume by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic measurements in that the EM transmitter traversed the PVC-cased borehole used for fluid injection and extraction while the receivers were deployed on the surface. The EM measurements were made at 9.6 kHz with an accuracy of 1% in signal amplitude and 1??in signal phase. Observations were taken at 5-m intervals along two intersecting profiles that were centered on the injection well and extended for 60 m on either side of it. The presence of the injected salt water, at the expected 30 m depth, was indicated clearly by differences between the pre-extraction and postextraction data. A limited amount of numerical modeling showed that the experimental data were consistent with the presence of two superposed saline plumes. The uppermost of these, located at 26 m depth, was 2 m thick and had an area of 30 m2. The lower plume, located at 30 m, is the major cause of the observed anomally, as it has an areal extent of 120 m2 and a thickness of 3 m. Surprisingly, the measurements were very sensitive to the presence of cultural surficial conductivity anomalies. These spurious effect were reduced by spatial filtering of the data prior to interpretation.The results of a limited field trial confirm the usefulness of borehole-to-surface electromagnetic (EM) measurements for monitoring fluid extraction. A brine spill plume is simulated by creating a saline water injection zone at a depth of 30 m. The data acquisition mode was analogous to the reverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) configuration used for seismic

  12. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  13. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  14. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  15. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  16. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  17. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  18. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  19. The detection and characterization of natural fractures using P-wave reflection data, multicomponent VSP, borehole image logs and the in-situ stress field determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, P.

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to detect and characterize fractures in a naturally fractured tight gas reservoir, using surface seismic methods, borehole imaging logs, and in-situ stress field data. Further, the project aims to evaluate the various seismic methods as to their effectiveness in characterizing the fractures, and to formulate the optimum employment of the seismic methods as regards fracture characterization.

  20. Seismoelectric waves in a borehole excited by an external explosive source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiu-Guang; Cui, Zhi-Wen; Lü, Wei-Guo; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Ke-Xie

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of energy between seismic and electromagnetic wave fields has been described by Pride's coupled equations in porous media. In this paper, the seismoelectric field excited by the explosive point source located at the outside of the borehole is studied. The scattering fields inside and outside a borehole are analyzed and deduced under the boundary conditions at the interface between fluid and porous media. The influences of the distance of the point source, multipole components of the eccentric explosive source, and the receiving position along the axis of vertical borehole, on the converted waves inside the borehole are all investigated. When the distance from the acoustic source to the axis of a borehole is far enough, the longitudinal and coseismic longitudinal wave packets dominate the acoustic and electric field, respectively. The three components of both electric field and magnetic field can be detected, and the radial electric field is mainly excited and converted by the dipole component. Owing to the existence of borehole, the electric fields and magnetic fields in the borehole are azimuthal. The distance from the point where the maximum amplitude of the axial components of electric field is recorded, to the origin of coordinate indicates the horizontal distance from the explosive source to the axis of vertical borehole.

  1. A new interpretation of the deep-part of Senegal-Mauritanian Basin in the Diourbel-Thies area by integrating seismic, magnetic, gravimetric and borehole data: Implication for petroleum exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Matar; Ngom, Papa Malick; Gorin, Georges; Villeneuve, Michel; Sartori, Mario; Medou, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    The Diourbel-Thies area is located in the centre of the onshore part of the Senegal-Mauritanian Basin (SMB). The new interpretation of old petroleum data (2-D seismic lines and drilling data of three oil wells) in the deeppart of this poorly evaluated zone, integrating gravimetric and magnetic data, has allowed the distinction of the Hercynian ante-rift phase (U1) which is distinguished from the syn-rift phase (U2) probably of Permo-Triassic to Middle Jurassic age. The syn-rift phase resulted in a series of compartments or grabens infilling aligned in a North-South direction. Tholeiitic volcanism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is present in the syn-rift phase of the Diourbel-Thies area. The syn-rift deposits and associated volcanics allow us to surmise that the Diourbel basin represents a deeper rift basin. In comparison with other Central Atlantic Margins (CAM), the Diourbel rift basin could be one of the numerous rift basins that formed during the Permo-Triassic age. From a petroleum exploration perspective, the existence of the Diourbel rift basin is attractive because of the presence of structures that are excellent for deep gas exploration.

  2. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  3. Down-hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, H.C.; Hills, R.G.; Striker, R.P.

    1982-10-28

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system is disclosed for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  4. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and γ-γ density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the ‘stratigraphy’ of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  5. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  6. Long-period seismic amplification in the Kanto Basin from the ambient seismic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denolle, Marine A.; Miyake, Hiroe; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Hirata, Naoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2014-04-01

    Tokyo, like many seismically threatened cities, is situated atop a sedimentary basin that has the potential to trap and amplify seismic waves from earthquakes. We study amplification in the Kanto Basin by exploiting the information carried by the ambient seismic field. We use 375 seismic stations from the high sensitivity seismograph network across central Honshu as virtual sources and 296 seismic stations of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network shallow borehole seismometers within the basin as receivers to map the basin response. We find a linear relationship between ground motion and basin depth at periods of 2-10 s that could be used to represent 3-D basin effects in ground motion prediction equations. We also find that the strength of basin seismic amplification depends strongly on the direction of illumination by seismic waves.

  7. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant borehole data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Data pertaining to all the surface boreholes used at the WIPP site for site characterization hydrological testing and resource evaluation exist in numerous source documents. This project was initiated to develop a comprehensive data base that would include the data on all WIPP related surface boreholes from the Atomic Energy Commission, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Energy Research and Development Administration, Department of Energy, and Hydrologic Test Borehole Programs. The data compiled from each borehole includes: operator, permit number, location, total depth, type of well, driller, drilling record, casing record, plugging schedule, and stratigraphic summary. There are six groups of boreholes contained in this data base, they are as follows: Commercially Drilled Potash Boreholes, Energy Department Wells, Geologic Exploration Boreholes, Hydrologic Test Boreholes, Potash Boreholes, and Subsurface Exploration Boreholes. There were numerous references which contained borehole data. In some cases the data found in one document was inconsistent with data in another document. In order to ensure consistency and accuracy in the data base, the same references were used for as many of the boreholes as possible. For example, all elevations and locations were taken from Compilation and Comparison of Test-Hole Location Surveys in the Vicinity of the WIPP Site. SAND 88-1065, Table 3-5. There are some sections where a data field is left blank. In this case, the information was either not applicable or was unavailable.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  14. Detecting a fluid-filled borehole using elastic waves from a remote borehole.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoming; Cao, Jingji; Li, Zhen; Su, Yuanda

    2016-08-01

    The interaction of a fluid-filled borehole with incident elastic waves is an important topic for downhole acoustic measurements. By analyzing the wave phenomena of this problem, one can simulate the detection of a borehole target using a source-receiver system in a remote borehole. The analysis result shows that the wave signals from the target borehole are of sufficient amplitude even though the borehole size is small compared to wavelength. Consequently, the target borehole can be detected when the two boreholes are far away from each other. The result can be utilized to provide a method for testing downhole acoustic imaging tools. PMID:27586782

  15. Seismic noise on Rarotonga: Surface versus downhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Rhett; Hutt, C. R.

    Seismic noise data are presented from the new Global Seismographic Network station, RAR, on the Island of Rarotonga in the South Pacific. Data from the first new borehole site in the GSN are compared with a surface vault installation. Initial indications from the data show that borehole siting on a small island significantly reduces long-period (>20 s) horizontal seismic noise levels during the daytime, but little or no improvement is evident at periods shorter than 20 s or on the vertical component.The goal of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) GSN program is broad, uniform coverage of the Earth with a 128-station network. To achieve this goal and provide coverage in oceanic areas, many stations will be sited on islands. A major siting consideration for these new stations is whether to build a surface vault or drill a borehole. Neither option is inexpensive. The costs for drilling a cased hole and a borehole sensor are large, but the benefit of a borehole site is that seismic noise is reduced during certain periods when a surface installation may be subject to wind, weather, and thermal effects. This benefit translates into recording greater numbers of smaller earthquakes and higher signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

    2014-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow.

  17. Correlation of offshore seismic profiles with onshore New Jersey Miocene sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteverde, D.H.; Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.

    2000-01-01

    The New Jersey passive continental margin records the interaction of sequences and sea-level, although previous studies linking seismically defined sequences, borehole control, and global ??18O records were hindered by a seismic data gap on the inner-shelf. We describe new seismic data from the innermost New Jersey shelf that tie offshore seismic stratigraphy directly to onshore boreholes. These data link the onshore boreholes to existing seismic grids across the outer margin and to boreholes on the continental slope. Surfaces defined by age; facies, and log signature in the onshore boreholes at the base of sequences Kw2b, Kw2a, Kw1c, and Kw0 are now tied to seismic sequence boundaries m5s, m5.2s, m5.4s, and m6s, respectively, defined beneath the inner shelf. Sequence boundaries recognized in onshore boreholes and inner shelf seismic profiles apparently correlate with reflections m5, m5.2, m5.4, and m6, respectively, that were dated at slope boreholes during ODP Leg 150. We now recognize an additional sequence boundary beneath the shelf that we name m5.5s and correlate to the base of the onshore sequence Kw1b. The new seismic data image prograding Oligocene clinoforms beneath the inner shelf, consistent with the results from onshore boreholes. A land-based seismic profile crossing the Island Beach borehole reveals reflector geometries that we tie to Lower Miocene litho- and bio-facies in this borehole. These land-based seismic profiles image well-defined sequence boundaries, onlap and downlap truncations that correlate to Transgressive Systems Tracts (TST) and Highstand Systems Tracts (HST) identified in boreholes. Preliminary analysis of CH0698 data continues these system tract delineations across the inner shelf The CH0698 seismic profiles tie seismically defined sequence boundaries with sequences identified by lithiologic and paleontologic criteria. Both can now be related to global ??18O increases and attendant glacioeustatic lowerings. This integration of core

  18. Borehole Water Level Measurements in Kamchatka and Broadband Records of Very Large (M≧7.6) Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimova, V.; Kopylova, G.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of seismic waves from distant very large earthquakes can be accompanied by various changes in the groundwater mode. Such effects are observed at distances up to thousands of kilometers from the epicenter and indicate a change in the stress-strain state of geological environment. One of the methods of geophysical monitoring of seismically active regions is the water level observations in the boreholes. Different variations of water level caused by the passage of seismic waves from the very large earthquakes are recorded in piezometric boreholes in Kamchatka. In connection with the very large earthquakes it was observed four types of variations of water level in borehole UZ-5 (Kamchatka, Russia). To quantify the impact of the characteristics of seismic waves on the state of groundwater can be used assess the amplitude and frequency of maximum phase ground motion (velocity, displacement and acceleration) according to the registration of seismic signals of broadband seismic instrumentation. The purpose of this study is to determine the dependence of expression of different types of variations of water level in borehole UZ-5 from the amplitude and frequency of seismic signals from the very large earthquakes recorded by IRIS seismic equipment on the seismic station Petropavlovsk (s/s PET). We used records of earthquakes since 1997, M≧7.6 and 10-minute data of water level meter observations on the borehole UZ-5. Analysis of seismic signals in the time and frequency-time domain with the assessment times, amplitudes and periods of maximum oscillation phases was carried out using the interactive software DIMAS. The restoration of initial ground motion (displacement, acceleration) was carried out. The evaluation of amplitudes and frequency content of maximum oscillation phases of ground and the comparison with the variations of water level in the hole UZ-5 was executed. Dependences of the amplitude-frequency content of maximum oscillation phases of ground

  19. Four-Component Borehole Strain Meter: Observation and in-situ Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Z.; Shi, Y.; Ouyang, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole strain meters are a key component of some important geo-scientific projects, such as PBO, to monitor seismic and aseismic tectonic strain phenomena. Observation using a four-component borehole strain meter, namely Ouyang borehole strain meter, has been kept continuous at Changping station, Beijing, for years. The plane strain changes are obtained at the depth of 120m and from 4 horizontal measurements, spaced 45 degrees apart, of the radial deformation of the borehole in which the instrument is installed. The challenge is that, according to the theory of elasticity, the sum of any two measurements perpendicular to each other should be the same as related to areal strain. The observation at Changping agrees pretty well with this rule and, with a relative in-situ calibration correction to the transducer factors based on the rule, the agreements can be yet much improved. Since the transducers were arranged well in the orientations of North, East, North West and North East, respectively, instrument shear strains can be simply given as the differences of the two correspondent perpendicular measurements. By applying theoretic Earth strain tide as a reference signal, in-situ absolute calibration can be carried out and the proportionality constants c and d, and the orientation error as well, can be calculated separately. Fore-component borehole strain meter has the advantages of giving more accurate and more reliable data for Earth strain and of easier processing as compared to three-component borehole strain meter.

  20. Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

    2000-09-15

    Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

  1. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  2. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Koczan, S.P.; Stephani, E.L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320/sup 0/C (610/sup 0/F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resource to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules. 60 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  4. High-temperature borehole instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Koczan, S. P.; Stephani, E. L.

    1985-10-01

    A new method of extracting natural heat from the Earth's crust was invented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1970. It uses fluid pressures (hydraulic fracturing) to produce cracks that connect two boreholes drilled into hot rock formations of low initial permeability. Pressurized water is then circulated through this connected underground loop to extract heat from the rock and bring it to the surface. The creation of the fracture reservior began with drilling boreholes deep within the Precambrian basement rock at the Fenton Hill Test Site. Hydraulic fracturing, flow testing, and well-completion operations required unique wellbore measurements using downhole instrumentation systems that would survive the very high borehole temperatures, 320(0)C (610(0)F). These instruments were not available in the oil and gas industrial complex, so the Los Alamos National Laboratory initiated an intense program upgrading existing technology where applicable, subcontracting materials and equipment development to industrial manufactures, and using the Laboratory resources to develop the necessary downhole instruments to meet programmatic schedules.

  5. Borehole Stability in High-Temperature Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chuanliang; Deng, Jingen; Yu, Baohua; Li, Wenliang; Chen, Zijian; Hu, Lianbo; Li, Yang

    2014-11-01

    In oil and gas drilling or geothermal well drilling, the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and formation will lead to an apparent temperature change around the borehole, which will influence the stress state around the borehole and tend to cause borehole instability in high geothermal gradient formations. The thermal effect is usually not considered as a factor in most of the conventional borehole stability models. In this research, in order to solve the borehole instability in high-temperature formations, a calculation model of the temperature field around the borehole during drilling is established. The effects of drilling fluid circulation, drilling fluid density, and mud displacement on the temperature field are analyzed. Besides these effects, the effect of temperature change on the stress around the borehole is analyzed based on thermoelasticity theory. In addition, the relationships between temperature and strength of four types of rocks are respectively established based on experimental results, and thermal expansion coefficients are also tested. On this basis, a borehole stability model is established considering thermal effects and the effect of temperature change on borehole stability is also analyzed. The results show that the fracture pressure and collapse pressure will both increase as the temperature of borehole rises, and vice versa. The fracture pressure is more sensitive to temperature. Temperature has different effects on collapse pressures due to different lithological characters; however, the variation of fracture pressure is unrelated to lithology. The research results can provide a reference for the design of drilling fluid density in high-temperature wells.

  6. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  7. Observation and Scaling of Microearthquakes from TCDP Borehole Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Ma, K.; Oye, V.; Tanaka, H.

    2009-12-01

    Microearthquakes with magnitude down to 0.5 were detected by the Taiwan Chelungpu-ault Drilling Project Borehole Seismometers (TCDPBHS). A location software (MIMO) was used to determine P- and S-wave onset times, incidence and azimuth angles for the locations of the microevents. Regardless of the large co-seismic slip of 12 m at the drill site during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, our studies show very less seismicity near the drill site from the TCDPBHS recording. The microevents clustered at a depth of 8-10 km, where the 30 degree dipping of the Chelungpu thrust fault becomes flat to a decollement of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust tectonic structure. As a continuous GPS survey did not observe post-slip at the large slip region, and as no seismicity was observed near the drill site, we suggest that the thrust belt above the decollement during the interseismic period is locked. A Fluid Injection Test (FIT) pumping high pressure fluid into hole C with hole A as observation well was carried out at the TCDP boreholes in November 2006, and January, March and April 2007. Compared with background seismicity in November 2007, the observation did not show significant correlation of the FIT related seismicity, despite the distinct observations on the arrival of gas and chemical monitoring through FIT. It is possible that the injected fluid rate of FIT experiments is too deficient to trigger microevents. The low fluid rate indicated the low permeability of the fault zone. We also examined the scaling of the source parameters of the small earthquakes in stress drops and seismic moments. The source parameters of 150 microevents were examined from the source spectra using Brune ω-2 model for a constant Q model. The scaling of the magnitude to the Brune stress drop is a significant positive correlation. However, there has been a debate that this positive relationship might be biased for without Q correction. Fortunately, we had observed 65 clusters showing similar waveforms. The path

  8. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  9. Time ramped gain for borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.

    1989-08-08

    This patent describes an improvement in a borehole imaging apparatus wherein a rotating acoustic transducer means is periodically pulsed to emit a sequence of acoustic pulses into the borehole fluid toward the borehole wall and the reflected response of the acoustic pulse is received by the transducer means and converted to a related electrical signal. The improvement comprises: electrical signal compensating means located in the borehole for compensating substantially each of the electrical signals. The compensating means including variable gain amplifier means controllable from the surface for continuing to increase the amount of gain applied to each electrical signal as a function of the propagation time of the acoustic energy through the borehole fluid, to reduce the effects such as initial ringdown, mud reflections, and time-dependent borehole fluid attenuation of the acoustic energy.

  10. Shear wave transducer for boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, N.H.

    1984-08-23

    A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  11. High-Resolution Fault Zone Monitoring and Imaging Using Long Borehole Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, B. N.; Karrenbach, M.; Goertz, A. V.; Milligan, P.

    2004-12-01

    Long borehole seismic receiver arrays are increasingly used in the petroleum industry as a tool for high--resolution seismic reservoir characterization. Placing receivers in a borehole avoids the distortion of reflected seismic waves by the near-surface weathering layer which leads to greatly improved vector fidelity and a much higher frequency content of 3-component recordings. In addition, a borehole offers a favorable geometry to image near-vertically dipping or overturned structure such as, e.g., salt flanks or faults. When used for passive seismic monitoring, long borehole receiver arrays help reducing depth uncertainties of event locations. We investigate the use of long borehole seismic arrays for high-resolution fault zone characterization in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). We present modeling scenarios to show how an image of the vertically dipping fault zone down to the penetration point of the SAFOD well can be obtained by recording surface sources in a long array within the deviated main hole. We assess the ability to invert fault zone reflections for rock physical parameters by means of amplitude versus offset or angle (AVO/AVA) analyzes. The quality of AVO/AVA studies depends on the ability to illuminate the fault zone over a wide range of incidence angles. We show how the length of the receiver array and the receiver spacing within the borehole influence the size of the volume over which reliable AVO/AVA information could be obtained. By means of AVO/AVA studies one can deduce hydraulic properties of the fault zone such as the type of fluids that might be present, the porosity, and the fluid saturation. Images of the fault zone obtained from a favorable geometry with a sufficient illumination will enable us to map fault zone properties in the surrounding of the main hole penetration point. One of the targets of SAFOD is to drill into an active rupture patch of an earthquake cluster. The question of whether or not

  12. The PBO Borehole Strainmeter Network: Data Availability, Access And Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Philips, David; Fox, Otina; Henderson, Brent; Meertens, Charles; Mattioli, Glen

    2013-04-01

    Earthscope is a U.S. NSF funded program designed to provide seismic, GPS, strainmeter, fault core, LiDAR, and InSAR data to the scientific community to research the evolution and structure of the North American continent. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, is the geodetic component of the program. PBO consists of over 1100 continuous GPS sites in the western U.S. and Alaska, 6 long baseline laser strainmeters and 75 co-located borehole strainmeters and seismometers distributed in arrays along the western U.S. Pacific-North American plate boundary. In this presentation we describe how UNAVCO makes the borehole data sets available to the community and details the generation of higher-level PBO strainmeter data products. PBO borehole data flow in either real time or with a few hours delay to the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) where they are immediately available in SEED format. Archiving the various data sets using the same, well-known format facilitates the integrated analysis of complementary data sets. Processed strain time-series, earth tide models, barometric pressure response coefficients, long-term borehole trends, data quality information and calibration matrices for each strainmeter are generated by UNAVCO and can accessed in XML format from the DMC and NCEDC or, as ASCII files from UNAVCO. Both formats contain the information required to regenerate the processed time-series from the raw data thus meeting an Earthscope goal of repeatability of processed data sets. UNAVCO is guided by the scientific community in determining the best data formats, archiving, access methods and data products to generate. Recommendations for future data products made in an October 2012 workshop hosted by UNAVCO include: a noise assessment of each strainmeter site, development of a physical model for long-term trends in strainmeter data and the release of high-rate processed data in a seismic data

  13. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  14. Monitoring borehole flow dynamics using heated fiber optic DTS in a fractured rock aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas; Chalari, Athena; Parker, Beth; Munn, Jonathan; Mondanos, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Temperature profiles in fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation or in the borehole. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a tool that allows for continuous borehole temperature profiling in space and time. Recent technology advancements in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolutions of DTS systems now allow temperature profiling methods to offer improved insight into fractured rock hydrogeologic processes. An innovation in shallow borehole temperature logging utilizes high resolution DTS temperature profiling in sealed and heated boreholes to identify fractures with natural gradient groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. This technique can also be applied to open well conditions to monitor borehole flow distributions caused by hydraulic perturbations such as pumping or injection. A field trial was conducted in Guelph, Ontario, Canada to determine the capabilities of heated DTS for flow monitoring in both open and sealed wells. Intelligent distributed acoustic sensing (iDAS) measurements for vertical seismic profiling were carried out simultaneously with the DTS measurements to assist with characterization of the fractured aquifer system. DTS heat pulse tests were conducted in a single well under sealed conditions for natural gradient flow measurements and open conditions to monitor flow distributions during injection and pumping. The results of these tests indicate that borehole flow distributions can be monitored using DTS and that active heating allows for further information about the hydrogeologic system to be determined than from the passive measurements alone. Depth-continuous transmissivity data from the borehole correlate well with the DTS testing results. DTS based flow monitoring systems may be useful for monitoring transient production and injection processes for a variety of applications including groundwater remediation

  15. Joint Geophysical Assessments of Geothermal Potential from a Deep Borehole in the Canadian Shield Rocks of NE Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D. R.; Kueck, J.; Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    Part of the feasibility study for geothermal development in Northern Alberta consists of investigating the presence of subsurface fluid pathways in the crystalline basement rocks. The deepest borehole drilled in Northeastern Alberta has a depth of 2350 m and offers substantial depth coverage to study the basement rocks. Due to the limited cores available for this deep borehole, a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs and borehole seismic methods are used to provide subsurface characterization of the basement in addition to the existing surface seismic reflection data. Interpretation of the geophysical logs indicate potential fracture zones at different depths that could serve as zones with enhanced fluid potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. Fractures within the subsurface tend to be aligned by the deviatoric stress in the subsurface and their orientations can be imaged using the Formation MicroImager (FMI) log. Two sets of vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were acquired in the deep borehole in July 2011. First, a high resolution zero-offset VSP was acquired to measure the seismic responses at the borehole. Upgoing tube waves can be identified and attributed to fracture zones interpreted from the geophysical logs. Since VSP data contains higher frequency content, the final corridor stack from the zero-offset VSP offers greater resolution in correlating seismic reflections with the primary reflectors and multiples interpreted from the surface seismic reflection data. The second set of VSP data is a multi-azimuth, multi-depth walk-away VSP acquired using three-component receivers placed at depths of 800 and 1780 m. The degree of seismic anisotropy in the crystalline basement can be revealed by analyzing the first arrivals at different geophone depths. Using an assumption that the presence of fractures causes P-wave reflection anisotropy, interpretation from the walk-away VSP can be used as a method for gross fracture detection

  16. Apparent break in earthquake scaling due to path and site effects on deep borehole recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ide, S.; Beroza, G.C.; Prejean, S.G.; Ellsworth, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    We reexamine the scaling of stress drop and apparent stress, rigidity times the ratio between seismically radiated energy to seismic moment, with earthquake size for a set of microearthquakes recorded in a deep borehole in Long Valley, California. In the first set of calculations, we assume a constant Q and solve for the corner frequency and seismic moment. In the second set of calculations, we model the spectral ratio of nearby events to determine the same quantities. We find that the spectral ratio technique, which can account for path and site effects or nonconstant Q, yields higher stress drops, particularly for the smaller events in the data set. The measurements determined from spectral ratios indicate no departure from constant stress drop scaling down to the smallest events in our data set (Mw 0.8). Our results indicate that propagation effects can contaminate measurements of source parameters even in the relatively clean recording environment of a deep borehole, just as they do at the Earth's surface. The scaling of source properties of microearthquakes made from deep borehole recordings may need to be reevaluated.

  17. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  18. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  19. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  20. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  1. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  2. Resveratrol inhibits doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via sirtuin 1 activation in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Shan, Jian; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Xiao-Long

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an efficient drug used in cancer therapy; however, it can induce severe cytotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. In the present study, the effects of resveratrol (RES) on sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activation in mediating DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiac cells was investigated. H9c2 cells were exposed to 5 µM DOX for 24 h to establish a model of DOX cardiotoxicity. Apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was assessed using the MTT assay and Hoechst nuclear staining. The results demonstrated that pretreating H9c2 cells with RES prior to the exposure of DOX resulted in increased cell viability and a decreased quantity of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that DOX decreased the expression level of SIRT1. These effects were significantly alleviated by co-treatment with RES. In addition, the results demonstrated that DOX administration amplified forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and P53 expression levels in H9c2 cells. RES was also found to protect against DOX-induced increases of FoxO1 and P53 expression levels in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, the protective effects of RES were arrested by the SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that RES protected H9c2 cells against DOX-induced injuries via SIRT1 activation. PMID:27446329

  3. Evaluating Local Elastic Anisotropy of Rocks and Sediments by Means of Optoacoustics While Drilling Oil and Gas Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladilin, A. V.; Egerev, S. V.; Ovchinnikov, O. B.

    2014-12-01

    The optoacoustic method is used to evaluate local elastic anisotropy of rocks and sediments. The method is based on laser sound generation by irradiating a spot on the wall of the oil or gas borehole. The optoacoustic method offers an advantage of precise non-contact placing of a short-pulse point sound source. Pulses of a compression wave, shear waves, and a surface wave are induced in the formation as a result of optoacoustic conversion. The surface trace of the bulk compression wave propagating along the borehole surface has a velocity corresponding to that of a bulk wave. Hence, measurements of the trace propagation time along several predetermined paths on the surface of a borehole provide evaluation of local elastic anisotropy in situ. The pick-up is provided with a piezoelectric ceramic transducer positioned at a predetermined point on the surface of the borehole. The optoacoustic conversion regime parameters were chosen to provide separation of the trace pulse of another surface perturbance at the travel distance of about 0.1 m. The local measurements on the borehole wall are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting seismic data where they are present.

  4. Surveying of a borehole for position determination

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

    1985-04-02

    A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

  5. Tat-NR2B9c prevents excitotoxic neuronal superoxide production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanting; Brennan-Minnella, Angela M; Sheth, Sunil; El-Benna, Jamel; Swanson, Raymond A

    2015-01-01

    The Tat-NR2B9c peptide has shown clinical efficacy as a neuroprotective agent in acute stroke. Tat-NR2B9c is designed to prevent nitric oxide (NO) production by preventing postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and neuronal nitric oxide synthase; however, PSD-95 is a scaffolding protein that also couples NMDA receptors to other downstream effects. Here, using neuronal cultures, we show that Tat-NR2B9c also prevents NMDA-induced activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase, thereby blocking superoxide production. Given that both superoxide and NO are required for excitotoxic injury, the neuroprotective effect of Tat-NR2B9c may alternatively be attributable to uncoupling neuronal NADPH oxidase from NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25669908

  6. Synthesis of the C9-C25 Subunit of Spirastrellolide B.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Soma; Bodugam, Mahipal; Javed, Salim; Hanson, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of the C9-C25 subunit of the marine natural product spirastrellolide B is reported. The key synthetic features included the union of the two key fragments 5 and 6 via a Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction and a late-stage, one-pot sequential deprotection/cascade Achmatowicz rearrangement-spiroketalization to install the key spirocyclic intermediate present in the C9-C25 fragment of spirastrellolide B. The synthesis of the C9-C16 fragment 6 was accomplished via a phosphate tether mediated ring-closing metathesis (RCM), a subsequent hydroboration-oxidation protocol, followed by other stereoselective transformations in a facile manner. The spirocyclic intermediate was further functionalized utilizing a Lindlar/NaBH4 reduction protocol to furnish the C9-C25 subunit 3. PMID:27300267

  7. Analysis of flour and food samples for cry9C from bioengineered corn.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Palmer A; Lampel, Keith A; South, Paul K; Assar, Samir K; Carter, Laurenda; Levy, Dan D

    2002-02-01

    StarLink corn is a variety of yellow corn that has been genetically modified by the insertion of an altered cry9C gene into the plant genome. resulting in expression of the insecticidal Cry9C protein. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has approved StarLink corn for use in animal feed but not in food intended for human consumption. Therefore, under the U.S. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, any food intended for human consumption in which the presence of StarLink corn is indicated by the presence of either the Cry9C protein or the cry9C gene would be considered adulterated. Extraction and PCR-based methods were used to detect the presence of the cry9C DNA initially in corn flour and corn meal, and then these methods were extended to the analysis of processed corn products, including taco shells, cereals, baby foods, party snacks, and chips, for the presence of this modified genetic material. In a survey of 63 products, the cry9C transgene was detected in 4 taco shells.

  8. Subsurface structure around Omi basin using borehole database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, N.; Ito, H.; Takemura, K.; Mitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Kansai Geo-informatics Network (KG-NET) is organized as a new system of management of GI-base in 2005. This organization collects the geotechnical and geological information of borehole data more than 60,000 data. GI-base is the database system of the KG-NET and platform to use these borehole data. Kansai Geo-informatics Research Committee (KG-R) is tried to explain the geotechnical properties and geological environment using borehole database in Kansai area. In 2014, KG-R established the 'Shin-Kansai Jiban Omi plain', and explain the subsurface geology and characteristics of geotechnical properties. In this study we introduce this result and consider the sedimental environment and characteristics in this area. Omi Basin is located in the central part of Shiga Prefecture which includes the largest lake in Japan called Lake Biwa. About 15,000 borehole data are corrected to consider the subsurface properties. The outline of topographical and geological characteristics of the basin is divided into west side and east side. The west side area is typical reverse fault called Biwako-Seigan fault zone along the lakefront. From Biwako-Seigan fault, the Omi basin is tilting down from east to west. Otherwise, the east areas distribute lowland and hilly area comparatively. The sedimentary facies are also complicate and difficult to be generally evaluated. So the discussion has been focused about mainly the eastern and western part of Lake Biwa. The widely dispersed volcanic ash named Aira-Tn (AT) deposited before 26,000-29,000 years ago (Machida and Arai, 2003), is sometimes interbedded the humic layers in the low level ground area. However, because most of the sediments are comprised by thick sand and gravels whose deposit age could not be investigated, it is difficult to widely identify the boundary of strata. Three types of basement rocks are distributed mainly (granite, sediment rock, rhyolite), and characteristics of deposit are difference of each backland basement rock

  9. Estimation and 3-D modeling of seismic parameters for fluvial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Levey, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Borehole measurements of parameters related to seismic propagation (Vp, Vs, Qp and Qs) are seldom available at all the wells within an area of study. Well logs and other available data can be used along with certain results from laboratory measurements to predict seismic parameters at wells where these measurements are not available. Next, three dimensional interpolation techniques based upon geological constraints can then be used to estimate the spatial distribution of geophysical parameters within a given environment. The net product is a more realistic model of the distribution of geophysical parameters which can be used in the design of surface and borehole seismic methods for probing the reservoir.

  10. Empirical Study Of Tube Wave Suppression For Single Well Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    West, P.B.; Weinberg, D.M.; Fincke, J.R.

    2002-05-31

    This report addresses the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portion of a collaborative effort with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories on a borehole seismic project called Single Well Seismic Imaging. The INEEL's role was to design, fabricate, deploy, and test a number of passive devices to suppress the energy within the borehole. This energy is generally known as tube waves. Heretofore, tube waves precluded acquisition of meaningful single-well seismic data. This report addresses the INEEL tests, theories, observations, and test results.

  11. Empirical Study Of Tube Wave Suppression For Single Well Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    West, Phillip Bradley; Weinberg, David Michael; Fincke, James Russell

    2002-05-01

    This report addresses the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's portion of a collaborative effort with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories on a borehole seismic project called Single Well Seismic Imaging. The INEEL's role was to design, fabricate, deploy, and test a number of passive devices to suppress the energy within the borehole. This energy is generally known as tube waves. Heretofore, tube waves precluded acquisition of meaningful single-well seismic data. This report addresses the INEEL tests, theories, observations, and test results.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall be the primer cartridge with the end of the cartridge containing the detonator facing the back of... be the first cartridge loaded in the borehole; (2) The end of the cartridge in which the detonator...

  17. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  18. Using Boreholes as Windows into Groundwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, James P. R.; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K.; Lapworth, Daniel J.; Read, Daniel S.; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S.; Newbold, Lindsay K.; Townsend, Barry R.; Williams, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m3 at 0.4–1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  19. Using boreholes as windows into groundwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, James P R; Maurice, Louise; Edwards, François K; Lapworth, Daniel J; Read, Daniel S; Allen, Debbie; Butcher, Andrew S; Newbold, Lindsay K; Townsend, Barry R; Williams, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems remain poorly understood yet may provide ecosystem services, make a unique contribution to biodiversity and contain useful bio-indicators of water quality. Little is known about ecosystem variability, the distribution of invertebrates within aquifers, or how representative boreholes are of aquifers. We addressed these issues using borehole imaging and single borehole dilution tests to identify three potential aquifer habitats (fractures, fissures or conduits) intercepted by two Chalk boreholes at different depths beneath the surface (34 to 98 m). These habitats were characterised by sampling the invertebrates, microbiology and hydrochemistry using a packer system to isolate them. Samples were taken with progressively increasing pumped volume to assess differences between borehole and aquifer communities. The study provides a new conceptual framework to infer the origin of water, invertebrates and microbes sampled from boreholes. It demonstrates that pumping 5 m(3) at 0.4-1.8 l/sec was sufficient to entrain invertebrates from five to tens of metres into the aquifer during these packer tests. Invertebrates and bacteria were more abundant in the boreholes than in the aquifer, with associated water chemistry variations indicating that boreholes act as sites of enhanced biogeochemical cycling. There was some variability in invertebrate abundance and bacterial community structure between habitats, indicating ecological heterogeneity within the aquifer. However, invertebrates were captured in all aquifer samples, and bacterial abundance, major ion chemistry and dissolved oxygen remained similar. Therefore the study demonstrates that in the Chalk, ecosystems comprising bacteria and invertebrates extend from around the water table to 70 m below it. Hydrogeological techniques provide excellent scope for tackling outstanding questions in groundwater ecology, provided an appropriate conceptual hydrogeological understanding is applied. PMID:23936176

  20. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.C.; Julian, H.E.; Pearson, H.S.; Molz, F.J.; Boman, G.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the operation and application of the TVA prototype EM borehole flowmeters, including theory, design, calibration, basic field applications, data analysis, and potential effects of various well construction and development procedures on data. The majority of these results are also applicable to the commercial version of this meter and other vertical component borehole flowmeters, including heat pulse and impeller tools. Several case studies illustrating specific uses of these tools are also discussed.

  1. Applying the seismic interferometry method to vertical seismic profile data using tunnel excavation noise as source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Teixido, Teresa; Martin, Elena; Segarra, Miguel; Segura, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the research conducted to develop efficient strategies for investigation of rock properties and fluids ahead of tunnel excavations the seismic interferometry method was applied to analyze the data acquired in boreholes instrumented with geophone strings. The results obtained confirmed that seismic interferometry provided an improved resolution of petrophysical properties to identify heterogeneities and geological structures ahead of the excavation. These features are beyond the resolution of other conventional geophysical methods but can be the cause severe problems in the excavation of tunnels. Geophone strings were used to record different types of seismic noise generated at the tunnel head during excavation with a tunnelling machine and also during the placement of the rings covering the tunnel excavation. In this study we show how tunnel construction activities have been characterized as source of seismic signal and used in our research as the seismic source signal for generating a 3D reflection seismic survey. The data was recorded in vertical water filled borehole with a borehole seismic string at a distance of 60 m from the tunnel trace. A reference pilot signal was obtained from seismograms acquired close the tunnel face excavation in order to obtain best signal-to-noise ratio to be used in the interferometry processing (Poletto et al., 2010). The seismic interferometry method (Claerbout 1968) was successfully applied to image the subsurface geological structure using the seismic wave field generated by tunneling (tunnelling machine and construction activities) recorded with geophone strings. This technique was applied simulating virtual shot records related to the number of receivers in the borehole with the seismic transmitted events, and processing the data as a reflection seismic survey. The pseudo reflective wave field was obtained by cross-correlation of the transmitted wave data. We applied the relationship between the transmission

  2. Gene Expression Profiling of H9c2 Myoblast Differentiation towards a Cardiac-Like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Branco, Ana F; Pereira, Susana P; Gonzalez, Susana; Gusev, Oleg; Rizvanov, Albert A; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-01-01

    H9c2 myoblasts are a cell model used as an alternative for cardiomyocytes. H9c2 cells have the ability to differentiate towards a cardiac phenotype when the media serum is reduced in the presence of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), creating multinucleated cells with low proliferative capacity. In the present study, we performed for the first time a transcriptional analysis of the H9c2 cell line in two differentiation states, i.e. embryonic cells and differentiated cardiac-like cells. The results show that RA-induced H9c2 differentiation increased the expression of genes encoding for cardiac sarcomeric proteins such as troponin T, or calcium transporters and associated machinery, including SERCA2, ryanodine receptor and phospholamban as well as genes associated with mitochondrial energy production including respiratory chain complexes subunits, mitochondrial creatine kinase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and uncoupling proteins. Undifferentiated myoblasts showed increased gene expression of pro-survival proteins such as Bcl-2 as well as cell cycle-regulating proteins. The results indicate that the differentiation of H9c2 cells lead to an increase of transcripts and protein levels involved in calcium handling, glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, confirming that H9c2 cell differentiation induced by RA towards a more cardiac-like phenotype involves remodeled mitochondrial function. PI3K, PDK1 and p-CREB also appear to be involved on H9c2 differentiation. Furthermore, complex analysis of differently expressed transcripts revealed significant up-regulation of gene expression related to cardiac muscle contraction, dilated cardiomyopathy and other pathways specific for the cardiac tissue. Metabolic and gene expression remodeling impacts cell responses to different stimuli and determine how these cells are used for biochemical assays. PMID:26121149

  3. Geophysical siting of boreholes in crystalline basement areas of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olayinka, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of surface geophysical methods namely electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, seismic refraction, magnetic, gravity and induced polarization for groundwater exploration in crystalline basement complex areas. Most of these geophysical techniques can provide quantitative information on the characteristics of the weathered zone which relate to the occurrence of an economic aquifer. The critical factors in the choice of a particular method include the local geological setting, the initial and maintenance costs of the equipment, the speed of surveying, the manpower required as field crew, the degree of sophistication entailed in data processing to enable a geologically meaningful interpretation, and anomaly resolution. The particular advantages and limitations of each technique are highlighted. Several case histories from Nigeria and the rest of Africa indicate that electrical resistivity (both vertical sounding and horizontal profiling) is the most widely used, followed by electromagnetic traversing. These are often employed in combination to improve upon the percentage of successful boreholes. Due to the high cost of equipment, large scale of the field operations and difficulties in data interpretation, seismic refraction is not widely adopted in commercial-type surveys. Similarly, magnetic, gravity and induced polarization are used only sparingly.

  4. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014, Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John O.

    2015-01-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain fit from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  5. Borehole strainmeter measurements spanning the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa Earthquake, California: The effect from instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, John

    2015-10-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source, and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts per billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets of tidally calibrated strains differ by up to 130 ppb from predictions based on a moment tensor derived from seismic data. The large misfit can be attributed to a combination of poor instrument calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain tides predicted by a model. Although the borehole strainmeter accurately measures the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 ppb to 18 ppb. This suggests that relying on tidal models to calibrate borehole strainmeters significantly reduces their accuracy.

  6. Relocation of Groningen seismicity using refracted waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruigrok, E.; Trampert, J.; Paulssen, H.; Dost, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Groningen gas field is a giant natural gas accumulation in the Northeast of the Netherlands. The gas is in a reservoir at a depth of about 3 km. The naturally-fractured gas-filled sandstone extends roughly 45 by 25 km laterally and 140 m vertically. Decades of production have led to significant compaction of the sandstone. The (differential) compaction is thought to have reactivated existing faults and being the main driver of induced seismicity. Precise earthquake location is difficult due to a complicated subsurface, and that is the likely reason, the current hypocentre estimates do not clearly correlate with the well-known fault network. The seismic velocity model down to reservoir depth is quite well known from extensive seismic surveys and borehole data. Most to date earthquake detections, however, were made with a sparse pre-2015 seismic network. For shallow seismicity (<5 km depth) horizontal source-receiver distances tend to be much larger than vertical distances. Consequently, preferred source-receiver travel paths are refractions over high-velocity layers below the reservoir. However, the seismic velocities of layers below the reservoir are poorly known. We estimated an effective velocity model of the main refracting layer below the reservoir and use this for relocating past seismicity. We took advantage of vertical-borehole recordings for estimating precise P-wave (refraction) onset times and used a tomographic approach to find the laterally varying velocity field of the refracting layer. This refracting layer is then added to the known velocity model, and the combined model is used to relocate the past seismicity. From the resulting relocations we assess which of the faults are being reactivated.

  7. Geostatistical methods for rock mass quality prediction using borehole and geophysical survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Rubin, Y.; Sege, J. E.; Li, X.; Hehua, Z.

    2015-12-01

    For long, deep tunnels, the number of geotechnical borehole investigations during the preconstruction stage is generally limited. Yet tunnels are often constructed in geological structures with complex geometries, and in which the rock mass is fragmented from past structural deformations. Tunnel Geology Prediction (TGP) is a geophysical technique widely used during tunnel construction in China to ensure safety during construction and to prevent geological disasters. In this paper, geostatistical techniques were applied in order to integrate seismic velocity from TGP and borehole information into spatial predictions of RMR (Rock Mass Rating) in unexcavated areas. This approach is intended to apply conditional probability methods to transform seismic velocities to directly observed RMR values. The initial spatial distribution of RMR, inferred from the boreholes, was updated by including geophysical survey data in a co-kriging approach. The method applied to a real tunnel project shows significant improvements in rock mass quality predictions after including geophysical survey data, leading to better decision-making for construction safety design.

  8. Crystal and magnetic structure of the R15Si9C compounds (R = Ho, Er, Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, C.; Wrubl, F.; Hill, A. H.; Pani, M.; Manfrinetti, P.

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis of the new compounds R15Si9C with R = Sm, Gd-Er, Y and R15Ge9C with R = Ce, Pr and Nd has been recently reported; these compounds crystallize in the hexagonal La15Ge9Fe structure type, hP50-P63mc, Z = 2 (ordered superstructure of La5Ge3 (Mn5Si3-type, hP 16-P63/mcm, Z = 2)). Here we report the results of a neutron diffraction investigation that we have performed to study the crystal and magnetic structures of the R15Si9C compounds with R = Tb, Ho and Er. All three compounds see the establishment of commensurate magnetic order with a predominantly ferromagnetic interaction. Details of mixed antiferro-ferromagnetic spin arrangements (κ = [000]) (for Tb15Si9C and Ho15Si9C) or of purely ferromagnetic ordering (Er15Si9C), and of their temperature dependence, are given and linked to the different coordination of the four dissimilar rare earth sites. In the Tb and Ho compounds the thermal evolution of the magnetic moment values strongly differs between the different R sites. The position occupied by the principal carbon has been determined (Wyckoff site 2b) and the existence of a second position available for the interstitial carbon (Wyckoff site 2a) has been revealed for R = Ho, Tb. Moreover, in the Tb and Ho compounds the magnetic moment value of the rare earth site R4, surrounding the second interstitial carbon site, is strongly reduced if compared to the value on the other rare earth sites. The magnetic transition temperatures of all three compounds, i.e. TC = 130, 43 and 45 K for Tb15Si9C, Ho15Si9C and Er15Si9C, are remarkably high compared to those of the parent R5Si3 compounds. The magnetic behaviour of the partly filled Tb5Si3C0.25 is reported.

  9. Seismic Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  10. Borehole velocity measurements at five sites that recorded the Cape Mendocino, California earthquake of 25 April, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Tinsley, John C.; Boore, David M.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of an ongoing program to acquire seismic velocity and geologic data at locations that recorded strong-ground motions during earthquakes, has investigated five sites in the Fortuna, California region (Figure 1). We selected drill sites at strong-motion stations that recorded high accelerations (Table 1) from the Cape Mendocino earthquake (M 7.0) of 25 April 1992 (Oppenheimer et al., 1993). The boreholes were drilled to a nominal depth of 95 meters (310 ft) and cased with schedule 80 pvc-casing grouted in place at each location. S-wave and P-wave data were acquired at each site using a surface source and a borehole three-component geophone. This report contains the velocity models interpreted from the borehole data and gives reference to locations and peak accelerations at the selected strong-motion stations.

  11. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is

  12. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers represent a well-established technology, which pushes for new fields of applications and novel modifications. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe features like inclined or partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We present a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. The presented tool benefits from the fast analytical solution of the thermal interactions within the boreholes while still allowing for a detailed consideration of the borehole heat exchanger properties.

  13. Ground Water Level Measurements in Selected Boreholes Near the Site of the Proposed Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Page, H. Scott

    2007-11-29

    The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) acquired quarterly and continuous data on water levels from approximately 26 boreholes that comprise a periodic monitoring network (Table 1) between October 2003 and September 2007. During this period we continued to observe and analyze short and long-term ground water level trends in periodically monitored boreholes. In this report we summarize and discuss four key findings derived from analysis of water level data acquired during this period: 1. Rapid ground water level rise after storm events in Forty Mile Canyon; 2. Seismically-induced ground water level fluctuations; 3. A sample of synoptic observations and barometric influences on short term fluctuations; and 4. Long term ground water level trends observed from mid-2001 through late-2005.

  14. Optimization of Borehole Heat Exchanger Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Arrays of borehole heat exchangers are an increasingly popular source for renewable energy. Furthermore, they can serve as borehole thermal energy storages for seasonally fluctuating heat sources like solar thermal energy or district heating grids. However, the uncertainty of geological parameters and the nonlinear behavior of the complex system make it difficult to simulate and predict the required design of borehole heat exchanger arrays. As a result, the arrays easily turn out to be over or undersized, which compromises the economic feasibility of these systems. Here, we present a novel optimization strategy for the design of borehole thermal energy storages. The arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion method is used to build a proxy model from a set of numerical training simulations, which allows for the consideration of parameter uncertainties. Thus, the resulting proxy model bypasses the problem of excessive computation time for the numerous function calls required for a mathematical optimization. Additionally, we iteratively refine the proxy model during the optimization procedure using additional numerical simulation runs. With the presented solution, many aspects of borehole heat exchanger arrays can be optimized under geological uncertainty.

  15. Inverse borehole coupling filters and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a new procedure for processing VSP and crosswell data acquired using an array of hydrophone. The procedure consists of three steps. In the first step the authors apply an inverse borehole coupling equation to convert hydrophone pressure data into borehole squeeze pressure data, by which the tube waves are significantly attenuated and the P-wave and S-wave are partially compensated for the borehole effects. In the second step, they make use of a partial differential equation that relates the borehole squeeze pressure to the pressure of the incident P-wave. In the third step, they show that one can also map the hydrophone pressure data into the geophone response, provided that both the P-wave and S-wave velocity profiles along the borehole are known. Several synthetic examples are used to demonstrate its accuracy. The Kent Cliffs hydrophone data are successfully processed using the above steps, and the data quality is found to be significantly improved.

  16. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  17. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde.

  18. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  19. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  20. Impaired ALDH2 activity decreases the mitochondrial respiration in H9C2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mali, Vishal R; Deshpande, Mandar; Pan, Guodong; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Palaniyandi, Suresh S

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated reactive aldehydes induce cellular stress. In cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, lipid-peroxidation derived reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) are known to contribute to the pathogenesis. 4HNE is involved in ROS formation, abnormal calcium handling and more importantly defective mitochondrial respiration. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily contains NAD(P)(+)-dependent isozymes which can detoxify endogenous and exogenous aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids. Therefore we hypothesize that 4HNE afflicts mitochondrial respiration and leads to cell death by impairing ALDH2 activity in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell lines. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were treated with 25, 50 and 75 μM 4HNE and its vehicle, ethanol as well as 25, 50 and 75 μM disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of ALDH2 and its vehicle (DMSO) for 4 h. 4HNE significantly decreased ALDH2 activity, ALDH2 protein levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity, and increased 4HNE adduct formation and cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes. ALDH2 inhibition by DSF and ALDH2 siRNA attenuated ALDH2 activity besides reducing ALDH2 levels, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and increased cell death. Our results indicate that ALDH2 impairment can lead to poor mitochondrial respiration and increased cell death in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes.

  1. Factors Affecting Seismic Velocity in Alluvium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Prothro, L.

    2015-12-01

    Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site has been selected as the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Dry Alluvium Geology Phase II site. The alluvium in this part of Yucca Flat is typical of desert basin fill, with discontinuous beds that are highly variable in clast size and provenance. Detailed understanding of the subsurface geology will be needed for interpretation of the SPE seismic data. A 3D seismic velocity model, created for Yucca Flat using interval seismic velocity data, shows variations in velocity within alluvium near the SPE Phase II site beyond the usual gradual increase of density with depth due to compaction. In this study we examined borehole lithologic logs, geophysical logs, downhole videos, and laboratory analyses of sidewall core samples to understand which characteristics of the alluvium are related to these variations in seismic velocity. Seismic velocity of alluvium is generally related to its density, which can be affected by sediment provenance, clast size, gravel percentage, and matrix properties, in addition to compaction. This study presents a preliminary subdivision of the alluvial strata in the SPE Phase II area into mappable units expected to be significant to seismic modeling. Further refinements of the alluvial units may be possible when seismic data are obtained from SPE Phase II tests. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    prism during IODP Exp. 319 and successfully recovered during IODP Exp. 332, both cruises being part of NanTroSEIZE (Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment). The 15-months long data showed transients related to the arrival of seismic waves, storms and can further be used for detection of seismogenic strain events. Moreover, based on tidal signals in the pressure data, it was possible to make assumptions regarding the elastic properties of the surrounding formation. The SmartPlug was exchanged by an enhanced version, the GeniusPlug, which provides additional fluid sampling devices and microbiological experiments during the monitoring period. Its recovery is planned for 2013. Going one step further in simplicity, a Mini-CORK has recently developed especially designed for the portable seafloor drill rig MeBo (MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany), which can be installed without a drillship and which, due to its telemetric unit, makes costly recovery operations obsolete. The MeBo can be operated from any re-search vessel and allows coring to a depth of 70 m, which may be followed by instrumentation of the borehole with the MeBo-CORK. Two designs are available: the first design allows in situ measurement of pressure and temperature solely, whereas the second design consists of a seafloor unit including additional mission specific sensors (osmo-samlers for geochemistry and microbiology, etc.). A first field test for the MeBo-CORKs into mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin is envisaged for summer 2012 to complement IODP project NanTroSEIZE.

  3. Protective effects of cynaroside against H₂O₂-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Sun, Gui-Bo; Wang, Min; Xiao, Jing; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2011-08-01

    Flavonoids with potent anti-oxidative effects are the major effective components in traditional herbal medicine used in treating cardiovascular diseases. Cynaroside is a flavonoid compound that exhibits anti-oxidative capabilities. However, little is known about its effect on oxidative injury to cardiac myocytes and the underlying mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of cynaroside against H(2) O(2) -induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. H9c2 cells were pretreated with cynaroside for 4 h before exposure to 150 µM H(2) O(2) for 6  h. H(2) O(2) treatment caused severe injury to the H9c2 cells, which was accompanied by apoptosis, as revealed by analysis of cell nuclear morphology, through Annexin V FITC/PI staining and caspase proteases activation. Cynaroside pretreatment significantly reduced the apoptotic rate by enhancing the endogenous anti-oxidative activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, thereby inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Moreover, cynaroside moderated H(2) O(2) -induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 while decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and thereby inhibited the release of apoptogenic factors (cytochrome c and smac/Diablo) from mitochondria in H9c2 cells. Our data also demonstrated that cynaroside pretreatment showed an inhibitory effect on the H(2) O(2) -induced increase in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P53 protein expression. These results suggest that cynaroside prevents H(2) O(2) -induced apoptosis in H9c2 cell by reducing the endogenous production of ROS, maintaining mitochondrial function, and modulating the JNK and P53 pathways.

  4. Protective effects of cynaroside against H₂O₂-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Sun, Gui-Bo; Wang, Min; Xiao, Jing; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2011-08-01

    Flavonoids with potent anti-oxidative effects are the major effective components in traditional herbal medicine used in treating cardiovascular diseases. Cynaroside is a flavonoid compound that exhibits anti-oxidative capabilities. However, little is known about its effect on oxidative injury to cardiac myocytes and the underlying mechanisms. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of cynaroside against H(2) O(2) -induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. H9c2 cells were pretreated with cynaroside for 4 h before exposure to 150 µM H(2) O(2) for 6  h. H(2) O(2) treatment caused severe injury to the H9c2 cells, which was accompanied by apoptosis, as revealed by analysis of cell nuclear morphology, through Annexin V FITC/PI staining and caspase proteases activation. Cynaroside pretreatment significantly reduced the apoptotic rate by enhancing the endogenous anti-oxidative activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, thereby inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Moreover, cynaroside moderated H(2) O(2) -induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 while decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and thereby inhibited the release of apoptogenic factors (cytochrome c and smac/Diablo) from mitochondria in H9c2 cells. Our data also demonstrated that cynaroside pretreatment showed an inhibitory effect on the H(2) O(2) -induced increase in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P53 protein expression. These results suggest that cynaroside prevents H(2) O(2) -induced apoptosis in H9c2 cell by reducing the endogenous production of ROS, maintaining mitochondrial function, and modulating the JNK and P53 pathways. PMID:21445859

  5. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  6. Thermal effects in borehole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dung Trung

    demonstration using a probabilistic approach is presented for the Barnett Shale. The selected porothermoelastic model shows that the cooling effect due to a ~30 °C temperature difference between the drilling mud and the formation is most likely the cause of the transverse tensile failures observed in horizontal open-hole borehole imaging logs.

  7. A borehole jack for deformability, strength, and stress measurements in a 2-inch borehole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. E.; Hovland, H. J.; Chirapuntu, S.

    1971-01-01

    A borehole jack devised for lunar exploration is described and results of its use in simulated lunar solids are presented. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between two stiff plates acts to spread the plates apart against the borehole walls when pressured. The spreading is measured by a displacement transducer and the load is measured hydraulically. The main improvement over previous instruments is the increased stroke, which allows large deformations of the borehole. Twenty-eight pistons are used to obtain a high hydraulic efficiency, and three return pistons are also provided. Pressure-deformation curves were obtained for each test on Lunar Soil Simulant No. 2, a light gray silty basalt powder.

  8. Velocity structure near IODP Hole U1309D, Atlantis Massif, from waveform inversion of streamer data and borehole measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Alistair J.; Arnulf, Adrien F.; Blackman, Donna K.

    2016-06-01

    Seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) is a promising method for determining the detailed velocity structure of the igneous oceanic crust, especially for locations such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge with significant lateral heterogeneity and seafloor topography. We examine the accuracy of FWI by inverting, after downward continuation to datum just above the seafloor, a multichannel seismic (MCS) profile from Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30°N that passes close to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1309D and comparing the results against borehole measurements and existing on-bottom refraction data. The comparisons include the results of IODP Expedition 340T, which extended the sonic logging and vertical seismic profiling to the bottom of the borehole at 1400 m below seafloor. Compared to travel time tomography, the refinement in velocity and velocity gradient produced by FWI significantly improves the overall match to the borehole measurements, and allows the multilevel pattern of deformation and alteration of the detachment footwall seen in Hole U1309D to be extrapolated across the Central Dome. Prestack depth migration of the profile using the FWI velocities reveals the top and edges of the high-velocity, gabbroic core of the massif. It also indicates that the comparatively uniform gabbroic rocks drilled at Hole U1309D extend to ˜2.5 km below seafloor but overlie an extended, ˜2 km thick, mantle transition zone.

  9. Expanding Conventional Seismic Stratigrphy into the Multicomponent Seismic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Innocent Aluka

    2008-08-31

    Multicomponent seismic data are composed of three independent vector-based seismic wave modes. These wave modes are, compressional mode (P), and shear modes SV and SH. The three modes are generated using three orthogonal source-displacement vectors and then recorded using three orthogonal vector sensors. The components travel through the earth at differing velocities and directions. The velocities of SH and SV as they travel through the subsurface differ by only a few percent, but the velocities of SV and SH (Vs) are appreciably lower than the P-wave velocity (Vp). The velocity ratio Vp/Vs varies by an order of magnitude in the earth from a value of 15 to 1.5 depending on the degree of sedimentary lithification. The data used in this study were acquired by nine-component (9C) vertical seismic profile (VSP), using three orthogonal vector sources. The 9C vertical seismic profile is capable of generating P-wave mode and the fundamental S-wave mode (SH-SH and SV-SV) directly at the source station and permits the basic components of elastic wavefield (P, SH-SH and SV-SV) to be separated from one another for the purposes of imaging. Analysis and interpretations of data from the study area show that incident full-elastic seismic wavefield is capable of reflecting four different wave modes, P, SH , SV and C which can be utilized to fully understand the architecture and heterogeneities of geologic sequences. The conventional seismic stratigraphy utilizes only reflected P-wave modes. The notation SH mode is the same as SH-SH; SV mode means SV-SV and C mode which is a converted shear wave is a special SV mode and is the same as P-SV. These four wave modes image unique geologic stratigraphy and facies and at the same time reflect independent stratal surfaces because of the unique orientation of their particle-displacement vectors. As a result of the distinct orientation of individual mode's particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical subsurface sequence more

  10. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  11. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  12. Seismic Prediction While Drilling (SPWD): Seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit using phased array sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Rüdiger; Kopf, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    In the case of drilling for deep reservoirs previous exploration is indispensable. In recent years the focus shifted more on geological structures like small layers or hydrothermal fault systems. Beside 2D- or 3D-seismics from the surface and seismic measurements like Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) or Seismic While Drilling (SWD) within a borehole these methods cannot always resolute this structures. The resolution is worsen the deeper and smaller the sought-after structures are. So, potential horizons like small layers in oil exploration or fault zones usable for geothermal energy production could be failed or not identified while drilling. The application of a device to explore the geology with a high resolution ahead of the drill bit in direction of drilling would be of high importance. Such a device would allow adjusting the drilling path according to the real geology and would minimize the risk of discovery and hence the costs for drilling. Within the project SPWD a device for seismic exploration ahead of the drill bit will be developed. This device should allow the seismic exploration to predict areas about 50 to 100 meters ahead of the drill bit with a resolution of one meter. At the GFZ a first prototype consisting of different units for seismic sources, receivers and data loggers has been designed and manufactured. As seismic sources four standard magnetostrictive actuators and as receivers four 3-component-geophones are used. Every unit, actuator or geophone, can be rotated in steps of 15° around the longitudinal axis of the prototype to test different measurement configurations. The SPWD prototype emits signal frequencies of about 500 up to 5000 Hz which are significant higher than in VSP and SWD. An increased radiation of seismic wave energy in the direction of the borehole axis allows the view in areas to be drilled. Therefore, every actuator must be controlled independently of each other regarding to amplitude and phase of the source signal to

  13. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  14. Fiber optics can improve borehole measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Eric O.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid flow in boreholes can give scientists important information about hydrogeological processes deep beneath the surface. Most studies measure flow using heat pulse, electromagnetic, and impeller flowmeters, but these methods are time-consuming and can actually obstruct the fluid being measured.

  15. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  16. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  2. Stimulating basal mitochondrial respiration decreases doxorubicin apoptotic signaling in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Deus, Cláudia M; Zehowski, Cheryl; Nordgren, Kendra; Wallace, Kendall B; Skildum, Andrew; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-08-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is currently used in cancer chemotherapy, however, its use often results in adverse effects highlighted by the development of cardiomyopathy and ultimately heart failure. Interestingly, DOX cardiotoxicity is decreased by resveratrol or by physical activity, suggesting that increased mitochondrial activity may be protective. Conversely, recent studies showed that troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, increases the cytotoxicity of DOX against breast cancer cells by up-regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. The hypothesis for the current investigation was that DOX cytotoxicity in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts is decreased when mitochondrial capacity is increased. We focused on several end-points for DOX cytotoxicity, including loss of cell mass, apoptotic signaling and alterations of autophagic-related proteins. Our results show that a galactose-based, modified cell culture medium increased H9c2 basal mitochondrial respiration, protein content, and mtDNA copy number without increasing maximal or spare respiratory capacity. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts cultured in the galactose-modified media showed lower DOX-induced activation of the apoptotic pathway, measured by decreased caspase-3 and -9 activation, and lower p53 expression, although ultimately loss of cells was not prevented. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone had no effect on DOX toxicity in this cardiac cell line, which agrees with the fact that troglitazone did not increase mitochondrial DNA content or capacity at the concentrations and duration of exposure used in this investigation. Our results show that mitochondrial remodeling caused by stimulating basal rates of oxidative phosphorylation decreased DOX-induced apoptotic signaling and increased DOX-induced autophagy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The differential effect on cytotoxicity in cardiac versus breast cancer cell lines suggests a possible overall improvement in the clinical efficacy for doxorubicin in treating cancer.

  3. Cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells present a valuable alternative to fish lethal testing for azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa T; Pardal, Miguel Â; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M Leonor; Oliveira, Paulo J; Serafim, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims at identifying, among six mammalian and fish cell lines, a sensitive cell line whose in vitro median inhibitory concentration (IC50) better matches the in vivo short-term Sparus aurata median lethal concentration (LC50). IC50s and LC50 were assessed after exposure to the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Statistical results were relevant for most cell lines after 48 h of AZX exposure, being H9c2 the most sensitive cells, as well as the ones which provided the best prediction of fish toxicity, with a LC50,96h/IC50,48h = 0.581. H9c2 cell proliferation upon 72 h of AZX exposure revealed a LC50,96h/IC50,72h = 0.998. Therefore, identical absolute sensitivities were attained for both in vitro and in vivo assays. To conclude, the H9c2 cell-based assay is reliable and represents a suitable ethical alternative to conventional fish assays for AZX, and could be used to get valuable insights into the toxic effects of other pesticides.

  4. Cytoprotective effect of rhamnetin on miconazole-induced H9c2 cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Jai-Eun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is closely related to miconazole-induced heart dysfunction. Although rhamnetin has antioxidant effects, it remained unknown whether it can protect against miconazole-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Thus, we investigated the effects of rhamnetin on miconazole-stimulated H9c2 cell apoptosis. MATERIALS/METHODS Cell morphology was observed by inverted microscope and cell viability was determined using a WelCount™ cell proliferation assay kit. Miconazole-induced ROS production was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluoroscein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) stain. Immunoblot analysis was used to determine apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE/Ref-1) and cleaved cysteine-aspartic protease (caspase) 3 expression. NADPH oxidase levels were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Miconazole (3 and 10 µM) induced abnormal morphological changes and cell death in H9c2 cells. Rhamnetin enhanced the viability of miconazole (3 µM)-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Rhamnetin (1 and 3 µM) treatment downregulated cleaved caspase 3 and upregulated APE/Ref-1 expression in miconazole-stimulated cells. Additionally, rhamnetin significantly reduced ROS generation. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that rhamnetin may have cytoprotective effects in miconazole-stimulated H9c2 cardiomyocytes via ROS inhibition. This effect most likely occurs through the upregulation of APE/Ref-1 and attenuation of hydrogen peroxide levels. PMID:26634046

  5. Safflower extract inhibiting apoptosis by inducing autophagy in myocardium derived H9C2 cell.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhisheng; Liu, Yancai; Su, Huailing; Li, Ming; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Ye; Li, Tenjiao; Fang, Youbo; Liang, Shimin

    2015-01-01

    The Heart failure (HF) is considered as the end-stage of various heart disease and associated with high mortality globally. Progressive loss of cardiac myocytes via apoptosis is considered as the most important factor for HF pathology. In this study, we demonstrated that Safflower extract was able to inhibitthe apoptosis inducted by Angiotensin II (AngII) in a ratmyocardium derived cell line H9C2. Further examination of LC-3II conversion and autophagosome formation suggested Safflower extract induced autophagy in treated cell. Inhibition of Safflower extract induced autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3MA) abolished anti-apoptotic function of Safflower extract, while application of autophagy stimulator Rapamycin in H9C2 inhibited apoptosis as well. Moreover, treatment of H9C2 cell with Safflower extract also inhibited expression of pro-apoptotic genes BAD and Bax. In conclusion, our data indicated that Safflower extract inhibit apoptosis via inducing autophagy in myocardium cell and demonstrated the potential as novel therapeutic drug for Heart failure. PMID:26884938

  6. Seismic seiches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

  7. Report on the Test and Evaluation of the Kinemetrics/Quanterra Q730B Borehole Digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    KROMER,RICHARD P.; MCDONALD,TIMOTHY S.

    1999-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated the Kinemetrics/Quanterra Q730B-bb (broadband) and Q730B-sp (short period) borehole installation remote digitizers. The test results included in this report were for response to static and dynamic input signals, seismic application performance, data time-tag accuracy, and reference signal generator (calibrator) performance. Most test methodologies used were based on IEEE Standards 1057 for Digitizing Waveform Recorders and P1241 (Preliminary Draft) for Analog to Digital Converters; others were designed by Sandia specifically for seismic application evaluation and for supplementary criteria not addressed in the IEEE standards. When appropriate, test instrumentation calibration is traceable to the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST).

  8. Data Acquisition and Processing with a Three-Component Borehole Magnetometer in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hoerdt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2011-12-01

    Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008. The aim of this project was the understanding of the ore formation process in the Outokumpu mining region. Using the high precision gyro data, we can compute the vector of the magnetic anomaly with respect to the Earth's reference frame North, East and Downwards. Based on the comparison of several logs, the estimated precision is 0.75 ° in azimuthal direction and 0.2 ° in inclination. The vector information of the magnetic anomalies was used to compute models of the magnetized rock units of the environment of the borehole via numerical simulations. By differentiating between short scale (wavelength < 10 m) and long scale (wavelength > 10 m) magnetic anomalies, we developed two different models. The first concerns the drilled-through Outokumpu-assemblage in the direct vicinity (< 50 m) of the borehole. Here, we could identify a tilted layer and related the dip and dip-azimuth with the direction of fracture zones, obtained from televiewer data. The second model concerns the geological structure of the surrounding (< 1 km) of the drill site. By joint interpretation with seismic profiles we were able to link the seismic reflectivity with magnetic properties. This yields an estimate of the mineralogy for rock units away from the borehole path, which were not cored. The orientation information provided by the GBM was also used to compute the borehole path with an accuracy better than 5 m at a logging depth of 1440 m.

  9. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  10. Using the STOMP (Seismic TOMography Program) Program for tomography with strong ray bending

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, J.A.; Berryman, J.G.

    1987-08-31

    Accurate tomographic reconstructions of sound wave speed and attenuation are more difficult to obtain than are the corresponding reconstructions for x-rays or high frequency electromagnetic probes. The source of the difficulty is the common occurrence of large contrasts in acoustic or seismic wave speeds, leading to refraction and ray-bending effects. A new algorithm based on Fermat's principle has been developed to treat these problems. A description of the code STOMP (for Seismic TOMography Program) implementing the new algorithm is presented here together with a brief users manual for applications to borehole-to-borehole tomography. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Acoustic-electromagnetic effects of tectonic movements of the crust - borehole survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, V. N.; Malkin, E. I.; Druzhin, G. I.; Sannikov, D. V.; Pukhov, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    Borehole radiophysical properties are briefly described. Borehole investigation of lithosphere acoustic-electromagnetic radiation was carried out in a seismically active region. Four main types of anomalies of acoustic-electromagnetic radiation were distinguished. They correspond to shear and bulk relaxations of tectonic stress. Stability of phase relations of acoustic and electromagnetic signals in the region of anomalies was detected that allows us to state their coherence. It was concluded that the reason of mutual coherence of acoustic and electromagnetic signals is the magnetoelastic effect of the casing pipe. A mechanism of generation of rock self-induced vibrations during tectonic stress relaxation causing acoustic-electromagnetic emission was suggested. It was concluded that "sigmoid" anomalies may correlate with excitation of eigen vibrations in a fracture cavity during brittle shear relaxation of rock tectonic stress. An explanation of the change of anomalous "sigmoid" signal frequency was given. It is considered to be the result of growth of rock fracture cavity and the decrease of tectonic stress relaxation. It was concluded that a borehole, cased in a steel pipe, together with a system of inductance coils and a hydrophone is the effective sounding sensor for acoustic fields of interior deep layers. It may be applied to investigate and to monitor the geodynamic activity, in particular, in earthquake forecasts and in monitoring of hydrocarbon deposits during their production.

  12. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  13. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  14. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  15. Broad Band Data and Noise Observed with Surface Station and Borehole Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Behiye Akşahin, Bengi; Hatipoglu, Mustafa; Cagin Yalcintepe, Ragip; Ada, Samim; Meral Ozel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Marmara region tectonically is very active and many destructive earthquakes happened in the past. North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses the Marmara region and it has three branches. The northern branch passes through Marmara Sea and expected future large earthquake will happen along this fault zone. There is a gap in seismic network in the Marmara region at offshore and onshore areas. We have started broadband borehole seismographic observations to obtain the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea, as a part of the MARsite collaborative Project, namely "New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite-MARsite". The target area western Marmara of Turkey. In the beginning of the project, we installed eight Broadband surface station around Marmara Sea in April 2014. Then, we added broadband sensor and broadband surface sensor at the same location in November 2014. In this study, we developed a Matlab application to calculate Power Spectral Density against the New Low Noise Model (NLNM) and New High Noise Model (NHNM) determined for one-hour segments of the data. Also we compared ambient noise of broadband borehole sensor and surface broadband sensor.

  16. Borehole fracture detection using magnetic powder

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for detecting fractures in a formation penetrated by a borehole wherein the fracture is first filled with a magnetic material and the formation then logged with an instrument that responds to the earth's magnetic field. The fracture can be filled with a magnetic material by including it in the drilling mud when the well is drilled and changing the mud system before logging. The logging tool can comprise a simple compass or a magnetometer.

  17. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  18. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  19. Cardiomyoblast (H9c2) Differentiation on Tunable Extracellular Matrix Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Suhaeri, Muhammad; Subbiah, Ramesh; Van, Se Young; Du, Ping; Kim, In Gul; Lee, Kangwon

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrices (ECM) obtained from in vitro-cultured cells have been given much attention, but its application in cardiac tissue engineering is still limited. This study investigates cardiomyogenic potential of fibroblast-derived matrix (FDM) as a novel ECM platform over gelatin or fibronectin, in generating cardiac cell lineages derived from H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. As characterized through SEM and AFM, FDM exhibits unique surface texture and biomechanical property. Immunofluorescence also found fibronectin, collagen, and laminin in the FDM. Cells on FDM showed a more circular shape and slightly less proliferation in a growth medium. After being cultured in a differentiation medium for 7 days, H9c2 cells on FDM differentiated into cardiomyocytes, as identified by stronger positive markers, such as α-actinin and cTnT, along with more elevated gene expression of Myl2 and Tnnt compared to the cells on gelatin and fibronectin. The gap junction protein connexin 43 was also significantly upregulated for the cells differentiated on FDM. A successive work enabled matrix stiffness tunable; FDM crosslinked by 2wt% genipin increased the stiffness up to 8.5 kPa, 100 times harder than that of natural FDM. The gene expression of integrin subunit α5 was significantly more upregulated on FDM than on crosslinked FDM (X-FDM), whereas no difference was observed for β1 expression. Interestingly, X-FDM showed a much greater effect on the cardiomyoblast differentiation into cardiomyocytes over natural one. This study strongly indicates that FDM can be a favorable ECM microenvironment for cardiomyogenesis of H9c2 and that tunable mechanical compliance induced by crosslinking further provides a valuable insight into the role of matrix stiffness on cardiomyogenesis. PMID:25836924

  20. Application of novel anodized titanium for enhanced recruitment of H9C2 cardiac myoblast

    PubMed Central

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Moradi, Iman; Kazemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Anodized treated titanium surfaces, have been proposed as potential surfaces with better cell attachment capacities. We have investigated the adhesion and proliferation properties of H9C2 cardiac myoblasts on anodized treated titanium surface. Materials and Methods: Surface topography and anodized tubules were examined by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Control and test substrates were inserted to the bottom of 24-well tissue culture plates. Culture media including H9C2 cells were loaded on the surface of substrate and control wells at the second passage. Evaluation of cell growth, proliferation, viability and surface cytotoxicity was performed using MTT test. After 48 hr, some samples were inspected by SEM. DAPI-staining was used to count attached cells. Results: MTT results for cells cultured on anodized titanium and unanodized titanium surfaces was equal to 1.56 and 0.55 fold change compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The surface had no cytotoxic effects on cells. The average cell attachment to TCPS, unanodized and anodized titanium surface was 2497±40.16, 1250±20.11 and 4859.5±54.173, respectively. Cell adhesion to anodized titanium was showed 1.95 and 3.89 fold increase compared to TCPS and unanodized titanium, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Anodized titanium surfaces can be potentially applied for enhanced recruitment of H9C2 cells. This unique property makes these inexpensive anodized surfaces as a candidate surface for attachment of cardiac cells and consequently for cardiac regeneration purposes. PMID:26526098

  1. Subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the U.S. Beaufort Margin: 2. Borehole constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Carolyn; Herman, Bruce M.; Brothers, Laura L.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Borehole logging data from legacy wells directly constrain the contemporary distribution of subsea permafrost in the sedimentary section at discrete locations on the U.S. Beaufort Margin and complement recent regional analyses of exploration seismic data to delineate the permafrost's offshore extent. Most usable borehole data were acquired on a ∼500 km stretch of the margin and within 30 km of the contemporary coastline from north of Lake Teshekpuk to nearly the U.S.-Canada border. Relying primarily on deep resistivity logs that should be largely unaffected by drilling fluids and hole conditions, the analysis reveals the persistence of several hundred vertical meters of ice-bonded permafrost in nearshore wells near Prudhoe Bay and Foggy Island Bay, with less permafrost detected to the east and west. Permafrost is inferred beneath many barrier islands and in some nearshore and lagoonal (back-barrier) wells. The analysis of borehole logs confirms the offshore pattern of ice-bearing subsea permafrost distribution determined based on regional seismic analyses and reveals that ice content generally diminishes with distance from the coastline. Lacking better well distribution, it is not possible to determine the absolute seaward extent of ice-bearing permafrost, nor the distribution of permafrost beneath the present-day continental shelf at the end of the Pleistocene. However, the recovery of gas hydrate from an outer shelf well (Belcher) and previous delineation of a log signature possibly indicating gas hydrate in an inner shelf well (Hammerhead 2) imply that permafrost may once have extended across much of the shelf offshore Camden Bay.

  2. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  3. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, K.

    2014-01-01

    Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995-1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100-150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85-90 mW m-2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m-2) are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90-100 mW m-2) are also observed in the peninsular (western) part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60-70 mW m-2) are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  4. Combined wave propagation analysis of earthquake recordings from borehole and building sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, B.; Parolai, S.; Dikmen, U.; Safak, E.; Moldobekov, B.; Orunbaev, S.

    2015-12-01

    In regions highly exposed to natural hazards, Early Warning Systems can play a central role in risk management and mitigation procedures. To improve at a relatively low cost the spatial resolution of regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems, decentralized onsite EEW and building monitoring, a wireless sensing unit, the Self-Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) was developed and further improved to include the multi-parameter acquisition. SOSEWINs working in continuous real time mode are currently tested on various sites. In Bishkek and Istanbul, an instrumented building is located close to a borehole equipped with downhole sensors. The joint data analysis of building and borehole earthquake recordings allows the study of the behavior of the building, characteristics of the soil, and soil-structure interactions. The interferometric approach applied to recordings of the building response is particularly suitable to characterize the wave propagation inside a building, including the propagation velocity of shear waves and attenuation. Applied to borehole sensors, it gives insights into velocity changes in different layers, reflections and mode conversion, and allows the estimation of the quality factor Qs. We used combined building and borehole data from the two test sites: 1) to estimate the characteristics of wave propagation through the building to the soil and back, and 2) to obtain an empirical insight into soil-structure interactions. The two test sites represent two different building and soil types, and soil structure impedance contrasts. The wave propagation through the soil to the building and back is investigated by the joint interferometric approach. The propagation of up and down-going waves through the building and soil is clearly imaged and the reflection of P and S waves from the earth surface and the top of the building identified. An estimate of the reflected and transmitted energy amounts is given, too.

  5. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.517 Section 174.517 Protection of... Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The plant-incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for...

  6. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.517 Section 174.517 Protection of... Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The plant-incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for...

  7. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.517 Section 174.517 Protection of... Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The plant-incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for...

  8. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.517 Bacillus thuringiensis... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for...

  9. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.517 Bacillus thuringiensis... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for...

  10. Coseismic offsets recorded by borehole strainmeters from the 2014, Mw 6.0 South Napa, California earthquake: Reconciling tidal calibrations with earthquake source models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbein, J. O.

    2015-12-01

    The 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa, California earthquake produced significant offsets on 12 borehole strainmeters in the San Francisco Bay area. These strainmeters are located between 24 and 80 km from the source and the observed offsets ranged up to 400 parts-per-billion (ppb), which exceeds their nominal precision by a factor of 100. However, the observed offsets in tidally-calibrated strains have RMS deviation of 130 ppb from strains predicted by previously published moment tensor derived from seismic data. Here, I show that the large misfit can be reduced by a combination of better tidal calibration and better modeling of the strain field from the earthquake. Borehole strainmeters require in-situ calibration, which historically has been accomplished by comparing their measurements of Earth tides with the strain-tides predicted by a model. Although borehole strainmeters accurately measure the deformation within the borehole, the long-wavelength strain signals from tides or other tectonic processes recorded in the borehole are modified by the presence of the borehole and the elastic properties of the grout and the instrument. Previous analyses of surface-mounted, strainmeter data and their relationship with the predicted tides suggest that tidal models could be in error by 30%. The poor fit of the borehole strainmeter data from this earthquake can be improved by simultaneously varying the components of the model tides up to 30% and making small adjustments to the point-source model of the earthquake, which reduces the RMS misfit from 130 to 18 ppb. This suggests that calibrations derived solely from tidal models limits the accuracy of borehole strainmeters. On the other hand, the revised calibration derived here becomes testable on strain measurements from future, large Bay area events.

  11. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  12. Microplasticity effect in low-velocity zone induced by seismic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinskii, E. I.

    2012-08-01

    Microplasticity effects in loam caused by seismic wave of frequency about 1000 Hz are detected in the borehole-to-borehole measurements. Microplasticity manifestations on seismic record are presented as the ladder-like stepwise changes in amplitude course. The step (plateau) on seismic trace is time delay, its duration depends on the strain-amplitude value. Time delay changes the frequency characteristic of stress pulse, nonlinearly transforms wave front, and shifts the amplitude maximum along time axis. The microplastic process occurs owing to the anomalous realignment of the internal stresses on the microstructural defects in the area of small deformations. This is the useful contribution to wave propagation physics. The received results can also be used in solving the applied problems in material science, seismic prospecting, diagnostics, etc.

  13. Morphine Attenuated the Cytotoxicity Induced by Arsenic Trioxide in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Momeny, Majid; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Khedri, Mostafa; Jahanabadi, Samane; Mohammadi-Asl, Ali; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaie; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is an efficient drug for the treatment of the patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptosis, attenuation of migration, and induction of differentiation in tumor cells are the main mechanisms through which ATO acts against APL. Despite advantages of ATO in treatment of some malignancies, certain harmful side effects, such as cardiotoxicity, have been reported. It has been well documented that morphine has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and cytoprotective properties and is able to attenuate cytotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of morphine against ATO toxicity in H9c2 myocytes using multi-parametric assay including thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caspase 3 activity, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation assay, and expression of apoptotic markers. Our results showed that morphine (1 μM) attenuated cytotoxicity induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Results of this study suggest that morphine may have protective properties in management of cardiac toxicity in patients who receive ATO as an anti-cancer treatment. PMID:26815588

  14. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-9 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drellack, S.L.; Wells, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The H-9 complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 5.5 miles south of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during July, August, and September 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-9a (total depth 559 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9b (total depth 708 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; H-9c (total depth 816 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-9c are eolian sand of Holocene age (0-5 feet); the Gatuna Formation of Pleistocene age; (5-25 feet); and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (25-455 feet), the Rustler Formation (455.791 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (791-816 feet), all of Permian age. Three sections (494-501 feet, 615-625 feet, 692-712 feet) in the Rustler Formation penetrated by borehole H-9c are composed of remnant anhydrite (locally altered to gypsum) and clay and silt residue from the dissolution of much thicker seams of argillaceous and silty halite. This indicates that the eastward-moving dissolution within the Rustler Formation, found just to the west of the WIPP site, is present at the H-9 site. (USGS)

  15. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  16. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Seismic Symphonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  18. Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidrih, R.; Godec, M.; Gosar, A.; Sincic, P.; Tasic, I.; Zivcic, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Seismology Office is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. In the year 2000 the project Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network started. The purpose of a modernized seismic network is to enable fast and accurate automatic location of earthquakes, to determine earthquake parameters and to collect data of local, regional and global earthquakes. The modernized network will be finished in the year 2004 and will consist of 25 Q730 remote broadband data loggers based seismic station subsystems transmitting in real-time data to the Data Center in Ljubljana, where the Seismology Office is located. The remote broadband station subsystems include 16 surface broadband seismometers CMG-40T, 5 broadband seismometers CMG-40T with strong motion accelerographs EpiSensor, 4 borehole broadband seismometers CMG-40T, all with accurate timing provided by GPS receivers. The seismic network will cover the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2. The network is planned in this way; more seismic stations will be around bigger urban centres and in regions with greater vulnerability (NW Slovenia, Krsko Brezice region). By the end of the year 2002, three old seismic stations were modernized and ten new seismic stations were built. All seismic stations transmit data to UNIX-based computers running Antelope system software. The data is transmitted in real time using TCP/IP protocols over the Goverment Wide Area Network . Real-time data is also exchanged with seismic networks in the neighbouring countries, where the data are collected from the seismic stations, close to the Slovenian border. A typical seismic station consists of the seismic shaft with the sensor and the data acquisition system and, the service shaft with communication equipment (modem, router) and power supply with a battery box. which provides energy in case

  19. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  20. Seismic methods for resource exploration in enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gritto, Roland; Majer, Ernest L.

    2002-06-12

    A finite-difference modeling study of seismic wave propagation was conducted to determine how to best investigate subsurface faults and fracture zones in geothermal areas. The numerical model was created based on results from a previous seismic reflection experiment. A suite of fault models was investigated including blind faults and faults with surface expressions. The seismic data suggest that blind faults can be detected by a sudden attenuation of seismic wave amplitudes, as long the fault is located below the receiver array. Additionally, a conversion from P- to S-waves indicates the reflection and refraction of the P-waves while propagating across the fault. The drop in amplitudes and the excitation of S-waves can be used to estimate the location of the fault at depth. The accuracy of the numerical modeling depends on the availability of a priori in situ information (velocity and density) from borehole experiments in the geothermal area.

  1. Obtaining anisotropic velocity data for proper depth seismic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Egerev, Sergey; Yushin, Victor; Ovchinnikov, Oleg; Dubinsky, Vladimir; Patterson, Doug

    2012-05-24

    The paper deals with the problem of obtaining anisotropic velocity data due to continuous acoustic impedance-based measurements while scanning in the axial direction along the walls of the borehole. Diagrams of full conductivity of the piezoceramic transducer were used to derive anisotropy parameters of the rock sample. The measurements are aimed to support accurate depth imaging of seismic data. Understanding these common anisotropy effects is important when interpreting data where it is present.

  2. Seismic measurements of the internal properties of fault zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, W.D.; Ginzburg, A.

    1986-01-01

    The internal properties within and adjacent to fault zones are reviewed, principally on the basis of laboratory, borehole, and seismic refraction and reflection data. The deformation of rocks by faulting ranges from intragrain microcracking to severe alteration. Saturated microcracked and mildly fractured rocks do not exhibit a significant reduction in velocity, but, from borehole measurements, densely fractured rocks do show significantly reduced velocities, the amount of reduction generally proportional to the fracture density. Highly fractured rock and thick fault gouge along the creeping portion of the San Andreas fault are evidenced by a pronounced seismic low-velocity zone (LVZ), which is either very thin or absent along locked portions of the fault. Thus there is a correlation between fault slip behavior and seismic velocity structure within the fault zone; high pore pressure within the pronounced LVZ may be conductive to fault creep. Deep seismic reflection data indicate that crustal faults sometimes extend through the entire crust. Models of these data and geologic evidence are consistent with a composition of deep faults consisting of highly foliated, seismically anisotropic mylonites. ?? 1986 Birkha??user Verlag, Basel.

  3. Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

  4. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  5. HO-1 Protects against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongling; Jin, Zhe; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Linlin; Chen, Kai; He, Xianghu; Song, Yinwei; Ke, Jianjuan; Wang, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction would ultimately lead to myocardial cell apoptosis and death during ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Autophagy could ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction by autophagosome forming, which is a catabolic process to preserve the mitochondrial’s structural and functional integrity. HO-1 induction and expression are important protective mechanisms. This study in order to investigate the role of HO-1 during mitochondrial damage and its mechanism. Methods and Results The H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell line were incubated by hypoxic and then reoxygenated for the indicated time (2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h). Cell viability was tested with CCK-8 kit. The expression of endogenous HO-1(RT-PCR and Western blot) increased with the duration of reoxygenation and reached maximum levels after 2 hours of H/R; thereafter, the expression gradually decreased to a stable level. Mitochondrial dysfunction (Flow cytometry quantified the ROS generation and JC-1 staining) and autophagy (The Confocal microscopy measured the autophagy. RFP-GFP-LC3 double-labeled adenovirus was used for testing.) were induced after 6 hours of H/R. Then, genetic engineering technology was employed to construct an Lv-HO1-H9c2 cell line. When HO-1 was overexpressed, the LC3II levels were significantly increased after reoxygenation, p62 protein expression was significantly decreased, the level of autophagy was unchanged, the mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly increased, and the mitochondrial ROS level was significantly decreased. Furthermore, when the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP was applied the level of autophagy after reoxygenation was significantly inhibited, and no significant improvement in mitochondrial dysfunction was observed. Conclusions During myocardial hypoxia-reoxygenation injury, HO-1 overexpression induces autophagy to protect the stability of the mitochondrial membrane and reduce the amount of mitochondrial oxidation products, thereby exerting a protective effect. PMID

  6. Curcumin Suppresses Gelatinase B Mediated Norepinephrine Induced Stress in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Shrey; Chhabra, Aastha; Jaiswal, Astha; Rustagi, Yashika; Sharma, Manish; Rani, Vibha

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling facilitates biomechanical signals in response to abnormal physiological conditions. This process is witnessed as one of the major effects of the stress imposed by catecholamines, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE), on cardiac muscle cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the key proteases involved in degradation of the ECM in heart. Objectives The present study focuses on studying the effect of curcumin on Gelatinase B (MMP-9), an ECM remodeling regulatory enzyme, in NE-induced cardiac stress. Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol found in the spice turmeric, has been studied for its multi-fold beneficial properties. This study focuses on investigating the role of curcumin as a cardio-protectant. Methods H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to NE and curcumin treatments to study the response in stress conditions. Effect on total collagen content was studied using Picrosirus red staining. Gelatinase B activity was assessed through Gel-Diffusion Assay and Zymographic techniques. RT-PCR, Western Blotting and Immunocytochemistry were performed to study effect on expression of gelatinase B. Further, the effect of curcumin on the localization of NF-κB, known to regulate gelatinase B, was also examined. Results Curcumin suppressed the increase in the total collagen content under hypertrophic stress and was found to inhibit the in-gel and in-situ gelatinolytic activity of gelatinase B. Moreover, it was found to suppress the mRNA and protein expression of gelatinase B. Conclusions The study provides an evidence for an overall inhibitory effect of curcumin on Gelatinase B in NE-induced hypertrophic stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes which may contribute in the prevention of ECM remodeling. PMID:24116115

  7. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  8. Modelling spatial oscillations in soil borehole bacteria.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, M J; Cribbin, L B; Winstanley, H F; Fowler, A C

    2014-12-21

    Spatial oscillations in groundwater contaminant concentrations can be successfully explained by consideration of a competitive microbial community in conditions of poor nutrient supply, in which the effects of spatial diffusion of the nutrient sources are included. In previous work we showed that the microbial competition itself allowed oscillations to occur, and, in common with other reaction-diffusion systems, the addition of spatial diffusion transforms these temporal oscillations into travelling waves, sometimes chaotic. We therefore suggest that irregular chemical profiles sometimes found in contaminant plume borehole profiles may be a consequence of this competition.

  9. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  10. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  11. Simulation of wave propagation in boreholes and radial profiling of formation elastic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shihong

    Modern acoustic logging tools measure in-situ elastic wave velocities of rock formations. These velocities provide ground truth for time-depth conversions in seismic exploration. They are also widely used to quantify the mechanical strength of formations for applications such as wellbore stability analysis and sand production prevention. Despite continued improvements in acoustic logging technology and interpretation methods that take advantage of full waveform data, acoustic logs processed with current industry standard methods often remain influenced by formation damage and mud-filtrate invasion. This dissertation develops an efficient and accurate algorithm for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in fluid-filled boreholes in the presence of complex, near-wellbore damaged zones. The algorithm is based on the generalized reflection and transmission matrices method. Assessment of mud-filtrate invasion effects on borehole acoustic measurements is performed through simulation of time-lapse logging in the presence of complex radial invasion zones. The validity of log corrections performed with the Biot-Gassmann fluid substitution model is assessed by comparing the velocities estimated from array waveform data simulated for homogeneous and radially heterogeneous formations that sustain mud-filtrate invasion. The proposed inversion algorithm uses array waveform data to estimate radial profiles of formation elastic parameters. These elastic parameters can be used to construct more realistic near-wellbore petrophysical models for applications in seismic exploration, geo-mechanics, and production. Frequency-domain, normalized amplitude and phase information contained in array waveform data are input to the nonlinear Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Validation of both numerical simulation and inversion is performed against previously published results based on the Thomson-Haskell method and travel time tomography, respectively. This exercise indicates that the

  12. Quantifying the similarity of seismic polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua P.; Eaton, David W.; Caffagni, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the similarities of seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low signal-to-noise (S/N) signals and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values or known seismic sources. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in S/N ratio. Measuring polarization similarity allows easy identification of site noise and sensor misalignment and can help identify coherent noise and emergent or low S/N phase arrivals. Dissimilar azimuths during phase arrivals indicate misaligned horizontal components, dissimilar incidence angles during phase arrivals indicate misaligned vertical components and dissimilar linear polarization may indicate a secondary noise source. Using records of the Mw = 8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake, from Canadian National Seismic Network broad-band sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and a vertical borehole array at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Time-frequency polarization similarities of borehole data suggest that a coherent noise source may have persisted above 8 Hz several months after peak resource extraction from a `flowback' type hydraulic fracture.

  13. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  14. High Temperature Borehole Televiewer software user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, L.E.

    1989-11-01

    The High Temperature Borehole Televiewer is a downhole instrument which provides acoustic pictures of the borehole walls that are suitable for casing inspection and fracture detection in geothermal wells. The Geothermal Drilling Organization has funded the development of a commercial tool survivable to temperatures of 275{degree}C and pressures of 5000 psi. A real-time display on an IBM-compatible PC was included as part of the development effort. This report contains a User Manual which describes the operation of this software. The software is designed in a menu format allowing the user to change many of the parameters which control both the acquisition and the display of the Televiewer data. An internal data acquisition card digitizes the waveform from the tool at a rate of 100,000 samples per second. The data from the tool, both the range or arrival time and the amplitude of the return signal, are displayed in color on the CRT screen of the computer during the logging operation. This data may be stored on the hard disk for later display and analysis. The software incorporates many features which aid in the setup of the tool for proper operation. These features include displaying and storing the captured waveform data to check the voltage and time windows selected by the user. 17 refs., 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Tremor Constraints on Moment Release During the 2007 ETS from Surface and Borehole Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Melbourne, T. I.; Scrivner, C.

    2007-12-01

    The 2007 ETS event, which began around Jan 15 beneath the southwestern Puget Basin and ended around Feb 5 beneath southern Vancouver Island, was well-recorded on local surface seismic arrays, EarthScope borehole- seismometers, strainmeters and long-baseline tiltmeters, and continuous GPS of the PANGA and PBO networks. Seismic tremor, however, offers the highest resolution for studying moment release through time, since tremor bursts lasting less than 10-seconds are often visible across stations. To test the hypothesis that tremor and transient deformation are two manifestations of the same faulting process, and to quantify the relative contribution of moment release during times of strain-transients versus other times, we systematically analyze the tremor bursts during the time period of 2005-2007.2, which includes the 2007 ETS event. We first consolidate daily seismic files from the Puget Basin of Washington State and SW British Columbia, where GPS density is highest. Seismic traces are included from the PNSN, the PBO borehole seismic network, and the EarthScope-funded CAFE experiment. We remove instrument gain, decimate the data to 10 sps, rectify it, compute its envelope using a Hilbert transform, and average the envelopes from regionally adjacent stations to provide a single metric indicative of tremor activity. This process is effective in quantifying small tremor bursts lacking GPS-inferred deformation and accurately identifies timing and duration of known events. We then compare tremor duration to equivalent moment slip inversions of corresponding GPS-derived deformation to obtain a model that relates hours of tremor to moment magnitude. To locate the tremor during the 2007 event, we use both picked waveform peaks and cross-correlated envelopes of band-pass filtered instruments. The location is determined by minimizing the L2-norm of the vector containing the differences between the measured and predicted stations offsets for a 3D grid of possible locations

  16. Downhole Measurements of Shear- and Compression-Wave Velocities in Boreholes C4993, C4996, C4997 and C4998 at the Waste Treatment Plant DOE Hanford Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Redpath, Bruce B.

    2007-04-27

    This report describes the procedures and the results of a series of downhole measurements of shear- and compression-wave velocities performed as part of the Seismic Boreholes Project at the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The measurements were made in several stages from October 2006 through early February 2007. Although some fieldwork was carried out in conjunction with the University of Texas at Austin (UT), all data acquired by UT personnel are reported separately by that organization.

  17. Technical Basis for Certification of Seismic Design Criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Youngs, R.R.; Costantino, C.J.; Miller, L.F.

    2008-07-01

    In August 2007, Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman approved the final seismic and ground motion criteria for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. Construction of the WTP began in 2002 based on seismic design criteria established in 1999 and a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The design criteria were reevaluated in 2005 to address questions from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB), resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. DOE announced in 2006 the suspension of construction on the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities within the WTP to validate the design with more stringent seismic criteria. In 2007, the U.S. Congress mandated that the Secretary of Energy certify the final seismic and ground motion criteria prior to expenditure of funds on construction of these two facilities. With the Secretary's approval of the final seismic criteria in the summer of 2007, DOE authorized restart of construction of the pretreatment and high-level waste vitrification facilities. The technical basis for the certification of seismic design criteria resulted from a two-year Seismic Boreholes Project that planned, collected, and analyzed geological data from four new boreholes drilled to depths of approximately 1400 feet below ground surface on the WTP site. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analyses was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The absence of directly-measured seismic shear wave velocities in the sedimentary interbeds resulted in the use of a wider and more conservative range of velocities in the 2005 analyses. The Seismic Boreholes Project was designed to directly measure the velocities and velocity contrasts in the basalts and sediments below the WTP, reanalyze the ground motion response, and assess the level of conservatism in the 2005 seismic design criteria

  18. Seismic signatures of the Lodgepole fractured reservoir in Utah-Wyoming overthrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.; Collier, H.; Angstman, B.

    1997-08-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based upon the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. We present the feasibility of using seismic measurement techniques to map the fracture zones between wells spaced 2400 ft at depths of about 1000 ft. For this purpose we constructed computer models (which include azimuthal anisotropy) using Lodgepole reservoir parameters to predict seismic signatures recorded at the borehole scale, crosswell scale, and 3 D seismic scale. We have integrated well logs with existing 2D surfaces seismic to produce petrophysical and geological cross sections to determine the reservoir parameters and geometry for the computer models. In particular, the model responses are used to evaluate if surface seismic and crosswell seismic measurements can capture the anisotropy due to vertical fractures. Preliminary results suggested that seismic waves transmitted between two wells will propagate in carbonate fracture reservoirs, and the signal can be received above the noise level at the distance of 2400 ft. In addition, the large velocities contrast between the main fracture zone and the underlying unfractured Boundary Ridge Member, suggested that borehole reflection imaging may be appropriate to map and fracture zone thickness variation and fracture distributions in the reservoir.

  19. The 1996-2009 borehole dilatometer installations, operation, and maintenance at sites in Long Valley Caldera, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myren, Glenn; Johnston, Malcolm; Mueller, Robert

    2011-01-01

    High seismicity levels with accelerating uplift (under the resurgent dome) in Long Valley caldera in the eastern Sierra Nevada from 1989 to 1997, triggered upgrades to dilational strainmeters and other instrumentation installed in the early 1980's following a series of magnitude 6 earthquakes. This included two additional high-resolution borehole strainmeters and replacement of the failed strainmeter at Devil's Postpile. The purpose of the borehole-monitoring network is to monitor crustal deformation and other geophysical parameters associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes in the Long Valley Caldera. Additional instrumentation was added at these sites to improve the capability of providing continuous monitoring of the magma source under the resurgent dome. Sites were selected in regions of hard crystalline rock, where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of an earthquake of magnitude 4 or greater is large. For the most part, the dilatometers were installed near existing arrays of surface tiltmeters, seismometers, level line, and GPS arrays. At each site, attempts are made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources in each instrument type. Each of these sites was planned to be a multi-parameter monitoring site, which included measurements of 3-component seismic velocity and acceleration, borehole strain, tilt, pore pressure and magnetic field. Using seismicity, geophysical knowledge, geologic and topographic maps, and geologists recommendations, lists of preliminary sites were chosen. Additional requirements were access, and telemetry constraints. When the final site choice was made, a permit was obtained from the U.S. Forest Service. Following this selection process, two new borehole sites were installed on the north and south side of the Long Valley Caldera in June of 1999. One site was located near Big Spring Campground to the east of Crestview. The second site was

  20. A pilot, first-in-human, pharmacokinetic study of 9cUAB30 in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Jill M; Hoel, Ryan; Pomplun, Marcia; Havighurst, Tom; Stublaski, Jeanne; Wollmer, Barbara; Krontiras, Helen; Brouillette, Wayne; Muccio, Donald; Kim, Kyungmann; Grubbs, Clinton J; Bailey, Howard E

    2010-12-01

    9cUAB30 is a synthetic analog of 9-cis-retinoic acid with chemopreventive activity in cell lines and in animal models. The purpose of this first-in-human evaluation of 9cUAB30 was to evaluate the single-dose pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity of the compound in healthy volunteers at 3 dose levels. This study enrolled 14 patients to receive a single dose of 5, 10, or 20 mg of 9cUAB30. Plasma and urine samples were collected to assess 9cUAB30 concentrations by a validated LC/MS MS method. 9cUAB30 was well tolerated, with 1 patient experiencing grade 2 toxicity and no grade 3 or 4 toxicities reported. T(max) occurred approximately 3 hours after dose administration with the plasma half-life ranging from 2.79 to 7.21 hours. AUC increased linearly across the examined dose range of 5 to 20 mg; C(max) was proportional to the log of the dose. The plasma clearance ranged from 25 to 39 L/h compared to the renal clearance which ranged from 0.018 to 0.103 L/h. 9cUAB30 has a favorable toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile, with oral availability and primarily hepatic metabolism. Further dose ranging studies with once a day dosing are underway.

  1. Naoxintong/PPARα Signaling Inhibits H9c2 Cell Apoptosis and Autophagy in Response to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huimin; Jin, Jianhua; Chen, Lu; Li, Chunxiao; Xu, Qinggang; Shi, Juanjuan; Zhao, Buchang; Hou, Yongzhong; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Naoxintong (NXT) is an empirical formula based on the principle of traditional Chinese medicine, which has been approved by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and is widely used for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in China. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective mechanism of NXT on H9c2 cells (cardiogenic cell line) in response to H2O2. MTT, Western blot, and flow cytometry (FCM) methods were used to identify the protective effect of NXT extract on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. Here we found that NXT extract significantly increased H9c2 cell viability and reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and autophagy. More importantly, NXT inhibited H2O2-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and autophagy by increasing PPARα protein levels. In contrast, silenced PPARα terminated NXT protective effect on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. These findings suggest that NXT/PPARα signaling suppressed H2O2-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:27668004

  2. Naoxintong/PPARα Signaling Inhibits H9c2 Cell Apoptosis and Autophagy in Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huimin; Jin, Jianhua; Chen, Lu; Li, Chunxiao; Xu, Qinggang; Shi, Juanjuan; Zhao, Buchang

    2016-01-01

    Naoxintong (NXT) is an empirical formula based on the principle of traditional Chinese medicine, which has been approved by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and is widely used for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in China. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective mechanism of NXT on H9c2 cells (cardiogenic cell line) in response to H2O2. MTT, Western blot, and flow cytometry (FCM) methods were used to identify the protective effect of NXT extract on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. Here we found that NXT extract significantly increased H9c2 cell viability and reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and autophagy. More importantly, NXT inhibited H2O2-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and autophagy by increasing PPARα protein levels. In contrast, silenced PPARα terminated NXT protective effect on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. These findings suggest that NXT/PPARα signaling suppressed H2O2-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:27668004

  3. Naoxintong/PPARα Signaling Inhibits H9c2 Cell Apoptosis and Autophagy in Response to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huimin; Jin, Jianhua; Chen, Lu; Li, Chunxiao; Xu, Qinggang; Shi, Juanjuan; Zhao, Buchang

    2016-01-01

    Naoxintong (NXT) is an empirical formula based on the principle of traditional Chinese medicine, which has been approved by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and is widely used for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in China. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective mechanism of NXT on H9c2 cells (cardiogenic cell line) in response to H2O2. MTT, Western blot, and flow cytometry (FCM) methods were used to identify the protective effect of NXT extract on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. Here we found that NXT extract significantly increased H9c2 cell viability and reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and autophagy. More importantly, NXT inhibited H2O2-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and autophagy by increasing PPARα protein levels. In contrast, silenced PPARα terminated NXT protective effect on H2O2-induced H9c2 cells. These findings suggest that NXT/PPARα signaling suppressed H2O2-induced H9c2 cell apoptosis and autophagy.

  4. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  5. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  6. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  7. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  8. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  9. Development of a new borehole acoustic televiewer for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.K.; Hinz, K.; Archuleta, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany and the Los Alamos National Laboratory of the United States are jointly developing a borehole acoustic televiewer for use in geothermal wellbores. The tool can be described as five subsystems working together to produce a borehole image. Each of the subsystems will be described. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Preliminary stratigraphic and hydrogeologic cross sections and seismic profile of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    To help water-resource managers evaluate the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) as an alternative water supply, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study, in cooperation with the Broward County Environmental Protection and Growth Management Department, to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the FAS in the eastern part of Broward County. This report presents three preliminary cross sections illustrating stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County as well as an interpreted seismic profile along one of the cross sections. Marker horizons were identified using borehole geophysical data and were initially used to perform well-to-well correlation. Core sample data were integrated with the borehole geophysical data to support stratigraphic and hydrogeologic interpretations of marker horizons. Stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units were correlated across the county using borehole geophysical data from multiple wells. Seismic-reflection data were collected along the Hillsboro Canal. Borehole geophysical data were used to identify and correlate hydrogeologic units in the seismic-reflection profile. Faults and collapse structures that intersect hydrogeologic units were also identified in the seismic profile. The information provided in the cross sections and the seismic profile is preliminary and subject to revision.

  12. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  13. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF LACTUCA SERRIOLA ON DOXORUBICIN-INDUCED TOXICITY IN H9C2 CELLS.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Azar; Mahdian, Davood

    2016-01-01

    The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependency because of its cardiotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathological process. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of Lactuca seniola against DOX-induced apoptosis and death in H9C2 cells. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of extract for 4 h which continued in the presence or absence of 5 µM doxorubicin for 24 h. Cell viability, apoptotic induction and the level of apoptotic proteins were determined by using MTT, PI and immunoblotting assays, respectively. The level of lipid peroxidation was measured by fluorimetric method. DOX significantly decreased cell viability which was accompanied by an increase in ROS production and lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with Lactuca seniola increased the viability of cardiomyocytes and could decrease lipid peroxidation. Also, Lactuca seriola inhibited the reduction of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and elevation of apoptotic Bax and caspase-3 proteins. In conclusion, Lactuca seniola exerts protective effect against oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocytes damage. Therefore, it has the potential to be used as cardioprotective agent by the patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27476284

  14. Imaginary part of the 9C-9Be single-folded optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Charity, R. J.

    2016-09-01

    In a recent publication we have argued that using two very successful n -9Be optical potentials [A. Bonaccorso and R. J. Charity, Phys. Rev. C 89, 024619 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.024619] and microscopic projectile densities, it is possible to build a single-folded (light-) nucleus-9Be imaginary optical potential which is more accurate than a double-folded optical potential. By comparing to experimental reaction cross sections, we showed for 8B,8Li, and 8C projectiles, that a very good agreement between theory and data could be obtained with such a "bare" potential, at all but the lowest energies where a small semimicroscopic surface term was added to the single-folded potential to take into account projectile breakup. In this paper we extend this study to the case of 9C projectiles and assess the sensitivity to the projectile density used. We then obtained the modulus of the nucleus-nucleus S matrix and parametrize it in terms of a strong-absorption radius Rs and finally extracted the phenomenological energy dependence of this radius. This approach could be the basis for a systematic study of optical potentials for light exotic nuclei scattering on light targets and/or parametrizations of the S matrix. Furthermore our study will serve to make a quantitative assessment of the description of the core-target part of knockout reactions, in particular their localization in terms of impact parameters.

  15. Proteasome inhibitors attenuated cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjung; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoo, Young Sook; Song, Eun Joo

    2016-05-01

    The Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in protein degradation, cell cycle control, and growth and inflammatory cell signaling. Dysfunction of UPS in cardiac diseases has been seen in many studies. Cholesterol acts as an inducer of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the cholesterol-induced hypertrophic growth in H9c2 cells is examined in order to observe whether UPS is involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The treatment of proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib markedly reduced cellular surface area and mRNA expression of β-MHC in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, activated AKT and ERK were significantly attenuated by MG132 and Bortezomib in cholesterol- induced cardiac hypertrophy. We demonstrated that cholesterol- induced cardiac hypertrophy was suppressed by proteasome inhibitors. Thus, regulatory mechanism of cholesterol- induced cardiac hypertrophy by proteasome inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of heart failure. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 270-275]. PMID:26592933

  16. Proteasome inhibitors attenuated cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunjung; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Yoo, Young Sook; Song, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    The Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in protein degradation, cell cycle control, and growth and inflammatory cell signaling. Dysfunction of UPS in cardiac diseases has been seen in many studies. Cholesterol acts as an inducer of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the cholesterol-induced hypertrophic growth in H9c2 cells is examined in order to observe whether UPS is involved in cardiac hypertrophy. The treatment of proteasome inhibitors MG132 and Bortezomib markedly reduced cellular surface area and mRNA expression of β-MHC in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, activated AKT and ERK were significantly attenuated by MG132 and Bortezomib in cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We demonstrated that cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy was suppressed by proteasome inhibitors. Thus, regulatory mechanism of cholesterol-induced cardiac hypertrophy by proteasome inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic strategy to prevent the progression of heart failure. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 270-275] PMID:26592933

  17. Piperazine designer drugs induce toxicity in cardiomyoblast h9c2 cells through mitochondrial impairment.

    PubMed

    Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Silva, Renata; Barbosa, Daniel José; da Silva, Diana Dias; Rossato, Luciana Grazziotin; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Carmo, Helena

    2014-08-17

    Abuse of synthetic drugs is widespread among young people worldwide. In this context, piperazine derived drugs recently appeared in the recreational drug market. Clinical studies and case-reports describe sympathomimetic effects including hypertension, tachycardia, and increased heart rate. Our aim was to investigate the cytotoxicity of N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP), 1-(4-methoxyphenyl) piperazine (MeOPP), and 1-(3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl) piperazine (MDBP) in the H9c2 rat cardiac cell line. Complete cytotoxicity curves were obtained at a 0-20 mM concentration range after 24 h incubations with each drug. The EC50 values (μM) were 343.9, 59.6, 570.1, and 702.5 for BZP, TFMPP, MeOPP, and MDBP, respectively. There was no change in oxidative stress markers. However, a decrease in total GSH content was noted for MDBP, probably due to metabolic conjugation reactions. All drugs caused significant decreases in intracellular ATP, accompanied by increased intracellular calcium levels and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential that seems to involve the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. The cell death mode revealed early apoptotic cells and high number of cells undergoing secondary necrosis. Among the tested drugs, TFMPP seems to be the most potent cytotoxic compound. Overall, piperazine designer drugs are potentially cardiotoxic and support concerns on risks associated with the intake of these drugs.

  18. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  19. Characterizing fractures and shear zones in crystalline rock using seismic and GPR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Jordi, Claudio; Laaksonlaita, Niko; Gischig, Valentin; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the natural or artificially created hydraulic conductivity of a rock mass is critical for the successful exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The hydraulic response of fractured crystalline rock is largely governed by the spatial organization of permeable fractures. Defining the 3D geometry of these fractures and their connectivity is extremely challenging, because fractures can only be observed directly at their intersections with tunnels or boreholes. Borehole-based and tunnel-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic measurements have the potential to image fractures and other heterogeneities between and around boreholes and tunnels, and to monitor subtle time-lapse changes in great detail. We present the analysis of data acquired in the Grimsel rock laboratory as part of the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment, in which a series of stimulation experiments have been and will be performed. The experiments in the granitic rock range from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. The aim is to obtain a better understanding of coupled seismo-hydro-mechanical processes associated with high-pressure fluid injections in crystalline rocks and their impact on permeability creation and enhancement. GPR and seismic data have been recorded to improve the geological model and characterize permeable fractures and shear zones. The acquired and processed data include reflection GPR profiles measured from tunnel walls, single-borehole GPR images, and borehole-to-borehole and tunnel-to-tunnel seismic and GPR tomograms. The reflection GPR data reveal the geometry of shear zones up to a distance of 30 m from the tunnels and boreholes, but the interpretation is complicated by the geometrical ambiguity around tunnels and boreholes and by spurious reflections from man-made structures such as boreholes. The GPR and seismic traveltime tomography results reveal brittle fractured rock between two ductile shear zones. The

  20. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  1. Advances in crosswell electromagnetics steel cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P E; Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P

    1999-03-01

    The Crosswell electromagnetic (EM) induction technique ideally measures the resistivity distribution between boreholes which may often be cased with carbon steel. Quantification of the effect of such steel casing on the induced field is the most significant limitation of the technique. Recent data acquired at a site in Richmond, California quantify the effect of steel casing on induction measurements and demonstrate this effect to be separable. This unique site contains adjacent steel and plastic wells in which frequency soundings demonstrate low spectrum (1.0 - 50 Hz) measurements an effective means of isolating the casing response from, the formation response. It is also shown that the steel casing effect on the induction coil is highly localized, and limited to less than 0.30 meters above and below the coil.

  2. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Donald N.

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  3. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Youngsoo

    2010-05-01

    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  4. Installation and Initial Results of Borehole Strainmeters around the Marmara Sea in Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, David; Bohnhoff, Marco; Ozener, Haluk; Mattioli, Glen; Bilham, Roger; Johnson, Wade; Gottlieb, Mike; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Aracel, Digdem; Bulut, Fatih; Bal, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Twice in the past 1000 years a sequence of damaging earthquakes has propagated during the course of a few decades along the North Anatolian fault (NAF) in Turkey towards Istanbul, with the final earthquake in the sequence catastrophically destroying the city. This occurred most recently in 1509 when the population was only about 200,000 yet ten thousand people died. The population of greater Istanbul is now 20 million, building stock more fragile, and the last earthquake of the current westward propagating sequence is considered geologically imminent. An opportunity to enhance the detection capability of a suite of deep seismometers installed near Istanbul has arisen, that will permit us to observe, characterize, and possibly predict the moment of imminent failure along the NAF, as well as monitor the tectonic processes leading to this failure. As an augmentation of the Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault (GONAF), UNAVCO installed two continuous creepmeters and six borehole strainmeters between July 2014 and October 2015 into boreholes provided by the several international sponsors, including NSF, GFZ, AFAD and Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory. The entire geophysical sensor network is collectively referred to as GeoGONAF. The borehole strainmeters enhance the ability of the scientific instrumentation to monitor ultra-slow process near the probable source zone of the Mw>7 earthquake that is soon expected beneath the Marmara Sea. The strainmeters and creepmeters allow us to make geodetic observations of this segment of the fault before, during and after a large earthquake, which combined with the seismic data from GONAF will provide valuable data for understanding earthquake processes. Installed instruments have already recorded both local and teleseismic events and observed creep events on the on-shore segments of the NAF to the East of the Marmara. In addition we have seen typical hydrological loading signals associated with normal modes of

  5. A compendium of P- and S-wave velocities from surface-to-borehole logging; summary and reanalysis of previously published data and analysis of unpublished data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David M.

    2003-01-01

    For over 28 years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been acquiring seismic velocity and geologic data at a number of locations in California, many of which were chosen because strong ground motions from earthquakes were recorded at the sites. The method for all measurements involves picking first arrivals of P- and S-waves from a surface source recorded at various depths in a borehole (as opposed to noninvasive methods, such as the SASW method [e.g., Brown et al., 2002]). The results from most of the sites are contained in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (see References). Until now, none of the results have been available as computer files, and before 1992 the interpretation of the arrival times was in terms of piecemeal interval velocities, with no attempt to derive a layered model that would fit the travel times in an overall sense (the one exception is Porcella, 1984). In this report I reanalyze all of the arrival times in terms of layered models for P- and for S-wave velocities at each site, and I provide the results as computer files. In addition to the measurements reported in the open-file reports, I also include some borehole results from other reports, as well as some results never before published. I include data for 277 boreholes (at the time of this writing; more will be added to the web site as they are obtained), all in California (I have data from boreholes in Washington and Utah, but these will be published separately). I am also in the process of interpreting travel time data obtained using a seismic cone penetrometer at hundreds of sites; these data can be interpreted in the same way of those obtained from surface-to-borehole logging. When available, the data will be added to the web site (see below for information on obtaining data from the World Wide Web (WWW)). In addition to the basic borehole data and results, I provide information concerning strong-motion stations that I judge to be close enough to the boreholes

  6. Historical seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dengler, L.

    1992-01-01

    The North Coast region of California in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino is one of the state's most seismically active areas, accounting for 25 percent of seismic energy release in California during the last 50 years. the region is located in a geologically dynamic are surrounding the Mendocino triple junction where three of the Earth's tectonic plates join together ( see preceding article by Sam Clarke). In the historic past the North Coast has been affected by earthquakes occurring on the San Andreas fault system to the south, the Mendocino fault to the southwest, and intraplate earthquakes within both the Gorda and North American plates. More than sixty of these earthquakes have caused damage since the mid-1800's. Recent studies indicate that California's North Coast is also at risk with respect to very large earthquakes (magnitude >8) originating along the Cascadia subduction zone. Although the subduction zone has not generated great earthquakes in historic time, paleoseismic evidence suggests that such earthquakes have been generated by the subduction zone in the recent prehistoric past. 

  7. Tilt observations using borehole tiltmeters. 2. Analysis of data from Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Meertens, C.; Levine, J.; Busby, R. National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO Univ. of Colorado, Boulder )

    1989-01-10

    The authors have installed borehole tiltmeters at five sites in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and have used these instruments to measure the spatial variation of the amplitude and phase of the principal semidiurnal tide. The measured tides vary both with position and azimuth and differ from the sum of the body tide and the ocean load by up to 50%. The difference predicted by a finite element model constructed from seismic, refraction, and gravity data has a maximum value of only 12%, although the discrepancy between these observations and the model is only marginally significant at some sites. The disagreement between the model and the observations is much larger than they observed using the same instruments a other sites and cannot be attributed to an instrumental effect. They have been unable to modify the model to explain their results while keeping it consistent with the previous observations.

  8. Deep borehole disposition of surplus fissile materials-The site selection process

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H

    1996-05-01

    One option for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology exists to immediately begin the design of this means of disposition and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous US. The borehole system utilizes mainly natural barriers to preven migration of Pu and U to the Earth`s surface. Careful site selection ensures favorable geologic conditions that provide natural long-lived migration barriers; they include deep, extremely stable rock formations, strongly reducing brines that exhibit increasing salinity with depth, and most importantly, demonstrated isolation or non-communication of deep fluids with the biosphere for millions of years. This isolation is the most important characteristic, with the other conditions mainly being those that will enhance the potential of locating and maintaining the isolated zones. Candidate sites will probably be located on the craton in very old Precambrian crystalline rocks, most likely the center of a granitic pluton. The sites will be located in tectonically stable areas with no recent volcanic or seismic activity, and situated away from tectonic features that might become active in the near geologic future.

  9. Downhole measurements in the AND-1B borehole, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.; Williams, T.; Henrys, S.; Crosby, T.; Hansaraj, D.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive set of downhole measurements was collected in the AND-1B drillhole as part of the on-ice scientific programme defined for the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) Project. Geophysical logs were recorded over two operation phases and consisted of calliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, induction resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, natural gamma activity, acoustic televiewer, borehole deviation, and dipmeter. In addition, two standard vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and one walk-away VSP were obtained. Radioactive logs (porosity and density) were not run because of unstable borehole conditions. Although the total depth of the hole is 1285 metres below seafloor (mbsf), the depth range for in situ measurements was limited by the length of the wireline (1018 mbsf) and by the nullification of some geophysical logs due to the presence of steel casing. A depth correction was derived to account for systematic discrepancies in depth between downhole measurements and cores; consequently, log responses can be directly compared to core properties. The resulting data are amenable to studies of cyclicity and climate, heat flux and fluid flow, and stricture and stress. When integrated with physical properties and fractures measured on the core, this information should play a significant role in addressing many of the scientific objectives of the ANDRILL programme.

  10. Deep Borehole Measurements for Characterizing the Magma/Hydrothermal System at Long Valley Caldera, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Carrrigan, Charles R.

    1989-03-21

    The Magma Energy Program of the Geothermal Technology Division is scheduled to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in Long Valley Caldera, California in 1989. The drilling site is near the center of the caldera which is associated with numerous shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies. This deep well will present an unparalleled opportunity to test and validate geophysical techniques for locating magma as well as a test of the theory that magma is still present at drillable depths within the central portion of the caldera. If, indeed, drilling indicates magma, the geothermal community will then be afforded the unique possibility of examining the coupling between magmatic and hydrothermal regimes in a major volcanic system. Goals of planned seismic experiments that involve the well include the investigation of local crustal structure down to depths of 10 km as well as the determination of mechanisms for local seismicity and deformation. Borehole electrical and electromagnetic surveys will increase the volume and depth of rock investigated by the well through consideration of the conductive structure of the hydrothermal and underlying regimes. Currently active processes involving magma injection will be studied through observation of changes in pore pressure and strain. Measurements of in situ stress from recovered cores and hydraulic fracture tests will be used in conjunction with uplift data to determine those models for magmatic injection and inflation that are most applicable. Finally, studies of the thermal regime will be directed toward elucidating the coupling between the magmatic source region and the more shallow hydrothermal system in the caldera fill. To achieve this will require careful logging of borehole fluid temperature and chemistry. In addition, studies of rock/fluid interactions through core and fluid samples will allow physical characterization of the transition zone between hydrothermal and magmatic regimes.

  11. Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Descamps, G.E.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

  12. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  13. Seasonal reorganization of subglacial drainage inferred from measurements in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Shulamit; Sharp, Martin; Hubbard, Bryn; Smart, Chris; Ketterling, Brad; Willis, Ian

    1998-01-01

    The effect of the formation of a major subglacial drainage channel on the behaviour of the subglacial drainage system of Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland, was investigated using measurements of borehole water level and the electrical conductivity and turbidity of basal meltwaters. Electrical conductivity profiles were also measured within borehole water columns to identify the water sources driving water level changes, and to determine patterns of water circulation in boreholes. Prior to channel formation, boreholes showed idiosyncratic and poorly coordinated behaviour. Diurnal water level fluctuations were small and driven by supraglacial/englacial water inputs, even when boreholes were connected to a subglacial drainage system. This system appeared to consist of hydraulically impermeable patches interspersed with storage spaces, and transmitted a very low water flux. Drainage reorganization, which occurred around 31 July, 1993, in response to rapidly rising meltwater and rainfall inputs, seems to have involved the creation of a connection between an incipient channel and a well-established channelized system located further down-glacier. Once a major channel existed within the area of the borehole array, borehole water level fluctuations were forced by discharge-related changes in channel water pressure, although a diversity of responses was observed. These included (i) synchronous, (ii) damped and lagged, (iii) inverse, and (iv) alternating inverse/lagged responses. Synchronous responses occurred in boreholes connected directly to the channel, while damped and lagged responses occurred in boreholes connected to it by a more resistive drainage system. Pressure variations within the channel resulted in diurnal transfer of mechanical support for the ice overburden between connected and unconnected areas of the bed, producing inverse and alternating patterns of water level response.

  14. Determination of Cry9C protein in corn-based foods by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Trucksess, N W

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (Enviro-Logix) was assessed for the determination of Cry9C protein, which is produced by the genetically modified corn StarLink, in 8 types of corn-based foods (starch, refined oil, soft tortillas, tortilla chips, corn flakes, corn puffs, corn muffins, and corn bread) in an interlaboratory study involving 7 laboratories in the United States. The assay kit is a double antibody sandwich and is based on the specific interaction between antibody and antigen. The Cry9C protein analyte is sandwiched between 2 antibodies, one to capture the analyte and the other is conjugated to the enzyme, horseradish peroxidase. The enzyme uses tetramethylbenzidine/peroxide for color development. A strong acid stopping reagent is then used to change the color from blue to a stable yellow. The intensity of the color is proportional to the concentration of the Cry9C protein. In this study blind duplicates of control samples (blank material prepared from non- StarLink corn), spiked samples (blank material with the addition of Cry9C protein), and samples containing incurred analyte (products prepared with StarLink corn) were analyzed. Cry9C protein from 2 different sources was used to spike the food products. Cry9C protein produced and purified from a bacterial host was used to prepare spiked test samples at 2.72 and 6.8 ng/g. Cry9C protein from StarLink corn flour was used to prepare spiked samples at 1.97 ng/g. Average recoveries for samples spiked with corn flour Cry9C protein at 1.97 ng/g ranged from 73 to 122%, within-laboratory relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 6 to 22%, and between-laboratories relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 16 to 56%. Average recoveries for samples spiked with bacterial Cry9C protein at 2.72 and 6.8 ng/g ranged from 27 to 96% and from 32 to 113%, respectively; RSDr values ranged from 10 to 35% and from 7 to 38%, respectively; and the RSDR ranged from 28

  15. N-acetylcysteine amide decreases oxidative stress but not cell death induced by doxorubicin in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Aronstam, Robert S; Ercal, Nuran; Martin, Adam; Huang, Yue-Wern

    2009-01-01

    Background While doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in cancer chemotherapy, long-term severe cardiotoxicity limits its use. This is the first report of the chemoprotective efficacy of a relatively new thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), on DOX-induced cell death in cardiomyocytes. We hypothesized that NACA would protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes from DOX-induced toxicity by reducing oxidative stress. Accordingly, we determined the ability of NACA to mitigate the cytotoxicity of DOX in H9c2 cells and correlated these effects with the production of indicators of oxidative stress. Results DOX at 5 μM induced cardiotoxicity while 1) increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), 2) decreasing levels and activities of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and 3) increasing lipid peroxidation. NACA at 750 μM substantially reduced the levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation, as well as increased both GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio. However, treating H9c2 cells with NACA did little to protect H9c2 cells from DOX-induced cell death. Conclusion Although NACA effectively reduced oxidative stress in DOX-treated H9c2 cells, it had minimal effects on DOX-induced cell death. NACA prevented oxidative stress by elevation of GSH and CYS, reduction of ROS and lipid peroxidation, and restoration of antioxidant enzyme activities. Further studies to identify oxidative stress-independent pathways that lead to DOX-induced cell death in H9c2 are warranted. PMID:19368719

  16. Autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated cell death in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yuqin; Xue Tao; Yang Xiaochun; Zhu Hong; Ding Xiaofei; Lou Liming; Lu Wei; Yang Bo; He Qiaojun

    2010-10-01

    Sunitinib, which is a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, exhibits antiangiogenic and antitumor activity, and extends survival of patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This molecule has also been reported to be associated with cardiotoxicity at a high frequency, but the mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we observed that Sunitinib showed high anti-proliferative effect on H9c2 cardiac muscle cells measured by PI staining and the MTT assay. But apoptotic markers (PARP cleavage, caspase 3 cleavage and chromatin condensation) were uniformly negative in H9c2 cells after Sunitinib treatment for 48 h, indicating that another cell death pathway may be involved in Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity. Here we found Sunitinib dramatically increased autophagic flux in H9c2 cells. Acidic vesicle fluorescence and high expression of LC3-II in H9c2 cells identified autophagy as a Sunitinib-induced process that might be associated with cytotoxicity. Furthermore, knocking down Beclin 1 by RNA-interference to block autophagy in H9c2 cells revealed that the death rate was decreased when treated with Sunitinib in comparison to control cells. These results confirmed that autophagy plays an important role in Sunitinib-mediated H9c2 cells cytotoxicity. Taken together, the data presented here strongly suggest that autophagy is associated with Sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity, and that inhibition of autophagy constitutes a viable strategy for reducing Sunitinib-induced cardiomyocyte death thereby alleviating Sunitinib cardiotoxicity.

  17. Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be

  18. Sequential Camouflage of the arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 Cage by Substituents.

    PubMed

    Bakardjiev, Mario; Štíbr, Bohumil; Holub, Josef; Tok, Oleg L; Švec, Petr; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Růžička, Aleš

    2016-07-18

    Sequential methylation of arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 (1) led to a series of methyl derivatives and finally to the camouflaging of all boron positions by mixed persubstitution. Thus, deprotonation of 1 produced the [arachno-6,9-C2B8H13] anion (1(-)), the methylation of which with MeI in tetrahydrofuran proceeded on the open-face boron vertexes with the formation of 5-Me-arachno-6,9-C2B8H13 (2; yield 28%) and 5,8-Me2-arachno-6,9-C2B8H12 (3; yield 36%). Observed in this reaction was also a side formation of 2-Me-closo-1,6-C2B8H9 (4; yield 6%).The electrophilic AlCl3-catalyzed CH3(+) attack of the neutral 1 in neat MeI at ambient temperature afforded 1,3-Me2-arachno-6,9-C2B8H12 (5), while a 76-h heating at 120 °C generated a mixture of the di- and triiodo derivatives 1,2,3,4,8,10-Me6-5,7-I2-arachno-6,9-C2B8H6 (6) and 1,2,3,4,7-Me5-5,7,10-I3-arachno-6,9-C2B8H6 (7). On the other hand, a HOTf-catalyzed reaction between 1 and MeOTf at reflux resulted in the isolation of 2-TfO-1,3.4,5,7,8,10-Me7-arachno-6,9-C2B8H6 (8; Tf = CF3SO2; yield 65%). The compounds were characterized by multinuclear ((11)B, (1)H, (13)C, and (19)F) NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis, and the structures of compounds 1, 1(-), 5, and 6 were established by X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:27351461

  19. Development of the Multi-Level Seismic Receiver (MLSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Engler, B.P.; Drozda, P.M.; Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Advanced Geophysical Technology Department (6114) and the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in conjunction with the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a Multi-Level Seismic Receiver (MLSR) for use in crosswell seismic surveys. The MLSR was designed and evaluated with the significant support of many industry partners in the oil exploration industry. The unit was designed to record and process superior quality seismic data operating in severe borehole environments, including high temperature (up to 200{degrees}C) and static pressure (10,000 psi). This development has utilized state-of-the-art technology in transducers, data acquisition, and real-time data communication and data processing. The mechanical design of the receiver has been carefully modeled and evaluated to insure excellent signal coupling into the receiver.

  20. Optimizing Seismic Monitoring Networks for EGS and Conventional Geothermal Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Toni; Herrmann, Marcus; Bethmann, Falko; Stefan, Wiemer

    2013-04-01

    location problem. Optimization for additional criteria (e.g., focal mechanism determination or installation costs) can be included. We consider a 3D seismic velocity model, an European ambient seismic noise model derived from high-resolution land-use data, and existing seismic stations in the vicinity of the geotechnical site. Additionally, we account for the attenuation of the seismic signal with travel time and ambient seismic noise with depth to be able to correctly deal with borehole station networks. Using this algorithm we are able to find the optimal geometry and size of the seismic monitoring network that meets the predefined application-oriented performance criteria. This talk will focus on optimal network geometries for deep geothermal projects of the EGS and hydrothermal type, and discuss the requirements for basic seismic surveillance and high-resolution reservoir monitoring and characterization.

  1. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  2. Building a 3D geological near surface model from borehole and laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, P.; Tisato, N.; Pfiffner, O. A.; Frehner, M.

    2012-04-01

    The interpretation of active seismic survey data usually results in a subsurface P-wave velocity model. Such models commonly do not include the near surface, but end a few hundreds of meters beneath the Earth's surface. However, near surface effects, such as low-velocity zones or topography can influence the seismic signal significantly. Therefore, it is important to extend the P-wave velocity model all the way to the Earth's surface. As a test site of this study, we use the underground gas storage facility in Chémery (France), located at the south-western border of the Paris Basin. Velocities and lithological data of the shallow formations can be found in a public dataset, which collects data of a large number of short boreholes (BRGM online catalog: infoterre.brgm.fr/viewer). From the lithological data a structural model defined by surfaces gridded from well markers and faults derived from the analysis of these surfaces, is generated. The generation of the structural model comprised some major challenges, mainly because the borehole data represent 1D vertical pinpoints into the subsurface, rather than 2D sections as it is the case for most seismic surveys. This complicated the cross-correlation between the boreholes and the interpolation of the lithological formations in the 3D space. After the structural model has been generated, the velocity logs were upscaled to the model and interpolated to generate a near-surface P wave velocity model. To better constrain the velocity model, laboratory measurements of P-wave velocity were conducted. We collected 24 hand specimens from outcrops, from which we drilled core plugs. The sampled lithologies are 6 different sedimentary rock types, mostly calcarenites. The measurements were conducted employing the pulse transmission method for compression (Vp) and shear (Vs) waves in dry and fully water saturated conditions. Density and porosity were measured with two different methods: (1) with a helium pycnometer, and (2

  3. Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Baku City and Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect

    Babayev, Gulam R.

    2006-03-23

    This paper deals with the seismic hazard assessment for Baku and the Absheron peninsula. The assessment is based on the information on the features of earthquake ground motion excitation, seismic wave propagation (attenuation), and site effect. I analyze active faults, seismicity, soil and rock properties, geological cross-sections, the borehole data of measured shear-wave velocity, lithology, amplification factor of each geological unit, geomorphology, topography, and basic rock and surface ground motions. To estimate peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the surface, PGA at the basic rock is multiplied by the amplification parameter of each surface layers. Quaternary soft deposits, representing a high risk due to increasing PGA values at surface, are studied in detail. For a near-zone target earthquake PGA values are compared to intensity at MSK-64 scale for the Absheron peninsula. The amplification factor for the Baku city is assessed and provides estimations for a level of a seismic motion and seismic intensity of the studied area.

  4. Crustal structure of Siberia: a new appraisal of old seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanova, Yu; Artemieva, I. M.; Milshtein, E.; Erinchek, Yu. M.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    We review the structure of the crust and the sedimentary cover in an area that encompasses two largest tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberia basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton, and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. We compiled "from scratch" all available seismic data for the region, from the late 1960-ies until present. Our compilation includes results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data; data along seismic profiles are digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with resolution of seismic models. Seismic data on the structure of the sedimentary cover was complemented by borehole data, where available. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition and interpretation, a special attention was paid to this problem and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. We have intentionally excluded unreliable constraints, such as based on gravity modelling or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/ refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and allows examining spatial correlations with tectonic and geological structures, providing the basis for studies of crustal evolution and mantle modeling.

  5. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  6. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  7. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  8. Myricitrin Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Apoptosis through Activating Akt-Nrf2 Signaling in H9c2 Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Yaping; Shen, Qiang; Liu, Guiyan; Ye, Jingxue; Sun, Guibo; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, as well as diabetes mellitus, has been shown to trigger cardiac cell apoptosis. We have previously demonstrated that myricitrin prevents endothelial cell apoptosis. However, whether myricitrin can attenuate H9c2 cell apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we established an experiment model in H9c2 cells exposed to high glucose. We tested the hypothesis that myricitrin may inhibit high glucose (HG)-induced cardiac cell apoptosis as determined by TUNEL staining. Furthermore, myricitrin promoted antioxidative enzyme production, suppressed high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in H9c2 cells. This agent significantly inhibited apoptotic protein expression, activated Akt and facilitated the transcription of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated protein (heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) expression as determined by Western blotting. Significantly, an Akt inhibitor (LY294002) or HO-1 inhibitor (ZnPP) not only inhibited myricitrin-induced HO-1/NQO-1 upregulation but also alleviated its anti-apoptotic effects. In summary, these observations demonstrate that myricitrin activates Nrf2-mediated anti-oxidant signaling and attenuates H9c2 cell apoptosis induced by high glucose via activation of Akt signaling. PMID:27399653

  9. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting the expression of peroxiredoxin III in H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mi-Hua; Lin, Xiao-Long; Yuan, Cong; He, Jun; Tan, Tian-Ping; Wu, Shao-Jian; Yu, Shan; Chen, Li; Liu, Jun; Tian, Wei; Chen, Yu-Dan; Fu, Hong-Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, which can give rise to severe cardiotoxicity, limiting its clinical use. Preliminary evidence suggests that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may exert protective effects on DOX‑induced cardiotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether peroxiredoxin III is involved in the cardioprotection of H2S against DOX‑induced cardiotoxicity. The results demonstrated that DOX not only markedly induced injuries, including cytotoxicity and apoptosis, it also increased the expression levels of peroxiredoxin III. Notably, pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide significantly attenuated the DOX‑induced decrease in cell viability and increase in apoptosis, and also reversed the increased expression levels of peroxiredoxin III in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In addition, pretreatment of the H9c2 cells with N‑acetyl‑L‑cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, prior to exposure to DOX markedly decreased the expression levels of peroxiredoxin III. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that exogenous H2S attenuates DOX‑induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting the expression of peroxiredoxin III in H9c2 cells. In the present study, the apoptosis of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was assessed using an methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and Hoechst staining. The levels of Prx III and cystathionine-γ-lyase were examined by western blotting.

  10. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  11. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  12. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

  13. Ophthalmic Combination of SurR9-C84A and Trichostatin-A Targeting Molecular Pathogenesis of Alkali Burn

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kislay; Sriramoju, Bhasker; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alkali burn is a frequently occurring ocular injury that resembles ocular inflammation caused by eye allergies, infection, and refractive surgeries. Methods: We investigated the synergistic regenerative potential of dominant negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin-A (TSA) against alkali burn and corneal haze using human keratocytes and rabbit alkali burn model (Female New Zealand white rabbits). Results: Combination of SurR9-C84A and TSA suppressed levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, alpha smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin and HDAC1, leading to apoptosis in myofibroblast cells and, showed the potential to clear the corneal haze. An insult with 0.5 N NaOH for 1 min led to neutrophils infiltration and formation of large vacuoles in the stroma. Treatments with TSA and SurR9-C84A for 40 min led to improvement in the conjunctival and corneal tissue integrity, marked by an increase in clathrin, and claudin expressions. An increase in TGF-β and endogenous survivin confirmed wound healing and cell proliferation in rabbit cornea. The blood analysis revealed a substantial decrease in the RBC, WBC, platelets, or the hemoglobin content post alkali burn. The cytokine array analysis revealed that NaOH induced expressions of IL-1α and MMP-9, which were found to be significantly downregulated (1.8 and 11.5 fold respectively) by the combinatorial treatment of SurR9-C84A and TSA. Conclusion: Our results confirmed that combination of SurR9-C84A with TSA worked in synergy to heal ocular injury and inflammations due to alkali burn and led to the regeneration of ocular tissue by increasing clathrin, claudin, survivin, and TGF-β and reversal of alkali burn by suppressing IL-1α and MMP-9 without inducing haze. PMID:27516741

  14. Seismic paleoceanography and the stratigraphic signature of rapid climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, Serge; Sierro, Francisco Javier

    2015-04-01

    The term "seismic paleoceanography" was introduced in 2004 by R. Schneider, a former Chair of Images, during the EC-funded « Promess » project, for highlighting the importance of seismic data in paleoceanographic reconstructions during this particular project. The interest of seismic stratigraphy prior to drilling operations, such as those of the IODP, has long been recognized, and became a pre-requisite for the submission of scientific proposals. However, this kind of expedition generally relies on relatively low resolution, multi-channel seismic data where only the impact of major climate changes can be visualized. In contrast, a large proportion of the Images community, more familiar with the Marion Dufresne, mainly considers seismic data as a support for selecting the best coring sites. The large amount of shallow cores, borehole and seismic (at various frequencies) data available in the Gulf of Lions allows us to illustrate the importance of very high- and ultra high- resolution seismic data for tracking the signature of rapid climate changes. The flooding events associated to "Bond Cycles" (bundles of several Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles) during MIS 3- MIS 2, are an example of the interesting feedbacks between seismic interpretation and high-resolution paleoceanography. These events where first identified in the Gulf of Lions through the multi-proxy analysis of cores retrieved at site PRGL1-4 (Sierro et al., 2009). In return, the re-examination of seismic data allows us to identify a series of corresponding seismic bounding surfaces (characterized by toplap and onlap terminations) along the continental slope. In terms of seismic amplitudes, the seismic surface associated to the transition between Heinrich Stadial 4 and Interstadial 8 appears as the most pronounced event during the entire MIS3-MIS2, suggesting that the magnitude of the associated sea-level change was the most important of this interval. Even more subtle events, such as the Melt Water Pulse 19

  15. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  16. Evidence for non-self-similarity of microearthquakes recorded at a Taiwan borehole seismometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Yu; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Kanamori, Hiroo; Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Lapusta, Nadia; Tsai, Victor C.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the relationship between seismic moment M0 and source duration tw of microearthquakes by using high-quality seismic data recorded with a vertical borehole array installed in central Taiwan. We apply a waveform cross-correlation method to the three-component records and identify several event clusters with high waveform similarity, with event magnitudes ranging from 0.3 to 2.0. Three clusters—Clusters A, B and C—contain 11, 8 and 6 events with similar waveforms, respectively. To determine how M0 scales with tw, we remove path effects by using a path-averaged Q. The results indicate a nearly constant tw for events within each cluster, regardless of M0, with mean values of tw being 0.058, 0.056 and 0.034 s for Clusters A, B and C, respectively. Constant tw, independent of M0, violates the commonly used scaling relation {t_w} ∝ M_0^{1/3}. This constant duration may arise either because all events in a cluster are hosted on the same isolated seismogenic patch, or because the events are driven by external factors of constant duration, such as fluid injections into the fault zone. It may also be related to the earthquake nucleation size.

  17. Evidence for non-self-similarity of microearthquakes recorded at a Taiwan borehole seismometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Yu; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Kanamori, Hiroo; Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Lapusta, Nadia; Tsai, Victor C.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the relationship between seismic moment M0 and source duration tw of microearthquakes by using high-quality seismic data recorded with a vertical borehole array installed in central Taiwan. We apply a waveform cross-correlation method to the three-component records and identify several event clusters with high waveform similarity, with event magnitudes ranging from 0.3 to 2.0. Three clusters-Clusters A, B and C-contain 11, 8 and 6 events with similar waveforms, respectively. To determine how M0 scales with tw, we remove path effects by using a path-averaged Q. The results indicate a nearly constant tw for events within each cluster, regardless of M0, with mean values of tw being 0.058, 0.056 and 0.034 s for Clusters A, B and C, respectively. Constant tw, independent of M0, violates the commonly used scaling relation {t_w} ∝ M_0^{1/3}. This constant duration may arise either because all events in a cluster are hosted on the same isolated seismogenic patch, or because the events are driven by external factors of constant duration, such as fluid injections into the fault zone. It may also be related to the earthquake nucleation size.

  18. Deep borehole measurements for characterizing the magma/hydrothermal system at Long Valley Caldera, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Magma Energy Program of the Geothermal Technology Division is scheduled to begin drilling a deep (6 km) exploration well in long Valley Caldera, California in 1989. The drilling site is near the center of the caldera which is associated with numerous shallow (5-7 km) geophysical anomalies. This deep well will present an unparalleled opportunity to test and validate geophysical techniques for locating magma as well as a test of the theory that magma is still present at drillable depths within the central portion of the caldera. If, indeed, drilling indicates magma, the geothermal community will then be afforded the unique possibility of examining the coupling between magmatic and hydrothermal regimes in a major volcanic system. Goals of planned seismic experiments that involve the well include the investigation of local crystal structure down to depths of 10 km as well as the determination of mechanisms for local seismicity and deformation. Borehole electrical and electromagnetic surveys will increase the volume and depth of rock investigated by the well through consideration of the conductive structure of the hydrothermal and underlying regimes. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Detectability of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of strike-slip faults using borehole tiltmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chery, J.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades, geodetic tools like C-GPS allowed the detection of slow slip events associated with transient motion below the seismogenic zone. This new class of fault motion lead us to revise the standard version of the seismic cycle simply including coseismic, postseismic and interseismic phases. Most of these discoveries occurred on subduction margins in various places like Japan, Cascadia, Chile and Indonesia. By contrast, GPS and strainmeters have provided little evidence of slow slip beneath the seismogenic zone of large continental faults like the San Andreas fault or the North Anatolian fault. Because the detectability of such motions is mostly tributary from instrumental precision, we examine the theoretical capability of tiltmeter arrays for detecting horizontal motion of a buried vertical fault. We define the slipping part of the strike-slip fault like a buried rectangular patch submitted to horizontal motion. This motion provides horizontal and vertical surface deformation as a function of both patch geometry (length, width, depth) and motion amplitude. Using a dislocation buried at 15km depth, we compute the maximum motion and tilt as a function of seismic moment. Assuming yields of detectability of 1mm for GPS horizontal motion and 10 nrad for a tiltmeter, we show that small slip events could be better detected using high resolution and stability tiltmeters. We then examine how tiltmeters arrays could be used for such a purpose. In particular, we discuss how to deal with usual problems often plaguing tiltmeters data like instrumental drift, borehole coupling and hydrological strain.

  20. Thresholds for earthquake-induced hydrological changes in sedimentary aquifers: a record from 9 earthquakes and 107 boreholes in central New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Konrad; Cox, Simon; Holden, Caroline; Townend, John

    2016-04-01

    A dense hydrogeological network in central New Zealand has recorded groundwater fluctuations from 12 years of seismic events. Hydrological data over the past 15 years were assessed in 107 boreholes at depths of 4 - 405 m. Nine seismic events (M≥5.9) occurred at near- to far-field distances of 10 - 913 km, shaking the sedimentary aquifers at a wide range of 10‑4 to 103 J/m3 seismic energy densities. The earthquakes produced 258 detectable hydrological responses, exhibiting different polarities (rise or fall), amplitudes (2 to 820 mm, -859 to -2 mm) and timescales (15 min to day [s]). Shaking parameters were calculated from 28 proximal GeoNet broadband seismometers, providing local estimates of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV), Arias intensity, and spectral amplitudes. ShakeMap model solutions, utilising ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), were also acquired at borehole sites. Continuous oceanic tidal responses of 38 boreholes were derived using Baytap08, with temporal transmissivity and earthquake-induced changes estimated from tidal properties. The earthquake-induced changes to groundwater level and tidal response are used to infer those events which caused aquifer deformation and changes to the groundwater flow regime. A transient (15 min to 2 hr) / permanent (15 min to day [s]) deformation boundary is observed when shaking reaches ˜1 %g PGA. As well as defining thresholds at which hydrological changes occurred, the central New Zealand dataset provided an opportunity to examine aquifer ability in resistance to the effects induced by earthquakes. Where monitoring is dense and continuous, the absence of responses under certain levels of shaking is equally informative and helps delineate causative processes. On-going work utilises data mining to assess the contribution of seismic, hydrological, and geological parameters to earthquake-induced hydrological changes in sedimentary aquifer systems.

  1. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K.

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  2. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  3. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  4. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Decoupling of deformation in the Upper Rhine Graben sediments. Seismic reflection and diffraction on 3-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (Soultz-sous-Forêts area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Place, Joachim; Diraison, Marc; Naville, Charles; Géraud, Yves; Schaming, Marc; Dezayes, Chrystel

    2010-07-01

    A contribution to the definition of the structural pattern of the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) is presented here. After reprocessing, the PHN84J seismic reflection profile highlights the tilted blocks of the Merkwiller-Péchelbronn oilfield. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts horst, complex fault patterns are observed: the Hermerswiller normal fault flattens at depth and is rooted in decollements occurring in Triassic salt or clay series, while other steep normal faults affect underlying sedimentary formations and basement. Some methods for the exploitation of a seismic diffraction recorded by multi-component Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) are also illustrated to locate the diffractor without specific data processing. Polarisation and travel time analysis of a diffraction event recorded in the GPK1 borehole are analysed, and its exploitation combined with seismic reflection helps defining a tilted block geometry.

  6. The State of Stress Beyond the Borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.; Maceira, M.; Delorey, A. A.; Guyer, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The state of stress controls all in-situ reservoir activities and yet we lack the quantitative means to measure it. This problem is important in light of the fact that the subsurface provides more than 80 percent of the energy used in the United States and serves as a reservoir for geological carbon sequestration, used fuel disposition, and nuclear waste storage. Adaptive control of subsurface fractures and fluid flow is a crosscutting challenge being addressed by the new Department of Energy SubTER Initiative that has the potential to transform subsurface energy production and waste storage strategies. Our methodology to address the above mentioned matter is based on a novel Advance Multi-Physics Tomographic (AMT) approach for determining the state of stress, thereby facilitating our ability to monitor and control subsurface geomechanical processes. We developed the AMT algorithm for deriving state-of-stress from integrated density and seismic velocity models and demonstrate the feasibility by applying the AMT approach to synthetic data sets to assess accuracy and resolution of the method as a function of the quality and type of geophysical data. With this method we can produce regional- to basin-scale maps of the background state of stress and identify regions where stresses are changing. Our approach is based on our major advances in the joint inversion of gravity and seismic data to obtain the elastic properties for the subsurface; and coupling afterwards the output from this joint-inversion with theoretical model such that strain (and subsequently) stress can be computed. Ultimately we will obtain the differential state of stress over time to identify and monitor critically stressed faults and evolving regions within the reservoir, and relate them to anthropogenic activities such as fluid/gas injection.

  7. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.

    2015-12-01

    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  9. Comparison of phase velocities from array measurements of Rayleigh waves associated with microtremor and results calculated from borehole shear-wave velocity profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Boore, David M.; Joyner, William B.; Oppenheimer, David H.; Warrick, Richard E.; Zhang, Wenbo; Hamilton, John C.; Brown, Leo T.

    2000-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities (VS) are widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. VS data are now largely obtained using borehole methods. Drilling holes, however, is expensive. Nonintrusive surface methods are inexpensive for obtaining VS information, but not many comparisons with direct borehole measurements have been published. Because different assumptions are used in data interpretation of each surface method and public safety is involved in site characterization for engineering structures, it is important to validate the surface methods by additional comparisons with borehole measurements. We compare results obtained from a particular surface method (array measurement of surface waves associated with microtremor) with results obtained from borehole methods. Using a 10-element nested-triangular array of 100-m aperture, we measured surface-wave phase velocities at two California sites, Garner Valley near Hemet and Hollister Municipal Airport. The Garner Valley site is located at an ancient lake bed where water-saturated sediment overlies decomposed granite on top of granite bedrock. Our array was deployed at a location where seismic velocities had been determined to a depth of 500 m by borehole methods. At Hollister, where the near-surface sediment consists of clay, sand, and gravel, we determined phase velocities using an array located close to a 60-m deep borehole where downhole velocity logs already exist. Because we want to assess the measurements uncomplicated by uncertainties introduced by the inversion process, we compare our phase-velocity results with the borehole VS depth profile by calculating fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from an earth model constructed from the borehole data. For wavelengths less than ~2 times of the array aperture at Garner Valley, phase-velocity results from array measurements agree with the calculated Rayleigh-wave velocities to better than 11%. Measurement errors become larger for wavelengths 2

  10. Seismic imaging a carbonate reservoir: The Paris Basin Dogger

    SciTech Connect

    Mougenot, D.

    1995-08-01

    Within the Dogger project, seven partners joined forces (CGG, DHYCA, EAP, ESSO-REP, IFP, TOTAL, TRITON France) to develop an appropriate seismic acquisition, processing and interpretation methodology in order to improve the description of the main oil reservoir (30 m) lying at the top of the Dogger carbonates in the Paris Basin, at a depth of 1900 m. High-resolution 2D Vibroseismic is used to record high frequencies (up to 100 Hz) at the level of the target, and provides sufficiently adequate vertical resolution for the reflections at the top and at the base of the reservoir not to interfere. The upper frequency content of the 3D seismic (70 Hz) is more difficult to enhance. Yet the essential contribution made by the 3D is to evidence, via horizon attributes, sub-meridian lineaments corresponding to faults with throw of several meters which is too weak to be detected on vertical sections. The distribution of these faults, via which water tends to invade the reservoir, and the organization of the amplitudes at the top reservoir reflector, which seems to suggest lateral variations in porosity, are a valuable guide for setting up wells. Three-component seismic (2D-3c) and S-wave emissions did not produce any reflections beyond 30 Hz at the level of the target which is a poor reflector (PS & SS). Only borehole seismic (VSP, offset VSP), where high frequencies are much less attenuated than with surface seismic, provides detailed imaging of the reservoir in converted mode (up to 110 Hz in PP and in PS). The combination of a continuous spatial sampling, such as that obtained in 3D, and of a Vibroseis emission adapted to frequency attenuation, such as that used in 2D, can supply useful information about the thin and discontinuous Dogger reservoir which cannot he provided by mere correlation of the borehole data.

  11. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  12. Stereoselective Synthesis of the C9-C19 Fragment of Lyngbyaloside B and C via Ether Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Eric; Taylor, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    A stereoselective synthesis of the C9-C19 fragment of lyngbyaloside B and C highlighted, by an extension of our ether transfer methodology, enables the formation of tertiary ethers. 2-Naphthylmethyl ethers have been shown to proceed efficiently through ether transfer with high stereoselectivity and are easily deprotected by DDQ oxidation. Variation of the workup conditions results in the stereoselective formation of syn-1,3-diol mono- or diethers. PMID:22716968

  13. Early NADPH oxidase-2 activation is crucial in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Nynke E; Musters, René J P; Fritz, Jan M; Pagano, Patrick J; Vonk, Alexander B A; Paulus, Walter J; van Rossum, Albert C; Meischl, Christof; Niessen, Hans W M; Krijnen, Paul A J

    2014-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the NOX isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100 μM PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48h as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4h after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4h of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48h of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.

  14. Nanocurcumin protects cardiomyoblasts H9c2 from hypoxia-induced hypertrophy and apoptosis by improving oxidative balance.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Sarita; Bhardwaj, Varun; Kalra, Namita; Ganju, Lilly; Bansal, Anju; Saxena, Shweta; Saraswat, Deepika

    2015-06-01

    Hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is evident; however, the distinct molecular mechanism underlying the oxidative stress-mediated damages to cardiomyocytes remains unknown. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is known for anti-hypertrophic effects, but low bioavailability makes it unsuitable to exploit its pharmacological properties. We assessed the efficacy of nanotized curcumin, i.e. nanocurcumin, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced hypertrophy and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and compared it to curcumin. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were challenged with 0.5 % oxygen, for 24 h to assess hypoxia-induced oxidative damage, hypertrophy and consequent apoptosis. The molecular mechanism underlying the protective efficacy of nanocurcumin was evaluated in regulating Raf-1/Erk-1/2 apoptosis by caspase-3/-7 pathway and oxidative stress. Nanocurcumin ameliorated hypoxia-induced hypertrophy and apoptosis in H9c2 cells significantly (p ≤ 0.01), by downregulating atrial natriuretic factor expression, caspase-3/-7 activation, oxidative stress and stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) better than curcumin. Nanocurcumin provides insight into its use as a potential candidate in curing hypoxia-induced cardiac pathologies by restoring oxidative balance. PMID:25846484

  15. Early NADPH oxidase-2 activation is crucial in phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Nynke E.; Musters, René J.P.; Fritz, Jan M.; Pagano, Patrick J.; Vonk, Alexander B.A.; Paulus, Walter J.; van Rossum, Albert C.; Meischl, Christof; Niessen, Hans W.M.; Krijnen, Paul A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by different NADPH oxidases (NOX) play a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by different stimuli, such as angiotensin II and pressure overload. However, the role of the specific NOX isoforms in phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is unknown. Therefore we aimed to determine the involvement of the NOX isoforms NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 in PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Hereto rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2 cells) were incubated with 100 μM PE to induce hypertrophy after 24 and 48 h as determined via cell and nuclear size measurements using digital imaging microscopy, electron microscopy and an automated cell counter. Digital-imaging microscopy further revealed that in contrast to NOX1 and NOX4, NOX2 expression increased significantly up to 4 h after PE stimulation, coinciding and co-localizing with ROS production in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Furthermore, inhibition of NOX-mediated ROS production with apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or NOX2 docking sequence (Nox2ds)-tat peptide during these first 4 h of PE stimulation significantly inhibited PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells, both after 24 and 48 h of PE stimulation. These data show that early NOX2-mediated ROS production is crucial in PE-induced hypertrophy of H9c2 cells. PMID:24794531

  16. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  17. The Olmsted fault zone, southernmost Illinois: A key to understanding seismic hazard in the northern new Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, C.E.; McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Geological deformation in the northern New Madrid seismic zone, near Olmsted, Illinois (USA), is analyzed using integrated compressional-wave (P) and horizontally polarized-wave (SH) seismic reflection and regional and dedicated borehole information. Seismic hazards are of special concern because of strategic facilities (e.g., lock and dam sites and chemical plants on the Ohio River near its confluence with the Mississippi River) and because of alluvial soils subject to high amplification of earthquake shock. We use an integrated approach starting with lower resolution, but deeper penetration, P-wave reflection profiles to identify displacement of Paleozoic bedrock. Higher resolution, but shallower penetration, SH-wave images show deformation that has propagated upward from bedrock faults into Pleistocene loess. We have mapped an intricate zone more than 8 km wide of high-angle faults in Mississippi embayment sediments localized over Paleozoic bedrock faults that trend north to northeast, parallel to the Ohio River. These faults align with the pattern of epicenters in the New Madrid seismic zone. Normal and reverse offsets along with positive flower structures imply a component of strike-slip; the current stress regime favors right-lateral slip on northeast-trending faults. The largest fault, the Olmsted fault, underwent principal displacement near the end of the Cretaceous Period 65 to 70 million years ago. Strata of this age (dated via fossil pollen) thicken greatly on the downthrown side of the Olmsted fault into a locally subsiding basin. Small offsets of Tertiary and Quaternary strata are evident on high-resolution SH-wave seismic profiles. Our results imply recent reactivation and possible future seismic activity in a critical area of the New Madrid seismic zone. This integrated approach provides a strategy for evaluating shallow seismic hazard-related targets for engineering concerns. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. AN INTEGRATED MULTI-COMPONENT PROCESSING AND INTERPRETATION FRAMEWORK FOR 3D BOREHOLE SEISMIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    M. Karrenbach

    2005-04-15

    This report covers the November 2004-March 2005 time period. A mid year project review meeting was held at DOE facilities on November 30th. Work has been performed successfully on several tasks 3 through 15. Most of these tasks have been executed independently. We progressed steadily and completed some of the sub-tasks, while others are still on going. We achieved the goals that we had set up in the task schedule. Reviewing the results of this work period indicates that our plan is solid and we did not encounter any unforeseen problems. The work plan will continue as projected.

  19. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  20. Seismic modeling of CO2-injection based EGR (project CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpt, L.; Buske, S.

    2009-04-01

    The joint research project CLEAN (CO2 Largescale EGR in the Altmark Natural-gas field) is a scientific program accompanying the Enhanced-Gas-Recovery (EGR) project within the second largest natural gas field in Europe - the Altmark gas field. Within this program a set of active and passive seismic surveys are planned in order to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution as well as the related processes of CO2 injection into the reservoir. These experiments comprise time-lapse 3D-VSP/MSP (vertical/moving-source-profiling) surveys as well as the installation of a borehole seismometer network for monitoring and analysis of injection induced seismicity. For both configurations we have performed elastic finite-difference simulations of the seismic wavefield based on a given subsurface model and for a range of injection-induced variations of seismic parameters. We will show the results and discuss the findings in terms of survey design, the estimation of expected changes in the seismic wavefield (reflectivity, traveltime, etc.), the repeatability of the measurements and the understanding of the limits for a rock-physical interpretation of the observed effects.

  1. FMS/FMI borehole imaging of carbonate gas reservoirs, Central Luconia Province, offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, U.; Van der Baan, D. )

    1994-07-01

    The Central Luconia Province, offshore Sarawak, is a significant gas province characterized by extensive development of late Miocene carbonate buildups. Some 200 carbonate structures have been seismically mapped of which 70 have been drilled. FMS/FMI borehole images were obtained from three appraisal wells drilled in the [open quotes]M[close quotes] cluster gas fields situated in the northwestern part of the province. The [open quotes]M[close quotes] cluster fields are currently part of an upstream gas development project to supply liquefied natural gas. Log facies recognition within these carbonate gas reservoirs is problematic due mainly to the large gas effect. This problem is being addressed by (1) application of neural network techniques and (2) using borehole imaging tools. Cores obtained from the M1, M3, and M4 gas fields were calibrated with the FMS/FMI images. Reservoir characterization was obtained at two different scales. The larger scale (i.e., 1:40 and 1:200) involved static normalized images where the vertical stacking pattern was observed based on recognition of bed boundaries. In addition, the greater vertical resolution of the FMS/FMI images allowed recognition of thin beds. For recognition of specific lithofacies, dynamically normalized images were used to highlight lithofacies-specific sedimentary features, e.g., clay seams/stylolites, vugs, and breccia zones. In general, the FMS/FMI images allowed (1) easier recognition of reservoir features, e.g., bed boundaries, and (2) distinction between lithofacies that are difficult to characterize on conventional wireline logs.

  2. PBO Borehole Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    A major goal of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) was to enable researchers to study the role aseismic transients play in the earthquake cycle. To attain this goal the Observatory includes 75 borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in targeted regions, one being the area to the north and east of San Francisco. The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa earthquake was the largest earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area in 25 years and provides an excellent opportunity to examine the response of BSMs to a nearby strong earthquake and analyze the temporal evolution of the postseismic shear strains. In this presentation we will document the co and postseismic signals recorded by the two PBO BSMs in the area, one in Lucas Valley, north of San Francisco, at 30 km from the epicenter and the other in the East Bay, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the event. One month after the event the Lucas Valley instrument continues to record a large postseismic signal in the shear strains. We will compare the coseismic offsets as recorded by the BSMs with those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and with those recorded by nearby USGS borehole instruments and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at the Lucas Valley strainmeter. UNAVCO operates a network of 1100 GPS sites and 75 BSMs as part of the NSF funded PBO program. For information on the PBO network see http://www.unavco.org/projects/major-projects/pbo/pbo.html , for further information on PBO BSM design, installation techniques and suite of data products see http://www.unavco.org/data/strain-seismic/bsm-data/bsm-data.html.

  3. M9 Tohoku earthquake hydro- and seismic response in the Caucasus and North Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Shengelia, Ia; Zhukova, Natalya; Matcharashvili, Teimuraz; Melikadze, George; Kobzev, Genady

    2016-06-01

    Presently, there are a lot of observations on the significant impact of strong remote earthquakes on underground water and local seismicity. Teleseismic wave trains of strong earthquakes give rise to several hydraulic effects in boreholes, namely permanent water level changes and water level oscillations, which closely mimic the seismograms (hydroseismograms). Clear identical anomalies in the deep borehole water levels have been observed on a large part of the territory of Georgia during passing of the S and Love-Rayleigh teleseismic waves (including also multiple surface Rayleigh waves) of the 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake. The analysis carried out in order to find dynamically triggered events (non-volcanic tremors) of the Tohoku earthquake by the accepted methodology has not revealed a clear tremor signature in the test area: the Caucasus and North Turkey. The possible mechanisms of some seismic signals of unknown origin observed during passage of teleseismic waves of Tohoku earthquake are discussed.

  4. Quantification of seismic scattering in situ with the conversion log method: A study from the KTB super-deep drill hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilecke, Thies; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2004-08-01

    The ``conversion log'' is a new approach to quantify seismic scattering in situ in terms of PS conversion in transmission along a vertical seismic profile (VSP): The amount of converted seismic energy is determined by slant-stacking and plotted as a function of depth, thus forming a borehole log of seismic conversion. We investigated seismic scattering of crystalline crust at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB) in southern Germany where detailed knowledge exists of crustal parameters down to 9 km depth. In 1999 a deep VSP was acquired in the KTB main borehole. The experiment yielded high quality seismic data in terms of signal bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and stability of the source signal. The seismic data show varying levels of PS conversion along the borehole. The dip of layering and foliation is about 45° to 75° along the KTB drill hole. Under these conditions the conversion amplitudes depend only weakly on the angle between the incident seismic wave and the impedance contrast surface. The conversion log method was used to quantify energy loss by forward scattering. Field data were compared with finite-difference computations and with petrological and structural borehole information. It turned out that only 10-50% of PS forward scattering originates from conversion at lithological interfaces and structural complexity whereas 90-50% is due to velocity heterogeneity caused by fractures. The conversion log is correlated with the depth function of fracture density, and it is inversely correlated with the depth function of chlorite content, that seems to `heal' the influence of cracks and fissures.

  5. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

  6. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  7. Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1984-05-01

    Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

  8. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  9. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  11. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Caffey, T.W.H.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  12. Reducing Uncertainty in the Seismic Design Basis for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Rohay, A.C.; Reidel, S.P.; Gardner, M.G.

    2007-07-01

    The seismic design basis for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland was re-evaluated in 2005, resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. The original seismic design basis for the WTP was established in 1999 based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The 2005 analysis was performed to address questions raised by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the assumptions used in developing the original seismic criteria and adequacy of the site geotechnical surveys. The updated seismic response analysis used existing and newly acquired seismic velocity data, statistical analysis, expert elicitation, and ground motion simulation to develop interim design ground motion response spectra which enveloped the remaining uncertainties. The uncertainties in these response spectra were enveloped at approximately the 84. percentile to produce conservative design spectra, which contributed significantly to the increase in the seismic design basis. A key uncertainty identified in the 2005 analysis was the velocity contrasts between the basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds below the WTP. The velocity structure of the upper four basalt flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) and the inter-layered sedimentary interbeds (Ellensburg Formation) produces strong reductions in modeled earthquake ground motions propagating through them. Uncertainty in the strength of velocity contrasts between these basalts and interbeds primarily resulted from an absence of measured shear wave velocities (Vs) in the interbeds. For this study, Vs in the interbeds was estimated from older, limited compressional wave velocity (Vp) data using estimated ranges for the ratio of the two velocities (Vp/Vs) based on analogues in similar materials. A range of possible Vs for the interbeds and basalts was used and produced additional uncertainty in the resulting response spectra. Because of the

  13. Inverse seismic interferometry: can we observe seismic data at greater depth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelemeijer, Paula; Fichtner, Andreas; Kimman, Wouter

    2015-04-01

    By the very nature of our planet, seismological recordings are limited to the Earth's surface with some deployments in boreholes and more recently the placement of seismometers on the sea floor. Therefore, only travelling and standing waves that are excited and oscillate at shallow depths can be observed. Seismic waves oscillating at great depth with zero amplitude near the surface, e.g. higher frequency core-mantle boundary Stoneley modes, remain practically invisible to us. Seismic interferometry based on background noise has become a standard method for obtaining information regarding shallow and more recently also deeper Earth structure. Noise cross-correlations between a set of stations located on the surface of the Earth provide in theory information on the inter-station Green's functions, in case of an equipartitioned wave field or an isotropic source distribution. Using reciprocity, similar techniques can be employed to obtain the Green's function between two events for a distribution of receivers. In this contribution, we propose to use the concept of inverse interferometry for observing seismic data with only deep non-zero amplitude. As an initial step, cross-correlation measurements between two deep events, recorded at stations over the globe, will be analysed. Numerical wave field simulations will enable us to investigate the sensitivity of these measurements to Earth structure. Important contributing factors are possibly the source mechanisms of the events, inter-source distance and the distribution of receivers over the surface of the Earth.

  14. Seasonal variations of seismic velocities in the San Jacinto fault area observed with ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillers, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Campillo, M.; Zigone, D.

    2015-08-01

    We observe seasonal seismic wave speed changes (dv/v) in the San Jacinto fault area and investigate several likely source mechanisms. Velocity variations are obtained from analysis of 6 yr data of vertical component seismic noise recorded by 10 surface and six borehole stations. We study the interrelation between dv/v records, frequency-dependent seismic noise properties, and nearby environmental data of wind speed, rain, ground water level, barometric pressure and atmospheric temperature. The results indicate peak-to-peak seasonal velocity variations of ˜0.2 per cent in the 0.5-2 Hz frequency range, likely associated with genuine changes of rock properties rather than changes in the noise field. Phase measurements between dv/v and the various environmental data imply that the dominant source mechanism in the arid study area is thermoelastic strain induced by atmospheric temperature variations. The other considered environmental effects produce secondary variations that are superimposed on the thermal-based changes. More detailed work with longer data on the response of rocks to various known external loadings can help tracking the evolving stress and effective rheology at depth.

  15. High-Resolution Imaging of San Andreas Fault at Parkfield, California, Using Seismic Velocity and Anisotropy Tomography and Seismic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C.; Liu, Y.; Roecker, S.; Lu, R.; Toksoz, N.

    2004-12-01

    We characterized the detailed structure of the San Andreas fault zone at multiple scales using an extensive dataset collected around the SAFOD site from our long-term deployments of PASSCAL and USArray seismic instruments, and the USGS Northern California and UC Berkeley HRSN networks, SAFOD borehole logs, borehole seismometers, and several active-source projects. A suite of techniques are employed to better constrain the internal structure of the fault zone, including seismic travel-time tomography, shear-wave splitting tomography and seismic interferometry. Adaptive-mesh double-difference tomography is used to derive high-resolution Vp and Vs models around the fault zone with the waveform cross-correlation derived differential times. Knowing three-dimensional (3-D) Vp/Vs variations is helpful to have a more complete characterization of the mechanical properties and geological identity of fault zone materials. Vp/Vs variations are reliably determined by the inversion of S-P time differences constructed only from similar P and S ray paths. Our velocity models show the high-velocity granitic rocks on the southwest side of the fault, a complex low-velocity zone beneath and southwest of the surface fault trace, and an extensive low-velocity zone overlying deeper bedrock on the northeast side. We systematically analyzed shear wave splitting for seismic data observed at PASO and UC Berkeley HRSN networks. Although polarization direction of the fast shear wave and the delay time show substantial scatter for different events observed at a common station, there are spatially consistent patterns when projecting them to various depths along corresponding ray paths, derived from a 3-D shear velocity model. We developed a 3-D shear-wave splitting tomography method to image the spatial anisotropy distribution by back projecting shear wave splitting delay times along ray paths. The anisotropy percentage model shows strong heterogeneities, consistent with the strong spatial

  16. High-Resolution Imaging of San Andreas Fault at Parkfield, California, Using Seismic Velocity and Anisotropy Tomography and Seismic Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C.; Liu, Y.; Roecker, S.; Lu, R.; Toksoz, N.

    2007-12-01

    We characterized the detailed structure of the San Andreas fault zone at multiple scales using an extensive dataset collected around the SAFOD site from our long-term deployments of PASSCAL and USArray seismic instruments, and the USGS Northern California and UC Berkeley HRSN networks, SAFOD borehole logs, borehole seismometers, and several active-source projects. A suite of techniques are employed to better constrain the internal structure of the fault zone, including seismic travel-time tomography, shear-wave splitting tomography and seismic interferometry. Adaptive-mesh double-difference tomography is used to derive high-resolution Vp and Vs models around the fault zone with the waveform cross-correlation derived differential times. Knowing three-dimensional (3-D) Vp/Vs variations is helpful to have a more complete characterization of the mechanical properties and geological identity of fault zone materials. Vp/Vs variations are reliably determined by the inversion of S-P time differences constructed only from similar P and S ray paths. Our velocity models show the high-velocity granitic rocks on the southwest side of the fault, a complex low-velocity zone beneath and southwest of the surface fault trace, and an extensive low-velocity zone overlying deeper bedrock on the northeast side. We systematically analyzed shear wave splitting for seismic data observed at PASO and UC Berkeley HRSN networks. Although polarization direction of the fast shear wave and the delay time show substantial scatter for different events observed at a common station, there are spatially consistent patterns when projecting them to various depths along corresponding ray paths, derived from a 3-D shear velocity model. We developed a 3-D shear-wave splitting tomography method to image the spatial anisotropy distribution by back projecting shear wave splitting delay times along ray paths. The anisotropy percentage model shows strong heterogeneities, consistent with the strong spatial

  17. Simvastatin induces mitochondrial dysfunction and increased atrogin-1 expression in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Annalisa; Mullen, Peter J; Mityko, Ileana Scurtu; Navegantes, Luiz C; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Simvastatin is effective and well tolerated, with adverse reactions mainly affecting skeletal muscle. Important mechanisms for skeletal muscle toxicity include mitochondrial impairment and increased expression of atrogin-1. The aim was to study the mechanisms of toxicity of simvastatin on H9c2 cells (a rodent cardiomyocyte cell line) and on the heart of male C57BL/6 mice. After, exposure to 10 μmol/L simvastatin for 24 h, H9c2 cells showed impaired oxygen consumption, a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential and a decreased activity of several enzyme complexes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The cellular ATP level was also decreased, which was associated with phosphorylation of AMPK, dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of FoxO3a as well as increased mRNA expression of atrogin-1. Markers of apoptosis were increased in simvastatin-treated H9c2 cells. Treatment of mice with 5 mg/kg/day simvastatin for 21 days was associated with a 5 % drop in heart weight as well as impaired activity of several enzyme complexes of the ETC and increased mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and of markers of apoptosis in cardiac tissue. Cardiomyocytes exposed to simvastatin in vitro or in vivo sustain mitochondrial damage, which causes AMPK activation, dephosphorylation and nuclear transformation of FoxO3a as well as increased expression of atrogin-1. Mitochondrial damage and increased atrogin-1 expression are associated with apoptosis and increased protein breakdown, which may cause myocardial atrophy.

  18. Clematichinenoside (AR) Attenuates Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced H9c2 Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via a Mitochondria-Mediated Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Han, Rong; Chen, Xueshan; Fang, Weirong; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xuemei; Wei, Qin; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Li, Yunman

    2016-05-30

    Mitochondria-mediated cardiomyocyte apoptosis is involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Clematichinenoside (AR) is a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the roots of Clematis chinensis with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cardioprotection effects against MI/R injury, yet the anti-apoptotic effect and underlying mechanisms of AR in MI/R injury remain unclear. We hypothesize that AR may improve mitochondrial function to inhibit MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we replicated an in vitro H9c2 cardiomyocyte MI/R model by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment. The viability of H9c2 cardiomyocytes was determined by MTT assay; apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and TUNEL experiments; mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was analyzed by a calcein-cobalt quenching method; and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected by JC-1. Moreover, we used western blots to determine the mitochondrial cytochrome c translocation to cytosolic and the expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. These results showed that the application of AR decreased the ratio of apoptosis and the extent of mPTP opening, but increased ΔΨm. AR also inhibited H/R-induced release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and decreased the expression of the caspase-3, Bax proteins. Conversely, it remarkably increased the expression of Bcl-2 protein. Taken together, these results revealed that AR protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes against H/R-induced apoptosis through mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway.

  19. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  20. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place is...) Boreholes shall be drilled in such a manner to insure that the advancing face will not accidently break...

  1. AVO Seismic data inversion using global simultaneous technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eladj, S.; Ouadfeul, S.; Aliouane, L.; Djarfour, N.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to apply the global simultaneous inversion of AVO real seismic data of the NORNE petroleum field located in the North Sea. Inversion has been applied to characterize the physical reservoir properties in term of acoustic impedance, Poisson's coefficient and Density. The proposed technique is applied at a small seismic cube of an hydrocarbon reservoir. Obtained results consists of the three cube cited above. Comparison of these last with a well-logs data of a borehole located in the area shows that the global simultaneous inversion can be used for reservoir properties prediction. These results can be used by geoscientists for better reservoir characterization and built a sub-surface dynamic model. The goal is to minimize the hydrocarbon exploration uncertainly. Keywords: global simultaneous inversion, AVO, North Sea, cube, reservoir characterization.

  2. Finite difference seismic modeling of axial magma chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, S.A.; Dougherty, M.E.; Stephen, R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The authors tested the feasibility of using finite difference methods to model seismic propagation at {approximately}10 Hx through a two-dimensional representation of an axial magma chamber with a thin, liquid lid. This technique produces time series of displacement or pressure at seafloor receivers to mimic a seismic refraction experiment and snapshots of P and S energy propagation. The results indicate that the implementation is stable for models with sharp velocity contrasts and complex geometries. The authors observe a high-energy, downward-traveling shear phase, observable only with borehole receivers, that would be useful in studying the nature and shape of magma chambers. The ability of finite difference methods to model high-order wave phenomena makes this method ideal for testing velocity models of spreading axes and for planning near-axis drilling of the East Pacific Rise in order to optimize the benefits from shear wave imaging of sub-axis structure.

  3. Angola Seismicity MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  4. Study of temporal variations of seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation in boreholes exposed to natural deformation processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanov, Alexandr; Astrakhantsev, Yurie; Nachapkin, Nilolay; Beloglasova, Nadegda; Bagenova, Evgenija; Vdovin, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    The investigation of the correlation between the deformation processes, seismoacoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation of the geo-environment is a timely problem due to many reasons. It is related to the discovery of the modulation effect of the high-frequency noise by the long-period deformation processes [1]. The possibility appeared to distinguish similar periods in the variations of the amplitude level of the seismic acoustic emission (SAE) and electromagnetic radiation (EMR) based on the known periodicities of the deformation processes. The investigation of the deformation processes is a complicated problem because the majority of currently applied methods give us information about deformations in the surface layer. In the conditions of the hierarchical block structure of the Earth's crust; such observations do not sufficiently reveal the distribution of deformations related to the accumulation and relaxation of stresses in the internal points of the medium. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of the SAE and EMR in the boreholes carries significant information about the deformation processes in the Earth's crust directly reflecting the actual stresses and the structure of the investigated rock massive [2]. Geodynamical active zones along boreholes are characterized by anomalous (maximum) SAE and EMR values, moreover they change in time [3]. Simultaneous operational measurements of seismic acoustic emission and electromagnetic radiation were carried out in wells Kamchatskiy geodynamic testing ground and the Urals region. An analysis of amplitude-frequency spectra obtained by synchronous uninterrupted SAE and EMR measurements in boreholes allowed identifying latent periodicity of SAE and EMR signals and evaluating its connection with well-known deformation processes. As a result of realized investigations it was shown that simultaneous measurements of SAE and EMR in boreholes contain information on manifestation of deformation processes in fields

  5. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    SciTech Connect

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  6. TRENDS IN BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION: ASSAYING AND REMOTE DETECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1985-01-01

    Several borehole geophysical techniques have been developed in recent years. Assaying technique development has been concentrated on nuclear methods, with some progress being made on using electrical and magnetic properties for mineral identification. Adaptation of conventional surface geophysical techniques to the borehole for locating near-misses of mineralized zones has led to the development of borehole resistivity, electromagnetic (EM), gravity and magnetic methods to the borehole environment. This paper discusses some of the applications and pitfalls of these new techniques.

  7. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  8. Local seismic effects in Swedish underground mines (Zinkgruvan, Garpenberg, Kiruna)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, Savka; Mihaylov, Dimitar; Hansen-Haug, Jouni; Woldemehdin, BIruk; Marklund, Per-Ivar; Mozaffari, Shahram

    2016-04-01

    Three local seismic systems from Institute of Mine Seismology (IMS) were installed by August 2015 in deep underground mines in Sweden - Zinkgruvan Mine (Lundin Mining AB), Garpenberg Mine (Boliden Mines), and Kiirunavaara Mine (LKAB). The areas of installation are chosen within the volumes where large rockbursts are expected. One of the systems is deployed at depth around 700 m and the other two around 1100 m. The horizontal extent of the instrumented volumes is between 65 and 115 m. Each system consists of 16 to 18 sensors. A combination of uni-axial and three-axial 4.5 Hz geophones is installed on the wall and roof surfaces of the drifts, in shallow (~0.5 m) and deeper (6-9 m) boreholes. Extensometers and instrumented bolts are installed in close proximity to the profiles with seismic sensors. Data acquisition systems run mostly in triggered mode, with remote access to the data. Very small to larger seismic events (local magnitudes from ~ -4.5 to 2.0) are recorded during the time of operation. The aim of the seismic systems is to provide data about the seismic waveforms recorded as they approach the underground openings. Data is used to evaluate: 1) the site effect on the amplitudes, frequency content, and duration of the seismic signals, 2) the attenuation/amplification of the seismic waves. The seismic data is correlated with the records from the extensometers and instrumented bolts in case of larger seismic events, rockbursts, and blasting in the surrounding area. The final goal is to obtain new information for improvement of the requirements for the rock support in rockburst prone areas. The results show large variations of the amplitudes and frequencies of the recorded seismic waves within small distances, as well as between the walls and the roof. Data recorded by the local systems in the near-field are used for estimation of the attenuation and for comparison with the far-field attenuation derived from mine-wide data. Results are obtained also on the

  9. Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Ishii, H.; Yamauchi, T.

    2004-12-01

    Multiple Geophysical Observations by a newly developed multi-component borehole instrument at the Continental Deep Drilling Site of the CCSD, Donghai, China Jiren Xu1 (+86-10-68992879; xujiren@ccsd.org.cn) Zhixin Zhao1 (+86-10-68999734; zhaozhixin@ccsd.org.cn) Hiroshi Ishii2 (+81-0572-67-3105; ishii@tries.gr.jp Tsuneo Yamauchi3 (+81-052-789-3045; yamauchi@seis.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 1 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China 2 Tono Research Institute of Earthquake Science (TRIES), Japan 3 Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) site is located in the Donghai area of the Dabie-Sulu belt, which is the largest UHPM belt in the world. The drilling of the main borehole with 5000m will finish in next year. Three satellite boreholes, PP1, PP2 and PP3 were drilled and various surveys have been performed in the Donghai area about 6 years ago. We are going to install a newly developed Multi-component Instrument for borehole observations in main hole near the large Tanlu fault, and establish a long-term underground observation laboratory, which is the first noiseless one in China. The seismic activity and various geophysical fields, viz. strain, geomagnetism, geothermy, tilt, pore pressure etc. will be investigated. Data from the underground laboratory will be open to scientific, engineering and public services. We will measure the initial stress in various depths of the borehole by overcoring method using a new developed wireless intelligent type strainmeter of in-situ stress. Establishing a long-term noiseless underground observation laboratory at deep borehole and investigating crustal movement in East China are important for observing the physical conditions of the earth¡_s interior and solving many social problems, such as resources, disasters and environment. Multiple geophysical observations and the study in deep borehole will speed up and develop the study on tectonics

  10. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  11. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  12. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  15. Calibration facilities for borehole and surface environmental radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Measuring radiation from contaminated soil and buildings is important in the cleanup of land areas and facilities. It provides the means for quantifying the amount of contamination and assessing the success of efforts to restore areas to acceptable conditions for public use. Instruments that measure in situ radiation from natural or radiochemically-contaminated earth formations must be calibrated in appropriate facilities to provide quantitative assessments of concentrations of radionuclides. For instruments that are inserted into boreholes, these calibration facilities are typically special models having holes for probe insertion and having sufficient size to appear radiometrically ``infinite`` in extent. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has such models at Hanford, Washington, and Grand Junction, Colorado. They are concrete cylinders having a central borehole and containing known, enhanced amounts of K, U, and Th for spectral gamma-ray measurements. Additional models contain U for calibrating neutron probes for fissile materials and total-count gamma-ray probes. Models for calibrating neutron probes for moisture measurements in unsaturated formations exist for steel-cased boreholes at Hanford and for uncased boreholes at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site. Large surface pads are available at Grand Junction for portable, vehicle-mounted, or airplane-mounted spectral gamma-ray detectors.

  16. Borehole Stability Analysis of Horizontal Drilling in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jun-Liang; Deng, Jin-Gen; Tan, Qiang; Yu, Bao-Hua; Jin, Xiao-Chun

    2013-09-01

    Serious wellbore instability occurs frequently during horizontal drilling in shale gas reservoirs. The conventional forecast model of in situ stresses is not suitable for wellbore stability analysis in laminated shale gas formations because of the inhomogeneous mechanical properties of shale. In this study, a new prediction method is developed to calculate the in situ stresses in shale formations. The pore pressure near the borehole is heterogeneous along both the radial and tangential directions due to the inhomogeneity in the mechanical properties and permeability. Therefore, the stress state around the wellbore will vary with time after the formation is drained. Besides, based on the experimental results, a failure criterion is verified and applied to determine the strength of Silurian shale in the Sichuan Basin, including the long-term strength of gas shale. Based on this work, horizontal well borehole stability is analyzed by the new in situ stress prediction model. Finally, the results show that the collapse pressure will be underestimated if the conventional model is used in shale gas reservoirs improperly. The collapse pressure of a horizontal well is maximum at dip angle of 45°. The critical mud weight should be increased constantly to prevent borehole collapse if the borehole is exposed for some time.

  17. Borehole televiewer for fracture detection and cement evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rambow, F.H.K.; Clerke, E.A.

    1991-02-12

    This patent describes a method for acoustically logging a borehole in the earth to detect anomalies in the earth formation beyond the wall of the borehole. It comprises generating a plurality of narrow beam acoustic pulses with a rotating transducer at a first location in the borehole, wherein the complete circumference of the borehole at the first location is scanned by the pulses; receiving at the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses and producing a first electrical signal; receiving at a second location vertically spaced from the first location the reflected responses of the acoustic pulses with a single element annular thin film omnidirectional receiver and producing a second electrical signal; recording the first and second electrical signals to provide a visual display of the elapsed time between the generating of the acoustic pulses and the occurrence of reflection events from the anomalies in the first and second electrical signals; and analyzing the display to locate the position of the anomalies.

  18. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  20. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  1. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  2. Shooting direction and crosswell seismic data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Liner, C.L.; Bozkurt, G.; Cox, V.D.

    1996-09-01

    Four crosswell seismic surveys were acquired in the Glenn Pool Field of northeastern Oklahoma as part of a multidisciplinary reservoir characterization project. The acquisition goal was to generate data suitable for tomographic traveltime inversion. Acquisition parameters and shooting geometry were selected by conducting a parameter test at the site. Following the parameter test, the first survey resulted in high quality data showing clear first arrivals, low ambient noise, some reflection events, and strong source-generated tube waves. The second survey involved a different receiver well and encountered high ambient noise levels. The noise was strong enough to prohibit first-arrival picking for much of the data. On-site analysis of the second survey revealed tube waves emanating from a perforated interval in the receiver well. This well was shut in and was not flowing fluid or gas at the surface. They interpret the source of ambient tube waves as borehole-to-formation fluid flow (circulation) associated with the perforations. Since this image plane was important for characterization of the reservoir, the survey was reshot (third survey) by reversing sources and receivers in the two wells. The resulting high-quality data indicates that shooting direction can be an important factor in crosswell seismic acquisition. This experience influenced acquisition of a previously planned fourth survey so that the ambient noise problem would be avoided.

  3. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  4. Sonde with rotatable pad for carrying out logging measurements in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Desbrandes, R.; Norel, G.

    1981-09-15

    The sonde comprises a measuring wheel carried by an arm which holds it in contact with the borehole wall and rotates it around the sonde axis so that the measuring wheel follows a helical path on the borehole wall as the sonde is raised in the borehole.

  5. MicroRNA-29a-3p attenuates ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jian; He, Hong-Peng; Gong, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Rui; Song, Tie-Feng; Zhang, Li-Nan; Guo, Zhi-Xia; Cao, Dong-Sun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c4 (NFATc4) is the best-characterized target for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Aberrant microRNA-29 (miR-29) expression is involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis and congestive heart failure. However, whether miR-29 regulates hypertrophic processes is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the potential functions of miR-29a-3p in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We showed that miR-29a-3p was down-regulated in ET-1-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of miR-29a-3p significantly reduced ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, which was accompanied by a decrease in NFATc4 expression. miR-29a-3p targeted directly to the 3'-UTR of NFATc4 mRNA and silenced NFATc4 expression. Our results indicate that miR-29a-3p inhibits ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibiting NFATc4 expression.

  6. EGCG Blocked Phenylephrin-Induced Hypertrophy in H9C2 Cardiomyocytes, by Activating AMPK-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi; Zhao, Li; Qin, Yuan; Wu, Xiao-Qian

    2015-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of energy metabolism. Previous studies have shown that activation of AMPK results in suppression of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of the p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2) signaling pathways. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol found in green tea, possesses multiple protective effects on the cardiovascular system including cardiac hypertrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms has not been well investigated. In this study, we found that EGCG could significantly reduce natriuretic peptides type A (Nppa), brain natriuretic polypeptide (BNP) mRNA expression and decrease cell surface area in H9C2 cardiomyocytes stimulated with phenylephrine (PE). Moreover, we showed that AMPK is activated in H9C2 cardiomyocytes by EGCG, and AMPK-dependent pathway participates in the inhibitory effects of EGCG on cardiac hypertrophy. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that the effect of EGCG against cardiac hypertrophy may be attributed to its activation on AMPK-dependent signaling pathway, suggesting the therapeutic potential of EGCG on the prevention of cardiac remodeling in patients with pressure overload hypertrophy. PMID:25954124

  7. MicroRNA-29a-3p attenuates ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jian; He, Hong-Peng; Gong, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Rui; Song, Tie-Feng; Zhang, Li-Nan; Guo, Zhi-Xia; Cao, Dong-Sun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2016-07-01

    Transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c4 (NFATc4) is the best-characterized target for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Aberrant microRNA-29 (miR-29) expression is involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis and congestive heart failure. However, whether miR-29 regulates hypertrophic processes is still not clear. In this study, we investigated the potential functions of miR-29a-3p in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We showed that miR-29a-3p was down-regulated in ET-1-treated H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of miR-29a-3p significantly reduced ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, which was accompanied by a decrease in NFATc4 expression. miR-29a-3p targeted directly to the 3'-UTR of NFATc4 mRNA and silenced NFATc4 expression. Our results indicate that miR-29a-3p inhibits ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibiting NFATc4 expression. PMID:26992639

  8. Resveratrol protects ROS-induced cell death by activating AMPK in H9c2 cardiac muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kwon, Dae Young; Park, Ock Jin

    2007-01-01

    Resveratrol, one of polyphenols derived from red wine, has been shown to protect against cell death, possibly through the association with several signaling pathways. Currently numerous studies indicate that cardiovascular diseases are linked to the release of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) often generated in states such as ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the present study, we investigated whether resveratrol has the capability to control intracellular survival signaling cascades involving AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in the inhibitory process of cardiac injury. We hypothesized that resveratrol may exert a protective effect on damage to heart muscle through modulating of the AMPK signaling pathway. We mimicked ischemic conditions by inducing cell death with H2O2 in H9c2 muscle cells. In this experiment, resveratrol induced strong activation of AMPK and inhibited the occurrence of cell death caused by treatment with H2O2. Under the same conditions, inhibition of AMPK using dominant negative AMPK constructs dramatically abolished the effect of resveratrol on cell survival in H2O2-treated cardiac muscle cells. These results indicate that resveratrol-induced cell survival is mediated by AMPK in H9c2 cells and may exert a novel therapeutic effect on oxidative stress induced in cardiac disorders. PMID:18850225

  9. H2O 2 induces myocardial hypertrophy in H9c2 cells: a potential role of Ube3a.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Guanghua; Wo, Da; Feng, Jian; Li, Xucheng; Li, Jue

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial hypertrophy that often leads to eventual heart failure is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. While both apoptosis and cell proliferation have been reported to play an important part in heart failure, its exact triggering mechanism is still unclear. Reports have shown that low concentrations of H2O2 (10-30 µM) can induce myocardial hypertrophy without affecting survival. The ubiquitin ligase Ube3a has been reported to have a close affiliation with Angelman syndrome; but many ubiquitin ligases have been reported in a variety of cardiovascular conditions including myocardial hypertrophy. However, the relationship between Ube3a and myocardial hypertrophy has never been reported in literature. The rat cardiac myoblast cell line H9c2 and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes showed similar hypertrophic responses in vitro. In this report, we utilized H2O2 treatment on H9c2 cells to induce myocardial hypertrophy and determined the relationship between Ube3a and myocardial hypertrophy. Our results showed that 10-20 μM H2O2 can induce myocardial hypertrophy without affecting cell viability and inducing cell apoptosis, while the corresponding transcription and translation levels of Ube3a are significantly increased during the process. Therefore, these findings underline that Ube3a may play an important role in myocardial hypertrophy. PMID:24917194

  10. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  11. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  12. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  13. Estimation of biogenic silica contents in marine sediments using seismic and well log data: Sediment Drift 7, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neagu, R. C.; Tinivella, U.; Volpi, V.; Rebesco, M.; Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-06-01

    Petrophysical properties (wet bulk density, porosity, P-wave velocity) are used to predict biogenic silica contents along a seismic reflection profile that ties two well sites, 1095 and 1096, drilled by Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 178 on sediment drifts on the Pacific continental margin of the Antarctic Peninsula. The biogenic silica contents along the seismic reflection profile were estimated on the basis of three hypotheses about petrophysical properties distributions in the two boreholes and statistical relationships between biogenic silica and other petrophysical properties, which were established on various sediment layers within the boreholes. Our study demonstrates the possibility to reliably predict the distribution of biogenic silica in the sub-seabed sediments if seismic data processed with amplitude preservation are used and statistical relations are considered. We conclude that the statistical extrapolation of biogenic silica content along seismic reflection profiles tied to borehole data is an efficient tool to quantify the amounts of silica undergoing crystalline transformation, which may have strong implications for submarine slope destabilisation.

  14. Seismic Imaging Beneath the Kanto Plain, Japan, Inferred from S-wavevector Receiver Functions Obtained at Virtual Subsurface Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakoshi, T.; Takenaka, H.

    2013-12-01

    This study describes the seismic images of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Kanto plain, Japan, by using S-wavevector receiver function (SWV-RF) analysis at subsurface receivers. The SWV-RF is the time series deconvolving the upgoing SV-wave component by the upgoing P-wave one. This method for ground surface records was originally introduced by Reading et al. (2003, GRL). To calculate deep borehole and/or ocean bottom records, Takenaka and Murakoshi (2010, AGU) proposed the SWV-RF at subsurface station, which obtain it from the seismograms observed at a subsurface station using the structure model from the top to the receiver level. This method has a great advantage that the problem of unclearly seismic images beneath very thick sedimentary basin due to the records include strong effect of reverberation within the sedimentary layer can be overcome. Takenaka and Murakoshi (2012, AGU) applied the method to the teleseismic waveform records observed at not only deep borehole but also shallow borehole and ground surface stations in Kanto plain, Japan. To obtain clearly and continuous seismic images, we increased events for SWV-RFs in the period from April 2004 to July 2013, that is almost three times the number in Takenaka and Murakoshi (2012, AGU). We will show the three-dimensional Seismic Features of the crustal and deeper structures beneath the Kanto plain, Japan, which is derived from the vertical cross-sections of the depth-converted SWV-RFs.

  15. Seismic local site effects characterization in the Andarax River Valley (SE Spain) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Enrique; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco; Sánchez-Martos, Francisco; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.; Piña, José

    2014-05-01

    This work is focused on the characterization of seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River Valley (SE Spain). The Low Andarax River valley is located in an active seismic region, with the higher seismic hazard values in Spain. The landform is composed mainly by sedimentary materials which increase its seismic hazard due to the amplification of the seismic inputs and spectral resonances. We study seismic local effects in the Low Andarax River by analyzing the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) of ambient noise records. The noise data were recorded during two field campaigns in 2012 and 2013. There have been a total of 374 noise measurements with 15 and 30 minutes duration. The acquisition was performed with a Digital Broadband Seismometer Guralp CMG-6TD. The distance between measurements was about 200 meters, covering an area around 40 km2. There have been 6 significant peak frequencies between 0.3 Hz and 5 Hz. It was possible to find interesting areas with similar spectral peaks that coincide with zones with similar microgravimetric anomalies at the alluvial valley. It is also observed a decrease in the frequency peaks from West to East suggesting increased sediment layer. We also compute the soil models at those sites where geotechnical information is available, assuming that the seismic noise is diffuse. We invert the HVSR for these places using horizontally layered models and in the imaginary part the Green functions at the source. It is observed that the S wave velocity inverted models are consistent with the known geotechnical information obtained from drilled boreholes. We identify the elastodynamic properties of the limestone-dolomite materials with a formation of phyllites and quartzite that form the basement of the depression, and those properties of the Miocene and Pliocene detrital deposits (marls, sandy silts, sands and conglomerates) that fill the valley. These results together with the observed resonant frequencies along the Andarax

  16. Subsurface Structure of the Suspicious Hsiaokangshan Fault in Southern Taiwan From Seismic Reflection Images and Core Borings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C.; Shih, R.; Wang, W.; Lee, Y.; Chen, W.; Liu, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Hsiaokangshan fault in southern Taiwan was suspected as an active fault, which strikes in NS direction for about 8 km long. Existence of the Hsiaokangshan fault was originally proposed from its geomorphic characteristics, several lineation structures were found situated at west of the Dakangshan anticline. From evidences of regional seismic reflection surveys, gravity anomaly and borehole lithology, the Dakangshan anticline was thought formed by intrusion of a mud diaper. Since the area nearby the Hsiaokangshan fault was over developed, barely any geologic evidence was able to find to verify the fault. Currently, several boreholes were drilled by the Central Geological Survey of Taiwan to across one of the lineation structures, the borehole records show that the shallowest bedrock (Pleistocene mud formation) was reached at 36m deep and deepened westward. The Holocene marine environment sediments were laid down above the unconformity. In this paper, we will show our studies of the fault by using shallow seismic reflection method, core borings and regional subsurface seismic reflection images. To collect the shallow seismic reflection data, we used 96-channel data acquisition system to collect the seismic data and used a mini impactor, JMS Mini65 to generate seismic wave. To image the shallow unconformity, we deployed the geophone groups at every 5 m and set the minimum nearest offset at 5m. Although there is no reflection signal appeared in the mud formation, we are able to trace the unconformity and image the reflections of marine environmental sediments down to 1000m deep. Combining the shallow seismic reflection images, regional subsurface structures, and core borings, we are able to illustrate the detailed structures across the suspicious Hsiaokangshan fault and clarify the relationship between those lineation structures and the Dakangshan anticline.

  17. Seismic system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rietsch, E.F.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes aeismic apparatus for providing an enhanced seismic signal comprising: a plurality of seismic detector means for detecting vibrations of the earth surface and providing a corresponding plurality of seismic signals representative of the detected vibrations, multiplexing means for multiplexing the seismic signals from the seismic detector means to provide a multiplexed signal, memory means receiving the multiplexed signals for separating and storing portions of the multiplexed signal according to the detector means of origin so that each stored portion is in effect a sample of a seismic signal from a detector means, means for deriving from the stored samples a statistical reference for the seismic signals from the plurality of detector means, means for discarding outlying samples from the stored samples in accordance with the statistical reference, means for combining the remaining samples in a predetermined manner to provide an enhanced seismic signal, and means connected to the discarding means for determining whether or not a statistical significant deviation exists between the rejection rates of the seismic detector means.

  18. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  19. Seismic Waveguide of Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

    We developed a new method of an earthquake-resistant design to support conventional aseismic system using acoustic metamaterials. The device is an attenuator of a seismic wave that reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially. Constructing a cylindrical shell-type waveguide composed of many Helmholtz resonators that creates a stop-band for the seismic frequency range, we convert the seismic wave into an attenuated one without touching the building that we want to protect. It is a mechanical way to convert the seismic energy into sound and heat.

  20. Geological environment of karst within chalk using airborne time domain electromagnetic data cross-interpreted with boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reninger, P.-A.; Martelet, G.; Lasseur, E.; Beccaletto, L.; Deparis, J.; Perrin, J.; Chen, Y.

    2014-07-01

    The ability of airborne Time Domain ElectroMagnetic (TDEM) to image plurikilometric chalk heterogeneities and its implications for the development of a karstic system is addressed in this study. A heliborne TDEM survey was conducted around Courtenay (France) over the Paris Basin Upper Cretaceous chalk. This aquifer is known as a highly weathered and karstified horizon both strongly modify chalk petrophysical properties. Numerous boreholes and one recently reprocessed seismic line were used in order to strengthen TDEM interpretations. We performed cross statistics between boreholes and the resistivity model. This allowed defining empirical resistivity ranges corresponding to the main geological formations within the area. We were therefore able to map large scale heterogeneities in the chalk over the study area. First, the TDEM method highlighted probable weathering corridors in the chalk, related to the tectonic activity, consistent with faults previously interpreted in the seismics at deeper levels. Second, it was possible to image a large scale undulating geometry in the chalk with a SW-NE orientation, this direction is consistent throughout the Paris Basin, and well defined on the cliffs of Normandy (Channel coast, north of France). This geometry has revealed two separate chalk deposits C1 and C2 in Courtenay area: C1 is more resistive than C2. The resistivity model has then been compared to piezometric measurements acquired as part of previous hydrological studies. The karstic drainage appears to be developed within C1 chalk deposit and most of the piezometric domes seem to be associated to intermediate resistivity zones in C1, interpreted as weathered. According to the results obtained from this study, we were able to suggest a geological framework for the development of Courtenay karstic system.

  1. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this three-year research program is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and pore fluid permeability. This work involves a balanced study of advanced theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of reservoir wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing of measurements at controlled sites as well as in full-scale reservoirs. This reservoir probing concept is aimed at demonstrating unprecedented high-resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. Progress reports are presented by Task 3 conduct full-scale experimental field test and Task 4 data processing studies. For Task 3, interwell seismic experiments were conducted in the month of September at the University of Oklahoma Gypsy test site which is located in Pawnee County, Oklahoma. During the field test a full suite of interwell seismic data were acquired and will be used to extract rock porosity and permeability. In particular, interwell seismic experiments were conducted using two borehole hydrophone arrays (streamers) consisting of twelve detector channels (i.e., simultaneous source-to-detector measurements were made in two boreholes pairs having different separation distances) for source-independent seismic attenuation and dispersion studies.

  2. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  3. Mechanism of the 1991 eruption of Hekla from continuous borehole strain monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, Alan T.; Agustsson, Kristjan; Sacks, I. Selwyn; Stefansson, Ragnar

    1993-10-01

    VOLCANOES erupt when the pressure in a magma chamber several kilometres below the edifice overcomes the strength of the intervening rock. Seismic activity may accompany and precede eruptions, allowing (in favourable circumstances) the location and movement of magma to be traced. Ground deformation near volcanoes can provide more direct evidence for magma movement, but continuous monitoring is necessary to ensure that all the essential aspects of an eruption are recorded. Here we report dilatational strain data collected continuously during the January 1991 eruption of Hekla volcano by five borehole strainmeters located 15-45 km from the volcano. The data record the upward propagation of magma, as well as the deflation of a deep reservoir. In only 30 minutes the magma forced open a conduit to the surface from a depth of ~4km. Although other volcanoes might behave differently, our results suggest the possibility of using continuous deformation measurements to monitor conduit formation at other sites, perhaps providing short-term warnings of impending eruptions.

  4. Induced seismicity in the Tbilisi region, East Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikadze, G.; Chelidze, T.; Jimsheladze, T.

    2009-04-01

    The paper gives an overview on the underground fluid and geodynamical response to oil production processes and discusses the possible oil pumping-induced seismicity in the Tbilisi region, Georgia. The intensive oil production in 80-s disturbs the regime of the central hydrothermal deposit and causes depletion and desalination of springs. Analysis of data in the period of intensive increase in oil production rate at the Samgori-Ninotsminda oil field in 1975 and its drastic decrease in 1985 points to close connection of hydrological regime of thermal water in boreholes #1 Botanic-Garden (1 BG) with oil production level: fast increase of oil production leads to drastic decrease of debit in the central borehole to almost zero and 20-meters decrease of water level in the with some relatively long (month) time lags. Water debit in 1BG begin slow recovery after termination of pumping. In Tbilisi region during 1970-1989 was produced more than 5.1010 to kg of oil so according to existing statistics the level of extraction is close to critical for appearance of induced seismicity. The stress change induced by hydrocarbon extraction is as a rule small, but the deviatory stress exceeding 0.01 MPa may trigger seismic activity. In order to distinguish the seismohydraulic effect we plotted the seismic activity (SA) versus time in the time interval, covering periods before (1960-1970), during (1970-1989) and after termination (1990-2004) of oil production interval. To exclude the effect of local seismic network changes during 1960-2004 only the catalog of the Tbilisi Seismic Observatory (TSO), where the registration conditions were not changed in this period has been used. In the analyzed catalog were included events occurred within circular area of radius 50 km around TSO. Three types of TSO catalog were analyzed: TSO1 included all events, recorded at the observatory, even smallest ones; TSO2 included only the events of magnitude M  2.5; TSO3 included the events of magnitude M

  5. Seismic response analysis of NAGRA-Net stations using advanced geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, Valerio; Edwards, Benjamin; Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Keller, Lorenz; Fäh, Donat

    2015-04-01

    In cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently completed the installation of ten new seismological observation stations, three of them including a co-located borehole sensor. The ultimate goal of the project is to densify the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network (SDSNet) in northern Switzerland, in order to improve the detection of very-low magnitude events and to improve the accuracy of future location solutions. This is strategic for unbiased monitoring of micro seismicity at the locations of proposed nuclear waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the recordings, a seismic characterization of the area surrounding the installation area was performed at each site. The investigation consisted of a preliminary geological and geotechnical study, followed by a seismic site response analysis by means of state-of-the-art geophysical techniques. For the borehole stations, in particular, the characterization was performed by combining different types of active seismic methods (P-S refraction tomography, surface wave analysis, Vertical Seismic Profiling - VSP) with ambient vibration based approaches (wavelet decomposition, H/V spectral ratio, polarization analysis, three-component f-k analysis). The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a mean velocity profile for the site, which was later used for the computation of engineering parameters (travel time average velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and the analytical SH-wave transfer function. Empirical site-amplification functions are automatically determined for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. They are determined based on building statistical models of systematic site-specific effects in recordings of small earthquakes when compared to the Swiss stochastic ground-motion model. Computed site response is validated through comparison with these empirical

  6. Borehole cylindrical noise during hole-surface and hole-hole resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, James L.; Nimmer, Robin; Binley, Andrew M.

    2004-04-01

    Drilled boreholes generally are the only feasible means to access the subsurface for the emplacement of downhole electrodes for most hole-hole and hole-surface resistivity experiments. However, the very existence of the borehole itself creates the potential for significant noise due to the inevitable conductivity contrast that develops between the borehole walls and the formation. Borehole cylindrical noise develops whenever a current source is placed in a drilled borehole. Borehole geometries may range from nearly perfect cylinders to highly, irregular, rugose holes in consolidated rock, to relatively minor, collapsed, disturbed zones in caving sediments. Boreholes in non-caving formations generally are filled with artificial, conductive materials to afford crucial, electrical continuity between downhole electrodes and the borehole walls. Filled boreholes form cylindrically shaped heterogeneities that create significant noise due to preferential current flow up and down the conductive columns. Selected conditions are simulated with a finite difference model to illustrate the significance of borehole cylindrical noise on hole-hole and hole-surface mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials near a current electrode. Mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials measured during a field tracer experiment also are presented. These measurements are used to illustrate significant errors may develop in the interpretation of apparent resistivity estimates out to a distance of several meters from the current source if borehole cylindrical noise is not recognized and accounted for in the analysis of electrical potential data.

  7. Adipocytokine, omentin inhibits doxorubicin-induced H9c2 cardiomyoblasts apoptosis through the inhibition of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Kyosuke; Okada, Muneyoshi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki

    2015-02-20

    Omentin is a relatively novel adipocyte-derived cytokine mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissues. Blood omentin level decreases in the patients with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. We have previously demonstrated that omentin inhibits key pathological processes for hypertension development, including vascular inflammatory responses, contractile reactivity and structural remodeling. In addition, there are several reports demonstrating that omentin prevents cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial ischemic injury. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anti-cancer drug with cardiotoxic side effect. Here we tested the hypothesis that omentin may prevent DOX-induced cardiac cytotoxicity. H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts were treated with DOX in the absence or presence of omentin. Omentin (300 ng/ml, 3 h pretreatment) significantly inhibited DOX (1 μM, 18 h)-induced decreases in living cell number as determined by a colorimetric cell counting assay. Omentin (300 ng/ml, 3 h) significantly inhibited DOX (1 μM, 12 h)-induced cleaved caspase-3 expression as determined by Western blotting. Omentin (300 ng/ml, 3 h) significantly inhibited DOX (1 μM, 6 h)-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as determined by a MitoSOX Red fluorescent staining. In addition, a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor, rotenone (0.5 μM, 3 h pretreatment), significantly inhibited DOX (1 μM, 6-18 h)-induced decreases of living cell number, cleaved caspase-3 expression and mitochondrial ROS production. In summary, we for the first time demonstrate that omentin prevents DOX-induced H9c2 cells apoptosis through the inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production. These results indicate omentin as an attractive pharmaco-therapeautic target against DOX-induced cardiac side effect. PMID:25600813

  8. Mitoprotective antioxidant EUK-134 stimulates fatty acid oxidation and prevents hypertrophy in H9C2 cells.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Sreeja; Nair, R Renuka

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is an important contributory factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases like hypertension-induced hypertrophy. Mitochondrion is the major source of reactive oxygen species. Hence, protecting mitochondria from oxidative damage can be an effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of hypertensive heart disease. Conventional antioxidants are not likely to be cardioprotective, as they cannot protect mitochondria from oxidative damage. EUK-134 is a salen-manganese complex with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. The possible role of EUK-134, a mitoprotective antioxidant, in the prevention of hypertrophy of H9C2 cells was examined. The cells were stimulated with phenylephrine (50 μM), and hypertrophy was assessed based on cell volume and expression of brain natriuretic peptide and calcineurin. Enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, accompanied by nuclear factor-kappa B gene expression, confirmed the presence of oxidative stress in hypertrophic cells. Metabolic shift was evident from reduction in the expression of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was confirmed by the reduced expression of mitochondria-specific antioxidant peroxiredoxin-3 and enhanced mitochondrial superoxide production. Compromised mitochondrial function was apparent from reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment with EUK-134 (10 μM) was effective in the prevention of hypertrophic changes in H9C2 cells, reduction of oxidative stress, and prevention of metabolic shift. EUK-134 treatment improved the oxidative status of mitochondria and reversed hypertrophy-induced reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Supplementation with EUK-134 is therefore identified as a novel approach to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and lends scope for the development of EUK-134 as a therapeutic agent in the management of human cardiovascular disease. PMID:27514538

  9. Cardioprotective role of Syzygium cumini against glucose-induced oxidative stress in H9C2 cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Atale, Neha; Chakraborty, Mainak; Mohanty, Sujata; Bhattacharya, Susinjan; Nigam, Darshika; Sharma, Manish; Rani, Vibha

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic patients are known to have an independent risk of cardiomyopathy. Hyperglycemia leads to upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may contribute to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Thus, agents that suppress glucose-induced intracellular ROS levels can have therapeutic potential against diabetic cardiomyopathy. Syzygium cumini is well known for its anti-diabetic potential, but its cardioprotective properties have not been evaluated yet. The aim of the present study is to analyze cardioprotective properties of methanolic seed extract (MSE) of S. cumini in diabetic in vitro conditions. ROS scavenging activity of MSE was studied in glucose-stressed H9C2 cardiac myoblasts after optimizing the safe dose of glucose and MSE by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein diacetate staining and Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis confirmed the suppression of ROS production by MSE in glucose-induced cells. The intracellular NO and H2O2 radical-scavenging activity of MSE was found to be significantly high in glucose-induced cells. Exposure of glucose-stressed H9C2 cells to MSE showed decline in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes and collagen content. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, propidium iodide and 10-N-nonyl-3,6-bis (dimethylamino) acridine staining revealed that MSE protects myocardial cells from glucose-induced stress. Taken together, our findings revealed that the well-known anti-diabetic S. cumini can also protect the cardiac cells from glucose-induced stress. PMID:23512199

  10. Crosswell seismic investigation of hydraulically conductive, fracture bedrock near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Hsieh, P.A.; Shapiro, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire (USA), hydraulically conductive, fractured bedrock was investigated with the crosswell seismic method to determine whether this method could provide any information about hydraulic conductivity between wells. To this end, crosswell seismic data, acoustic logs from boreholes, image logs from boreholes, and single borehole hydraulic tests were analyzed. The analysis showed that, first, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be higher in schist than they were in granite. (Schist and granite were the dominant rock types). Second, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be low near fractures. Third, the hydraulic conductivity was always low (always less than to 10-8 m/s) where no fractures intersected the borehole, but the hydraulic conductivity ranged from low to high (from less than to 10-10 m/s to 10-4 m/s) where one or more fractures intersected the borehole. Fourth, high hydraulic conductivities were slightly more frequent when the P-wave velocity was low (less than 5200 m/s) than when it was high (greater than or equal to 5200 m/s). The interpretation of this statistical relation was that the fractures tended to increase the hydraulic conductivity and to lower the P-wave velocity. This statistical relation was applied to a velocity tomogram to create a map showing the probability of high hydraulic conductivity; the map was consistent with results from independent hydraulic tests. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  12. Seismic Computerized Alert Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 the USGS devised a model for a Seismic Computerized Alert Network (SCAN) that would use continuous monitoring of seismic data from existing types of instruments to provide automatic, highly-reliable early warnings of earthquake shaking. In a large earthquake, substantial damaging ground motions may occur at great distances from the earthquake's epicenter.

  13. Long Term Borehole Monitoring System For NanTroSEIZE 3.5 km Riser Hole: Requirements And Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, S.; Kyo, M.; Ito, H.; Namba, Y.; Kato, K.; Higuchi, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Araki, E.; Suyehiro, K.

    2007-12-01

    Most of the large earthquakes (magnitude greater than 8.0) observed in Japan fall into the subduction plate- boundary category. Based on the results of previous Nankai Trough research efforts, further research opportunities have been proposed under the umbrella of the IODP scientific drilling proposal 603 (NanTroSEIZE: Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment) ranked as the top level proposal in IODP. IODP proposal 603 not only proposes drilling, coring and geological analysis, and geophysical logging, but also mandates that a long- term borehole monitoring system be installed into two deep riser holes at about 3,500 m and about 6,000 m below sea floor (mbsf), where we expect to encounter the mega-splay and the locked region of mega thrust fault, respectively. The first riser target (NT2-03 site) is expected to drill through five potential splay faults above 3,500 mbsf. We plan to install sensors to monitor strain, tilt and optionally pore pressure for crustal deformation at and between splay faults, to monitor seismometer array for micro and slow earthquakes detection and for seismic microstructures, and to monitor pore pressure and temperature for hydrologic state change at the fault during interseismic period. The major technical features to develop the deep ocean borehole observatory for NT2-03A are mainly as follows; 1) high temperature (125°E#8249;C), 2) long life (5 years), 3) deployment (15,000 psi wellhead system, deep well, retrieval, perforation, packer, mechanical shock), 4) coupling to formation (cement, clamp), 5) multi level monitoring (against 5 spray faults), 6) multi purpose monitoring (seismic, geodetic, hydrogeologic), 7) low power consumption, 8) real time monitoring (connecting to sea bed cable), 9) accurate synchronization, 10) wide frequency range / high dynamic range ADC, 11) down sizing (installing into 9-5/8" casing with tubing), 12) system redundancy (fault tolerant). We started to develop an experimental prototype (EXP) for field test

  14. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clemo, T.; Barrash, W.; Reboulet, E.C.; Johnson, T.C.; Leven, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  16. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  17. Deriving historical total solar irradiance from lunar borehole temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Ohmura, Atsumu

    2008-01-01

    We study the feasibility of deriving historical TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) from lunar borehole temperatures. As the Moon lacks Earth's dynamic features, lunar borehole temperatures are primarily driven by solar forcing. Using Apollo observed lunar regolith properties, we computed present-day lunar regolith temperature profiles for lunar tropical, mid-latitude, and polar regions for two scenarios of solar forcing reconstructed by Lean (2000) and Wang et al. (2005). Results show that these scenarios can be distinguished by small but potentially detectable differences in temperature, on the order of 0.01 K and larger depending on latitude, within ~10 m depth of the Moon's surface. Our results provide a physical basis and guidelines for reconstructing historical TSI from data obtainable in future lunar exploration.

  18. Borehole observations of continuous strain and fluid pressure: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Linde, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain is expansion, contraction, or distortion of the volcanic edifice and surrounding crust. As a result of magma movement, volcanoes may undergo enormous strain prior to and during eruption. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations can in principle be used to determine strain by taking the difference between two nearby observations and dividing by the distance between them. Two GPS stations 1 km apart, each providing displacement information accurate to the nearest millimeter, could detect strain as small as 2 mm km-1, or 2 × 10-6. It is possible, however, to measure strains at least three orders of magnitude smaller using borehole strainmeters. In fact, it is even possible to measure strains as small as 10-8 using observations of groundwater levels in boreholes.

  19. Downhole seismic logging for high-resolution reflection surveying in unconsolidated overburden

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.A.; Pullan, S.E.; Burns, R.A.; Good, R.L.; Harris, J.B.; Pugin, A.; Skvortsov, A.; Goriainov, N.N.

    1998-07-01

    Downhole seismic velocity logging techniques have been developed and applied in support of high-resolution reflection seismic surveys. Data obtained from downhole seismic logging can provide accurate velocity-depth functions and directly correlate seismic reflections to depth. The methodologies described in this paper are designed for slimhole applications in plastic-cased boreholes (minimum ID of 50 mm) and with source and detector arrays that yield similar frequency ranges and vertical depth resolutions as the surface reflection surveys. Compressional- (P-) wave logging uses a multichannel hydrophone array with 0.5-m detector spacings in a fluid-filled borehole and a high-frequency, in-hole shotgun source at the surface. Overlapping array positions downhole results in redundant first-arrival data which can be processed to provide accurate interval velocities. The data also can be displayed as a record suite, showing reflections and directly correlating reflection events with depths. Example applications include identification of gas zones, lithological boundaries within unconsolidated sediments, and the overburden-bedrock interface. Shear- (S-) wave logging uses a slimhole, well-locked, three-component (3-C) geophone pod and a horizontally polarized, hammer-and-loaded-plate source at ground surface. In unconsolidated sediments, shear-wave velocity contrasts can be associated with changes in material density or dynamic shear modulus, which in turn can be related to consolidation. Example applications include identification of a lithological boundary for earthquake hazard applications and mapping massive ice within permafrost materials.

  20. High-resolution seismic reflection survey near SPR surface collapse feature at Weeks Island, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Harding, R.S. Jr.; Steeples, D.W.

    1994-12-31

    Shallow high resolution 2-D and 3-D seismic reflection techniques are assisting in the subsurface delineation of a surface collapse feature (sinkhole) at Weeks Island, Louisiana. Seismic reflection surveys were conducted in March 1994. Data from walkaway noise tests were used to assist selection of field recording parameters. The top of the salt dome is about 180 ft below ground surface at the sinkhole. The water table is an estimated 90 ft below the ground surface. A single coherent reflection was consistently recorded across the entire area of the survey, although stacking velocity and spectral content of the event varied. On the basis of observed travel times and stacking velocities, the coherent reflection event appears to originate above the top of the salt, possibly at or near the water table. Identification of this reflector will be made form borehole investigations currently planned for the sinkhole site. A depression or time sag in this reflection event is clearly evident in both the 2-D and 3-D seismic data in the immediate vicinity of the sinkhole. The time sag appears to be related to the subsurface structure of the reflector and not to near surface topography or velocity effects. Elsewhere in the survey area, observed changes in reflection travel times and wavelet character appear to be related to subsurface geologic structure. These seismic observations may assist in predicting where future sinkholes will develop after they have been tied to borehole data collected at the site.

  1. New UK in-situ stress orientation for northern England and controls on borehole wall deformation identified using borehole imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Fellgett, Mark W.; Waters, Colin N.

    2016-04-01

    The nascent development of a UK shale gas industry has highlighted the inadequacies of previous in-situ stress mapping which is fundamental to the efficacy and safety of potential fracturing operations. The limited number of stress inversions from earthquake focal plane mechanisms and overcoring measurements of in-situ stress in prospective areas increases the need for an up-to-date stress map. Borehole breakout results from 36 wells with newly interpreted borehole imaging data are presented. Across northern England these demonstrate a consistent maximum horizontal stress orientation (SHmax) orientation of 150.9° and circular standard deviation of 13.1°. These form a new and quality assured evidence base for both industry and its regulators. Widespread use of high-resolution borehole imaging tools has facilitated investigation of micro-scale relationships between stress and lithology, facilitating identification of breakouts as short as 25 cm. This is significantly shorter than those identified by older dual-caliper logging (typically 1-10+ m). Higher wall coverage (90%+ using the highest resolution tools) and decreasing pixel size (down to 4mm vertically by 2° of circumference) also facilitates identification of otherwise undetectable sub-centimetre width Drilling Induced Tensile Fractures (DIFs). Examination of borehole imaging from wells in North Yorkshire within the Carboniferous Pennine Coal Measures Group has showed that even though the stress field is uniform, complex micro-stress relationships exist. Different stress field indicators (SFI) are significantly affected by geology with differing failure responses from adjacent lithologies, highlighted by borehole imaging on sub-metre scales. Core-log-borehole imaging integration over intervals where both breakouts and DIFs have been identified allows accurate depth matching and thus allows a synthesis of failure for differing lithology and micro-structures under common in-situ conditions. Understanding these

  2. Acoustic monitoring of co-seismic changes in gas bubble rupture rate in a hydrothermal reservoir: field evaluation of a possible precursor and mechanism for remote seismic triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crews, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Remotely triggered seismicity is a phenomenon in which an earthquake at one location triggers others over distances up to thousands of kilometers. The mechanism by which low-amplitude dynamic oscillations of the confining stress can produce such an effect, often after a time delay of minutes-to-days, is unclear, but a concentration of remotely triggered seismic events in carbon-dioxide-rich volcanic and geothermal regions suggests that an increase in pore fluid pressure associated with the nucleation and growth of carbon-dioxide gas bubbles may reduce the effective stress in critically loaded geologic faults. While this hypothesis has been tested in bench-scale laboratory experiments, field detection of seismically initiated gas bubble growth in groundwater may provide further evidence for this remote triggering mechanism. In the present study, a hydrophone continuously records the acoustic power spectrum in CH-10B, a hydrothermal well located in Long Valley Caldera, California - a site that is susceptible to remotely seismic triggering. This well exhibits co-seismic changes in water level in response to near and distant earthquakes, including every magnitude-six or greater at any location on Earth. Exploiting the inverse relationship between gas bubble radius and the peak acoustic frequency emitted when a gas bubble ruptures, this investigation seeks to detect changes in the acoustic power spectrum arising from a shift in the size-distribution or count rate of rupturing gas bubbles, coincident with a distant earthquake. By resolving the timing and intensity of the onset of a change in gas bubble rupture rate after the passage of seismic wave from a distant source, it may be possible to establish the extent to which seismically initiated gas bubble growth contributes to co-seismic borehole water level response, pore fluid pressure perturbations, and the onset of remotely triggered seismicity.

  3. Moisture content and recharge estimates at the Yakima Barricade borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.M.; Szescody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    The DOE Deep Microbiology Program recently drilled a borehole near the Yakima Barricade, west of the 200 Areas. The area is vegetated by mature sagebrush. The borehole was drilled by cable tool and approximately every 1.5 m, sediment samples were collected in a bucket by the drill site geologist. Sediment samples for moisture content were sealed quickly Samples of opportunity'' were collected for the HSPA program (Hanford Site Performance Assessment), Isotope Recharge task. It should be noted that, although many QA Level II procedures were incorporated into the dulling and sampling, the Deep Microbiology Program is officially designated QA Level III, and therefore, the recharge values that we report here should only be usedfor planning purposes. A series of graphs illustrate the moisture content and chloride profiles in the Hanford Forrmtion at the Yakima Barricade Borehole. The gravimetric moisture content generally ranges between 0.01 and 0.08 in the first 70 m of sediment (only the first 30 m are shown in the figure), values that are typically found at the Hanford Site. The stratigraphy of this borehole is also attached. The first 1.5 m of the soil profile is Warden silt loam (designated eolian), followed by over 50 m of Hanford Formation. The Hanford Formation is composed of unconsolidated sands, silts, and gravels that were carried into the area by glacial flood waters during the close of the last Ice Age. Below the Hanford Formation is the Ringold Formation composed of semiconsolidated sediments. The water table is located at a depth of approximately 100 m.

  4. Moisture content and recharge estimates at the Yakima Barricade borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.M.; Szescody, J.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    The DOE Deep Microbiology Program recently drilled a borehole near the Yakima Barricade, west of the 200 Areas. The area is vegetated by mature sagebrush. The borehole was drilled by cable tool and approximately every 1.5 m, sediment samples were collected in a bucket by the drill site geologist. Sediment samples for moisture content were sealed quickly ``Samples of opportunity`` were collected for the HSPA program (Hanford Site Performance Assessment), Isotope Recharge task. It should be noted that, although many QA Level II procedures were incorporated into the dulling and sampling, the Deep Microbiology Program is officially designated QA Level III, and therefore, the recharge values that we report here should only be usedfor planning purposes. A series of graphs illustrate the moisture content and chloride profiles in the Hanford Forrmtion at the Yakima Barricade Borehole. The gravimetric moisture content generally ranges between 0.01 and 0.08 in the first 70 m of sediment (only the first 30 m are shown in the figure), values that are typically found at the Hanford Site. The stratigraphy of this borehole is also attached. The first 1.5 m of the soil profile is Warden silt loam (designated eolian), followed by over 50 m of Hanford Formation. The Hanford Formation is composed of unconsolidated sands, silts, and gravels that were carried into the area by glacial flood waters during the close of the last Ice Age. Below the Hanford Formation is the Ringold Formation composed of semiconsolidated sediments. The water table is located at a depth of approximately 100 m.

  5. Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Nai-Hsien

    1987-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  6. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  7. Historic Seismicity, Computed Peak Ground Accelerations, and Seismic Site Conditions for Northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo-Arriet, J. C.; Galván-Ramírez, I. N.; Ramos-Zuñiga, L. G.; Navarro de León, I.; Ramírez-Fernández, J. A.; Quintanilla-López, Y.; Cavazos-Tovar, N. P.

    2007-05-01

    In this study we present the historic seismicity, computed peak ground accelerations, and mapping of seismic site conditions for northeast Mexico. We start with a compilation of the regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24- 31°N, 87-106°W) for the 1787-2006 period. Our study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift, Sierra Madre Oriental and Gulf Coastal Plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua (MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas (MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila (MW = 6.5). Ground acceleration values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range province. The hypothetical earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because the majority of the buildings were constructed without allowance for seismic accelerations. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo and Monclova range from 30 to 70 cm/s2 (0.03 to 0.07g). This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located (e.g. suburbs of Monterrey). Additionally, the Vs30 distribution for the state of Nuevo Leon and the cities of Linares and Monterrey are presented. The Vs30 data was obtained using seismic refraction profiling correlated with borehole information. According to NEHRP soil classification, sites classes A, B and C are dominant. Sites with class D occupy minor areas in both cities. Due to the semi-arid conditions in northeast Mexico, we obtained the highest values of Vs30 in Quaternary deposits (alluvium) cemented by caliche. Similar values of Vs30 were obtained in Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. This work constitutes the first attempt at understanding and

  8. Equipment and Experimental Technique For Temperature Measurements In Deep Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khristoforov, A.

    The technique of temperature measurements is highly informative since any dynami- cal processes in the boreholes and in the vicinities are accompanied by thermal effects. Electronics and equipment for remote measurements in the boreholes are briefly dis- cussed in the report. It includes a deep instrument, cable winch and surface recording unit placed onboard a car. The temperature dependent frequency modulated signal is used in deep instrument. A cable of original construction was developed for chute-lift operations. It has a signal and power channel at the same time and play the depth me- ter. The surface recording unit includes power supply for deep instruments, receiver, frequency meter and indicator. A personal computer is used for the measurement nu- merical control. Energy for the electronics is supplied by a car battery. Self sufficiency and high accuracy are specialities of the equipment. Using the technique and equip- ment we made the experimental study of temperature in the boreholes of the East European platform, Middle Asia, West Siberia, Kamchatka and other regions. Most of our temperatures and temperature gradients have been used for mapping.

  9. Approximate Analysis of the Borehole Permeameter in Unsaturated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, J. R.

    1985-07-01

    An approximate analysis of the steady constant-head uncased borehole permeameter in homogeneous unsaturated soil is presented. A bulb-shaped region of saturated soil, the "saturated bulb," adjoins the water-filled length of the hole. The problem is solved by matching approximate models of the "inner" saturated flow within the bulb and of the "outer" flow in the surrounding unsaturated soil. The quasilinear analysis, with sorptive number α characterizing the capillary properties of the soil, is applied to the outer, unsaturated flow. Certain approximations made are geometrical, and others simplify the physics by treating gravity and capillarity as separable. The results agree well with the limited body of relevant detailed numerical solutions, and the model is consistent also with saturated flow results and formulae. In general, the capillary properties of the soil cannot be ignored: for a borehole of radius 0.05 m, the error committed in ignoring capillarity increases from 2.8 to 280% as α decreases from 10 to 0.1 m-1. The concepts and methods (the saturated bulb, use of the quasi-linear analysis, matching inner and outer flows) apply to a range of steady mixed saturated-unsaturated flow systems with water applied under positive hydrostatic pressure to an initially unsaturated soil mass. The study leads to some doubt about the practicality of using the borehole permeameter to measure saturated hydraulic conductivity in the absence of an independent determination of α.

  10. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  11. Experimental measurements of seismoelectric signals in borehole models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An experimental system is built for the electrokinetic measurements with a small scaled seismoelectric detector and a high resolution digitizer (1 MS s-1, 22 bits). The acoustic and seismoelectric experiments are carried out in different borehole models at the high frequency of 90 kHz in the laboratory. All the localized seismoelectric signals that accompany compressional wave, shear wave and Stoneley wave are first clearly observed with a monopole source in sandstone boreholes that are saturated by tap water. The amplitudes of these signals are measured in the range of 1-120 μV, which is useful for designing the seismoelectric logging instruments. Then the amplitude ratio of electric signal to acoustic pressure (REP) for each of the three waves is calculated and compared with the theoretical simulations. Based on the experimental data, we find that seismoelectric logging signals as well as REP become stronger at the more permeable borehole model. We also find that seismoelectric logging signals are more sensitive to permeability and porosity compared with acoustic logging signals. Therefore, this study verifies the feasibility of seismoelectric well logging, and further indicates that the seismoelectric logging technique might be a preferable method to estimate formation parameters in the field measurements.

  12. Comparison of climate model simulated and observed borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.; Stevens, M. B.; Beltrami, H.; Goosse, H.; Rath, V.; Zorita, E.; Smerdon, J.

    2009-04-01

    Advances in understanding climate variability through the last millennium lean on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Progress in the integration of both approaches can potentially provide new means of assessing confidence on model projections of future climate change, of constraining the range of climate sensitivity and/or attributing past changes found in proxy evidence to external forcing. This work addresses specifically possible strategies for comparison of paleoclimate model simulations and the information recorded in borehole temperature profiles (BTPs). First efforts have allowed to design means of comparison of model simulated and observed BTPs in the context of the climate of the last millennium. This can be done by diffusing the simulated temperatures into the ground in order to produce synthetic BTPs that can be in turn assigned to collocated, real BTPs. Results suggest that there is sensitivity of borehole temperatures at large and regional scales to changes in external forcing over the last centuries. The comparison between borehole climate reconstructions and model simulations may also be subjected to non negligible uncertainties produced by the influence of past glacial and Holocene changes. While the thermal climate influence of the last deglaciation can be found well below 1000 m depth, such type of changes can potentially exert an influence on our understanding of subsurface climate in the top ca. 500 m. This issue is illustrated in control and externally forced climate simulations of the last millennium with the ECHO-G and LOVECLIM models, respectively.

  13. Quantification of Free Gas in the Kumano Forearc Basin detected from Borehole Physical Properties: IODP NanTroSEIZE drilling Site C0009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, M.; Conin, M.; Henry, P.; Wiersberg, T.; Scientific Team Of Iodp Drilling Leg 319, .

    2010-12-01

    Free gas is easily detected from seismic reflection data. However its quantification is a difficult task in soft sedimentary basins, as S-waves velocities are difficult to extract from sonic data. We used high quality borehole sonic data from IODP NantroSEIZE Site C0009, not only to quantify free gas distribution, but also to discriminate the effects of clay porosity and mineralogy. The Kumano forearc basin, formed by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate below the Eurasian plate, overlays the Nankai accretionary prism, offshore the Kii peninsula, SW Honshu, Japan. Seismic surveys and boreholes within the framework of the NanTroSEIZE project (Nankai Trough SEIsmogenic Zone Experiment) show evidence of gas hydrates and free gas within the basin. Among the multiple breakthroughs performed while drilliong the IODP Site C0009 with riser technology, is the use of the Schlumberger's SonicScanner sonic too. It provides high quality borehole sonic data, giving even S-wave velocities for poorly consolidated clayish sediments. We use the Brie theory to quantify the gas content. The sonic parameters used in this model are calibrated from laboratory measurements on drill cores. First, we show that sonic data are mainly sensitive to the fluid phase filling the intergranular pores (effective porosity), rather than to the total porosity, which includes water bound to clay minerals. The effective porosity is then compared to lithodensity-derived porosity that constitutes a proxy for total porosity. The combination of the two datasets also provides information to assess the clay mineralogy of the sediments. Second, free gas saturation has been computed. A gas-rich interval lies within a lithological unit characterized by a high abundance of wood fragments and lignite. This unit, at the base of the forearc basin, is a source of gas that should be taken into account in models explaining the gas distribution and the formation of the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) within the

  14. Ultrasonic laboratory measurements of the seismic velocity changes due to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. G.; Choi, H.; Park, Y. C.; Hwang, S.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring the behavior and movement of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the subsurface is a quite important in sequestration of CO2 in geological formation because such information provides a basis for demonstrating the safety of CO2 sequestration. Recent several applications in many commercial and pilot scale projects and researches show that 4D surface or borehole seismic methods are among the most promising techniques for this purpose. However, such information interpreted from the seismic velocity changes can be quite subjective and qualitative without petrophysical characterization for the effect of CO2 saturation on the seismic changes since seismic wave velocity depends on various factors and parameters like mineralogical composition, hydrogeological factors, in-situ conditions. In this respect, we have developed an ultrasonic laboratory measurement system and have carried out measurements for a porous sandstone sample to characterize the effects of CO2 injection to seismic velocity and amplitude. Measurements are done by ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer mounted on both ends of cylindrical core sample under various pressure, temperature, and saturation conditions. According to our fundamental experiments, injected CO2 introduces the decrease of seismic velocity and amplitude. We identified that the velocity decreases about 6% or more until fully saturated by CO2, but the attenuation of seismic amplitude is more drastically than the velocity decrease. We also identified that Vs/Vp or elastic modulus is more sensitive to CO2 saturation. We note that this means seismic amplitude and elastic modulus change can be an alternative target anomaly of seismic techniques in CO2 sequestration monitoring. Thus, we expect that we can estimate more quantitative petrophysical relationships between the changes of seismic attributes and CO2 concentration, which can provide basic relation for the quantitative assessment of CO2 sequestration by further researches.

  15. H9c2 and HL-1 cells demonstrate distinct features of energy metabolism, mitochondrial function and sensitivity to hypoxia-reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Javadov, Sabzali; Sickinger, Stephan; Frotschnig, Sandra; Grimm, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of cardiac energy metabolism plays a critical role in many cardiac diseases, including heart failure, myocardial infarction and ischemia–reperfusion injury and organ transplantation. The characteristics of these diseases can be elucidated in vivo, though animal-free in vitro experiments, with primary adult or neonatal cardiomyocytes, the rat ventricular H9c2 cell line or the mouse atrial HL-1 cells, providing intriguing experimental alternatives. Currently, it is not clear how H9c2 and HL-1 cells mimic the responses of primary cardiomyocytes to hypoxia and oxidative stress. In the present study, we show that H9c2 cells are more similar to primary cardiomyocytes than HL-1 cells with regard to energy metabolism patterns, such as cellular ATP levels, bioenergetics, metabolism, function and morphology of mitochondria. In contrast to HL-1, H9c2 cells possess beta-tubulin II, a mitochondrial isoform of tubulin that plays an important role in mitochondrial function and regulation. We demonstrate that H9c2 cells are significantly more sensitive to hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in terms of loss of cell viability and mitochondrial respiration, whereas HL-1 cells were more resistant to hypoxia as evidenced by their relative stability. In comparison to HL-1 cells, H9c2 cells exhibit a higher phosphorylation (activation) state of AMP-activated protein kinase, but lower peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha levels, suggesting that each cell type is characterized by distinct regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Our results provide evidence that H9c2 cardiomyoblasts are more energetically similar to primary cardiomyocytes than are atrial HL-1 cells. H9c2 cells can be successfully used as an in vitro model to simulate cardiac ischemia–reperfusion injury. PMID:25450968

  16. Application of a Fibre Optic Distributed Acoustic Sensor (DAS) for Shallow Seismic Investigations of a Fractured Dolostone Aquifer in Guelph, Ontario.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, J. D.; Parker, B. L.; Coleman, T. I.; Mondanos, M.; Chalari, A.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding groundwater flow and contaminant transport in fractured bedrock aquifers requires detailed characterization of the discrete features that control flow, as well as the properties of the rock matrix. This requires multiple, high-resolution, depth discrete datasets that provide different, but complementary information. Distributed fibre optic sensing is a relatively new technology used to continuously monitor properties along the entire length of an optical fibre. Technological advances over the past few years have brought the sensitivity and spatial resolution to the point where shallow (<200m) borehole applications are practicable. Recent studies using fibre optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS) have shown excellent application of DTS for characterizing groundwater flow in both continuously sealed and open boreholes. This presentation highlights the results of a field trial at the Bedrock Aquifer Research Station on the University of Guelph campus (Ontario, Canada) where a single fibre optic cable was interrogated by both a DTS (Ultima-DTS) and a Distributed Acoustic Sensor (iDAS). DAS is a relatively recent development that allows an optical fibre to be used as a receiver for seismic imaging. These seismic images are produced by sending an optical pulse down the fibre and analyzing the effects of seismic waves on the propagating light. Numerous vertical seismic profiles were collected and the effects of different fibre optic cable structures and coupling techniques were examined. The seismic profiles will help delineate structural features and lithological contacts away from the borehole wall, and will assist in correlating other geophysical, hydraulic, or geological logs collected in the boreholes across the site. Preliminary results show promise for shallow seismic imaging and continued field trials will allow refinement of the technique.

  17. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the e