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  1. Presidential Address: The Woman in the Case Jane Todd Crawford, 1763-1842

    PubMed Central

    Sparkman, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 Presidential Address of the Southern Surgical Association is dedicated to the wives of the members, past and present, in acknowledgment and appreciation of the enduring contribution that they have made to the quality and character of this association. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17.Fig. 18.Fig. 19.Fig. 20. PMID:375854

  2. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:6490523

  3. Ultrastructure of free-ending nerve fibres in oesophageal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Robles-Chillida, E M; Rodrigo, J; Mayo, I; Arnedo, A; Gómez, A

    1981-01-01

    For the first time, at the ultrastructural level, the existence of free-ending, intraepithelial nerve fibres has been demonstrated in the oesophagus wall of adult cats and monkeys. Their form, the way they penetrate the epithelium, their location within the epithelium and their relationships with neighbouring cells have been established. A sensory function is suggested for this type of ending. Images Figs. 1-4 Figs. 5-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Figs. 16-17 PMID:7333951

  4. Sonar and its Use in Kidney Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, E. A.; Murphy, A. V.; Arneil, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    The basic principles of diagnostic ultrasound or sonar are given, together with the special technique required for scanning newborn infants and small children for kidney abnormalities. Illustrative examples of the potential of this procedure, both in diagnosis and in monitoring changes include a normal neonatal and preadolescent kidney, unilateral renal agenesis, duplex kidney, renal cyst, polycystic disease, nephroblastoma, and examples of mild and severe hydronephrosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12 PMID:4343783

  5. Urinary Tract Refunctionalization After Prior Diversion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, W. Hardy

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-two children who had undergone previous urinary diversion were operated upon to refunctionalize the bladder. In 24 the diversion had been considered permanent, and in eight, temporary. Success in these procedures suggests that many young patients deserve a second look for possible “undiversion.” ImagesFig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Fig. 12.Fig. 13.Fig. 14.Fig. 15.Fig. 16.Fig. 17a.Fig. 17b.Fig. 18. PMID:4416811

  6. A collagen and elastic network in the wing of the bat.

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, K A; Odland, G F

    1978-01-01

    Bundles of collagen fibrils, elastic fibres and fibroblasts are organized into a network that lies in the plane of a large portion of the bat wing. By ultrastructural (TEM and SEM) and biochemical analyses it was found that individual bundles of the net are similar to elastic ligaments. Although elastic fibres predominate, they are integrated and aligned in parallel with small bundles of collagen. A reticulum of fibroblasts, joined by focal junctions, forms a cellular framework throughout each bundle. Because of the unique features of the fibre bundles of the bat's wing, in particular their accessibility, and the parallel alignment of the collagen fibrils and elastic fibres in each easily isolatable fibre bundle, they should prove a most valuable model for connective tissue studies, particularly for the study of collagen-elastin interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:649500

  7. Morphology and morphogenesis of arenaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Frederick A.; Whitfield, Sylvia G.

    1975-01-01

    Arenaviruses have unique structural characteristics; they are pleomorphic, have a mean diameter of 110-130 nm, and consist of a membranous envelope with surface projections surrounding an interior containing ribosomes and filaments. Virus particles bud from plasma membranes of infected cells and in many cases large intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are formed. These characteristics allow generic identification, but not differentiation of individual viruses. Ultrastructural identification of virus particles and pathological processes in infected tissues of man and experimental animals is important in understanding the nature of arenaviral pathogenesis Such identification also contributes to our understanding of the mechanisms of viral shedding and transmission in reservoir host species. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:182396

  8. Abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in a patient with alpha heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gafter, U; Kessler, E; Shabtay, F; Shaked, P; Djaldetti, M

    1980-01-01

    A patient with alpha heavy chain disease (alphaHCD), who showed an abnormal chromosomal marker (D14 q+) in 10% of the bone marrow cells, is described. The mesenteric lymph nodes, which showed reactive hyperplasia in the first biopsy, transformed later to a malignant lymphoma and finally to a plasma cell tumour. The small intestine revealed villous atrophy, diminished crypts, and intact surface epithelium. The ultrastructure of the goblet and epithelial cells appeared to be normal, and the microvilli were preserved except for circumscribed areas of destruction. The lamina propria was heavily infiltrated with mononuclear cells, mainly mature plasma cells. Alpha heavy chains (alphaHC) were found in the patient's saliva. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:6767755

  9. Human Peripheral Lung Tumours: Light and Electron Microscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Mollo, Franco; Canese, Maria G.; Campobasso, Onofrio

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen human peripheral lung tumours have been studied in both light and electron microscopy. They were classified as epidermoid carcinoma, mucus-secreting cell adenocarcinoma, and alveolar cell adenocarcinoma, the latter made up of granular pneumocytes. Alveolar cell cancer, as defined by ultrastructural features, could assume different gross histological patterns in light microscopy, and therefore electron microscopy is required for its identification. Since neither squamous nor mucous metaplasia was observed in any alveolar cell tumour, it is tentatively suggested that all peripheral lung tumours which lack these features may be derived from granular pneumocytes, irrespective of whether they appear to be adenocarcinomata or large cell carcinomata when examined by light microscopy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:4348471

  10. Is actin a transcription initiation factor for RNA polymerase B?

    PubMed Central

    Egly, J M; Miyamoto, N G; Moncollin, V; Chambon, P

    1984-01-01

    We have previously reported that two fractions derived from HeLa cell S100 extracts, the heparin flow-through and the heparin 0.6 M KCl eluate are required in vitro for efficient and accurate transcription by RNA polymerase class B (II). We have further purified a factor present in the heparin flow-through fraction, which markedly stimulates specific transcription catalyzed by the heparin 0.6 M KCl eluate. We report here that some of the properties of the stimulatory factor present in our most purified fractions are strikingly similar to those of actin. We demonstrate also that this factor acts at the pre-initiation level of the transcription reaction. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:6499833

  11. Connective tissue responses to some heavy metals. II. Lead: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G.; Ham, K. N.

    1987-01-01

    Lead loaded ion exchange resin beads implanted into the loose connective tissue of the rat pinna induced local lesions which differed widely from those of the control (sodium loaded) beads (Ellender & Ham 1987). These lesions were characterized by changes in the granulation tissue and the approximating connective tissue. Granulation tissue contained mononuclear phagocytes in various guises, and some cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. The matrix of the granulation tissue contained collagen fibrils having a wide range of diameters suggestive of altered collagen biosynthesis. Foci of collagen mineralization occurred in zones of combined trauma and lead impregnation. Once mineralized they became enveloped by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Lead in damaged tissues is thought to modify the protective mechanism of calcification inhibition and the biosynthesis of the matrix. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3040063

  12. Incidence and structure of the appendices of the testis and epididymis.

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, D; Jit, I; Joshi, K; Sanjeev

    1996-01-01

    In paired tests obtained from 425 adults, 50 children and 10 neonates, the incidence of testicular appendices was 76% in adults (93.3% sessile) and 83.3% in neonates/children (88% sessile). An epididymal appendix was present in 21.9% of adults and 20% of neonates/children, out of which 79% were stalked in both types of specimen. Three sessile testicular appendices and 11 epididymal appendices were double. The microscopic structure of the appendices and the ultrastructure of their epithelia are described. Testicular or epididymal appendices were not present in any domestic or laboratory animal examined except the horse. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8886956

  13. Cell death during the development of the truncus and conus of the chick embryo heart.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, J M; Ojeda, J L

    1979-01-01

    The presence of cell death in the walls of the truncus and conus of the developing chick heart was investigated by a variety of light and electron microscopic techniques. Necrotic areas were observed in the myocardial layer of the truncus and conus and within the mesenchymal cells of the truncoconal ridges and aortopulmonary septum. These necrotic zones appeared first at Stage 25-26 and reached their maximum extent at Stages 29-32 undergoing later progressive disappearance. The morphological changes of the degenerating cells detectable under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy are also reported. The possible role of cell death in the morphogenesis of the truncus and conus is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:500497

  14. An ultrastructural study of the cere of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed Central

    Purton, M D

    1988-01-01

    The relative scarcity of primary and secondary skin infections in birds depends, at least in part, on the functional morphological barrier presented by the avian integument. Both transmission and scanning electron microscopical techniques were used to study the ultrastructural morphology of the epidermal barrier in the cere of the domestic racing pigeon. The epidermis is composed of sebokeratocytes which are responsible for producing not only the keratin proteins of the keratinized stratum corneum, but also the lipid emulsion forming the surface lipid layer and filling the intercellular spaces. The possible importance and role of these components in the defensive barrier presented by the skin is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 PMID:3198483

  15. Ten human carcinoma cell lines derived from squamous carcinomas of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Butler, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Ten cell lines of human squamous carcinomas of the tongue and larynx have been established from surgical specimens removed from 36 unselected patients, in order to provide systems for investigating the invasive and tissue-destructive capacity of squamous carcinomas of the head and neck. The morphology, ultrastructure and growth characteristics of the 10 lines are described. Detailed cytogenetic analysis of the first 4 lines indicates that each is karyotypically unique, with no evidence of cross-contamination. Nine of the 10 cell lines secrete immunoreactive beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) in the culture medium. No correlation was demonstrated between the ability of the cell lines to secrete plasminogen activator and their capacity to grow in soft agar or as xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7195729

  16. Electrical apparatus used in medicine before 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, N A

    1977-01-01

    The Ancients had at their disposal torpedo fish, amber and magnets. It was not until the sixteenth century that ideas on the strange behaviour of amber and magnets were put forward. The eighteenth century saw the application of Newton's theories of matter and the introduction of the electrostatic machine, Galvanism and Volta's battery. In the nineteenth century there was extensive application of electricity in medical practice, with the development of electrocautery apparatus and illuminated cystoscopes, the pioneering of the electrocardiogram and the discovery of X-rays. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 PMID:335397

  17. Synaptic endfeet in the 'acoustic nerve nucleus' of the rat. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Bolado, G; Merchán, J

    1988-01-01

    The medial portion of the cochlear nerve of the rat contains astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. These neurons form what has been called the 'acoustic nerve nucleus'. This nucleus has been studied here at the electron microscopic level. Its neurons are large and round, showing an eccentric nucleus, fibrillary bodies and rough endoplasmic reticulum which is not arranged in stacks. The somata and dendrites receive synaptic endfeet which can be classified into three groups according to vesicle size and shape. In general, the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells are similar to those of bushy cells as reported by other authors. The 'acoustic nerve nucleus' can be considered to be the most peripheral part of the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3248967

  18. The Foot and Ankle: An Overview of Arthrokinematics and Selected Joint Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, Janice K.; Bell, Stephania L.

    1996-01-01

    Limited range of motion of the ankle is common following a period of immobilization or injury to the lower extremity. If not corrected, this limited range of motion will disturb normal joint arthrokinematics and could affect the athlete's performance. Consequently, the athletic trainer must thoroughly evaluate the various joints of the ankle and foot in order to determine appropriate treatment. A comprehensive evaluation should include assessment of passive accessory motions at the foot and ankle. If accessory movements are restricted at any joint, mobilization techniques can be used to restore normal ankle/foot joint arthrokinematics. This article describes the biomechanics of the tibiofibular, talocrural, subtalar, and midtarsal joints and is a presentation of basic mobilization techniques for the ankle and related joints. ImagesFig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.Fig 9.Fig 10.Fig 11.Fig 12.Fig 13. PMID:16558394

  19. Objectivity in the classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, L.; Hyams, V. J.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of tumours derived from each of the four cell types of nasal epithelium is presented. Criticism is levelled at the adoption of additional terms for tissue types such as lympho-epithelium and transitional cell epithelium and tumours said to be derived from them. Electron microscopy is of assistance in classification particularly in the detection of evidence of keratin synthesis. The proposed classification of tumours of the nasal epithelium is: (1) Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: (a) papillary adenoma, (b) papillary carcinoma. (2) Squamous epithelium: (a) everted squamous papilloma, (b) inverted papilloma, (c) squamous carcinoma of any grade of differentiation from well differentiated to undifferentiated. (3) Melanocyte: malignant melanoma. (4) Olfactory neuroepithelium: olfactory neuroblastoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 21Fig. 20 PMID:1197175

  20. On the ultrastructure of the canine mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed Central

    Sinowatz, S; Wrobel, K H; El Etreby, M F; Sinowatz, F

    1980-01-01

    During pregnancy and lactation marked changes are observed in the fine structure of the secretory cells in the Beagle mammary gland: especially pronounced are differences in cellular height, shape and size of the nuclei and distribution of mitochondria. In later stages of pregnancy a proceeding development of those cellular organelles involved in synthesis and extrusion of secretory material (i.e. rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus) can be observed. Myoepithelial cells which can be first discerned from secretory cells by ultrastructural features from day 40 on show only minor variations of their ultrastructure during pregnancy and lactation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Figs. 12-13 Fig. 14 PMID:7462099

  1. Intersexes in swine: a problem in descriptive anatomy.

    PubMed Central

    Halina, W G; Barrales, D W; Partlow, G D; Fisher, K R

    1984-01-01

    Accurate anatomical descriptions of ten intersex pigs were compiled through dissection and histological examination in order to identify specific groups of reproductive anomalies. Six different anatomical phenotypes were identified: four varieties of male pseudohermaphrodite, one type of female pseudohermaphrodite and one type of true hermaphrodite. The intersex phenomenon is complicated by the number of distinct anatomical phenotypes represented broadly by the term hermaphrodite. Therefore, accurate anatomical descriptions and precise terminology are prerequisites to defining the etiology of hermaphroditism and defining the modes of inheritance. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:6478301

  2. Electron Microscopy of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Leeson, T. S.

    1965-01-01

    The use of the electron microscope has added much to our knowledge of the cell. The fine structure of the component parts of the nucleus and the cytoplasm is described, and their functions are indicated. The nature and structural modifications of the plasma membrane are illustrated with particular reference to function. To illustrate the interrelationships of the nucleus and cytoplasm, the theory of protein secretion is discussed, the secretion of a particular protein or polypeptide being determined by a particular nucleotide sequence in the desoxyribonucleic acid of a chromosome, that is, by a gene. This information is transferred from nucleus to cytoplasm. It is in the cytoplasm that the majority of the work is performed while the nucleus directs the work of the cell. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:5829410

  3. Ultrastructural features of degenerated cardiac muscle cells in patients with cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Maron, B. J.; Ferrans, V. J.; Roberts, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Degenerated cardiac muscle cells were present in hypertrophied ventricular muscle obtained at operation from 12 (38%) of 32 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) or aortic valvular disease. Degenerated cells demonstrated a wide variety of ultrastructural alterations. Mildly altered cells were normal-sized or hypertrophied and showed focal changes, including preferential loss of thick (myosin) filaments, streaming and clumping of Z band material, and proliferation of the tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were normal-sized or atrophic and showed additional changes, including extensive myofibrillar lysis and loss of T tubules. The appearance of the most severely degenerated cells usually reflected the cytoplasmic organelle (sarcoplasmic reticulum, glycogen, or mitochondria) which underwent proliferation and filled the myofibril-free areas of these cells. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were present in areas of fibrosis, had thickened basement membranes, and had lost their intercellular connections. These observations suggest that degenerated cardiac muscle cells have poor contractile function and may be responsible for impaired cardiac performance in some patients with chronic ventricular hypertrophy. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Figs 4-6 Figs 7-8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Figs 12-15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Figs 18-21 Figs 22-23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Figs 28-29 Fig 30 Figs 31-32 Fig 33 PMID:124533

  4. Listeria Monocytogenes Infections in Metropolitan Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Sepp, A. H.; Roy, T. E.

    1963-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in 21 patients with listeriosis are described and the subject is reviewed. Eleven of the infections were septicemias of newborns, eight were meningitis in infants or adults, and two other children had unusual manifestations. Neonatal septicemia was rapidly fatal; one of 11 infants survived. The disease often seemed traceable to mild maternal infection during the third trimester usually leading to premature delivery of critically ill babies. Only awareness of the possible presence of listeriosis and early antibiotic therapy seem capable of reducing this high mortality. Tissues from autopsies showed characteristic microscopic necrotic foci with mononuclear infiltration progressing to microabscesses containing small Gram-positive rods. Lesions were found in the one placenta examined. Five infants with meningitis recovered, and one of three affected adults. Specific diagnosis depends on demonstrating Listeria monocytogenes; differentiation from other forms of acute meningitis cannot be made clinically. One older child had septicemia and another had listerial pharyngitis. Both recovered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:13987999

  5. Observations on abortions in cattle: a comparison of pathological, microbiological and immunological findings in aborted foetuses and foetuses collected at abattoirs.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R B; Quinn, P J

    1975-01-01

    Fifty nonaborted and 50 aborted bovine foetuses were examined utilizing histology, immunoelectrophoresis, bacteriology and the fluorescent antibody technique. Lesions were observed in 12 of the nonaborted foesuses and in four of these immunoglobulins were demonstrated. In addition, two of the nonaborted foetuses had immunoglobulins in the absence of observed lesions. Lesions were observed in 48 of the aborted foetuses and immunoglobulins were detected in 22 of these. An etiological diagnosis was arrived at in 24 of the 50 aborted foetuses. The tissues most frequently observed to have lesions of diagnostic significance were eyelid, intestine, liver, lung and placenta. Intestinal lesions were observed in several foetuses in association with a variety of agents including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Foetuses diagnosed as aborting because of mycotic infection consistently displayed lesions in their eyelids. The value of taking eyelid sections in cases of suspected mycotic abortions, the significance of foetal intestinal lesions, the evaluation of abomasal aspirates and the diagnostic importance of immunoglobulin determinations in aborted foetuses are discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. PMID:166738

  6. Synaptic transmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the cat after reinnervation by vagus fibres

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, B.; Clementi, F.; Mantegazza, P.

    1971-01-01

    1. A vagus-sympathetic anastomosis was performed in the cat by connecting end to end the cranial trunk of the vagus to the cranial end of the cervical sympathetic trunk, both severed under the ganglia. 2. Forty to sixty days after the anastomosis, the ocular signs of sympathetic paralysis (such as myosis and prolapse of the nictitating membrane) which had developed shortly after the operation, had completely disappeared, thus suggesting the recovery of synaptic transmission in the ganglion. In case of plain preganglionic denervation after the same period the ocular signs of cervical sympathetic paralysis were still present. 3. Contraction of the nictitating membrane could be induced by electrical stimulation of both the vagus preanastomotic and the sympathetic postanastomotic—preganglionic trunks. Ganglionic blocking agents induced the blockade of the `new' ganglionic synaptic function, while nicotine and pilocarpine provoked a marked contraction of the nictitating membrane. 4. Electron microscopy showed that the preganglionic regeneration of vagus fibers resulted in the formation of new synapses, mainly of axodendritic type, identical to normal ganglionic synapses. Moreover, after cutting the preanastomotic trunk of the vagus, these new ganglionic presynaptic profiles degenerated, thus proving their vagal origin. 5. During restoration of the synaptic contacts readjustment of dendritic tips occurred. ImagesText-fig. 2Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4326851

  7. Chronic Actinic Keratopathy—A Condition Associated with Conjunctival Elastosis (Pingueculae) and Typified by Characteristic Extracellular Concretions

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1972-01-01

    Morphologic observations on a peculiar type of corneal reaction with a predisposition for the superficial stroma of the interpalpebral portion of the cornea are reviewed. Histochemical evidence is provided which indicates that the corneal concretions, though not homogenous, are proteinaceous in nature and contain amino acids not normally detectable in the cornea. The corneal concretions were associated with conjunctival elastosis (pingueculae) in all 22 instances in which the eyes were sectioned in the horizontal plane. Identical concretions were identified within these associated pingueculae, as well as in a large percentage of other pingueculae and cutaneous lesions with actinic elastosis. The findings suggest that the abnormal material arises in the pericorneal conjunctival connective tissue from whence it diffuses into, and deposits in, the superficial corneal stroma. The data also raise the possibility that the concretions may be derived, at least in part, from altered elastic tissue. Morphologic and epidemiologic observations on the condition taken together strongly suggest that this unique reaction is a sequel to the cumulative effect of chronic actinic irradiation. Further observations on this keratopathy are needed to establish whether this unique response can be provoked by other noxious stimuli. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15 PMID:5021106

  8. Ultrastructural and biochemical observations on proteoglycans and collagen in the mutable connective tissue of the feather star Antedon bifida (Echinodermata, Crinoidea).

    PubMed Central

    Erlinger, R; Welsch, U; Scott, J E

    1993-01-01

    Mutable connective tissue, unique to echinoderms, changes its mechanical behaviour within seconds of nervous stimulation. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In this study proteoglycans and collagen of the brachial ligaments connecting neighbouring ossicles of the arms of the feather star Antedon bifida have been investigated by biochemistry, light and electron microscopy and the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) technique using the dye Cupromeronic Blue (CB). The ligaments consist mainly of parallel cross-striated collagen fibrils, 82 +/- 12 nm in diameter, with a characteristic banding pattern and a D-period of 52.8 +/- 3.2 nm. Some fibrils were disaggregated into bundles of 10-11 nm protofibrils, lying between the normal fibrils. Proteoglycans occur at the surface of the fibrils with 2 binding sites (each with a different CEC) per D-period and also inside the fibrils. The surface proteoglycans are more highly sulphated (i.e. their CECs are > 1.3 M) than the intrafibrillar proteoglycans (CEC < 0.9 M). The glycosaminoglycans consist of a highly sulphated chondroitin sulphate, possibly with fucose residues. The results are consistent with the theory that disaggregation of the fibrils into protofibrils and reaggregation might be a mechanism of mutability, without excluding the possibility that fibrils may slide alongside each other during movements in the viscous phase of the ligament. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:8270464

  9. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis (massive necrosis) with fat necrosis induced in mice by DL-ethionine fed with a choline-deficient diet.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, B.; Estes, L. W.; Longnecker, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Female, albino mice were fed a choline-deficient diet containing 0.5% DL-ethionine. All animals died within 5 days due to the development of an acute hemorrhagic pancreatis with fat necrosis throughout the peritoneal cavity. The apancreatitis was characterized by a massive necrosis of the exocrine parenchyma with intense hemorrhage and inflammatory reaction of the stroma. The sequence of histologic and ultrastructural alterations occurring in the acinar cells of the pancreas were studied in mice fed the diet for 1, 2, and 3 days. Major findings consited of accumulation of zymogen granules, vacuolation due to foci of cytoplasmic degradation, and alterations in the morphology of the zymogen granules. The pancreatitis appears to be due to intraparenchymal activation of zymogens, resulting from a synergistic action of choline deficiency with the basic toxicity of ethionine toward the acinar cells of the pancreas. The experimental model simulates closely the acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with fat necrosis occurring in humans and may prove useful for exploring the pathogenesis of this condition. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 PMID:1094837

  10. Conservative surgical treatment of reflux esophagitis and esophageal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, J L; Wright, R S; Edwards, W H; Sawyers, J L

    1975-01-01

    During a recent 3-year period, 17 consecutive patients were seen with advanced fibrotic esophageal strictures secondary to alkaline-acid-pepsin reflux. From detailed preoperative evaluations alone it was impossible to determine whether therapy should consist of excisional surgery, esophagogastroplasty or intra-operative dilatation with correction of reflux. Only at operation could the length, extent, degree and severity of the stricture be fully determined. Each of the 17 patients was treated by controlled dilatation, coupled with an antireflux procedure. This simplified approach proved successful on strictures thought preoperatively to be undilatable. It appears that this conservative approach is applicable to many advanced strictures and excisional and plastic procedures should be reserved for those cases that prove unyielding to intraoperative dilatation. The true appraisal of a reflux stricture and the choice of surgical procedure is best determined at the operating table. Images Fig. 5A. Fig. 5B. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. PMID:1130874

  11. The structure and development of dopaminergic interplexiform cells in the retina of the brown trout, Salmo trutta fario: a tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, M; Manso, M J; Rodriguez-Moldes, M I; Anadón, R

    1994-01-01

    The organisation and development of the dopaminergic (DA) system in the retina of the adult brown trout were studied with tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemical techniques. Adult DA cells are rather homogeneous in appearance and possess thick dendritic processes running to the ganglion cell layer and thinner axonal processes which run to the horizontal cell layer, where they form a rich plexus of varicose fibres closely associated with the surface of these cells. Contact of DA fibres with photoreceptor processes was not observed. We therefore consider this DA population to consist mainly of interplexiform cells. These cells appear late in development, being first observed in prehatching (16 mm) embryos (after photoreceptors have begun to differentiate). DA cells increased in number throughout the fry and juvenile stages, but even in the largest juveniles studied (30-35 mm) the size of the DA cell population was only about 20% of that in adults. DA cells appear to arise in the marginal retina. In developing stages (embryos and fry) only inner nuclear layer processes were observed, the horizontal cell layer DA plexus appearing late in development (28 mm juveniles). Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7961143

  12. Experimental schistosomiasis in primates in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, P.; von Lichtenberg, F.; Goatly, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Laboratory infection of animals with Schistosoma haematobium is generally unsatisfactory as adult worms invariably inhabit the portal venous system rather than the vesical plexus as in man. However, it was thought that certain primates might prove more valuable for experimental studies of schistosomiasis than the usual laboratory animals. Baboons, Papio anubis, were therefore exposed to cercariae of S. haematobium and the pattern of egg excretion in stools and urine was followed quantitatively. Histological studies of various organs were made and it was found that although eggs were excreted in the faeces, they were also passed in the urine and that tissue changes in the bladder were similar to those found in human infections. It is suggested that the sequelae of S. haematobium infection found in man might develop in baboons and that the animal may be useful for studying their development in the laboratory. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 8FIG. 11FIG. 4FIG. 10FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 5 PMID:4968348

  13. A morphological study of experimental rabbit staphylococcal endocarditis and aortitis. I. Formation and effect of infected and uninfected vegetations on the aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D. J.; McColm, A. A.; Savage, T. J.; Ryan, D. M.; Acred, P.

    1986-01-01

    In this study the development of sterile thrombic vegetations on the aorta resulting from catheterization and the effect of subsequent infection with Staphylococcus aureus were examined by light and electron microscopy. Thrombi of various sizes, comprising fibrin, platelets and a few leucocytes and erythrocytes, develop on the damaged surface of the aorta with minimal changes in the underlying aortic wall. After intravenous inoculation of Staph. aureus most vegetations become infected, as shown by the presence of bacterial colonies, and the underlying aortic wall is markedly inflamed. The inflammatory cells invade the wall from the base of the aorta and cause swelling plus disruption of the elastic laminae with ulceration of the luminal surface in some cases. This structural damage appears to be a direct result of the bacterial infection of the lesions on the luminal surface. Images Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:3790427

  14. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of dog and guinea-pig hyaline articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D L; O'Connor, P; Oates, K

    1981-01-01

    Fifty seven blocks of cartilage excised from the femoral condyles of 20 beagle dogs, and whole lower ends of 5 guinea-pig femora, were examined at -195 degrees (78 K), by scanning electron microscopy. The unfixed tissue, taken into slushy nitrogen at -210 degrees (63 K), was not exposed to atmospheric air after quenching and remained fully hydrated throughout long periods of observation. Images susceptible to analysis were obtained from washed and from unwashed cartilage surfaces. Preliminary coating with gold or with aluminium, known to be possible without exposing cold cartilage surfaces to changes in temperature likely to cause water loss by sublimation, was valuable in minimising charging and in facilitating the recording of electron images at higher magnifications. Although examination was possible without coating, the resultant images were of low resolution. Microscopy revealed a pattern of secondary surface irregularities of tertiary elevations closely resembling those seen by the conventional scanning electron microscopy of fixed, dehydrated hyaline cartilage. However, the pattern of tertiary surface structures was predominantly that of elevations, not of hollows. Quaternary surface ridges were common on the surfaces of excised dog cartilage blocks and were not seen on the surfaces of guinea-pig cartilage which remained on the femoral condyles. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:7024225

  15. The fine structure of proliferating cartilage cells: structural changes in an experimental model.

    PubMed Central

    Scheck, M; Parker, J; Sakovich, L

    1975-01-01

    Extensive development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and comparatively less developed Golgi membranes were seen in the cells of chondrocyte clusters which had formed in the vicinity of cartilage defects produced by intra-articular papain and cortisone injections. These cells frequently showed myelin-like membranous figures. These figures were seen either close to the cell membrane, or between cells, or connected to the nuclear envelope or the endoplasmic reticulum. The hypothesis is advanced that the myelin figures are made from redundant material which was not used for membrane formation. Cortisone, which is known to interfere with mitochondrial function and general metabolic processes, could have been responsible for the deficiency in membrane differentiation and transfer. This investigation was supported by grants from the Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation and from the Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee of the School of Medicine, Univeristy of California, San Francisco. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7, 8 and 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Figs. 16 and 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 PMID:1141047

  16. Cryoscanning electron microscopic study of the surface amorphous layer of articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, S; Yonekubo, S; Kurogouchi, Y

    1995-01-01

    In order to elucidate the structure near the articular surface, frozen unfixed hydrated articular cartilage with subchondral bone from the pig knee was examined using a cryoscanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM). This method is considered to reduce the introduction of artefacts due to fixation and drying. An amorphous layer, without a collagen-fibril network or chondrocytes, covered most of the surface of the cartilage. This layer was termed the surface amorphous layer. It showed various appearances, which were classified into 4 groups. The average thickness of the layer did not differ among the 8 anatomical regions from which the specimens were taken. The thickness of the layer was found to correlate with the type of appearance of the layer. The 4 appearances associated with thicknesses in descending order are: 'streaked', 'foliate', 'spotted', and 'vestigial'. The surface layer observed in the cryo-SEM was thicker than that observed by a conventional SEM. This difference may be attributable to dehydration of the specimen used in specimen preparation for the latter technique. The layer was also observed in articular cartilage taken from human and rabbit knees. The layer was found to be unstable and to have very variable features. Its thickness and appearance may be influenced by various factors such as dehydration, fluid absorption or mechanical stress. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:7592006

  17. Genetically mediated resistance to naturally occurring aortic sclerosis in spontaneously hypertensive as against Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Kyoto breeder rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.; McMurtry, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Male and female, normotensive, Sprague-Dawley (S-D), Wistar-Kyoto (WKy), and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were bred repeatedly until the females had given birth to and nursed 6 litters of pups. At the close of the 2nd, 4th and 6th breeding, breeder males and females, along with celibate males and females of equal age, were killed. S-D and WKy breeder rats manifested progressively increasing adiposity and high blood pressure with each successive breeding; breeder SHR showed mild exacerbation of their pre-existing high blood pressure. Adrenocortical hyperplasia and thymus-gland involution suggested increasing pituitary-adrenal activity in breeder rats. Circulating aldosterone levels decreased with repeated breeding in parallel with increased deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone secretion. The repeatedly bred normotensive rats manifested worsening aortic sclerosis as against little or no aortic sclerosis in the repeatedly bred SHR. Breeder SHR developed fibrinohyalin intimal lesions limited exclusively to the arterioles of the testis and ovary. Virgin rats did not develop any vascular disease. It is suggested that a diverse spectrum of adrenal steroids in breeder HSR combined with genetic direction control the morphogenesis of arterial disease in breeder SHR. Images Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7066185

  18. Non-myelinated nerve fibres and their terminals in the sub-odontoblastic plexus of the feline dental pulp.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1980-01-01

    Serial thin sections of the coronal dental pulp of the cat's canine tooth were cut. Parts of the sub-odontoblastic neural plexus were photographed from 100 of the sections. The plexus consists of many slender, predominantly unmyelinated nerve fibres. Many axons are incompletely sheathed by their Schwann cell. Some axons leave the Schwann cell sheath and either end in the extracellar space or return to the Schwann cell after traveling a short distance. Several axons are often seen in close contact within a single invagination of the Schwann cell. They remain in contact for up to 7 micrometer.l Both Schwann cells and axons are see to branch in this region. These features may be characteristic of nerve fibres and terminals which respond to noxious stimuli. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs. 7-8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:7410190

  19. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  20. Ultrastructure of Leydig cells in human ageing testes.

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, R; Amat, P; Nistal, M; Martin, A

    1986-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of Leydig cells in elderly men revealed the following Leydig cell types: (1) ultrastructurally normal Leydig cells (46.2%); (2) Leydig cells either with multiple cytoplasmic or intranuclear Reinke crystals or with numerous para-crystalline inclusions (6.1%); (3) multivacuolated Leydig cells with the cytoplasm almost filled by lipid droplets (16.7%; (4) dedifferentiated Leydig cells with poor development of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, and increased amounts of lipofuscin granules (22.3%); and (5) bi- or trinucleate Leydig cells (8.7%) showing either a normal (2.8%) or dedifferentiated (5.9%) cytoplasm. These results suggest an involution of Leydig cells with advancing age. A correlation between the proportion of altered Leydig cells and the decrease in testosterone and increase in luteinising hormone levels could be observed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Figs. 6-7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3693056

  1. The Possible Role of Hypnosis in Homograft Retention

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Sydney; Knight, Charles R.

    1965-01-01

    Hypnosis was used to alter body image in an attempt to enable a woman to retain a skin homograft from an unrelated male donor. The man also acted as a nonhypnotized control by receiving a homograft from the hypnotized woman. Oneinch square full-thickness skin homografts were exchanged between the upper arms of the two volunteers. The homograft on the arm of the woman is still viable after eight months; the homograft on the man was rejected within two weeks. A second experiment in which the same subject was told under hypnosis to reject the homograft failed to produce rejection. Definite conclusions are not yet justified. Among factors to be considered in the present case are an unusual compatibility, schizophrenia as an inhibitor of the rejection mechanism, hypnotically induced irreversible acceptance, or other unknown mechanisms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:14339293

  2. Clinical evaluation of fibre-optic sigmoidoscopy employing the Olympus CF-SB colonoscope

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, P. R.; Branch, R. A.; Collins, C.; Espiner, H.; Read, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with large bowel disease were examined with the Olympus CF-SB fibreoptic colonoscope. With adequate bowel preparation and employing inhalational analgesia administered by a self-demand valve the whole sigmoid colon could be examined in the majority of patients within 30 minutes. In 23% of cases (12/51) the diagnosis was either made or confirmed by this procedure alone. Fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is especially helpful in patients with either equivocal or failed barium enemas and is indicated in patients with unexplained rectal bleeding, extending the search for polyps and cancer, and studying patients with inflammatory bowel disease. About one quarter of biopsies taken from a flat mucosal surface with the Olympus flexible biopsy forceps may be insufficient for detailed histology due to their small size. For this reason multiple biopsies may be taken. Adequate biopsies were always obtained from projecting lesions and could be very accurately sited. Colour photography employing automatic exposure control is used to supplement the information obtained. It is concluded that fibreoptic sigmoidoscopy is a valuable additional investigation in selected patients with suspected disease of the large bowel and to date has been without complications. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:5315423

  3. Atypical Teratomas of the Pineal

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, I.; Baxter, D. W.; Stratford, J. G.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical teratomas of the pineal were studied pathologically and clinically, and five illustrative cases are described. The results of three postmortem examinations are available, while two of the patients are living, one leading a normal life. Pathological verification revealed that two had suprasellar “ectopic” pinealomas. One neoplasm was located in the pineal (collicular) region. The histology of the tumours was identical, consisting of small cells resembling lymphocytes and large cells with prominent nucleoli and mitoses. This feature plus the midline location led to adoption of the term “atypical teratoma”. Patients with collicular pinealomas presented with headache, vomiting, papilledema, Parinaud's syndrome and, rarely, nystagmus retractorius. Diabetes insipidus, visual difficulty and hypopituitarism were characteristic features in those with suprasellar neoplasms. Treatment of collicular pinealoma has consisted of the use of a palliative shunt followed by a course of radiation. Chiasmal decompression and radiation have produced favourable results in patients with suprasellar pinealoma. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12 PMID:20327617

  4. The fine structure of the human fetal urinary bladder. Development and maturation. A light, transmission and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, J; Antonakopoulos, G N

    1989-01-01

    The urinary bladders of 27 human fetuses, aged 7 weeks to full term, were studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy to establish the sequence of events in the development and maturation of the organ during fetal life. In the early specimens, 7-12 weeks old, the urinary bladder was lined by a bilayered, cuboidal and glycogen-rich epithelium. During the 13-17th weeks the epithelium thickened, a third layer developed and by light microscopy it now resembled urothelium. By 21 weeks this had evolved into a 3-4 layer thick epithelium with typical ultrastructural urothelial characteristics. Smooth muscle cells emerged from the condensed mesenchyme of the bladder wall by the 12th week of gestation, initially in the cephalic part of the organ but spreading within a week into the caudal end. Our findings indicate that the human fetal bladder undergoes a series of vital developmental changes during 13-21 weeks of gestation finally acquiring the typical urothelial lining and a well-developed muscular coat. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:2621133

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  6. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  7. New surgical concepts resulting from cranio-orbito-facial surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, M T; Jane, J A; Berry, F A; Marshall, K A

    1975-01-01

    The authors have defined the subspecialty of craniofacial surgery and described the organization of the multi-disciplinary team required to care for such patients. Common features of the craniofacial patient have been summarized and three major categories of patients have been proposed. These are: I. Syndromes associated with hypertelorism; II. Syndromes associated with premature synostoses or growth arrests; III. Syndromes associated with primarily mid- and lower face anomalies. Growing out of an experience with 242 operations on 106 patients, the authors have listed 9 relatively new surgical "principles." Each has led to a current surgical approach that is now being employed by the craniofacial team at The University of Virginia. A number of examples are given to show ways in which the lessons learned from the craniofacial patients are now being applied, with improved results, to patients with neoplasms, traumatic injuries, or other conditions. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 21. Fig. 22. PMID:1099994

  8. Nonhepatic Thioacetamide Injury

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Edward A.; Smuckler, Edward A.

    1974-01-01

    Thioacetamide given orally to rats produces centrolobular hepatic necrosis and also causes death of the cells in the terminal portion of the proximal renal tubule. The morphologic changes observed during the course of the renal toxicity include the early and transient appearance of apical dense bodies, which appear to fuse to form large lysosomes, and the appearance of nucleolar hypertrophy, reminiscent of the same change seen in the hepatocytes. In addition a variety of changes described in lethally injured tubular cells in other toxicities appear. A diuresis, which lasts for 5 days, coincides with the appearance of tubular cell destruction. The mechanism of cell injury due to thioacetamide is not identified, but the temporal sequence of morphologic and physiologic change is consistent with both a relative concentration of the thioacetamide in the proximal tubule and its potential conversion to a putative proximate toxin. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 16 PMID:4814902

  9. Intrapulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: ultrastructural features.

    PubMed Central

    Oghiso, Y.; Kagan, E.; Brody, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Although all commercial types of asbestos can cause pulmonary fibrosis, little is known about ultrastructural differences in the evolution of pulmonary lesions induced by amphiboles and serpentines. The present study was designed to compare the histological and ultrastructural effects produced by chronic inhalation of either crocidolite (amphibole) or chrysotile (serpentine) asbestos in the rat. Animals, exposed by intermittent inhalation for 3 months, were killed after 2 to 16 months. When inhaled, both types of asbestos caused thickened alveolar duct bifurcations associated with macrophage aggregates. Crocidolite inhalation also produced subpleural collections of alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes. Electron microscopy revealed some similarities, but also distinct differences, in the pulmonary distribution of inhaled chrysotile and crocidolite. Whereas both asbestos varieties were identified within the pulmonary interstitium, only crocidolite was detected inside alveolar macrophages. Chrysotile fibres were seen infrequently within the vascular compartment. Microcalcifications were noted after chrysotile inhalation, but were never observed following crocidolite exposure. Both asbestos types induced slight pulmonary fibrosis. These findings indicate that crocidolite and chrysotile produce different pathogenetic features, although both are fibrogenic. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 5 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:6087872

  10. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  11. The orbital glands of the terrapin Pseudemys scripta in response to osmotic stress: a light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Baccari, G C; Minucci, S; Di Matteo, L

    1993-01-01

    The histochemical and ultrastructural features of both orbital glands--the anterior lacrimal and harderian glands--were compared in the terrapin Pseudemys scripta following adaptation either to distilled water or to seawater. Seawater adaptation activated the harderian gland and caused a major structural reorganisation. Type I cells increased in number, whereas type II cells became smaller and less numerous. The most striking change was shown by the type IV cells which display the features of a salt-secreting cell. This cell type increased in number and changed from a unicellular form to multicellular complexes. Transfer from fresh water to distilled water caused a decrease in alcianophilia in type I and type III glandular cells and degenerative phenomena were often seen in type I and type IV cells. The anterior lacrimal gland showed only minor changes either in distilled or seawater adapted terrapins. Transfer to distilled water also caused degenerative phenomena in the lacrimal gland. These results establish for the first time the involvement of the harderian gland of a terrapin in osmoregulation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8270473

  12. Replacement of the Aortic and Mitral Valves Using the Starr-Edwards Ball-Valve Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, John C.

    1964-01-01

    The aortic and mitral valves were replaced in 50 patients at the University of Alberta Hospital using the Starr-Edwards ball-valve prosthesis. The basis of the selection of 20 patients for isolated aortic valve replacement and 27 for mitral valve replacement using this type of prosthesis is presented, and the techniques of insertion of the aortic and mitral valve are described in detail. Of the 27 patients in whom the mitral valve was replaced by the Starr-Edwards prosthesis six died within 30 days of surgery and two after discharge from hospital at two and a half and four months, respectively. Left atrial thrombosis was the cause of death in four of these patients. In 20 patients in whom the aortic valve was replaced, four died in hospital and two died more than 30 days after returning home. Three of these six patients died from bleeding—the result of the use of anticoagulants. The difficulty in assessing whether or not anticoagulants are needed following replacement by a Starr-Edwards prosthesis is considered. It is felt, in our present state of knowledge, that anticoagulants should be used following mitral valve replacement but are probably not essential following replacement of the aortic valve. Two patients survived replacement of both aortic and mitral valves and have been followed up 18 months and seven months, respectively. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:14179062

  13. Myocardial infarction in spontaneously hypertensive rats with superimposed adrenal-regeneration hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    The elevated blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was further exacerbated by subjecting these animals to surgically induced adrenal-regeneration hypertension (ARH). When chronic abnormally high blood pressure had been in effect for 12 weeks, the animals were subjected to an acute and massive myocardial infarction with isoprenaline. Hypertensive but intact SHR survived better than ARH-treated animals. Circulating enzyme (CPK, SGOT, SGPT and LDH), lipid and glucose levels and BUN manifested much greater excursions commensurate with more extensive myocardial infarction in ARH-treated than in intact SHR. ARH-treated SHR displayed a high incidence of atrial and ventricular thrombi associated with frequent left ventricular aneurysm formation. It is suggested that the more extensive myocardial connective tissue and ground-substance degeneration in ARH-treated SHR is due to the impoverished steroidogenic capacity of their regenerated adrenal glands. Images Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:508586

  14. Ultrastructural study of macrophages in the rat thymus, with special reference to the cortico-medullary zone.

    PubMed Central

    Milićević, N M; Milićević, Z; Colic, M; Mujović, S

    1987-01-01

    Electron microscopic study of the normal rat thymus has demonstrated that macrophages with different ultrastructural features are positioned in the thymic cortex, in the cortico-medullary zone and in the medulla. Phagocytic cells, containing necrotic lymphocytes in various stages of degradation, are distributed throughout the thymic cortex. The cortico-medullary zone, in contrast, is populated with macrophages displaying specific ultrastructural features. These cells contain numerous vacuolar inclusions of different size, filled with homogeneous, flocculent material of very low electron density. The dense bodies, occasionally positioned to the inner side of the vacuolar membrane, selectively contrast with silver methenamine and contain polysaccharides, as demonstrated by the thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate method. Very rarely, these cells contain phagocytosed lymphocyte remnants. The predominant type of mononuclear phagocytic cells in the thymic medulla are the interdigitating cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:3654343

  15. Colour thresholding in video imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, C D; Degraw, S

    1995-01-01

    The basic aspects of video imaging are reviewed as they relate to measurements of histological and anatomical features, with particular emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of colour and black-and-white imaging modes. In black-and-white imaging, calculations are based on the manipulation of picture elements (pixels) that contain 0-255 levels of information. Black is represented by the absence of light (0) and white by 255 grades of light. In colour imaging, the pixels contain variation of hues for the primary (red, green and blue) and secondary (magenta, yellow, cyan, pink) colours. Manipulation of pixels with colour information is more computer intense than that for black-and-white pixels, because there are over 16 million possible combinations of colour in a system with a 24-bit resolution. The narrow 128 possible grades of separation in black and white often makes distinction between pixels with overlapping intensities difficult. Such difficulty is greatly reduced by colour thresholding of systems that base the representation of colour on a combination of hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) format. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:7559121

  16. The embryological development of primary visual centres in the turtle Emys orbicularis.

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta, S; Lemire, M; Pieau, C; Ward, R; Repérant, J

    1993-01-01

    The development of the primary visual centres was studied in a series of embryos of the turtle, Emys orbicularis, incubated at 25 degrees C. The differentiation of both visual and nonvisual diencephalic and mesencephalic structures takes place entirely within the 2nd quarter of the period of incubation; this finding appears to be consistent with previous descriptions of the embryology of 2 other chelonian species, Lepidochelys and Chelydra. Two successive waves of migration, each dividing into internal and external sheaves, are involved in the formation of the structures of the diencephalon and mesencephalon. The primary visual centres, which comprise 2 hypothalamic, 5 thalamic and 5 pretectal zones of retinal projections, together with the 2 superficial layers of the tectum and a single tegmental projection zone, all have their origin in the external sheaf of the 1st wave of migration. The finding that the adult nucleus geniculatus lateralis dorsalis, pars ventralis arises from one of the migrations of the dorsal thalamus is discussed in the context of the debate over the possible homologues of the mammalian geniculostriate visual pathway. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 3 (cont.) Fig. 3 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 Fig. 5 (cont.) Fig. 5 Fig. 6 (cont.) Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 (cont.) Fig. 8 Fig. 9 (cont.) Fig. 9 Fig. 10 (cont.) Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8300423

  17. Genesis of cilia and microvilli of rat nasal epithelia during prenatal development. III. Respiratory epithelium surface, including a comparison with the surface of the olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Menco, B P; Farbman, A I

    1987-01-01

    During prenatal development the respiratory epithelium surface of the rat's nasal septum underwent the following changes. At intra-uterine day E14 there was a transformation from State I, cells with primary cilia only, to cells which also had microvilli (Stage II). Anterior parts of the nasal septum retained microvilli throughout further development. Posteriorly, centriole multiplication (Stage III) and formation of shafts of secondary cilia (Stage IV) occurred from around E16 and E18 onwards, respectively. From E18 to E20 numbers of cells with cilia increased at an overall rate of about 6 X 10(6) cells/cm2/day. Respiratory cilia and microvilli grew, on average, by about 0.3 micron/day and 0.1 micron/day, respectively. At Stage V, beginning around E19, the cilia became aligned within cells and, at Stage VI, beginning around E21, became synchronised between cells. Respiratory ciliogenesis in the nose is most precocious near the olfactory epithelium. The formation of respiratory cilia starts after that of olfactory cilia. However, unlike olfactory epithelium surfaces those of ciliated respiratory epithelia resembled those of adults around birth. Images Figs. 1-4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:3654366

  18. Intracerebral transplantation of the genital tubercle in the rat: the fate of the penile bone and cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, W A; Clayton, S P

    1977-01-01

    Genital tubercles of 70 newborn male and female rats were transplated into the brains of unrelated infant rats. Seven other tubercles were placed subcutaneously. All female, and some male, hosts were injected with testosterone propionate. After surviving from 2-24 days,, histological study of 49 successful grafts showed survival of the urethral and balano-preputial epithelia and growth of the preputial glands, which formed secretion-filled cysts and became the major component of the graft. The fate of the mesodermal tissues witin the glands varied between remaining in an undeveloped state, with only pale fibrouw tissue and an area of granular degeneration and giant cells, and achieving an incompletely differentiatel state in which erectile tissue and the anterior process of fibrocartilage had formed and the glans had grown but the penile bone and its secondary growth cartilage failed to appear. Grafts could reach this degree of differentiation of the glands irrespective of transplantation site, attachment to the host dura, the sex of donor or host, and whether or not male hosts were given exogenous hormone. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:870471

  19. Ultrastructural Changes in Chick Cerebellum Induced by Polyinosinic Polycytidylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mang C.; Young, Paul A.; Yu, Wan-Hua Amy

    1971-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in cerebellar encephalopathy induced by intravenous injection of poly I:C in young chickens were studied. The neuroglia and the small blood vessels showed the most severe injury. In the astroglia, initial alterations consisted of a mild cytoplasmic swelling whereas terminally, evagination of the outer nuclear membrane, formation of large vacuoles, and mitochondrial swelling occurred. In the cortex, oligodendroglial alterations consisted of dilatation of the nuclear membranes and of the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas in the white matter, the interfascicular oligodendroglia exhibited clumping and coagulation of the chromatin material. Some small blood vessels appeared normal, while others showed massive erosion of the endothelium resulting in aneurysm-like ballooning of the vascular wall. The granule cells displayed marked edema. The myelin of nerve fibers showed an accumulation of fluid initially, with splitting occurring in the terminal stages. These studies indicated a severe cytotoxic effect of poly I:C on the cerebella of young chickens. ImagesFig 16Fig 17Fig 13Fig 14Fig 15Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:5142269

  20. Experimental Calcification of the Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Bonucci, Ermanno; Sadun, Raffaele

    1973-01-01

    Focal areas of calcification are frequent in rat myocardium 30 and 60 days after administration of dihydrotachysterol. These areas are PAS-positive, stain deeply with alcian blue and show high affinity for colloidal iron. Calcification is almost completely confined to intracellular structures. Small clusters of needle-shaped crystals are first found in apparently undamaged mitochondria in undamaged myocardial cells. When all the mitochondria are calcified, the cell degenerates, and inorganic crystals are laid down in relationship with its myofilaments. In other myocardial cells, clusters of amorphous or finely granular inorganic substance are found in both mitochondria and myofibrils. Both structures show signs of advanced degeneration. Inorganic substance has only occasionally been found within the structures of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These structures do not seem to be involved in myocardial calcification under the present experimental conditions. Calcification of myocardial cells gives rise to a cellular reaction. Many macrophagic cells surround the calcified areas, which are rapidly reabsorbed. The present results show that myocardial mitochondria are actively engaged in controlling the intracellular concentration and movement of calcium ions. Their role in the myocardial contraction-relaxation cycle and the possible mechanism of myocardial calcification are discussed. ImagesFig 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13 PMID:4197422

  1. A fine structural study of the removal of the effectiveness of benzo-pyrone treatment of lymphoedema by the destruction of the macrophages by silica.

    PubMed Central

    Casley-Smith, J. R.; Földi-Börcsök, E.; Földi, M.

    1978-01-01

    Macroscopical, light microscopical and electronmicroscopical observations were made of the diaphragm, skin and brain of rats, some of which were treated with intraperitoneal silica for 8 days (after being given it i.v. for 2 days). The diaphragms showed a most remarkable increase in fibroblast activity and fibrosis beneath the peritoneal mesothelium (which was disintegrating). Deep to this there were many disintegrating macrophages, and much oedema and increased protein concentration. Ligation of the cervical lymphatics produced the usual changes of lymphoedema in the skin and brain. This was greatly reduced in the animals treated with a mixture of benzo-pyrones. However, in those animals also treated with silica, the benzo-pyrones had no effect on the amount of oedema or of protein. In all the animals except those treated with silica, lymphoedema was accompanied by considerable numbers of macrophages entering the affected tissues; in those treated with silica, these numbers were greatly reduced. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:207299

  2. Sequence of cellular responses in rabbit aortas following one and two injuries with a balloon catheter.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, L.; Grøthe, A. G.; Groves, H. M.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R. L.; Richardson, M.; Mustard, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of intimal proliferation and increased thrombogenesis following repeated arterial injuries we studied the sequence of the cellular changes following two injuries of rabbit aortas with a balloon catheter. Following the first injury, the de-endothelialized surface was covered by a platelet monolayer. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes adhered to the inner surface of this monolayer and did not appear to penetrate the vessel wall. By 4 to 7 days, areas of neointima had formed. Within seconds after the reinjury at 7 days after the de-endothelialization small platelet aggregates formed on injured neointimal smooth muscle cells. Within I min platelet thrombi and fibrin strands formed. At 30 min most of the platelet thrombi had become fibrin-rich. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes had accumulated and many had begun to penetrate into the neointimal tissue. The number and extent of penetration of leucocytes into the inner parts of the arterial wall increased with time. Four days after the injury the neointimal cushions were restored and thickened. Both following the first and second injury the formation of neointimal cushions was accompanied by a change in the polarity of the inner layers of medial smooth muscle cells, some of which appeared to have migrated into the neointima. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:3179197

  3. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  4. A spatial relationship between innervation and the early differentiation of vibrissa follicles in the embryonic mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Van Exan, R J; Hardy, M H

    1980-01-01

    The present study has demonstrated that the mystacial vibrissae of the mouse began to develop at about 12 days of gestation on two plates of thickened ectoderm called the 'whisker pads' which were located on either side of the snout above the margin of the upper lip. Each whisker pad was traversed by five rostrocaudal skin ridges. The individual vibrissae developed along the ridges in a caudorostral sequence. Four new sub-stages of vibrissa follicle development which occurred prior to Stage 1 of Davidson & Hardy (1952) were described. The first of these, Stage A, was the formation of a small nerve plexus under the skin ridge. Stage B was then characterized by the formation of a dermal condensation above the nerve plexus. The epithelium over the dermal condensation began to thicken at Stage C and grow down into the dermal condensation at Stage D. The early morphogenesis of the mystacial vibrissa follicles of the mouse was compared to that of teeth and mammary glands. The possibility of nerve involvement in determining the pattern of follicle array on the snout was discussed. The sequence of the morphological changes in the dermal and epidermal components of the early follicles was related to the present knowledge of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions which occur during this phase of follicle development. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:7216903

  5. The extent of the odontoblast process in the cat.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, G R

    1976-01-01

    Earlier work has shown that in the dentine of cats perfused with aldehyde fixatives for short periods the odontoblast process seems to be limited to inner dentine. This could possibly have been an artefact due either to inadequate penetration of the fixative or shrinkage of the cells. Experiments prolonging the duration of the fixation and raising the concentration of the fixatives, examining dentine from regions and species where it is narrow and more accessible to fixatives, and looking at dentine fixed by immersion both in situ and after excision, all showed the process to be limited to inner dentine. Measruing glutaraldehyde penetration through model dentine and also through dentine in the perfused animal showed that this fixative penetrates the dentine well. Variations in fixative osmotic pressure, while having a profound effect on cells and processes in vitro and causing changes in cell shape in the intact animal, do not neasurably alter the extent of the odontoblast process. The conclusion is that the odontoblast process in the cat is limited to the pulpal half of the dentine. As a consequence, no cellular mechanism can be involved in the transmission of stimuli across the outer dentine. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:815232

  6. Pediatric osteomyelitis and septic arthritis: the pathology of neonatal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The morphologic and histologic examination of over fifty-five foci of metaphyseal/epiphyseal osteomyelitis and eleven septic joints from five cases of neonatal osteomyelitis and joint sepsis are described in detail. The severity of the bone and joint involvement varied considerably, allowing a better understanding of the pathophysiologic sequence of events in the disease in the neonatal time period. Of particular importance were (1) the multifocal nature of the disease, (2) the highly variable destruction of the growth plate (physis) by several discrete mechanisms, and (3) the invasion of the chondroepiphysis through the cartilage canal systems. Two of the cases died from respiratory complications several months following presumed successful treatment of their skeletal infections. S&pecimens showed significant growth plate damage continuing beyond the neonatal period. These findings support the need for rapid diagnosis and drainage, whenever feasible, to prevent long-term skeletal growth damage. The severity of involvement also should emphasize that this disease, especially in the neonate, is not an innocuous condition, as a recent review suggested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 FIG. 14 FIG. 15 FIG. 16 FIG. 17 FIG. 18 FIG. 19 FIG. 20 PMID:524924

  7. The fine structure of initial mineralisation during tooth development in the gummy shark, Mustelus manazo, Elasmobranchia.

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, I

    1989-01-01

    In the enameloid matrix a large number of tubular vesicles appeared around the odontoblast processes at the stage of enameloid matrix formation. The tubular vesicles were limited by unit membrane and the membrane often seemed to connect with that of the odontoblast processes. The tubular vesicles probably originated from the odontoblasts. Electron-dense granules were observed in the tubular vesicles before the appearance of crystals and then, in the stage of mineralisation, initial enameloid crystals appeared in each tubular vesicle. Parts of the odontoblast process surrounded small aggregations of tubular vesicles in the unmineralised dentine matrix. There were many multivesicular bodies and lysosomes in the odontoblasts forming the dentine. The odontoblasts probably absorb and break down the tubular vesicles after the beginning of dentinogenesis. Only in the predentine, during the enameloid maturation stage, did a few matrix vesicles appear, but no crystals were found in them. Hence, the initial mineralisation in tooth germs of the shark can be said to be different from that in teleosts. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 PMID:2606790

  8. Structural changes in fluorosed dental enamel of red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from a region with severe environmental pollution by fluorides.

    PubMed Central

    Kierdorf, U; Kierdorf, H; Sedlacek, F; Fejerskov, O

    1996-01-01

    A macroscopic, microradiographic and scanning electron microscope study was performed on the structure of fluorosed dental enamel in red deer from a fluoride polluted region (North Bohemia, Czech Republic). As was revealed by analysis of mandibular bone fluoride content, the rate of skeletal fluoride accumulation in the fluorotic deer was about 6 times that in controls taken from a region not exposed to excessive fluoride deposition. In all fluorosed mandibles, the 1st molar was consistently less fluorotic than the other permanent teeth. This was related to the fact that crown formation in the M1 takes place prenatally and during the lactation period. Fluorosed teeth exhibited opaque and posteruptively stained enamel, reduction or loss of enamel ridges, moderately to grossly increased wear and, in more severe cases, also enamel surface lesions of partly posteruptive, partly developmental origin. Microradiographically, fluorosed enamel was characterised by subsurface hypomineralisation, interpreted as a result of fluoride interference with the process of enamel maturation. In addition, an accentuation of the incremental pattern due to the occurrence of alternating bands with highly varying mineral content was observed in severely fluorosed teeth, denoting fluoride disturbance during the secretory stage of amelogenesis. A corresponding enhancement of the incremental pattern was also seen in the dentine. The enamel along the more pronounced hypoplasias consisted of stacked, thin layers of crystals arranged in parallel, indicating that the ameloblasts in these locations had lost the distal (prism-forming) portions of their Tomes processes. The findings of the present study indicate that red deer are highly sensitive bioindicators of environmental pollution by fluorides. Images Figs 2-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 PMID:8655406

  9. Diffusely infiltrated lymphoid areas of the bursa of Fabricius (DIA) and of the cloaca: an embryological study with morphological analogies.

    PubMed Central

    Dolfi, A; Lupetti, M; Bianchi, F; Michelucci, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to verify whether the origin of the DIA is ectodermal or endodermal. A rabbit serum against the epithelial cells of the final portion of the cloaca was prepared. The indirect immunofluorescence method was applied to strips obtained with a cryostat, carefully cut in such a way as to include a part of the cloaca, the burso-cloacal stalk, the DIA, and the bursal plicae. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate that the epithelium of the cloaca, of the burso-cloacal stalk, and of the DIA exhibited an intense fluorescence that could not be observed at the level of the epithelium of the bursal plicae. These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin. Furthermore, histological study revealed that the DIA exhibits close structural analogies with the dorsal wall of the cloaca. In both areas, unorganized lymphoid infiltrations of the tunica propria can be seen, and the epithelium does not show any follicle-associated epithelial cells. The glands often assume the aspect of dilated crypts containing intestinal transit material. The epithelium of these glands reveals lymphoid infiltrations at various points, and it is not uncommon to detect accumulations of cells in their lumina. Several groups of eosinophilic granulocytes can also be observed in the tunica propria of these two areas, with a clear predominance at the level of the DIA. These similarities between the cloaca and the DIA might lead one to suppose the existence of a functional as well as a morphological correspondence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3417544

  10. Function of Rhizodermal Transfer Cells in the Fe Stress Response Mechanism of Capsicum annuum L

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, Ernst-Christian

    1986-01-01

    A variety of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L., cv Yaglik) responds to Fe deficiency stress with simultaneously enhanced H+ extrusion, reduction of ferric ions and synthesis of malic and citric acid in a swollen subapical root zone densely covered with root hairs. It is demonstrated that these stress responses temporally coincide with the development of rhizodermal and hypodermal transfer cells in this root zone. During stress response the transfer cells show a marked autofluorescence which could arise from endogenous iron chelators of the phenolic acid type. The presence of organelle-rich cytoplasm which often exhibits rotational cytoplasmic streaming points to high physiological activity and makes these cells, with their increased plasmalemma surface, particularly well suited for the entire stress response mechanism. Since Fe stress-induced acidification is diminished by vanadate and erythrosin B, both specific inhibitors of plasmalemma ATPases, it seems reasonable to suppose that H+ pumping from transfer cells is activated by an ATPase located in their plasmamembrane. H+ extrusion is also shown to be inhibited by abscisic acid. Raised phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity and simultaneous accumulation of malate in the swollen root zone point to the action of a pH stat preventing a detrimental rise in cytoplasmic pH of transfer cells during enhanced H+ extrusion. The simultaneous increase in citric acid concentration favors chelation of iron at the site of its uptake and thus ensures long distance transport to the areas of metabolic demand. A direct link between citrate accumulation and ferric ion reduction as proposed in recent literature further supports the crucial role of transfer cells in the response to Fe deficiency stress. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:16665060

  11. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  12. The collagen fibril organization in human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Minns, R J; Steven, F S

    1977-01-01

    In this scanning electron microscopic study blocks of collagen fibrils were prepared from human articular cartilage, using two techinques which selectively removed either the proteoglycans alone, or both the proteoglycans and the collagen fibrils, of the non-calcified cartilage layer. Amino acid analysis of the fibrils confirmed the purity of the collagen after proteoglycan extraction. The cartilage was scanned in four different ways: (1) normal to the articular surface, (2) in superficial sections, (3) on surfaces of blocks which had been broken in planes parallel to artificial splits make by the insertion of a pin, and (4) on fracture surfaces which traversed the calcified cartilage and the subchondral bone. Five features of the organization of the collagen fibrils were specially noted: (1) Individual fibrils within the trabeculae joined to form small fibre bundles which became grouped into larger bundles at the calcified/uncalcified interface. (2) Fibrils in the deep and middle zones which, exhibiting the characteristic surface periodicity of collagen, were generally oriented towars the articular surface in large bundles approximately 55 micronm across. (3) In the superficial zone, fibrils ran parallel to the surface. (4) The surface fibrils had random orientation, even at the bases of empty lacunae vacated by chondrocytes during specimen preparation. (5) The collagen fibrils of the lacunar walls appeared to be thinner and more closely packed than thos between the lacunae. The fine collagen fibrils associated with the lacunar walls were frequently observed to pass through a large lacunar space, resulting in the formation of two or more compartments, each of which was presumably filled with a chondrocyte in the living cartilage. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:870478

  13. The structure and ultrastructure of the rostral cartilage in the spiny eel, Macrognathus siamensis (Teleostei: Mastacembeloidei).

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Sandhu, J S

    1990-01-01

    teleosts, are conspicuously absent. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1696572

  14. The sensory innervation of the nasal glabrous skin in the short-nosed bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    PubMed Central

    Loo, S K; Halata, Z

    1985-01-01

    The glabrous skin at the anterior end of the snout of the short-nosed bandicoot and the American opossum was investigated by electron microscopy. In both species of animals, this region was lined by skin with broad epidermal pegs, innervated by three types of intraepidermal nerves. These were intraepidermal nerves which penetrated the epidermis up to the level of the stratum spinosum or the stratum granulosum, intraepidermal nerves in the basal layer of the epidermis partially surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae and intraepidermal nerves associated with Merkel cells. There were two types of free nerve endings in the dermis. The first type was derived from the deep dermal nerve plexus and had the typical characteristics of nerve terminals such as mitochondria, vesicles, irregularly arranged neurotubules and neurofilaments, and glycogen granules. There was a one-to-one relationship between Schwann cell lamellae and these nerve terminals. The second type of nerve ending was brush-like and the ends of the 'brushes' were enclosed in groups by a single Schwann cell lamella. Encapsulated nerve endings in the two types of animals differed in their structure. In the bandicoot, they consisted of a nerve terminal which had one to three branches. These terminals were rounded in profile and were surrounded by Schwann cell lamellae in a stack-like arrangement. An unusual finding was that the terminal sometimes left the corpuscle and made contact with the basal lamina of the epidermis before passing into its basal layer. These corpuscles did not have a perineural capsule. In the opossum, however, simple corpuscles with inner cores completely surrounded by a perineural capsule were seen. The glabrous skin of both types of animals was innervated with Eimer's organs consisting of intraepidermal nerves, Merkel cell nerve endings and encapsulated end-organs, as well as two types of dermal nerve endings. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig

  15. Metastatic colonization potential of primary tumour cells in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tarin, D.; Price, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A model has been developed for studying the capability of cells from primary murine mammary tumours to establish colonies in distant organs. The model involves the i.v. inoculation of disaggregated tumour cells into autologous and syngeneic recipients. The results show that the metastatic colonization potential of cells from a given tumour is consistent within the animals of an inoculated batch. Also, the findings are uniform in the autologous host and the syngeneic recipients. Tumours vary in their colonization potential and can be classified in 2 main groups designated high and low. These findings indicate that: (i) cells from 37% of mammary tumours can heavily colonize the lungs when inoculated i.v., even though the incidence of metastatic spread of these tumours in the undisturbed animal is almost zero. Thus, the relative infrequency of spontaneous metastasis from murine mammary tumours is not due to inability of the tumour cells to survive and colonize once free in the blood stream; and (ii) the colonization potential of the tumours is an intrinsic property of the tumour cells rather than of the host, whose prior acquaintance with the cells does not seem to confer resistance to colonization. The model presents opportunities for identification of possible differences between tumours of high and low colonization potential, and is being used to study cellular properties which favour colonization of distant organs by comparison of observations in vitro with the behaviour of cells from the same tumour in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:444412

  16. The atrioventricular valves of the mouse. I. A scanning electron microscope study.

    PubMed Central

    Icardo, J M; Arrechedera, H; Colvee, E

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports a scanning electron microscope study of the morphology of the atrioventricular (AV) valves in the mouse. The leaflet tissue of the 2 AV valves consists of a continuous veil that shows no commissures or clefts. In all instances, the chordae that arise from the papillary system merge with the free border of the leaflet tissue. No distinct terminations of chordae were observed on the ventricular face of the valves. The leaflet tissue of the right AV valve can be divided into parietal and septal components on the basis of the insertion into the ventricular wall and of the papillary system. While the septal component is similar in shape, location and tension apparatus to the septal tricuspid leaflet in man, the parietal component appears to correspond to the anterior and posterior human leaflets. This segment of the valve is served by 3 papillary muscles that arise from the septal wall. The right AV valve is not a tricuspid structure from the morphological standpoint, but appears to function as such because of the particular attachment of the papillary muscles. The leaflet tissue of the mitral valve is served by 2 papillary muscles, anterior and posterior, which consist of muscular trabeculae extending from the heart apex to the base of the valve. These muscles remain associated with the ventricular wall. The leaflet tissue attaches directly to these papillary muscles, which give rise to a very small number of slender chordae. There are thus several important differences between the AV valves of the mouse and man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4-6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:8509303

  17. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    PubMed Central

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  18. Haemopoietic phagocytes in the early differentiating avian retina.

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, M A; García-Martín, M; Martin, C; Ríos, A

    1991-01-01

    The existence of specialised phagocytic cells is described in regions of the retinal neuroepithelium undergoing intense cell death during early differentiation of the avian embryo retina (2.5-5 days of incubation). These results were obtained using routine techniques for light microscopy, acid phosphatase histochemistry and immunocytochemical staining with antibodies MB-1 and QH-1, both specific for quail endothelial cells and all blood cells except mature erythrocytes. Specialised phagocytes were distinguishable from neuroepithelial cells on the basis of morphological criteria: in the former, the nucleus was not oval in shape and was not oriented perpendicular to basement membrane neuroepithelium. The cytoplasm of the specialised phagocytes was often filled with dead cell fragments. In contrast to neuroepithelial cells, the specialised phagocytes showed acid phosphatase activity and were labelled with both MB-1 and QH-1 antibodies in normal quail embryos and chick----quail yolk sac chimeras. Moreover, some acid phosphatase positive and MB-1/QH-1 positive cells also appeared in the presumptive vitreous body, at the edges of the optic cup and in the surrounding mesenchyme. As the vitreal cells and the specialised phagocytes of the neural retina were immunolabelled in chick----quail yolk sac chimeras, we conclude that they are derived from haemopoietic cells in the yolk sac. Some images suggest that these cells enter the vitreous body from the surrounding mesenchyme and traverse the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium in the optic disc region to give rise to the specialised phagocytes of the retinal neuroepithelium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:1769889

  19. Evidence for a haematogenous origin of some of the macrophages appearing in the spinal cord of the rat after dorsal rhizotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1979-01-01

    A single dose of colloidal carbon was given intravascularly to young adult rats in order to label circulating monocytes. Two days after injection dorsal rhizotomies were performed on the fifth to eighth cervical nerves on the right side. The rats were killed 1, 3, 4 and 8 days later. Electron microscopic examination of the spinal cord showed wide-spread tissue degeneration on the operated side in the dorsolateral fasciculus, the dorsal horn and the dorsal neuronal white column, the changes in the last named being the most severe. A variety of non-neuronal elements was found in the dorsolateral fasciculus and dorsal horn. These included astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia-like cells, plasma cells, mast cells, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, monocytes and macrophages. Monocytes and macrophages were most common 3 and 4 days after operation. Some of these cells carried intracytoplasmic carbon particles. Carbon-labelled monocytes were observed in blood vessel lumina, perivascularly and in the neuropil. Monocytes crossing blood vessel walls were also encountered, indicating that the neuropil monocytes were derived from circulating cells. Macrophages were characterized by pleomorphic phagosomes which seemed to be composed largely of myelin remnants. The presence of carbon particles in their cytoplasm, and also their general similarity to monocytes, suggested that they originated from the latter. Local microglial cells were considered to be another source of macrophages. Indeed, there were present some microglia-like cells which were regarded as 'activated microglia' as they showed morphological resemblances to microglia on the one hand and to macrophages on the other. In particular their cytoplasm always included phagosomes. It is concluded that the macrophages which appear in the altered spinal cord following rhizotomy are derived both from circulating monocytes and from indigenous microglia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10

  20. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  1. Role of actin and myosin in the control of paracellular permeability in pig, rat and human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed Central

    Schnittler, H J; Wilke, A; Gress, T; Suttorp, N; Drenckhahn, D

    1990-01-01

    1. We have investigated the endothelial actomyosin system with particular emphasis on its possible role in actively opening a paracellular route for permeability. 2. Actin and myosin comprised 16% of total endothelial protein with a molar actin/myosin ratio of 16.2 which is close to the actin/myosin ratio of muscle (studies on freshly isolated pig pulmonary arterial endothelial cells, PAEC). 3. By immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels the bulk of actin and myosin was colocalized in close vicinity to the intercellular clefts of both micro- and macrovascular endothelial cells in situ and in vitro. 4. Calcium-ionophore-induced rise in permeability of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) and PAEC monolayers grown on filters in a two-chamber permeability system was caused by opening of intercellular gaps. Gap formation depended on the rise in intracellular Ca2+ and could be blocked by the calmodulin-binding drugs trifluperazine (TFP) and W7. 5. In skinned monolayers of cultured PAEC and in isolated sheets of HUVEC gap formation was shown to require ATP and occurred only when free myosin binding sites were available on endothelial actin filaments (experiments with myosin subfragment 1 modified by N-ethylmaleimide, S1-NEM). 6. These experiments suggest that actin and myosin in endothelial cells play a central role in regulating the width of the intercellular clefts, thereby controlling the paracellular pathway of vascular permeability. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2100310

  2. An investigation of the migratory potential of mouse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, S; Smith, R A; Haig, T

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the potential of mouse oocytes for migratory activity using bisected ovaries in vitro. Bisection allowed larger medullary oocytes to be brought nearer to the surface; in this way the migratory potential of all oocytes could be studied. Observations were made following 48 h culture to allow for recovery from any initial traumatic effects resulting from bisection. Ovaries were explanted from fetuses at d 15 postcoitum and from neonatal and postnatal mice (d 1-7, 11, 12 and 14 of life) and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Oocytes were extruded from the surface and a sequence of events was inferred. Cells superficial to the oocyte sloughed off, exposing the oocytes which showed the migratory phenotype as they emerged onto the surface. Here each oocyte became rounder and was finally extruded, leaving a 'crater'. Scanning electron microscopy of the explant surface allowed counts to be made of emergent oocytes. The number of explants showing emergent oocytes was at a maximum when ovaries were removed at the end of the first week postnatum; the mean number of oocytes emerging from each also peaked at this time. Numbers of migratory oocytes declined in ovaries aged 11 d at explantation and by d 14 only 66% of explants showed oocytes at the surface. The distribution of oocytes of various sizes at the surface suggests that both small cortical oocytes and larger medullary oocytes can express the migratory phenotype. Transmission electron microscopy verified structural integrity of the emerging oocytes and revealed their relationship to underlying cells. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:1304582

  3. An ultrastructural study of the stellate ganglion of the pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed Central

    Leong, S K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    The stellate ganglia of Macaca nemestrina were studied with the electron microscope, using the conventional and chromate-dichromate methods of aldehyde fixation. The principal neurons are multipolar and mostly mononucleated. They measure between 10 and 50 microns in their average somal diameters. The organelles of the perikaryon are arranged in perinuclear, intermediate and peripheral zones. Unusual organelles consisting of stacks of closely apposed paired membranes, with or without dense bodies studded on their surfaces, are encountered. Nuclear eccentricity is a regular feature of the neuron and the nuclear membrane shows a varying degree of invagination. All parts of the neurons are surrounded by satellite or Schwann cells though dendritic surfaces in direct contact with the basal lamina associated with the satellite cells are not uncommonly seen. Features peculiar to dendrites have been described. Structures resembling dendritic growth cones are present in abundance. Most synapses are axodendritic; axosomatic synapses are much less frequently encountered. While most synapses are of the simple type, complex types are also present. Desmosome-like junctional complexes exist between dendrites, dendrites and somata and axons and dendrites. Differences between Schwann cells of myelinated axons and those of myelinated axons and satellite cells have been noted. In addition to an abundance of macrophages, other connective tissue cells such as mast cells, fibroblasts and plasma cells are also present. Degenerative profiles observed include neuronal cell bodies and cell processes, especially dendrites. They are phagocytosed by the satellite cells and macrophages. The presence of degenerative profiles, chromatolytic neurons and structures resembling dendritic growth cones in the normal stellate ganglion has been discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Figs. 19

  4. The Hamster Cheek Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Klintworth, Gordon K.

    1973-01-01

    To gain insight into factors that might be responsible for the normal avascularity of the cornea and for its vascularization in certain pathologic states, an experimental model was designed in which corneal vascularization could be studied under controlled conditions in hamster cheek pouch chambers. Normal corneal tissue, as well as corneas that had been altered in a variety of ways (eg, boiled, autoclaved, freeze-thawed) were implanted into hamster cheek pouch chambers. The fate of the transplanted tissue was observed at regular intervals by direct visualization within the hamster cheek pouch at various magnifications and by light and electron microscopy. This report reviews observations on more than 300 such experiments. Normal and injured corneal autografts, allografts and xenografts and nonviable (autoclaved, boiled or freeze-thawed) corneas commonly became vascularized in the cheek pouch. When this occurred, a similar morphologic sequence of events preceded and accompanied the growth of blood vessels into the cornea. Vascular invasion was generally preceded by the formation of granulation tissue around the cornea. This was followed by a leukocytic, and frequently a fibroblastic, infiltration of the cornea. When cells did not invade the transplanted cornea, the cornea invariably remained avascular. In the present model, a swollen cornea was not a sufficient stimulus for corneal vascularization. The data suggest that under certain circumstances leukocytes may produce one or more factors which stimulate directional vascular growth. The findings are viewed in terms of current concepts on corneal vascularization. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 13Fig 14 PMID:4271966

  5. Ultrastructural observations on the terminal segment epithelium of the seminiferous tubule of West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeasor, D N

    1986-01-01

    In the testes of West African dwarf goats, modified Sertoli cells comprise the major component of the terminal segment epithelium. They resemble Sertoli cells proper but differ in the paucity of agranular endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. Cell attachment devices present include rudimentary desmosomes and occasional multiple contacts of opposing plasma membranes, interrupted by segments of slightly expanded intercellular space. A few generative cells are present in the proximal zone of the epithelium, but their development appears to terminate as early spermatids which hang loosely on the luminal surface. The middle zone epithelium comprises vacuolated cells lying among other cells containing abundant microtubules in their subapical cytoplasm. Globular expansions of the intercellular space are also apparent. The terminal plug contains two cell types. Type I are inclined, columnar cells which contain profuse arrays of agranular endoplasmic reticulum in their apical cytoplasm. Type II are smaller cells located at the apex of the plug. Each possesses cytoplasmic processes, which surround the apices of Type I cells. The modified Sertoli cells of all zones and the Type II plug cells contain remnants of spermatozoa at different stages of degradation. The general absence of developing generative cells in the terminal segment epithelium may be related to the paucity of agranular endoplasmic reticulum in the basal cytoplasm of modified Sertoli cells and the absence of typical Sertoli-Sertoli junctional specialisations. Structural modifications evident in the middle and distal zones facilitate distalward movement of materials, while the attenuation and modification of the lumen distally may facilitate phagocytosis of abnormal spermatozoa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3693043

  6. Histochemical Phosphatases and Metachromasia in Murine Tumours Induced by Bone Seeking Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Bland, M. R.; Loutit, J. F.; Sansom, Janet M.

    1974-01-01

    Tumours induced in mice, either CBA normal and chimaerical, or C3H, by 90Sr or 226Ra or plutonium have been examined histochemically with (1) diazotate fast red violet LB salt in naphthol AS-MX phosphate buffer at pH 8·6 and 5·2, (2) 1: 9 dimethyl methylene blue (Taylor). It is concluded: (a) The diagnosis of osteosarcoma is facilitated with Taylor's Blue which stains osteoid metachromatically. Cells of osteosarcoma, like normal osteoblasts, contain alkaline phosphatase but this may be lost by mutation either in the original tumour or subsequently on passage of the tumour serially to compatible hosts. (b) Osteosarcomata may contain giant-cells of two forms, bizarre tumour cells and osteoclasts; the latter contain acid phosphatase. Osteosarcomata which retain their osteoid on serial passage have few cells containing acid phosphatases. (c) Primitive mesenchymal cell tumours of angiomatous form may occur, if the bone marrow is irradiated, e.g. by 90Sr-90Y and Pu. These tumours lack osteoid and cells interpretable as osteoblasts or osteoclasts (though they destroy bone). (d) Tumours classifiable as fibrosarcomata occur rarely, and may be truly of fibroblastic origin or be mutated osteosarcomata. (e) Lymphomata also occur when the marrow is irradiated (90Sr-90Y and Pu). They may be generalized, when their cells may contain alkaline phosphatase or lack it. They may be localized to abdominal viscera, the reticulo-sarcomatous form, in which case the cells lack alkaline phosphatase. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 2Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 12 PMID:4133784

  7. Periosteal structure and development in a rat caudal vertebra.

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, G; Feik, S A; Carach, B J

    1988-01-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats from birth to 300 days were used to study the bone/soft tissue interrelationships of the 14th caudal vertebra with particular emphasis on the periosteum throughout growth, development and maturation. The growth of the rats follows a sigmoid curve with three phases, a developmental, a rapid growth and a maturation phase. The width/length ratio of the bone and the thickness of the periosteum are closely concurrent, with a rapid decrease during the developmental phase and a levelling off during the rapid growth phase. SEM studies established that the caudal vertebra has symmetrical lateral sides and a pronounced concavity on the ventral surface where the main vascular plexus is located. Morphological changes in the periosteum cna be described as occurring in three layers and reflect the stages seen in general somatic growth. The inner cambial layer initially contains elongated but functional osteoblasts; these become cuboidal during the rapid growth phase and ultimately are flattened and quiescent. The mid-zone with its vessels, undifferentiated and mononuclear phagocytic cells also attains its maximum development in the rapid growth period and then gradually involutes. The fibrous periosteum consists of a syncytial arrangement of fibroblasts in a collagenous matrix which becomes increasingly dense although reduced in width. Sharpey fibre bundles connect the bone with the fibrous periosteum and these become thicker with age. The mid-zone of the periosteum has not been described previously. Besides having a nutritive role and providing progenitor cells it is thought to act as a buffer modulating the interaction between bone and the covering soft tissues. With age and the deletion of the mid-zone a less sensitive periosteal response to stress can be expected. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:3225221

  8. The structure and source of lingual proprioceptors in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M J; Sachithanandan, S R

    1979-01-01

    The proprioceptive innervation of the tounge has been investigated in the Cynamolgus monkey by silver impregnation methods following unilateral section of lingual, hypoglossal, and cervical nerves. Muscle spindles were constantly present in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. They varied greatly in number, averaged half the length of lumbrical spindles, and showed an unusual arrangement of chain fibre nuclei. Other, inconstant proprioceptors included tendon endings, Ruffini endings, Pacinian corpuscles, paciniform and lamellated endings. Topologically, the endings other than spindles were extra-muscular, so that the overall pattern of proprioceptive innervation resembled that of skeletal muscle in general. Lingual nerve section was without apparent effect on the proprioceptors. Section of the hypoglossal nerve at its point of entry into the tongue caused severe depletiion of ipsilateral proprioceptors and of fusimotor nerves. In the anterior tongue there was evidence of transmedian overlap by efferent and afferent axons contained in the hypoglossal nerve. Hypoglossal section at the skull base caused degeneration of fusimotor nerves but not of proprioceptors. Section of (a), the connexion of C2-C3 ventral rami with the hypoglossal, together with section of (b), the ramus descendens hypoglossi, coused depletion of lingual proprioceptors; again there was evidence of transmedian overlap. Procedures (a) or (b) alone had a lesser effect. It was concluded that lingual proprioceptive afferent fibres occupy the distal hypoglossal nerve, leaving it in the ramus descendens and in the C2-C3 connexion to enter the spinal cord via nerves C2 and C3. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 17 Figs. 18,20 Fig. 19 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 PMID:157344

  9. The morphology of the lung of the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis (Reptilia: Ophidia: Elapidae). A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1989-01-01

    evolution of the lungs of the air-breathing vertebrates from lower through to higher vertebrates. The gross and ultrastructural heterogeneity of the organisation of the ophidian lung is illustrated and the dearth of pulmonary morphological data in this taxon is pointed out. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2630539

  10. The harderian gland of desert rodents: a histological and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Djeridane, Y

    1992-01-01

    . Mast cells, plasma cells, macrophages, fenestrated capillaries and unmyelinated nerve endings with clear or dense-cored vesicles are present in the connective tissue. Melanocytes are very numerous in the interstices of the Gerbillidae harderian gland. The gland is surrounded by a collagenous capsule and an outer layer of endothelial cells derived from the orbital venous sinus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 PMID:1487439

  11. The cranial cartilages of teleosts and their classification.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M

    1990-01-01

    The structure and distribution of cartilages has been studied in 45 species from 24 families. The resulting data have been used as a basis for establishing a new classification. A cartilage is regarded as 'cell-rich' if its cells or their lacunae occupy more than half of the tissue volume. Five classes of cell-rich cartilage are recognised (a) hyaline-cell cartilage (common in the lips of bottom-dwelling cyprinids) and its subtypes fibro/hyaline-cell cartilage, elastic/hyaline-cell cartilage and lipo/hyaline-cell cartilage, (b) Schaffer's Zellknorpel, typified by the cartilage in the gill filaments of most teleosts examined, (c) elastic/cell-rich cartilage, such as that which supports the barbels and oral valves of catfish, e.g. Corydoras metae, (d) fibro/cell-rich cartilage, as in the submaxillary meniscus of Sphaerichthys osphromenoides, (e) cell-rich hyaline and (f) matrix-rich hyaline cartilage--both of which are common in the neurocranium and gill arches of most teleosts. The range of cartilages seen, and the predominant cartilage type, is recorded for each species and a list is provided of the tissues that most typify different organs or regions of the head. As a preliminary pointer to developmental relationships between the cartilages, note was taken of gradual transitions between one cartilage and another. It is suggested that hyaline-cell cartilage occupies a key position in teleosts as the most labile of the supporting tissues and is highly characteristic of Cypriniformes. The cartilage that best resembles mammalian hyaline cartilage (matrix-rich hyaline cartilage) has a very conservative distribution in different skeletal elements and the least number of associations with other tissues. It is well represented in Siluriformes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 PMID:2384333

  12. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  13. Morphological and functional interrelationships of articular cartilage matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C A; Flint, M H; Beaumont, B W

    1984-01-01

    synergistically to produce an integrated, biological, hydro-elastic suspension system capable of resisting physiological compression. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 PMID:6706831

  14. Development of peptide-containing nerves in the human fetal prostate gland.

    PubMed Central

    Jen, P Y; Dixon, J S

    1995-01-01

    -ENK-IR nerves together with a few m-ENK-IR nerves. Occasional smooth muscle-associated varicose nerve fibres showed immunoreactivity for SP, CGRP, VIP or BOM although the majority of these types of nerve formed perivascular plexuses. Also at 26 wk numerous varicose nerve fibres were observed in association with the prostatic acini, the majority of such nerves containing NPY with a few showing immunoreactivity to VIP, l-ENK, SP or CGRP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:7591978

  15. From Osler to Olafson. The evolution of veterinary pathology in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, L Z

    1987-01-01

    of instruction. However, by 1884, Osler had already left his indelible imprint on the students (both medical and veterinary) he had taught in Montreal, one of whom took over the teaching of pathology in the veterinary college. Another, who followed Osler's example and also studied in Berlin with Virchow, wrote the first book in the English language on veterinary post mortem technique in 1889.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. PMID:3552167

  16. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  17. Splenic trauma. Choice of management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, C E

    1991-01-01

    severely shattered spleen; these patients usually are treated best by early operative intervention. Following splenectomy for injury, polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine decreases the likelihood of OPSI and should be used routinely. The role of prophylactic penicillin is uncertain but the use of antibiotics for minor infectious problems is indicated after splenectomy. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. PMID:1992948

  18. Pacesetters of the American image or (a case for a pleasant diversion).

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E. W.

    1992-01-01

    Regardless of how you resolve the morality of our history, the fact is that Currier and Ives documented in their own special and often biased way the iconography of the growth and development of the United States of America (Fig. 88) in some of the most eventful years of its history from about 1840 through 1895. Now, as we near our 500th anniversary commemoration of Columbus' voyage to the Americas, it seems especially appropriate to review--to think about all of this. I think you have sensed, as we have gone along, that learning about Currier and his colleagues--these pacesetters of the American Image--has meant, as Osler predicted, a pleasant diversion for me. These activities have carried me into new areas of interest, expanding my perspective of the American Image--of people, of medicine, of life in general, and aiding in the identification of values, my own, as well as those of others. All along, my knowledge has been enhanced, especially of the history of this wonderful complex country of ours. Furthermore, and of considerable importance, this endeavor has sharpened my power of observation. I have, like a good doctor should do, learned to look better! Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 19 Fig. 18 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 23 Fig. 25 Fig. 27 Fig. 26 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 39 Fig. 40 Fig. 41 Fig. 42 Fig. 43 Fig. 44 Fig. 45 Fig. 46 Fig. 47 Fig. 48 Fig. 49 Fig. 50 Fig. 51 Fig. 52 Fig. 53 Fig. 54 Fig. 55 Fig. 56 Fig. 57 Fig. 58 Fig. 59 Fig. 60 Fig. 61 Fig. 62 Fig. 63 Fig. 64 Fig. 65 Fig. 66 Fig. 68 Fig. 67 Fig. 69 Fig. 70 Fig. 71 Fig. 72 Fig. 73 Fig. 74 Fig. 75 Fig. 76 Fig. 77 Fig. 78 Fig. 79 Fig. 80 Fig. 82 Fig. 81 Fig. 83 Fig. 84 Fig. 85 Fig. 86 Fig. 87 Fig. 88 PMID:1413369

  19. An Experimental Investigation of the Lymphatic System of the Teeth and Jaws

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Alexander

    1936-01-01

    are given, and the lines on which further experiments are being continued are indicated. Finally, the application of the results to the pathology of infection in this region, particularly paradontal disease, is given, and also their application to the phenomena of injection anæsthesia. ImagesFig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17 PMID:19990818

  20. The monoptychic glands of the jugulo-sternal scent gland field of Tupaia: a TEM and SEM study.

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, U; Richter, J

    1990-01-01

    exocrine glands according to the nature of the secretory epithelium into monoptychic and polyptychic glands. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:2272906

  1. Occlusive Peripheral Arteriosclerosis: Treatment by Percutaneous Transluminal Recanalization—“The Dotter Procedure”

    PubMed Central

    Palayew, M. J.; Sedlezky, I.; Sigman, H. H.; Sheiner, N. M.

    1969-01-01

    We have performed 17 percutaneous transluminal dilatations in 15 patients with segmental stenoses of the femoral and popliteal arteries. Initial success was achieved in 14 instances. This technique must be considered a useful adjunct in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease in selected patients. Its use along with endarterectomy has not been previously reported and warrants further investigation. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:5353151

  2. Hyperparathyroidism: retrospect and prospect.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.

    1976-01-01

    The history of hyperparathyroidism is outlined and the diagnosis and treatment of its various causes reviewed with reference to a series of 153 patients operated on for hyperparathyroidism in the past 20 years. In 119 cases the condition was primary, being due to a tumour or hyperplasia. Future developments in this field are briefly considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:782326

  3. Cutaneous Markers of Internal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forsey, R. R.; Reardon, P. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Cutaneous markers of internal disease are legion. This article discusses the pigmentary disorders, acanthosis nigricans, pruritus, the xanthomas and problems of photosensitivity, outlining the appropriate procedures to establish a definite diagnosis, and in some cases the management of such patients. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:21286147

  4. A method of thymic perfusion and its evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ekwueme, O.

    1973-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a method of isolated ex vivo perfusion of the rabbit thymus using diluted autologous blood is described. The data indicate that the viability of the preparation is maintained at a satisfactory level during the period of perfusion. These results suggest that the isolated perfused thymus would be a useful new approach to studies of thymus function. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4747584

  5. The avian egg and the retina

    PubMed Central

    MALCOLM, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for study of blood flow has been derived from the avian egg, utilizing the theories of crystallography and photosynthesis. The model is employed to explain the form of the eye and the function of the cells of the human retina, with special reference to colour vision and the pathology of migraine. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4736600

  6. The fibrous growth plate of the rat tibia: tritiated thymidine autoradiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Badi, M H

    1978-01-01

    Tritiated thymidine autoradiographic studies have demonstrated that the intermediate fibrogenic zone of the fibrous growth plate at the upper end of the rat tibia is a site of intense cellular proliferation, the resulting cells differentiating into osteoblasts which manufacture the bundle bone at the distal end of the growth plate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:689992

  7. Innervation of the human gastric wall.

    PubMed Central

    Kyösola, K; Rechardt, L; Veijola, L; Waris, T; Penttilä, O

    1980-01-01

    separated from the gastric glands (and the parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells of their epithelial lining) by a considerable gap so that it seems unlikely that the gastric glands, parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells receive a direct innervation in the sense of synaptic neurotransmission; the transmitter substance must diffuse across a wide gap. In contrast, the endocrine cells were in close contact with the parietal cells and chief cells, and occasional membrane specialization (desmosomes) reinforce the assumption that (also) direct local humoral interaction may be possible. In addition, a large number of mast cells was observed in the lamina propria, many lying as close to glandular cells (parietal cells, chief cells and endocrine cells) as were the nearest nerve terminals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs. 4-6 Figs. 7(a) and 7(b) Figs. 8-9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Figs. 14-15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Figs. 18-19 Figs. 20-21 PMID:7216913

  8. Gorlin's syndrome, or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Thompson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gorlin's syndrome is a condition inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It involves many organs, but principally affects the skin, skeleton, and endocrine and nervous systems. The most common features are multiple nervi and basal cell carcinomas of the skin, benign jaw cysts, dyskeratotic pits in the palms and soles, rib and vertebral abnormalities, brachymetacarpalism, and calcification of the falx cerebri. In 14 patients, 4 of whom belonged to one family, the age at the time of diagnosis ranged from 11 to 63 years. Ten patients are alive, but five are severely disfigured by carcinomas. Two patients died of complications resulting from uncontrolled tumours, and two died of other cancers. New skin tumours constantly develop; small ones can be excised, but large ones require extensive surgery with or without radiotherapy. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 9 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 PMID:7116263

  9. Development of the ventral striatum in the lizard Gallotia galloti.

    PubMed Central

    Yanes, C; Perez-Batista, M A; Martin-Trujillo, J M; Monzon, M; Rodriguez, A

    1989-01-01

    The ventral striatum nucleus (VS) begins development at Stage 31 (E. 31) from the neuroblasts which proceed from the cellular proliferation of both the ventral and terminal sulci. The ultrastructural features of the neuroblasts of VS between E. 31 and E. 34 have the aspect of immature cells, but as from E. 38 neuronal maturity is gradual until hatching. At E. 34 cellular death occurs. The first degenerated cells belong to Type I (nuclear degeneration) of the pycnotic cells; as from E. 40 cytoplasmic degeneration appears. Vascularisation starts at E. 35 and from E. 38 the first synaptic contacts are observed, especially those of the axodendritic type. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs 1-4 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:2606798

  10. The Effect of Glucose-Insulin-Potassium on Cardiac Ultrastructure Following Acute Experimental Coronary Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Sybers, H. D.; Maroko, P. R.; Ashraf, M.; Libby, P.; Braunwald, E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on cardiac ultrastructure following acute experimental coronary occlusion were studied in dogs. Epicardial ST segment elevations at multiple sites on the anterior surface of the left ventricle 15 minutes after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery were used to predict infarct development. Biopsies removed from sites of known ST segment elevation were examined with the electron microscope, and the degree of injury was correlated with the ST segment elevation. The animals receiving GIK showed significantly less necrosis than was seen in dogs with occlusion alone at corresponding levels of ST segment elevation. Other evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of GIK was the presence of a fibrillar material in several biopsies from the treated animals, which may indicate the regeneration of myofilaments. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 8Fig 9Fig 5Fig 6Fig 10Fig 7p[417]-aFig 1Fig 2 PMID:4570076

  11. Clinical Results of Real-Time Ultrasonic Scanning of the Heart Using a Phased Array System 12

    PubMed Central

    Kisslo, Joseph A.; Vonramm, Olaf T.; Thurstone, Frederick L.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the operating characteristics and initial clinical results of a new echocardiographic system that produces real-time, high resolution, cross-sectional images of the heart. This system relies upon phased-array principles to rapidly steer and focus the ultrasound beam through the cardiac structures under investigation. A hand-held, linear array of 24 transducers is manipulated on the patient's chest to direct the interrogating plane at various cardiac structures. Images of high line density are presented in selectable sector arcs to a maximum of 90 degrees. This imaging system has been used clinically in over 2,000 patients in the past two and one-half years. Its use in the detection of altered states of ventricular and valvular pathology has been described. ImagesFIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11 PMID:906555

  12. Venous Thrombosis on Prosthetic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Rodman, N. F.; Wolf, R. H.; Mason, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    Thrombi deposited on prosthetic devices in the superior vena cava of the rhesus monkey were studied by morphologic and biochemical technics. Glass or silicone-coated glass (SCG) rings were implanted for 30 minutes to 14 days. Thrombus was deposited on the surface of each prosthetic device, and deposition was much greater and more rapid on glass surfaces than on SCG surfaces. On SCG surfaces, initial deposits consisting of single platelets, small platelet aggregates and erythrocytes were seen by scanning electron microscopy. These were followed by larger platelet aggregates, fibrin and, much later, leukocytes. Transmission electron micrographs revealed disintegration of the platelets forming aggregates and an osmiophilic deposit on the prosthetic surface. Shortened partial thromboplastin times were observed in all test animals but the sham-operated one, and therefore may be predictive of thrombus formation. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4207269

  13. The Reflexes of the Fundus Oculi

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, A. J.

    1940-01-01

    fragmented” surface reflexes, or as evidence of the presence of some highly refractile substance, such as cholesterin or calcium carbonate, in a retinal exudate or other lesion. It is characteristic of the pathological reflexes that they come and go and change their character according to the progress of the pathological condition. The linear reflexes in particular may change from one from to another, and may be finally transformed into surface reflexes of physiological character. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 25Fig. 26 PMID:19992307

  14. An electron microscopical study of chronic ulcers of the colon in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Chronic colonic ulcers in the rat were produced by the administration of a hydrogen peroxide enema. Lesions of up to 10 months' duration were obtained by this method and a selection was examined ultrastructurally. It was hoped that the study would reveal causes for the chronicity of the lesions. From previous work it appeared that there was no failure of epithelial migration from the edge of the wound. The majority of cells at the ulcer margins demonstrated features of regeneration similar to those seen in other tissues, and that there were no specific changes concomitant with chronic ulceration. The majority of epithelial cells at the ulcer edge showed features of differentiation which indicated that there was no obvious fault in this process so essential to the basic requirements of tissue repair. It is possible that chronicity is produced by a failure of the epithelio-mesenchymal interaction mechanisms which, potentiated by an ischaemia resulting from submucosal vascular damage, results in the consequential death of migrating epithelial cells. This hypothesis is supported by the appearance of a squamous metaplasia in the healing lesions, a process which is commonly attributed to a chronic inflammatory response which may be induced by a relative vascular insufficiency. Images Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:836769

  15. Encrustation and Atherosclerosis: The Analogy Between Early in Vivo Lesions and Deposits Which Occur in Extracorporeal Circulations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, E. A.; Rowsell, H. C.; Downie, H. G.; Robinson, G. A.; Mustard, J. F.

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the relation between the pattern and topography of thrombus formation in models of various vessel configurations coupled into extracorporeal shunts in swine and the development of atherosclerosis at corresponding sites on swine aortas. The pattern and distribution of deposits formed in the models were strikingly similar to the pattern and distribution of incipient atherosclerosis at comparable sites in the vascular tree. The earliest and only consistent component of the flow chamber deposits was the blood platelet. The platelet deposits would frequently stain with oil red O. The cholesterol level of washed human platelets was found to show a good correlation with that in the plasma. This evidence suggests that deposition of particulate matter (chiefly platelets), largely determined by the hydraulic factors, may be an important factor in the early, as well as later, stages of atherosclerosis. ImagesFigs. 10a and bFig. 13Fig. 21Fig. 1Fig. 3Figs. 4a and bFig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20 PMID:14477412

  16. Familial Fibrocystic Pulmonary Dysplasia: A Detailed Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, A. G.; Chertkow, G.; Hayton, R. C.

    1966-01-01

    Six cases of familial fibrocystic pulmonary dysplasia are described involving five siblings and their father. The clinical findings and radiological features were similar in all six patients although there was some variation in the period of survival following the onset of the disease. In three the diagnosis was confirmed pathologically; the two brothers, who did not have lung biopsies, had disturbances in respiratory function which are considered typical of the impaired diffusion produced by interstitial fibrosis. One hundred and five members of the family were surveyed for evidence of this disease, but no further cases were discovered. Four of the patients had some elevation of their gamma globulin. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis, which was performed on three of the patients, the two healthy siblings, and 16 of their offspring, showed elevated immunoglobulin patterns. This evidence suggests the possibility of an inherited aberration in the immune response in this family. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:5912179

  17. The organization of neocortical projections from the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus in the brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, and the problem of motor and somatic sensory convergence within the mammalian brain.

    PubMed Central

    Haight, J R; Neylon, L

    1979-01-01

    The retrograde transport of HRP was used to determine the extent and organizational details of the VL neocortical projection in Trichosurus. The major, or external, part of VL projects homotypically to the anteromedial part of the parietofrontal cortex, overlapping the VP cortical projection field extensively, but not completely. Overlap between the VL field and SmI is most extensive in the area of rear limb representation, and decreases considerably in the area of the head representation. A small internal subdivision of VL projects discontinuously to the SmI head region, and appears to be limited to portions of the cortical barrel field. The VL cortical projection is much less extensive than that of VP, but does include a small area of cortex which does not receive a VP projection. Thus VL and VP do not display congruent cortical projections. Details of the thalamocortical relationships, as determined from both anatomical and physiological studies, are compared with other mammals. Images Fig. 1(cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:536306

  18. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  19. Age changes in cross striated muscle of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, E.; Hanzlíková, V.; Vyskočil, F.

    1971-01-01

    1. Senile muscle atrophy is characterized by a marked reduction in the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release with no electrophysiological evidence of denervation. 2. In spite of the reduced number of muscle fibres, there is no ultrastructural evidence for denervation at the end-plates. There is agglutination of synaptic vesicles, neurotubules and filaments, thickening of the basement membrane, widening of the primary synaptic cleft, and irregular branching of the junctional infoldings, but no axonal degeneration. 3. The contractile process in senile muscles is slowed down as is indicated by a prolongation of contraction time, latency period, maximum rate of twitch tension and relaxation time. 4. The muscle fibres show proliferation of the T system and increased SR but no fragmentation as is observed in denervation atrophy. 5. Senile muscle atrophy thus presents some specific features affecting both pre- and post-synaptic structures, related to a very slow process of deterioration of the neuromuscular contact. ImagesFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4326996

  20. Relations Between Metabolic Increase of Plasma Free Fatty Acids and the Occurrence of Arteriosclerotic Thromboarteritis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Richard A.; Henson, Donald E.; Lesak, Anne; Turner, Robert J.; Malikova, Stanislava; Hass, George M.

    1973-01-01

    Rabbits maintained for several weeks on a regimen of modest amounts of vitamin D and dietary cholesterol were placed in three groups in accordance with their response to repeated subcutaneous injections of nicotine in mineral oil. The group that had the greatest increase in plasma FFA following nicotine injections gradually developed, over a period of about 12 weeks, severe calcific atheroarteriosclerosis with peripheral thromboarteritis. Those that had a moderate increase in plasma FFA following nicotine injections developed calcific atheroarteriosclerosis but no thromboarteritis. Those that had the least increase in plasma FFA following nicotine injections developed no arterial lesions. Comparable or much greater increases in plasma FFA occurred in rabbits on the vitamin D-cholesterol regimen when adrenalin, ACTH or heparin was injected rather than nicotine. These animals did not develop calcific atheroarteriosclerotic thromboarteritis or any other lesions which could be correlated with the increased levels of plasma FFA. Inasmuch as nicotine, vitamin D or dietary cholesterol in the amounts used were innocuous when used alone, the interactions between the effects of at least these three factors need to be known in individual animals before the pathogenesis of the calcific atheroarteriosclerotic lesions with thrombosis can eventually be understood. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 1Fig 10Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4345831

  1. Percutaneous transhepatic management of complex biliary problems.

    PubMed Central

    Zuidema, G D; Cameron, J L; Sitzmann, J V; Kadir, S; Smith, G W; Kaufman, S L; White, R I

    1983-01-01

    A series of 27 patients with complex biliary problems secondary to previous biliary operations is presented. The patients are divided into two groups: (1) patients with acute perioperative biliary problems; all had biliary leak with abscess, biliary cutaneous fistula, and/or stricture following cholecystectomy or common duct exploration and (2) patients with chronic postoperative biliary problems; all had previous repair of biliary stricture or injuries with late stricture formation. Early management of all patients included placement of a percutaneous biliary stent. Abscesses were drained operatively, and biliary leaks or fistulas were allowed to close spontaneously. Jaundice and cholangitis were allowed to resolve. Following stabilization, management of stricture, if present, was addressed. Eight acute patients had strictures, of which four were partial and three were dilated percutaneously. Four were complete and required operative repair. All 12 chronic patients had strictures, of which six were partial and successfully managed with percutaneous dilatation. Four patients also had common duct stones which were successfully crushed percutaneously. The authors conclude that percutaneous transhepatic drainage offers significant advantages in the early stabilization and treatment of patients with complex biliary problems, and that partial strictures of the biliary tree may be managed successfully by percutaneous dilatation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:6847278

  2. The Neurological Sequelae of Electrical Injury

    PubMed Central

    Silversides, John

    1964-01-01

    Electricity is a potentially very dangerous commodity. Community safeguards, however, result in remarkably efficient control of this hazard. Mortality figures appear to be small and constant. No satisfactory morbidity figures are available with regard to general and neurological complications in non-fatal cases. Study of relevant features of such electrical phenomena as voltage level, resistance factors, current pathway, current diffusion and grounding reveals many difficulties in reconstruction of the sequence of events involved in these injuries. These features underline our frequent inability to understand the mechanisms of initiation of unconsciousness and even of differentiation between death by cardiac arrest and death by respiratory paralysis. Fourteen cases of electrical injury with a variety of neurological complications and sequelae are discussed, and the findings in these cases are compared with those of other observers. An attempt is made to present a comprehensive picture of immediate, secondary and late neurological effects, and to illustrate some of the pathological findings in electrocution material. ImagesFigs. 1 and 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 6 and 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14179536

  3. Exposure of calves to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus and Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, P D; Maxie, M G; Wilkie, B N; Savan, M; Valli, V E; Johnson, J A

    1983-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether sequential exposure to aerosols of parainfluenza-3 virus followed by Pasteurella haemolytica, or P. haemolytica followed by parainfluenza-3 virus, could lead to the production of pulmonary lesions in conventionally-raised calves. Twenty male calves with low serum antibody titres to both organisms were placed in five equal groups. Synergism of parainfluenza-3 virus and P. haemolytica was not demonstrated in any of the sequentially infected groups and pulmonary lesions were mild in all challenged calves. Clinical signs of disease were not present after exposure to parainfluenza-3 virus although the virus was repeatedly isolated from nasal secretions of all inoculated calves. Exposure to P. haemolytica produced a transient response which consisted of increased rectal temperatures and respiratory rates, with a mild neutrophilic leukocytosis and a mild left shift present six hours postinoculation and returning to normal within 24 hours. Results from this study suggest, although do not confirm, that reduced pulmonary clearance of inhaled P. haemolytica in parainfluenza-3 virus infected calves does not necessarily lead to production of severe pulmonary lesions and that previous exposure to aerosols of P. haemolytica may not enhance secondary parainfluenza-3 virus infection. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:6320999

  4. Electron microscopic studies of macrophages in Wallerian degeneration of rat optic nerve after intravenous injection of colloidal carbon.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E A

    1978-01-01

    The origin of macrophages in the degenerating optic nerve of rats after eye enucleation was investigated electron microscopically following intravenous labelling of mononuclear leucoytes with colloidal carbon. In the various post-operative periods studied carbon-labelled macrophages were seen at the site of lesion. At 4 and 7 days after enucleation carbon-labelled cells were seen at the site of Wallerian degeneration of the optic nerve over 4 mm distal to the site of the lesion. In the electron microscope these cells showed a flattened nucleus bearing coarse chromatin clumps, their cytoplasm contained a prominent Golgi complex and long isolate profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Clusters of carbon particles in the cytoplasms were membrane-bound. Lysosomal bodies embedded with carbon particles were also observed. In relation to the blood vessels of the optic nerve, endothelial cells and pericytes with ingested carbon were seen. Macrophages in the meninges covering the optic nerve were also labelled. The results suggest that some macrophages in the region of Wallerian degeneration in the optic nerve, as well as those at the actual site of the lesion, were transformed blood leucocytes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:649492

  5. The pathogenesis of leptospirosis I. Hemorrhages in experimental leptospirosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, R; Cousineau, G

    1977-01-01

    In experimental infections of guinea pigs with a virulent strain of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae widespread hemorrhages were observed. Thrombocytopenia, prolongation of prothrombin, thrombin, partial thromboplastin and coagulation times, decrease of plasma fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII and the presence of fibrinogen degradation products were demonstrated. Treatment of infected guinea pigs with heparin prolonged life for two to three days. The histological observations revealed that the main lesion is a severe injury of the vasculature, mainly arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Most of the endothelial cells are affected or destroyed and the muscular fibers of arteries and arterioles are injured. With Martius-Scarlet-Blue, Weigert or Picro-Mallory stains it was demonstrated that the organization seen in the vessels is not all made of fibrin. The conclusion reached was that the hemorrhages observed in experimental leptospirosis in guines pigs are due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:861835

  6. Two types of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: immunofluorescent, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies of the antral and pancreatic gastrin cells in different clinical states

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Julia M.; Stagg, B.; Pearse, A. G. E.

    1972-01-01

    In this survey the antral, pancreatic and, where present, the neoplastic gastrin cells, were studied in eight cases of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. The antral G cells alone were studied in one case of Z-E syndrome, seven cases of simple duodenal ulcer, and five cases of pernicious anaemia. The Z-E cases were divided into two numerically equal groups. The first group had `short' histories, high serum gastrin levels, and profound antral G cell hyperplasia. The second group had `long' histories, relatively lower serum gastrin levels, normal antral G cells, and either pancreatic D cell hyperplasia or gastrinoma. Antral G cell hyperplasia, with maximal gastrin storage and normal serum gastrin levels, was found in the duodenal ulcer cases. Antral G cell hyperplasia with minimal storage and high serum gastrin levels was observed in the cases of pernicious anaemia. On the basis of our findings we propose that there exist at least two distinct types (or perhaps stages) of the Z-E syndrome. Suggestions for their pathogenesis are offered. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:4560738

  7. Ectopic apudocarcinomas and associated endocrine hyperplasias of the foregut.

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, S R; McGuigan, J E

    1975-01-01

    Foregut endocrine polypeptide-secreting APUD cells (Amine-Precursor-Uptake and Decarboxylation), in their embryologic migration from neural crest to foregut may become "arrested" in the mesoderm or in other ectopic locations. They may become hyperplastic, adenomatous or malignant. Eight illustrative patients are reported. One patient had "pancreatic hyperparathyroidism" with hypercalcemic crises, pancreatic apudocarcinoma, normal parathyroids, biologically active parathormone, but inert immunochemically to the usual parathyroid antisera. Two had gastrin-secreting malignancies in the mesoderm. Remission after excision, but eventual recurrence of the syndrome due to islet cell hyperplasia required total gastrectomy. One patient had a gastric corpus apudocarcinoma found prospectively with hypergastrinemia which required excision of the tumor. One patient had acromegaly with hypergastrinemia and antral gastrinosis treated by pituitary irradiation, One patient had the antral or intermediary type of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with moderate hypergastrinemia, duodenal ulcer and antral gastrinosis, treated by vagotomy and antrectomy. One patient had hyperparathyroidism with antral gastrinosis, treated by parathyroidectomy. One patient had malignant Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and developed associated thyroid parafollicular cell hyperplasia and parathyroid chief cell hyperplasia, treated by total gastrectomy and multiple endocrine excisions. These investigative observations demonstrate ectopic loci and associated hyperplasias which support the concept of migration and bizarre potentiality of polypeptide-secreting cells of the foregut. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:241302

  8. Expression of a cardiac Ca(2+)-release channel isoform in mammalian brain.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, F A; Dent, M; Wickenden, C; Xu, L; Kumari, G; Misra, M; Lee, H B; Sar, M; Meissner, G

    1992-01-01

    Mammalian brain possesses ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, which in muscle cells mediate rapid Ca2+ release from intracellular stores during excitation-contraction coupling. Analysis of bovine brain ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels suggests specific expression of the cardiac-muscle RyR isoform in mammalian brain. Localization using cardiac-muscle RyR-specific antibodies and antisense RNA revealed that brain RyRs were present in dendrites, cell bodies and terminals of rat forebrain, and highly enriched in the hippocampus. Activity of skeletal-muscle RyR channels is coupled to sarcolemmal voltage sensors, in contrast with cardiac-muscle RyR channels, which are known to be Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release channels. Thus Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by brain RyR channels may be a major Ca(2+)-signalling pathway in specific regions of mammalian brain, and hence may play a fundamental role in neuronal Ca2+ homoeostasis. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:1334409

  9. Ataxia-Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, H. G.; Meuwissen, H.; Livingstone, C. S.; Pump, K. K.

    1964-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia is a syndrome of progressive cerebellar ataxia and other neurological manifestations associated with conjunctival and cutaneous telangiectases and with recurrent sino-pulmonary infections. Immunological and endocrine abnormalities occur. Two girls with this disease are described. The first had only minor respiratory infections; her serum proteins and immunity responses appeared normal. The second had recurrent pulmonary infections and bronchiectasis; she also exhibited sclerodermatous changes, poor development of secondary sexual characteristics with low urinary excretion of 17-ketosteroids, and lymphopenia. Autopsy at 17 years showed bilateral ovarian dysgerminomata and excessive cutaneous collagen as well as atrophy, and perhaps hypoplasia, of adrenals, thymus, spleen and lymphoid tissue (after steroid therapy). The cerebellum exhibited cortical degeneration. Both lungs were fibrotic with old and recent bronchopneumonia and bronchiectasis. The left lung was studied by injection of a latex preparation; no arteriovenous aneurysms were found, but the smaller pulmonary vessels showed some unusual morphological characteristics. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11aFig. 11b PMID:14229760

  10. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  11. Subacute toxicity of dietary T-2 toxin in mice: morphological and hematological effects.

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, M A; Bellamy, J E; Schiefer, H B

    1980-01-01

    Changes in hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues of young Swiss mice fed a balanced semipurified diet containing T-2 toxin (20 ppm) were examined after one, two, three, four or six weeks. During the first three weeks of exposure of T-2 toxin, lymphoid tissues, bone marrow and splenic red pulp became hypoplastic, resulting in anemia, lymphopenia and eosinopenia. Subsequently, during continued exposure to T-2 toxin, hematopoietic cells regenerated in bone marrow and splenic red pulp and became hyperplastic by six weeks. Granulopoiesis and thrombopoiesis resumed in advance of erythropoiesis. All lymphoid tissues remained atrophic throughout the six week trial. Mice exposed to T-2 toxin also developed perioral dermatitis and hyperkeratosis with ulceration of the mucosa of the esophageal region of the stomach. These results indicated that young mice were susceptible to both the irritant and the hematopoietic-suppressive toxic effects of dietary T-2 toxin. However, supression of hematopoiesis was transient and did not lead to hematopoietic failure. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:7407692

  12. Biochemical and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Concanavalin B Crystals from Jack Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Robert; Delozier, Gregory; Robinson, Lindsay; McPherson, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Parallel biochemical and crystallographic studies have been carried out on the protein concanavalin B from Jack Bean (Canavalis ensiformis). The studies show the protein to be a monomer of 33,000 daltons with unexceptional amino acid composition and no covalently bound carbohydrate. The molecule contains a single, firmly bound zinc ion and we present evidence that the protein specifically binds nucleotide coenzymes including at least NADPH and flavin mononucleotide. An electron density map of the concanavalin B crystals (space group P61, a = b = 80.9 Å, c = 102.2 Å) has been calculated from phases based on six isomorphous heavy atom derivatives. A description of the structure of the protein based on the 5.0 Å resolution x-ray diffraction study is provided. The structure appears to contain a substantial amount of α-helix as well as an extensive β-sheet and these are organized into two domains of unequal size. The position of the bound zinc is indicated by anomalous difference Fouriers and the nucleotide binding site by conventional difference Fourier maps. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:16663793

  13. Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine articular and epiphyseal cartilage: light ane electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, R; Christian, R G; Nakano, T; Aherne, F X; Thompson, J R

    1981-01-01

    Age related changes and osteochondrosis in swine were studied using light microscopy and electron microscopy in articular cartilage and light microscopy and epiphyseal cartilage of swine from three days to 30 weeks of age. Thickness, cellularity and vascularity of both the epiphyseal and articular cartilage, decreased as the swine aged. Osteochondrotic changes included formation of "plugs" of cartilage indicating localized failure of ossification and separation and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage. Eosinophilic streaks and space formation in epiphyseal cartilage was observed in relation to epiphyseal separation. Electron microscopy showed a continuous fibrillar layer on the surface of the cartilage corresponding to the lamina splendens of light microscopy. This layer increased in the thickness and showed accumulation of amorphous material between the fibrils with aging. In the matrix, the orientation and distribution of the collagen fibers changed with growth and thicker fibers with clear sub banding were more common in older age groups. Also, necrotic cells, glycogen containing bodies and cellular debris were noticed in the matrix of normal cartilage in old animals. Chondrocytes in the younger cartilage showed accumulation of organelles responsible for protein synthesis; while Golgi bodies, vesicles, lysosomes, well developed foot processes and other inclusions were noticed in older cartilage. Cartilage erosions had a clumped and disrupted lamina splendens on the surface and electron lucent patches in the ground substances of the matrix and chondrocyte cytoplasm. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2 and 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10 and 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. Fig. 18. PMID:7260732

  14. Protean manifestations of pylethrombosis. A review of thirty-four patients.

    PubMed Central

    Witte, C L; Brewer, M L; Witte, M H; Pond, G B

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-four adult patients with portomesenteric venous occlusion (PVO) were reviewed. In 11 with hepatic cirrhosis, PVO was usually heralded by worsening ascites often with varix hemorrhage; mortality was high. Four with isolated portal block had varix hemorrhage without ascites. All of these patients survived despite recurrent hematemesis when portal decompression was not feasible in two patients. Eight others (5 agnogenic and 3 with hypercoagulability), experienced sudden abdominal pain with a clot typically propagated into mesenteric tributaries with ileojejunal infarction; survival was related to the promptness of operation and the extent of bowel ischemia. Of five patients with intraabdominal sepsis and pylephlebitis, only one survived. In the final six patients, PVO occurred with intraabdominal carcinoma. Five had progressive ascites, cachexia, and an early death. Imaging techniques included plain and contrast roentgenograms, ultrasonography, and for definitive diagnosis direct portography (operative or splenoportogram), indirect portography (splanchnic arteriovenogram), and computed tomography. Thirteen of 34 patients had ascites, and in nine of 11 patients examined, protein concentration of ascitic fluid was extremely low (less than 0.6 g/dl). Clinical presentation of PVO varies, depending on acuteness and extent of visceral venous blockade, severity of portal hypertension, auxiliary venous collateralization, and regional lymph flow. Inciting factors include endothelial damage and blood hypercoagulability from trauma, infection, stagnant circulation, blood dyscrasia, and malignancy. Improved imaging now allows early diagnosis. Images FIG. 1. FIGS. 2A and B. FIGS. 3A and B. FIGS. 4A and B. FIGS. 5A-D. FIGS. 6A and B. FIGS. 7A-C. FIG. 8. FIGS. 9A-D. FIG. 10. FIG. 11. FIG. 12. PMID:3874612

  15. Morphometric study of the fetal development of the human hip joint: significance for congenital hip disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. M.; Goldsmith, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Hip joints (280) from 140 human fetuses, obtained from abortions and deaths in the perinatal period, were studied. The fetuses ranged from 8.7 to 40 cm in crown-rump length and are believed to be between 12 and 42 weeks in age. The joints were dissected, morphology inspected, and measurements taken of the depth and diameter of the acetabulum, the diameter of the femoral head, length and width of the ligament of the head, the neck-shaft, and torsion angles of the proximal femur. Regression models were fitted to determine which would best predict the growth pattern. Multivariate analysis of variance showed no significant differences between males and females or between the right and left sides. Acetabular depth was shown to be the slowest-growing hip variable, increasing less than fourfold in the period studied. Acetabular indices less than 50 percent indicate a shallow socket at term. Femoral head and acetabular diameter demonstrated a strong relationship (r = 0.860) and in many joints the femoral head diameter exceeded that of the acetabulum. Considerable variability was demonstrated in both femoral angles. The femoral angles showed only low correlation with the other hip variables. These observations indicate that soft tissue structures about the joint must play an important role in neonatal joint stability. The explanation of greater female and left side involvement in congenital hip disease must lie in factors other than growth changes of hip dimensions. Neither angle appears to be a useful indicator of normal joint development. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 10 FIG. 11 FIG. 13 PMID:7342490

  16. An atlas of the dorsal thalamus of the marsupial brush-tailed possum, Trichosurus vulpecula.

    PubMed Central

    Haight, J R; Neylon, L

    1978-01-01

    In several respects the dorsal thalamus of Trichosurus presents a level of organizational complexity considerably in advance of that seen in Didelphis. In particular, such features as the lamination of the dorsal lateral geniculate, the distinct subdivisions of the ventroposterior and lateroposterior complexes, and the more pronounced separation of the ventroanterior from the ventrolateral nucleus, are similar to conditions found in many eutherians. On the other hand, some features which Trichosurus shares with Didelphis, such as the lack of a median central nucleus, and the well developed midline nuclei, are usually said to be indicative of a more 'primitive' level of neural organization. In most instances the thalamic nuclei in Trichosurus are easily homologized with those of Didelphis and other mammals. The difficult areas are the lateral and posterior groups of nuclei, regions which have generally been troublesome in most mammals thus far examined. What does become apparent after this examination of the Trichosurus thalamus is that this representative of the diprotodontid radiation has produced some neurological features which strikingly parallel those of certain advanced eutherians while retaining other features generally considered to be generalized and primitive. Within the metatheria Trichosurus represents a considerable advance over Didelphis. However, as will be seen in later papers in this series, there are other features, particularly those of thalamocortical fibre distribution, which serve to set Trichosurus quite markedly apart from both Didelphis and at least certain eutherian mammals (Haight & Neylon, 1977b, c, 1978). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:670061

  17. The histological appearance of large intestinal biopsies in dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    van der Gaag, I

    1988-01-01

    Colonic and rectal forceps and excision biopsies of 355 dogs with clinical signs of large bowel disease were investigated. Five percent of the forceps biopsies were unsuitable for examination; all excision biopsies were of good quality. Forceps biopsies were obtained from one to eight sites, up to 60 cm cranial from the anus, while excision biopsies, mostly from tumors, were from the rectoanal region. Slight to severe colitis and/or proctitis was found in 192 dogs (54%). A single type of colitis was seen in 160 dogs; in 53 cases the lesions were local, in 107 cases multiple. A combination of different types of colitis was found in 32 dogs. Atrophic colitis, diffuse colitis and canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were the most prominent findings, followed by ulcerative, superficial and eosinophilic colitis. Follicular, hypertrophic and aspecific granulomatous colitis were found in only a few cases. Tumors were diagnosed in 57 dogs (16%). Of these tumors 50 were of epithelial and seven were of mesenchymal origin. A high percentage (61%) of the epithelial tumors consisted of adenomas of the rectoanal region. In ten other dogs (3%) a differential diagnosis of lymphosarcoma or colitis had to be made. Colitis and colorectal tumors were more prevalent in Boxers, German Shepherds, Poodles, Great Danes and Spaniels. In the Boxers simple chronic colitis, as well as canine histiocytic ulcerative colitis were more frequently found, the latter especially in females. Other biopsy findings were edema, crypt cysts, hemorrhages, an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and an increased or decreased number of goblet cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. PMID:3349403

  18. Mapping of human and macaque sensorimotor areas by integrating architectonic, transmitter receptor, MRI and PET data.

    PubMed Central

    Zilles, K; Schlaug, G; Matelli, M; Luppino, G; Schleicher, A; Qü, M; Dabringhaus, A; Seitz, R; Roland, P E

    1995-01-01

    The human and macaque sensorimotor cortex was subdivided into numerous areas by a correlative analysis based on cytoarchitectonics, myeloarchitecture and the distribution of transmitter receptors. Receptor densities and laminar distribution patterns differ not only between motor and somatosensory regions, but also between different areas within these regions of the cortex. Changes in receptor distribution often match architectonically defined borders. Receptor findings provide new criteria for a more detailed mapping in the human brain which cannot be achieved by cytoarchitectonic analysis alone. Morphological data on these areas were integrated with functional data from positron emission tomography (PET) on the basis of a recently developed computerised brain atlas. The central sulcus marks the border between (1) the agranular motor cortex with a generally low density of glutamatergic, muscarinic, GABAergic and serotoninergic receptors, and (2) the granular somatosensory cortex with higher densities of these receptors. Rostral to the primary motor cortex, 2 isocortical areas are found on the mesial cortex which probably represent the functionally defined supplementary motor areas (SMA) SMA-proper (caudally) and pre-SMA (rostrally). Below SMA-proper the areas 24d (macaque) and the caudal cingulate motor area cmc (human) are located in the cingulate sulcus. Both regions correspond to the 'posterior cingulate motor areas' of recent PET studies and to the posterior part of the agranular cingulate cortex of architectonic studies. Below pre-SMA the area 24c (macaque) and the rostral cingulate motor area cmr (human) are located in the cingulate sulcus; they correspond to the 'anterior cingulate motor areas' of recent PET observations and to the anterior part of the agranular cingulate cortex of architectonic studies. Homologous sensorimotor areas can be defined in both species on the basis of common architectonic features. Images Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig

  19. Remodelling of bone and bones: effects of translation and strain on transplants.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, A. W.; Feik, S. A.; Storey, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tail segments, from 4-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats, consisting of caudal vertebrae (CV) approximately 7-9 were impaled on 0.23-mm diameter Elgiloy wire and transplanted subcutaneously into 50-70 g male hosts to study the effects on transplants of (a) impaling (b) strain and (c) translation. The CV were impaled onto straight lengths of wire to serve as controls (a); onto a wire curved to form a loop and exert a bending force (b) and onto the arms of a spring which moved bones through the surrounding tissues, i.e. translation (c). Tissue changes were studied up to 28 days by radiographic and histological techniques. Control bones grow relatively normally along the straight wire. The CV subjected to strain bend initially and then grow in an arc along the curve of the wire. The outer bone shaft usually becomes straighter while the inner one becomes concave and rarefied. In the translated bones remodelling occurs in a direction generally opposite to the direction of movement but this is modified by the influence of soft tissue tension and pressure. Bone resorbs on the outer leading side under continuous pressure and forms on the inner trailing side under continuous tension. The process is essentially the same as that seen in 'cortical drift'; however, since translation is rapid there is an alteration in the shape of the translated bones as formation on the trailing side is faster than resorption on the leading side.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:6388616

  20. Upregulation and induction of surface antigens with special reference to MHC class II expression in microglia in postnatal rat brain following intravenous or intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Ling, E A

    1994-01-01

    positive cells, it is suggested that the OX-6 positive cells would have the potentiality to function in antigen presentation in the postnatal rat brain when challenged by the endotoxin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs 4,5 Figs 6,7 Figs 8,9 Figs 10,11 Figs 12,13 Figs 14,15 Figs 16,17 Figs 18,19 Figs 20,21 PMID:8014120

  1. Biophysical and immunological studies on bovine immune globulins with evidence for selective transport within the mammary gland from maternal plasma to colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, A. E.; Feinstein, A.

    1965-01-01

    heterogeneity of bovine immune globulins and show that the calf receives into its circulation from ingested colostrum selected maternal serum immune globulins. This selection of proteins from maternal plasma, for admission to the calf's circulation, occurs within the mammary gland during the formation of colostrum but not during absorption across the calf's intestinal mucosa. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 8FIG. 4FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 13FIG. 14 PMID:14245307

  2. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    contaminated types. ImagesFigs. 1a-c.Fig. 1b.Fig. 1c.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9a.Fig. 9B.Fig. 10.Fig. 11.Figs. 12a-c.Fig. 12b.Fig. 12c.Figs. 14a-c.Fig. 14b.Fig. 14c.Figs. 15a-c.Fig. 15b.Fig. 15c. PMID:4606330

  3. The elastic constants of the human lens

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. F.

    1971-01-01

    total observed in vivo. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 14 PMID:5101807

  4. Development of a cyclometalated iridium complex with specific intramolecular hydrogen-bonding that acts as a fluorescent marker for the endoplasmic reticulum and causes photoinduced cell death† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed synthesis; photophysical data (Table S1); pH dependent phosphorescence lifetime of complex C2 (Table S2); crystallographic parameters of C2; selected bond distances and angles of C2 (Table S3); cyclic voltammetric data of complexes C1–C11 (Table S4); 1H NMR spectra of ligands and complexes (Fig. S1 and S3); ESI-MS spectra of ligands and complexes (Fig. S2 and S4); fluorescence spectra of the complexes in acetonitrile and at pH 4, 7 and 9, exponential decay curve of C2 (Fig. S5); pH dependent fluorescence spectrum of complexes C1–C11 (Fig. S6); DIC and confocal fluorescence images of live MCF7 cells not treated with C2 but exposed to photoirradiation at 405 nm for 30 min; the cells were treated with DCFDA and fluorescence images were obtained at 529 nm after excitation at 495 nm (Fig. S7). ESI videos 1 and 2. CCDC 967841. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c4dt00845f Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Soumik; Poria, Dipak K.; Ghosh, Ritabrata

    2014-01-01

    Cyclometalated iridium complexes have important applications as phosphorescent probes for cellular imaging due to their photophysical properties. Moreover, these properties also make them potential candidates as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors and skin diseases. Treatment of MCF7 breast carcinoma cells with a heteroleptic phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(iii) complex C2 followed by confocal imaging indicates that the complex selectively localizes and exhibits high fluorescence in the endoplasmic reticulum. In an unprecedented approach, systematic alteration of functional groups or the metal core in C2 to synthesize a series of iridium(iii) complexes (C1–C10) and an organometallic rhenium complex C11 with an imidazolyl modified phenanthroline ligand has indicated the functional groups and their interactions that are responsible for this selective localization. Remarkably, the exposure of the cells treated with C2 to irradiation at 405 nm for one hour led to membrane blebbing and cell death, demonstrating a photosensitizing property of the compound. PMID:25341053

  5. Recent QCD results from the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Pickarz, Henryk; CDF and DO collaboration

    1997-02-01

    Recent QCD results from the CDF and D0 detectors at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider are presented. An outlook for future QCD tests at the Tevatron collider is also breifly discussed. 27 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-12-01

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The Glands of the Stomach in Relation to Pernicious Anæmia; with Special Reference to the Glands in the Pyloric Region

    PubMed Central

    Meulengracht, E.

    1935-01-01

    . Experimental pernicious anæmia will presumably be producible by the deliberate removal of the pyloric-gland region. Stomach preparations for the treatment of pernicious anæmia will with advantage be producible from the pyloric-gland region alone. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Curve 1Curve 2Curve 3Curve 4Curve 5Curve 7Curve 8Curve 9Curve 10Curve 11Curve 12Curve 13Curve 14Curve 15Curve 16Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 11Fig. 12Curve 17Curve 18 PMID:19990300

  8. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1998-03-03

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing is disclosed including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure. 9 figs.

  9. The ORNL whole body counter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

  10. Experiments in the application of ultrasound diffraction tomography for nondestructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Fitch, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    We have designed computer programs to simulate ultrasound projection scans and to reconstruct the tomographic planar image. We have also used the reconstruction algorithm on actual test data and have obtained a crude but promising image. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  12. Power beam technology at Los Alamos/A review of research and development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, H.

    1990-01-01

    This document discusses techniques and research programs in power beam welding at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Specific areas discussed are in plasma welding, electron beam welding and laser welding. 11 refs., 9 figs. (FSD)

  13. Development of ion channels and neurofilaments during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Y

    1989-01-01

    -inactivating Ca2+-channel current was evoked by a depolarization pulse to a level above -30 mV with a maximum amplitude at around +5 mV. It was blocked by 50 microM-Cd2+. It showed slight inactivation, which was not voltage-dependent but current-dependent. It was enhanced by 1 microM-Bay K 8644. The outward K+ current was blocked by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. 6. Another embryonal carcinoma cell line, P19, was induced to differentiate to neurons by adding 10(-6) M-retinoic acid to the medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 13 PMID:2479740

  14. Heavy quark results at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Fein, D.K.; D0 Collaboration

    1997-01-01

    Recent results in heavy quark physics from the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are reported. Topics included are top quark production and mass determination, bottom production and correlations, and charmonium production. 20 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  16. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  17. Laser cutting system for nuclear fuel disassembly

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    A significant advancement in fuel reprocessing technology has been made by utilizing a multikilowatt, carbon dioxide laser to perform cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies. 10 figs.

  18. Quarterly oil report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This report contains information on petroleum fuels market activity in California. Included is information on price trends, refinery activities, production, and petroleum company financial statements. 10 fig., 6 tabs. (CBS)

  19. CP violation in K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  20. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.

    1990-09-19

    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  1. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  2. Monolithic amplifier with stable, high resistance feedback element and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    O`Connor, P.

    1998-08-11

    A monolithic amplifier includes a stable, high resistance feedback circuit and a dynamic bias circuit. The dynamic bias circuit is formed with active elements matched to those in the amplifier and feedback circuit to compensate for variations in the operating and threshold voltages thereby maintaining a stable resistance in the feedback circuit. 11 figs.

  3. North Alabama water quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pullin, B.P.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize previously existing information on the abundance and distribution of green-backed herons on selected areas of Wilson and Pickwick Reservoirs, present the results of the 1987 survey, and make recommendations regarding further investigations. 6 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Current responsive devices for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1983-09-27

    A device for detecting current imbalance between phases of a polyphase alternating current generator. A detector responds to the maximum peak current in the generator, and detecting means generates an output for each phase proportional to the peak current of each phase. Comparing means generates an output when the maximum peak current exceeds the phase peak current. 11 figs.

  5. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1988-06-28

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  6. Searching for the Higgs in ep collisions at LEP/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Grindhammer, G. ); Haidt, D. , Hamburg ); Ohnemus, J. ); Vermaseren, J. , Amsterdam . Sectie H); Zeppenfeld, D.

    1990-11-01

    We investigate the possibility to observe an intermediate mass Higgs in ep collisions at LEP/LHC. We find that such a particle can be observed once a reasonable level of flavor identification is available to separate efficiently the b{bar b} decay mode of the Higgs from most of the background. 18 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Structures having enhanced biaxial texture and method of fabricating same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, A.; Budai, J.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Norton, D.P.; Specht, E.D.; Christen, D.K.

    1998-04-21

    A biaxially textured article includes a rolled and annealed, biaxially textured substrate of a metal having a face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, or hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure; and an epitaxial superconductor or other device epitaxially deposited thereon. 11 figs.

  8. Structures having enhanced biaxial texture and method of fabricating same

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, A.; Budai, J.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Norton, D.P.; Specht, E.D.; Christen, D.K.

    1998-04-14

    A biaxially textured article includes a rolled and annealed, biaxially textured substrate of a metal having a face-centered cubic, body-centered cubic, or hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure; and an epitaxial superconductor or other device epitaxially deposited thereon. 11 figs.

  9. A review of the Los Alamos effort in the development of nuclear rocket propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, F.P.; Kirk, W.L.; Bohl, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements of the Los Alamos nuclear rocket propulsion program and describes some specific reactor design and testing problems encountered during the development program along with the progress made in solving these problems. The relevance of these problems to a renewed nuclear thermal rocket development program for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is discussed. 11 figs.

  10. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1990-06-26

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  11. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Raman, N.K.; Brinker, C.J.

    1999-08-10

    A process is described for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film. 11 figs.

  12. Introduction to conformal field theory and string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.J.

    1989-12-01

    These lectures are meant to provide a brief introduction to conformal field theory (CFT) and string theory for those with no prior exposure to the subjects. There are many excellent reviews already available, and most of these go in to much more detail than I will be able to here. 52 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Deformation and thermal fatigue in high temperature austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, P.D.; Yost, B.; Swindeman, R.W.; Li, Che-Yu . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    The flow properties of modified austenitic alloys are reviewed. The important strengthening mechanisms discussed include precipitation hardening produced by a combination of cold work and aging and by creep aging. Grain boundary sliding enhanced by reduced grain size is shown to reduce the flow strength of these alloys. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. International conference on spin observables of nuclear probes: Summary talk

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.T.

    1988-01-01

    A selected summary of the presentation and discussions at the 4th Telluride Conference is presented. The summary deals mainly with the effects of nuclear spin and isospin on the interaction between nucleons and their consequences in nuclear structure. 11 figs.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DIII-D cooperation: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Ellis, R.M.; Evans, J.C.; Ferguson, S.W.; Hill, D.N.; James, R.A.; Jenkins, S.L.; Karlsen, C.E.; Kevan, D.

    1988-02-24

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) DIII-D cooperation during FY87. The LLNL participation in DIII-D concentrated on three principal areas: ECH and current-drive physics, divertor and edge physics, and tokamak operations. These topics are dicussed in this report. 27 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Optical system for high resolution spectrometer/monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Hettrick, M.C.; Underwood, J.H.

    1988-10-11

    An optical system for use in a spectrometer or monochromator employing a mirror which reflects electromagnetic radiation from a source to converge with same in a plane is disclosed. A straight grooved, varied-spaced diffraction grating receives the converging electromagnetic radiation from the mirror and produces a spectral image for capture by a detector, target or like receiver. 11 figs.

  17. Method of chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride using polymeric cyanoborane

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1994-06-14

    Polymeric cyanoborane is volatilized, decomposed by thermal or microwave plasma energy, and deposited on a substrate as an amorphous film containing boron, nitrogen and carbon. Residual carbon present in the film is removed by ammonia treatment at an increased temperature, producing an adherent, essentially stoichiometric boron nitride film. 11 figs.

  18. Characterization of composite high temperature superconductors for magnetic bearing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, B.R.; Lynds, L.; VanValzah, J.; Eaton, H. . Research Center); Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Basinger, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A study of high temperature superconductor composites for use in magnetic bearings applications is presented. Fabrication and characterization techniques are described. Magnetometry and mechanical force measurements are correlated with a particular emphasis on the role of superconductor particle size. Results are discussed in terms of fundamental limits of Meissner effect levitation. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Composite hydrogen separation element and module

    DOEpatents

    Edlund, D.J.; Newbold, D.D.; Frost, C.B.

    1997-07-08

    There are disclosed improvements in multicomponent composite metal membranes useful for the separation of hydrogen, the improvements comprising the provision of at least one common-axis hole through all components of the composite membrane and the provision of a gas-tight seal around the periphery of the hole or holes through a coating metal layer of the membrane. 11 figs.

  20. Neutron spectroscopy on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, T.; Strachan, J.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the use of an /sup 3/He ionization chamber for neutron spectroscopy on TFTR during 1987. The ion temperature was measured using neutron spectroscopy for one set of ohmically heated plasmas. The deduced ion temperatures agreed to within 20% with those measured by other diagnostics. 11 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Erythropoietin binding protein from mammalian serum

    DOEpatents

    Clemons, G.K.

    1997-04-29

    Purified mammalian erythropoietin binding-protein is disclosed, and its isolation, identification, characterization, purification, and immunoassay are described. The erythropoietin binding protein can be used for regulation of erythropoiesis by regulating levels and half-life of erythropoietin. A diagnostic kit for determination of level of erythropoietin binding protein is also described. 11 figs.

  2. Results of field and laboratory studies of jam-resistant and voice-private radios

    SciTech Connect

    Heustess, J.E.; Snell, M.K.; Gangel, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radio communications systems that use voice privacy or voice scrambling exhibit varying degrees of security range reduction, message intelligibility, and susceptibilities to a jamming assault. Studies included the evaluation of Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Frequency Hopping (FH) systems. Results include voice intelligibility, jamming survivability, and range reduction percentages. 11 figs.

  3. Unusual hydrogen bonding patterns in AF (aminofluorene) and AAF (acetylaminofluorene) modified DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Shapiro, R.; Norman, D.

    1989-01-01

    New structures are presented for AF and AAF modified DNAs that place the carcinogen in the minor groove of a B-DNA helix. These structures employ non-Watson-Crick base pairing schemes with syn guanine at the modification site. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  4. A multitechnique characterization of the acidity of dealuminated mazzite

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, D. |; Fitoussi, F.; Schulz, P.

    1996-07-01

    The authors endeavored to characterize the acidity of stream-dealuminated mazzite through various techniques. Isomerization of n-paraffin over the platinum/mazzite catalyst indicated higher activity and selectivity than that of commercial platinum/mordenite. 44 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Super high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, W.M.

    1987-12-01

    Basic theoretical ideas on a phase transition to a plasma of free quarks and gluons in heavy ion collisions are outlined. First results from experiments with oxygen beams at 14.5 GeV/c/N (BNL), 60 and 200 GeV/c/N (CERN) are discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Impulse radar studfinder

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-10-10

    An impulse radar studfinder propagates electromagnetic pulses and detects reflected pulses from a fixed range. Unmodulated pulses, about 200 ps wide, are emitted. A large number of reflected pulses are sampled and averaged. Background reflections are subtracted. Reflections from wall studs or other hidden objects are detected and displayed using light emitting diodes. 9 figs.

  7. Spontaneous fission properties and lifetime systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Half-lives for spontaneous fission of nuclides with even and odd numbers of particles are compared with recent theoretical calculations. A summary of odd particle hindrance factors is given. The most recent measurements of kinetic-energy and mass distributions and neutron emission for spontaneous fission of the heaviest nuclides are summarized and discussed. 51 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  9. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas. Detailed economic feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    An economic evaluation of the application of the multi-solid fluid reactor design to wood gasification was completed. The processing options examined include plant capacity, production of a high-Btu (1006 Btu/SCF HHV) gas versus an intermediate-Btu gas (379 Btu/SCF HHV), and operating pressure. 9 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. Production-scale Direct Oxide Reduction demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Humiston, T.J.; Santi, D.J.; Long, J.L.; Thomas, R.L.; Delaney, I.C.

    1989-01-23

    A detailed, statistically valid, examination of the direct oxide reduction parameters affecting process yield and purity was planned and executed. Guidelines for attaining yields approaching 100% are presented. Feed oxide, percent excess calcium, and stirrer design affected yield and product purity. Experiments were performed in production-scale equipment utilizing 800 grams of plutonium dioxide per charge. 1 ref., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  12. Method for fabricating silicon cells

    DOEpatents

    Ruby, D.S.; Basore, P.A.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-11

    A process is described for making high-efficiency solar cells. This is accomplished by forming a diffusion junction and a passivating oxide layer in a single high-temperature process step. The invention includes the class of solar cells made using this process, including high-efficiency solar cells made using Czochralski-grown silicon. 9 figs.

  13. Pion probes of heavy ion collision dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1985-03-01

    Pion interferometry data (2-pion correlation) are examined for information on size and lifetime of the pion-emitting matter. The temperatures inferred from pion, proton and kaon spectra are considered. An explanation consistent with the above size and temperature data is proposed. New theoretical Monte Carlo results on spectator effects on heavy-ion pion spectra are presented. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly are disclosed for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut. 9 figs.

  15. Method of making an InAsSb/InAsSbP diode lasers

    DOEpatents

    Razeghi, M.

    1997-08-19

    InAsSb/InAsSbP/InAs Double Heterostructures (DH) and Separate Confinement Heterostructure Multiple Quantum Well (SCH-MQW) structures are taught wherein the ability to tune to a specific wavelength within 3 {micro}m to 5 {micro}m is possible by varying the ratio of As:Sb in the active layer. 9 figs.

  16. Metallurgical analysis of a 304L stainless steel canister from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, H.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.

    1985-04-23

    Results of a metallurgical examination of a type 304L stainless steel canister that had been used to store spent nuclear fuel in an underground granite formation for about three years are reported. No observable corrosion or cracking were found. The results are applied to waste packages in a potential high level nuclear waste repository in tuff. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  18. Equilibrium liquid free-surface configurations: Mathematical theory and space experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P. |; Finn, R.

    1996-06-01

    Small changes in container shape or in contact angle can give rise to large shifts of liquid in a microgravity environment. We describe some of our mathematical results that predict such behavior and that form the basis for physical experiments in space. The results include cases of discontinuous dependence on data and symmetry-breaking type of behavior. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hu, J.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Xiao, X.

    1999-03-09

    The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged. 9 figs.

  20. Apparatus for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Hu, J.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Xiao, X.

    1998-04-28

    The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged. 9 figs.

  1. Aspects of faceting in the study of percipitate interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, U.; Witcomb, M.J.; Westmacott, K.H.

    1989-07-01

    The role of faceting in the formation of interface structures between a precipitate and its matrix is considered and illustrated with TEM observations on a number of different alloy systems. Crystal symmetry and elastic constraints from the solid matrix are shown to be important factors in the development of morphologies and interfacial structures. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Preliminary review of mass transfer and flow visualization studies and techniques relevant to the study of erosion-corrosion of reactor piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Halle, H.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Polarized proton and antiproton experiments at Fermilab E-581/704

    SciTech Connect

    Yokosawa, A.

    1988-01-01

    We summarize activities concerning the Fermilab polarized beams. They include a description of the polarized-beam facility, measurements of beam polarization by polarimeters, asymmetry measurements in the production at large x, and experiments with polarized beams during the next fixed-target period. 8 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Assessment of ductile fracture methodology based on applications to large-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney-Walker, J. ); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. , Koeln )

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the present status of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiment (FALSIRE) is given. Fracture assessments compiled from Project FALSIRE for five pressurized-thermal-shock experiments are compared. Some observations are made concerning predictive capabilities of the fracture methodologies used in these assessments. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

  6. Target-specific binding of immunoliposomes in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, E.; Maruyama, K.; Kennel, S.; Klibanov, A.; Torchilin, V.; Ryan, U.; Huang, L.

    1989-01-01

    Our group at the University of Tennessee has been concentrating on using monoclonal antibody for targeting of a liposomal drug carrier system. This paper discusses our initial effort to target these liposomes using an organ-specific monoclonal antibody. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  8. Evaluating rates and yields of second-order, photoinitiated reactions under conditons of Gaussian-profile excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Cambron, R.T.; Zhu, X.R.; Harris, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Under conditions of Gaussian radial profile excitation, a mixed-order kinetic model is used to interpret the rates and yields of photoinitiated reactions. This model is used to determine the triplet-triplet annihilation rate constant for benzophenone in acetonitrile and anthracene at room temperature. 34 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  10. Acridine-intercalator based hypoxia selective cytotoxins

    DOEpatents

    Papadopoulou-Rosenzweig, M.; Bloomer, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    Hypoxia selective cytotoxins of the general formula STR1 wherein n is from 1 to 5, and NO[sub 2] is in at least one of the 2, 4 or 5-positions of the imidazole are developed. Such compounds have utility as radiosensitizers and chemosensitizers. 9 figs.

  11. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

    1998-06-09

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

    1998-12-08

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

  13. Permanent magnet design for high-speed superconducting bearings

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.; Abdoud, R.G.

    1996-09-10

    A high temperature superconducting bearing including a permanent magnet rotor levitated by a high temperature superconducting structure is disclosed. The rotor preferably includes one or more concentric permanent magnet rings coupled to permanent magnet ring structures having substantially triangular and quadrangular cross-sections. Both alternating and single direction polarity magnet structures can be used in the bearing. 9 figs.

  14. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOEpatents

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  15. Systematic design and analysis of laser-guide-star adaptive-optics systems for large telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.; Morris, J.R.; Vernon, R.G.

    1994-02-01

    The authors discuss the design of laser-guided adaptive-optics systems for the large, 8-10-m-class telescopes. Through proper choice of system components and optimized system design, the laser power that is needed at the astronomical site can be kept to a minimum. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Damped acceleration cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1988-07-01

    Structures with slots to strongly damp higher order longitudinal and transverse modes should allow the use, in linear colliders, of multiple bunches, and thus attain luminosities of over 10/sup 34/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/. Preliminary measurements on model structures suggest that such damping can be achieved. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Functional reconstruction of trans regulation of the ultrabithorax promoter by the products of two antagonistic genes, trithorax and polycomb

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yuh-Long; King, B.O.; Huang, Der-Hwa

    1995-12-01

    This study examined the expression patterns of several transgenes to identify cis-acting sequences that participate in the regulation of Drosophila homeotic genes. The specification of body segments of Drosophila melanogaster requires the activities of at least eight homeotic genes. 88 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  19. The drilling of a horizontal well in a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the drilling of a medium radius horizontal well in the Bartlesville Sand of the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma by Rougeot Oil and Gas Corporation (Rougeot) of Sperry, Oklahoma. The report includes the rationale for selecting the particular site, the details of drilling the well, the production response, conclusions reached, and recommendations made for the future drilling of horizontal wells. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Tracking with wire chambers at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.; Gundy, M.C.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-07-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tacking systems that meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 13 refs., 11 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Nickel plating connector ends on tape processed slapper detonator cables

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, R.J.

    1989-02-28

    A nickel spot plater has been built as an addition to the other reel-to-reel processing equipment in the Tape Process Laboratory at Mound. This plater, like most of the equipment in the Tape Process Laboratory, is a prototype built to meet Mound's product requirements. This Plating System enables Mound to selectively plate specific areas (connector ends) on a flexible printed circuit cable. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Concepts in strong Langmuir turbulence theory

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, D.F.; Rose, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the basic concepts of strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) theory are reviewed. In SLT system, a major fraction of the turbulent energy is carried by local, time-dependent, nonlinear excitations called cavitons. Modulational instability, localization of Langmuir fields by density fluctuations, caviton nucleation, collapse, and burnout and caviton correlations are reviewed. Recent experimental evidence will be presented for SLT phenomena in the interaction of powerful HF waves with the ionosphere and in laser-plasma interaction experiments. 38 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  4. Frequency regulator for synchronous generators

    DOEpatents

    Karlicek, R.F.

    1982-08-10

    The present invention is directed to a novel frequency regulator which controls a generator output frequency for variations in both the input power to the generator and the power supplied to an uncontrolled external load. The present invention further includes over current and current balance protection devices which are relatively inexpensive to manufacture, which may be encapsulated to provide protection from the operating environment and which respond more quickly than previously known electromechanical devices. 11 figs.

  5. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional MHD equilibrium and stability codes

    SciTech Connect

    Herrnegger, F.; Merkel, P.; Johnson, J.L.

    1986-02-01

    Stability results obtained with the fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code BETA, the helically invariant code HERA, and the asymptotic stellarator expansion code STEP agree well for a straight l = 2, M = 5 stellarator model. This good agreement between the BETA and STEP codes persists as toroidal curvature is introduced. This validation provides justification for confidence in work with these models. 20 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A. ); Vacchi, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Solderability test system

    DOEpatents

    Yost, F.; Hosking, F.M.; Jellison, J.L.; Short, B.; Giversen, T.; Reed, J.R.

    1998-10-27

    A new test method to quantify capillary flow solderability on a printed wiring board surface finish. The test is based on solder flow from a pad onto narrow strips or lines. A test procedure and video image analysis technique were developed for conducting the test and evaluating the data. Feasibility tests revealed that the wetted distance was sensitive to the ratio of pad radius to line width (l/r), solder volume, and flux predry time. 11 figs.

  8. Calculating scattering amplitudes efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, L.

    1996-01-01

    We review techniques for more efficient computation of perturbative scattering amplitudes in gauge theory, in particular tree and one- loop multi-parton amplitudes in QCD. We emphasize the advantages of (1) using color and helicity information to decompose amplitudes into smaller gauge-invariant pieces, and (2) exploiting the analytic properties of these pieces, namely their cuts and poles. Other useful tools include recursion relations, special gauges and supersymmetric rearrangements. 46 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Method and apparatus for measuring lung density by Compton backscattering

    DOEpatents

    Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1988-03-11

    The density of the lung of a patient suffering from pulmonary edema is monitored by irradiating the lung by a single collimated beam of monochromatic photons and measuring the energies of photons compton back-scattered from the lung by a single high-resolution, high-purity germanium detector. A compact system geometry and a unique data extraction scheme are utilized to minimize systematic errors due to the presence of the chestwall and multiple scattering. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    SciTech Connect

    Garrad, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  11. Interferometric ring lasers and optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Hohimer, J.P.; Craft, D.C.

    1995-03-14

    Two ring diode lasers are optically coupled together to produce tunable, stable output through a Y-junction output coupler which may also be a laser diode or can be an active waveguide. These devices demonstrate a sharp peak in light output with an excellent side-mode-rejection ratio. The rings can also be made of passive or active waveguide material. With additional rings the device is a tunable optical multiplexer/demultiplexer. 11 figs.

  12. Simulated liquid water and visibility in stratiform boundary-layer clouds over sloping terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The amount of liquid water in stratus clouds or fog is discussed from the point of view of estimating visibility variations in areas with complex terrain. The average vertical profile of liquid water from numerical simulations with a higher-order closure mesoscale model is examined, and runs with the model for moderately complex terrain are utilized to estimate the of low-level liquid water content variability and thus, indirectly, the variations in horizontal visibility along a slope. 37 refs., 11 figs.

  13. The critical mass

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.

    1996-05-01

    This article discusses in detail the historical background leading to different lines of scientific thinking in the Allied and in the German scientific communities around the feasibility and development of an atomic bomb. An extensive, parallel time table is given along with discussions of the basic theories of the major players during the conception and development of a nuclear program in both arenas. 35 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Micropole undulator

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.; Csonka, P.L.; Cremer, J.T.

    1990-12-11

    Micropole undulators for use in the generation of x-rays from moving charged particles are disclosed. Two rows of spaced apart poles are arranged so that each pole produces a magnetic field aligned with all other similar fields. The poles are the ends of C''-shaped magnets. In each row, adjacent poles are separated by spacers made of a superconducting material. 11 figs.

  15. A balloon-borne aerosol spectrometer for high altitude low aerosol concentration measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.S. ); Weiss, R.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Funded by Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory, a new balloon-borne high altitude aerosol spectrometer, for the measurement of cirrus cloud ice crystals, has been developed and successfully flown by Sandia National Laboratories and Radiance Research. This report (1) details the aerosol spectrometer design and construction, (2) discusses data transmission and decoding, (3) presents data collected on three Florida flights in tables and plots. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Quark flavor mixing, CP violation, and all that

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.J.

    1988-04-01

    We review the present state of knowledge of the mixing of quark flavors under weak interactions and the associated explanation of CP violation inherent in the single nontrivial phase present in the three-generation mixing matrix. In this context we present the phenomenological basis for the increasing possibility that large CP violation asymmetries can be experimentally observed in the B meson system. 39 refs., 11 figs.,

  17. Fuel performance annual report for 1984. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Dunenfeld, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    This annual report, the seventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1984 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included. 279 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.

  18. Results of the 1988 geothermal gradient test drilling project for the State of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.; Korosec, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    During late summer and early fall of 1988, the Washington Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER) completed drilling eight shallow geothermal gradient test wells in the southern Washington Cascade Range. This report describes the preliminary results of the 1988 drilling and gradient measuring, and summarizes our current perspectives on distribution and magnitude of the geothermal resource potential in the southern Washington Cascades. 18 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Impedance sensing of flaws in non-homogeneous materials

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.

    1997-02-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sensing impedances of materials placed in contact therewith. The invention comprises a plurality of drive electrodes and one or more sense electrodes. Both rotating electric fields and differently shaped electric fields are provided for, as are analysis of structure and composition at different orientations and depths. 10 figs.

  20. Numerical experiments with a parallel conjugate gradient method

    SciTech Connect

    Oppe, T.C.; Kincaid, D.R.

    1987-04-01

    A parallel version of the conjugate gradient method introduced by Seager is implemented using various Cray multitasking tools. The parallel algorithm is used to solve a model partial differential equation on the unit square for various mesh sizes. Speed-up factors are given, and the effects of bank conflicts are noted. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  2. Numerical method for estimating the size of chaotic regions of phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Henyey, F.S.; Pomphrey, N.

    1987-10-01

    A numerical method for estimating irregular volumes of phase space is derived. The estimate weights the irregular area on a surface of section with the average return time to the section. We illustrate the method by application to the stadium and oval billiard systems and also apply the method to the continuous Henon-Heiles system. 15 refs., 10 figs. (LSP)

  3. Wristwatch dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Waechter, D.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1986-08-26

    The disclosure is directed to a wristwatch dosimeter utilizing a CdTe detector, a microprocessor and an audio and/or visual alarm. The dosimeter is entirely housable with a conventional digital watch case having an additional aperture enabling the detector to receive radiation. 10 figs.

  4. Method for protection against genotoxic mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Grdina, D.J.

    1996-01-30

    A method and pharmaceutical for protecting against genotoxic damage in irradiated cells are disclosed. Reduction of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus is accomplished by administering an effective dose of a compound having protected sulfhydryl groups which metabolize in vivo to produce both free sulfhydryl groups and disulfides. 10 figs.

  5. MESORAD dose assessment of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Hubbe, J.M.; Athey, G.F.; Davis, W.E.

    1989-12-01

    An accident involving Unit 4 of the Chernobylskaya Atomic Energy Station resulted in the release of a large amount of radioactive material to the atmosphere. This report describes the results of an assessment of the doses near the site (within 80 km) made at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory using the MESORAD Dose Assessment model. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Atomic physics measurements in an electron Beam Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.; Cowan, T.; Dietrich, D.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Osterheld, A.; Schneider, M.B.

    1989-03-01

    An electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged ions (q less than or equal to 70/+/) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of transition energies and electron excitation cross sections for x-ray line emission are summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Status of the tau one prong problem

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, K.G.

    1989-08-01

    The present status of the tau one prong problem is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent published branching fraction measurements, the status and implications of tau lifetime measurements, and measurements which constrain the sum of branching fractions to be unity. 29 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Managing air to improve combustion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, R.F.; Storm, S.K.; Hall, S.G.

    2007-10-15

    Managing the air flow first and then the fuel flow can obtain the best combustion results possible given the constraints of the boiler design. A case study for a typical 500 MW pulverised coal boiler is given where a set of best practices to measure, balance and control furnace inputs to achieve higher combustion efficiencies and lower NOx emissions is applied. 10 figs.

  9. High energy radiation from neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruderman, M.

    1985-04-01

    Topics covered include young rapidly spinning pulsars; static gaps in outer magnetospheres; dynamic gaps in pulsar outer magnetospheres; pulse structure of energetic radiation sustained by outer gap pair production; outer gap radiation, Crab pulsar; outer gap radiation, the Vela pulsar; radioemission; and high energy radiation during the accretion spin-up of older neutron stars. 26 refs., 10 figs. (GHT)

  10. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  11. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Folded-path optical analysis gas cell

    DOEpatents

    Carangelo, R.M.; Wright, D.D.

    1995-08-08

    A folded-path gas cell employs an elliptical concave mirror in confronting relationship to two substantially spherical concave mirrors. At least one of the spherical mirrors, and usually both, are formed with an added cylindrical component to increase orthogonal foci coincidence and thereby to increase the radiation energy throughput characteristic of the cell. 10 figs.

  13. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Airfoil and blade optimization for a direct-drive, permanent magnet wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, P.; Bayly, E.

    1996-12-31

    A new blade is designed for a small, variable-speed wind turbine by relying on available theoretical design and analysis methods. The performance predictions are compared to field test measurements and are found to be optimistic. This feedback sheds light on the interpretation of the theoretical results and is used to refine the design method. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  16. Josephson junction

    DOEpatents

    Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Martens, J.S.

    1995-05-02

    A novel method for fabricating nanometer geometry electronic devices is described. Such Josephson junctions can be accurately and reproducibly manufactured employing photolithographic and direct write electron beam lithography techniques in combination with aqueous etchants. In particular, a method is described for manufacturing planar Josephson junctions from high temperature superconducting material. 10 figs.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.L.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V.; Nicolet, M.; Madar, R.; Bernard, C.

    1999-06-29

    A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF[sub 6], either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W-Si-N or W-B-N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications. 10 figs.

  18. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Unstable heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, M.J.; Pruess, K.

    1987-10-01

    Heat pipes are an important feature of models of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Numerical experiments reveal that a vapor-dominated heat pipe is unstable if pressure is controlled at shallow levels. This instability is discussed in physical terms, and some implications for geothermal reservoirs are considered. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Detonation in tungsten-loaded HMX

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.; Mader, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The detonation behavior of X-0233, a heavily tungsten-loaded HMX explosive, has been studied using failure diameter measurements, plate dents, and aquarium tests. A model with features resembling those of a weak detonation describe the experimental results. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Synchrotron phase transition crossing using an rf harmonic

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes a new method of transition crossing in strong focusing proton or heavy ion synchrotrons. Such accelerators have the property that at some energy, frequently within the operating range of the machine, the rotation period of particles within the momentum acceptance range of the machine becomes independent of momentum. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  2. The empirical connection between (p,n) cross sections and beta decay transition strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Taddeucci, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    A proportionality is assumed to exist between 0/degree/ (p,n) cross sections and the corresponding beta decay transition strengths. The validity of this assumption is tested by comparison of measured (p,n) cross sections and analogous beta decay strengths. Distorted waves impulse approximation calculations also provide useful estimates of the accuracy of the proportionality relationship. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Improved technique for one-way transformation of information

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1987-05-11

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.

  4. Achieving supercomputer performance for neural net simulation with an array of digital signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, U.A.; Baumle, B.; Kohler, P.; Gunzinger, A.; Guggenbuhl, W.

    1992-10-01

    Music, a DSP-based system with a parallel distributed-memory architecture, provides enormous computing power yet retains the flexibility of a general-purpose computer. Reaching a peak performance of 2.7 Gflops at a significantly lower cost, power consumption, and space requirement than conventional supercomputers, Music is well suited to computationally intensive applications such as neural network simulation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Risk associated with the demilitarization of the United States chemical weapons stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    A programmatic Environmental Impact Statement was prepared to assess the environmental impact of destruction of the continental US stockpile of unitary lethal chemical agent and munitions. This report contains topics on: Program Disposal Alternative, Accident/Risk Analysis, Risk Measures, Uncertainties in Estimates of Impacts and Risks, Implementation of the Selection Methodology, and Examining the Identified Alternative for Each Site Inventory. 8 refs., 9 figs. (JL)

  6. Photolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Roedel, J.; Glaeser, A.M.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-06-01

    A recently developed technique combining photolithography, ion beam milling, and hot pressing allows the production of submicron-scale controlled-geometry, controlled-crystallography pore structures in controlled misorientation bicrystals, single crystal-polycrystal ensembles, and polycrystal-polycrystal ensembles. Such microdesigned interfacial structures provide a new tool for studying fundamental aspects of microstructural evolution. Current applications of the technique, opportunities for future research, and future extensions and refinements of the technique are described. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  7. The quantum gravitational back-reaction on inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsamis, N.C. |; Woodard, R.P.

    1995-02-01

    We describe our recent calculation of the dominant late time behavior of the expectation value of the metric at two loops in a locally de Sitter background on the manifold T{sup 3} {times} {Re}. If correct, our result proves that quantum gravitational effects slow the rate of inflation by an amount which becomes non-perturbatively large at late times. 11 refs., 9 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-06-25

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g-1000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  9. Process for producing carbon foams for energy storage devices

    DOEpatents

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1998-08-04

    A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc--1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m{sup 2}/g--1,000 m{sup 2}/g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved. 9 figs.

  10. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  11. Tutorial guide to the tau lepton and close-mass lepton pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    This is a tutorial guide to present knowledge of the tau lepton, to the tau decay mode puzzle, and to present searches for close-mass lepton pairs. The test is minimal; the emphasis is on figures, tables and literature references. It is based on a lecture given at the 1988 International School of Subnuclear Physics: The Super World III. 54 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Mechanical and electromagnetic design of the SSC QSE101 quadrupole ends

    SciTech Connect

    Orrell, D.; Nobrega, F.; Lilly, J.; Snitchler, G.; Jayakumar, J.; Venkatraman, V. ); Brandt, J.S. )

    1991-06-01

    The SSC collider magnets feature grouped ends in which cables of a particular coil remain stacked together as they are gent around the end. methods have been developed to form the ends in such a way that mechanical stresses are lowered and field quality is optimized. This paper discusses techniques of end turn design and presents calculations of harmonics and peak fields for the SSC quadrupole QSE101. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for determining the Y chromosome in situ

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Weier, H.U.

    1998-11-24

    A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided. Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences. 9 figs.

  14. Y chromosome specific nucleic acid probe and method for identifying the Y chromosome in SITU

    DOEpatents

    Gray, J.W.; Weier, H.U.

    1999-03-30

    A method for producing a Y chromosome specific probe selected from highly repeating sequences on that chromosome is described. There is little or no nonspecific binding to autosomal and X chromosomes, and a very large signal is provided. Inventive primers allowing the use of PCR for both sample amplification and probe production are described, as is their use in producing large DNA chromosome painting sequences. 9 figs.

  15. Chemical characterization of the surface sites of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Dwight, D.W.; Lloyd, T.B.; Riddle, F.L. Jr.; Cole, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    This report contains a method for determining the van der Waals and acid-base contributions to the overall {sup 31}P chemical shifts ({Delta}{delta}{sup d} and {Delta}{delta}{sup ab}) and to the Acceptor Numbers (AN{sup d} and AN{sup ab}) of the Meyer and Gutmann two-component systems, and to illustrate the method with experimental results for thirty-two liquids. 9 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Near net shape processing of continuous lengths of superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Danyluk, S.; McNallan, M.; Troendly, R.; Poeppel, R.; Goretta, K.; Lanagan, M.

    1997-08-26

    A system and method for mechanically forming a ceramic superconductor product are disclosed. A system for making the ceramic superconductor includes a metallic channel portion having a cross section for receiving a ceramic superconductor powder, a roll to mechanically reduce the channel cross section and included superconductor powder and a cap portion welded to the channel portion using a localized high energy source. The assembled bar is then mechanically reduced to form a tape or wire end product. 9 figs.

  17. Absorption and Transport of Fluorescent Brighteners by Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Darken, Marjorie A.

    1962-01-01

    The absorption of brighteners by living cells and their transport to subsequent growth is described. Brighteners are highly fluorescent, ultraviolet-absorbing compounds which appear to be essentially nontoxic, stable biological markers. They have been effectively absorbed by growing cultures of bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes, and higher fungi, with active growth centers evidencing the greatest flourescence. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10-11 PMID:14025111

  18. Life cycle investigation of CO{sub 2} recovery and sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hsien H. Khoo; Reginald B.H. Tan

    2006-06-15

    The Life Cycle Assessment of four technologies for CO{sub 2} recovery from coal-fired power generators, combined with nine CO{sub 2} sequestration systems, serves to expand the debate of CO{sub 2} mitigation methods beyond a single issue - prevention of global warming - to a wider range of environmental concerns: resource depletion, acidic and toxic gases, wastes, etc., so that the overall, and unexpected, environmental impacts may be revealed. 48 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Means and apparatus for throttling a dry pulverized solid material pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, J. W.; Daniel, Jr, A. D.; Bonin, J. H.

    1982-12-07

    Method and apparatus are shown for control of continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up zone chamber to a plurality of sprues mounted in the rotor. Control of the pressure within control nozzles downstream from the sprues adjusts the flow rate of coal through the sprues. 9 figs.

  20. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Interim quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L.

    1989-12-31

    During this quarter, progress was made at Ceramatec in seal development and conductivity measurements of YIG compositions. A creep test was completed on the porous/dense/porous triilayer. IGT provided a discussion on possible interconnect materials. The following tasks are reported on: cell design analysis, program liaison and test facility preparation, cell component fabrication/development, out-of-cell tests. 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  1. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A. ); Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. )

    1989-01-01

    During this quarter, progress was made at Ceramatec in seal development and conductivity measurements of YIG compositions. A creep test was completed on the porous/dense/porous triilayer. IGT provided a discussion on possible interconnect materials. The following tasks are reported on: cell design analysis, program liaison and test facility preparation, cell component fabrication/development, out-of-cell tests. 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  2. Pre-feasibility power generation study for the Magadi Soda Company, Magadi, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review the extensive published and unpublished literature on the geochemistry, hydrology and geology of Lake Magadi, Kenya, and its associated hot springs; (b) based on this review of field visits, estimate the temperature in the geothermal reservoir beneath the lake; and (c) from this, develop a plan to determine the potential for the development of geothermal electric power at Lake Magadi. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Hydrogeologic model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S. ); Retana, M.; Cuellar, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A hydrogeological model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field has been developed. It considers the lithology and structural features of the area and discerns their impact on the movement of cold and hot fluids in the system. Three aquifers were identified, their zones of mixing and flow patterns were obtained on the basis of temperature and geochemical data from wells and surface manifestations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Photocapacitance study of chemically sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, K.H.; Waldeck, D.H.

    1995-03-30

    Thus study probes the energetics of the interface between single crystalline TiO{sub 2} electrodes and aqueous electrolytes. Both the native interface and chemically modified interfaces (adsorbed organometallic complexes [RuL{sub 3}, OsL{sub 3}, and FeL{sub 3} where L = bpy(COOH){sub 2}]) are studied. Using electrochemical photocapacitance spectroscopy, the energetic distribution of the interfacial states is probed. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Brownian simulation of many-particle binding to a reversible receptor array

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, A.L.; Agmon, N.

    1997-04-01

    The principles and practice of a many-body Brownian dynamics algorithm of reversible binding to a static three-dimensional receptor array are presented. The mixed boundary conditions at the array are compared with single-particle direct propagation using a novel operator discretization. The many-body aspects are checked against previous one-dimensional Brownian simulations. The long-time behavior agrees with expected analytic solutions. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Microporous polymer films and methods of their production

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A process is described for producing thin microporous polymeric films for a variety of uses. The process utilizes a dense gas (liquefied gas or supercritical fluid) selected to combine with a solvent-containing polymeric film so that the solvent is dissolved in the dense gas, the polymer is substantially insoluble in the dense gas, and two phases are formed. A microporous film is obtained by removal of a dense gas-solvent phase. 9 figs.

  7. Multiphase, Multicomponent Compressibility in Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Macias-Chapa, L.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

    1987-01-20

    Coefficients of compressibilities below the bubble point were computer with a thermodynamic model for single and multicomponent systems. Results showed coefficients of compressibility below the bubble point larger than the gas coefficient of compressibility at the same conditions. Two-phase compressibilities computed in the conventional way are underestimated and may lead to errors in reserve estimation and well test analysis. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Corrosion resistant iron aluminides exhibiting improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.; McKamey, C.G.; Tortorelli, P.F.; David, S.A.

    1994-06-14

    The specification discloses a corrosion-resistant intermetallic alloy comprising, in atomic percent, an FeAl iron aluminide containing from about 30 to about 40% aluminum alloyed with from about 0.01 to 0.4% zirconium and from 0.01 to about 0.8% boron. The alloy exhibits considerably improved room temperature ductility for enhanced usefulness in structural applications. The high temperature strength and fabricability is improved by alloying with molybdenum, carbon, chromium and vanadium. 9 figs.

  9. Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons

    DOEpatents

    Singh, A.; Ives, R.L.; Schumacher, R.V.; Mizuhara, Y.M.

    1998-07-14

    A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting. 9 figs.

  10. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Magnetic field annihilation in the magnetosphere and some geotechnical applications: Progress report for the period 2/29/84 through 2/28/85

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    Diverse research projects are reported for the fields of astrophysics and geophysics. Included in this review are discussions of solar flares, solar wind variations and geomagnetic storms, a theory of magnetic flux transfer at the Earth's magnetopause, magnetic fields on the sun and the north-south component of transient variations of the interplanetary magnetic field, simulation of magnetic reconnection using a particle code, the geomagnetically induced current, and studies of permafrost characteristics along the Alaska oil and gas pipelines. 9 figs.

  12. Dynamic high pressure process for fabricating superconducting and permanent magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Nellis, W.J.; Geballe, T.H.; Maple, M.B.

    1990-03-13

    Shock wave formation of thin layers of materials with improved superconducting and permanent magnetic properties and improved microstructures is disclosed. The material fabrication system includes a sandwiched structure including a powder material placed between two solid members to enable explosive shock consolidation. The two solid members are precooled to about 80--100 K to reduce the residual temperatures attained as a result of the shock wave treatment, and thereby increase the quench rate of the consolidated powder. 9 figs.

  13. Site Study Plan for Acoustics, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Acoustics site study plan describes a field program which characterizes existing sound levels, determines the area's sound propagation characteristics, and monitors the project-related sound emissions. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Requirements Document. 37 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Sumpman, W.C.; Baker, R.J.; Williams, R.S.

    1988-06-07

    A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles against the inner surface of rim at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers through return pipes distributed interstitially among the nozzles. 9 figs.

  15. Indoor unit for electric heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Lackey, R.S.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Veyo, S.E.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1984-05-22

    An indoor unit for an electric heat pump is provided in modular form including a refrigeration module, an air mover module, and a resistance heat package module, the refrigeration module including all of the indoor refrigerant circuit components including the compressor in a space adjacent the heat exchanger, the modules being adapted to be connected to air flow communication in several different ways as shown to accommodate placement of the unit in various orientations. 9 figs.

  16. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  17. Longitudinal damping in the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Q.A.; Jackson, G.; Kerns, C.R.; Miller, H.; Reid, J.; Siemann, R.; Wildman, D.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes the damper design for 6 proton on 6 pbar bunches in the Tevatron collider. Signal pickup, transient phase detection, derivative networks, and phase correction via the high-level rf are covered. Each rf station is controlled by a slow feedback loop. In addition, global feedback loops control each set of four cavities, one set for protons and one set for antiprotons. Operational experience with these systems is discussed. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Concentration polarization model for hollow-fiber membrane ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.M. ); Cheng, T.W. )

    1994-02-01

    The concentration polarization model has been applied to analyze the permeate flux of hollow-fiber membrane ultrafiltration. Comparison of theoretical prediction with experimental data has been made under various transmembrane pressures, feed velocities, and solution concentrations. Both theoretical prediction and experimental results show that average permeate flux increases as transmembrane pressure or feed velocity increases, but decreases when solution concentration increases. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  20. Powder handling for automated fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Frederickson, J.R.; Eschenbaum, R.C.; Goldmann, L.H.

    1989-04-09

    Installation of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line has been completed. It is located in the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The SAF line was designed to fabricate advanced reactor fuel pellets and assemble fuel pins by automated, remote operation. This paper describes powder handling equipment and techniques utilized for automated powder processing and powder conditioning systems in this line. 9 figs.

  1. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, V.J.; Liu, T.K.; Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

    1991-03-01

    Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  4. Opening address (for the International Conference on Hadron Spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Some historical perspective and comments are presented on some aspects of the present state of the field of hadron interactions and its potential future. Included in the discussion are the results of pion-nucleon cross sections measurements of the 1950's, the ''double pole'' of the A2 (which later was found to be wrong), and the local gauge invariant SU(3)/sub color/ and QCD. 9 refs., 9 figs. (LEW)

  5. Debris exhaust system

    DOEpatents

    McBride, D.D.; Bua, D.; Domankevitz, Y.; Nishioka, N.

    1998-06-23

    A debris removal system removes debris from a work site by flowing fluid away from the work site toward the periphery of a structure. The fluid flow can be kept constant around the periphery so that debris is removed evenly. The structure can have a reduced cross section between the fluid inlet and the work site so that the resulting increased fluid velocity works to prevent debris from escaping. 9 figs.

  6. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOEpatents

    Adney, W.S.; Thomas, S.R.; Nieves, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1994-11-22

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1], and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 9 figs.

  7. Hard amplitudes in gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, S.J.

    1991-03-01

    In this lecture series 1 presents recent developments in perturbation theory methods for gauge theories for processes with many partons. These techniques and results are useful in the calculation of cross sections for processes with many final state partons which have applications in the study of multi-jet phenomena in high-energy colliders. The results illuminate many important and interesting properties of non-abelian gauge theories. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Physics rationale for the engineering specifications for ZTH

    SciTech Connect

    Dimarco, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the physics rationale that established the engineering design of ZTH. The physics criteria are given and the implications regarding the engineering design are presented. Experimental and theoretical background evidence is given in support of the criteria but the justification is left to other reports and peer reviews. The physics criteria discussed here are limited to the ones deemed to be of highest engineering priority. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Variable laser attenuator

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  10. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

    1997-04-29

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

  11. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of Streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1990-10-02

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252. 9 figs.

  12. Construction and testing of the SLD Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Williams, D.A.; Zucchelli, P. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Whitaker, J.S.; Wilson, R.J. . Dept. of Physics); Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Morrison, R.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S. . Dept. of Physics); Johns

    1990-01-01

    We report on the construction of the Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) for the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider and the testing of its components. We include results from testing the drift boxes, liquid radiator trays, and mirrors for the barrel CRID. We also discuss development of the support systems essential for the operation of the CRID: gas and liquid recirculator systems and monitoring. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Operational experience with optical matching in the SLC Final Focus System

    SciTech Connect

    Bambade, P.; Burchat, P.; Burke, D.; Ford, W.; Hawkes, C.; Koska, W.; Kozanecki, W.; Lohse, T.; Mattison, T.; Phinney, N.

    1989-01-01

    In the SLC Final Focus System, all components of transverse phase-space and the couplings between them must be controlled to minimize the beam size at the interaction point. After summarizing the experimental algorithm and the on-line tuning programs, we present a consistent set of measurements and describe our present understanding of the various contributions to this beam size. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Reduction of Gas Contamination in The Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Shykoff, Henry J.

    1977-01-01

    The level of anesthetic gas considered to be hazardous for operating room personnel is as yet unknown, but the least possible contamination is desirable. This paper discusses methods of reducing contamination from several sources — the anesthetic machine, high pressure leaks, low pressure leaks, and from anesthetists' poor habits. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 & 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:20469279

  15. VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) laser diagnostics of H sup - ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1989-11-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy has been employed to measure the populations and temperatures of ground electronic state H-atoms and vibrationally-excited H{sub 2} molecules in a volume H{sup -} ion source. Measurements of both species have been made under a variety of discharge conditions. Vibrational levels to v{double prime}=8 have been measured, with the vibrational population distribution well described by a temperature of 4150K. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Cloud hole-boring with long pulse CO sub 2 lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, G.P.; Webster, R.B.; York, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Chemically generated CO{sub 2} laser pulses at 10.6 {mu}m have been used to clear a 5 cm diameter hole through a stratus-like cloud in a laboratory cloud chamber. The results show that 100% clearing can be achieved. The mechanism is shown to be droplet shattering followed by evaporation. Under the conditions of the experiment, the channel closure is dominated by turbulent mixing and not droplet recondensation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Clothing for Sports: Part 2: Stridalongapos Loses Shorts, Wins in Style

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Wolf

    1985-01-01

    The choice of clothing for sports must take into account the climate, movement, ability to enhance athletic performance, safety and comfort. Part 2 of this two-part article describes the clothing needed for running, cycling, skiing, windsurfing, triathlon, aerobic dancing and hot air ballooning. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:21274232

  18. Nuclear technologies for Moon and Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear technologies are essential to successful Moon and Mars exploration and settlements. Applications can take the form of nuclear propulsion for transport of crews and cargo to Mars and the Moon; surface power for habitats and base power; power for human spacecraft to Mars; shielding and life science understanding for protection against natural solar and cosmic radiations; radioisotopes for sterilization, medicine, testing, and power; and resources for the benefits of Earth. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Compound fiber ring resonator: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lit, J.W.Y.

    1994-06-01

    A compound fiber ring resonator is made with a Fabry-Perot etalon built inside a fiber ring that is fed through a 2 x 2 directional single-mode fiber coupler. It is theoretically analyzed by an unfolded equivalent model and a transfer-matrix method. The output intensities are presented, and four cases are discussed. The results may be useful in applications such as fiber spectrum analyzers, sensors, and lasers. 25 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Review of J//psi/ decays

    SciTech Connect

    Toki, W.H.

    1988-11-01

    Recent results from the Mark III collaboration in radiative J//psi/ decays are presented. This includes a study of iota/E decays in J//psi/ el/eta/ and elelp, two pseudoscalar decays near threshold in J//psi/ el and el /bar K/K and two vector decays in J//psi/ el /bar K//sup o/*K/sup o/*. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  1. The digital data acquisition chain and the cosmic ray trigger system for the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuti, A.; Piemontese, L.; Calcaterra, A.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Burrows, P.N.; Cartwright, S.L.; Gonzales, S.; Lath, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Castro, A.; Galvagni, S.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Wyss, J.; Alpat, B.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Dell'Orso, R.; Pauluzzi, M.; Servoli, L.; Carpinelli, M.; Castaldi, R.; Cazzola, U.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Messn

    1989-08-01

    The entire data-acquisition chain, from the custom-made front-end electronics to the Fastbus readout and data-reduction module, for the digital readout of the SLD limited streamer tube Warm Iron Calorimeter and Muon Identifier is described. Also described is a Fastbus Cosmic Logic Unit being developed to achieve the capability of reading cosmic ray events, also during the inter-crossing time, for apparatus monitoring and calibration purposes. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Clonal Evolution in Two Patients with Autoimmune Disease and Lymphoreticular Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Adam, M.; Thorburn, Marigold J.; Gibbs, W. N.; Brooks, S. E. H.; Hanchard, B.

    1970-01-01

    Two cases are described, one with proven lymphosarcoma and doubtful autoimmune disease, and the second with the reverse situation, in which circulating abnormal mononuclear cells showed PHA responsiveness and an abnormal chromosomal constitution (clonal evolution). These findings are discussed in the light of previous cytogenetic studies of lymphoreticular neoplasia and autoimmune disease and the relationship between these two conditions. ImagesFigs. 2-3Fig. 9Fig. 4Figs. 6-7Figs. 1,5Fig. 8 PMID:4393772

  3. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  4. Critical study of type II supernovae: equations of state and general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The relevance of relativistic gravitation and of the properties of nuclear matter at high density to supernova explosions is examined in detail. The existing empirical knowledge on the nuclear equation of state at densities greater than saturation, extracted from analysis of heavy ion collisions and from the breathing mode in heavy nuclei, is also considered. Particulars of the prompt explosions recently obtained theoretically by Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana are presented. 40 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  6. Method for chemical surface modification of fumed silica particles

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1999-05-11

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

  7. Chemical treatment for silica-containing glass surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Grabbe, A.; Michalske, T.A.; Smith, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    Dehydroxylated, silica-containing, glass surfaces are known to be at least partially terminated by strained siloxane rings. According to the invention, a surface of this kind is exposed to a selected silane compound or mixture of silane compounds under reaction-promoting conditions. The ensuing reaction results in opening of the strained siloxane rings, and termination of surface atoms by chemical species, such as organic or organosilicon species, having desirable properties. These species can be chosen to provide qualities such as hydrophobicity, or improved coupling to a polymeric coating. 11 figs.

  8. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  9. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. II. Simulation and comparison with experimental data

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    A cybernetic model for microbial growth on mixed substrates was used to simulate the anaerobic fermentation of cheese whey and multiple sugars in semisynthetic media by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397. The model simulations quite successfully predicted the observed behavior in batch and during transients in continuous operation, in single-substrate systems as well as in media involving multiple substrates, and in semisynthetic and reconstituted cheese whey solutions. The results of simulations and their comparison with the experimental data are presented. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  11. Time-resolved electrochromism associated with the formation of quinone anions in the rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 reaction center

    SciTech Connect

    Tiede, D.M.; Vazquez, J.; Cordova, J.; Marone, P.A.

    1996-08-20

    The bacterial photosynthetic reaction center contains bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) and bacteriopheophytin (Bph) cofactors that provide natural probes of electrostatic fields within this protein. We have examined the electrochromic responses of these cofactors, resolved during the lifetimes of the quinone anion states, P{sup +}Q{sub A}{sup -Q}{sub B} and P{sup +}Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -}, and measured as a function of temperature. These measurements provide information on the time-dependent variation in electrostatic field strength on the Bchl and Bph cofactors. Measurements in the near-infrared absorbance bands are described. 60 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Design of a field experiment for injection of natural colloids in a sandy coastal plain aquifer, Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Institute, Georgetown, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; McCarthy, J.F. ); Williams, T.M. . Belle W. Baruch Forest Science Inst.)

    1990-06-01

    This report summarizes the design of field injection experiments that constitute one task in the larger project described in the report Experiments Using Natural Organics.'' In the experiment, we plan to inject a large volume of colloidal organic matter (COM) into a sandy, unconsolidated coastal aquifer and observe the migration of COM into the groundwater flow system. The report provides a brief overview of the research project, including hypotheses to be tested; describes the purpose of the field injection experiments; summarizes the site characterization preliminary to the experiments; and explains the design of the experiments. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Cavitation-resistant inducer

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, C.; Subbaraman, M.R.

    1989-06-13

    An improvement in an inducer for a pump is disclosed wherein the inducer includes a hub, a plurality of radially extending substantially helical blades and a wall member extending about and encompassing an outer periphery of the blades. The improvement comprises forming adjacent pairs of blades and the hub to provide a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow area which cross-sectional flow area decreases from the inlet end of the inducer to a discharge end of the inducer, resulting in increased inducer efficiency improved suction performance, reduced susceptibility to cavitation, reduced susceptibility to hub separation and reduced fabrication costs. 11 figs.

  14. Heat transfer assembly for a fluorescent lamp and fixture

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, M.J.; Rubenstein, F.M.; Whitman, R.E.

    1992-12-29

    In a lighting fixture including a lamp and a housing, a heat transfer structure is disclosed for reducing the minimum lamp wall temperature of a fluorescent light bulb. The heat transfer structure, constructed of thermally conductive material, extends from inside the housing to outside the housing, transferring heat energy generated from a fluorescent light bulb to outside the housing where the heat energy is dissipated to the ambient air outside the housing. Also disclosed is a method for reducing minimum lamp wall temperatures. Further disclosed is an improved lighting fixture including a lamp, a housing and the aforementioned heat transfer structure. 11 figs.

  15. Modular TPC's for relativistic heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1989-02-10

    We have developed a TPC system for use in relativistic heavy ion experiments that permits the efficient reconstruction of high multiplicity events including events with decay vertices. It operates with the beam through the middle of the chamber giving good efficiency, two-track separation and spatial resolution. The three-dimensional points in this system allow the reconstruction of the complex events of interest. The use of specially developed hybrid electronics allows us to build a compact and cost-effective system. 11 figs.

  16. High-resolution surface temperature patterns related to urban morphology in a tropical city: A satellite-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Nichol, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    High-resolution thermal data derived from Landsat`s thematic mapper are evaluated for their correspondence to building geometry and landscape features in Singapore`s high-rise housing estates. The image data are sufficiently detailed to reveal that differences in solar azimuth on images taken at different times of year create different thermal patterns due to building geometry and surface materials. Field measurements of surface and adjacent air temperatures in urban canyons at different orientations and at different elevations above ground demonstrate that for Singapore conditions satellite-derived surface temperature patterns are a good indicator of the daytime urban heat island. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Magnetic excitations and polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Shirane, G.

    1985-01-01

    We review the historical development of polarized beam techniques for studies of condensed matter physics. In particular we describe, in some detail, the recent advance of the triple axis technique with polarization analysis. It is now possible to carry out quantitative characterization of magnetic cross sections S(Q,..omega..), in absolute units, for a wide range of energy and momentum transfers. We will discuss some examples of recent inelastic measurements on 3d ferromagnets and heavy Fermions. 35 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Investigation of optical methods for hydroyield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Charest, J.A.; Lynch, C.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Two fiber optic techniques, the Linear Resistive Ladder (LRL) and the piezo-driven LED arrangement, were investigated and successfully demonstrated in the laboratory to be capable of being used for hydroyield measurements. Prototype linear arrangements for each of the above methods were constructed and placed in a designed UGT. The piezo-driven LED method appears very attractive as it showed the potential for becoming an all passive, non-intrusive'' treaty verification method capable of functioning at stress levels ranging from less than 1Kbar to 100 Kbars. Other optical methods using fiber optics for detection mechanisms and signal transmissions were also conceptually examined. 11 figs.

  19. An introduction to baryon violation in standard electroweak theory

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.B.

    1990-12-01

    I shall begin with a qualitative overview of the anomaly and B violation at zero and non-zero temperature, demonstrating how these processes may be understood on the back of an envelope. Then I shall discuss a part of the formalism necessary for doing calculations in more detail. Specifically, B violation is related to various solutions to the Euclidean equations of motion; instantons, sphalerons, and calorons (also called periodic instantons). The applicability of the various solutions may be understood by analogies with elementary quantum mechanics problems. Finally, I shall touch upon the computation of high-energy B violation mentioned above. 29 refs., 11 figs.

  20. SOLERAS - Summary technical report on SOLERAS Industrial Solar Thermal Applications Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    This document reports the advances in solar industrial applications made by SOLERAS, a joint United States-Saudi Arabian solar energy research and development program. The industrial application chosen was the freeze desalination of seawater powered by mid-temperature (385/degree/C) solar collectors. This innovative process will compete with other downscaled desalination processes for small communities in developing countries. Using solar energy to power this installation demonstrates the ability of solar energy to fuel any industrial application that requires mid-temperature energy. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Effect of water turbidity on thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Seyed-Yagoobi, J.

    1995-05-01

    The effect of water turbidity on the thermal performance of a salt-gradient solar pond is studied using a one-dimensional theoretical model. The theoretical model uses an empirical correlation that includes the effect of water turbidity on solar radiation penetration in water. The correlation is based on a uniform turbidity distribution in water; however, the correlation is extended to include a non-uniform turbidity distribution with respect to depth of water. The results indicate that water clarity plays a significant role on thermal performance for salt gradient solar ponds. 24 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Limnology of Sawtooth Valley Lakes in 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Luecke, C.; Slater, M.; Budy, P.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of the limnological characteristics of the four lakes in reference to their potential effect of growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon. Physical parameters included light penetration, Secchi transparency, and water temperature; chemical parameters included oxygen, and both dissolved and particulate forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Phytoplankton parameters included chlorophyll concentration, biovolume of dominant taxa, and rates of primary production; zooplankton parameters included density and biomass estimate, length frequencies, and the number of eggs carried by female cladocerans. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals

    DOEpatents

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1988-07-19

    A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

  4. Toxicity assessment of Hanford Site wastes by bacterial bioluminescence. [Photobacter phosphoreum:a3

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.; Voogd, J.A.

    1991-09-01

    This paper examines the toxicity of the nonradioactive component of low-level wastes stored in tanks on the Hanford reservation. The use of a faster, cheaper bioassay to replace the 96 hour fish acute toxicity test is examined. The new bioassay is based on loss of bioluminescence of {und Photobacter phosphoreum} (commonly called Microtox) following exposure to toxic materials. This bioassay is calibrated and compares well to the standard fish acute toxicity test for characterization of Hanford Wastes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs. (MHB)

  5. Effects of whole-tree harvesting at three sites in New England. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbeck, J.W.; Pierce, R.S.; Martin, C.W.; Smith, C.T.; Tritton, L.M.; Federer, C.A.; Smith, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Whole-tree harvesting has been operational at several locations in New England for nearly a decade. Evaluation of the environmental effects of whole-tree harvesting was begun in northern hardwoods in 1977, then expanded to central hardwoods and spruce-fir types in 1979-80. Study sites include Cockaponset State Forest in Connecticut, Weymouth Point at Chesuncook Lake in Maine, and the town of Success in New Hampshire. This progress report presents information and work completed through summer of 1983. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ringfield lithographic camera

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1998-09-08

    A projection lithography camera is presented with a wide ringfield optimized so as to make efficient use of extreme ultraviolet radiation from a large area radiation source (e.g., D{sub source} {approx_equal} 0.5 mm). The camera comprises four aspheric mirrors optically arranged on a common axis of symmetry. The camera includes an aperture stop that is accessible through a plurality of partial aperture stops to synthesize the theoretical aperture stop. Radiation from a mask is focused to form a reduced image on a wafer, relative to the mask, by reflection from the four aspheric mirrors. 11 figs.

  7. An overview: Challenges in wind technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R W; Hock, S M

    1991-12-01

    Developing innovative wind turbine components and advanced turbine configurations is a primary focus for wind technology researchers. In their rush to bring these new components and systems to the marketplace, designers and developers should consider the lessons learned in the wind farms over the past 10 years. Experience has shown that a disciplined design approach is required that realistically accounts for the turbulence-induced loads, unsteady stall loading, and fatigue effects. This paper reviews past experiences and compares current modelling capabilities with experimental measurements in order to identify some of the knowledge gaps that challenge designers of advanced components and systems. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation. Comprehensive progress report, July 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This project seeks to defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML). Towards these goals genetic analysis of human chromosomes 5 and 7 continues to investigate correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations. Progress is being made in cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML, that is to clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, to clone the t(3;21)(q26;q22) breakpoints and to determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 11 figs. 3 figs.

  9. Correlation of chromosome patterns in human leukemic cells with exposure to chemicals and/or radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This project seeks to defining the chromosome segments associated with radiation induced leukemogenesis (treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia, or t-AML). Towards these goals genetic analysis of human chromosomes 5 and 7 continues to investigate correlation of treatment with balanced and unbalanced chromosomal translocations. Progress is being made in cloning the breakpoints in balanced translocations in t-AML, that is to clone the t(9;11) and t(11;19) breakpoints, to clone the t(3;21)(q26;q22) breakpoints and to determine the relationship of these translocations to prior exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. 11 figs. 3 figs.

  10. Characterization and development report for the SA3124, a 15-volt zener diode

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, J.B.; Gurule, A.M.; Holck, D.K.

    1989-09-01

    The SA3124 is a silicon zener diode designated as a JANTXV1N965B-1 device manufactured by Microsemi of Scottsdale, Arizona. The devices were procured from Microsemi and tested by the Design Agency in accordance with PS319094. The SA3124 is a 15V zener diode packaged in a DO-35 cylindrical lead silicate glass package. The monolithic silicon die is sandwiched between two copper-clad Dumet plugs wth coaxial copper-clad and tin-dipped iron leads welded to them. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Discrimination of airborne radioactivity from radon progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Ching-Jiang Chen; Pao-Shan Weng; Tieh-Chi Chu

    1994-05-01

    Naturally occurring radon and thoron progeny are the most interfering nuclides in the aerosol monitoring system. The high background and fluctuation of natural radioactivity on the filter can cause an error message to the aerosol monitor. A theoretical model was applied in the simulation of radon and thoron progeny behavior in the environment and on the filter. Results show that even a small amount of airborne nuclides on the filter could be discriminated by using the beta:alpha activity ratio instead of gross beta or alpha counting. This method can increase the sensitivity and reliability of real-time aerosol monitoring. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B,

    1985-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Ultrasonic flow imaging system: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

    1991-09-01

    This report examines the feasibility and potential problems in developing a real-time ultrasonic flow imaging instrument for on-line monitoring of mixed-phased flows such as coal slurries. State-of-the-art ultrasonic imaging techniques are assessed for this application. Reflection and diffraction tomographies are proposed for further development, including image-reconstruction algorithms and parallel processing systems. A conventional ultrasonic C-scan technique is used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the particle motion in a solid/water flow. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Blue, green, orange, and red upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Xie, P.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1998-09-08

    A laser is disclosed for outputting visible light at the wavelengths of blue, green, orange and red light. This is accomplished through the doping of a substrate, such as an optical fiber or waveguide, with Pr{sup 3+} ions and Yb{sup 3+} ions. A light pump such as a diode laser is used to excite these ions into energy states which will produce lasing at the desired wavelengths. Tuning elements such as prisms and gratings can be employed to select desired wavelengths for output. 11 figs.

  16. Cerenkov ring imaging detector development: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Ratcliff, B.

    1988-10-01

    We present recent progress on the construction and testing of the first drift boxes and single electron detectors as they come from the production line. These detectors will be used for particle identification using the Ring Imaging technique in the SLD experiment at SLAC. Various experimental results are presented, including single electron pulse height measurements as a function of gas gain, detector gating capability, uniformity of response across the wire plane, charge division performance of a single electron signal, average pulse shape and its comparison with predicted shape, and cross-talk. 14 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Site Study Plan for background environmental radioactivity, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Background Environmental Radioactivity Site Study Plan describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study: the need for the study, the study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project (SRP) Requirements Document. 50 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Bioenergy: Direct applications in cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, G.S.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    1993-12-31

    Cooking stoves that burn traditional biofuels are used by half the world`s population, yet many are inefficient and hazardous to the health of those who tend them. In recent years, however, a new generation of cook stoves needing less fuel and emitting fewer airborne particulates has emerged. Many of the new designs run on biomass that has been transformed into a liquid, gaseous, or improved solid-fuel form. Alternative cooking systems are compared, and data from cooking trials conducted by the authors in a south Indian village are provided. 89 refs., 11 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    All mouse T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} variable (Tcra/d-, b-, and g-V) gene segments were aligned to compare the sequences with one another, to group them into subfamilies, and to derive a name which complies with the standard nomenclature. it was necessary to change the names of some V gene segments because they conflicted with those of other segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was re-evaluated using a much larger pool of sequences. In the mouse, most V gene segments can be grouped into subfamilies of closely related genes with significantly less similarity between different subfamilies. 118 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Method of protecting surfaces from abrasion and abrasion resistant articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-06-09

    Surfaces of fabricated structures are protected from damage by impacting particulates by a coating of hard material formed as a mass of thin flexible filaments having root ends secured to the surface and free portions which can flex and overlap to form a resilient cushioning mat which resembles hair or fur. The filamentary coating covers the underlying surface with hard abrasion resistance material while also being compliant and capable of local accommodation to particle impacts. The coating can also function as thermal and/or acoustical insulation and has a friction reducing effect. 11 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for imparting strength to a material using sliding loads

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, D.A.; Dawson, D.B.; Korellis, J.S.

    1999-03-16

    A method of enhancing the strength of metals by affecting subsurface zones developed during the application of large sliding loads is disclosed. Stresses which develop locally within the near surface zone can be many times larger than those predicted from the applied load and the friction coefficient. These stress concentrations arise from two sources: (1) asperity interactions and (2) local and momentary bonding between the two surfaces. By controlling these parameters more desirable strength characteristics can be developed in weaker metals to provide much greater strength to rival that of steel, for example. 11 figs.

  2. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  3. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  4. Aortic and other arterial injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, J D; Raju, S; Neely, W A; Berry, D W

    1975-01-01

    Three hundred sixty arterial injuries in 353 patients are reviewed. They covered a wide spectrum of injuries and included 36 aortic injuries and 19 cases of carotid truama. The mortality rate of 12% was in large part due to aortic injuries. Shock was the predominant cause of death. Infection was the most frequent non-fatal complication. Pulmonary complications were surprisingly uncommon. With methods and techniques discussed in the paper, 90% satisfactory end results were achieved. The amputation rate was 6% where extremity injuries were involved. Images Fig. 11. Fig. 13. PMID:1130881

  5. Large-scale experiments on ex-vessel core melt behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Sappok, M.; Steinwarz, W.

    1997-12-01

    In the frame of European research activities on nuclear safety, experimental work on exvessel core melt behaviour under prototypic conditions is being performed. Spreading on various material surfaces and verification of relevant computer codes are the main tasks leading to an improvement of the design basis for corium retention systems. Especially the large-scale spreading test (1:6 with respect to the EPR spreading area) showed the advantageous characteristics of cast iron (GGG-40) as core catching substratum material. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Campaign graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    We define a class of geometrical constructions in the plane in which each (unextended) line lies on (precisely) k points, and every point is an endpoint of (precisely) one line. We will refer to any construction satisfying these conditions as a campaign graph, or as a k-campaign graph if the value of k isn't clear from the context. A k-campaign graph, G, is said to be critical if no subgraph of G is also a k-campaign graph. 11 figs.

  7. Discharge control and evolution in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Bell, M.; Boody, F.; Bush, C.; Cecchi, J.L.; Davis, S.; Dylla, H.F.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The TFTR tokamak is used to evaluate discharge evolution and control, when these are broken down into discharge, initiation, volt-second consumption, and current and density ramp-up and ramp-down. Control of the current ramp-up using a plasma growing technique will be described, and the advantages of this method compared to using constant major and minor radii will be discussed. The control of density using gas puffing, pellet injection, and neutral beam fueling will be presented, along with a discussion of the density range which is found to increase with plasma current. 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Modeling of plant protection and control systems for SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1980-06-01

    Plant protection and feedback control systems for dynamic simulation of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are developed. The models include manual and automatic shutdown systems with provision for selective suppression of PPS signals. The control system models include (1) supervisory control, (2) the reactor power control and rod drive mechanism, (3) primary and intermediate flow-speed control and pump drive system, and (4) steam generator flow-speed control and valve/pump actuator dynamics. These models have been incorporated into the SSC code using a flexible programming approach, in order to accommodate some design dependent variations. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Method and apparatus for the evaluation of a depth profile of thermo-mechanical properties of layered and graded materials and coatings

    DOEpatents

    Finot, M.; Kesler, O.; Suresh, S.

    1998-12-08

    A technique for determining properties such as Young`s modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and residual stress of individual layers within a multi-layered sample is presented. The technique involves preparation of a series of samples, each including one additional layer relative to the preceding sample. By comparison of each sample to a preceding sample, properties of the topmost layer can be determined, and residual stress at any depth in each sample, resulting from deposition of the top layer, can be determined. 11 figs.

  11. Apparatus for measuring particle properties

    DOEpatents

    Rader, D.J.; Castaneda, J.N.; Grasser, T.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1998-08-11

    An apparatus is described for determining particle properties from detected light scattered by the particles. The apparatus uses a light beam with novel intensity characteristics to discriminate between particles that pass through the beam and those that pass through an edge of the beam. The apparatus can also discriminate between light scattered by one particle and light scattered by multiple particles. The particle`s size can be determined from the intensity of the light scattered. The particle`s velocity can be determined from the elapsed time between various intensities of the light scattered. 11 figs.

  12. Positronium reflection and positronium beams

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Tang, S.; Khatri, R.; Roellig, L.O.; Viescas, A.J. ); Berko, S.; Canter, K.F. ); Lynn, K.G. ); Mills, A.P. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    We have observed specular reflection of positronium, Ps, and established that there is adequate intensity at higher energies to make further study worthwhile. The scattering appears to be restricted to the outermost surface with a mean free path of (0.75 {plus minus} 0.15){Angstrom} for Ps in LiF(100). With a greater intensity Ps beam one should see higher order diffraction beams as the result of the periodicity of the surface. Ps diffraction thus offers the possibility of being a novel and valuable probe to study the outermost surface and to study adsorbents on it. Two methods for producing Ps beams are described. 29 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Differential Doppler as a diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Dzieciuch, M.; Munk, W. )

    1994-10-01

    Differential Doppler compression and travel time of individual peaks in the arrival sequence (relative to an overall average) are measured for the 5500-km acoustic transmissions from a moving source at Heard Island to Christmas (Crab) Island. The differentials cannot be explained by simple adiabatic propagation models. A hybrid theory, coupling polar and temperate models at the Antarctic Front can account for some of the qualitative features. Differential Doppler could be a useful tool for identifying ray arrivals. 10 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Photophysics and photochemistry of quantized ZnO colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Patrick, B.

    1992-08-06

    The photophysical and photochemical behavior of quantized ZnO colloids in ethanol has been investigated by time-resolved transient absorption and emission measurements. Trapping of electrons at the ZnO surface resulted in broad absorption in the red region. The green emission of ZnO colloids was readily quenched by hole scavengers such as SCN{sup -} and I{sup -}. The photoinduced charge transfer to these hole scavengers was studied by laser flash photolysis. The yield of oxidized product increased considerably when ZnO colloids were coupled with ZnSe. 36 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Influence of measurement geometry on the estimate of {sup 131}I activity in the thyroid: Monte Carlo simulation of a detector and a phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanovsky, A.V.; Minenko, V.F.; Korneev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    An approach for evaluating the influence of measurement geometry on estimates of {sup 131}I in the thyroid from measurements with survey meters was developed using Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport in the human body and the radiation detector. The modified Monte Carlo code, EGS4, including a newly developed mathematical model of detector, thyroid gland, and neck, was used for the computations. The approach was tested by comparing calculated and measured differential and integral detector characteristics. This procedure was applied to estimate uncertainties in direct thyroid-measurement results due to geometrical errors. 14 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Thermodynamic data management system for nuclear waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Siegel, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    Thermodynamic property values for use in assessing the performance of a nuclear waste repository are described. More emphasis is on a computerized data base management system which facilitates use of the thermodynamic data in sensitivity analysis and other studies which critically assess the performance of disposal sites. Examples are given of critical evaluation procedures; comparison of apparent equilibrium constants calculated from the data base, with other work; and of correlations useful in estimating missing values of both free energy and enthalpy of formation for aqueous species. 49 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Inconsistencies in pedigree symbols in human genetics publications: A need for standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhaus, K.A.; Bennett, R.L.; Resta, R.G.

    1995-04-10

    To determine consistency in usage of pedigree symbols by genetics professionals, we reviewed pedigrees printed in 10 human genetic and medical journals and 24 medical genetics textbooks. We found no consistent symbolization for common situations such as pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, death, or test results. Inconsistency in pedigree design can create difficulties in the interpretation of family studies and detract from the pedigree`s basic strength of simple and accurate communication of medical information. We recommend the development of standard pedigree symbols, and their incorporation into genetic publications, professional genetics training programs, pedigree software programs, and genetic board examinations. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Characterization of IM7/8551-7 carbon/epoxy in compression and shear: Final report for the period October 1987 to September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.R.; Colvin, G.E. Jr.

    1988-09-27

    This is a final report on a project entitled ''Characterization of IM7/8551-7 Carbon/Epoxy in Compression and Shear,'' for the period October 1987 to September 1988. The intent of this program is to determine the failure properties of carbon/epoxy laminates under multiaxial stress loadings, with particular emphasis on loadings involving compressive stresses. The work accomplished to date is summarized here, in the form of two published papers and a summary of other work. Appendix C contains a summary of the development of the multiaxial compression test fixture. 11 figs.

  20. LISP-based fault tree development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated graphical environment which can be used to build, modify, and analyze fault trees on a stand-alone work-station. The environment is written in LISP, utilizing graphics and menu features commonly found on LISP workstations. A unique fault tree solution algorithm is presented that efficiently utilizes a list-based tree structure and search space, and rule-based pruning to allow for rapid analysis of larger trees. Design and efficiency issues are discussed. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Development and validation of a real-time SAFT-UT system for inservice inspection of LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S.R.; Reid, L.D.; Hall, T.E.; Littlefield, R.J.; Gilbert, R.W.; Crawford, S.L.; Baldwin, A.J.; Bowey, R.E.

    1985-10-01

    A multi-year program is underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to move the synthetic aperture focusing technique from the Laboratory into the field to inspect light water reactor components. This report is a summary of highlights from the third year's efforts. The work presented here includes: scanner development, SAFT-UT signal processing techniques, SAFT-UT graphics package development, SAFT-UT real-time processor, SAFT-UT field system integration, SAFT-UT evaluation on CCSS, a field trip demonstrating in-field SAFT data processing, and future work. 11 figs.

  2. Feed-forward digital phase and amplitude correction system

    DOEpatents

    Yu, D.U.L.; Conway, P.H.

    1994-11-15

    Phase and amplitude modifications in repeatable RF pulses at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier are made utilizing a digital feed-forward correction system. A controlled amount of the output power is coupled to a correction system for processing of phase and amplitude information. The correction system comprises circuitry to compare the detected phase and amplitude with the desired phase and amplitude, respectively, and a digitally programmable phase shifter and attenuator and digital logic circuitry to control the phase shifter and attenuator. The phase and amplitude of subsequent are modified by output signals from the correction system. 11 figs.

  3. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-07-15

    An apparatus is provided for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to said changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic illuminates a fluorescent composition causing it to fluoresce. The fluorescent composition is caused to fluoresce more relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure so that the intensity of fluorescent emissions collected by the same fiber optic used for illumination varies monotonically with pressure. 10 figs.

  4. Wisconsin Public Service Corp's Weston 4 earns Power's highest honor

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-08-15

    Wisconsin Public Service Corp. placed its world-class Weston 4 into commercial service on June 30 and is now enjoying the benefits of coal-fired supercritical technology's inherently higher efficiency, operating flexibility and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. For its unequalled environmental protection credentials, well-integrated project team, and employing the most advanced coal-fired steam generation technology in the US today, Weston 4 is awarded Power magazine's 2008 Plant of the Year Award. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Permanent magnet edge-field quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Tatchyn, R.O.

    1997-01-21

    Planar permanent magnet edge-field quadrupoles for use in particle accelerating machines and in insertion devices designed to generate spontaneous or coherent radiation from moving charged particles are disclosed. The invention comprises four magnetized rectangular pieces of permanent magnet material with substantially similar dimensions arranged into two planar arrays situated to generate a field with a substantially dominant quadrupole component in regions close to the device axis. 10 figs.

  6. Tracking and vertex finding with drift chambers and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.

    1991-09-01

    Finding tracks, track vertices and event vertices with neural networks from drift chamber signals is discussed. Simulated feed-forward neural networks have been trained with back-propagation to give track parameters using Monte Carlo simulated tracks in one case and actual experimental data in another. Effects on network performance of limited weight resolution, noise and drift chamber resolution are given. Possible implementations in hardware are discussed. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-07-15

    A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

  8. Review of total cross sections and forward scattering parameters at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M.; White, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    We review the field of the elastic scattering of pp and {bar p}p at the ultra-high energies. The recent total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}, and {rho}-value results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider experiments presented at the 4th `Blois` Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering (Elba, Italy, in May, 1991), allow us a comprehensive overview of the field. 24 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Review of total cross sections and forward scattering parameters at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Block, M.M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); White, A.R. . High Energy Physics Div.)

    1991-10-01

    We review the field of the elastic scattering of pp and {bar p}p at the ultra-high energies. The recent total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}, and {rho}-value results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider experiments presented at the 4th Blois' Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering (Elba, Italy, in May, 1991), allow us a comprehensive overview of the field. 24 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Spectral analysis of ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) wave field measurements in the Tara Central Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.; Golovato, S.N.; Horne, S.F.

    1987-12-01

    A simple spectral analysis technique has been developed to analyse the digital signals from an array of magnetic probes for ICRF field measurements in the Tara Tandem Mirror central cell. The wave dispersion relations of both the applied ICRF and the Alfven Ion Cyclotron Instability have been studied and the waves have been identified as slow in cyclotron waves. The radial profiles of field amplitude and wave vectors were also generated. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Archaeological survey and monitoring of initial excavations within the basalt waste isolation project reference repository location and associated drill borehole site locations

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M.M.

    1984-06-19

    This letter report concerns cultural resources studies undertaken in November 1982 for the exploratory shaft starter hole and surface facilities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). These studies were carried out under the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act, the amended National Historic Preservation Act, and the Archaeological Resources Act. This report concludes that neither cultural nor palentological resources are being affected by the BWIP during the present phase of construction work and test drilling. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Vaccine to Control the Viral Infection of Fish.

    DOEpatents

    Leong, JoAnn Ching

    1994-10-11

    Subunit vaccines and their use for immunizing fish against infection by viruses are disclosed. In particular, plasmid pG8 is constructed by joining, with the plasmid pUC8, DNA which encodes the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). E. coli cells are transformed by pG8, whereby pure viral antigen is produced to provide a vaccine for the control of IHNV in fish. 10 figs.

  13. FASTGAS: Fast Gas Sampling for palladium exchange tests

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.; VerBerkmoes, A.A.

    1991-06-01

    A mass spectrometric technique for measuring the composition of gas flows in rapid H/D exchange reactions in palladium compacts has been developed. This method, called FASTGAS (Fast Gas Sampling)'' has been used at atmospheric pressures and above with a time response of better than 100 ms. The current implementation of the FASTGAS technique is described in detail and examples of its application to palladium hydride exchange tests are given. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Combined electrophoresis-electrospray interface and method

    DOEpatents

    Smith, R.D.; Udseth, H.R.; Barinaga, C.J.

    1995-06-13

    An improvement to the system and method is disclosed for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample that comprises improvements to an electrospray ionization source for interfacing to mass spectrometers and other detection devices. The improvement consists of establishing a unique electrical circuit pattern and nozzle configuration, a metallic coated and conical shaped capillary outlet, coupled with sizing of the capillary to obtain maximum sensitivity. 10 figs.

  16. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  17. Overview of high energy physics with polarized particles

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, J. . Centre de Physique Theorique Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY )

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this talk is to review spin effects in various areas of particle physics at high energy and by selecting the most interesting topics, to show the relevance of dealing with polarized particles. We will see that it provides crucial tests for the Standard Model and can give us clear signatures to uncover new interactions. We will also discuss some striking experimental facts recently observed in hadronic collisions and their implications for current theoretical ideas. 43 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Surveillance of industrial processes with correlated parameters

    DOEpatents

    White, A.M.; Gross, K.C.; Kubic, W.L.; Wigeland, R.A.

    1996-12-17

    A system and method for surveillance of an industrial process are disclosed. The system and method includes a plurality of sensors monitoring industrial process parameters, devices to convert the sensed data to computer compatible information and a computer which executes computer software directed to analyzing the sensor data to discern statistically reliable alarm conditions. The computer software is executed to remove serial correlation information and then calculate Mahalanobis distribution data to carry out a probability ratio test to determine alarm conditions. 10 figs.

  19. Radio frequency heating for in-situ remediation of DNAPL

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, R.S.

    1996-08-01

    In-situ radio frequency (RF) heating technology for treating soils contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is described. RF imparts heat to non-conducting materials through the application of carefully controlled RF transmissions, improving contaminant flow characteristics and facilitating separation and removal from subsurface soils. The paper outlines advantages and limitations of RF remediation, process operations, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, and costs. Two case histories of RF remediation are briefly summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  1. Knowledge-based system for computer security

    SciTech Connect

    Hunteman, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid expansion of computer security information and technology has provided little support for the security officer to identify and implement the safeguards needed to secure a computing system. The Department of Energy Center for Computer Security is developing a knowledge-based computer security system to provide expert knowledge to the security officer. The system is policy-based and incorporates a comprehensive list of system attack scenarios and safeguards that implement the required policy while defending against the attacks. 10 figs.

  2. An update of ERC`s carbonate fuel cell development program

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.; Steinfield, G.; O`Shea, T.

    1992-09-01

    Energy Research Corporation`s molten carbonate fuel goals are commericalization of the MW-class natural gas units and 100 MW-class coal gas/natural gas dual fuel units (long-term). Accomplishments have been made in stack height scale-up, issues relevant to attaining a long useful life for the carbonate fuel cell have been resolved, and organizational and financial aspects of power plant demonstration have been addressed. 10 figs, 7 refs. (DLC)

  3. An update of ERC's carbonate fuel cell development program

    SciTech Connect

    Farooque, M.; Bernard, R.; Doyon, J.; Paetsch, L.; Patel, P.; Skok, A.; Yuh, C.; Steinfield, G.; O'Shea, T.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Research Corporation's molten carbonate fuel goals are commericalization of the MW-class natural gas units and 100 MW-class coal gas/natural gas dual fuel units (long-term). Accomplishments have been made in stack height scale-up, issues relevant to attaining a long useful life for the carbonate fuel cell have been resolved, and organizational and financial aspects of power plant demonstration have been addressed. 10 figs, 7 refs. (DLC)

  4. Aerogels: A new material for emissive display applications

    SciTech Connect

    Glauser, S.A.C.; Lee, H.W.H.

    1997-03-01

    The remarkable optical and electronic properties of doped and undoped silica aerogels establish their utility as unique, multifunctional host materials for fluorescent dyes and other luminescent materials for display and imaging applications. We present results on the photoluminescence and absorption of undoped silica aerogels and aerogels doped with Er{sup 3+}, rhodamine 6G (R6G), and fluorescein. We also demonstrate evidence of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons in aerogels. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Tritium gas transfer pump development

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Non-lubricated, hermetically sealed pumps for tritium service have been selected to replace Sprengel pumps in the existing Tritium Facility. These pumps will be the primary gas-transfer pumps in the planned Replacement Tritium Facility. The selected pumps are Metal Bellows Corporation's bellows pumps and Normetex scroll pumps. Pumping range for a Normetex/Metal Bellows system is from 0.01 torr suction to 2300 torr discharge. Performance characteristics of both pumps are presented. 10 figs.

  6. Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Pan, X.

    1997-04-15

    A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 10 figs.

  7. Thermionic converter

    DOEpatents

    Fitzpatrick, G.O.

    1987-05-19

    A thermionic converter is set forth which includes an envelope having an electron collector structure attached adjacent to a wall. An electron emitter structure is positioned adjacent the collector structure and spaced apart from opposite wall. The emitter and collector structures are in a common chamber. The emitter structure is heated substantially only by thermal radiation. Very small interelectrode gaps can be maintained utilizing the thermionic converter whereby increased efficiency results. 10 figs.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. Observations of prolonged ionospheric anomalies following passage of an infrasound pulse through the lower thermosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.R.; Carlos, R.C.

    1987-06-01

    We have studied the Doppler spectra of E-layer vertical-incidence HF soundings around the time of passage of a brief (duration approx.10 s) acoustic shock. Following the exit of the shock from the reflection volume, there occurred a several-minute episode of spectral derangement. We have analyzed this derangement in some detail and have related it to other studies of possibly the same phenomenon. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  10. High conductivity composite metal

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  11. FEM (Free Electron Maser) for tokamak: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of a microwave source for heating a tokamak reactor. The free electron maser (FEM) shows great promise for being this source. The topics covered in this paper are microwave generation with FEM, efficiency enhancement, parameter scaling, space charge scaling, beam energy spread and efficiency scaling, electron beam line with energy recovery, achromatic bend, multi-stage depressed voltage electron beam collector, and development plans. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs. (LSP)

  12. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Membrane stabilizer

    DOEpatents

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  14. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    1999-06-15

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

    1987-02-03

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

  16. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1996-10-08

    Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

  17. Heavy flavors

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.; Gottschalk, T.D.

    1986-11-01

    A range of issues pertaining to heavy flavors at the SSC is examined including heavy flavor production by gluon-gluon fusion and by shower evolution of gluon jets, flavor tagging, reconstruction of Higgs and W bosons, and the study of rare decays and CP violation in the B meson system. A specific detector for doing heavy flavor physics and tuned to this latter study at the SSC, the TASTER, is described. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOEpatents

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-04-01

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. 10 figs.

  19. Fundamental quantitative analysis of microbial activity in aquifer bioreclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, B.E.; Valocchi, A.J. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Baveye, P. . Dept. of Agronomy)

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on aquifer bioreclamation. The project has four primary areas: (1) biodegradation of poorly soluble organic contaminants, (2) dual-limitation kinetics of electron donors and acceptors, (3) two-dimensional modeling of biofilm reactions in nonhomogeneous porous media, and (4) biologically induced clogging in porous media. For each area, this report gives a brief summary of the first year's progress, report this quarter's progress in detail, and indicate plans for future work. 25 refs., 10 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Method for measuring the drift mobility in doped semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, R.S.

    1982-03-09

    A method for measuring the drift mobility of majority carriers in semiconductors consists of measuring the current transient in a Schottky-barrier device following the termination of a forward bias pulse. An example is given using an amorphous silicon hydrogenated material doped with 0.2% phosphorus. The method is particularly useful with material in which the dielectric relaxation time is shorter than the carrier transit time. It is particularly useful in material useful in solar cells. 10 figs.

  1. Fuel bundle design for enhanced usage of plutonium fuel

    DOEpatents

    Reese, A.P.; Stachowski, R.E.

    1995-08-08

    A nuclear fuel bundle includes a square array of fuel rods each having a concentration of enriched uranium and plutonium. Each rod of an interior array of the rods also has a concentration of gadolinium. The interior array of rods is surrounded by an exterior array of rods void of gadolinium. By this design, usage of plutonium in the nuclear reactor is enhanced. 10 figs.

  2. Ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of DNA sequencing gels

    SciTech Connect

    Mathies, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the three years of this grant we have: (1) Developed and applied a new theory for optimizing high-sensitivity fluorescence detection. (2) Developed and patented a new high-sensitivity confocal-fluorescence laser-excited gel-scanner. (3) Applied this scanner to the development of a new class of versatile and sensitive fluorescent dyes for DNA detection. (4) Developed methods for the detection of single fluorescent molecules by fluorescence burst detection. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Heavy quarks and CP: Moriond 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    The presentations at the Fifth Moriond Workshop on Heavy Quarks, Flavor Mixing, and CP Violation (La Plagne, France, January 13-19, 1985) are summarized. The following topics are reviewed. What's New (beyond the top, top quarks, bottom quarks, charm quarks, strange quarks, and others); why is all this being done (strong interactions and hadron structure, and electroweak properties); and what next (facilities and can one see CP violation in the B-anti B system). 64 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye. 10 figs.

  5. Slotted-wall research with disk and parachute models in a low-speed wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Macha, J.M.; Buffington, R.J.; Henfling, J.L. ); Every, D. Van; Harris, J.L. )

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation of slotted-wall blockage interference has been conducted using disk and parachute models in a low speed wind tunnel. Test section open area ratio, model geometric blockage ratio, and model location along the length of the test section were systematically varied. Resulting drag coefficients were compared to each other and to interference-free measurements obtained in a much larger wind tunnel where the geometric blockage ratio was less than 0.0025. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Long-drift calorimeter modules for the Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoftiezer, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first full size 5-ton detector modules for the Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment have been assembled and operated. Modules consist of a hexagonal array of drift tubes and corrugated steel, instrumented to read out three-dimensional track positions and pulse height. These will be assembled to form an isotropic, continuously sensitive, self-triggering detector. Details of the design, construction, operation and performance of the modules are discussed. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  7. A bipartite operator interacts with a heat shock element to mediate early meiotic induction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSP82

    SciTech Connect

    Szent-Gyorgyi, C.

    1995-12-01

    This report seeks to characterize the activation of meiotic gene in terms of cis-acting DNA elements and their associated factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was found that vegetative repression and meiotic induction depend on interactions of the promoter-proximal heat shock element with a nearby bipartite repression element. The experiments described explore how two different regulatory pathways induce transcription by stimulating a single classical activation element, a nonspecific heat shock element. 81 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recent experiments in novel nuclear excitations at the BNL AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental work at the AGS dealing with unusual nuclear excitations is summarized. Three examples are given: the deexcitation of ..lambda.. hypernuclei by ..gamma.. transitions, the production of ..lambda.. hypernuclei by the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) reaction, and the search for /eta/-nuclear excitations. The status of each field and the implications of the research for nuclear theory are discussed. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Polarization-balanced beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Decker, D.E.

    1998-02-17

    A beamsplitter assembly is disclosed that includes several beamsplitter cubes arranged to define a plurality of polarization-balanced light paths. Each polarization-balanced light path contains one or more balanced pairs of light paths, where each balanced pair of light paths includes either two transmission light paths with orthogonal polarization effects or two reflection light paths with orthogonal polarization effects. The orthogonal pairing of said transmission and reflection light paths cancels polarization effects otherwise caused by beamsplitting. 10 figs.

  10. Electromagnetic probes of nucleons and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, R.G.

    1985-12-01

    A brief review is given of recent experimental results from high energy electron and muon scattering on nuclear targets. Electron-proton elastic scattering at SLAC, the A-dependence of deep inelastic scattering at SLAC and CERN, and recent electron scattering experiments in the new program Nuclear Physics at SLAC are described. Some planned future experiments using high energy electrons and muons to probe nuclear targets are outlined. 30 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Ion beam generating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.

    1987-12-22

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. 10 figs.

  12. Mining royalties: a global study of their impact on investors, government and civil society

    SciTech Connect

    Otto James

    2006-08-15

    The book discusses the history of royalties and the types currently in use, covering issues such as tax administration, revenue distribution and reporting. It identifies the strengths and weaknesses of various royalty approaches and their impact on production decisions and mine economics. A section on governance looks at the management of mining revenue by governments and the need for transparency. There is an attached CD with 4 appendixes with examples of royalty legislation from over 40 countries. 10 figs., 40 tabs., 4 apps.

  13. Unsolved problems in hadronic charm decay

    SciTech Connect

    Browder, T.E.

    1989-08-01

    This paper describes several outstanding problems in the study of hadronic decays of charmed mesons where further experimental work and theoretical understanding is needed. Four topics are stressed: double Cabibbo suppressed decays (DCSD) of D/sup +/ mesons, hadronic D/sub s/ decays, weak hadronic quasi-two-body decays to pairs of vector mesons, and penguin decays of D mesons. 24 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Draft Level 1 Remedial Investigation Work Plan: 316-3 waste disposal trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    This work plan describes the work to be performed for the initial level of site characterization for the 316.3 Trenches at the Hanford Site. This initial site characterization effort will include a review of existing environmental contamination data for the 300 Area as well as collection and analysis of environmental samples to better characterize subsurface contamination at the site. 7 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. 3D thermal stress analysis of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Room T RH TRU (Remote Handled Transuranic) experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Argueello, J.G.; Beraun, R.; Molecke, M.A.

    1989-08-01

    A three-dimensional finite element thermal stress analysis of the RH TRU experiments in WIPP Room T has been performed. This analysis aids in the interpretation of the borehole closure results being obtained from the Room T experiments and helps in assessing potential performance impacts in a typical storage room, during the waste retrieval period. Computed results are presented and compared to available in situ data, and a qualitative agreement between measured and computed closures is seen. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Synthesis of chiral diether and tetraether phospholipids: Regiospecific ring opening of epoxy alcohol intermediates derived from asymmetric epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.H.; Svendsen, C.B.; Di Meglio, C.; Anderson, V.C.

    1994-06-03

    Diether and tetraether phospholipids have been synthesized using chiral epoxy alcohol starting materials (e.g. glycidol 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate esters or tert-butyldiphenylsilyl ethers). These chiral precursors provide control over the stereochemistry, substitution patterns, and steric properties of the phosphoglycerol backbone. Configuration at the sn-2 glycerol carbon was controlled by asymmetric epoxidation of allyl alcohol followed by acid-catalyzed, regioselective opening of the oxirane ring using excess aliphatic n-alcohols to give mono-O-alkylated glycerol intermediates in good yields. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Structural performance of the first SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) Design B dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Nicol, T.H.

    1989-09-01

    The first Design B Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipole magnet has been successfully tested. This magnet was heavily instrumented with temperature and strain gage sensors in order to evaluate its adherence to design constraints and design calculations. The instrumentation and associated data acquisition system allowed monitoring of the magnet during cooldown, warmup, and quench testing. This paper will focus on the results obtained from structural measurements on the suspension system during normal and rapid cooldowns and during quench studies at full magnet current. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lari, R.J.; Praeg, W.F.; Turner, L.R.; Battles, J.E.; Hull, J.R.; Rote, D.M.

    1990-12-04

    An apparatus is disclosed for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel. 9 figs.

  19. Beryllium weldability

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.A.; Damkroger, B.K.; Dixon, R.D. ); Robertson, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Welding processes and metallurgical considerations for beryllium welding are discussed in this review. The primary difficulties of welding beryllium are hot cracking, cracking at defects, and ductility limitation or thermally induced cracking. Solutions to these welding problems include control of the Fe/Al ratio in the base metal to reduce hot cracking, minimization of the BeO content and starting grain size to limit cracking at defects and ductility limitation cracking, and optimization of the welding process and process variables. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Risk associated with the demilitarization of the United States chemical weapons stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Fraize, W.; Kartachak, T.

    1989-01-01

    In accordance with Public Law 99-145 (Title 14, Part B, Section 1412) a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement was prepared to assess the environmental impact of destruction of the continental US (CONUS) stockpile of unitary lethal chemical agent and munitions. The CONUS supply of chemical munitions and agents accounted for 94.4% by weight of the entire US stockpile. The CONUS stockpile is currently stored at the eight sites. The hazards associated with the disposal process included those associated with (1) plant operation, (2) transportation, (3) handling, and (4) external events (pervasive among the other 3 hazard areas). 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Theoretical Atomic Physics code development IV: LINES, A code for computing atomic line spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Clark, R.E.H.

    1988-12-01

    A new computer program, LINES, has been developed for simulating atomic line emission and absorption spectra using the accurate fine structure energy levels and transition strengths calculated by the (CATS) Cowan Atomic Structure code. Population distributions for the ion stages are obtained in LINES by using the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model. LINES is also useful for displaying the pertinent atomic data generated by CATS. This report describes the use of LINES. Both CATS and LINES are part of the Theoretical Atomic PhysicS (TAPS) code development effort at Los Alamos. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Optical amplifier operating at 1.3 microns useful for telecommunications and based on dysprosium-doped metal chloride host materials

    DOEpatents

    Page, R.H.; Schaffers, K.I.; Payne, S.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1997-12-02

    Dysprosium-doped metal chloride materials offer laser properties advantageous for use as optical amplifiers in the 1.3 {micro}m telecommunications fiber optic network. The upper laser level is characterized by a millisecond lifetime, the host material possesses a moderately low refractive index, and the gain peak occurs near 1.31 {micro}m. Related halide materials, including bromides and iodides, are also useful. The Dy{sup 3+}-doped metal chlorides can be pumped with laser diodes and yield 1.3 {micro}m signal gain levels significantly beyond those currently available. 9 figs.

  3. Designing and upgrading plants to blend coal

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, R.H.

    2006-10-15

    Fuel flexibility isn't free. Whether you are equipping a new power plant to burn more than one type of coal or retrofitting an existing plant to handle coal blends, you will have to spend time and money to ensure that all three functions performed by its coal-handling system, unloading, stockout, and reclaim, are up to the task. The first half of this article lays out the available options for configuring each subsystem to support blending. The second half describes, in words and pictures, how 12 power plants in the USA, both new and old, address the issue. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. An efficient computational tool for ramjet combustor research

    SciTech Connect

    Vanka, S.P.; Krazinski, J.L.; Nejad, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A multigrid based calculation procedure is presented for the efficient solution of the time-averaged equations of a turbulent elliptic reacting flow. The equations are solved on a non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. The physical models currently incorporated are a two equation k-epsilon turbulence model, a four-step chemical kinetics mechanism, and a Lagrangian particle tracking procedure applicable for dilute sprays. Demonstration calculations are presented to illustrate the performance of the calculation procedure for a ramjet dump combustor configuration. 21 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. 810 Future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C. ); Lindenbaum, S.J. City Coll., New York, NY ); Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A. ); Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L. ); Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.

    1990-03-27

    It is believed that a good bet for finding the Quark-Gluon Plasma at AGS energies is with the heaviest projectiles on the heaviest target, i.e. Au on Au. One of the likely signatures of the plasma is strangeness enhancement. Al Saulys has shown what it's like to find {Delta} and K{degree} with Si projectiles. Our Monte Carlo simulations show track densities 4 times higher for Au projectiles. In addition, the Au beam itself produces 30 times more ionization. Thus the present TPC's will be limited to only a few hundred ions per sec. This paper discusses plans for these experiments and modification to TPC. 9 figs.

  6. Very high pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy using diamond anvil cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, M.P.; Taylor, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of generating very high pressure by means of Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) for Mossbauer Effect applications is outlined. A comprehensive description is presented of the principles of DAC, modification for the use in M/umlt o/ssbauer Spectroscopy (MS), the Merrill--Bassett and Bassett cells, of pressure measurements, of gasketing and collimation, and of hydrostatic media. Examples of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 119/Sn and /sup 129/I are given showing the feasibility of DAC applications in MS. Other isotopes with potential use for high pressure MS using DAC are suggested. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Diagnostics for slapper detonator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boberg, R.E.; Lee, R.E.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.

    1989-03-28

    This report discusses diagnostics which have been used to evaluate CDU characteristics and performance, slapper characteristics and performance and the response of a HE detonator output pellet to a slapper stimulus. Many of the diagnostics discussed are appropriate for development and production testing. These include CVR current measurements, voltage probe measurements, time-of-flight measurements, threshold measurements, function time measurements, use of steel witness plates and determination of design margin. Some of the more-sophisticated, expensive diagnostics discussed have yielded very useful information, but are not required for development and production testing. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Apparatus and method for quantitative assay of samples of transuranic waste contained in barrels in the presence of matrix material

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Herrera, G.C.; Hastings, R.D.; Shunk, E.R.; Kunz, W.E.

    1987-08-28

    Apparatus and method for performing corrections for matrix material effects on the neutron measurements generated from analysis of transuranic waste drums using the differential-dieaway technique. By measuring the absorption index and the moderator index for a particular drum, correction factors can be determined for the effects of matrix materials on the ''observed'' quantity of fissile and fertile material present therein in order to determine the actual assays thereof. A barrel flux monitor is introduced into the measurement chamber to accomplish these measurements as a new contribution to the differential-dieaway technology. 9 figs.

  9. RESRAD parameter sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.

    1991-08-01

    Three methods were used to perform a sensitivity analysis of RESRAD code input parameters -- enhancement of RESRAD by the Gradient Enhanced Software System (GRESS) package, direct parameter perturbation, and graphic comparison. Evaluation of these methods indicated that (1) the enhancement of RESRAD by GRESS has limitations and should be used cautiously, (2) direct parameter perturbation is tedious to implement, and (3) the graphics capability of RESRAD 4.0 is the most direct and convenient method for performing sensitivity analyses. This report describes procedures for implementing these methods and presents a comparison of results. 3 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    DOEpatents

    Lear, K.L.

    1997-05-27

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method are disclosed. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors. 9 figs.

  11. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J. ); Jackson, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Three dimensional modelling and numerical analysis of super-radiant harmonic emission in FEL (optical klystron)

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, A.; Friedman, A.; Luccio, A.

    1986-09-01

    A full 3-D Analysis of super-radiant (bunched electron) free electron harmonic radiation is presented. A generalized form of the FEL pendulum equation was derived and numerically solved. Both spectral and phasor formulation were developed to treat the radiation in the time domain. In space the radiation field is expanded in terms of either a set of free space discrete modes or plane waves. The numerical solutions reveal some new distinctly 3-D effects to which we provide a physical explanation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Shear banding in titanium with controlled elongations at 10/sup 6//sec

    SciTech Connect

    Staudhammer, K.P.; Gray, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adiabatic shear bands were obtained in titanium with controlled strains to 10.8%. Two types of shear bands were observed and characterized. In general the quantity and shear band width increased with increasing elongation. At elongations below /approximately/5% the shear bands were typically characteristic of shear bands observed at lower strain rates. Above 5% elongations many of the shear bands contained a boundary regime adjacent to the shear band and increased in width with increasing total elongation. This effect was attributed to the strain heat. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Method for isotopic analysis of chlorinated organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Holt, B.D.; Sturchio, N.C.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention provides a method for preparing a VOC sample for carbon and chlorine isotope ratio analysis by mass spectrometer. A VOC sample is placed in a combustion tube and reacted with CuO to form CO{sub 2} and CuCl. The CO{sub 2} is then extracted and analyzed for the carbon isotope ratio. The CuCl is separated from the excess CuO and reacted with CH{sub 3}I to form CH{sub 3}Cl, extracted and analyzed for chlorine isotope ratio. 9 figs.

  15. Preliminary assessment of the impact of incorporating a detailed algorithm for the effects of nuclear irradiation on combat crew performance into the Janus combat simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, A.S.; Uzelac, M.J.; Pimper, J.E. )

    1989-05-01

    The Crew III algorithm for assessing time and dose dependent combat crew performance subsequent to nuclear irradiation was incorporated into the Janus combat simulation system. Battle outcomes using this algorithm were compared to outcomes based on the currently used time-independent cookie-cutter'' assessment methodology. The results illustrate quantifiable differences in battle outcome between the two assessment techniques. Results suggest that tactical nuclear weapons are more effective than currently assumed if performance degradation attributed to radiation doses between 150 to 3000 rad are taken into account. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Combustor oscillation attenuation via the control of fuel-supply line dynamics

    DOEpatents

    Richards, G.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    1998-09-22

    Combustion oscillation control in combustion systems using hydrocarbon fuels is provided by acoustically tuning a fuel-delivery line to a desired phase of the combustion oscillations for providing a pulse of a fuel-rich region at the oscillating flame front at each time when the oscillation produced pressure in the combustion chamber is in a low pressure phase. The additional heat release produced by burning such fuel-rich regions during low combustion chamber pressure effectively attenuates the combustion oscillations to a selected value. 9 figs.

  17. Process for preparing silicon carbide foam

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, L.L.; Nichols, M.C.; Wheeler, D.R.; Loy, D.A.

    1997-09-16

    A method of preparing near net shape, monolithic, porous SiC foams is disclosed. Organosilicon precursors are used to produce polymeric gels by thermally induced phase separation, wherein, a sufficiently concentrated solution of an organosilicon polymer is cooled below its solidification temperature to form a gel. Following solvent removal from the gel, the polymer foam is pretreated in an oxygen plasma in order to raise its glass transition temperature. The pretreated foam is then pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a SiC foam. 9 figs.

  18. Construction of large-scale simulation codes using ALPAL (A Livermore Physics Applications Language)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.

    1990-10-01

    A Livermore Physics Applications Language (ALPAL) is a new computer tool that is designed to leverage the abilities and creativity of computational scientist. Some of the ways that ALPAL provides this leverage are: first, it eliminates many sources of errors; second, it permits building code modules with far greater speed than is otherwise possible; third, it provides a means of specifying almost any numerical algorithm; and fourth, it is a language that is close to a journal-style presentation of physics models and numerical methods for solving them. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOEpatents

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  20. Fine structure of astrocytic mitochondria in the hypothalamus of the hamster.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, B; Suarez, I; Gianonatti, C

    1983-01-01

    Astrocytic mitochondria in the hypothalamic region of the adult hamster brain have been studied by electron microscopy. Mitochondria showing triangular prismatic cristae, as seen in transverse section, and other unusual forms of mitochondrial cristae, are described and illustrated. Such mitochondria occur primarily in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei, especially in perivascular astrocytic processes. The possibility that these atypical mitochondria might develop a specific function is discussed. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:6654741

  1. ALPAL: A tool to generate simulation codes from natural descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Painter, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    ALPAL is a tool that automatically generates code to solve nonlinear integro-differential equations, given a very high-level specification of the equations to be solved and the numerical methods to be used. ALPAL is designed to handle the sort of complicated mathematical models used in very large scientific simulation codes. Other features of ALPAL include an interactive graphical front end, the ability to symbolically compute exact Jacobians for implicit methods, and a high degree of code optimization. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Emergency cooling simulation tests on an electrically heated channel typical of SRP (Savannah River Laboratory) reactor fuel channels - RIG B

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency cooling simulation tests were conducted on a single electrically heated test channel representative of Savannah River Plant fuel assembly flow channels. The primary objective was to investigate downflow, air-water hydraulic flow conditions that lead to the onset of a runaway thermal excursion in the range of superficial liquid and gas velocities, 1.4 m/sec and 1 m/sec, respectively. The thermal excursion power normalized by the power to reach fluid outlet saturation conditions, or R-factor, was found to decrease from values close to 2, at annular flow conditions to approximately 0.8 at low to zero void fractions. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters

    DOEpatents

    King, D.E.; Herdt, G.C.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1997-01-07

    The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium. 9 figs.

  4. Electromagnetic pump stator coil

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Dahl, L.R.

    1996-06-25

    An electrical stator coil for an electromagnetic pump includes a continuous conductor strip having first and second terminals at opposite ends thereof and an intermediate section disposed therebetween. The strip is configured in first and second coil halves, with the first coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the first terminal to the intermediate section, and the second coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the second terminal to the intermediate section. The first and second coil halves are disposed coaxially, and the first and second terminals are disposed radially inwardly therefrom with the intermediate section being disposed radially outwardly therefrom. 9 figs.

  5. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  6. Particle identification using dE/dx in the Mark II detector at the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarski, A.; Coupal, D.P.; Feldman, G.J.; Hanson, G.; Nash, J.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Rankin, P.; Van Kooten, R.

    1989-04-01

    The central drift chamber in the Mark II detector at the SLAC Linear Collider has been instrumented with 100-MHz Flash-ADCs. Pulse digitization provides particle identification through the measurement of average ionization loss in the chamber. We present the results of a study of system performance and outline the systematic corrections that optimize resolution. The data used are from a short test run at PEP with one-third of the FADCs installed and an extensive cosmic ray sample with the fully instrumented chamber. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Exploratory research on direct coal liquefaction using a high-pressure and high-temperature polarizing microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, I.; Panvelker, S.; Wen, M.

    1988-09-01

    A high-pressure and high-temperature polarizing microscope has been developed. This instrument was used to study (1) liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals in the presence of molten-salt and liquid (organometallic) catalysts, (2) behavior of individual coal macerals, and (3) mesophase formation from solvent refined coal and coal asphaltenes. The instrument was found to be particularly suited to study mesophase formation through the use of polarized light and to study materials such as macerals, the basic constituents of coals. The macerals are usually available only in milligram quantities. 4 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Physiological factors affecting carbon tetrachloride dehalogenation by the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain KC

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T.A.; Crawford, R.L. )

    1993-05-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) is a carcinogenic, ozone-depleting, toxic, xenobiotic compound found in ground water, listed as a priority pollutant by the US EPA. In aqueous solution, CT is not readily hydrolyzed and has an estimated half-life of 7,000 years. Since CT resists spontaneous degradation, conditions favorable for dehalogenation must be created to effect remediation of CT contamination. This paper describes studies of CT transformation aimed at determining the potential of Pseudomonas sp. strain KC as a bioaugmentation strain and describes a search for KC-type CT transformation activity in samples from regional aquifers. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Serial biological conversion of coal to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    Water soluble coal products produced by the action of coal solubilizing organisms LSC and H12 were obtained and used in a second biological process for conversion to alcohol fuels. Several sources of natural inocula were screened and studied for their ability to produce fuels from solubilized coal. Alcohols and organic acids were produced from cultures obtained from sewage sludge and sheep and rumen fluid. The sheep rumen culture, in addition to producing alcohols and acids, was capable of totally eliminating color from the culture medium indicating significant breakdown of the solubilized coal. 12 refs., 9 figs., 59 tabs.

  10. Separator plate for a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1996-04-02

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  11. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOEpatents

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  12. Design and modelling of a 5 MeV radio frequency electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.; Sheehan, J.; Woodle, M.

    1988-08-22

    The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a linac-laser complex for research into laser acceleration and for the generation of coherent radiation from electron beams. In order to achieve the design 50 MeV output emittance (..gamma..sigma/sub x/sigma/sub x/') of less than 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/5/ m rad a high brightness electron gun is required. This paper describes computations and measurements made on a full scale brass model of a 1-1/2 cell, ..pi..-mode, resonant, disc loaded, radiofrequency gun structure which has been designed for this purpose. 7 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    SciTech Connect

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Effect of internal gas pressure on the shock consolidation of 304 stainless steel powders

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, N.E.; Staudhammer, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    Capsules of 304 SS powders having a pre-compacted density of 67% were shock consolidated at peak pressures of 100 GPa. Initial internal N{sub 2} gas pressures from 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}4} Pa to 0.1 Gpa were employed. However, as the internal N{sub 2} gas pressure in the powders was increased, the quality of the compacted density decreased. While it is intuitive that high internal gas pressures in porous materials do not enhance their consolidation, a greater understanding of the consolidation process and the part entrapped (intentional or unintentional) gas plays is elucidated. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Dynamic consolidation of aluminum-silicon carbide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.H.; Korth, G.E.; Williamson, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic consolidation was investigated as a potential method for producing P/M metal matrix composites. In this study, 2124 aluminum powders were mixed with silicon carbide particulate and consolidated using explosives. Numerical simulations were performed to provide insight into the consolidation process and to aid in the selection of experimental conditions. The microstructure of the as-consolidated product was dependent upon processing variables. Careful control of the shock parameters allowed full density, crack free composites to be achieved in cylindrical geometries. Although full density was obtained, low fracture strengths suggested a lack of interparticle bonding, probably resulting from the limited ability to redistribute surface oxides during consolidation. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  17. Development of an automated pit packaging system for Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Fahrenholtz, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a system that uses robots to package pits at Pantex in the AT-400A pit storage and transportation container. This report will give an overview of the AT-400A packaging process, and the parts of the overall AT-400A packaging operation that will be performed robotically. The process employed to move from development in the laboratory at Sandia to production use at Pantex will be described. Finally, important technology components being developed for and incorporated into the robotic system will be described. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Colloidal-gold electrosensor measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Wegner, S.; Harpold, M.A.; McCaffrey, T.M.; Morris, S.E.; Wojciechowski, M.; Zhao, J.; Henkens, R.W.; Naser, N.; O`Daly, J.P.

    1995-11-21

    The present invention provides a new device for use in measuring lead levels in biological and environmental samples. Using square wave coulometry and colloidal gold particles impregnated on carbon electrodes, the present invention provides a rapid, reliable, portable and inexpensive means of detecting low lead levels. The colloidal gold modified electrodes have microelectrode array characteristics and produce significantly higher stripping detection signals for lead than are produced at bulk gold electrode surfaces. The method is effective in determining levels of lead down to at least 5 {micro}g/dL in blood samples as small as 10 {micro}L. 9 figs.

  19. Computer-aided methods of determining thyristor thermal transients

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, E.; Bronner, G.

    1988-08-01

    An accurate tracing of the thyristor thermal response is investigated. This paper offers several alternatives for thermal modeling and analysis by using an electrical circuit analog: topological method, convolution integral method, etc. These methods are adaptable to numerical solutions and well suited to the use of the digital computer. The thermal analysis of thyristors was performed for the 1000 MVA converter system at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Transient thermal impedance curves for individual thyristors in a given cooling arrangement were known from measurements and from manufacturer's data. The analysis pertains to almost any loading case, and the results are obtained in a numerical or a graphical format. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Dynamics and structure of energetic displacement cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, R.S.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Benedek, R.

    1987-12-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress in the understanding of energetic displacement cascades and the primary state of damage in metals. On the theoretical side, the availability of supercomputers has greatly enhanced our ability to simulate cascades by molecular dynamics. Recent application of this simulation technique to Cu and Ni provides new insight into the dynamics of cascade processes. On the experimental side, new data on ion beam mixing and in situ electron microscopy studies of ion damage at low temperatures reveal the role of the thermodynamic properties of the material on cascade dynamics and structure. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.

    1988-09-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Karst Lands: The dissolution of carbonate rock produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.B.; Culver, D.C.; Herman, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    Karst lands are produced by the action of water on soluble rocks, a process among the most dynamic of all erosive forces that counterbalance the uplifting forces of tectonics. The dissolution of carbonate rock, primarily limestone and dolomite, produces unique landscapes and poses significant hydrological and environmental concerns. The major topic areas discussed in this article include the following: processes that form karst; karst drainage basins; discharge from karst aquifers; caves as paleoclimatic recorders; caves as ecosystems; water issues in karst regions; and sinkholes, soil piping and subsidence. 20 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Wire chamber requirements and tracking simulation studies for tracking systems at the superconducting super collider

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-02-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems which meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. Such computer simulation studies are necessary to determine the feasibility of wire chamber tracking systems for complex events in a high-rate environment such as the SSC. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  5. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, D.G.

    1989-10-12

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means. 9 figs.

  6. Economics of electric alternatives to cogeneration in commercial buildings: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dobyns, J.; Estey, P.

    1988-10-01

    The economics of packaged cogeneration systems are characterized for five typical commercial applications: office building with computer center, supermarket, fast food restaurant, hospital, and swimming pool/health club. The operation of these systems in each application is evaluated for three utility rate scenarios. Alternative high-efficiency electric technologies for the thermal energy application of each cogeneration package are identified, characterized, and evaluated. The economics of the packaged cogeneration systems are compared with the high-efficiency electric alternatives. 8 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Bile salt surfactants in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography: Application to hydrophobic molecule separations

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.O.; Sepaniak, M.J. . Dept. of Chemistry); Hinze, W.L. . Dept. of Chemistry); Gorse, J.; Oldiges, K. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Bile Salt surfactants are used in the micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) separation of various hydrophobic compounds. The use of methanol in the mobile phase allows the separation of previously intractable compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of methanol on critical micelle concentration is investigated for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the bile salt sodium cholate. It is determined that the unique structure of the bile salt micelle is much more tolerant to the addition of organic solvents than SDS, thereby increasing the scope of applications of MECC to include hydrophobic compounds. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Radio-frequency and microwave load comprising a carbon-bonded carbon fiber composite

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Johnson, A.C.; Everleigh, C.A.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1998-04-21

    A billet of low-density carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) composite is machined into a desired attenuator or load element shape (usually tapering). The CBCF composite is used as a free-standing load element or, preferably, brazed to the copper, brass or aluminum components of coaxial transmission lines or microwave waveguides. A novel braze method was developed for the brazing step. The resulting attenuator and/or load devices are robust, relatively inexpensive, more easily fabricated, and have improved performance over conventional graded-coating loads. 9 figs.

  9. Development and construction of the SLD Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Bean, A.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Caldwell, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Dasu, S.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1989-06-01

    We report on the development and construction of the Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) for the SLD experiment at the SLAC linear collider. In particular, we outline recent progress in the construction, and results from testing the first components of the barrel CRID, including the drift boxes, liquid radiator trays and mirror system. We also review progress in the construction of the barrel CRID gas radiator vessel, the liquid radiator recirculator system, and the electronic readout system. The development of a comprehensive monitor and control system -- upon which the stable operation and physics efficacy of the CRID depend -- is also described. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Design of an omnidirectional and holonomic wheeled platform prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the concepts for a new family of wheeled platforms which feature full omnidirectionality with simultaneous and independent rotational and translational motion capabilities. We first describe the original orthogonal-wheels assembly'' on which these platforms are based and discuss how a combination of these assemblies is used to generate an omnidirectional capability. The design and control of a prototype platform developed to test and demonstrate the proposed concepts is then described, and experimental results illustrating the full omnidirectionality of the platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom are presented. 15 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Exploratory shaft facility: It`s role in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site for a potential nuclear repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kalia, H.N.; Merson, T.J.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is characterizing Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to assess its suitability as a potential site for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and defense related activities. The assessment activities include surface investigations, drill holes from the surface, and an underground facility for in situ characterization tests. This underground exploratory shaft facility is being designed to meet the criteria for characterizing the mountain as described in the Site Characterization Plan. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Eddy-current inspection of shuttle heat exchanger tube welds

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Scott, G.W.; Chitwood, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    This goal of this project was to develop the system necessary to demonstrate in the laboratory that an eddy-current system can inspect the tubes and welds described above, screening for the existence of flaws equal in size to, or larger than, the target flaw. The laboratory system was to include the probe necessary to traverse the tubing, the electronics to drive (i.e., electrically excite) the probe and receive and process signals from it, a data display, data recording and playback devices, and microprocessor software or firmware necessary to operate the system. 5 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Multi-function diamond film fiber optic probe and measuring system employing same

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.P.

    1998-11-24

    A fused fiber optic probe having a protective cover, a fiber optic probe system, and embodiments thereof for conducting electromagnetic spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiber optic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica, with a protective cover disposed over at least a portion of the probe tip. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 9 figs.

  14. An approximate method for calculating aircraft downwash on parachute trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An approximate method for calculating velocities induced by aircraft on parachute trajectories is presented herein. A simple system of quadrilateral vortex panels is used to model the aircraft wing and its wake. The purpose of this work is to provide a simple analytical tool which can be used to approximate the effect of aircraft-induced velocities on parachute performance. Performance issues such as turnover and wake recontact may be strongly influenced by velocities induced by the wake of the delivering aircraft, especially if the aircraft is maneuvering at the time of parachute deployment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Dynamics of rock varnish formation

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Harrington, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Our studies of rock varnish from the southwestern United States suggest that the Mn-phase in rock varnish has neither the chemistry nor the crystal structure of birnessite. Rather, the Mn-rich phase is non-crystalline and contains Ba, Ca, Fe, Al, and P. Unknowns concerning the formation of this non-crystalline Mn phase must be resolved before researchers are able to define chemical parameters of rock varnish formation based upon conditions of formation of the Mn phase. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  16. An approach to elemental task learning

    SciTech Connect

    Belmans, P

    1990-01-01

    In this article we deal with the automated learning of tasks by a robotic system through observation of a human operator. Particularly, we explain what is meant by a learning ability in autonomous robots and in teleoperation systems, where several operators and several machines may work in cooperation to perform tasks. We discuss different approaches to learning in these systems and outline the features of the models they are based upon. This leads us to choose an analytical model suited for tasks analysis. We then present the software architecture for our proposed approach and show the first results obtained on sample tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  17. A suitability study of the fission product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption phantom for calibration of in vivo bioassay equipment for the DOELAP accreditation testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, P.C.; Lynch, T.P.

    1991-08-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) conducted an intercomparison study of the Fission Product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the consistency of calibration response of the two phantoms and their suitability for certification and use under a planned bioassay laboratory accreditation program. The study was initiated to determine calibration factors for both types of phantoms and to evaluate the suitability of their use in DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) round-robin testing. The BOMAB was found to be more appropriate for the DOELAP testing program. 9 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Mix experiments with the NOVA laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, V.C.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Skokowski, P.G.

    1988-10-01

    The NOVA mix experiments are designed to study mix between two dissimilar materials subjected to strong (M/approximately/50) shocks and variable accelerations in a direction normal to their common boundary. The main purpose of the experiments is to provide a data base with which predictive models can be compared and normalized. Together with shock tube experiments, which explore a different regime, the current NOVA tests investigate the shock induced source terms in our model and the evolution of both Rayleigh-Taylor stable and unstable interfaces. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Thermophysical properties data on molten semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, S.; Hibiya, T. )

    1992-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of molten semiconductors are reviewed. Published data for viscosity, thermal conductivity, surface tension, and other properties are presented. Several measurement methods often used for molten semiconductors are described. Recommended values of thermophysical properties are tabulated for Si, Ge, GaAs, InP, InSb, GaSh, and other compounds. This review shows that further measurements of thermophysical properties of GaAs and InP in the molten state are required. It is also indicated that a very limited amount of data on emissivity is available. Space experiments relating to thermophysical property measurements are described briefly. 77 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1988-04-27

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches are disclosed. The binary mixtures are combinations of helium or neon and selected perfluorides. The ternary mixtures are combinations of helium, neon, or argon, a selected perfluoride, and a small amount of gas that exhibits enhanced ionization characteristics. These mixtures are shown to be the optimum choices for use in diffuse glow discharge closing switches by virtue if the combines physio-electric properties of the mixture components. 9 figs.