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Sample records for 9fr central venous

  1. Central venous access.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article.

  2. Central venous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    A central venous line (CVL) is a long, soft, plastic tube that is put into a large vein in the chest. WHY IS A CVL USED? A CVL is often put in when a baby cannot get a ... (MCC). A CVL can be used to give nutrients or medicines to a ...

  3. [Bases of central venous catheterization].

    PubMed

    Schmalz-Ott, Stéphane; Monti, Matteo; Vollenweider, Peter

    2008-10-29

    Central venous catheterization is a frequently performed procedure in internal medicine units. Residents in training frequently share the same questions, doubts and fears about this procedure : "Should I perform a subclavian catheterization in a patient with mild thrombopenia?"; "Which site has the lesser complication rate?"; "After how long does a catheter need to be replaced?". This mini-review of the current literature tries to answer this and other questions.

  4. Anatomical basis of central venous catheter fracture.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark O

    2008-03-01

    Central venous catheter fracture is a rare complication of long-term indwelling subclavian venous access. Subclavian vein access has been the recommended approach for placing central venous catheters. The anatomical landmark method for subclavian access remains a highly successful and nonequipment-dependent method for rapid central access. More recently, the internal jugular vein approach has emerged as the preferred route for long-term central venous access. However, variations in internal jugular vein anatomy make the landmark method less reliable. Use of two-dimensional real-time ultrasound during internal jugular vein access is associated with better success, a lower complication rate, and faster access. A case of central venous catheter fracture initiated an internal review of long-term central venous access procedures. We have converted to a predominantly internal jugular vein approach. This case report and literature review may assist other physicians and institutions in re-evaluating long-term central venous access protocols.

  5. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  6. [Suppurative thrombophlebitis central venous catheterization].

    PubMed

    Ramos Martínez, A; Sánchez Romero, I; Saura Lorente, P A; Parajón Díaz, A

    2008-06-01

    Suppurative thrombophlebitisis a very infrequent complication of the central venous catheterization. The majority of the cases are produced by species of staphylococci. A 22-year-old colombian-woman, student, without toxic habits was admitted because of temporary left astrocytoma (grade II). Nine days after implementing a catheter in the right subclavian vein she presented high fever (39.5 degrees C), shivers, progressive right side neck swelling and odinofagia. She had leukocytosis (26,300 cells/microl) and normal cerebrospinal fluid. After withdrawing the catheter, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the tip of the catheter and in four bottles of blood cultures. A neck CT demonstrated expansion and absence of contrast in the right internal jugular vein. The patient evolved satisfactorily with cloxacillin, gentamycin and low molecular weight heparin.

  7. [Mechanical complication of central venous catheterization].

    PubMed

    Koja, Hiroki; Tokumine, Joho; Sugahara, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure with a high success rate. However, life-threatening complications are occasionally caused by mechanical injury during the catheterization process. Therefore, surgeons should have sufficient knowledge of the potential complications and the effective use of preventative measures when performing catheterization. We herein review and discuss the mechanical complications previously reported to have occurred in association with central venous catheterization. Comprehensive knowledge about various complication-inducing factors, the ability to make a quick and accurate diagnosis of such complications, and sufficient skill to prevent worsening of these complications can thus help patients from suffering lethal complications due to central venous catheterization.

  8. Thrombolytic therapy for central venous catheter occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Jacquelyn L.; Reiss, Ulrike; Wilimas, Judith A.; Metzger, Monika L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Howard, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term central venous catheters have improved the quality of care for patients with chronic illnesses, but are complicated by obstructions which can result in delay of treatment or catheter removal. Design and Methods This paper reviews thrombolytic treatment for catheter obstruction. Literature from Medline searches using the terms “central venous catheter”, “central venous access device” OR “central venous line” associated with the terms “obstruction”, “occlusion” OR “thrombolytic” was reviewed. Efficacy of thrombolytic therapy, central venous catheter clearance rates and time to clearance were assessed. Results Alteplase, one of the current therapies, clears 52% of obstructed catheters within 30 min with 86% overall clearance (after 2 doses, when necessary). However, newer medications may have higher efficacy or shorter time to clearance. Reteplase cleared 67–74% within 30–40 min and 95% of catheters overall. Occlusions were resolved in 70 and 83% of patients with one and 2 doses of tenecteplase, respectively. Recombinant urokinase cleared 60% of catheters at 30 min and 73% overall. Alfimeprase demonstrated rapid catheter clearance with resolution in 40% of subjects within 5 min, 60% within 30 min, and 80% within 2 h. Additionally, urokinase prophylaxis decreased the incidence of catheter occlusions from 16–68% in the control group to 4–23% in the treatment group; in some studies, rates of catheter infections were also decreased in the urokinase group. Conclusions Thrombolytic agents successfully clear central venous catheter occlusions in most cases. Newer agents may act more rapidly and effectively than currently utilized therapies, but randomized studies with direct comparisons of these agents are needed to determine optimal management for catheter obstruction. PMID:22180420

  9. Anatomic considerations for central venous cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Bannon, Michael P; Heller, Stephanie F; Rivera, Mariela

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation is a commonly performed procedure which facilitates resuscitation, nutritional support, and long-term vascular access. Mechanical complications most often occur during insertion and are intimately related to the anatomic relationship of the central veins. Working knowledge of surface and deep anatomy minimizes complications. Use of surface anatomic landmarks to orient the deep course of cannulating needle tracts appropriately comprises the crux of complication avoidance. The authors describe use of surface landmarks to facilitate safe placement of internal jugular, subclavian, and femoral venous catheters. The role of real-time sonography as a safety-enhancing adjunct is reviewed. PMID:22312225

  10. Infections associated with the central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Drasković, Biljana; Fabri, Izabella; Benka, Anna Uram; Rakić, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Central venous catheters are of an essential importance to critically ill patients who require long-term venous access for various purposes. Their use made the treatment much easier, but still they are not harmless and are prone to numerous complications. Catheter infections represent the most significant complication in their use. The frequency of infections varies in different patient care settings, but their appearance mostly depends on the patient's health condition, catheter insertion time, localization of the catheter and type of the used catheter. Since they are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and related to significant number of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units, it is very important that maximal aseptic precautions are taken during the insertion and the maintenance period. Prevention of infection of the central venous catheters demands several measures that should be applied routinely.

  11. The Impact of Central Venous Catheters on Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Jaffray, Julie; Bauman, Mary; Massicotte, Patti

    2017-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in children is escalating, which is likely linked to the increased incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). In order to better understand the specific risk factors associated with CVC-VTE in children, as well as available prevention methods, a literature review was performed. The overall incidence of CVC-VTE was found to range from 0 to 74%, depending on the patient population, CVC type, imaging modality, and study design. Throughout the available literature, there was not a consistent determination regarding whether a particular type of central line (tunneled vs. non-tunneled vs. peripherally inserted vs. implanted), catheter material, insertion technique, or insertion location lead to an increased VTE risk. The patient populations who were found to be most at risk for CVC-VTE were those with cancer, congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal failure, systemic infection, intensive care unit admission, or involved in a trauma. Both mechanical and pharmacological prophylactic techniques have been shown to be successful in preventing VTE in adult patients, but studies in children have yet to be performed or are underpowered. In order to better determine true CVC-VTE risk factors and best preventative techniques, an increase in large, prospective pediatric trials needs to be performed. PMID:28168186

  12. The Impact of Central Venous Catheters on Pediatric Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Jaffray, Julie; Bauman, Mary; Massicotte, Patti

    2017-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) in children is escalating, which is likely linked to the increased incidence of pediatric venous thromboembolism (VTE). In order to better understand the specific risk factors associated with CVC-VTE in children, as well as available prevention methods, a literature review was performed. The overall incidence of CVC-VTE was found to range from 0 to 74%, depending on the patient population, CVC type, imaging modality, and study design. Throughout the available literature, there was not a consistent determination regarding whether a particular type of central line (tunneled vs. non-tunneled vs. peripherally inserted vs. implanted), catheter material, insertion technique, or insertion location lead to an increased VTE risk. The patient populations who were found to be most at risk for CVC-VTE were those with cancer, congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal failure, systemic infection, intensive care unit admission, or involved in a trauma. Both mechanical and pharmacological prophylactic techniques have been shown to be successful in preventing VTE in adult patients, but studies in children have yet to be performed or are underpowered. In order to better determine true CVC-VTE risk factors and best preventative techniques, an increase in large, prospective pediatric trials needs to be performed.

  13. Noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. G.; Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A technique for the noninvasive measurement of CVP in man was developed. The method involves monitoring venous velocity at a point in the periphery with a transcutaneous Doppler ultrasonic velocity meter while the patient performs a forced expiratory maneuver. The idea is the CVP is related to the value of pressure measured at the mouth which just stops the flow in the vein. Two improvements were made over the original procedure. First, the site of venous velocity measurement was shifted from a vein at the antecubital fossa (elbow) to the right external jugular vein in the neck. This allows for sensing more readily events occurring in the central veins. Secondly, and perhaps most significantly, a procedure for obtaining a curve of relative mean venous velocity vs mouth pressure was developed.

  14. Serendipitous detection of an errant central venous catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Orzel, J.A.; Romdall, K.; Griep, R.

    1985-09-01

    The inappropriate placement of a patient's central venous catheter in the pleural space by the serendipitous injection of Tc-99m labeled red blood cells through the catheter during a GI bleeding study was discovered. Position and patency of central venous lines can be incidentally evaluated by using existing central venous catheters for administration of radiopharmaceuticals during radionuclide imaging studies.

  15. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... flushing Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/17/2016 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, ...

  16. Misplaced central venous catheter in the jugular venous arch exposed during dissection before sternotomy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Eun; Jee, Daelim

    2008-11-01

    Subclavian vein catheterization rarely results in misplacement of the central venous catheter (CVC) into the jugular venous arch (JVA). We present a case of misplacement of the CVC into the JVA during cardiac surgery.

  17. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  18. Prevention of central venous catheter bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Walz, J Matthias; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Heard, Stephen O

    2010-01-01

    The majority of nosocomial bloodstream infections in critically ill patients originate from an infected central venous catheter (CVC). Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality and increase the cost of care. The most frequent causative organisms for CRBSI are coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNSs), Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, and Candida species. The path to infection frequently includes migration of skin organisms at the insertion site into the cutaneous catheter tract, resulting in microbial colonization of the catheter tip and formation of biofilm. Evidence-based strategies for the prevention of CRBSI include behavioral and educational interventions, effective skin antisepsis coupled with maximum barrier precautions, the use of antiseptic dressings, and the use of antiseptic or antibiotic impregnated catheters. Achieving and maintaining very low rates of CRBSI requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the entire health care team, the use of novel technologies in patients with the highest risk of CRBSI, and frequent reeducation of staff.

  19. [Cardiac preload and central venous pressure].

    PubMed

    Weyland, A; Grüne, F

    2009-05-01

    The force of cardiac contraction is strongly influenced by myocardial fibre length at the beginning of systole. Because the length of cardiac sarcomers and muscle fibres primarily depends on the end-diastolic ventricular volume, filling pressures a priori can only act as indirect parameters of cardiac preload. Central venous pressure (CVP) gives information on right ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which parallels changes in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure as long as ventricular function is not impaired. Since the pressure-volume relationship of cardiac ventricles is not linear and shows great variability, filling of the ventricles cannot be directly derived from end-diastolic pressure. Further limitations of CVP as a surrogate variable of preload are caused by the influence of intrathoracic and intra-abdominal pressures. A valid parameter of preload should describe the relationship between preload and stroke volume as given by the Frank-Starling law. Furthermore, estimates of cardiac preload should enable prediction of fluid responsiveness. Many studies have demonstrated that under clinical conditions CVP cannot meet these demands and thus does not appear to be a useful predictor of cardiac preload. Variables which more directly represent end-diastolic ventricular volume (e.g. intrathoracic blood volume or end-diastolic ventricular area) offer a higher validity as estimates of cardiac preload. Furthermore, dynamic parameters of ventricular preload, such as pulse pressure variation or stroke volume variation, seem to be more predictive of volume responsiveness in ventilated patients than CVP. These limitations, however, do not impair the importance of CVP as the downstream pressure of the systemic venous system.

  20. Imaging of the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Amerasekera, S S H; Jones, C M; Patel, R; Cleasby, M J

    2009-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are widely used to provide central venous access, often in chronically ill patients with long-term intravenous access requirements. There are a number of significant complications related to both insertion and maintenance of PICC lines, including catheter malposition, migration, venous thrombosis, and line fracture. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise as the number of patients undergoing intravenous outpatient therapy increases, with a corresponding rise in radiologist input. This paper provides an overview of the relevant peripheral and central venous anatomy, including anatomical variations, and outlines the complications of PICC lines. Imaging examples demonstrate the range of radiological findings seen in these complications.

  1. [Umbilical and peripherally inserted venous central catheterization of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Bouissou, A; Rakza, T; Storme, L; Lafarghe, A; Fily, A; Diependaele, J-F; Dalmas, S

    2008-09-01

    Umbilical venous and peripherally inserted venous central catheters are widely used to perfuse low-weight preterm and term newborns in intensive care units. This catheter must be inserted carefully and monitored rigorously to prevent complications. This paper develops today's knowledge on the use and complications in the newborn population.

  2. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment.

  3. Characterizing the Risk Factors Associated With Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Patients After Central Venous Line Placement

    PubMed Central

    Eades, Shannan; Turiy, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the apparent increase in venous thromboembolism noted in the pediatric population, it is important to define which children are at risk for clots and to determine optimal preventative therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for venous thromboembolism in pediatric patients with central venous line placement. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study. Control subjects were patients aged 0 to 18 years who had a central venous line placed. Case subjects had a central line and a radiographically confirmed diagnosis of venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were included in the study. Presence of multiple comorbidities, particularly the presence of a congenital heart defect (34.7% case vs. 14.7% control; p < 0.005), was found to put pediatric patients at increased risk for thrombosis. Additionally, the administration of parenteral nutrition through the central line (34.7% case vs. 18.7% control; p = 0.03) and location of the line increased the risk for clot formation. CONCLUSIONS: With increased awareness of central venous line–related thromboembolism, measures should be taken to reduce the number and duration of central line placements, and further studies addressing the need for thromboprophylaxis should be conducted. PMID:26472949

  4. The stuck central venous catheter: a word of caution.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Neeti; Choudhury, Minati; Kiran, Usha; Chowdhury, Ujjwal

    2008-10-01

    The placement of central venous catheter (CVC) through internal jugular vein is not free from potential hazards. We report two cases of triple lumen central venous catheter, placed into right internal jugular vein, which got entrapped in patients who had undergone mitral valve replacement. The entrapment of catheter went unnoticed until the time of removal. Subsequent investigations, mechanism of entrapment, prevention, and removal is described. To conclude, we encountered an unusual cause of stuck central venous catheter, in the left atrial suture line. Removal of central venous catheter requires utmost care, and should never be done by forceful traction in the postoperative cardiac surgical patients, as it may lead to disruption of suture lines or rupture of vessels.

  5. Central venous catheter placement: where is the tip?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, George M

    2012-09-01

    The insertion of central venous catheters is a common bedside procedure performed in intensive care units. Here, we present a case of an 82-year-old man who underwent insertion of a central venous catheter in the internal jugular vein without perceived complications. Postprocedural radiographs showed rostral migration of the catheter, and computed tomography performed coincidentally showed cannulation of the jugular bulb at the level of the jugular foramen. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document migration of a central venous catheter from the internal jugular vein into the dural sinuses, as confirmed by computed tomography. The case highlights the importance of acquiring postprocedural radiographs for all insertions of central venous catheters to confirm catheter placement.

  6. [Persistent left superior vena cava. Implications in central venous catheterisation].

    PubMed

    Lacuey Lecumberri, G; Ureña, M; Martínez Basterra, J; Basterra, N

    2009-01-01

    The placement of central catheters through the subclavian and jugular venous path can be complicated by the cannulation of an artery or an aberrant venous path. The most frequent anomaly of the embryological development of the caval vein is the persistence of the left superior vena cava (LSVC). The implantation of catheters in the LSVC can be suspected by its anomalous route in thorax radiography. Gasometry and the pressure curve of the vessel make it possible to rule out an arterial catheterisation. Diagnostic confirmation is obtained through angiography, echocardiography, computerised tomography or cardiac resonance. The doctor who regularly implants central venous catheters must be familiar with the anatomy of the venous system and its variants and anomalies, since their presence might influence the handling of the patient.

  7. Multiple venous thrombosis complicating central venous cannulation in a non cancer patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ce; Menkiti, Id; Desalu, I; Thomas, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is a common procedure for critically ill patients. Like all procedures, it has its complications, one of which is thrombosis. Reports of thrombosis are commoner among cancer patients. We present a 37 year old non cancer patient who developed thrombi in both right and left internal jugular veins, 10 and 13 days respectively after insertion of central venous catheter. This was detected by ultrasound scans of the neck while attempting re-cannulation for parenteral feeding. She also had left lower limb deep venous thrombosis, confirmed by doppler scan, which was managed with low molecular weight heparin and warfarin. The patient was subsequently treated with streptokinase. A repeat scan of the internal jugular veins 4 days after thrombolysis revealed a reduction in size of the thrombi. Symptoms of deep venous thrombosis improved and she was transferred to the wards where she made remarkable improvement. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of ultrasound guided-central line insertion in patients who have had central venous lines inserted previously in order to detect thrombi.

  8. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access for therapeutic apheresis procedures reduces need for central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Eric; Garcia, Salvador; Miguel, Robin; Segura, Francisco J; Ipe, Tina S; Leveque, Christopher

    2016-08-10

    Therapeutic and donor apheresis requires adequate vascular access to achieve inlet flow rates of ∼50-100 mL/min. While central dialysis-type venous catheters can usually provide such access, their use includes several associated risks. Some of these risks can be avoided or diminished if adequate peripheral venous access can be established. Some patients have adequate peripheral veins for apheresis that cannot be readily identified visually or by palpation. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access would benefit such patients and would lead to placement of fewer central venous catheters. The technique of ultrasound-guided peripheral access for apheresis has been in use at Houston Methodist Hospital since 2012. We performed a prospective review of patients undergoing inpatient and outpatient apheresis at Houston Methodist Hospital from July 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015, to assess its benefit. During this time, we performed 831 procedures on 186 patients, including 787 therapeutic plasma exchanges, three red blood cell exchanges, 41 peripheral stem cell collections. Ultrasound-guided vascular access was used for 68 procedures (8% of all procedures), including 62 therapeutic plasma exchanges, 4 peripheral stem cell collections, and 2 red blood cell changes. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral access prevented the placement of central venous catheters in 37 (20%) patients, demonstrating its utility in a busy transfusion service.

  9. Central Venous Disease in Hemodialysis Patients: An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Modabber, Milad; Kundu, Sanjoy

    2013-08-01

    Central venous occlusive disease (CVD) is a common concern among the hemodialysis patient population, with the potential to cause significant morbidity. Endovascular management of CVD, comprising percutaneous balloon angioplasty and bare-metal stenting, has been established as a safe alternative to open surgical treatment. However, these available treatments have poor long-term patency, requiring close surveillance and multiple repeat interventions. Recently, covered stents have been proposed and their efficacy assessed for the treatment of recalcitrant central venous stenosis and obstruction. Moreover, newly proposed algorithms for the surgical management of CVD warrant consideration. Here, we seek to provide an updated review of the current literature on the various treatment modalities for CVD.

  10. Malfunctioning central venous catheters in children: a diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Barnacle, Alex; Arthurs, Owen J.; Roebuck, Derek

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access is increasingly becoming the domain of the radiologist, both in terms of the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) and in the subsequent management of these lines. This article seeks to provide an overview of the CVC types available for paediatric patients and a more detailed explanation of the spectrum of complications that may lead to catheter malfunction. A standard catheter contrast study or ‘linogram’ technique is described. The normal appearances of such a study and a detailed pictorial review of abnormal catheter studies are provided, together with a brief overview of how information from catheter investigations can guide the management of catheter complications. PMID:17932667

  11. [Placement of central venous catheters and patient safety].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, E

    2007-01-27

    Placement of a central venous catheter is one of the most common invasive procedures and is associated with septic and mechanical complications, such as bleeding and pneumothorax. Up to 30% of attempts to cannulate the central vein fail. Correct positioning of the patient can help to maximise the success rate. For placement of catheters in the subclavian vein, patients should be in the Trendelenburg position without the use of a shoulder roll to retract the shoulders. Traditionally, central venous catheters are placed using a 'blind' technique that relies on external anatomical reference marks to localise the vein. However, unnoticed anatomical variations or central venous thrombosis may contribute to cannulation failure with this technique. The use of ultrasound has been shown to increase the success rate and avoid mechanical complications when placing a catheter in the internal jugular vein. It may also increase the success rate in subclavian vein catheterisation. To increase patient safety, the use of ultrasound when placing a central venous catheter should be embraced and become the standard of care.

  12. Risk factors for venous thrombosis associated with peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Pan, Longfang; Zhao, Qianru; Yang, Xiangmei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors associated with an increased risk of symptomatic peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related venous thrombosis. Retrospective analyses identified 2313 patients who received PICCs from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. All 11 patients with symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis (thrombosis group) and 148 who did not have thromboses (non-thrombosis group) were selected randomly. The medical information of 159 patients (age, body mass index (BMI), diagnosis, smoking history, nutritional risk score, platelet count, leucocyte count as well as levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and degradation products of fibrin) were collected. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine the risk factors for thrombosis. Of 2313 patients, 11 (0.47%) were found to have symptomatic PICC-related venous thrombosis by color Doppler ultrasound. Being bedridden for a long time (odds ratio [(OR]), 17.774; P=0.0017), D-dimer >5 mg/L (36.651; 0.0025) and suffering from one comorbidity (8.39; 0.0265) or more comorbidities (13.705; 0.0083) were the major risk factors for PICC-catheter related venous thrombosis by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Among 159 patients, the prevalence of PICC-associated venous thrombosis in those with ≥1 risk factor was 10.34% (12/116), in those with ≥2 risk factors was 20.41% (10/49), and in those with >3 risk factors was 26.67% (4/15). Being bedridden >72 h, having increased levels of D-dimer (>5 mg/L) and suffering from comorbidities were independent risk factors of PICC-related venous thrombosis.

  13. Intermittent back pain after central venous catheter placement.

    PubMed

    Rosa, U W; Foreman, M; Willsie-Ediger, S

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of inadvertent azygos placement of a central venous catheter. The patient experienced ill-defined back pain associated with total parenteral nutrition infusion. The catheter malposition remained unrecognized and resulted in extensive diagnostic work-up. Symptoms resolved after the catheter was withdrawn.

  14. Ultrasonographic guidance for central venous access during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Leduc, L; Cotton, D B

    1989-10-01

    Real-time ultrasonographic imaging of vascular and anatomic neck structures allows easy visualization of the right internal jugular vein and carotid artery. Application of this technology during pregnancy may reduce potential complications encountered with central venous monitoring and will be especially useful in cases of difficult anatomy.

  15. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the "central venous oxygen saturation"), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion.

  16. Migration of Indwelling Central Venous Catheter and Fatal Hydrothorax

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Murtaza, Ghulam; Hanif, Muhammad Zubair; Morabito, Antonino; Khalil, Basem

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheter complications can be related to insertion, indwelling, or extraction. Most of the times, immediate complications are anticipated and managed; whereas, delayed complications can go unnoticed. In the case discussed here, migration and dislodgement of catheter tip resulted in delayed hydrothorax and sudden death of a 9-month-old female infant. PMID:25755966

  17. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  18. Aberrant positioning of a central venous dialysis catheter to reveal a left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    PubMed Central

    Chintu, Manohar R; Chinnappa, Shammikumar; Bhandari, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    We describe the identification of a rare, left-sided, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection during routine central venous catheterization. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature to describe this anomaly in a hemodialysis patient. A young man had anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung and left innominate vein. Our case demonstrates the importance of routine fluoroscopy during insertion of central venous catheters to detect these anomalies and minimize complications. PMID:19183765

  19. Aberrant positioning of a central venous dialysis catheter to reveal a left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection.

    PubMed

    Chintu, Manohar R; Chinnappa, Shammikumar; Bhandari, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    We describe the identification of a rare, left-sided, partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection during routine central venous catheterization. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature to describe this anomaly in a hemodialysis patient. A young man had anomalous connection of the veins draining the upper lobe of the left lung and left innominate vein. Our case demonstrates the importance of routine fluoroscopy during insertion of central venous catheters to detect these anomalies and minimize complications.

  20. Cardiac tamponade caused by central venous catheter in two newborns.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Andrey José; Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Barbosa, Rodrigo; Méier, Milton

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade secondary to the use of central venous catheter is a rare complication; however, it is potentially reversible when it is caught in time. We report two cases of cardiac tamponade that was diagnosed using a transthoracic echocardiography, followed by urgent pericardiocentesis and surgical pericardial drainage as a complication from umbilical venous catheterization. In one case, the tip of the catheter was properly placed, and in the other case, it was not. In both cases, a hyperosmolar solution was being injected. Although it may be an uncommon situation, it should be always considered as a possibility in a newborn who develops cardiogenic shock without an apparent cause.

  1. Hemodialysis catheter-associated central venous stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yevzlin, Alexander S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and interventional treatment of central vein stenosis (CVS) that may result from central vein catheter (CVC) placement. The precise mechanism of CVC-associated CVS remains largely undefined, though anatomic considerations appear to play a prominent pathologic role. The impact of CVC-associated CVS on arteriovenous fistula outcomes is reviewed. The percutaneous treatment of CVS, observation, angioplasty, or angioplasty with stent placement is reviewed, along with potential surgical treatment options. As the treatment outcomes of CVC-associated CVS have been disappointing, catheter avoidance remains the best strategy.

  2. The Malposition of Central Venous Catheters in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dzierzega, Maria; Ossowska, Magdalena; Chmiel, Dariusz; Wieczorek, Aleksandra; Balwierz, Walentyna

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Contemporary medical care, especially in the field of pediatrics often requires central venous line (CVC – Central Venous Catheter) implantation for carrying out treatment. Some conditions are treated intravenously for several months, other require long-term venous access due to periodical administration of medications or daily nutritional supplementation. Material/Methods A total number of 309 CVCs were implanted at Children’s University Hospital in Cracow between January 2011 and December 2012 (24 months). Malposition of the CVC is not common. The target of our article was to present two rare cases of malposition of catheters and two displacements of catheter due to chest tumors, and to enhance the importance of differential diagnostic imaging when difficulties occur. Results CVC malposition was detected with different imaging modalities followed by appropriate medical procedures. Conclusions In case of any difficulties with central lines, it is necessary to investigate the underlying cause. The central line team at hospital cooperating with other specialists is needed to detect complications and to prevent them. PMID:25177409

  3. Delayed pneumothorax after central venous access: a potential hazard.

    PubMed

    Tyburski, J G; Joseph, A L; Thomas, G A; Saxe, J M; Lucas, C E

    1993-09-01

    Percutaneous central venous catheter access is common-place in surgical patients. Though several major complications of this procedure have been described, pneumothorax is the most common. Pneumothorax is routinely assessed by a chest X-ray within 2 hours after catheter placement. During a recent 6-month interval, the authors identified five patients with delayed onset and diagnosis of pneumothorax following percutaneous central venous access. All immediate post-insertion chest X-rays were normal; however, subsequent chest X-ray showed evidence of pneumothoraxes. The pneumothorax contributed to the death of one patient on positive pressure ventilation. A review of the literature revealed a total of 18 patients in the English literature with this complication. Although the incidence of delayed pneumothorax is low, it is, in some instances, life threatening, particularly in patients on positive pressure ventilation. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnosis and treat this reversible condition.

  4. Preventing central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charlotte

    2015-01-13

    Nurses should be able to apply evidence-based practice in a way that is appropriate for the individual patient. This article discusses one area, the incidence of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection in acute care, to examine the available evidence and identify ways in which this evidence can be applied to practice. Research indicates that implementing best practice at the time of insertion is a principal determinant in minimising the risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection.

  5. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K; Pott, F; Stok, W J; Karemaker, J M

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position, but mainly through the vertebral plexus in the upright position. A Valsalva manoeuvre while standing completely re-opened the jugular veins. Results of ultrasound imaging of the right internal jugular vein cross-sectional area at the level of the laryngeal prominence in six healthy subjects, before and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R2 = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway. The internal jugular veins are collapsed in the standing position and blood is shunted to an alternative venous pathway, but a marked increase in CVP while standing completely re-opens the jugular veins. PMID:15284348

  6. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  7. Catheter-related bacteremia from femoral and central internal jugular venous access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; Jiménez, A; García, C; Galván, R; Castedo, J; Martín, M M; Mora, M L

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this prospective observational study was to determine the influence of femoral and central internal jugular venous catheters on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). We included patients admitted to a 12-bed polyvalent medico-surgical intensive care unit over 4 years who received one or more femoral or central internal jugular venous catheters. We diagnosed 16 cases of CRB in 208 femoral catheters and 22 in 515 central internal jugular venous catheters. We found a higher incidence of CRB with femoral (9.52 per 1,000 catheter days) than with central internal jugular venous access (4.83 per 1,000 catheter days; risk ratio = 1.93; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.73; P = 0.04). Central internal jugular venous access could be considered a safer route of venous access than femoral access in minimizing the risk of central venous catheter-related bacteremia.

  8. Central Venous Catheter Intravascular Malpositioning: Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Correction.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Carlos J; Paniagua, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Despite the level of skill of the operator and the use of ultrasound guidance, central venous catheter (CVC) placement can result in CVC malpositioning, an unintended placement of the catheter tip in an inadequate vessel. CVC malpositioning is not a complication of central line insertion; however, undiagnosed CVC malpositioning can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this review were to describe factors associated with intravascular malpositioning of CVCs inserted via the neck and chest and to offer ways of preventing, identifying, and correcting such malpositioning. A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and MD Consult was performed in June 2014. By searching for "Central line malposition" and then for "Central venous catheters intravascular malposition," we found 178 articles written in English. Of those, we found that 39 were relevant to our objectives and included them in our review. According to those articles, intravascular CVC malpositioning is associated with the presence of congenital and acquired anatomical variants, catheter insertion in left thoracic venous system, inappropriate bevel orientation upon needle insertion, and patient's body habitus variants. Although plain chest radiography is the standard imaging modality for confirming catheter tip location, signs and symptoms of CVC malpositioning even in presence of normal or inconclusive conventional radiography findings should prompt the use of additional diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out CVC malpositioning. With very few exceptions, the recommendation in cases of intravascular CVC malpositioning is to remove and relocate the catheter. Knowing the mechanisms of CVC malpositioning and how to prevent, identify, and correct CVC malpositioning could decrease harm to patients with this condition.

  9. Using central venous catheter for suprapubic catheterization in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bilehjani, Eissa; Fakhari, Solmaz

    2017-01-01

    Suprapubic catheterization is an alternative method for urinary drainage that is used when transurethral catheterization fails. Traditionally, inserted large-bore suprapubic catheters may cause fatal complications. During the past decade, we used a small central venous catheter (CVC) suprapubicly in 16 male patients for the purpose of urinary drainage, when transurethral catheterization failed. The procedure is performed in no more than 10 minutes. Success rate was 100% and this approach did not lead to any complications. In conclusion, placing a CVC for suprapubic drainage is a safe method with a high success rate and we recommend it in patients with failed transurethral catheterization after a few attempts (2-3 attempts).

  10. [Bilateral pleural effusion--a complication of central venous catheterization--a case review].

    PubMed

    Novák, P; Brabec, M; Novák, I; Manasová, M

    2008-02-01

    The authors present a case review of a 30-year old patient, who developed central pleural effusion, a complication related to central venous catheterization and the consequent use of the central venous line. The authors aim to highlight potential complications of the method. The interesting feature of this case is the fact, that no apparent mistakes in the venous line introduction or its later use have been recorded.

  11. Stenting of the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein with preserving the central venous catheter in situ.

    PubMed

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2011-01-01

    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  12. Pain and efficacy of local anesthetics for central venous access

    PubMed Central

    Culp, William C; Yousaf, Mohammed; Lowry, Benjamin; McCowan, Timothy C; Culp, William C

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare pain during injection and efficacy of analgesia of local anesthetics during central venous line placement. Methods Sixty-two patients were studied in a randomized, double-blinded prospective fashion. Patients received 1% lidocaine (L), buffered 1% lidocaine (LB), or 2% chloroprocaine (CP) injected around the internal jugular vein for procedural analgesia for central venous access. Patients reported pain via a standard linear visual analog scale, with 0 representing no pain and 10 being the worst pain imaginable. Results Overall patient perception of pain was better with CP and L than LB with mean scores of CP 2.4, L 2.6, LB 4.2. Pain with injection mean scores were CP 2.1, L 2.5, LB 3.2. Pain with catheter placement scores were CP 2.5, L 1.7, LB 3.4. Operator assessment of overall pain values were CP 1.9, L 2.2, LB 3.4. LB consistently scored the worst, though compared with CP, this only reached statistical significance in overall patient pain and pain at catheter insertion compared with L. Conclusion Though chloroprocaine scored better than lidocaine in 3 of 4 parameters, this trend did not achieve statistical significance. Adding sodium bicarbonate to lidocaine isn’t justified in routine practice, nor is routine replacement of lidocaine with chloroprocaine. PMID:22915859

  13. Predicting Central Venous Pressure by Measuring Femoral Venous Diameter Using Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Akram; Akhtar, Aftab; Mansoor, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this exploratory study was to find out the correlation of femoral vein diameter (FVD) to central venous pressure (CVP) measurements and to derive a prediction equation to help ascertain the fluid volume status in a critical patient. Patients and methods This was a single-centered prospective cohort study designed and conducted by the critical care department of Shifa International hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Patients were enrolled from the medical and surgical intensive care units. The inclusion criteria consisted of patients > 18 years of age, and an intrathoracic central venous catheterization (CVC) in place for producing CVP waveform through the transducer. Patients having contraindications to CVP placement and those unable to lie supine were excluded from the study. Critical Care fellows with sufficient training in performing venous ultrasonography measured the FVD. They were blinded to the CVP values of the same patients. Results The study included 108 patients. Among these 70/108 (64.8%) were males. Mean age was 53.85 (SD=16.74). The CVP and femoral vein diameter were measured in all patients. Mean CVP was 9.89 cmH2O (SD=3.46) and mean femoral vein diameter was 0.92 cm (SD=0.27). Multiple regression was used to generate a prediction model. FVD, age and sex of the patient were used as predictor variables to predict CVP diameter. The model was statistically significant with a p-value of < 0.000 and an F-value of 104.806. R-squared value for this model came out to be 0.744, thus the model was able to explain about 74.4% of the variance in the values observed for CVP. When controlled for age and sex, FVD was found highly correlated with CVP diameter with a p-value of < 0.000. A regression equation was derived that can be used to generate predicted values of CVP in millimeters of mercury with an R-square of 0.745 if FVD in centimeters is provided; CVP (cmH2O) = -0.039 + 10.718* FVD. Conclusions FVD was found highly correlated to

  14. Malposition of a Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter in the Graft Hepatic Vein.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Zeynep; Araz, Coşkun; Taşkın, Duygu; Moray, Gökhan; Torgay, Adnan

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters are used for delivering medications and parenteral nutrition, measuring hemodynamic variations, and providing long-term intravenous access. In our clinic, during liver transection using a living-liver donor, peripherally inserted central venous catheters are generally preferred because they involve a less invasive technique with a lower risk of complications. In this report, we present the case of a 36-year-old male liver donor into whom we peripherally inserted a central venous catheter from his left basilic vein. After transecting the hepatic vein, the surgeon found foreign material inside the venous lumen, which turned out to be the distal segment of the catheter.

  15. Technique for retrieval of a knotted and entrapped guide wire after central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yao Pey; Abisi, Said; Whitaker, Simon; Braithwaite, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Central venous catheterization is a common procedure performed in the critically ill patient. The complication associated with this invasive procedure is well established. However, complication related to the guide wire is rare. We present a case of knotted and entrapped guide wire following central venous catheterization using the Seldinger method and technique to retrieve it nonoperatively.

  16. Case report of a cervical intraspinal misplacement of a central venous line.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Martin B; von Bruchhausen, Carla; Müller-Forell, Wibke; Klein, Klaus U; Oertel, Joachim

    2011-12-01

    A case of cervical spinal misplacement of a central venous line via the right jugular vein is reported. A review of the literature resulted in eight similar cases. Only two further adults are described. Children and patients suffering from malnutrition seem to have a higher risk for intraspinal malpositioning of central venous catheters.

  17. The Ultrasound-Only Central Venous Catheter Placement and Confirmation Procedure.

    PubMed

    Saul, Turandot; Doctor, Michael; Kaban, Nicole L; Avitabile, Nicholas C; Siadecki, Sebastian D; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-07-01

    The placement of a central venous catheter remains an important intervention in the care of critically ill patients in the emergency department. We propose an ultrasound-first protocol for 3 aspects of central venous catheter placement above the diaphragm: dynamic procedural guidance, evaluation for pneumothorax, and confirmation of the catheter tip location.

  18. [Neonatology nurses' knowledge about Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter].

    PubMed

    Belo, Marcela Patricia Macêdo; Silva, Roberta Albuquerque Mello de Castro; Nogueira, Isis Larissa Maia; Mizoguti, Daniele Pereira; Ventura, Claudiane Maria Urbano

    2012-01-01

    The Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) has been used as a safe venous access for infants at risk. The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge and practice of nurses from the five public Neonatal Intensive Care Units, of Recife-PE, Brazil, about the use of the PICC. The sample was comprised by 52 nurses; data were collected from January to February/2010. It was found that 64,8% of nurses did not have license for insertion of the PICC. Only two units routinely used the PICC. About the indication of the access, the accuracy was above 70%. In unit B only 8,3% of nurses reported adequate initial location of the catheter tip. It was concluded that is necessary greater incentives to train nurses to use the PICC.

  19. Using central venous catheter for suprapubic catheterization in cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bilehjani, Eissa; Fakhari, Solmaz

    2017-01-01

    Suprapubic catheterization is an alternative method for urinary drainage that is used when transurethral catheterization fails. Traditionally, inserted large-bore suprapubic catheters may cause fatal complications. During the past decade, we used a small central venous catheter (CVC) suprapubicly in 16 male patients for the purpose of urinary drainage, when transurethral catheterization failed. The procedure is performed in no more than 10 minutes. Success rate was 100% and this approach did not lead to any complications. In conclusion, placing a CVC for suprapubic drainage is a safe method with a high success rate and we recommend it in patients with failed transurethral catheterization after a few attempts (2–3 attempts). PMID:28116283

  20. Long-term central venous access device selection.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Janice

    Infusion therapy is often viewed as a means to an end - a way to administer medications and fluids. It is one of the few specialties that affect almost all areas of healthcare. Safe, effective and reliable vascular access should be the goal of every health professional who is starting a patient on a prescribed course of intravenous therapy, especially if that patient is undergoing a prolonged course. This article aims to refresh and update nurses' clinical knowledge of the detailed patient assessment required before choosing a central venous access device, as well as supporting a reduction in complications and earlier recognition of potential problems. It discusses clinical indications for devices, the range of long-term intravenous therapies that can be used, and patient assessment.

  1. Central Venous Line and Acute Neurological Deficit: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Shirzad, Mahmood; Zeraatian, Sam; Salehiomran, Abbas; Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin; Ghiasi, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is a practical way to assess patients hemodynamic specially in cardiovascular surgery but this relatively simple junior level procedure is not risk free and its common reported complications include; pneumothorax, hydrothorax, hemothorax, local hematoma, cardiac tamponade, vascular injury, thrombosis, embolism, and catheter disruption. Here in this article we are going to present 6 patients with very unusual presentation of CVC complication which was neurological deficit presented by agitation, unconsciousness, disorientation to time and place and hemiparesis. All patients undergone neurologic consult and brain computed tomography. Final diagnosis was brain ischemic damage and finally we kept them on conservative management; fortunately we did not have any permanent damage. PMID:25870645

  2. Accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maietta, Pauline Marie

    2012-08-01

    More than 2.1 million central venous catheters are placed annually. While carotid artery cannulation is rare, its effects can be devastating. Anesthesia providers frequently work with central venous catheters in the perioperative setting. Therefore, it is imperative that they be able to identify and react appropriately to carotid artery injury both in preexisting central lines and those that they have placed. This case report details a case of accidental carotid artery catheterization during attempted right internal jugular vein catheterization and the steps taken to treat the patient following its recognition. A discussion of technique for central venous catheterization, indications for suspicion of arterial puncture, methods for confirming venous or arterial placement, appropriate methods for management of carotid artery cannulation, and the benefit of ultrasound in central venous cannulation follow. Through the appropriate use of equipment, early detection and management of carotid artery injury, and proper training, patient outcomes may be improved.

  3. Placement of a port catheter through collateral veins in a patient with central venous occlusion.

    PubMed

    Teichgräber, Ulf Karl-Martin; Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  4. Combined endovascular and surgical recanalization after central venous catheter-related obstructions.

    PubMed

    de Buys Roessingh, Anthony S; Portier-Marret, Nathalie; Tercier, Stéphane; Qanadli, Salah D; Joseph, Jean-Marc

    2008-06-01

    Central venous occlusion in children is a challenging problem that can occur after a central venous catheter insertion. Long-term catheter-related complications include sepsis and venous thrombosis with consequent loss of central access. We describe 2 cases of children younger than 1 year who were dependent on a central venous catheter for total parenteral nutrition. They developed a chronic extensive obstruction of the right and left brachiocephalic veins with a superior vena cava syndrome. The patients' survival was dependent on the restoration of central venous access until the planned intestinal transplantation could be performed. Retrograde recanalization of the superior vena cava was successfully achieved using a pathway created under general anesthesia from the femoral vein to, respectively, the right thyroid vein and the right subclavian vein.

  5. Placement of a Port Catheter Through Collateral Veins in a Patient with Central Venous Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl-Martin Streitparth, Florian; Gebauer, Bernhard; Benter, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Long-term utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs) for parenteral nutrition has a high incidence of central venous complications including infections, occlusions, and stenosis. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a malabsorption caused by short gut syndrome due to congenital aganglionic megacolon. The patient developed a chronic occlusion of all central neck and femoral veins due to long-term use of multiple CVCs over more than 20 years. In patients with central venous occlusion and venous transformation, the implantation of a totally implanted port system by accessing collateral veins is an option to continue long-term parenteral nutrition when required. A 0.014-in. Whisper guidewire (Terumo, Tokyo) with high flexibility and steerability was chosen to maneuver and pass through the collateral veins. We suggest this approach to avoid unfavorable translumbar or transhepatic central venous access and to conserve the anatomically limited number of percutaneous access sites.

  6. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management.

    PubMed

    Gibson, F; Bodenham, A

    2013-03-01

    Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an abnormal course on X-ray. Acquired abnormalities such as stenosis or thrombosis of the central veins can be problematic and can present as a failure to pass a guidewire or catheter or complications after such attempts. Catheters can also be misplaced outside veins in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy with potentially disastrous consequences. We discuss the possible management options for these patients including the various imaging techniques used to verify correct or incorrect catheter placement and the limitations of each. If the course of a misplaced catheter can be correctly identified as not lying within a vulnerable structure then it can be safely removed. If the misplaced catheter is lying within or traversing large and incompressible arteries or veins, it should not be removed before consideration of what is likely to happen when it is removed. Advice and further imaging should be sought, typically in conjunction with interventional radiology or vascular surgery. With regard to misplaced CVCs, in the short term, a useful aide memoir is: 'if in doubt, don't take it out'.

  7. [Central venous catheterization complication by a guide wire].

    PubMed

    Araki, Yoshiyuki; Fukuda, Isao; Hirano, Masato; Matsuoka, Nobuhiro; Kazama, Tomiei

    2009-03-01

    Central venous catheterization using the Seldinger technique is a well known and often used method. On the other hand, there are also well known complications by needle puncture or by indwelling catheter, there are few reports about a guide wire which got hung up around the tricuspid valve. We report a case in which a guide wire got hung up to the chordae tendineae of the tricuspid valve. To insert the AVA 3Xi (Edwards life science Co. Iervine) from the right internal jugular vein, we inserted a guide wire without ease. Resistance appeared when we tried to remove the wire for 20 cm from the inserted state. The X-ray and the transesophageal echocardiography, showed the guide wire in the right ventricle. As actions to be taken, we advanced the central vein catheter of the EXCV catheter kit (Nippon Sherwood Medical Industries Co., Ltd.) to the tip, and a the guide wire was easily removed. There are many reports of the complication by the central venepuncture, but there are few reports about the guide wire which was entrapped in the vicinity of a tricuspid valve. The tip of the guide wire in this case was bent excessively, but the cause of the damage did not become clear by investigation. When a guide wire became hard to withdraw, we should never withdraw a guide wire blindly, but should search a cause and we should use the material which was matched with the cause.

  8. Hickman to central venous catheter: A case of difficult venous access in a child suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Agrawal, Sanjit; Datta, Taniya; Mitra, Suparna; Khemka, Rakhi

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy in children suffering from cancer usually requires placement of an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC). A child may need to undergo repeated procedures because of infection and occlusion of previous access devices. We present a case of CVC insertion in a child suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia where an innovative technique was employed. PMID:27695218

  9. Daptomycin Antibiotic Lock Therapy in a Rat Model of Staphylococcal Central Venous Catheter Biofilm Infections▿

    PubMed Central

    Van Praagh, Andrew D. G.; Li, Tongchuan; Zhang, Shuxin; Arya, Anu; Chen, Liping; Zhang, Xi-Xian; Bertolami, Shellie; Mortin, Lawrence I.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) is an adjunctive procedure to prevent or treat central venous catheter infections, ensuing catheter-related bacteremia, and catheter-related metastatic infections. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide that is rapidly bactericidal against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The efficacies of daptomycin against central venous catheter biofilms, catheter-related bacteremia, and catheter-related metastatic infections were evaluated by adapting a previously reported central venous catheter biofilm model in rats. Combined daptomycin ALT and systemic dosing resulted in the clearance of an established in vivo S. aureus central venous catheter biofilm after just two daily ALT treatments (30 min with daptomycin at 5 mg/ml) with concurrent systemic daptomycin dosing (40 mg/kg of body weight/day subcutaneously [s.c.]; equivalent exposure of 6 mg/kg/day in people). Daptomycin ALT solutions formulated in either saline or lactated Ringer's solution were equally fast in eradicating established in vivo methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) central venous catheter biofilms. However, the lactated Ringer's formulation was superior to that of saline in sustaining the bacterial clearance of treated central venous catheters (83% versus 50%). In MRSE-infected central venous catheter studies, 3 days of daptomycin or vancomycin ALT (18 h at 5 mg/ml) with systemic s.c. dosing (40 mg/kg/day daptomycin or 100 mg/kg/day vancomycin) was equally effective 1 week posttherapy in maintaining cleared central venous catheters (90% [n = 10] versus 100% [n = 8]). These results suggest that daptomycin ALT, along with systemic dosing, could be an effective treatment option for the prevention or eradication of staphylococcal central venous catheter biofilm infections, thereby reducing the occurrence of catheter-related bacteremia or catheter-related metastatic infections. PMID:21709082

  10. A comparison of central venous-arterial and mixed venous-arterial carbon dioxide tension gradient in circulatory failure.

    PubMed

    Ho, K M; Harding, R; Chamberlain, J

    2007-10-01

    The arterial and mixed venous carbon dioxide tension gradient has been shown to increase when there is a decrease in cardiac output. Monitoring central venous gases is an attractive alternative to monitoring mixed venous gases in circulatory failure because central venous catheterisation is a less invasive procedure than pulmonary artery catheterisation. This study aims to evaluate the agreement between central venous-arterial carbon dioxide (CVA-CO2) and mixed venous-arterial carbon dioxide (SVA-CO2) tension gradients and assess whether CVA-CO2 tension gradient can be used to predict cardiac output in circulatory failure. Samples of arterial, central venous and mixed venous blood were obtained from 16 patients with circulatory failure at different inspired oxygen concentrations and cardiac indexes within 24 hours of study enrolment. CVA-CO2 and SVA-CO2 tension gradient were not interchangeable numerically (bias = 0.14 mmHg, 95% limits of agreement: -3.0 to 3.2 mmHg). CVA-CO2 (Spearman correlation coefficient r = -0.385) and SVA-CO, (r = -0.578) tension gradient were significantly correlated with the cardiac index but the cardiac index only accounted for 21% and 32% of the variability of CVA-CO, and SVA-CO2 tension gradient, respectively. The ability of CVA-CO2 tension gradient (area under the ROC curve = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99; P = 0.08) to predict a low cardiac output state (cardiac index < 2.5 l/min/m2) was lower than SVA-CO2 (area under the ROC curve = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-0.99; P = 0.003). The utility of CVA-CO2 and SVA-CO2 tension gradient appeared to be limited to their negative predictive value to exclude a low cardiac output state when CVA-CO, or SVA-CO, tension gradient was normal (< or =5 mmHg).

  11. [Right ventricular perforation and cardiac tamponade caused by a central venous catheter].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H; Kasuda, H; Shimizu, R

    1993-02-01

    A 5 year old girl with ASD was scheduled for open heart surgery. A central venous catheter was placed via the right infraclavicular vein after induction of anesthesia. Thirty minutes after insertion of the catheter, a decrease in arterial pressure and pulse pressure, an increase in heart rate and central venous pressure were observed. Cardiac tamponade was revealed by rapid opening of the chest. Gushing blood out of a hole in the right ventricular free wall was confirmed by pericardiotomy. The hemodynamics were stabilized by blood transfusion and surgical closure of the hole on the ventricle. This perforation was thought to be caused by careless insertion of a relatively stiff central venous catheter.

  12. JUGULAR CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PLACEMENT THROUGH A MODIFIED SELDINGER TECHNIQUE FOR LONG-TERM VENOUS ACCESS IN CHELONIANS.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Mariana A; Divers, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Long-term or repeated venous access in chelonians is difficult to obtain and manage, but can be critically important for administration of medications and blood sampling in hospitalized patients. Jugular catheterization provides the most rapid and secure route for vascular access, but catheters can be difficult to place, and maintaining catheter patency may be challenging. Long multilumen polyurethane catheters provide flexibility and sampling access, and minimize difficulties, such as catheter displacement, that have been encountered with traditional over-the-needle catheters. We describe placement of 4 Fr. 13-cm polyurethane catheters in three chelonians with the use of a modified Seldinger technique. Venous access was obtained with the use of an over-the-needle catheter, which allowed placement of a 0.018-in.-diameter wire, over which the polyurethane catheter was placed. Indwelling time has ranged between 1 and 4 mo currently. All tortoises were sedated for this procedure. Polyurethane central catheters provide safe, long-term venous access that allows clinicians to perform serial blood sampling as well as intravenous administration of medications, anesthetic agents, and fluids. A jugular catheter can also allow central venous pressure measurement. Utilization of central line catheters was associated with improvements in diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic case management, with minimal risks and complications.

  13. Accidental subclavian artery catheterization during attempted internal jugular central venous catheter placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Bharat; Kamal, Manoj; Purohit, Anamika; Rana, Kirti; Chouhan, Dilip Singh

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter placement has been routinely employed for anesthetic and intensive care management. Despite proper technique used and expertise complications do occur; some of which are related to catheter misplacements. We report a case in which subclavian artery was accidently catheterized during attempted internal jugular venous cannulation.

  14. [Central venous access by the Seldinger technic in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Goñi Orayen, C; Pérez Martínez, A; Ruiz Cano, R; Carrascosa Romero, M C; Vázquez García, M S; Martínez Gutiérrez, A

    1999-10-01

    Eighteen catheterizations were attempted in 17 patients catheters (Arrow 3ChFr and 4ChFr), between january of 1996 and december of 1997. The patients ranged in age from 3 to 148 days (mean of 43.3 and standard deviation of 47.5) and in weight from 1110 to 4000 grams (mean of 3182 grams and standard deviation 767.2 grams). Overall successful catheterization rate was 94.5%. Complications included a pneumothorax that needed pleural drainage, one self-limited femoral artery spasm and one stenosis of femoral vein that did not require any treatment. The mean catheterism time was 6.64 days (deviation of 3.84 days), and the causes of removal were end of treatment in 8 patients, accidental removal in 5, infectious suspicion in 2 and limb edema in 2. Seldinger technique may be a useful approach for central venous catheterization in neonates. Careful catheterization, extensive experience and appropriate selection of material, help to keep the risk of complications low.

  15. Hemodynamics of Central Venous Catheters: experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Michael; McGah, Patrick; Clark, Alicia; Ng, Chin Hei; Gow, Kenneth; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are used to provide vascular access during hemodialysis in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Despite several advantages and widespread use, CVCs have a high incidence rate of clot formation during the interdialytic phase (48 hrs). In an attempt the prevent clot formation, hospitals routinely administer heparin, an anticoagulant, into the catheter after a dialysis session. It has been reported, however, that up to 40% of the heparin solution will leak into the blood stream during the interdialytic phase, placing the patient at risk for systemic bleeding incidences. The aim of this study is to determine the role that advective-diffusive transport plays in the heparin leaking process. Numerical simulations of heparin convective mass transfer have been conducted, showing that while advective losses may be significant at the tip, previous studies may be overestimating the total amount of heparin leakage. To validate the quantitative prediction from the simulations, P.L.I.F. is used to experimentally measure heparin transport from CVCs placed in an idealized Superior Vena Cava with physically accurate pulsatile flow conditions. Improved understanding of flow near the catheter tip is applied to improve catheter design and heparin locking procedures.

  16. Prevention of central venous catheter-related infection: update.

    PubMed

    Casey, Anna L; Elliott, Tom S J

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are an essential part of modern-day healthcare, but infections associated with these devices continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. There are many approaches for the prevention of CVC-related infection and these are outlined in national guidelines. The Department of Health Saving Lives campaign has developed a care-bundle for the prevention of CVC-related infections that focuses on the fundamental actions to be undertaken during the catheter insertion process and ongoing care. If the rate of catheter-related infection remains high despite the implementation of these infection prevention strategies, the use of novel antimicrobial technologies and practices may be considered. These include CVCs that contain antimicrobial agents, such as antiseptics or antibiotics, needleless intravenous (IV) access devices coated with silver and/or chlorhexidine, IV dressings incorporating chlorhexidine, and the use of antimicrobial catheter lock solutions, such as antibiotics, chelators or ethanol. This article outlines the different types of CVCs available, the risk of infection associated with their use and established and novel measures for prevention of these infections.

  17. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Fahimi, Mohammad Ali; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Ghanavati, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line) is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male). The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3%) and shock state (24.6%). The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. PMID:27299146

  18. Radiological Interventions for Correction of Central Venous Port Catheter Migrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gebauer, Bernhard Teichgraeber, Ulf Karl; Podrabsky, Petr; Werk, Michael; Haenninen, Enrique Lopez; Felix, Roland

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate radiological-interventional central venous port catheter corrections in migrated/malpositioned catheter tips. Materials and Methods. Thirty patients with migrated/malpositioned port catheter tips were included in this retrospective analysis. To visualize the catheter patency a contrast-enhanced port catheter series was performed, followed by transfemoral port catheter correction with various 5-F angiographic catheters (pigtail; Sos Omni), gooseneck snares, or combinations thereof. Results. One patient showed spontaneous reposition of the catheter tip. In 27 of 29 patients (93%), radiological-interventional port catheter correction was successful. In two patients port catheter malposition correction was not possible, because of the inability to catch either the catheter tip or the catheter in its course, possibly due to fibrin sheath formation with attachment of the catheter to the vessel wall. No disconnection or port catheter dysfunction was observed after correction. Conclusions. We conclude that in migrated catheter tips radiological-interventional port catheter correction is a minimally invasive alternative to port extraction and reimplantation. In patients with a fibrin sheath and/or thrombosis port catheter correction is often more challenging.

  19. An effective and biocompatible antibiofilm coating for central venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Silva Paes Leme, Annelisa Farah; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; Alves, Fernanda Aparecida Oliveira; de Azevedo, Bruna Martinho; de Bretas, Liza Porcaro; Farias, Rogerio Estevam; Oliveira, Murilo Gomes; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy and the tissue reaction of an antibiofilm coating composed of xylitol, triclosan, and polyhexamethylene biguanide. The antimicrobial activity was analyzed by a turbidimetric method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the antiadherent property of central venous catheter (CVC) fragments impregnated with an antibiofilm coating (I-CVC) in comparison with noncoated CVC (NC-CVC) fragments. Two in vivo assays using subcutaneous implantation of NC-CVC and I-CVC fragments in the dorsal area of rats were performed. The first assay comprised hematological and microbiological analysis. The second assay evaluated tissue response by examining the inflammatory reactions after 7 and 21 days. The formulation displayed antimicrobial activity against all tested strains. A biofilm disaggregation with significant reduction of microorganism's adherence in I-CVC fragments was observed. In vivo antiadherence results demonstrated a reduction of early biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, mainly in an external surface of the I-CVC, in comparison with the NC-CVC. All animals displayed negative hemoculture. No significant tissue reaction was observed, indicating that the antibiofilm formulation could be considered biocompatible. The use of I-CVC could decrease the probability of development of localized or systemic infections.

  20. Heparin Leakage in Central Venous Catheters by Hemodynamic Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbour, Michael; McGah, Patrick; Gow, Kenneth; Aliseda, Alberto

    2014-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs), placed in the superior vena cava for hemodialysis, are routinely filled with heparin, an anticoagulant, while not in use to maintain patency and prevent thrombus formation at the catheter tip. However, the heparin-lock procedure places the patient at risk for systemic bleeding incidences, as heparin is known to leak into the blood stream. We propose that the driving mechanism behind heparin leakage is advective-diffusive transport due to the pulsatile blood flow surrounding the catheter tip. This novel hypothesis is based on Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of heparin transport from a CVC placed inside an in vitro pulsatile flow loop and validated with CFD simulations. The results show an initial, fast (<10s), advection-dominated phase that rapidly depletes the concentration of heparin at the CVC tip, followed by a slow, diffusion-limited phase inside the catheter lumen, where concentration is still high, that is insufficient at replenishing the lost heparin at the tip. These results, which estimate leakage rates consistent with published in vivo data, predict that the concentration of heparin at the catheter tip is effectively zero for the majority of the interdialytic phase, rendering the heparin lock ineffective.

  1. Is there resetting of central venous pressure in microgravity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Elliott, J. J.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    In the early phase of the Space Shuttle program, NASA flight surgeons implemented a fluid-loading countermeasure in which astronauts were instructed to ingest eight 1-g salt tablets with 960 ml of water approximately 2 hours prior to reentry from space. This fluid loading regimen was intended to enhance orthostatic tolerance by replacing circulating plasma volume reduced during the space mission. Unfortunately, fluid loading failed to replace plasma volume in groundbased experiments and has proven minimally effective as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In addition to the reduction of plasma volume, central venous pressure (CVP) is reduced during exposure to actual and groundbased analogs of microgravity. In the present study, we hypothesized that the reduction in CVP due to exposure to microgravity represents a resetting of the CVP operating point to a lower threshold. A lower CVP 'setpoint' might explain the failure of fluid loading to restore plasma volume. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted an investigation in which we administered an acute volume load (stimulus) and measured responses in CVP, plasma volume and renal functions. If our hypothesis is true, we would expect the elevation in CVP induced by saline infusion to return to its pre-infusion levels in both HDT and upright control conditions despite lower vascular volume during HDT. In contrast to previous experiments, our approach is novel in that it provides information on alterations in CVP and vascular volume during HDT that are necessary for interpretation of the proposed CVP operating point resetting hypothesis.

  2. [Procedure adverse events: nursing care in central venous catheter fracture].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Juan, Eva; Maqueda-Palau, Mònica; Romero-Grilo, Cristina; Muñoz-Moles, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    In a intensive care unit (ICU) there are many factors that can lead to the occurrence of adverse events. A high percentage of these events are associated with the administration of drugs. Diagnostic tests, such as computed tomography, is common in critically ill patients and technique can be performed with injection of contrast agent to enhance the visualization of soft tissue. The contrast is a medication and the nurse is responsible for its proper administration. The management of the critically ill patient is complex. ICU team and radiology shares responsibility for the care and safety of the patient safety during the transfer and performing tests with contrast. The World Health Organisation patient safety strategies, recommends analysing errors and learning from them. Therefore, it was decided to investigate the causes of the category E severity adverse events that occurred in a patient who was admitted to the ICU for septic shock of abdominal origin. An abdominal computed tomography was performed with contrast which was injected through a central venous catheter. The contrast did not appear in the image. What happened? Causal analysis helped to understand what triggered the event. A care plan and an algorithm were drafted to prevent it from happening again, with the following objectives: improving knowledge, skills and promoting positive attitudes towards patient safety, working at primary, secondary and tertiary care levels.

  3. [Ultrasound-guided central venous access in adults and children: Procedure and pathological findings].

    PubMed

    Scheiermann, P; Seeger, F H; Breitkreutz, R

    2010-01-01

    Central venous line placement is a standard procedure in critical care and peri-operative medicine. This procedure can be associated with severe complications. In contrast to the landmark technique, ultrasound-guided punctures can significantly reduce the rate of complications. Patients with a high risk for difficult vascular access include critical care and emergency patients as well as patients on anticoagulation medication and dialysis. Placement of central venous catheters can be difficult in ventilated patients and if there has been prior surgery in the puncture area. In children and small infants central venous access can also be challenging due to the anatomical relationship in the head and neck region. Puncture techniques are explained briefly by means of ultrasound anatomy. Typical ultrasonographic images visualize pathological findings in order to identify dangers and complications in central venous catheterization.

  4. Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James

    2001-03-15

    Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

  5. Central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bentur, HN; Dalzell, AM; Riordan, FAI

    2007-01-01

    Background Bacillus organisms are common laboratory contaminants. The majority of Bacillus bacteraemias are transient and not clinically significant. Clinically significant infection due to Bacillus species is rare and mostly due to Bacillus cereus infections in immuno-compromised hosts. Case presentation We report a case of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in an immunocompetent child with tufting enteropathy on long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). There were three episodes of central venous catheter infection with Bacillus pumilus in three months. Despite adequate and appropriate use of intravenous antibiotics, the infection failed to clear resulting in the need for removal of the catheter for complete cure. Conclusion Bacillus species can cause clinically significant central venous catheter infection, even in an immunocompetent host. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the central venous catheter may need removal for complete cure. PMID:17967173

  6. Influence of central venous pressure upon sinus node responses to arterial baroreflex stimulation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, A. L.; Takeshita, A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Abboud, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were made of sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation with phenylephrine injection or neck suction, before and during changes of central venous pressure provoked by lower body negative pressure or leg and lower truck elevation. Variations of central venous pressure between 1.1 and 9.0 mm Hg did not influence arterial baroreflex mediated bradycardia. Baroreflex sinus node responses were augmented by intravenous propranolol, but the level of responses after propranolol was comparable during the control state, lower body negative pressure, and leg and trunk elevation. Sinus node responses to very brief baroreceptor stimuli applied during the transitions of central venous pressure also were comparable in the three states. The authors conclude that physiological variations of central venous pressure do not influence sinus node responses to arterial baroreceptor stimulation in man.

  7. Selection and management of central venous access devices in the home setting.

    PubMed

    Cole, D

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade new central venous access devices (CVADs) inserted for long-term therapy have replaced conventional peripheral venous access devices. This shift contributes to the need for additional education as technological advances result in additional options for central venous access. Healthcare's transition from the hospital to a community-based system has increased the use of CVADs in the home setting. Issues that confront the patient with a CVAD in the home setting must be examined more closely than ever before.

  8. A multicentre snapshot study of the incidence of serious procedural complications secondary to central venous catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Lathey, R K; Jackson, R E; Bodenham, A; Harper, D; Patle, V

    2017-03-01

    Despite the high number of central venous access devices inserted annually, there are limited data on the incidence of the associated procedural complications, many of which carry substantial clinical risk. This point was highlighted in the recently published Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland 'Safe vascular access 2016' guidelines. This trainee-led snapshot study aimed to identify the number of central venous catheter insertions and the incidence of serious complications across multiple hospital sites within a fixed two-week period. Secondary aims were to identify the availability of resources and infrastructure to facilitate safe central venous catheter insertion and management of potential complications. Fifteen hospital sites participated, completing an initial resource survey and daily identification of all adult central venous catheter insertions, with subsequent review of any complications detected. A total of 487 central venous catheter insertions were identified, of which 15 (3.1%) were associated with a significant procedural complication. The most common complication was failure of insertion, which occurred in seven (1.4%) cases. Facilities to enable safer central venous catheter insertion and manage complications varied widely between hospitals, with little evidence of standardisation of guidelines or protocols.

  9. Central venous catheter-related thrombosis in senile male patients: New risk factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao; Fu, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Ping; Li, Shi-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC)-related venous thrombosis is a common but serious clinical complication, thus prevention and treatment on this problem should be extensively investigated. In this research, we aimed to investigate the incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile patients and give a further discussion on the related risk factors and predictors. A total of 324 hospitalized senile male patients subjected to CVC were selected. Retrospective investigation and analysis were conducted on age, underlying diseases, clinical medications, catheterization position and side, catheter retention time, and incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis complications. Basic laboratory test results during catheterization and thrombogenesis were also collected and analyzed. Among the 324 patients, 20 cases (6.17%) of CVC-related venous thrombosis were diagnoseds. The incidence rate of CVC-related venous thrombosis in subclavian vein catheterization was significantly lower than that in femoral vein catheterization (P<0.01) and that in internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between femoral vein catheterization and internal jugular vein catheterization (P<0.05). Previous venous thrombosis history (P<0.01), high lactate dehydrogenase level (P<0.01), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level (P<0.05), and low albumin level (P<0.05) were found as risk factors or predictors of CVC-related venous thrombosis in senile male patients. Subclavian vein catheterization was the most appropriate choice among senile patients to decrease the incidence of CVC-related venous thrombosis. Previous venous thrombosis history, high lactate dehydrogenase level, low HDL level, and low albumin level were important risk factors in predicting CVC-related venous thrombosis.

  10. Central venous catheterization: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Mer, Mervyn; Duse, Adriano Gianmaria; Galpin, Jacqueline Suzanne; Richards, Guy Antony

    2009-02-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are extensively used worldwide. Mechanical, infectious and thrombotic complications are well described with their use and may be associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased medical costs and mortality. CVCs account for an estimated 90% of all catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and a host of risk factors for CVC-related infections have been documented. The duration of use of CVCs remains controversial and the length of time such devices can safely be left in place has not been fully and objectively addressed in the critically ill patient. Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters have been introduced in an attempt to limit catheter-related infection (CRI) and increase the time that CVCs can safely be left in situ. Recent meta-analyses concluded that antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs appear to be effective in reducing CRI. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind study at Johannesburg Hospital over a 4-year period. The study entailed a comparison of standard triple-lumen versus antimicrobial impregnated CVCs on the rate of CRI. Our aim was to determine whether we could safely increase the duration of catheter insertion time from our standard practice of seven days to 14 days, to assess the influence of the antimicrobial impregnated catheter on the incidence of CRI, and to elucidate the epidemiology and risks of CRI. One hundred and eighteen critically ill patients were included in the study which spanned 34 951.5 catheter hours (3.99 catheter years). It was found that antimicrobial catheters did not provide any significant benefit over standard catheters, which the authors feel can safely be left in place for up to 14 days with appropriate infection control measures. The most common source of CRI was the skin. The administration of parenteral nutrition and the site of catheter insertion (internal jugular vein vs subclavian vein) were not noted to be risk factors for CRI. There was no clinical evidence

  11. [Application of ultrasonography in central venous catheterization; access sites and procedure techniques].

    PubMed

    Czyzewska, Dorota; Ustymowicz, Andrzej; Klukowski, Mark

    2016-08-05

    Central venous catheterization is commonly performed in clinical practice. Traditional procedural technique is based on anatomical landmarks, but is associated with a high risk of failure and complications. To decrease their incidence European and American societies recommend application of ultrasonography. Preliminary ultrasonographic examination allows for assessment of local anatomical relations as well as vessel morphology (diameter, patency), while real-time ultrasonography increases chances of successful needle insertion. This paper presents the most common venous access sites and procedure techniques.

  12. Adjacent central venous catheters can result in immediate aspiration of infused drugs during renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kam, K Y R; Mari, J M; Wigmore, T J

    2012-02-01

    Dual-lumen haemodiafiltration catheters enable continuous renal replacement therapy in the critically ill and are often co-located with central venous catheters used to infuse drugs. The extent to which infusions are immediately aspirated by an adjacent haemodiafiltration catheter remains unknown. A bench model was constructed to evaluate this effect. A central venous catheter and a haemodiafiltration catheter were inserted into a simulated central vein and flow generated using centrifugal pumps within the simulated vein and haemodiafiltration circuit. Ink was used as a visual tracer and creatinine solution as a quantifiable tracer. Tracers were completely aspirated by the haemodiafiltration catheter unless the infusion was at least 1 cm downstream to the arterial port. No tracer was aspirated from catheters infusing at least 2 cm downstream. Orientation of side ports did not affect tracer elimination. Co-location of central venous and haemodiafiltration catheters may lead to complete aspiration of infusions into the haemodiafilter with resultant drug under-dosing.

  13. Central Venous Catheter-Related Tachycardia in the Newborn: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Aya; Broadbent, Roland S.; Edmonds, Liza

    2016-01-01

    Central venous access is an important aspect of neonatal intensive care management. Malpositioned central catheters have been reported to induce cardiac tachyarrhythmia in adult populations and there are case reports within the neonatal population. We present a case of a preterm neonate with a preexisting umbilical venous catheter (UVC), who then developed a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). This was initially treated with intravenous adenosine with transient reversion. Catheter migration was subsequently detected, with the UVC tip located within the heart. Upon withdrawal of the UVC and a final dose of adenosine, the arrhythmia permanently resolved. Our literature review confirms that tachyarrhythmia is a rare but recognised neonatal complication of malpositioned central venous catheters. We recommend the immediate investigation of central catheter position when managing neonatal tachyarrhythmia, as catheter repositioning is an essential aspect of management. PMID:28058050

  14. Internal jugular versus subclavian vein catheterization for central venous catheterization in orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Torgay, A; Pirat, A; Candan, S; Zeyneloglu, P; Arslan, G; Haberal, M

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications associated with central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein (IJV) versus the subclavian vein (SV) among 45 consecutive patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) between January 2000 and June 2004. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the site of central venous catheterization (IJV or SV). We recorded each patient's physical characteristics, international normalized ratio (INR), partial thromboplastin time, platelet levels, number of puncture attempts, success/failure of central venous catheterization, duration of catheter placement, occurrence of catheter tip misplacement, arterial puncture, incidence of hematoma or pneumothorax, catheter-related infection, or bacterial colonization of the catheter. Senior staff anesthesiologists performed 22 SV and 23 IJV catheterizations for the 45 OLT procedures. The SV and IVJ groups both had minor coagulation abnormalities with slightly increased INR values at the time of catheterization. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to success of central venous catheterization (100% for both), numbers of attempted punctures, duration of catheter placement, and incidence rates of mechanical and infectious complications. Both groups showed high frequencies of catheter tip misplacement, with right atrium as the site of misplacement in all cases. Two patients in the IJV group (8.7%) developed hematomas after accidental carotid artery puncture. The results suggest that, when performed by experienced anesthesiologists, central venous catheterization via the SV is an acceptable alternative to IJV catheterization for patients undergoing OLT.

  15. Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm: a rare and serious complication of central venous catheterization in an infant.

    PubMed

    Koklu, Esad; Poyrazoglu, Hakan; Yikilmaz, Ali; Canpolat, Mehmet; Konuskan, Bahadir

    2008-02-01

    Serious complications of central venous access occur in 0.4-9.9% of patients undergoing attempted central venepuncture. We report an unusual case of an 18-month-old infant in whom a right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm developed rapidly after attempted subclavian vein catheterization without US guidance failed.

  16. The incidence and risk of central venous catheter malpositioning: a prospective cohort study in 1619 patients.

    PubMed

    Pikwer, A; Bååth, L; Davidson, B; Perstoft, I; Akeson, J

    2008-01-01

    Central venous catheters are used in various hospital wards. An anterior-posterior chest X-ray is usually obtained soon after cannulation to assess the location of the catheter tip. This prospective clinical study was designed to determine the radiographic catheter tip position after central venous cannulation by various routes, to identify clinical problems possibly associated with the use of malpositioned catheters and to make a cost-benefit analysis of routine chest X-ray with respect to catheter malposition. A total 1619 central venous cannulations were recorded during a three-year period with respect to patient data, information about the cannulation procedures, the radiographic catheter positions and complications during clinical use. The total incidence of radiographic catheter tip malposition, defined as extrathoracic or ventricular positioning, was 3.3% (confidence interval 25 to 4.3%). Cannulation by the right subclavian vein was associated with the highest risk of malposition, 9.1%, compared with 1.4% by the right internal jugular vein. Six of the 53 malpositioned catheters were removed or adjusted. No case of malposition was associated with vascular perforation, local venous thrombosis or cerebral symptoms. We conclude that the radiographic incidence of central venous catheter malpositioning is low and that clinical use of malpositioned catheters is associated with few complications. However, determination of the catheter position by chest X-ray should be considered when mechanical complications cannot be excluded, aspiration of venous blood is not possible, or the catheter is intended for central venous pressure monitoring, high flow use or infusion of local irritant drugs.

  17. [Tunnelled central venous line-associated infections in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with intravenous prostacyclin].

    PubMed

    Boucly, Athénaïs; O'Connell, Caroline; Savale, Laurent; O'Callaghan, Dermot S; Jaïs, Xavier; Montani, David; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous prostacyclins are a valuable treatment for patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, leading to improved exercise capacity, haemodynamics, quality of life and survival. Unfortunately, due to the short half-life of these drugs, they need to be administered continuously through central venous catheters. Despite aseptic technique, regular dressing changes, tunneled central venous catheters and patient education, patients are exposed to central venous catheter associated infections. These infections cause significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation, microbiology, consequences and management of these central venous catheter associated infections in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients treated with intravenous prostacyclins are discussed.

  18. The prevention, diagnosis and management of central venous line infections in children.

    PubMed

    Chesshyre, Emily; Goff, Zoy; Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    With advancing paediatric healthcare, the use of central venous lines has become a fundamental part of management of neonates and children. Uses include haemodynamic monitoring and the delivery of lifesaving treatments such as intravenous fluids, blood products, antibiotics, chemotherapy, haemodialysis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Despite preventative measures, central venous catheter-related infections are common, with rates of 0.5-2.8/1000 catheter days in children and 0.6-2.5/1000 catheter days in neonates. Central line infections in children are associated with increased mortality, increased length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, treatment interruptions, and increased complications. Prevention is paramount, using a variety of measures including tunnelling of long-term devices, chlorhexidine antisepsis, maximum sterile barriers, aseptic non-touch technique, minimal line accessing, and evidence-based care bundles. Diagnosis of central line infections in children is challenging. Available samples are often limited to a single central line blood culture, as clinicians are reluctant to perform painful venepuncture on children with a central, pain-free, access device. With the advancing evidence basis for antibiotic lock therapy for treatment, paediatricians are pushing the boundaries of line retention if safe to do so, due to among other reasons, often limited venous access sites. This review evaluates the available paediatric studies on management of central venous line infections and refers to consensus guidelines such as those of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).

  19. [Advantages and disadvantages in the use of central venous catheters in children with malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Sporisević, L; Hasanbegović, E; Hadzihasanović, E; Bajraktarević, A; Khatib, H; Hamamdzić, M

    1999-01-01

    The authors report the problem of central venous catheter appliance to the children with malignant diseases, employed for the first time in Bosnia and Herzegovina with the aim of pediatric oncologic patients treatment. During 1997 central venous catheter type Hickman was used in nine children between two and half to eleven years old (average six years and one months). The average time of catheter placement was six months, in two cases catheter were eliminated after two and three months respectively since application (spontaneous elimination and repeated septic attacks, caused bu resistant bacterial strains). Gram-positive bacteria have been isolated with eight children (Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), and gram-negative enterobacteriaceae (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella oxytocia and pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella group C and Enterococcus faecalis) in samples taken from the catheter and hemoculture. The central venous catheter is useful in treating oncological patients, but may cause serious consequences, like local infections or septicaemia.

  20. [Current state of central venous catheterization in the operating theater in Japan].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Chie

    2010-05-01

    Central venous catheterization is usually done in operating theater after general anesthesia. However, life-threatening complications can occasionally occur. Recently, application of ultrasound especially ultrasound-guided venipuncture has become popular for safe and reliable procedure. We investigated the current state of central venous catheterization by a questionnaire survey. 131 anesthesiologists answered the survey. The most common site for cathererization was internal jugular vein (85%). 97% of anesthesiologists use Seldinger's technique. Before internal jugular vein cathererization, 47% of anesthesiologists commonly and 19% of anethesiologists occasionally use ultrasound for checking the vein. Ultrasound-guided venipuncture was performed commonly by 19% and occasionally by 59% of anesthesiologists. The most common ultrasound device was iLook (37% of anesthesiologists, Japan Sherwood). The survey showed that 79% of anesthesiologists apply ultrasound for central venous catheterization in the operating theater. Establishing the standard technique and training methods will be the subsequent issue.

  1. [Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Brachine, Juliana Dane Pereira; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

  2. In situ management of confirmed central venous catheter-related bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Flynn, P M; Shenep, J L; Stokes, D C; Barrett, F F

    1987-08-01

    Thirty-one patients with suspected central venous catheter-related bacteremia were evaluated with comparative quantitative cultures of central venous and peripheral blood specimens. Using criteria developed from studies in bacteremic animals, 19 patients were confirmed to have catheter-related bacteremia. Antibiotic therapy was administered through the catheter (in situ therapy) in 17 of those patients to evaluate the feasibility of treating patients with true central venous catheter-related bacteremias without catheter removal. Bacteremia was successfully eradicated in 11 of 17 patients (65%), allowing 7 patients to retain their catheter a median of 157 days. This study validates the use of comparative quantitative blood cultures in the diagnosis of catheter-related bacteremia and indicates that in situ therapy is a rational alternative to catheter removal in patients with catheter-related bacteremia.

  3. Usefulness of Groshong catheters for central venous access via the external jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Nagata, Hitoshi; Takagi, Kazutoshi; Horie, Toru; Sawada, Tokihiko; Kubota, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of central venous access via the external jugular vein (EJV) employing Groshong catheters, and to compare the complications with those of conventional internal jugular venous catheterization. Central venous access was achieved by insertion of a single-lumen 4.0 Fr Groshong catheter via the EJV or internal jugular vein (IJV) with a single puncture. Complications associated with insertion and central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CVC-RBSI) were evaluated from the database. Two hundred and twenty-five patients received 400 catheters for a total period of 5377 catheter-days. Ninety-six patients underwent 201 internal jugular venous catheter (IJV-C) procedures for 2381 catheter-days, and 129 patients underwent 199 external jugular venous catheter (EJV-C) procedures for 2996 catheter-days. Use of EJV-C was associated with a longer catheter insertion length (p < .01) and period (p < .01), a larger number of operations (p < .01), and more frequent use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (p < .01) and less frequent use of chemotherapy (p < .01) than for IJV-C. However, there were no significant differences (NS) in complications associated with insertion and CVC-RBSI between IJV-C and EJV-C. There were no significant differences such complications as malposition, oozing or hematoma formation of insertion site, arterial bleeding, nerve damage, pneumothorax, and phlebitis between IJV-C and EJV-C. Moreover, EJV-C was not associated with morbidities such as pneumothorax, arterial bleeding, and nerve damage. Thus the study concluded that EJV-C using Groshong catheters has no severe complications and has the same rates of CVC-RBSI as conventional IJV-C for central venous access.

  4. Implementation of a children’s hospital-wide central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections in children are an increasingly recognized serious safety problem worldwide, but are often preventable. Central venous catheter bundles have proved effective to prevent such infections. Successful implementation requires changes in the hospital system as well as in healthcare professionals’ behaviour. The aim of the study is to evaluate process and outcome of implementation of a state-of-the-art central venous catheter insertion and maintenance bundle in a large university children’s hospital. Methods/design An interrupted time series design will be used; the study will encompass all children who need a central venous catheter. New state-of-the-art central venous catheter bundles will be developed. The Pronovost-model will guide the implementation process. We developed a tailored multifaceted implementation strategy consisting of reminders, feedback, management support, local opinion leaders, and education. Primary outcome measure is the number of catheter-associated infections per 1000 line-days. The process outcome is degree of adherence to use of these central venous catheter bundles is the secondary outcome. A cost-effectiveness analysis is part of the study. Outcomes will be monitored during three periods: baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention for over 48 months. Discussion This model-based implementation strategy will reveal the challenges of implementing a hospital-wide safety program. This work will add to the body of knowledge in the field of implementation. We postulate that healthcare workers’ willingness to shift from providing habitual care to state-of-the-art care may reflect the need for consistent care improvement. Trial registration: Dutch trials registry, trial # 3635. Trial registration Dutch trials registry (http://www.trialregister.nl), trial # 3635 PMID:24125520

  5. A technique for re-utilizing catheter insertion sites in children with difficult central venous access.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S M; Garnett, G M; Woo, R K

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of central venous access in patients with chronic medical conditions such as short bowel syndrome demands forethought and ingenuity. We describe an innovative technique for re-utilizing central venous access sites in patients who have chronic central venous access needs. Records of patients undergoing this technique were reviewed between August 2012 and December 2015. The technique involves "cutting-down" to the sterile fibrous tunnel that naturally forms around tunneled catheters. The fibrous sheath is then isolated and controlled much as would be done for a venous "cut-down." A separate exit site is then created for the new catheter and it is tunneled to the "cut-down" site per routine. The non-functioning catheter is then removed from the surgical field. The proximal fibrous sheath is finally cannulated either directly with the new catheter or with a wire/dilator system. This technique effectively re-uses the same venous access point while allowing for a complete change of the physical line and external site. Twenty attempts at this technique were made in twelve patients; six patients underwent the site re-utilization procedure multiple times. Re-using the fibrous tunnel to re-cycle the internal catheter site was successful in seventeen of twenty attempts. All patients had chronic conditions leading to difficult long-term central venous access [short bowel syndrome (6), hemophilia (2), cystic fibrosis (1), chronic need for central IV access (3)]. Indications for catheter replacement included catheter occlusion/mechanical failure/breakage (9), dislodgement (6), infection (1), and inadequate catheter length due to patient growth (4). Broviac/Hickman catheter sites were most commonly re-used (13; one failure); re-using a portcath site was successful in 5 of 7 attempts. There were no short term infections or mechanical complications. We describe a novel technique for salvaging tunneled central venous catheter access sites. This technique is well suited

  6. Sharp Central Venous Recanalization by Means of a TIPS Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Honnef, Dagmar Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Haage, Patrick

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.

  7. Thrombotic complications of implanted central venous access devices: prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Labourey, Jean-Luc; Lacroix, Philippe; Genet, Dominique; Gobeaux, François; Martin, Jean; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Lavau-Denes, Sandrine; Maubon, Antoine; Tubiana-Mathieu, Nicole

    2004-05-01

    Implanted venous access devices (IVAD) are routinely used in oncologic patients. Thrombotic complication is a source of morbidity. During one year 246 patients with different solid neoplastic diseases received IVAD for chemotherapy administration. Two hundred forty-nine IVAD were placed percutaneously or by surgical cutdown. IVAD were flushed immediately after implantation with 3-5 mL of heparinized saline (100 U/mL). No monthly flush was required. A prospective evaluation of thrombotic complications was realised. in event of catheter dysfunction and/or clinical symptoms of phlebitis, a catheter opacification and/or a Doppler ultrasonography were performed. Twenty-three catheter dysfunctions were noted, corresponding to 13 catheter occlusions. Twelve patients presented clinical symptoms of phlebitis. Eleven venous thrombosis were diagnosed in this group; 10 by echo-Doppler and one by scanography. A unvaried statistic analysis using Fisher's test was performed to detect risk factors. Two factors were identified: the position of catheter tip above T4 (p < 0.001) and mediastinal or cervical lymph nodes larger than 6 cm (p < 0.001). The first increased the risk of catheter occlusion and the second increased the risk of phlebitis.

  8. Is venous blood drawn from femoral access adequate to estimate the central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels in critically ill patients?

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Yara Nishiyama; de Freitas, Flávio Geraldo Rezende; de Azevedo, Rodrigo Palácio; Leão, Milena; Bafi, Antônio Tonete; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to test if venous blood drawn from femoral access can be used to estimate the central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels in critically ill patients. Methods Bland-Altman analysis and Spearman correlations were used to compare the femoral venous oxygen saturation and central venous oxygen saturation as well as arterial lactate levels and femoral lactate. A pre-specified subgroup analysis was conducted in patients with signs of hypoperfusion. In addition, the clinical agreement was also investigated. Results Blood samples were obtained in 26 patients. In 107 paired samples, there was a moderate correlation (r = 0.686, p < 0.0001) between the central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation with a bias of 8.24 ± 10.44 (95% limits of agreement: -12.23 to 28.70). In 102 paired samples, there was a strong correlation between the arterial lactate levels and femoral lactate levels (r = 0.972, p < 0.001) with a bias of -2.71 ± 9.86 (95% limits of agreement: -22.03 to 16.61). The presence of hypoperfusion did not significantly change these results. The clinical agreement for venous saturation was inadequate, with different therapeutic decisions in 22.4% of the situation; for lactate, this was the case only in 5.2% of the situations. Conclusion Femoral venous oxygen saturation should not be used as a surrogate of central venous oxygen saturation. However, femoral lactate levels can be used in clinical practice, albeit with caution. PMID:26761471

  9. [Femoral arteriovenous fistula: a late uncommon complication of central venous catheterization].

    PubMed

    Conz, P A; Malagoli, A; Normanno, M; Munaro, D

    2007-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was admitted due to AV graft thrombosis; given the technical impossibility of performing other native AV fistulas, we chose to insert a tunnelled central venous catheter. Considering the vascular history of the patient, the central venous catheter could not be placed into the internal jugular vein; it was therefore put into the left femoral vein. Following a 3-month-period of the catheter working properly, the patient was hospitalized due to sudden acute pain in the left thigh. In a few days the patient developed an important haematoma with serious anemization in the left lower limb. Ultrasonography showed the presence of a fistula between the left common femoral artery and the femoral vein, leading to the subsequent successful positioning of a stent into the common femoral artery through right trans-femoral access. Angiography examination showed the femoral vein patency along the proximal stretch with respect to the function of the tunnelled venous catheter.

  10. Venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients with central venous catheters for 5-FU infusion-based pharmacokinetic modulating chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Reigetsu; Yanagi, Hidenori; Noda, Masafumi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Nakano, Hiroki; Gega, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Oshima, Tsutomu; Inoue, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shoji, Yasutsugu; Sakaki, Takatoshi; Higasa, Satoshi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Yamamura, Takehira

    2005-04-01

    Colorectal cancer patients with central venous catheters (CVC) for pharmacokinetic modulating chemotherapy (PMC) have a substantial risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). PMC, designed as a hybrid of lower metronomic and higher shorter plasma 5-FU concentrations, has been clinically successful. To determine the effectiveness and safety of D-dimer tests and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for diagnosis in cancer patients with suspected VTE, we carried out a clinical outcome study on PMC outpatients. Patients received a D-dimer test before and after commencing the PMC regimen. MDCT was performed additionally if the D-dimer test appeared positive or showed signs of VTE. When CT results were positive for thromboembolism, anticoagulation was started. The overall prevalence of VTE in PMC patients was 2.0% (7 of 350 patients). In this study, 34 out of 102 colorectal cancer patients gave a positive D-dimer test (33.3%). CT identified venous thrombi in 2 of the 102 patients (2.0%), mural thrombosis on catheterized veins in another 3 patients (2.9%), and endothelial hyperplasia on catheterized veins in 8 patients (7.8%). The catheters of these patients did not show any significant abnormalities. Patients with negative D-dimer tests showed no signs or symptoms of VTE. In colorectal cancer patients receiving continuous 5-FU infusion via CVC, a D-dimer test can be safely used as the primary diagnostic test for ruling out VTE. We suggest 7.0 microg/ml as the D-dimer cut-off value. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered in the patients showing values >7.0 microg/ml.

  11. Protocol for Detection of Biofilms on Needleless Connectors Attached to Central Venous Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Donlan, R. M.; Murga, R.; Bell, M.; Toscano, C. M.; Carr, J. H.; Novicki, T. J.; Zuckerman, C.; Corey, L. C.; Miller, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Central venous catheter needleless connectors (NCs) have been shown to develop microbial contamination. A protocol was developed for the collection, processing, and examination of NCs to detect and measure biofilms on these devices. Sixty-three percent of 24 NCs collected from a bone marrow transplant center contained biofilms comprised primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:11158143

  12. [A standardized technique for ultrasound controlled placement of a central venous catheter].

    PubMed

    Mergelsberg, M

    1991-12-01

    To reduce the rate of complications and failures in central venous catheterisation a technique for ultrasonically controlled puncture of the internal jugular vein was standardised. The puncture procedure, including the application of local anaesthesia, is continuously observed and guided by real-time ultrasound. Imaging, control and practising of the puncture are described and discussed.

  13. A simulation-based "just in time" and "just in place" central venous catheter education program.

    PubMed

    Lengetti, Evelyn; Monachino, Anne Marie; Scholtz, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the Central Venous Catheter Dress Rehearsal simulation program. Teaching is conducted at the bedside, which is efficient and cost effective and allows nurses to practice in a safe environment with no harm to the patient. The educators' challenges and remediation strategies are shared. This simulation program has demonstrated improved consistency of practice and knowledge among pediatric nurses.

  14. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Central Venous Catheter Sutured to the Wall of the Right Atrium

    SciTech Connect

    Neuerburg, Joerg-M.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Chalabi, Khaled; Hunter, David

    1999-01-15

    A transjugular central venous catheter was inadvertently sutured to the wall of the right atrium in a 63-year-old female during coronary bypass surgery. Using two nitinol Goose Neck snares via a transfemoral and a transjugular approach the catheter was severed into two pieces and retrieved percutaneously.

  15. Part versus Whole: A Randomized Trial of Central Venous Catheterization Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Angela; Singh, Sunita; Dubrowski, Adam; Pratt, Daniel D.; Zalunardo, Nadia; Nair, Parvarthy; McLaughlin, Kevin; Ma, Irene W. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a complex but commonly performed procedure. How best to teach this complex skill has not been clearly delineated. We conducted a randomized trial of the effects of two types of teaching of CVC on skill acquisition and retention. We randomly assigned novice internal medicine residents to learning CVC in-part…

  16. Use of a peripherally inserted central catheter as a conduit for central venous access across thrombosed great veins.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Prasad Guntur; Chakraverty, Sam; Zealley, Ian

    2010-02-01

    This report describes a technique of inserting an implantable venous access port (portacath) through a thrombosed and occluded vein employing a pre-existing peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) as the route of access. The PICC was used as a conduit for venous access in a way that has not been described previously in the literature. This procedure was performed in a young patient with cystic fibrosis in an effort to prevent the use of his virgin contralateral veins, which might be used in the future.

  17. Use of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter as a Conduit for Central Venous Access Across Thrombosed Great Veins

    SciTech Connect

    Guntur Ramkumar, Prasad Chakraverty, Sam Zealley, Ian

    2010-02-15

    This report describes a technique of inserting an implantable venous access port (portacath) through a thrombosed and occluded vein employing a pre-existing peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) as the route of access. The PICC was used as a conduit for venous access in a way that has not been described previously in the literature. This procedure was performed in a young patient with cystic fibrosis in an effort to prevent the use of his virgin contralateral veins, which might be used in the future.

  18. Infectious complications associated with the use of central venous catheters in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Gláucia Helena; Romanelli, Roberta M C; Teixeira, Gustavo Machado; Macedo, Antonio V; Chaia, Juliana M C; Nobre, Vandack

    2013-07-01

    In this prospective, observational study, we sought to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of central venous catheter-associated infection in 56 patients admitted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In multivariate analysis, we found a 7-fold higher risk of central line-associated bloodstream infection with central venous catheter insertion in the internal jugular vein as compared with the subclavian access. Patients with central line-associated bloodstream infection had a higher incidence of acute renal failure.

  19. Central venous access for haemodialysis using the Hickman catheter.

    PubMed

    Cappello, M; De Pauw, L; Bastin, G; Prospert, F; Delcour, C; Thaysse, C; Dhaene, M; Vanherweghem, J L; Kinnaert, P

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and seven Hickman catheters for haemodialysis were inserted in 90 end-stage chronic renal failure patients, and were used for 1-448 days (median 45 days). Sixty-nine per cent of the patients were treated without any problem for 1-165 days (median 34 days). Clinically evident complications occurred in 44 catheters inserted in 28 patients, and included outflow obstruction (16.8% of the catheters) and thrombosis (13.1% of the catheters). However, many episodes of clotting or insufficient flow could be corrected by simple manoeuvres. Other less frequent complications were recorded: sepsis, mainly in patients with increased risk factors (4.1% of the catheters), laceration of the catheter (3.7%) and occasional cases of jugular-vein phlebitis, transient palsy of a vocal cord, haematoma of the wound, and bleeding of the cutaneous orifice. No clinical sign of subclavian or innominate-vein thrombosis was observed. Nevertheless, a prospective study conducted in 50 asymptomatic patients demonstrated a 12% rate of anomalies of the venous system, although two-thirds of these alterations were mild and had no consequence. When the present series is compared to the results obtained with currently available percutaneous haemodialysis catheters, it is concluded that the Hickman catheter is a safe, comfortable and efficient vascular access device.

  20. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Nagamallika; Streiff, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) play an essential role in the management of cancer patients. Venous thrombosis is a common complication of CVC. The incidence of CVC-associated venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) is 1.7 per 1000 catheter days. Risk factors for CVC-VTE include the patient's underlying cancer, a history of previous thrombotic events and the location and type of CVC. Anticoagulant prophylaxis is not effective for CVC-VTE. Anticoagulation alone is the preferred initial treatment for CVC-VTE. CVC removal may be considered in refractory cases or when anticoagulation is contraindicated. Thrombolytic therapy is reserved for patients with limb-threatening thrombosis or thrombosis unresponsive to conventional treatment. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 3 months or as long as the CVC is present.

  1. Case report: central venous catheterization via internal jugular vein with associated formation of perioperative venous thrombosis during surgery in the prone position.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kimito; Mimami, Kimito; Iida, Miki; Iida, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    An unusual case of central venous catheter (CVC)-related thrombosis during supine surgery in the prone position is presented. A 76-year-old woman was scheduled for elective surgery to repair a broken lumbar instrument. A single-lumen CVC was inserted via the right internal jugular vein. Surgery was performed in the prone position, with the patient's face directed downward in the standard median position (i.e., no rotation), but with slight forward flexion at the neck. After the surgery, the external jugular vein was dilated, and a postoperative X-ray revealed an infiltrative shadow in the right thoracic cavity. Because cervical echography showed dilated cervical veins with a "moyamoya-type" echo, possibly indicating a thrombus, contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed, revealing a venous thrombus in the right internal jugular vein. An internal jugular venous-velocity measurement suggested that her slightly flexed neck position and her prone position during surgery may have kinked the internal jugular vein, causing engorgement with venous blood. The presence of the internal jugular venous catheter may have created thrombogenic conditions. A patient's position during surgery can reduce deep venous-flow velocity, and venous blood may stagnate, contributing greatly to thrombogenicity. We should consider a patient's position during surgery as a risk factor for thrombus formation, and a careful preoperative evaluation should be made as to which route should be chosen for CVC.

  2. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: central venous catheters (access, care, diagnosis and therapy of complications).

    PubMed

    Pittiruti, Mauro; Hamilton, Helen; Biffi, Roberto; MacFie, John; Pertkiewicz, Marek

    2009-08-01

    When planning parenteral nutrition (PN), the proper choice, insertion, and nursing of the venous access are of paramount importance. In hospitalized patients, PN can be delivered through short-term, non-tunneled central venous catheters, through peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC), or - for limited period of time and with limitation in the osmolarity and composition of the solution - through peripheral venous access devices (short cannulas and midline catheters). Home PN usually requires PICCs or - if planned for an extended or unlimited time - long-term venous access devices (tunneled catheters and totally implantable ports). The most appropriate site for central venous access will take into account many factors, including the patient's conditions and the relative risk of infective and non-infective complications associated with each site. Ultrasound-guided venepuncture is strongly recommended for access to all central veins. For parenteral nutrition, the ideal position of the catheter tip is between the lower third of the superior cava vein and the upper third of the right atrium; this should preferably be checked during the procedure. Catheter-related bloodstream infection is an important and still too common complication of parenteral nutrition. The risk of infection can be reduced by adopting cost-effective, evidence-based interventions such as proper education and specific training of the staff, an adequate hand washing policy, proper choices of the type of device and the site of insertion, use of maximal barrier protection during insertion, use of chlorhexidine as antiseptic prior to insertion and for disinfecting the exit site thereafter, appropriate policies for the dressing of the exit site, routine changes of administration sets, and removal of central lines as soon as they are no longer necessary. Most non-infective complications of central venous access devices can also be prevented by appropriate, standardized protocols for line insertion

  3. [Injuries to blood vessels near the heart caused by central venous catheters].

    PubMed

    Abram, J; Klocker, J; Innerhofer-Pompernigg, N; Mittermayr, M; Freund, M C; Gravenstein, N; Wenzel, V

    2016-11-01

    Injuries to blood vessels near the heart can quickly become life-threatening and include arterial injuries during central venous puncture, which can lead to hemorrhagic shock. We report 6 patients in whom injury to the subclavian artery and vein led to life-threatening complications. Central venous catheters are associated with a multitude of risks, such as venous thrombosis, air embolism, systemic or local infections, paresthesia, hemothorax, pneumothorax, and cervical hematoma, which are not always immediately discernible. The subclavian catheter is at a somewhat lower risk of catheter-associated sepsis and symptomatic venous thrombosis than approaches via the internal jugular and femoral veins. Indeed, access via the subclavian vein carries a substantial risk of pneumo- and hemothorax. Damage to the subclavian vein or artery can also occur during deliberate and inadvertent punctures and result in life-threatening complications. Therefore, careful consideration of the access route is required in relation to the patient and the clinical situation, to keep the incidence of complications as low as possible. For catheterization of the subclavian vein, puncture of the axillary vein in the infraclavicular fossa is a good alternative, because ultrasound imaging of the target vessel is easier than in the subclavian vein and the puncture can be performed much further from the lung.

  4. Correlation between Arterial Lactate and Central Venous Lactate in Children with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Araque, Paula; Yepes, María; Mulett, Hernando; Tovar, Ximena; Rodriguez, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Lactate is an important indicator of tissue perfusion. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences between the arterial and central venous measurement of lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and/or septic shock. Methods. Longitudinal retrospective observational study. Forty-two patients were included between the age of 1 month and 17 years, with a diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock, who were admitted to the intensive care unit of a university referral hospital. The lactate value obtained from an arterial blood sample and a central venous blood sample drawn simultaneously, and within 24 hours of admission to the unit, was recorded. Results. The median age was 2.3 years (RIC 0,3–15), with a predominance of males (71.4%), having a 2.5 : 1 ratio to females. Most of the patients had septic shock (78.5%) of pulmonary origin (50.0%), followed by those of gastrointestinal origin (26.1%). Using Spearman's Rho, a 0.872 (p < 0.001) correlation was found between arterial and venous lactate, which did not vary when adjusted for age (p < 0.05) and the use of vasoactive drugs (p < 0.05). Conclusion. There is a good correlation between arterial and venous lactate in pediatric patients with sepsis and septic shock, which is not affected by demographic variables or type of vasoactive support. PMID:27822386

  5. A rare case of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of the left brachiocephalic vein after central venous catheterization treated with thrombin injection.

    PubMed

    Elsaadany, Amr Maged; Alaeddin, Fida Hasan; Alsuhaibani, Hamad Abdulla

    2014-08-01

    Rupture of the central veins with venous pseudoaneurysm formation is an unusual complication of central venous catheterization. Only seven cases of brachiocephalic venous pseudoaneurysm have been reported in the literature (among these only one was secondary to central venous catheterization). Plain radiographic examination of the chest may show widening of the mediastinum, pleural effusion (haemothorax), and/or opacity overlying the hemithorax of the injured vein. Further evaluation using either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be performed. Venography is considered an important tool, especially when an intervention is planned. We present the first reported case of brachiocephalic vein pseudoaneurysm treated solely with thrombin injection. The imaging, other treatment options, and literature review of brachiocephalic venous pseudoaneurysm are also discussed.

  6. Infective Endocarditis in a Patient with Celiac Disease after Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Suryanarayan; Arobelidze, Salome; Gundelly, Parveen; Changarath Vijayan, Anil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of infective endocarditis secondary to central venous catheters, which is termed as 'healthcare-associated infective endocarditis'. There is an increased risk of getting infective endocarditis in conditions with malnutrition and also if the tip of the central venous catheter is deep in the right atrium close to the tricuspid valve. We present a case of 31-year-old female who had all these risk factors. She was admitted to the hospital for the work up of the weight loss and was diagnosed with celiac disease. Central venous access was obtained because of poor peripheral intravenous access via the peripherally inserted central catheter which was complicated by thrombosis and removed after three days of insertion, and she was started on anticoagulation. Two weeks after being discharged, she presented to the emergency department with fever, shortness of breath, and had signs of congestive heart failure. A computed tomography of the chest for pulmonary embolism was taken and showed small clot burden pulmonary embolism and two cavitary lesions in the right lung. A transthoracic echocardiogram was taken and showed vegetation on the tricuspid valve and blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, a diagnosis of infective endocarditis was made, and she was treated with intravenous antibiotics for a total of six weeks after a long and complicated hospital stay. PMID:28348945

  7. How long should umbilical venous catheters remain in place in neonates who require long-term (≥5-7 days) central venous access?

    PubMed

    Keir, Amy; Giesinger, Regan; Dunn, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In this evidenced-based review, we examine the current available literature to help answer the question 'In neonates requiring long-term central access [patient], does removal of the umbilical venous catheter (UVC) on days 5-7 and replacement with a peripherally inserted central catheter line [intervention] compared with leaving the UVC in situ [comparison] reduce rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections [outcome]?'

  8. β-Catenin-dependent transcription is central to Bmp-mediated formation of venous vessels.

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Takeru; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Terai, Kenta; Tanaka, Toru; Wakayama, Yuki; Ando, Koji; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hajime; Yuge, Shinya; Saito, Yoshinobu; Gemma, Akihiko; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2015-02-01

    β-catenin regulates the transcription of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific gene-targeting analyses in mice have revealed that β-catenin is required for vascular development. However, the precise function of β-catenin-mediated gene regulation in vascular development is not well understood, since β-catenin regulates not only gene expression but also the formation of cell-cell junctions. To address this question, we have developed a novel transgenic zebrafish line that allows the visualization of β-catenin transcriptional activity specifically in ECs and discovered that β-catenin-dependent transcription is central to the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp)-mediated formation of venous vessels. During caudal vein (CV) formation, Bmp induces the expression of aggf1, a putative causative gene for Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, which is characterized by venous malformation and hypertrophy of bones and soft tissues. Subsequently, Aggf1 potentiates β-catenin transcriptional activity by acting as a transcriptional co-factor, suggesting that Bmp evokes β-catenin-mediated gene expression through Aggf1 expression. Bmp-mediated activation of β-catenin induces the expression of Nr2f2 (also known as Coup-TFII), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, to promote the differentiation of venous ECs, thereby contributing to CV formation. Furthermore, β-catenin stimulated by Bmp promotes the survival of venous ECs, but not that of arterial ECs. Collectively, these results indicate that Bmp-induced activation of β-catenin through Aggf1 regulates CV development by promoting the Nr2f2-dependent differentiation of venous ECs and their survival. This study demonstrates, for the first time, a crucial role of β-catenin-mediated gene expression in the development of venous vessels.

  9. [Central venous catheterization by using ultrasound guidance to patients with terminal stage malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masato; Ono, Akiko; Moriguchi, Kazuko; Kanemoto, Kazuo

    2008-11-01

    Central venous catheterization with ultrasound guidance was performed on 41 patients with terminal stage malignant tumors--112 consecutive insertions at our hospital. We performed a total of 112 consecutive insertions: 30 with the skin marking method and 82 with the real time echo guidance method. Catheter insertion was performed to the internal jugular vein in 24, the supra-clavicular approach of the subclavian vein in 4, the infra-clavicular approach of the subclavian vein in 37 and the femoral vein in 47. The success rate was 85.7% (96/112 insertions), and the mean insertion time was 2.2 minutes. The complication rate was 4.5%: arterial puncture for 3 insertions, and mal-position for 2 insertions. In this examination, it was confirmed that central venous catheterization with ultrasound guidance could be performed safely and briefly in such patients.

  10. Update on Insertion and Complications of Central Venous Catheters for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bream, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheters are a popular choice for the initiation of hemodialysis or for bridging between different types of access. Despite this, they have many drawbacks including a high morbidity from thrombosis and infection. Advances in technology have allowed placement of these lines relatively safely, and national guidelines have been established to help prevent complications. There is an established algorithm for location and technique for placement that minimizes harm to the patient; however, there are significant short- and long-term complications that proceduralists who place catheters should be able to recognize and manage. This review covers insertion and complications of central venous catheters for hemodialysis, and the social and economic impact of the use of catheters for initiating dialysis is reviewed. PMID:27011425

  11. Lights, camera and action in the implementation of central venous catheter dressing1

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Maria Verônica Ferrareze; de Godoy, Simone; de Góes, Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira; Rossini, Fernanda de Paula; de Andrade, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to develop and validate an educational digital video on changing the dressing of short-term, non-cuffed, non-tunneled central venous catheters in hospitalized adult patients. Method: this is a descriptive, methodological study based on Paulo Freire's assumptions. The development of the script and video storyboard were based on scientific evidence, on the researchers' experience, and that of nurse experts, as well as on a virtual learning environment. Results: the items related to the script were approved by 97.2% of the nurses and the video was approved by 96.1%. Conclusion: the educational instrument was considered to be appropriate and we believe it will contribute to professional training in the nursing field, the updating of human resources, focusing on the educational process, including distance education. We believe it will consequently improve the quality of care provided to patients with central venous catheters. PMID:26626011

  12. A potentially hazardous complication during central venous catheterization: lost guidewire retained in the patient.

    PubMed

    Song, Yohan; Messerlian, Aram K; Matevosian, Rima

    2012-05-01

    Guidewires are routinely used in the Seldinger technique during central venous catheter placement. A case in which a guidewire was unsuspectingly released and retained in a patient during the catheterization of the internal jugular vein is presented. Physicians from multiple services subsequently failed to detect the retained guidewire on several chest radiographs; however, the guidewire was incidentally discovered after a computed tomographic scan was obtained.

  13. Herpes Zoster Overlying Recently Placed Central Venous Access Site: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rebecca A; Gunnerson, Kyle; Kahler, John

    2017-01-01

    Herpes zoster, commonly called shingles, is a disease that results from the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. Local trauma has been reported as a precipitant for reactivation, but this condition is rarely seen localized to a fresh surgical incision. We present the case of a patient who developed shingles overlying the incision site of a recently buried central venous access port, illustrating the need to consider this diagnosis as a unique imposter of localized infection or reaction at sites of recent procedural trauma.

  14. Central venous catheters in neonates: from simple monolumen to port catheter.

    PubMed

    Caruselli, Marco; Carboni, Laura; Franco, Federica; Torino, Giovanni; Camilletti, Gianfranco; Piattellini, Gianmarco; Giretti, Roberto; Pagni, Raffaella

    2011-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters (CVCs) represents an important step in the management of the surgical, onco-hematology and critically ill patients. CVCs in neonates, like in adult patients, are mainly used to infuse hyperosmolar solutions, to take blood samples and for hemodynamic monitoring. The need for CVCs is higher in neonates than in adults. Poor peripheral access and the high demand for IV access and blood samples are already valuable indications for a CVC.

  15. Clearance of Cellulosimicrobium cellulans Bacteremia in a Child without Central Venous Catheter Removal

    PubMed Central

    Rowlinson, Marie-Claire; Bruckner, David A.; Hinnebusch, Claudia; Nielsen, Karin; Deville, Jaime G.

    2006-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans (formerly known as Oerskovia xanthineolytica) rarely causes human infection. Infections have been reported in immunocompromised hosts or in patients with foreign bodies, such as catheters, where treatment has generally involved removal of the foreign body. We report on a case in which the organism was isolated in multiple blood cultures from a 13-year-old male. After initial therapy failed, treatment with vancomycin and rifampin resulted in infection clearance without removal of the central venous catheter. PMID:16825406

  16. [Survival and complication rate of central venous catheters in newborns].

    PubMed

    García, Heladia Josefa; Torres-Yáñez, Héctor Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: los catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) son de gran utilidad en la práctica médica actual; sin embargo, no están exentos de riesgos, lo que incrementa la morbilidad y mortalidad, especialmente en los recién nacidos (RN). El objetivo fue registrar la frecuencia de complicaciones de los CVC y su duración en RN en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) de tercer nivel. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, prolectivo en la UCIN del Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI. Se registraron variables demográficas, perinatales y del CVC. Resultados: se incluyeron 123 RN a quienes se les colocaron 152 CVC. La técnica más usada para la inserción del CVC fue la punción (percutánea o subclavia) en 56.6 % (n = 86). En 48.7 % (n = 74) de los CVC se presentó alguna complicación. Las más frecuentes fueron colonización en 32.4 % (n = 24) y bacteriemia relacionada con CVC en 27 % (n = 20). La probabilidad de duración de los CVC libres de complicaciones fue de 93.4 % a los 10 días y de 91.4 % a los 17 días. Los catéteres venosos no centrales tuvieron menor probabilidad de duración. Conclusión: la mayoría de las complicaciones de los CVC se presentaron en las primeras dos semanas de haber sido instalados. Las complicaciones infecciosas fueron las más frecuentes.

  17. Simplified point-of-care ultrasound protocol to confirm central venous catheter placement: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sean P.; Assaf, Samer; Lahham, Shadi; Subeh, Mohammad; Chiem, Alan; Anderson, Craig; Shwe, Samantha; Nguyen, Ryan; Fox, John C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current standard for confirmation of correct supra-diaphragmatic central venous catheter (CVC) placement is with plain film chest radiography (CXR). We hypothesized that a simple point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) protocol could effectively confirm placement and reduce time to confirmation. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of patients in the emergency department and intensive care unit who required CVC placement. Correct positioning was considered if turbulent flow was visualized in the right atrium on sub-xiphoid, parasternal or apical cardiac ultrasound after injecting 5 cc of sterile, non-agitated, normal saline through the CVC. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were enrolled. POCUS had a sensitivity of 86.8% (95%CI 77.1%–93.5%) and specificity of 100% (95%CI 15.8%–100.0%) for identifying correct central venous catheter placement. Median POCUS and CXR completion were 16 minutes (IQR 10–29) and 32 minutes (IQR 19–45), respectively. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound may be an effective tool to confirm central venous catheter placement in instances where there is a delay in obtaining a confirmatory CXR. PMID:28123616

  18. Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

  19. Use of PTFE Stent Grafts for Hemodialysis-related Central Venous Occlusions: Intermediate-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, Sanjoy Modabber, Milad; You, John M.; Tam, Paul; Nagai, Gordon; Ting, Robert

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the safety and effectiveness of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) encapsulated nitinol stents (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ) for treatment of hemodialysis-related central venous occlusions. Materials and Methods: Study design was a single-center nonrandomized retrospective cohort of patients from May 2004 to August 2009 for a total of 64 months. There were 14 patients (mean age 60 years, range 50-83 years; 13 male, 1 female). All patients had autogenous fistulas. All 14 patients had central venous occlusions and presented with clinical symptoms of the following: extremity swelling (14%, 2 of 14), extremity and face swelling (72%, 10 of 14), and face swelling/edema (14%, 2 of 14). There was evidence of access dysfunction with decreased access flow in 36% (5 of 14) patients. There were prior interventions or previous line placement at the site of the central venous lesion in all 14 patients. Results were assessed by recurrence of clinical symptoms and function of the access circuit (National Kidney Foundation recommended criteria). Results: Sixteen consecutive straight stent grafts were implanted in 14 patients. Average treated lesion length was 5.0 cm (range, 0.9-7 cm). All 14 patients had complete central venous occlusion (100% stenosis). The central venous occlusions were located as follows: right subclavian and brachiocephalic vein (21%, 3 of 14), right brachiocephalic vein (36%, 5 of 14), left brachiocephalic vein (36%, 5 of 14), and bilateral brachiocephalic vein (7%, 1 of 14). A total of 16 PTFE stent grafts were placed. Ten- or 12-mm-diameter PTFE stent grafts were placed. The average stent length was 6.1 cm (range, 4-8 cm). Technical (deployment), anatomic (<30% residual stenosis), clinical (resolution of symptoms), and hemodynamic (resolution of access dysfunction) success were 100%. At 3, 6, and 9 months, primary patency of the treated area and access circuit were 100% (14 of 14). Conclusions: This PTFE encapsulated stent graft

  20. [Early goal-directed therapy (EDGT) using continuous central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in a patient with septic shock].

    PubMed

    Oyama, Yoshimasa; Goto, Koji; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Kusaka, Jyunya; Hidaka, Seigo; Shingu, Chihiro; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2008-04-01

    Septic shock is an adverse clinical condition resulting in multiple organ failure from global tissue hypoxia. The importance of initial treatment is widely recognized. Thus, guidelines for septic shock recommend early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) during the first six hours of treatment. Central venous oxygen saturation monitoring is useful to maintain adequate tissue oxygen delivery. A newly developed central venous oximetry catheter (PreSep Oximetery Catheter, Edwards Lifesciences) allows continuous and easy monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation. This report shows the usefulness of this catheter in a patient who developed septic shock during an emergency operation for perforated bowel. By using EGDT perioperatively with continuous central venous oximetry, multiple organ failure might be successfully avoided.

  1. Comparison between noninvasive measurement of central venous pressure using near infrared spectroscopy with an invasive central venous pressure monitoring in cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, N.; Singh, Naveen G.; Nagaraja, P. S.; Sarala, B. M.; Prabhushankar, C. G.; Dhananjaya, Manasa; Manjunatha, N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Central venous pressure (CVP) measurement is essential in the management of certain clinical situations, including cardiac failure, volume overload and sepsis. CVP measurement requires catheterization of the central vein which is invasive and may lead to complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of measurement of CVP using a new noninvasive method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in a group of cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Methodology: Thirty patients in cardiac surgical ICU were enrolled in the study who had an in situ central venous catheter (CVC). Sixty measurements were recorded in 1 h for each patient. A total of 1800 values were compared between noninvasive CVP (CVPn) obtained from Mespere VENUS 2000 CVP system and invasive CVP (CVPi) obtained from CVC. Results: Strong positive correlation was found between CVPi and CVPn (R = 0.9272, P < 0.0001). Linear regression equation - CVPi = 0.5404 + 0.8875 × CVPn (r2 = 0.86, P < 0.001), Bland–Altman bias plots showed mean difference ± standard deviation and limits of agreement: −0.31 ± 1.36 and − 2.99 to + 2.37 (CVPi–CVPn). Conclusion: Noninvasive assessment of the CVP based on NIRS yields readings consistently close to those measured invasively. CVPn may be a clinically useful substitute for CVPi measurements with an advantage of being simple and continuous. It is a promising tool for early management of acute state wherein knowledge of CVP is helpful. PMID:27397443

  2. Extravasation of parenteral alimentation fluid into the renal pelvis--a complication of central venous catheter in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Nadroo, A M; al-Sowailem, A M

    2001-01-01

    Many complications of central venous catheters, which include perforation of the vessel walls and extravasation of the infusate into pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, have been reported. We report an infant with a central venous catheter in inferior vena cava who experienced extravasation of parenteral alimentation fluid into the right renal pelvis secondary to perforation of the renal vein. To our knowledge, this rare complication has not been reported earlier.

  3. Measurement of central venous pressure and determination of hormones in blood serum during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, K.

    1981-01-01

    A Spacelab experiment is described which proposes to obtain data on the degree of engorgement of the cephalad circulation during weightlessness by recording central venous pressure. Of practical importance is the question of how close the astronauts are to pulmonary edema and whether the pressure falls toward normal during the time of the mission. Another experiment to investigate deviations from normal fluid and mineral metabolism, possibly initiated by the central engorgement of the low pressure system, is discussed. Hormones responsible for the control of water and mineral balance (vasopressin, catecholamines, renin, aldosterone, corticosteroids, and prostaglandin E1) will be analyzed from blood samples.

  4. Safety and effectiveness of central venous catheterization in patients with cancer: prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yun, Jina; Kim, Han Jo; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Bae, Sang Byung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Nam Su; Lee, Kyu Taek; Park, Seong Kyu; Won, Jong-Ho; Park, Hee Sook; Hong, Dae Sik

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of each type of central venous catheters (CVC) in patients with cancer. We prospectively enrolled patients with cancer who underwent catheterization involving a subclavian venous catheter (SVC), peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC), or chemo-port (CP) in our department. From March 2007 to March 2009, 116 patients underwent 179 episodes of catheterization. A SVC was inserted most frequently (46.4%). Fifty-four complications occurred (30.1%): infection in 23 cases, malpositioning or migration of the tip in 18 cases, thrombosis in eight cases, and bleeding in five cases. Malpositioning or migration of the tip occurred more frequently with a PICC (P<0.001); infection occurred more often with a tunneled catheter (P=0.028) and was observed more often in young patients (P=0.023). The catheter life span was longer for patients with solid cancer (P=0.002) than for those with hematologic cancer, with a CP (P<0.001) than a PICC or SVC, and for an indwelling catheter with image guidance (P=0.014) than a blind procedure. In conclusion, CP is an effective tool for long term use and the fixation of tip is important for the management of PICC.

  5. The insertion of chronic indwelling central venous catheters (Hickman lines) in interventional radiology suites.

    PubMed

    Page, A C; Evans, R A; Kaczmarski, R; Mufti, G J; Gishen, P

    1990-08-01

    The insertion of Hickman central venous catheters for chronic venous access is a procedure usually conducted in the operating theatre under local or general anaesthesia. In a prospective study over a one year period we have assessed the feasibility of radiologists inserting central venous catheters for long term access. A subclavicular approach to the subclavian vein with prior digital subtraction angiography or video imaging of the vein was the technique of choice. Thirty-one Hickman catheters were inserted in 21 patients. All but two patients had a haematological malignancy. Ages ranged from 19 to 77 years. The mean time for insertion was 43 min (range 20-80 min). The catheters remained in situ for between 2 days and 242 days with a mean of 86 days. There was one documented line infection; nine patients had episodes of septicaemia with identified organisms, and a further six had pyrexias of unknown origin during the line indwelling period. There were four documented line and or ipsilateral subclavian vein thromboses, and one death occurred within 36 hours of the procedure. We conclude that radiological placement is an excellent alternative to 'blind' surgical placement. Screening during insertion provides immediate facilities for correction of malposition and monitoring of immediate complications. The time taken for catheter insertion did not impede the usual patient throughout in the interventional radiology suite.

  6. Tunneled central venous catheter exchange: techniques to improve prevention of air embolism.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Umberto G; Torcia, Pierluca; Rigamonti, Paolo; Colombo, Francesca; Giordano, Antonino; Gallieni, Maurizio; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Malfunctioning tunneled hemodialysis central venous catheters (CVCs), because of thrombotic or infectious complications, are frequently exchanged. During the CVC exchanging procedure, there are several possible technical complications, as in first insertion, including air embolism. Prevention remains the key to the management of air embolism. Herein, we emphasize the technical tricks capable of reducing the risk of air embolism in long-term CVC exchange. In particular, adoption of a 5 to 10 degrees Trendelenburg position, direct puncture of the previous CVC venous lumen for guide-wire insertion, as opposed to guide-wire introduction after cutting the CVC, a light manual compression of the internal jugular vein venotomy site after catheter removal. The Valsalva maneuvre in collaborating patients, valved introducers, and correction of hypovolemia are also useful precautions. Principles of air embolism diagnosis and treatment are also outlined in the article.

  7. A Missing Guide Wire After Placement of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Kashif, Muhammad; Hashmi, Hafiz; Jadhav, Preeti; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 50 Final Diagnosis: Retained guidewire removal by interventional radiology Symptoms: Swelling Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Fluoroscopic retrieval of the guidewire Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Unusual setting of medical care Background: Central venous catheterization is a common tool used in critically ill patients to monitor central venous pressure and administer fluids and medications such as vasopressors. Here we present a case of a missing guide wire after placement of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), which was incidentally picked up by bedside ultrasound in the intensive care unit. Case Report: A 50-year-old Hispanic male was admitted to the intensive care unit for alcohol intoxication. He was managed for septic shock and required placement of a peripherally inserted central line in his left upper extremity for antibiotics and vasopressor administration. A bedside ultrasound performed by the intensivist to evaluate upper extremity swelling revealed a foreign body in the left arm. Percutaneous procedure by Interventional radiologist was required for retrieval of the guidewire. Conclusions: Guide wire related complications are rarely reported, but are significantly associated with mortality and morbidity. The use of ultrasound guidance placement of PICC lines decreases the risk of complications, provides better optimal vein selection, and enhances success. PMID:27920421

  8. Transhepatic central venous catheter for long-term access in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Mortell, Alan; Said, Hanan; Doodnath, Reshma; Walsh, Kevin; Corbally, Martin

    2008-02-01

    Vascular access in paediatric patients with chronic and/or life-threatening illness is crucial to survival. Access is frequently lost in this group because of thrombosis, infection, or displacement, and vascular options can quickly be exhausted. The last resort access procedure is generally a direct atrial catheter inserted via a thoracotomy. A viable alternative is the percutaneous transhepatic Broviac catheter (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 5 patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic Broviac insertion for long-term access over a 4-year period in a single institution. Four of the patients (80%) had a significant cardiac abnormality, with 1 patient requiring long-term parenteral nutrition after complicated necrotizing enterocolitis. All patients had significant caval thrombosis, which precluded them having placement of a standard percutaneous or openly placed central catheter. Of the 5 patients, 2 (40%) died of cardiac-related illnesses. Of the 3 surviving patients, 2 had functioning catheters electively removed because they were no longer required. One catheter was removed at thoracotomy for right atrial perforation because of catheter erosion. Vascular access in paediatric patients with chronic and/or life-threatening illness is crucial to survival. Transhepatic central venous catheters are a feasible, reliable, and relatively easily placed form of central access in patients with multiple venous thromboses requiring long-term access. This route should be considered in paediatric patients requiring central access in preference to a thoracotomy.

  9. The use of central venous lines in the treatment of chronically ill children.

    PubMed

    Barczykowska, Ewa; Szwed-Kolińska, Marzena; Wróbel-Bania, Agnieszka; Ślusarz, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of chronic diseases in children is a special medical problem. Maintaining constant access to the central vascular system is necessary for long-term hemato-oncological and nephrological therapies as well as parenteral nutrition. Providing such access enables chemotherapic treatment, complete parenteral nutrition, long-term antibiotic therapy, hemodialysis, treatment of intensive care unit patients, monitoring blood pressure in the pulmonary artery and stimulation of heart rate in emergency situations as well as treatment of patients suffering from complications, especially when chances of access into peripheral veins are exhausted. Continuous access to the central vascular system is desirable in the treatment of chronically ill children. Insertion of a central venous catheter line eliminates the unnecessary pain and stress to a child patient accompanying injection into peripheral vessels. In order to gain long-term and secure access to the central venous system, respecting the guidelines of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention contained in the updated 'Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections' is necessary.

  10. Late onset of clinically apparent central vein stenosis due to previous central venous catheter in a patient with inherited thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Antoniadi, Georgia; Pissas, Georgios; Leivaditis, Konstantinos; Stefanidis, Ioannis

    2014-04-01

    We describe a case of a patient with a functional kidney transplant who was admitted to our department with clinically evident central vein stenosis (CVS) 7 years after the removal of a central venous catheter (CVC) from the right internal jugular vein. The catheter was used as a hemodialysis access for a 2-month period. In the interval before his last admission, the patient suffered two episodes of deep vein thrombosis. Investigation revealed heterozygosity for factor V Leiden, the most common inherited thrombophilia encountered in 5% of Caucasians, and anticoagulation treatment was started. Magnetic resonance angiography showed stenosis just after the convergence of the right subclavian vein with the internal jugular vein to the innominate vein. Transluminal angioplasty restored venous patency and right upper arm edema resolved. Coexistence of CVS, accompanied by hemodynamic changes and endothelial dysfunction, with thrombophilia fulfill all the elements of the Virchow's triad. Therefore, the patient was at great risk for central vein thrombosis, from which he was possibly protected by the early administration of anticoagulant treatment. This case indicates that CVS can be asymptomatic for several years after CVC removal and also raises the question if thrombophilia workup and investigation for CVS may be beneficial in every patient with CVC placement in order to avoid any harmful outcomes.

  11. [Balloon dilatation and stent implantation in malignant and benign stenoses of the central venous system].

    PubMed

    Weber, J

    2001-06-01

    Compared with the excellent good results on the arterial side, venous angioplasty combined with stent-application was described relatively late in the literature, dealing in the majority of cases with palliative tumour stenoses of the superior and inferior vena cava. Recanalization of benign stenoses, especially of the pelvic venous spur (May/Thurner; syn. Pelvic compression syndrome, Cockett) was realized so far only in a limited number of cases. We have performed this interventional therapy since 1991 in 21 patients (female: 16, male: 5), with good long-term results in 18 cases. According to the special patho-anatomy of the "spur", developing intimal proliferation and progressive stenosis at the left-sided ilio-caval junction in about 20% of the average adult population, a restrictive indication is, however, mandatory. According to strong clinical symptoms (severe varicosis and leg oedema at the left-sided lower extremity), phlebographic and functional parameters (won by central venous blood pressure measurements) are indicating selected cases for this curative treatment.

  12. A Retrospective Clinical Study: Complications of Totally Implanted Central Venous Access Ports

    PubMed Central

    Seok, June Pill; Cho, Hyun Min; Ryu, Han Young; Hwang, Wan Jin; Sung, Tae Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background When managing patients who require repeated venous access, gaining a viable intravenous route has been problematic. To improve the situation, various studies on techniques for venous access have been conducted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical results of complications following totally implanted central venous access port (TICVAP) insertion. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 163 patients, from December 2008 to March 2013. The occurrence of complications was studied in three separate periods of catheter use: the intraoperative period, postoperative period, and period during the treatment. Results A total of 165 cases of TICVAP insertions involving 156 patients were included in the final analysis. There were 35 complications (21%) overall. Among these, 31 cases of complications (19%) occurred during the treatment period and the other 4 cases were intraoperative and postoperative complications (2%). There were no statistically significant differences in age and gender of the patients between the two groups to be risk factors (p=0.147, p=0.08). Past history of chemotherapy, initial laboratory findings, and the locations of TICVAP insertion also showed no statistical significance as risk factors (p>0.05). Conclusion Because the majority of complications occurred after port placement and during treatment, meticulous care and management and appropriate education are necessary when using TICVAPs. PMID:24570862

  13. Comparison of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Fahri; Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Eker, Hatice Evren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the technical success and complication rates of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric patients which have not been reported previously. In a 4-year period, 859 ultrasonography-guided central vein catheterizations in 688 adult patients and 247 catheterizations in 156 pediatric patients were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age was 56.3 years (range, 18 to 95 years) for adults and 3.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.3 years) for children. The preferred catheterization site was internal jugular vein in 97% of adults and 85% of children. The technical success rate, mean number of punctures, and rate of single wall puncture were 99.4%, 1.04 (range, 1-3), and 83% for adults and 90.3%, 1.25 (range, 1-5), and 49% for children, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Complication rates were 2.3% and 2.4% for adults and children, respectively (p > 0.05). Major complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax were not seen in any group. In conclusion, ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization has a high technical success rate, lower puncture attempt rate, and higher single wall puncture rate in adults compared to children. Complication rates are comparable in the two groups.

  14. [Significance of ultrasonics in the placement of a central venous catheter].

    PubMed

    Sauer, W; Luft, D; Risler, T; Renn, W; Eggstein, M

    1988-09-16

    An ultrasound investigation was undertaken of the neck region of 42 patients with normal neck anatomy in order to determine whether the results of ultrasound-gained topographical data provided pointers to the choice of entry site to the internal jugular vein (IJV). In addition, the IJV was punctured under ultrasound control in 23 patients in an intensive care unit in whom there was a problem of increased bleeding tendency, anatomical difficulty or previously failed "blind" puncture. In all of them a central venous catheter was placed without complication by the Seldinger technique via the primary chosen point for puncture. An approach through the sternocleidomastoid muscle, between the cricoid level and the "central" place of puncture between the two bellies of the sternocleidomastoid muscle proved to be the most satisfactory compromise between easy application of the ultrasound head, large vein diameter and reduction of any risk of mistakenly puncturing artery or pleura. This approach has to be varied according to the ultrasound findings. It is concluded from this experience that ultrasound is suitable for the placement of central venous catheters. But since the equipment is bulky it cannot be used in an emergency.

  15. [Bleeding during central venous catheterization : Cannot intubate, cannot ventilate due to massive cervical hematoma].

    PubMed

    Engelen, C; Trebes, C; Czarnecki, S; Junger, A

    2016-03-01

    Central venous catheterization is an invasive procedure which can be associated with severe complications. These include in particular unsuccessful arterial puncture and vascular injuries, which in addition to loss of blood can lead to massive soft tissue swelling. A 63-year-old female patient developed massive cervical bleeding during ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein puncture and the rapidly enlarging hematoma led to compromisation of the airway. A cannot intubate, cannot ventilate situation developed and the subsequent hypoxia led to cardiac arrest that was only resolved after emergency surgical tracheotomy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  16. Pneumomediastinum complicated by subclavian central venous catheterization in a severe thoracic trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Chih; Tzao, Chi; Liaw, Wen-Jinn; Horng, Huei-Chi; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Wong, Chih-Shung; Wu, Ching-Tang

    2007-09-01

    Pneumomediastinum is a rare event in subclavian central venous catheterization. However in severe thoracotraumatized patients, such as with bilateral hemopneumothorax, the catherization may be hazardous and made complex by occurrence pneumomediastinum, even the procedure is rightly carried out. We suggest that in such a risky condition, if it is mandatory, it should be carried out in a more placid condition, such as avoidance of high PEEP ventilation, setting lower tidal volume, or brief interruption of positive ventilation, to reduce the likelihood of unperceivable pneumomediastinum.

  17. Non-insertion-related complications of central venous catheterization--temporary vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Sebastjan; Pecovnik-Balon, Breda; Ekart, Robert; Hojs, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed 309 central venous catheters (CVC) inserted in 147 hemodialysis patients before the maturation of the first or new arteriovenous fistula. One clinical manifestations of sepsis after CVC insertion was found. In all, 33.7% of the catheters were removed because of early minor complications: CVC occlusion, inadequate blood flow in CVC, shattered suture and malposition of CVC, fever, signs of infection at the site of CVC insertion, and bleeding at the site of CVC insertion. The most frequently isolated pathogenic bacteria at the tips of the catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci highly sensitive to vancomycin and gentamicin.

  18. Expect the unexpected: malposition of a large-bore central venous catheter in the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Wolfram; Schummer, Claudia; Gorse, Andrej; Becker, Udo; Marx, Christiane; Brauer, Martin

    2004-12-01

    We report the case of a femoral vein cannulation in a critically ill trauma patient with the malposition of a large-bore central venous catheter in the urinary bladder. Recognition of the malposition was hampered by bloody tamponade of the bladder in the context of blunt thoraco-abdominal trauma with kidney and liver laceration. A high index of clinical suspicion and the institution of adequate therapy were the key to achieving a successful clinical outcome. We discuss the anatomy of femoral veins, including their close relation to a distended bladder. The application of ultrasound even in emergency situations is stressed.

  19. A Rare Complication of Central Venous Catheter Extravasation in a Preterm Neonate: Hemidiaphragmatic Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, C.; Dubillot, D.; Lardy, H.; Sirinelli, D.; Saliba, E.; Lopez, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a preterm neonate born at 26 weeks' of gestation diagnosed with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. This paralysis was a consequence of a phrenic nerve injury due to extravasation of hyperosmolar parenteral nutrition fluid in the upper thorax. Chest X-rays and ultrasonography confirmed the diagnosis. The neonate was treated with prolonged respiratory support and did not require surgical treatment. This report describes a case of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis as a complication of central venous catheter insertion. In neonates, spontaneous recovery of diaphragmatic paralysis is possible. This study concludes that recovery of extravasation injury-induced phrenic nerve palsy in the context of conservative management is possible.

  20. Improving Patient Safety with a Mobile Application for Patients with Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters (PICC).

    PubMed

    Nüssli, Stephan; Schnyder, Florian; Zenhäusern, Raphael; Bosshart, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) are of growing interest because they allow intravenous therapies up to several months. The appropriate management of the PICCs is crucial to minimize complications and largely depends on the right information for everyone who cares for the patient. To reach this goal we develop the mobile application "PICC App" to provide the necessary information for all involved persons in the outpatient setting. We expect to be able to report about the PICC App and the results of the usability evaluation with pilot users.

  1. Thrombus on Indwelling Central Venous Catheters: The Histopathology of 'Fibrin Sheaths'

    SciTech Connect

    Suojanen, James Norman; Brophy, David Paul; Nasser, Imad

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: Central venous catheters (CVC) may fail for many reasons, though 'fibrin sheaths' blocking catheter ports are usually implicated. We examined the sheaths removed from dialysis catheters to determine their histopathology.Methods: Ten catheter strippings were performed and the removed material was studied grossly and microscopically.Results: The histologic specimens showed thrombus both with and without a proteinaceous sheath.Conclusion: Dialysis catheters fail because of thrombus formation. This can occur in either the absence or presence of a protein coating on the catheter, the so-called 'fibrin sheath.'.

  2. Evaluation of the elastic behaviour of central venous PVC, polyurethane and silicone catheters.

    PubMed

    Cervera, M; Dolz, M; Herraez, J V; Belda, R

    1989-02-01

    Eighty used and 20 new silicone, polyurethane and polyvinylchloride central venous catheters were tested to establish the Young's modulus and the bending stiffness of the catheters and their introducers. The catheters were subjected to longitudinal traction forces and their lengthening measured. Young's modulus and the geometric moment of inertia were then calculated. It is shown that polyurethane catheters show least variation in their elastic characteristics, and that silicone catheters offer least resistance to bending and do not change their elastic properties after use. All catheters were equally unlikely to cause thrombus production if this is related to excessive bending stiffness.

  3. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade caused by a central venous catheter in a very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Chioukh, Fatma-Zohra; Ameur, Karim Ben; Hmida, Hayet Ben; Monastiri, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. One of the life-threatening complications is pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade; however, it is potentially reversible when it is caught in time. The authors present a case of cardiac tamponade following umbilical venous catheterisation in a neonate. The patient was diagnosed at the appropriate time by echocardiography and urgent pericardiocentesis proved lifesaving.

  4. Comparison of NHSN-defined central venous catheter day counts with a method that accounts for concurrent catheters.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Thomas R; Johnson, James G; Anders, Theodore; Hayes, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) day definitions do not consider concurrent CVCs. We examined traditional CVC day counts and resultant central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates with a CVC day definition that included concurrent CVCs. Accounting for concurrent CVCs increased device day counts by 8.5% but only mildly impacted CLABSI rates.

  5. The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view for central venous catheter placement and catheter change over guidewire.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Chan; Klebach, Christian; Heinze, Ingo; Hoeft, Andreas; Baumgarten, Georg; Weber, Stefan

    2014-12-23

    The supraclavicular fossa ultrasound view can be useful for central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Venipuncture of the internal jugular veins (IJV) or subclavian veins is performed with a micro-convex ultrasound probe, using a neonatal abdominal preset with a probe frequency of 10 Mhz at a depth of 10-12 cm. Following insertion of the guidewire into the vein, the probe is shifted to the right supraclavicular fossa to obtain a view of the superior vena cava (SVC), right pulmonary artery and ascending aorta. Under real-time ultrasound view, the guidewire and its J-tip is visualized and pushed forward to the lower SVC. Insertion depth is read from guidewire marks using central venous catheter. CVC is then inserted following skin and venous dilation. The supraclavicular fossa view is most suitable for right IJV CVC insertion. If other insertion sites are chosen the right supraclavicular fossa should be within the sterile field. Scanning of the IJVs, brachiocephalic veins and SVC can reveal significant thrombosis before venipuncture. Misplaced CVCs can be corrected with a change over guidewire technique under real-time ultrasound guidance. In conjunction with a diagnostic lung ultrasound scan, this technique has a potential to replace chest radiograph for confirmation of CVC tip position and exclusion of pneumothorax. Moreover, this view is of advantage in patients with a non-p-wave cardiac rhythm were an intra-cardiac electrocardiography (ECG) is not feasible for CVC tip position confirmation. Limitations of the method are lack of availability of a micro-convex probe and the need for training.

  6. Monitoring Central Venous Catheter Resistance to Predict Imminent Occlusion: A Prospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Joshua; Tang, Li; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Brennan, Rachel C.; Shook, David R.; Stokes, Dennis C.; Monagle, Paul; Curtis, Nigel; Worth, Leon J.; Allison, Kim; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term central venous catheters are essential for the management of chronic medical conditions, including childhood cancer. Catheter occlusion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent complications, including bloodstream infection, venous thrombosis, and catheter fracture. Therefore, predicting and pre-emptively treating occlusions should prevent complications, but no method for predicting such occlusions has been developed. Methods We conducted a prospective trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of catheter-resistance monitoring, a novel approach to predicting central venous catheter occlusion in pediatric patients. Participants who had tunneled catheters and were receiving treatment for cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation underwent weekly catheter-resistance monitoring for up to 12 weeks. Resistance was assessed by measuring the inline pressure at multiple flow-rates via a syringe pump system fitted with a pressure-sensing transducer. When turbulent flow through the device was evident, resistance was not estimated, and the result was noted as “non-laminar.” Results Ten patients attended 113 catheter-resistance monitoring visits. Elevated catheter resistance (>8.8% increase) was strongly associated with the subsequent development of acute catheter occlusion within 10 days (odds ratio = 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–21.5; p <0.01; sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 67%). A combined prediction model comprising either change in resistance greater than 8.8% or a non-laminar result predicted subsequent occlusion (odds ratio = 6.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0–22.8; p = 0.002; sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 63%). Participants rated catheter-resistance monitoring as highly acceptable. Conclusions In this pediatric hematology and oncology population, catheter-resistance monitoring is feasible, acceptable, and predicts imminent catheter occlusion. Larger studies are required to validate

  7. Congestive kidney failure in cardiac surgery: the relationship between central venous pressure and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Ivancarmine; Gaudino, Mario; Ronco, Claudio; Lau, Christopher; Ivascu, Natalia; Girardi, Leonard N

    2016-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in cardiac surgery has traditionally been linked to reduced arterial perfusion. There is ongoing evidence that central venous pressure (CVP) has a pivotal role in precipitating acute renal dysfunction in cardiac medical and surgical settings. We can regard this AKI driven by systemic venous hypertension as 'kidney congestive failure'. In the cardiac surgery population as a whole, when the CVP value reaches the threshold of 14 mmHg in postoperative period, the risk of AKI increases 2-fold with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.16-3.40. In cardiac surgery subsets where venous hypertension is a hallmark feature, the incidence of AKI is higher (tricuspid disease 30%, carcinoid valve disease 22%). Even in the non-chronically congested coronary artery bypass population, CVP measured 6 h postoperatively showed significant association to renal failure: risk-adjusted OR for AKI was 5.5 (95% CI 1.93-15.5; P = 0.001) with every 5 mmHg rise in CVP for patients with CVP <9 mmHg; for CVP increments of 5 mmHg above the threshold of 9 mmHg, the risk-adjusted OR for AKI was 1.3 (95% CI 1.01-1.65; P = 0.045). This and other clinical evidence are discussed along with the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, involving the supremacy of volume receptors in regulating the autonomic output in hypervolaemia, and the regional effect of venous congestion on the nephron. The effect of CVP on renal function was found to be modulated by ventricular function class, aetiology and acuity of venous congestion. Evidence suggests that acute increases of CVP should be actively treated to avoid a deterioration of the renal function, particularly in patients with poor ventricular fraction. Besides, the practice of treating right heart failure with fluid loading should be avoided in favour of other ways to optimize haemodynamics in this setting, because of the detrimental effects on the kidney function.

  8. A comparative analysis of radiological and surgical placement of central venous catheters

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Kieran D.; Fisher, Ross; Warnock, Neil; Winfield, David A.; Reed, Malcolm W.; Gaines, Peter A.

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To compare the differences in practice and outcome of all radiologically and surgically placed central venous catheters retrospectively over a 2-year period simultaneously, at a single institution. Methods.A total of 253 Hickman catheters were inserted in 209 patients; 120 were placed radiologically in 102 patients and 133 were placed surgically in 107 patients. The indication was chemotherapy in 76% of radiological and in 47% of surgical cases; the remainder were for total parenteral nutrition and venous access. Results. There were 6 (4.5%) primary surgical failures and a further 17 (13%) surgical cases requiring multiple placement attempts. Pneumothorax occurred once (0.8%) surgically and four times (3.3%) radiologically. There were no radiological primary misplacements but there were five (3.7%) surgical ones. Catheter or central vein thrombosis occurred in four (3.3%) radiological and five (3.7%) surgical cases. The rate of infection per 1000 catheter-days was 1.9 in radiologically placed catheters and 4.0 in surgically placed ones (p<0.001). Average catheter life-span was similar for the two placement methods (100{+-}23 days). Conclusion. Radiological placement is consistently more reliable than surgical placement. There are fewer placement complications and fewer catheter infections overall.

  9. Diagnosis of thrombosis by catheter phlebography after prolonged central venous catheterization.

    PubMed Central

    Brismar, B; Hårdstedt, C; Jacobson, S

    1981-01-01

    Sixty central venous catheterizations in 53 patients were prospectively studied with respect to phlebographic findings after prolonged parenteral nutrition. Phlebography was performed by a special technique on completion of the intravenous therapy. Under fluoroscopic control, the central venous catheter was slowly removed, while simultaneously contrast medium was continuously injected through it. Two types of thrombosis were demonstrated--sleeve thrombosis, on 25 occasions (42%), and mural veno-occlusive thrombosis, on five occasions (8%). On removal of the catheter the sleeve thrombosis peeled off the catheter and in several cases it was noticed that parts of the sleeve thrombus or the entire sleeve became detached and were carried away with the blood flow. Although the sleeve thrombus seldom gave rise to any symptoms, this type of thrombosis is of great importance in view of the risk of pulmonary embolism, especially in connection with removal of the catheter. With use of the described phlebographic technique thrombi of this type can be visualized. Images Fig. 1A. Fig. 1B. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:7305496

  10. Panitumumab-Associated Encephalopathy after Accidental Intra-arterial Application through Dislocated Central Venous Access Device

    PubMed Central

    Pikija, Slaven; Pilz, Georg; Gschwandtner, Gerald; Rösler, Cornelia; Schlick, Konstantin; Greil, Richard; Sellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity and immune-related side effects are increasingly recognized with the use of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy. Here, we report a patient who developed of acute-onset encephalopathy and coma, which began shortly after administration of panitumumab for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Echocardiography revealed that the drug had been infused into the left cardiac ventricle via a dislocated central venous line. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging disclosed multiple cortical hyperintensities, which were preferentially located in the frontal lobes. While the neurological condition improved within a few days, the patient died 4 weeks later. It seems likely that the administration of the antibody via the intra-arterial route contributed to the development of this condition. Toxic encephalopathy may be a hitherto unrecognized complication of panitumumab treatment and should be taken into consideration in patients developing CNS symptoms undergoing this therapy. PMID:27872609

  11. Peripherally inserted central venous catheter safety in burn care: a single-center retrospective cohort review.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ryan E; Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Bolourani, Siavash; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line for central venous access in thermally injured patients has increased in recent years despite a lack of evidence regarding safety in this patient population. A recent survey of invasive catheter practices among 44 burn centers in the United States found that 37% of burn units use PICC lines as part of their treatment protocol. The goal of this study was to compare PICC-associated complication rates with the existing literature in both the critical care and burn settings. The methodology involved is a single institution retrospective cohort review of patients who received a PICC line during admission to a regional burn unit between 2008 and 2013. Fifty-three patients were identified with a total of seventy-three PICC lines. The primary outcome measurement for this study was indication for PICC line discontinuation. The most common reason for PICC line discontinuation was that the line was no longer indicated (45.2%). Four cases of symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (5.5%) and three cases of central line-associated bloodstream infection (4.3%, 2.72 infections per 1000 line days) were identified. PICC lines were in situ an average of 15 days (range 1 to 49 days). We suggest that PICC line-associated complication rates are similar to those published in the critical care literature. Though these rates are higher than those published in the burn literature, they are similar to central venous catheter-associated complication rates. While PICC lines can be a useful resource in the treatment of the thermally injured patient, they are associated with significant and potentially fatal risks.

  12. Evaluation of antiseptic-impregnated central venous catheters for prevention of catheter-related infection in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Sheng, W H; Ko, W J; Wang, J T; Chang, S C; Hsueh, P R; Luh, K T

    2000-09-01

    Central venous catheterization represents a significant medical advancement, particularly in the treatment of critical ill. However, there is a high risk of central venous catheters-related infection. A novel antiseptic central venous catheter, made of polyurethane and impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine, was developed to reduce the risk of catheters-related infection. In this study, we did a randomized clinical study to determine the efficacy by using antiseptic catheters for the prevention of central venous catheters-related infection in the intensive care units. A total of 204 patients with 235 central venous catheters were studied at the surgical intensive care units at National Taiwan University Hospital between November 1998 and June 1999. Participants received either a standard triple-lumen polyurethane catheter or an antiseptic catheter (Arrow International, Reading, Pennsylvania, USA). Both were indistinguishable from each other. Compared to standard polyurethane catheters, antiseptic catheters were less likely to be colonized by microorganisms when they were cultured at the removal (8.0 versus 20.0 colonized catheters per 100 catheters; relative risk 0.34 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.74]; p<0.01). There was no significant differences between both groups in catheter-related infections (0.9 versus 4.9 infections per 100 catheters; relative risk 0.17 [95% CI, 0.03 to 1.15]; p = 0.07). Gram-positive cocci and fungi were more likely to colonize in the standard polyurethane catheters (p = 0.06 and 0.04, compared to antiseptic catheters respectively). Two of our cases in the control group died directly due to catheter-related candidemia. No adverse reactions such as hypersensitivity or leukopenia were found in the antiseptic catheter group. Our study showed that central venous catheters with antiseptic coating were safe and had less risk of colonization of bacteria and fungi than standard catheters in the critically ill patients.

  13. Association Between Disruption of Fibrin Sheaths Using Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty Balloons and Late Onset of Central Venous Stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Nina Mojibian, Hamid; Pollak, Jeffrey; Tal, Michael

    2011-02-15

    To compare the rates of central venous stenosis in patients undergoing hemodialysis who underwent disruption of fibrin sheath with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloons and those who underwent over-the-wire catheter exchange. This study is a retrospective review of 209 percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption and 1304 over-the-wire catheter exchange procedures performed in 753 patients. Approval from the Human Investigations Committee was obtained for this study. Up to 10-year follow-up was performed. A {chi}{sup 2} test was used to compare the rates of central venous stenosis after balloon disruption versus catheter exchange. A t-test was used to compare time to central venous stenosis development. Of the 753 patients in the study, 127 patients underwent balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and 626 had catheter exchange. Within the balloon disruption group, 18 (14.2%) of 127 patients subsequently developed central venous stenosis, compared with 44 (7.0%) of 626 in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). Time to central venous stenosis development was approximately 3 years in both groups and not significantly different (1371 and 1010 days, P = 0.20). A total of 25.2% of patients in the balloon disruption group had four or more subsequent catheter exchanges, versus 12.6% in the catheter exchange group (P < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). In conclusions, there is a possible association between percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon disruption of fibrin sheath and late-onset central venous stenosis. Because venography was not routinely performed in catheter exchange patients, future randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  14. Guidelines for the prevention of central venous catheter-related blood stream infections with prostanoid therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doran, A K; Ivy, D D; Barst, R J; Hill, N; Murali, S; Benza, R L

    2008-07-01

    Intravenous prostanoids are the backbone of therapy for advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and have improved long-term outcome and quality of life. Currently, two prostanoids are approved by the US Food and Drug administration for parenteral administration: epoprostenol (Flolan) and treprostinil (Remodulin). Chronic intravenous therapy presents considerable challenges for patients and caregivers who must learn sterile preparation of the medication, operation of the pump, and care of the central venous catheter. Patients are routinely counseled and advised regarding the risks of CR-BSIs and catheter care before central line insertion. Central line infections as well as bacteremia are well documented risks of chronic intravenous therapy and may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports have suggested a possible increase in CR-BSI; therefore, the Scientific Leadership Council of the Pulmonary Hypertension Association decided to provide guidelines for good clinical practice regarding catheter care. Although data exits regarding patients with central venous catheters and the risk of blood stream infections in patients with cancer or other disorders, there is little data regarding the special needs of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension requiring central venous access. These guidelines are extrapolated from the diverse body of literature regarding central venous catheter care.

  15. Prospective monocentric study of non-tunnelled central venous catheter-related complications in hematological patients.

    PubMed

    Nosari, Anna Maria; Nador, Guido; De Gasperi, Andrea; Ortisi, Giuseppe; Volonterio, Alberto; Cantoni, Silvia; Nichelatti, Michele; Marbello, Laura; Mazza, Ernestina; Mancini, Valentina; Ravelli, Erica; Ricci, Francesca; Ciapanna, Denis; Garrone, Federica; Gesu, Giovanni; Morra, Enrica

    2008-11-01

    Indwelling central venous catheters (CVCs) are used in the management of hematologic patients. However, insertion and maintenance of CVCs are susceptible to complications. Study design and methods data concerning 388 consecutive catheterisations, performed in oncohematologic patients between April 2003 and December 2004, were prospectively collected. At insertion thrombocytopenia was present in 109 cases (28.1%) and neutropenia in 67 (17.3%). Hemorrhage after CVC insertion occurred in five thrombocytopenic patients (1.3%). The median duration of catheterisation was 18.8 days (range 1-89), longer in the 7-French CVCs utilised in leukemic patients (24.3 days) and shorter in 12-French CVCs (11 days), used for PBSC harvesting. Deep venous thrombosis was diagnosed in 13 cases (3.3%). Ninety-two catheterisations (12.6/1000 days-catheter) were complicated by infections: 19 local infections (4.8%) and 73 (18.8%) bacteraemias of which 45 (11.6%) were catheter-related, mainly due to Gram positive germs (32/45, 71.1%). The frequency of catheter-related bacteraemia was 7.2 events/1000 days-catheter. Thirteen CVCs were removed due to thrombosis, 15 due to infections, 20 due to malfunction, the remaining 333 at patients discharge. At univariate analysis high-dose chemotherapy (p = 0.013), 7-Fr lumen (p = 0.023), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (p = 0.001), duration of neutropenia >10 days and length of catheterisation were significantly correlated to infection. Multivariate analysis confirmed the duration of catheterisation, AML and high-dose chemotherapy as risk factors. Even though hematological in-patients are at increased risk for bleeding and infections, non-tunnelled CVCs offer a safe venous access also in patients affected by severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged neutropenia.

  16. Transbrachial Access for Radiologic Manipulation of Problematic Central Venous Catheters in a Pediatric Population

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Sandeep Hogan, Mark J.

    2010-08-15

    A transfemoral venous approach is the current standard for accessing malpositioned and fractured central venous catheters (CVCs). The purpose of this study was (1) to describe a transbrachial approach for correction and (2) to assess the success and failure of this method in a pediatric population. A 12-year retrospective review of all patients referred for correction of malpositioned, retained, and fractured CVCs was conducted. Based on the performing interventionalist's preference, transbrachial or transfemoral venous sheaths where placed under ultrasonographic guidance. Diagnostic angiographic catheters and snares were used to manipulate the catheters. Patients who underwent the transfemoral approach received postprocedural monitoring for 4 hours, whereas patients who underwent the transbrachial approach were allowed unrestricted activity immediately after hemostasis was obtained. Technical success of malpositioned lines was defined (1) by final position in the superior vena cava or at the cavoatrial junction on postprocedural imaging or (2) by successful removal of retained catheter fragments, if present. Transbrachial approach was used for access in 11 patients. Problematic lines included malpositioned (n = 10) and retained (n = 1) lines. The ipsilateral arm was used for transbrachial entry in 7 patients. Initial use of angiographic catheters was attempted in 7 cases, of which 4 were successful. All 3 unsuccessful cases had tips positioned in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein, and these were successfully repositioned using snares. A combination of snares and angiographic catheters was used in 2 cases. Snares were used for all other cases. Technical success by way of the transbrachial approach was observed in all cases. Periprocedural follow-up demonstrated no immediate complications. We conclude that the transbrachial approach is a suitable alternative to the transfemoral approach for catheter tip position correction. Tip malposition in the contralateral

  17. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous central venous catheterization in infants: Learning curve and related complications

    PubMed Central

    Omid, Mohammad; Rafiei, Mohammad Hadi; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Memarzade, Mehrdad; Riahinejad, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was performed to evaluate the learning curve and related complications of ultrasound (US) guided central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in infants. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in Imam Hosein Hospital of Isfahan from September 2014 to March 2015. Participants were infants consecutively candidate for CVC insertion. Three steps were designed to complement the learning. For each step of learning, 20 patients were considered and for every patient one CVC was inserted: (1) In the first step, venous puncture and guide wire passage was performed by an experienced radiologist and the surgeon was taught how to do it, then CVC was placed by the surgeon. (2) In the second step, venous puncture and guide-wire passage was performed by the surgeon under the supervision of the same radiologist, and then CVC was placed by the surgeon. (3) In the third step, US-guided CVC insertion was performed by the surgeon completely, and the radiologist came to the operating room only if it was necessary. In each of these steps, the time spent of the US probe on the skin until the guide wire passage into the vein was recorded for every patient. All perioperative complications were recorded. Results: The mean point for the time spent of the US probe on the skin until the guide wire passage into the vein was 84.9 ± 13.6, 119.1 ± 15.2, and 90.3 ± 11.2 s in the step 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference between the frequencies of complications among tree steps. Conclusion: US-guided percutaneous CVC insertion is a safe and reliable method which can be easily and rapidly learned. PMID:26601087

  18. Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference and the effect of venous hyperoxia: A limiting factor, or an additional marker of severity in shock?

    PubMed

    Saludes, P; Proença, L; Gruartmoner, G; Enseñat, L; Pérez-Madrigal, A; Espinal, C; Mesquida, J

    2016-11-10

    Central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (PcvaCO2) has demonstrated its prognostic value in critically ill patients suffering from shock, and current expert recommendations advocate for further resuscitation interventions when PcvaCO2 is elevated. PcvaCO2 combination with arterial-venous oxygen content difference (PcvaCO2/CavO2) seems to enhance its performance when assessing anaerobic metabolism. However, the fact that PCO2 values might be altered by changes in blood O2 content (the Haldane effect), has been presented as a limitation of PCO2-derived variables. The present study aimed at exploring the impact of hyperoxia on PcvaCO2 and PcvaCO2/CavO2 during the early phase of shock. Prospective interventional study. Ventilated patients suffering from shock within the first 24 h of ICU admission. Patients requiring FiO2 ≥ 0.5 were excluded. At inclusion, simultaneous arterial and central venous blood samples were collected. Patients underwent a hyperoxygenation test (5 min of FiO2 100%), and arterial and central venous blood samples were repeated. Oxygenation and CO2 variables were calculated at both time points. Twenty patients were studied. The main cause of shock was septic shock (70%). The hyperoxygenation trial increased oxygenation parameters in arterial and venous blood, whereas PCO2 only changed at the venous site. Resulting PcvaCO2 and PcvaCO2/CavO2 significantly increased [6.8 (4.9, 8.1) vs. 7.6 (6.7, 8.5) mmHg, p 0.001; and 1.9 (1.4, 2.2) vs. 2.3 (1.8, 3), p < 0.001, respectively]. Baseline PcvaCO2, PcvaCO2/CavO2 and ScvO2 correlated with the magnitude of PO2 augmentation at the venous site within the trial (ρ -0.46, p 0.04; ρ 0.6, p < 0.01; and ρ 0.7, p < 0.001, respectively). Increased PcvaCO2/CavO2 values were associated with higher mortality in our sample [1.46 (1.21, 1.89) survivors vs. 2.23 (1.86, 2.8) non-survivors, p < 0.01]. PcvaCO2 and PcvaCO2/CavO2 are influenced by oxygenation changes not related to flow. Elevated

  19. Central Retinal Venous Pressure in Eyes of Normal-Tension Glaucoma Patients with Optic Disc Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ko Eun; Kim, Dong Myung; Flammer, Josef; Kim, Kyoung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare central retinal venous pressure (CRVP) among eyes with and without optic disc hemorrhage (ODH) in bilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients and NTG eyes without an episode of ODH. Methods In this prospective study, 22 bilateral NTG patients showing a unilateral ODH and 29 bilateral NTG patients without an episode of ODH were included. Eyes were categorized into group A (n = 22, eyes with ODH), group B (n = 22, fellow eyes without ODH), and group C (n = 29, NTG eyes without an episode of ODH). A contact lens ophthalmodynamometer was used to measure CRVP and central retinal arterial pressure (CRAP). Results Intraocular pressure (IOP) measured on the day of contact lens ophthalmodynamometry showed no difference among groups. However, the mean baseline IOP in group A was significantly lower than that in group C (P = .008). The CRVP in group A (29.1 ± 10.8 mmHg) was significantly lower than that in group C (40.1 ± 8.8 mmHg, P = .001), but similar to that in group B (30.5 ± 8.7 mmHg, P = .409). A similar relationship was noted for CRAP. No significant eye-associated variable for ODH was found in group A and B by conditional logistic regression analysis (all P > 0.05). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis in groups A and C revealed that low mean baseline IOP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.98, P = 0.043) and low CRVP (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.95, P = 0.003) were associated with ODH. Conclusions CRVP was lower in NTG eyes with ODH than in eyes without an episode of ODH, but similar to that of fellow eyes without ODH. These imply less likelihood of association between increased central retinal venous resistance and ODH. PMID:25996599

  20. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Harsha V.; Patil, Virendra C.; Ramteerthkar, M. N.; Kulkarni, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of central venous catheter-related infections (CRIs) and to identify the factors influencing it. So far, there are very few studies that have been conducted on CRBSI in the intensive care unit in India. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study carried out in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) over a period of 1 year from January to December 2004. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients with indwelling central venous catheters of age group between 20 and 75 years were included. The catheters were cultured using the standard semiquantitative culture (SQC) method. Statistical analysis used SPSS-10 version statistical software. Results: A total of 54 CVC catheters with 319 catheter days were included in this study. Of 54 patients with CVCs studied for bacteriology, 39 (72.22%) catheters showed negative SQCs and also negative blood cultures. A total of 15 (27.77%) catheters were positive on SQC, of which 10 (18.52%) were with catheter-associated infection and four (7.41%) were with catheter-associated bacteremia; the remaining one was a probable catheter-associated bacteremia. CRIs were high among catheters that were kept in situ for more than 3 days and emergency procedures where two or more attempts were required for catheterization (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis of covariance duration of catheter in situ for >3 days, inexperienced venupucturist, more number of attempts and emergency CVC were associated with more incidence of CVCBSIs, with P <0.02. The duration of catheter in situ was negatively correlated (-0.53) and number of attempts required to put CVC was positively correlated (+0.39) with incidence of CVCBSIs. Sixty-five percent of the isolates belonged to the CONS group (13/20). Staphylococcus epidermidis showed

  1. Elevated central venous pressure: a consequence of exercise training-induced hypervolemia?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mack, G. W.; Nadel, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    Resting blood volumes and arterial and central venous pressures (CVP) were measured in 14 men before and after exercise training to determine whether training-induced hypervolemia is accompanied by a change in total vascular capacitance. In addition, resting levels of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (Ald), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured. The same measurements were conducted in seven subjects who did not undergo exercise and acted as controls. Exercise training consisted of 10 wk of controlled cycle exercise for 30 min/day, 4 days/wk at 75-80% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max). A training effect was verified by a 20% increase in VO2max, a resting bradycardia, and a 9% increase in blood volume. Mean arterial blood pressure was unaltered by exercise training, but resting CVP increased by 16% (P less than 0.05). The percent change in blood volume from before to after training was linearly related to the percent change in CVP (r = 0.903, P less than 0.05). As a consequence of elevations in both blood volume and CVP, the volume-to-pressure ratio was unchanged after exercise training. Plasma AVP, ANP, Ald, and NE were unaltered. Our results indicate that elevated CVP is a consequence of training-induced hypervolemia without alteration in total effective venous capacitance.

  2. Elevated central venous pressure: A consequence of exercise training-induced hypervolemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Mack, Gary W.; Nadel, Ethan R.

    1990-01-01

    Resting plasma volumes, and arterial and central venous pressures (CVP) were measured in 16 men before and after exercise training to determine if training-induced hypervolemia could be explained by a change in total vascular capacitance. In addition, resting levels of plasma vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), aldosterone (ALD), and norepinephrine (NE) were measured before and after training. The same measurements of vacular volume, pressures, and plasma hormones were measured in 8 subjects who did not undergo exercise and acted as controls. The exercise training program consisted of 10 weeks of controlled cycle exercise for 30 min/d, 4 d/wk at 75 to 80 percent of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A training effect was verified by a 20 percent increase in VO2max, a resting bradycardia, and a 370 ml (9 percent) increase in blood volume. Mean arterial blood pressure was unaltered by exercise training, but resting CVP increased. The percent change in blood volume from before to after training was linearly related to the percent change in CVP. As a consequence of elevations in both blood volume and CVP, the volume-to-pressure ratio was essentially unchanged following exercise training. Plasma AVP, ANP, ALD, and NE were unaltered. Results indicate that elevated CVP is a consequence of training-induced hypervolemia without alteration in total effective venous capacitance. This may represent a resetting of the pressure-volume stimulus-response relation for regulation of blood volume.

  3. Central venous catheter placement in the inferior vena cava via the direct translumbar approach.

    PubMed

    Elduayen, B; Martínez-Cuesta, A; Vivas, I; Delgado, C; Pueyo, J C; Bilbao, J I

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and efficacy of placing tunneled central venous access catheters (CVA) in the inferior vena cava (IVC) via a direct translumbar approach. Between August 1994 and July 1998, 50 CVA (Hickman 13.5 F) were placed in the IVC via a direct translumbar approach in 46 patients (10 males, 36 females) with a mean age of 39.9 years (age range 10-87 years). The indications were chemotherapy administration plus leukoaphoresis (n = 39), bone marrow transplantation (n = 2) and hemodialysis (n = 5). The reasons for placing the CVA in the IVC were cosmetic (n = 34), supradiaphragmatic venous thrombosis (n = 8), previous catheter infection (n = 2), and non-functioning arteriovenous fistula (n = 2). There were no immediate complications. The mean period of time the CVA was in place was 3 months (15 days to 15 months), during which the function was excellent. The commonest late complication was infection (4 local, 6 bacteremia). Others included: pain (n = 2), ureteric fistula (n = 1), pericatheter fibrin sheath formation (n = 6) and catheter-tip impaction (n = 2). Two catheters were damaged due to postprocedural inappropriate manipulations and two others fell off due to incorrect fixation. Due to these complications, it was necessary to remove ten catheters, replace an additional four and reposition two. Direct translumbar catheterization of the IVC is a safe and effective way of placing a long-term CVA with a moderate complication rate.

  4. Knowledge Level on Administration of Chemotherapy through Peripheral and Central Venous Catheter among Oncology Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Kapucu, Sevgisun; Özkaraman, Ayşe Özaydın; Uysal, Neşe; Bagcivan, Gulcan; Şeref, Ferhan Çetin; Elöz, Aygül

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge levels of oncology nurses about peripheral and central venous catheter during their chemotherapy administration. Methods: Data collection of this descriptive study was started on April 15, 2015–July 15, 2015. The data presented in this summary belong to 165 nurses. Data were collected with data collection form including questions related to sociodemographic qualifications and knowledge levels of nurses. Data collection forms were E-mailed to the members of Turkish Oncology Nursing Society. Data presented with numbers, percentages, and mean ± standard deviation. Results: The mean age of nurses was 33.60 ± 7.34 years and mean duration for oncology nursing experience was 2.65 ± 0.91 years. Nurses had correct information about the importance of selecting peripheral venous catheter and choosing the placement area for chemotherapy administration (63.6%), control of catheter before the administration (93.9%), influence of chemotherapeutic agent on length of catheter (40.6%), and management of extravasation (75.7%). Nurses also had correct information about the first use of port catheter (67.3%) and checking the catheter whether it is working properly or not (75.8%). Conclusions: In General, nurses’ level of knowledge related to catheter is 50% and higher. It is recommended to increase the knowledge of nurses about evidence-based information for catheter care as a step to safe chemotherapy practice. PMID:28217732

  5. Risk factors, management and primary prevention of thrombotic complications related to the use of central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard

    2012-09-01

    An adequate vascular access is of importance for the treatment of patients with cancer and complex illnesses in the intensive, perioperative or palliative care setting. Deep vein thrombosis and thrombotic occlusion are the most common complications attributed to central venous catheters in short-term and, especially, in long-term use. In this review we will focus on the risk factors, management and prevention strategies of catheter-related thrombosis and occlusion. Due to the lack of randomised controlled trials, there is still controversy about the optimal treatment of catheter-related thrombotic complications, and therapy has been widely adopted using the evidence concerning lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Given the increasing use of central venous catheters in patients that require long-term intravenous therapy, the problem of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis can be expected to increase in the future. We provide data for establishing a more uniform strategy for preventing, diagnosing and treating catheter-related thrombotic complications.

  6. A patient with an uncommon complication from insertion of a central venous catheter: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Imran; Khalid, Tabindeh J; DiGiovine, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background A 72 year old male was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with septic shock. Case presentation A left subclavian central venous catheter was inserted on the day of admission whose tip was pushing against the wall of the vessel lumen. The patient's condition improved with treatment, but three days later had a new episode of acute hypotension. CT scan of the chest showed that the catheter had eroded through the superior vena cava wall. Conclusion The catheter was pulled out and patient recovered from the complication with supportive therapy. Care should be taken that the tip of the catheter is in the center of the vessel lumen to avoid this rare, but potentially life threatening, complication. PMID:19036145

  7. [Spiral x-ray computed tomography in the diagnosis of central venous catheterization complications].

    PubMed

    Forneris, G; Quarello, F; Pozzato, M; Vaudano, G P

    2001-01-01

    In this work we report our initial experience on the utilisation of the spiral tomodensitometry in the study of the vascular complications due to the catheterization of the internal jugular vein. We present the results of a systematic search of vascular lesions after removal of an indwelling catheter in a group of 18 patients and describe a few cases of acute complications where the use of TDMS has been very useful in the diagnostic workout. The results confirm the risks associated with the catheterization of the internal jugular vein, showing a frequency of lesions of various degree in about 50% of the cases. Moreover, we discuss some aspects of the thrombotic complications in the patients carrying a central venous catheter and the advantages of the diagnostic application of the spiral tomodensitometry.

  8. [Failure to Remove Long-Term Indwelling Central Venous Catheters in Two Patients].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Kazuya; Kato, Kenichi; Suzuki, Michiko; Nakayama, Manabu; Tamura, Akio; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Tomabechi, Makiko; Matsuo, Mikaru; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Ehara, Shigeru

    2015-09-01

    The use ofa central venous(CV)port system has become common for the treatment of patients with tumors. We report on the failure to remove CV catheters in 2 patients. The first patient was a 50 years woman with acute myeloid leukemia. She underwent CV port implantation via the left brachial approach 11 years previously. The second patient was an 80 years man with a lower gingival carcinoma. He underwent CV port implantation via the left brachial approach 6 years previously. CV catheter removal was attempted in both patients, but was unsuccessful because of strong adhesion to the vessel wall. Based on our experience, if catheter removal is impossible, its retention is more suitable.

  9. A survey of pediatric hematology/oncology specialists regarding management of central line associated venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Char M; Sauck, Emily; Raffini, Leslie J

    2016-12-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) account for the largest proportion of thrombotic events in pediatric patients. Questions remain regarding adequate treatment and prevention methods. We surveyed pediatric hematology/oncology specialists, using hypothetical cases to assess management strategies for acute CVC thrombosis and secondary prevention. Survey respondents varied in the use of the thrombophilia evaluation (33.3%, 41/123) and duration of treatment (6 weeks: 54.1%, 66/122). Secondary CVC prophylaxis was utilized by 36.6% (45/123) of respondents and by 24.4% (30/123) but only if there was a documented thrombophilia. This heterogeneity highlights the need for clinical studies to address these important clinical questions.

  10. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection with Kocuria kristinae in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Eichiro; Yaoita, Hisao; Ichinoi, Natsuko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Kure, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    Kocuria kristinae is a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Gram-positive coccus found in the environment and in normal skin and mucosa in humans; however, it is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and is considered a nonpathogenic bacterium. We describe a case of catheter-related bacteremia due to K. kristinae in a young adult with propionic acidemia undergoing periodic hemodialysis. The patient had a central venous catheter implanted for total parenteral nutrition approximately 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms because of repeated acute pancreatitis. K. kristinae was isolated from two sets of blood cultures collected from the catheter. Vancomycin followed by cefazolin for 16 days and 5-day ethanol lock therapy successfully eradicated the K. kristinae bacteremia. Although human infections with this organism appear to be rare and are sometimes considered to result from contamination, physicians should not underestimate its significance when it is isolated in clinical specimens. PMID:28194286

  11. Mini-review: Antimicrobial central venous catheters--recent advances and strategies.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cláudia; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2011-07-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) nowadays constitute critical devices used in medical care, namely in intensive care units. However, CVCs also represent one of the indwelling medical devices with enhanced risk of nosocomial device-related infection. Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality, often justifying premature catheter removal and an increase in costs and use of resources. Adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on the surfaces of indwelling catheters is elemental to the onset of pathogenesis. Seeking the prevention of CVC colonisation and CRI, a variety of approaches have been studied, tested and, in some cases, already applied in clinical practice. This review looks at the current preventive strategies often used to decrease the risk of CRIs due to colonization and biofilm formation on catheter surfaces, as well as at the more recent approaches under investigation.

  12. Percutaneously inserted long-term central venous catheters in pigs of different sizes.

    PubMed

    Larsson, N; Claesson Lingehall, H; Al Zaidi, N; Claesson, J; Jensen-Waern, M; Lehtipalo, S

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are used for long-term biomedical experiments requiring repeated injections, infusions and collections of blood samples. Thus, it is necessary for vascular catheters to be indwelling to avoid undue stress to the animals and the use of restraints. We propose a refined model of percutaneous insertion of long-term central venous catheters to minimize the surgical trauma and postoperative complications associated with catheter insertion. Different sizes of needles (18 Ga versus 21 Ga) for initial puncture of the veins were compared. In conventional pigs weighing less than 30 kg, catheter insertion may be facilitated by using a microintroducer set with a 21 Ga needle. In pigs weighing 50 kg, a standard 18 Ga needle may be preferable.

  13. Management of occlusion and thrombosis associated with long-term indwelling central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Jacquelyn L.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Reiss, Ulrike; Wilimas, Judith A.; Metzger, Monika L.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Howard, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term central venous catheters (CVC) facilitate care for patients with chronic illnesses, but catheter occlusions and catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) are common complications. This review summarizes management of CVC and CRT. Mechanical CVC occlusions require cause-specific therapy; whereas, thrombotic occlusions usually resolve with thrombolytic therapy, such as alteplase. Prophylaxis with thrombolytic flushes may decrease CVC infections and CRT, but confirmatory studies and cost-effectiveness analysis are needed. Risk factors for CRT include previous catheter infections, malposition of the catheter tip, and prothrombotic states. CRT can lead to catheter infection, pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. CRT is diagnosed primarily using Doppler ultrasound or venography and treated with anticoagulation for 6 weeks to a year, depending on the extent of the thrombus, response to initial therapy, and whether thrombophilic factors persist. Prevention of CRT includes proper positioning of the CVC and prevention of infections; anticoagulation prophylaxis is not recommended at present. PMID:19595350

  14. Three-Dimensional Imaging of a Central Venous Dialysis Catheter Related Infected Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Diana Yuan Yng; Green, Darren; Kalra, Philip A.; Abidin, Nik

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is becoming widely available and with novel applications. We report an interesting case of a 68-year-old lady with a central venous thrombosis coincident with both a dialysis catheter infection and a recent pacemaker insertion. Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was unable to delineate whether the thrombosis was involved with the pacemaker wire or due to the tunneled catheter infection. The use of 3D echocardiography was able to produce distinct images aiding diagnosis. This circumvented the need for invasive investigations and inappropriate, high-risk removal of the pacing wire. This case highlights the emerging application of 3D echocardiography in routine nephrology practice. PMID:26688761

  15. [Multimedia application in mobile platform for teaching the measurement of central venous pressure].

    PubMed

    Galvão, Elizabeth Correia Ferreira; Püschel, Vilanice Alves Araújo

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess an application software for the teaching of the procedure Manual Measurement of the Central Venous Pressure which can be used in mobile devices. The research was conducted in three phases (Survey of needs; Methodology for multimedia application development and evaluation of the multimedia application).The multimedia was the method chosen because it favors an encouraging and dynamic environment, as it integrates images and texts into an application software available for cell phones, constituting a mobile and autonomous means for learning. The research allowed to demonstrate the feasibility of the development from this pedagogical tool and open up prospects for believing that, in Nursing education, the technology available can uncover new ways of learning in a meaningful manner.

  16. Defining the surface anatomy of the central venous system in children.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Gregory P; Pak, Neda; Taghavi, Kiarash; Iwan, Tom; Dumble, Charlotte; Davies-Payne, David; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric emergency physicians, pediatric critical care specialists, and pediatric surgeons perform central venous catheterization in many clinical settings. Complications of the procedure are not uncommon and can be fatal. Despite the frequency of application, the evidence-base describing the surface landmarks involved is missing. The aim of the current study was to critically investigate the surface markings of the central venous system in children. The superior vena cava/right atrial (SVC/RA) junction, superior vena cava (SVC) formation, and brachiocephalic vein (BCV) formation were examined independently by two investigators. Three hundred computed tomography (CT) scans collected across multiple centers were categorized by age group into: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, and 8-11 years. Scans with pathology that distorted or obscured the regional anatomy were excluded. The BCV formation was commonly found behind the ipsilateral medial clavicular head throughout childhood. This contrasts with the variable levels of SVC formation, SVC length, and SVC/RA junction. In the youngest group, SVC formation was most commonly at the second costal cartilage (CC), but moved to the first CC/first intercostal space (ICS) as the child grew. The SVC/RA junction was at the fourth CC in the youngest group and moved to the third CC/third ICS as the child grew. This study demonstrates the variable anatomy of SVC formation and the SVC/RA junction with respect to rib level. This variability underscores the unreliability of surface anatomical landmarks of the SVC/RA junction as a guide to catheter tip position.

  17. Central Venous Pressure After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Does it Predict Postoperative Mortality or Renal Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Judson B.; Peterson, Eric D.; Wojdyla, Daniel; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Smith, Peter K.; Milano, Carmelo A.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2015-01-01

    Background While hemodynamic monitoring is often performed following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the relationship between postoperative central venous pressure (CVP) measurement and clinical outcomes is unknown. Methods Detailed clinical data were analyzed from 2,390 randomly selected patients undergoing high risk CABG or CABG/valve at 55 hospitals participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' National Cardiac Surgery Database from 2004 to 2005. Eligible patients underwent elective/urgent isolated CABG with an ejection fraction < 40%, or elective/urgent CABG at age ≥65 years with diabetes or a glomerular filtration rate 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Correlation between post-operative CVP and in-hospital / 30-day mortality and renal failure was assessed as a continuous variable, both unadjusted and after adjusting for important clinical factors using logistic regression modeling. Results Mean age was 72 years, 54% of patients had diabetes mellitus, 49% were urgent procedures, and mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 105 minutes. Patients’ CVP 6 hours post-operation was strongly associated with in-hospital and 30 day mortality: odds ratio (OR) 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23, 1.87) for every 5 mmHg increase in CVP, p<0.0001. This association remained significant after risk-adjustment for cardiac index: adjusted OR 1.44 (95% CI 1.10, 1.89), p<0.01. A model adjusting for cardiac index also revealed increased incidence of mortality or renal failure: adjusted OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.28, 1.86) for every 5 mmHg increase in CVP, p<0.0001. Conclusion Patients’ central venous pressure at 6 hours following CABG surgery was highly predictive of operative mortality or renal failure, independent of cardiac index and other important clinical variables. Future studies will need to assess whether post-operative CVP can be used to guide intervention and improve outcomes. PMID:25035048

  18. Body surface infrared thermometry in patients with central venous cateter-related infections

    PubMed Central

    Silvah, José Henrique; de Lima, Cristiane Maria Mártires; de Unamuno, Maria do Rosário Del Lama; Schetino, Marco Antônio Alves; Schetino, Luana Pereira Leite; Fassini, Priscila Giácomo; Brandão, Camila Fernanda Costa e Cunha Moraes; Basile, Anibal; da Cunha, Selma Freire Carvalho; Marchini, Julio Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if body surface temperature close to the central venous catheter insertion area is different when patients develop catheter-related bloodstream infections. Methods Observational cross-sectional study. Using a non-contact infrared thermometer, 3 consecutive measurements of body surface temperature were collected from 39 patients with central venous catheter on the following sites: nearby the catheter insertion area or totally implantable catheter reservoir, the equivalent contralateral region (without catheter), and forehead of the same subject. Results A total of 323 observations were collected. Respectively, both in male and female patients, disregarding the occurrence of infection, the mean temperature on the catheter area minus that on the contralateral region (mean ± standard deviation: -0.3±0.6°C versus -0.2±0.5ºC; p=0.36), and the mean temperature on the catheter area minus that on the forehead (mean ± standard deviation: -0.2±0.5°C versus -0.1±0.5ºC; p=0.3) resulted in negative values. Moreover, in infected patients, higher values were obtained on the catheter area (95%CI: 36.6-37.5ºC versus 36.3-36.5ºC; p<0.01) and by temperature subtractions: catheter area minus contralateral region (95%CI: -0.17 - +0.33ºC versus -0.33 - -0.20ºC; p=0.02) and catheter area minus forehead (95%CI: -0.02 - +0.55ºC versus -0.22 - -0.10ºC; p<0.01). Conclusion Using a non-contact infrared thermometer, patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections had higher temperature values both around catheter insertion area and in the subtraction of the temperatures on the contralateral and forehead regions from those on the catheter area. PMID:26466058

  19. Comparing the Use of Global Rating Scale with Checklists for the Assessment of Central Venous Catheterization Skills Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Irene W. Y.; Zalunardo, Nadia; Pachev, George; Beran, Tanya; Brown, Melanie; Hatala, Rose; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The use of checklists is recommended for the assessment of competency in central venous catheterization (CVC) insertion. To explore the use of a global rating scale in the assessment of CVC skills, this study seeks to compare its use with two checklists, within the context of a formative examination using simulation. Video-recorded performances of…

  20. Should we stop using the determination of central venous pressure as a way to estimate cardiac preload?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Nañez, Manuel Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The determination of the values of central venous pressure has long been used as a guideline for volumetric therapy in the resuscitation of the critical patient, but the performance of such parameter is currently being questioned as an effective measurement of cardiac preload. This has aroused great interest in the search for more accurate parameters to determine cardiac preload and a patient's blood volume. Goals and Methods: Based on literature currently available, we aim to discuss the performance of central venous pressure as an effective parameter to determine cardiac preload. Results and Conclusion: Estimating variables such as end-diastolic ventricular area and global end-diastolic volume have a better performance than central venous pressure in determining cardiac preload. Despite the best performance of these devices, central venous pressure is still considered in our setting as the most practical and most commonly available way to assess the patient's preload. Only dynamic variables such as pulse pressure change are superior in determining an individual's blood volume. PMID:24893061

  1. Computed Tomography-Guided Central Venous Catheter Placement in a Patient with Superior Vena Cava and Inferior Vena Cava Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, Maria A.; Shaw, Dennis W.W.; Schaller, Robert T. Jr.

    1999-01-15

    An 18-year-old man with a gastrointestinal hypomotility syndrome required lifelong parenteral nutrition. Both the superior and inferior vena cava were occluded. Computed tomography guidance was used to place a long-term central venous catheter via a large tributary to the azygos vein.

  2. The Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors and Central Venous Catheter Infections in the Acutely Ill Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    patient. Extrinsic factors include central venous catheter insertion variables such as type of catheter, experience of person who inserted catheter...contact, common-vehicle, airborne and vectorborne. Diseases or infections that are spread by contact require exposure to the source either directly ( person ...to- person ), indirectly (microorganism is passed to an intermediate object) or droplet spread (passage of infectious agent through air). Illnesses

  3. Are chest X-rays mandatory following central venous recatheterization over a wire?

    PubMed

    Amshel, C E; Palesty, J A; Dudrick, S J

    1998-06-01

    Exchange of a central venous catheter (CVC) over a guidewire is a frequent clinical procedure, especially in surgical intensive care units. At most hospitals, a chest X-ray (CXR) is obtained routinely after recatheterization to confirm accurate catheter placement and to rule out complications such as pneumothorax. We hypothesized that the incidence of complications after central venous recatheterization over a guidewire is too low to justify automatic performance and the associated expense of a routine postprocedure CXR. Initially we undertook a retrospective study of a total of 295 patients with a Swan-Ganz catheter (SGC), of which 92 SGCs were exchanged over a guidewire for a CVC between July 1, 1994, and June 30, 1996, at a university-affiliated community hospital. Age, gender, duration of SGC placement, type of central catheter used for exchange with the SGC, and CXRs and their reports were noted. From July 1, 1996, to October 1, 1997, the study has been continued prospectively. Thus far, in this ongoing investigation, we have identified 505 patients (201 prospective) who had a SGC placed, 210 (116 prospective) of whom had their SGC removed electively, leaving the SGC introducer in place for advancement of a guidewire, and subsequent replacement by a CVC. Of all the patients with a SGC, 40 per cent had the SGC replaced with a CVC over a guidewire, and follow-up CXRs and their reports confirmed that all exchanged triple lumen catheter tips were appropriately positioned in the superior vena cava with zero complications. With the advent of managed care, a savings of $115/CXR (one view X-ray and reading cost at our hospital) would be gained without the added risk of radiation exposure to the patient if a CXR were not mandatory after an uncomplicated guidewire replacement of a central line. It appears from these data that a CXR is not justified as a routine study after replacement of all CVCs over a wire from the standpoints of both patient risk and expense

  4. Echocardiographic diagnosis of air embolism associated with central venous catheter placement: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maddukuri, Prasad; Downey, Brian C; Blander, Jessica A; Pandian, Natesa G; Patel, Ayan R

    2006-04-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a valuable tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected air embolism. This report describes the presentation and evaluation of a critically ill woman with spontaneous air embolism occurring during a central venous catheter replacement. Bedside TTE established the diagnosis of air embolism, allowing prompt initiation of appropriate therapy. This case report highlights this uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of central line placement and the utility of echocardiography in its evaluation.

  5. We still go for the jugular: implications of the 3SITES central venous catheter study for nephrology.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Christina M; Vassalotti, Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    The 3SITES study randomly assigned a nontunneled central venous catheter site in over 3000 adults treated in intensive care units. The subclavian site was associated with a lower rate of short-term complications, including catheter-related bloodstream infection and deep venous thrombosis, compared to the femoral or internal jugular site. Nephrologists should be aware of this study and should continue to advocate for alternatives to subclavian vein catheter placement in patients with chronic kidney disease who are expected to require arteriovenous access for dialysis in the future.

  6. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade caused by a central venous catheter in a very low birth weight infant

    PubMed Central

    Chioukh, Fatma-Zohra; Ameur, Karim Ben; Hmida, Hayet Ben; Monastiri, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. One of the life-threatening complications is pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade; however, it is potentially reversible when it is caught in time. The authors present a case of cardiac tamponade following umbilical venous catheterisation in a neonate. The patient was diagnosed at the appropriate time by echocardiography and urgent pericardiocentesis proved lifesaving. PMID:28154705

  7. Evidence-based consensus on the insertion of central venous access devices: definition of minimal requirements for training.

    PubMed

    Moureau, N; Lamperti, M; Kelly, L J; Dawson, R; Elbarbary, M; van Boxtel, A J H; Pittiruti, M

    2013-03-01

    There is a lack of standard minimal requirements for the training of insertion techniques and maintenance of central venous access devices (CVADs). An international evidence-based consensus task force was established through the World Congress of Vascular Access (WoCoVA) to provide definitions and recommendations for training and insertion of CVADs. Medical literature published from February 1971 to April 2012 regarding 'central vascular access', 'training', 'competency', 'simulation', and 'ultrasound' was reviewed on Pubmed, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases. The GRADE and the GRADE-RAND methods were utilized to develop recommendations. Out of 156 papers initially identified, 83 papers described training for central vascular access placement. Sixteen recommendations are proposed by this task force, each with an evidence level, degree of consensus, and recommendation grade. These recommendations suggest central venous access education include didactic or web-based teaching with insertion procedure, infection prevention, complications, care, and maintenance of devices, along with laboratory models and tools for simulation practice incorporating ultrasound. Clinical competence should be determined by observation during clinical practice using a global rating scale rather than by the number of procedures performed. Ensuring safe insertion and management of central venous devices requires standardized education, simulation practice, and supervised insertions.

  8. Clinical guidelines on central venous catheterisation. Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Frykholm, P; Pikwer, A; Hammarskjöld, F; Larsson, A T; Lindgren, S; Lindwall, R; Taxbro, K; Oberg, F; Acosta, S; Akeson, J

    2014-05-01

    Safe and reliable venous access is mandatory in modern health care, but central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, This paper describes current Swedish guidelines for clinical management of CVCs The guidelines supply updated recommendations that may be useful in other countries as well. Literature retrieval in the Cochrane and Pubmed databases, of papers written in English or Swedish and pertaining to CVC management, was done by members of a task force of the Swedish Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. Consensus meetings were held throughout the review process to allow all parts of the guidelines to be embraced by all contributors. All of the content was carefully scored according to criteria by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. We aimed at producing useful and reliable guidelines on bleeding diathesis, vascular approach, ultrasonic guidance, catheter tip positioning, prevention and management of associated trauma and infection, and specific training and follow-up. A structured patient history focused on bleeding should be taken prior to insertion of a CVCs. The right internal jugular vein should primarily be chosen for insertion of a wide-bore CVC. Catheter tip positioning in the right atrium or lower third of the superior caval vein should be verified for long-term use. Ultrasonic guidance should be used for catheterisation by the internal jugular or femoral veins and may also be used for insertion via the subclavian veins or the veins of the upper limb. The operator inserting a CVC should wear cap, mask, and sterile gown and gloves. For long-term intravenous access, tunnelled CVC or subcutaneous venous ports are preferred. Intravenous position of the catheter tip should be verified by clinical or radiological methods after insertion and before each use. Simulator-assisted training of CVC insertion should precede bedside training in patients. Units inserting and managing CVC should

  9. The power peripherally inserted central catheter is superior to a central venous catheter in management of patients with esophageal variceal bleeding undergoing devascularization.

    PubMed

    Jing, Wen; Rong, He; Li, Jiang; Xia, Zhang Hai; Yu, Zhang Hong; Ke, Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Peripherally-inserted central catheters (PICC) have a greater retention time and less complications compared to central venous catheters (CVC). The study was conducted from From January of 2014 to December 2015 at Beijing DiTan Hospital, Beijing, China, and comprised 70 patients undergoing devascularisation. Of the total, 36(51.4%) patients underwent placement of PICC (Group A), while 34(48.6%) underwent had CVC (Group B). Venous catheterisation was successful in all patients. The median duration of venous catheterization in Group A was greater than that in Group B (p=0.002). Catheter-associated complications did not differ between the groups (p=0.46). The level of blood platelet (PLT) count, Prothrombin activity (PTA) and white blood cell (WBC) count before venous catheterisation were independent risk factors for bleeding at the puncture site and catheter-related infections. A Power PICC may be a better choice than a CVC in patients undergoing devascularisation requiring catheterisation. For patients with a lower PLT count, a decreased PTA, or a decreased WBC, venous catheterisation should be performed with caution.

  10. Emergency central venous catheterization during trauma resuscitation: a safety analysis by site.

    PubMed

    Choron, Rachel L; Wang, Andrew; Van Orden, Kathryn; Capano-Wehrle, Lisa; Seamon, Mark J

    2015-05-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is often necessary during initial trauma resuscitations, but may cause complications including catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary emboli (PE), arterial injury, or pneumothoraces. Our primary objective compared subclavian versus femoral CVC complications during initial trauma resuscitations. A retrospective review (2010-2011) at an urban, Level-I Trauma Center reviewed CVCs during initial trauma resuscitations. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and complications including: CRBSIs, DVTs, arterial injuries, pneumothoraces, and PEs were analyzed. Fisher's exact test and Student's t test were used; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Overall, 504 CVCs were placed (subclavian, n = 259; femoral, n = 245). No difference in age (47 ± 22 vs 45 ± 23 years) or body mass index (28 ± 6 vs 29 ± 16 kg/m(2)) was detected (P > 0.05) in subclavian vs femoral CVC, but subclavian CVCs had more blunt injuries (81% vs 69%), greater systolic blood pressure (95 ± 55 vs 83 ± 43 mmHg), greater Glasgow Coma Scale (10 ± 5 vs 9 ± 5), and less introducers (49% vs 73%) than femoral CVCs (all P < 0.05). Catheter related arterial injuries, PEs, and CRBSIs were similar in subclavian and femoral groups (3% vs 2%, 0% vs 1%, and 3% vs 3%; all P > 0.05). Catheter-related DVTs occurred in 2 per cent of subclavian and 9 per cent of femoral CVCs (P < 0.001). There was a 3 per cent occurrence of pneumothorax in the subclavian CVC population. In conclusion, both subclavian and femoral CVCs caused significant complications. Subclavian catheter-related pneumothoraces occurred more commonly and femoral CRBSIs less commonly than expected compared with prior literature in nonemergent scenarios. This suggests that femoral CVC may be safer than subclavian CVC during initial trauma resuscitations.

  11. Complications of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jose Amo-Setién, Francisco; Herrero-Montes, Manuel; Olavarría-Beivíde, Encarnación; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Torres-Manrique, Blanca; Rodríguez-de la Vega, Carlos; Caso-Álvarez, Vanesa; González-Parralo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim The use of venous catheters is a widespread practice, especially in oncological and oncohematological units. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complications associated with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in a cohort of patients. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we included all patient carrying PICCs (n = 603) inserted at our institute between October 2010 and December 2013. The main variables collected were medical diagnosis, catheter care, location, duration of catheterization, reasons for catheter removal, complications, and nursing care. Complications were classified as infection, thrombosis, phlebitis, migration, edema, and/or ecchymosis. Results All patients were treated according to the same “nursing care” protocol. The incidence rate of complications was two cases per 1000 days of catheter duration. The most relevant complications were infection and thrombosis, both with an incidence of 0.17 cases per 1000 days of the total catheterization period. The total average duration of catheterization was 170 days [SD 6.06]. Additionally to “end of treatment” (48.42%) and “exitus”, (22.53%) the most frequent cause of removal was migration (displacement towards the exterior) of the catheter (5.80%). Conclusions PICCs are safe devices that allow the administration of long-term treatment and preserve the integrity of the venous system of the patient. Proper care of the catheter is very important to improve the quality life of patients with oncologic and hematologic conditions. Therefore, correct training of professionals and patients as well as following the latest scientific recommendations are particularly relevant. PMID:27588946

  12. Long-Term Central Venous Catheter Use and Risk of Infection in Older Adults With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Sepkowitz, Kent A.; Elkin, Elena B.; Pinheiro, Laura C.; Sima, Camelia S.; Son, Crystal H.; Atoria, Coral L.; Bach, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used in patients with cancer to facilitate venous access to administer intravenous fluids and chemotherapy. CVCs can also be a source of bloodstream infections, although this risk is not well understood. We examined the impact of long-term CVC use on infection risk, independent of other risk factors such as chemotherapy, in a population-based cohort of patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis using SEER-Medicare data for patients age > 65 years diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 with invasive colorectal, head and neck, lung, or pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or invasive or noninvasive breast cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between CVC use and infections, with CVC exposure as a time-dependent predictor. We used multivariable analysis and propensity score methods to control for patient characteristics. Results CVC exposure was associated with a significantly elevated infection risk, adjusting for demographic and disease characteristics. For patients with pancreatic cancer, risk of infections during the exposure period was three-fold greater (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.93; 95% CI, 2.58 to 3.33); for those with breast cancer, it was six-fold greater (AHR, 6.19; 95% CI, 5.42 to 7.07). Findings were similar when we accounted for propensity to receive a CVC and limited the cohort to individuals at high risk of infections. Conclusion Long-term CVC use was associated with an increased risk of infections for older adults with cancer. Careful assessment of the need for long-term CVCs and targeted strategies for reducing infections are critical to improving cancer care quality. PMID:24982458

  13. An Endovascular Approach to the Entrapped Central Venous Catheter After Cardiac Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Shamit S.; Konanur, Meghana; Foltz, Gretchen; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Resnick, Scott

    2016-03-15

    PurposeEntrapment of central venous catheters (CVC) at the superior vena cava (SVC) cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation site by closing purse-string sutures is a rare complication of cardiac surgery. Historically, resternotomy has been required for suture release. An endovascular catheter release approach was developed.Materials and MethodsFour cases of CVC tethering against the SVC wall and associated resistance to removal, suggestive of entrapment, were encountered. In each case, catheter removal was achieved using a reverse catheter fluoroscopically guided over the suture fixation point between catheter and SVC wall, followed by the placement of a guidewire through the catheter. The guidewire was snared and externalized to create a through-and-through access with the apex of the loop around the suture. A snare placed from the femoral venous access provided concurrent downward traction on the distal CVC during suture release maneuvers.ResultsIn the initial attempt, gentle traction freed the CVC, which fractured and was removed in two sections. In the subsequent three cases, traction alone did not release the CVC. Therefore, a cutting balloon was introduced over the guidewire and inflated. Gentle back-and-forth motion of the cutting balloon atherotomes successfully incised the suture in all three attempts. No significant postprocedural complications were encountered. During all cases, a cardiovascular surgeon was present in the interventional suite and prepared for emergent resternotomy, if necessary.ConclusionAn endovascular algorithm to the “entrapped CVC” is proposed, which likely reduces risks posed by resternotomy to cardiac surgery patients in the post-operative period.

  14. Standardizing central venous catheter care by using observations from patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Saul N; Hsieh, Candace; Lane, Sharon; Cleary, Angela M

    2014-06-01

    To understand the vulnerability of patients with cancer to central line-associated bloodstream infections related to tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), patients were asked to describe their line care at home and in clinic and to characterize their knowledge and experience managing CVCs. Forty-five adult patients with cancer were recruited to participate. Patients were interviewed about the type of line, duration of use, and observations of variations in line care. They also were asked about differences between line care at home and in the clinic, precautions taken when bathing, and their education regarding line care. Demographic information and primary cancer diagnosis were taken from the patients' medical records. Patients with hematologic and gastrointestinal malignancies were heavily represented. The majority had tunneled catheters with subcutaneous implanted ports. Participants identified variations in practice among nurses who cared for them. Although many participants expressed confidence in their knowledge of line care, some were uncertain about what to do if the dressing became loose or wet, or how to recognize an infection. Patients seemed to be astute observers of their own care and offered insights into practice variation. Their observations show that CVC care practices should be standardized, and educational interventions should be created to address patients' knowledge deficits.

  15. Validity of ICD-9-CM codes for the identification of complications related to central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Tukey, Melissa H; Borzecki, Ann M; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    Two complications of central venous catheterization (CVC), iatrogenic pneumothorax and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), have dedicated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Despite increasing use of ICD-9-CM codes for research and pay-for-performance purposes, their validity for detecting complications of CVC has not been established. Complications of CVCs placed between July 2010 and December 2011 were identified by ICD-9-CM codes in discharge records from a single hospital and compared with those revealed by medical record abstraction. The ICD-9-CM code for iatrogenic pneumothorax had a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5%. The ICD-9-CM codes for CLABSI had a sensitivity of 33.3%, specificity of 99.0%, PPV of 28.6%, and NPV of 99.2%. The low sensitivity and variable PPV of ICD-9-CM codes for detection of complications of CVC raise concerns about their use for research or pay-for-performance purposes.

  16. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. Results: 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. Conclusion: the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. PMID:27508901

  17. Bacterial infection of central venous catheters in short-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chan, L; Ngeow, Y F; Parasakthi, N

    1998-03-01

    Fourteen severely ill ventilated patients in an intensive care unit, requiring short-term total parenteral nutrition, were examined for catheter-related infection. Microbiological analysis using Maki's SQ technique was carried out on catheter exit site, catheter hub, proximal subcutaneous segment of catheter and catheter up. Qualitative cultures were carried out on total parenteral nutrition and peripheral blood samples. Twenty six of 29 catheters removed (90%) were culture positive but only 7 catheters were related to positive blood cultures, giving a catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) rate of 24%. Haematogenous seeding was strongly implicated in 7/29 (24%) of catheters. Patients' skin flora appeared to be the main source of catheter-related infection. The organisms isolated for patients with CRB included coagulase-negative staphylococci, Acinetobacter and Klebsiella. It is suggested that to control infective complications of central venous catheters, emphasis should be focused on specialised intravenous therapy teams and the use of strict protocols for insertion and care of central lines.

  18. Calcified Thrombus in Right Atrium: Rare but Treatable Complication of Long-term Indwelling Central Venous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Fabi, Marianna; Gesuete, Valentina; Testa, Gabriella; Balducci, Anna; Picchio, Fernando Maria; Gargiulo, Gaetano

    2011-01-01

    Catheter-related central thrombosis is a rare complication of long-term central line. We describe the case of an asymptomatic boy who was diagnosed a calcified thrombus in right atrium eight years after the removal of a long-term central venous device. Although the most appropriate therapeutic approach for managing floating right heart thrombi remains to be determined, surgical removal is an effective and safe procedure for calcified long-standing thrombus and it is to be preferred in elective conditions especially in young asymptomatic patients without hemodynamic involvement, that are at low risk of surgery-related morbidity and mortality.

  19. Factors affecting survival in pediatric cardiac tamponade caused by central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric central venous catheter (CVC) placement is useful but associated with complications such as cardiac tamponade. We aimed to identify risk factors for death in cardiac tamponade. Published articles on pediatric CVC-associated cardiac tamponade were obtained by searching PubMed and Google and retrospectively reviewed to analyze risk factors for death. Factors examined for their effect on mortality risk included patient age, weight, CVC size, days from CVC insertion to tamponade occurrence, substances administered, insertion site, treatment, CVC material, and initial CVC tip position. Of 110 patients reported in 62 articles, 69 survived and 41 died. Among survivors, 55 of 69 patients were treated; among deaths, only 7 of 38 (OR 537.9, 95% CI 29.3-9,877, p < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis in 44 cases showed that treatment (p < 0.0001) and initial CVC tip position (p = 0.020) were independent predictive factors related to improved cardiac tamponade survival. Past studies have mainly discussed how to avoid pediatric cardiac tamponade; by contrast, the present study focused on how to avoid deaths. The findings of this review suggest that cardiac tamponade survival is better when tamponade is detected early and treated promptly and might be affected by initial CVC tip position.

  20. Physician liability for procedure related injury: Focused on central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok-Bae; Bae, Hyuna; Kim, Sung Eun

    2015-07-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is one of essential procedures in critical care medicine. CVC is relatively safe when performed by experienced physicians. Complications may occur due to various risk factors. Although the incidence of CVC-related complications is not high, a serious risk may ensue in cases of such complications. Procedure related complications could lead to civil and criminal lawsuits. This study reviewed the occurrence patterns and rulings of the courts related to CVC in South Korea and tried to find pitfalls that medical professionals should keep in mind before, during and after medical procedures. Various patterns of CVC-related lawsuits have been raised. During the procedure, physicians should perform their duty considering risk factors such as patients' underlying diseases and age. In addition, before the procedure, physicians must obtain written consent for CVC from patients or their legal guardians including explanation of rare complications that could be lethal. After the completion of CVC, surveillance of anticipated complications including chest radiographs should be conducted for the immediate management of any possible complications.

  1. Prophylaxis with urokinase in pediatric oncology patients with central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Kalmanti, Maria; Germanakis, John; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Syfridaki, Cathrin; Christidou, Athanasia; Tsetis, Dimitris; Vardas, Panagiotis; Charisis, George

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of urokinase in the prevention of central venous catheter (CVC)-related complications in children with malignancy. Fifteen patients with 16 CVCs (study group A) received an intraluminal application of urokinase (10,000 IU in each catheter lumen for 4 h) once a week. They were monitored prospectively with quantitative blood cultures and ultrasonography (color Doppler ultrasound of the great veins and echocardiography). The rate of complications was compared with that of 15 children with 19 CVCs without thromboprophylaxis, treated the previous significantly lower incidence of CVC dysfunction year (control group B). The authors found a wer incidence of CVC dysfunction (3/16 versus 13/19), no major thrombosis, fewer CVC-related bacteremias (2/16 versus 8/19), and a higher salvage of CVCs (1/16 versus 5/19 CVC removals due to persistent bacteremia) in the thromboprophylaxis group. Asymptomatic thrombosis rate was also lower (7/16 cases in group A versus 9/11 in group B when sonography was performed). No hemorrhagic complications were noted. Thromboprophylaxis with urokinase seems a safe and effective measure for reducing the rate of CVC-related complications.

  2. Prevention of central venous catheter-related infection in the neonatal unit: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jacqueline E; McDonald, Susan J; Tan, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Central venous catheter infections are the leading cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections and contribute significantly to mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Moreover, infection poses significant economic consequence which increased hospital costs and increased length of hospital stay. Prevention strategies are detailed in guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States; nevertheless, recent surveys in neonatal units in the United States, and Australia and New Zealand demonstrate these are not always followed. This review discusses the numerous evidence-based strategies to prevent catheter infections including hand hygiene, maximal sterile barriers during insertion, skin disinfection, selection of insertion site, dressings, aseptic non-touch technique, disinfection of catheter hubs/ports, administration set management, prompt removal of catheter, antibiotic locks, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis and chlorhexidine bathing. Furthermore, it will describe different strategies that can be implemented into clinical practice to reduce infection rates. These include the use of care bundles including checklists, education and the use of CVC teams.

  3. Management of complications related to central venous catheters in cancer patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are important for the treatment of patients with cancer, especially in the perioperative and palliative care settings. These devices not only allow for the administration of chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and other intravenous therapies, but they may also improve the patients' quality of life by reducing the need for repeated peripheral venipunctures. Thrombotic and infectious complications are common, especially in the long-term use of CVCs. There are different types of thrombotic complications associated with CVCs, that is, a thrombotic occlusion of the catheter, a mural thrombus at the catheter tip and classical deep vein thrombosis, which occurs most frequently in the upper extremity where the majority of long-term catheters are inserted. Infections are common complications associated with CVCs. Patients with cancer who receive intensive chemotherapy and those patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a markedly increased risk for insertion site and bloodstream infections. In this review, the epidemiology and risk factors that predispose patients to CVC-related thrombosis and infection are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the published data and the current guidelines are summarized and data for establishing primary and secondary preventative strategies are provided.

  4. Position-Dependent Ventricular Tachycardia Related to Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Paulino; Schurmann, Paul; Smith, Melanie; Valderrábano, Miguel; Lin, C. Huie

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old male who developed frequent nonsustained episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia after being diagnosed with bioprosthetic aortic valve endocarditis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. A peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) had been placed without complication less than 24 hours prior to the episodes. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) occurred during the night, while sleeping, when he assumed a right lateral decubitus position with abduction of the right arm and placement of the forearm under his head. VT occurred repeatedly when such position was assumed again upon request, and it would terminate immediately when sitting upright. The PICC was repositioned in the superior vena cava without further VT. He was discharged home the same day and underwent successful aortic valve replacement 2 months later. Position-dependent VT related to PICC requires careful history taking and PICC repositioning to make the diagnosis. X-ray in different patient positions during PICC placement can be considered to evaluate for ventricular migration. PMID:27826374

  5. Complications of central venous catheter in patients transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells in a specialized service

    PubMed Central

    Barretta, Lidiane Miotto; Beccaria, Lúcia Marinilza; Cesarino, Cláudia Bernardi; Pinto, Maria Helena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the model, average length of stay on site and complications of central venous catheter in patients undergoing transplant of hematopoietic stem cells and verify the corresponding relationship between the variables: age, gender, medical diagnosis, type of transplant, implanted catheter and insertion site. Method: a retrospective and quantitative study with a sample of 188 patients transplanted records between 2007 and 2011. Results: the majority of patients used Hickman catheter with an average length of stay on site of 47.6 days. The complication fever/bacteremia was significant in young males with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing autologous transplant, which remained with the device for a long period in the subclavian vein. Conclusion: nurses should plan with their team the minimum waiting time, recommended between the catheter insertion and start of the conditioning regimen, as well as not to extend the length of time that catheter should be on site and undertake their continuing education, focusing on the prevention of complications. PMID:27276021

  6. Cardiovascular system identification: Simulation study using arterial and central venous pressures.

    PubMed

    Karamolegkos, Nikolaos; Vicario, Francesco; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a study of the identifiability of a lumped model of the cardiovascular system. The significance of this work from the existing literature is in the potential advantage of using both arterial and central venous (CVP) pressures, two signals that are frequently monitored in the critical care unit. The analysis is done on the system's state-space representation via control theory and system identification techniques. Non-parametric state-space identification is preferred over other identification techniques as it optimally assesses the order of a model, which best describes the input-output data, without any prior knowledge about the system. In particular, a recent system identification algorithm, namely Observer Kalman Filter Identification with Deterministic Projection, is used to identify a simplified version of an existing cardiopulmonary model. The outcome of the study highlights the following two facts. In the deterministic (noiseless) case, the theoretical indicators report that the model is fully identifiable, whereas the stochastic case reveals the difficulty in determining the complete system's dynamics. This suggests that even with the use of CVP as an additional pressure signal, the identification of a more detailed (high order) model of the circulatory system remains a challenging task.

  7. Central venous access devices: an investigation of oncology nurses' troubleshooting techniques.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tina M; Ferrall, Sheila M; Boyington, Alice R; Reich, Richard R

    2014-08-01

    Experienced oncology nurses use different troubleshooting techniques for clearing occluded central venous access devices (CVADs) with varying degrees of success. The purpose of this study was to explore troubleshooting techniques used for clearing occluded CVADs by experienced oncology RNs and identify the perceived effectiveness of each technique. An invitation for a web-based survey was sent to select RN members of the Oncology Nursing Society. All nurses (N = 224) reported asking patients to raise and/or move their arm. Most nurses asked patients to lie down, cough, and take deep breaths. Respondents considered instilling a thrombolytic agent to be the most effective technique. No associations were found between techniques and respondents' years in oncology nursing, work setting, certification, or academic degree. The findings contribute to knowledge about care of patients with occluded devices and will help formulate direction for additional investigation of CVADs. Establishing the appropriateness of practice-related troubleshooting techniques may eliminate unnecessary steps and save nursing time. Educating nurses on the topic will also help reduce techniques that are not expected to yield results or are contraindicated.

  8. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in children: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Agarwal, Arnav; Tassone, Maria Cristina; Shahjahan, Nadia; Walton, Mark; Chan, Anthony; Mondal, Tapas

    2016-06-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with increased risk of thrombosis in the paediatric population, particularly in relation to the type of catheter and the manner of its insertion. Here, we investigate risk factors associated with CVC-related thrombosis in children, with particular emphasis on positioning of the catheter tip. Patients aged 0-18 who underwent at least one CVC placement from 2008 to 2013 at a single centre with a subsequent follow-up echocardiogram were included for a total of 104 patients and 147 lines. Data on clinical and catheter-related risk factors were collected from patient charts. Statistical analysis using Pearson's χ tests, independent samples t-test, and odds ratios were used to assess potential risk factors for thrombosis. Neither insertion site (subclavian vein or otherwise), left- vs. right-sided insertion, nor catheter type were significant risk factors for thrombosis. There were no thrombotic events reported at the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium junction and no significant differences in thrombotic risk with initial tip placement in the SVC-right atrium junction vs. the SVC, right atrium, or inferior vena cava. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was a major clinical risk factor for thrombosis. Tip movement was common and may have been an important factor in the development of CVC-related thrombi. Prospective studies can yield insight into the role of follow-up imaging in the prevention of catheter-related thrombosis in children.

  9. Characterizing the in vitro biofilm phenotype of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Van Kerckhoven, Marian; Hotterbeekx, An; Lanckacker, Ellen; Moons, Pieter; Lammens, Christine; Kerstens, Monique; Ieven, Margareta; Delputte, Peter; Jorens, Philippe G; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Goossens, Herman; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are commonly caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis that is able to form a biofilm on the catheter surface. Many studies involving biofilm formation by Staphylococcus have been published each adopting an own in vitro model. Since the capacity to form a biofilm depends on multiple environmental factors, direct comparison of results obtained in different studies remains challenging. This study characterized the phenotype (strong versus weak biofilm-producers) of S. epidermidis from CVCs in four different in vitro biofilm models, covering differences in material type (glass versus polymer) and nutrient presentation (static versus continuous flow). A good correlation in phenotype was obtained between glass and polymeric surfaces independent of nutrient flow, with 85% correspondence under static growth conditions and 80% under dynamic conditions. A 80% correspondence between static and dynamic conditions on polymeric surfaces could be demonstrated as well. Incubation time had a significant influence on the biofilm phenotype with only 55% correspondence between the dynamic models at different incubation times (48h versus 17h). Screening for the presence of biofilm-related genes only revealed that ica A was correlated with biofilm formation under static but not under dynamic conditions. In conclusion, this study highlights that a high level of standardization is necessary to interpret and compare results of different in vitro biofilm models.

  10. Inserting central venous catheter in emergency conditions in coagulopathic patients in comparison to noncoagulopathic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad; Kolahdouzan, Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The current study was designed to compare the complications and adverse effects of central venous catheter (CVC) insertion under ultrasound guidance in patients with and without coagulopathy. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 59 patients who needed CVC for various reasons were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups of those with and without coagulopathy based on complete blood count, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio test results, and then, CVC was inserted with ultrasound guidance in both groups. The CVC inserting site was examined for hematoma and hemorrhage in four stages at different times. Results: There was no significant difference in the terms of demographic features, catheter lumen size (P = 0.43), and number of attempting for CVC placement (odds ratio [OR] =2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36–15.3, P = 0.39) between two groups. Seven out of 59 patients suffered from complications (11.9%) that the complications in coagulopathic patients were oozing (5.7%) and superficial hematoma (8.6%) while in noncoagulopathic patients were 4.2% for both complications (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.09–3.07, P = 0.767). Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that inserting CVC with ultrasound guidance under emergency conditions causes no serious and life-threatening complications in coagulopathic patients. PMID:28255328

  11. Experience using central venous access for long-term hemodialysis. A new concept.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, D J; Schrock, L G; Hickman, R O

    1983-05-01

    Central venous access for acute renal failure has been used for a number of years. The femoral vein and, more recently, the subclavian vein have been the routes of access. This technique has many advantages, however, it also has some significant limitations. We have recently been using a catheter for long- as well as short-term hemodialysis. The catheter is placed by means of a short incision through an opening in the internal jugular vein, and maneuvered so that the tip lies in the superior portion of the right atrium. After dialysis, the catheter is filled with heparin. The catheter then requires no additional care between between hemodialysis sessions. We have reported an experience of 50 patients in whom this catheter has been used. The complications have been remarkably few, and none were serious or fatal. At present, the patient using the catheter for the longest period of time has had it in position for approximately 19 months. We believe this technique provides a significant new choice among the ways in which hemodialysis can be achieved for short- or long-term needs.

  12. Does radio-opaque contrast improve radiographic localisation of percutaneous central venous lines?

    PubMed Central

    Odd, D; Page, B; Battin, M; Harding, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous central venous lines (long lines) are commonly used in neonatal practice. The position of these lines is important, because incorrect placement may be associated with complications. Aims: To determine whether the addition of radio-opaque contrast material improves the localisation of long line tips over plain radiography. Methods: Radiographs taken to identify long line position were identified in two periods; 106 radiographs without contrast taken between October 1999 and August 2000, and 96 radiographs with contrast between September 2001 and July 2002. Two observers independently reviewed each radiograph to identify the position of the line tip. The formal radiology report was recorded as a third observer. Results: The use of contrast increased the proportion of radiographs in which all observers reported they could see the long line tip (53 (55%) v 41 (39%)). It also increased the proportion where they agreed on anatomical position (57 (59%) v 39 (37%)) and there was a higher kappa coefficient for agreement (0.56 v 0.33). Conclusions: The use of contrast while taking radiographs for the localisation of long line position improves the likelihood that an observer can see a long line tip and reduces inter-observer variability. Even using contrast, precise localisation of a long line tip can be difficult. PMID:14711854

  13. Henoch-Schönlein purpura due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia from central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Uggeri, Simona; Fabbian, Fabio; Catizone, Luigi

    2008-06-01

    A 69-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital because of myocardial infarction. A central venous catheter (CVC) for infusive therapy was inserted. After two weeks he developed fever, purpura, and knee arthralgia. Hemoculture yielded methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Subsequently, oliguric renal failure, hematuria, and nephrotic range proteinuria were recorded. Renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and crescent formation. In an immunofluorescence study, IgA, IgG, and C3 deposition in the mesangium and along arteriolar walls were observed. A diagnosis of Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with infection caused by CVC was made. After administration of antibiotic and steroid therapy, proteinuria was markedly reduced, renal function improved, and purpura disappeared. The association of HSP with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has frequently been reported in the literature. We present here a case of HSP in association with MSSA bacteremia from central venous catheterization, a finding not reported previously.

  14. [Two Cases of Retained Guide Wires after Placement of a Central Venous Catheter via the Internal Jugular Vein].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Masumori, Yasushi; Tanigawa, Saori; Miyakawa, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Miki; Tateda, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of a retained guide wire after perioperative placement of a central venous catheter during a six-month period. Case 1: A 73-year-old male was scheduled for an open cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. After induction of anesthesia, a central venous (CV) catheter was inserted via the right internal jugular vein using an ultrasound guide. Chest radiographs showed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava immediately after surgery, which was removed by interventional radiologist before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Case 2: A 77-year-old male was scheduled for colostomy closure. The surgeon inserted a CV catheter in the right internal jugular vein 4 days before the colostomy. Chest radiographs revealed a retained guide wire in the inferior vena cava, which was removed by interventional radiologists before the patient emerged from anesthesia. Although a retained guide wire is a rare complication, awareness of this mishap is necessary to prevent it from happening.

  15. Effectiveness of different central venous catheters for catheter-related infections: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Huang, T; Jing, J; Jin, J; Wang, P; Yang, M; Cui, W; Zheng, Y; Shen, H

    2010-09-01

    We aimed to compare the effectiveness of various catheters for prevention of catheter-related infection and to evaluate whether specific catheters are superior to others for reducing catheter-related infections. We identified randomised, controlled trials that compared different types of central venous catheter (CVC), evaluating catheter-related infections in a systematic search of articles published from January 1996 to November 2009 via Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Network meta-analysis with a mixed treatment comparison method using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to combine direct within-trial, between-treatment comparisons with indirect trial evidence. Forty-eight clinical trials (12 828 CVCs) investigating 10 intervention catheters contributed to the analyses. For prevention of CVC colonisation, adjusted silver iontophoretic catheters (odds ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.95), chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine catheters (0.49; 0.36-0.64), chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine blue plus catheters (0.37; 0.17-0.69), minocycline-rifampicin catheters (0.28; 0.17-0.43) and miconazole-rifampicin catheters (0.11; 0.02-0.33) were associated with a significantly lower rate of catheter colonisation compared with standard catheters. For prevention of CRBSI, adjusted heparin-bonded catheters (0.20; 0.06-0.44) and minocycline-rifampicin catheters (0.18; 0.08-0.34) were associated with a significantly lower rate of CRBSI with standard catheters. Rifampicin-based impregnated catheters seem to be better for prevention of catheter-related infection compared with the other catheters.

  16. Hospital-wide multidisciplinary, multimodal intervention programme to reduce central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    Zingg, Walter; Cartier, Vanessa; Inan, Cigdem; Touveneau, Sylvie; Theriault, Michel; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Clergue, François; Pittet, Didier; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is the major complication of central venous catheters (CVC). The aim of the study was to test the effectiveness of a hospital-wide strategy on CLABSI reduction. Between 2008 and 2011, all CVCs were observed individually and hospital-wide at a large university-affiliated, tertiary care hospital. CVC insertion training started from the 3rd quarter and a total of 146 physicians employed or newly entering the hospital were trained in simulator workshops. CVC care started from quarter 7 and a total of 1274 nurses were trained by their supervisors using a web-based, modular, e-learning programme. The study included 3952 patients with 6353 CVCs accumulating 61,366 catheter-days. Hospital-wide, 106 patients had 114 CLABSIs with a cumulative incidence of 1.79 infections per 100 catheters. We observed a significant quarterly reduction of the incidence density (incidence rate ratios [95% confidence interval]: 0.92 [0.88-0.96]; P<0.001) after adjusting for multiple confounders. The incidence densities (n/1000 catheter-days) in the first and last study year were 2.3/1000 and 0.7/1000 hospital-wide, 1.7/1000 and 0.4/1000 in the intensive care units, and 2.7/1000 and 0.9/1000 in non-intensive care settings, respectively. Median time-to-infection was 15 days (Interquartile range, 8-22). Our findings suggest that clinically relevant reduction of hospital-wide CLABSI was reached with a comprehensive, multidisciplinary and multimodal quality improvement programme including aspects of behavioural change and key principles of good implementation practice. This is one of the first multimodal, multidisciplinary, hospital-wide training strategies successfully reducing CLABSI.

  17. Port central venous catheters-associated bloodstream infection during outpatient-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Davide; Roumbkou, Sofia; Michalopoulou, Stella; Tsali, Lamprini; Spiliopoulou, Anastasia; Panou, Charalampos; Valachis, Antonis; Panagopoulos, Angelos; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2010-12-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are commonly used for the administration of intravenous chemotherapy in outpatient setting. Nevertheless, outbreaks of catheter-associated bloodstream infections had been reported from oncology centers. We describe a large outbreak of CVCs-associated Klebsiella oxytoca bloodstream infection, occurring in an oncology chemotherapy outpatient unit of northern Greece between October 2006 and May 2007. The outbreak involved approximately 10% of the patients with CVCs who were receiving home-based chemotherapy, and it represents the second larger outbreak of CVCs-associated BSIs due to Klebsiella oxytoca in oncology outpatient centers. We retrospectively analyzed the chain of investigations and prophylactic/diagnostic measures taken to eradicate the infection: (1) patients' chart audit, (2) estimation of the infection among asymptomatic patients, (3) implementation of the level of awareness of medical and paramedical personnel, (4) collection of samples from environment, medications and infusion materials, (5) critical appraisal of chemotherapeutical schemes and (6) cooperation with peripheral institutions. The isolation of Klebsiella oxytoca in a chemotherapy solution (infusional 5-FU in dextrose 5% solution within a 48 h pump) from a peripheral General Hospital and the prompt transmission of the data to the chemotherapy center played a key role for the management of the infection cluster. This is the first report that evidenced the detection of Klebsiella oxytoca within a chemotherapeutical preparation. Data transmission from peripheral hospitals to the central institution resulted in an important feedback that allowed a better estimation of the infection cluster and more tailored actions for the eradication of the infection.

  18. Evaluating safety of tunneled small bore central venous catheters in chronic kidney disease population: A quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Gauri; El Ters, Mireille; Kremers, Walter K; Klunder, Joe L; Taler, Sandra J; Williams, Amy W; Stockland, Andrew H; Hogan, Marie C

    2016-09-20

    Introduction Peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) may adversely impact future successful arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). As part of a quality improvement project, the performance of tunneled small bore tunneled central venous catheters (TSB-CVCs), as alternatives to PICCs, was evaluated. Methods A retrospective observational study, involving individuals ≥18 years of age who underwent TSB-CVC placement by Interventional Radiology at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between 1/1/2010 and 8/30/2013. Findings The study cohort included 92 patients with a median age of 55 (46-67) years, who underwent 108 TSB-CVC placements. Baseline renal disease was present in 71% (77/108). Most TSB-CVCs were placed in hospitalized patients (94%; 102/108); five French in diameter (61%; 66/108) and located in an internal jugular vein (84%; 91/108). Median catheter indwelling time was 20 (11-43) days (n = 84). TSB-CVC-related bloodstream infection, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and superficial venous thrombosis (SpVT) rates per line were 0.009 (1/108), 0.018 (2/108), and 0.009 (1/108), respectively. Venous outcomes in a subgroup of 54 patients, who had documented PICC placements (n = 161) in addition to TSB-CVC (n = 58) were compared. TSB-CVC-DVT rate was lower than the PICC-DVT rate (0.017 [1/58] vs. 0.106 per line [17/161]; P = 0.04). The TSB-CVC-SpVT rate was not different from the PICC-SpVT rate (0 [0/58] vs. 0.037 [6/161] per line; P = 0.14). Discussion TSB-CVCs demonstrated an excellent safety profile in our study. These catheters should be preferentially utilized for arm vein preservation in advanced kidney disease. Their impact on future AVF success needs further evaluation.

  19. So-called "central retinal vein occlusion". II. Venous stasis retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hayreh, S S

    1976-01-01

    28 patients (29 eyes) with venous stasis retinopathy (VSR) were studied. This study indicates that VSR is a self-limited, chronic and comparatively benign condition as compared to hemorrhagic retinopathy. No patient with VSR progressed to hemorrhagic retinopathy. The main complication which required management in VSR was the deterioration of central visual acuity (VA) due to development of macular edema which, if untreated, ended in cystoid macular degeneration and permanent central scotoma. Thus the indication for treatment in these cases was the fall of central VA. Ten eyes showed no deterioration of vision throughout follow-up (group I) and hence required no treatment. The remaining 19 eyes developed deterioration of vision: 5 eyes (4 patients) amongst these were not treated (group II) while the other 14 eyes (group III) were treated by systemic corticosteroids, to control the macula edema starting with a dose of 40-60 mg of oral prednisolone daily and gradually tapering to a maintenance dose. The results of group III cases strongly suggested that adequate doses of systemic steroids have a distinct beneficial effect on the VA -they help to prevent deterioration of vision and in the recovery of deteriorated vision. However, these patients require therapy for months or even longer during the course of VSR; on stopping the therapy, poor VA recurred in ten of these eyes. This factor may limit the usefulness of this therapy, if contraindications to such prolonged steriod therapy or serious side-effects of steroid therapy exist in a patient. In such cases one may be confronted with the dilemma of either not treating them and running a fairly high risk of permanent loss of central vision, or treating them with adequate doses of systemic steriods, retaining good VA but running the risk of side effects. While evaluating the effectiveness of steroid therapy, the improvement in VA should be the primary criterion because the fundus appearances almost always show no

  20. Central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: improving post-insertion catheter care.

    PubMed

    Shapey, I M; Foster, M A; Whitehouse, T; Jumaa, P; Bion, J F

    2009-02-01

    Patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) are at increased risk of bloodstream infections and sepsis-related death. CVC-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are costly and account for a significant proportion of hospital-acquired infections. The aim of this audit was to assess current practice and staff knowledge of CVC post-insertion care and therefore identify aspects of CVC care with potential for improvement. We conducted a prospective audit over 28 consecutive days at a university teaching hospital investigating current practice of CVC post-insertion care in wards with high CVC usage. A multiple choice questionnaire on best practice of CVC insertion and care was distributed among clinical staff. Rates of breaches in catheter care and CRBSIs were calculated and statistical significance assumed when P<0.05. Data was recorded from 151 CVCs in 106 patients giving a total of 721 catheter days. In all, 323 breaches in care were identified giving a failure rate of 44.8%, with significant differences between intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU wards (P<0.001). Dressings (not intact) and caps and taps (incorrectly placed) were identified as the major lapses in CVC care with 158 and 156 breaches per 1000 catheter days, respectively. During the study period four CRBSIs were identified, producing a CRBSI rate of 5.5 per 1000 catheter days (95% confidence interval: 0.12-10.97). There are several opportunities to improve CVC post-insertion care. Future interventions to improve reliability of care should focus on implementing best practice rather than further education.

  1. Going with the flow or swimming against the tide: should children with central venous catheters swim?

    PubMed

    Miller, Jessica; Dalton, Meghan K; Duggan, Christopher; Lam, Shirley; Iglesias, Julie; Jaksic, Tom; Gura, Kathleen M

    2014-02-01

    Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) have central venous catheters (CVCs) in place to allow the safe and effective infusion of life-sustaining fluids and nutrition. Many consider recreational swimming to be a common part of childhood, but for some, the risk may outweigh the benefit. Children with CVCs may be at increased risk of exit site, tunnel, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) if these catheters are immersed in water. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current literature regarding the risk of infection for patients with CVCs who swim and determine if there is consensus among home PN (HPN) programs on this controversial issue. A total 45 articles were reviewed and 16 pediatric HPN programs were surveyed regarding swimming and CVCs. Due to the limited data available, a firm recommendation cannot be made. Recreational water associated outbreaks are well documented in the general public, as is the presence of human pathogens even in chlorinated swimming pools. As a medical team, practitioners can provide information and education regarding the potential risk, but ultimately the decision lies with the parents. If the parents decide swimming is worth the risk, they are encouraged to use products designed for this use and to change their child's dressing immediately after swimming. Due to our experience with a fatal event immediately after swimming, we continue to strongly discourage patients with CVCs from swimming. Further large and well-designed studies regarding the risk of swimming with a CVC are needed to make a strong, evidence-based recommendation.

  2. Interaction of central venous pressure, intramuscular pressure, and carotid baroreflex function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, X.; Foresman, B. H.; Raven, P. B.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Seven healthy volunteer men participated in an experiment involving lower body positive pressure (LBPP) of 30 Torr and acute volume expansions of 5-6% (VE-I) and 9-10% (VE-II) of their total blood volume (TBV) to differentiate the effect of increased intramuscular pressure and central venous pressure (CVP) on the maximal gain (Gmax) of the carotid baroreflex. During each experimental condition, the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP; intraradial artery or Finapres), and CVP (at the 3rd-4th intercostal space) were monitored continuously. Gmax was derived from the logistic modeling of the HR and MAP responses to ramped changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure using a protocol of pulsatile changes in neck chamber pressure from +40 to -65 Torr. The increase in CVP during +30-Torr LBPP was 1.5 mmHg (P < 0.05) and was similar to that observed during VE-I (1.7 mmHg, P > 0.05). The Gmax of the carotid baroreflex of HR and MAP was significantly decreased during LBPP by -0.145 +/- 0.039 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1) (38%) and -0.071 +/- 0.013 mmHg/mmHg (25%), respectively; however, VE-I did not affect Gmax. During VE-II, CVP was significantly greater than that elicited by LBPP, and the Gmax of the carotid baroreflex of the HR and MAP responses was significantly reduced. We conclude that carotid baroreflex responsiveness was selectively inhibited by increasing intramuscular pressure, possibly resulting in an activation of the intramuscular mechanoreceptors during LBPP. Furthermore, it would appear that the inhibition of the carotid baroreflex, via cardiopulmonary baroreceptor loading (increased CVP), occurred when a threshold pressure (CVP) was achieved.

  3. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: a 1073-patient study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Junichi; Ishimaru, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Michiko; Hirata, Noriko; Matsubara, Nobuo; Koyanagi, Nobuhiro

    2008-12-01

    We intended to evaluate the risk factors for catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) with central venous (CV) catheters. For the hub of the CV line, we used three-way stopcocks in the first year of the study and closed needleless connectors (NCs) in the second year. Background factors included the age and sex of patients; the ward; the specialty service; the CV catheter and its days of placement; and the staff compounding the intravenous infusion, i.e., either nurses, who disinfect hands-free, or pharmacists using clean benches. Outcome factors included positive culture from the blood-related samples and the body temperature estimate. Of a total of 29 221 device-days in 1073 patients, positive cultures showed an overall incidence of 2.26 per 1000 device-days. Multivariate analysis showed a higher odds ratio of positive cultures for the ICU (odds ratio [OR], 4.415; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.054-9.490]) and for CV catheter placement for more than 30 days (OR, 7.529; 95% CI, 4.279-13.247), but no significance for male sex (OR, 1.752; 95% CI, 0.984-3.119) or for pharmacists' compounding (OR, 2.150; 95% CI, 0.974-4.749). Univariate analysis showed no significance for the following factors: age more than 70 years (OR, 0.968; 95% CI 0.561-1.641), the surgery service (OR, 1.029; 95% CI, 0.582-1.818), double-lumen CV catheters (OR, 0.841; 95% CI, 0.465-1.521), or the NC (1.107; 95% CI, 0.673-1.821). We conclude that the theoretical benefit of the NC, the abolished dead space in the hub, contributed little to the outcomes of blood-related culture. The hands-free disinfection may have resulted in comparable odds ratios for the nurses and the pharmacists compounding the infusions.

  4. Adverse events and technical complaints related to central venous catheters marketed in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Luciene de Oliveira; Friedrich, Karen; Melchior, Stela Candioto; Silva, Michele Feitoza; Gemal, Andre Luis; Delgado, Isabella Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to critically analyze data of the National Notification System for Adverse Events and Technical Complaints (Notivisa) related to central venous catheters, through an evaluation of the description of notifications recorded between 2006 and 2009. Methods Notifications were categorized and evaluated to: (i) determine the number of adverse events and technical complaints, (ii) verify compliance with the classification criteria defined by the legislation, (iii) reclassify notifications, when necessary, in order for them to fit in with the legal definitions, (iv) verify registered companies in Brazil, (v) quantify the notifications according to the registered company and product lot, and (vi) identify the country of original of the notified product. Microsoft Excel(r) 2010 was used to categorize and systematize the data. Results Some conceptual errors and incomplete records were found. Altogether, 228 notifications of technical complaints and 119 of adverse events were identified. Some notifications on guidewires and broken catheters were reported which led to the necessity of duplicating some medical procedures and to the occurrence of lesions/lacerations of vessels and tissue injury. Forty-seven percent of companies presented at least one notification in Notivisa and in all, 38 product lots had more than one notification. Conclusion These data support a necessity for cooperation between all entities of the National Health Surveillance System to check compliance of this type of product and to properly report adverse events and technical complaints. It is also important to incorporate minimum standards for the management of technologies in health services, including in the acquisition of products and training of staff. PMID:23904810

  5. Incidence and risk factors for central venous catheter-related thrombosis in hematological patients.

    PubMed

    Joks, Monika; Czyż, Anna; Popławski, Dariusz; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2014-01-01

    Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a serious complication in hematological patients, but the risk factors for its occurrence are not well established. The study objectives were to estimate the incidence of CRT and to identify the risk factors for developing CRT in hematological patients. In a prospective setting, 104 consecutive patients with 200 insertions of central venous catheters were enrolled into the study. The patients were screened for CRT by compression Doppler ultrasound every 10-14 days. Additionally, ultrasonography was performed in the case of clinical symptoms suggesting CRT. Over the course of 6,098 catheter days of follow-up, the incidence of CRT was 13.5 %. In 18/27 cases (66.6 %), radiological evidence of CRT was preceded by clinical symptoms. However, in 9/27 (33.3 %), CRT was clinically asymptomatic. The median times to symptomatic and asymptomatic CRT were 17 (range 1-49) and 8 (range 1-16) catheter days, respectively. In univariate analysis, the risk factors for CRT were exit-site infection (ESI) (P < 0.001), two or more prior chemotherapy lines (P = 0.015), catheter-related blood stream infection (P < 0.001), and Coagulase-negative staphylococci infection (P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, ESI (OR 5.0; 95 % CI 1.6-6.3; P = 0.006) and two or more prior chemotherapy lines (OR 3.57; 95 % CI 1.27-10.11; P = 0.015) remained significantly associated with the risk of CRT. The results of our study provide information regarding the characteristic features of the patients who are at high risk of thrombosis, for whom Doppler ultrasound screening should be considered.

  6. Complications Related to Insertion and Use of Central Venous Catheters (CVC)

    PubMed Central

    Hodzic, Samir; Golic, Darko; Smajic, Jasmina; Sijercic, Selma; Umihanic, Sekib; Umihanic, Sefika

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Central Venous Catheters (CVC) are essential in everyday medical practice, especially in treating patients in intensive care units (ICU). The application of these catheters is accompanied with the risk of complications, such as the complications caused during the CVC insertion, infections at the location of the insertion, and complications during the use of the catheter, sepsis and other metastatic infections. Patients and methods: This study is a retrospective-prospective and it was implemented in the period 1st January 2011- 31st December 2012. It included 108 examinees with CVC placed for more than 7 days. Results: The most common complications occurring in more than 2 attempts of CVC applications are: hearth arrhythmias in both groups in 12 cases, 7 in multi-lumen (12.72%) and 5 in mono-lumen ones (9.43%). Artery puncture occurs in both groups in 7 cases, 5 in multi-lumen (9.09%) and 2 in mono-lumen ones (3.77%). Hematoma occurred in both groups in 4 cases, 3 in multi-lumen CVCs (5.45%) and 1 in mono-lumen ones (1.88%). The most common complication in multi-lumen catheters was heart arrhythmia, in 20 cases (36.37%). The most common complications in mono-lumen CVCs was hearth arrhythmias, in 20 cases as extrasystoles and they were registered in 16 catheter insertions (30.18%). Out of total number of catheters of both groups, out of 108 catheters the complications during insertion occurred in 49 catheters (45.40%). The most common complications in both groups were heart arrhythmias, artery punctures and hematomas at the place of catheter insertion. PMID:25568558

  7. Central venous catheter tip migration due to tracheal extubation: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Struck, Manuel F; Jünemann, Theresa; Reinhart, Konrad; Schummer, Wolfram

    2016-07-28

    Considerable numbers of patients undergo central venous catheterization (CVC) under mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that the return of spontaneous breathing and tracheal extubation could be associated with distal CVC tip migration towards intracardiac positions due to decreasing intrathoracic pressures and subsequent readjustment of mediastinal organs. Patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were randomized for right or left internal jugular vein (IJV) CVC placement under general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. CVC tips were positioned at the cavoatrial junction and measured at the time of placement, postoperatively under mechanical ventilation, and after tracheal extubation until 48 h after surgery. Measurement methods included intravascular electrocardiography (ECG) P-wave amplitude, transesophageal echocardiography, and chest radiography (CXR). Out of 70 patients, 60 were eligible for final statistical analysis (31 right and 29 left IJV CVC). According to ECG interpretation, CVC tip positions remained below the pericardiac reflection point in the distal superior vena cava over the course of the three measurement intervals. The ECG revealed significant proximal migration of CVC tips from the time of placement to the time of tracheal extubation (1.19 ± 0.55 vs. 0.62 ± 0.31 mV; P < 0.001). A CXR using CVC tip to carina distances revealed no significant tip migrations in the time between postoperative assessment and following tracheal extubation (5.1 ± 1.7 vs. 5.3 ± 1.5 cm; P = 0.196). In patients with CVCs positioned at the cavoatrial junction, tracheal extubation was not associated with significant postoperative CVC tip malposition, but tended to undergo proximal migration. This trend should be considered particularly in left-sided thoracocervical puncture approaches to avoid unfavorable CVC tip positions.

  8. Are central venous catheter tip cultures reliable after 6-day refrigeration?

    PubMed

    Bouza, Emilio; Guembe, Maria; Gómez, Haydee; Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Rivera, Marisa; Alcalá, Luis

    2009-07-01

    Present guidelines recommend culturing only central venous catheter (CVC) tips from patients with suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). However, a high proportion of these suspicions are not confirmed. Moreover, CVC tip culture increases laboratory workload, and reports of colonization may be meaningless or misleading for the clinician. Our working hypothesis was that CVC tips should be refrigerated and cultured only in patients with positive blood cultures. We evaluated the effect of 6-day refrigeration of 215 CVC tips. We selected all the catheters with a significant count according to the Maki's roll-plate technique and randomly assigned them to 2 groups. In group A, the catheters were recultured after 24 h of refrigeration, and in group B, the catheters were recultured after 6 days more of refrigeration, so that the refrigeration time evaluated would be of 6 days. The yield of refrigerated CVC tips that grow significant colony counts of primary culture in group B was compared with the yield of refrigerated catheter tips in group A. The difference showed that 6-day refrigeration reduced the number of significant CVCs by 15.2%. Only 61 CVCs were obtained from patients with CR-BSI, and in most of them, blood cultures were already positive before CVC culture, so only 0.91% of the CR-BSI episodes would have been misdiagnosed as culture negative after refrigeration. Refrigeration of CVC tips sent for culture and culturing only those from patients with positive blood cultures reduce the workload in the microbiology laboratory without misdiagnosing CR-BSI.

  9. Ultrasound for Localization of Central Venous Catheter: A Good Alternative to Chest X-Ray?

    PubMed Central

    Kamalipour, Hamid; Ahmadi, Sedigheh; Kamali, Karmella; Moaref, Alireza; Shafa, Masih; Kamalipour, Parsa

    2016-01-01

    Background Chest radiography after central venous catheter (CVC) insertion is the main method of verifying the catheter location. Despite the widespread use of radiography for detecting catheter position, x-ray may not always be readily available, especially in the operating room. Objectives We aimed to compare contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and chest radiography for detecting the correct location of CVCs. Methods One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with indications for CVC before cardiac surgery were enrolled in this observational study. After catheter insertion, CEUS was performed. Portable radiography was obtained postoperatively in the intensive care unit. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were determined by comparing the ultrasonography results with radiographic findings as a reference standard. Results Chest radiography revealed 16 CVC misplacements: two cases of intravascular and 14 cases of right atrium (RA) misplacement. CEUS detected 11 true catheter malpositionings in the RA, while it could not recognize seven catheter placements correctly. CEUS showed two false RA misplacements and five falsely correct CVC positions. A sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 69% were achieved for CEUS in detecting CVC misplacements. Positive and negative predictive values were 95% and 85%, respectively. The interrater agreement (kappa) between CEUS and radiography was 0.72 (P < 0.001). Conclusions Despite close concordance between ultrasonography and chest radiography, CEUS is not a suitable alternative for standard chest radiography in detecting CVC location; however, considering its high sensitivity and acceptable specificity in our study, its usefulness as a triage method for detecting CVC location on a real-time basis in the operating room cannot be ignored. PMID:27847699

  10. Evidence for central venous pressure resetting during initial exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Elliott, J. J.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    We measured central venous pressure (CVP); plasma volume (PV); urine volume rate (UVR); renal excretion of sodium (UNa); and renal clearances of creatinine, sodium, and osmolality before and after acute volume infusion to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity causes resetting of the CVP operating point. Six rhesus monkeys underwent two experimental conditions in a crossover counterbalance design: 1) continuous exposure to 10 degrees head-down tilt (HDT) and 2) a control, defined as 16 h/day of 80 degrees head-up tilt and 8 h prone. After 48 h of exposure to either test condition, a 120-min course of continuous infusion of isotonic saline (0.4 ml. kg(-1). min(-1) iv) was administered. Baseline CVP was lower (P = 0.011) in HDT (2.3 +/- 0.3 mmHg) compared with the control (4.5 +/- 1.4 mmHg) condition. After 2 h of saline infusion, CVP was elevated (P = 0.002) to a similar magnitude (P = 0.485) in HDT (DeltaCVP = 2.7 +/- 0.8 mmHg) and control (DeltaCVP = 2.3 +/- 0.8 mmHg) conditions and returned to preinfusion levels 18 h postinfusion in both treatments. PV followed the same pattern as CVP. The response relationships between CVP and UVR and between CVP and UNa shifted to the left with HDT. The restoration of CVP and PV to lower preinfusion levels after volume loading in HDT compared with control supports the notion that lower CVP during HDT may reflect a new operating point about which vascular volume is regulated. These results may explain the ineffective fluid intake procedures currently employed to treat patients and astronauts.

  11. Experience of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter in Patients with Hematologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Fukuta, Takanori; Maruyama, Junko; Omura, Hiromi; Tanaka, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although use of the peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) has become increasingly common, there are few reports of PICCs used for patients with hematologic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the safety of PICC placement in patients with hematologic diseases where PICCs had been placed to perform blood collection, blood transfusion, drug administration, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods This study included 142 PICCs placed in 95 patients managed at our department from November 2013 to December 2015. The PICCs used were the GroshongⓇ Catheter (NXT single-lumen; BARD Inc.). Results A total of 95 patients underwent the placement of 142 PICCs. The mean patient age was 65.5 years. The total duration of catheterization was 8,089 days, with a mean duration of 57.0 days. Chemotherapy was administered through 107 catheters. Stem cells were injected through 12 catheters. Although a fever was observed in association with 103 catheters, it was generally controlled by antimicrobial therapy. There were 18 catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) cases, an incidence equivalent to 2.1 cases per 1,000 catheter-days. Conclusion The present study demonstrated a low CRBSI incidence rate and found no evidence of serious complications with PICC placement. PICCs can be used for blood collection, blood transfusion, drug administration, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without problems. Thus, PICC placement appears to be a safe procedure for patients with hematologic diseases. Safe catheters are therefore urgently needed for these patients. We expect that PICCs will be widely adopted in Japan in the near future. PMID:28202859

  12. Management of traumatic hemothorax by closed thoracic drainage using a central venous catheter

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jian-hua; Liu, Hua-bo; Zhang, Mao; Wu, Jun-song; Yang, Jian-xin; Chen, Jin-ming; Xu, Shan-xiang; Wang, Jian-an

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of traumatic hemothorax by closed pleural drainage using a central venous catheter (CVC), compared with using a conventional chest tube. Methods: A prospective controlled study with the Ethics Committee approval was undertaken. A total of 407 patients with traumatic hemothorax were involved and they were randomly assigned to undergo closed pleural drainage with CVCs (n=214) or conventional chest tubes (n=193). The Seldinger technique was used for drainage by CVC, and the conventional technique for drainage by chest tube. If the residual volume of the hemothorax was less than 200 ml after the daily volume of drainage decreased to below 100 ml for two consecutive days, the treatment was considered successful. The correlative data of efficacy and safety between the two groups were analyzed using t or chi-squared tests with SPSS 13.0. A P value of less than 0.05 was taken as indicating statistical significance. Results: Compared with the chest tube group, the operation time, fraction of analgesic treatment, time of surgical wound healing, and infection rate of surgical wounds were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the CVC group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the success rate of treatment and the incidence of serious complications (P>0.05), or in the mean catheter/tube indwelling time and mean medical costs of patients treated successfully (P>0.05). Conclusions: Management of medium or large traumatic hemothoraxes by closed thoracic drainage using CVC is minimally invasive and as effective as using a conventional large-bore chest tube. Its complications can be prevented and it has the potential to replace the large-bore chest tube. PMID:22205619

  13. Spinal Infections Among Patients With Long-Term Central Venous Catheters for Home Parenteral Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Topan, Rabia; Ambrose, Tim; Small, Mia; Lightman, Elewys; Nightingale, Jeremy; Gabe, Simon M

    2017-02-01

    Spinal infections are a rare yet serious metastatic complication of bacteremia among patients with long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) for which clinicians must remain vigilant. We performed a retrospective review of all cases of spinal infection occurring in the context of a CVC for long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) managed in our department between January 2010 and October 2013, a cohort of 310 patients over this time period. Six patients were identified (mean age, 65 years; 5 male). One hundred percent of patients presented with spinal pain (5/6 cervical, 1/6 thoracic). Organisms were cultured from the CVC in 5 of 6 patients. In all cases, the white blood cell count was normal, and in 5 of 6, C-reactive protein was normal. All diagnoses were confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and in 3 of 6 cases, an MRI was repeated (on the advice of neurosurgical colleagues) to confirm resolution of changes after a period of antimicrobial therapy. There was no clear correlation between duration of PN or number of days following CVC insertion and onset of infection. The CVC was replaced in 4 of 6 patients at the time of diagnosis, delayed removal in 1 of 6, and salvaged in the remaining case. Although rare, a high index of suspicion is needed in patients receiving long-term PN who present with spinal pain. Peripheral inflammatory markers may not be elevated. MRI should be performed and patients should be treated with antibiotics alongside involvement of local microbiology and neurosurgical teams. Multidisciplinary discussion on CVC salvage in these cases is important, especially in cases of challenging vascular anatomy.

  14. Multi-purpose silastic dual-lumen central venous catheters for both collection and transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, H M; Trehan, S; Miller, R; Fox, R M; Creger, R J; Raaf, J H

    2000-04-01

    Autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation frequently requires sequential placement and use of two separate central venous catheters: (1) a short-term, large-bore, stiff device inserted for leukapheresis, and after removal of that device, (2) a long-term, multi-lumen, flexible, Silastic catheter for administration of high-dose chemotherapy, re-infusion of hematopoietic cells, and intensive supportive care. We reviewed our recent experience with two dual-lumen, large-bore, Silastic multi-purpose ('hybrid') catheters, each of which can be used as a single device for both leukapheresis and long-term supportive care throughout the transplant process. Quinton-Raaf PermCath and Bard-Hickman hemodialysis/apheresis dual-lumen catheters were used as the sole venous access device in 112 consecutive patients who underwent autologous PBPC collection and transplantation. The catheter exit site was monitored three times a week, and lumen patency was assessed using clinical and radiologic techniques. Catheters were removed prematurely for persistent thrombus, positive blood cultures despite appropriate antibiotics, or mechanical dysfunction. There were no intra-operative or immediate post-operative complications relating to insertion. Thirty-two patients experienced catheter occlusion necessitating urokinase instillation. Persistent occlusive problems were noted in 16 patients, and in 10 patients the catheter had to be removed. Two exit site infections and 17 bacteremias occurred. Catheters had to be removed for persistent infection in two subjects and for mechanical problems in five others. Cost analysis comparing the hybrid catheters alone vs conventional devices revealed a charge of $4230 in patients with hybrid catheters vs. $7530 in those requiring a temporary non-Silastic dialysis catheter in addition to a flexible, long-term Silastic catheter. Hybrid, Silastic, dual-lumen, large-bore central venous catheters are safe, cost-effective and convenient

  15. Which is the easiest and safest technique for central venous access? A retrospective survey of more than 5,400 cases.

    PubMed

    Pittiruti, M; Malerba, M; Carriero, C; Tazza, L; Gui, D

    2000-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the technique for central venous catheterization associated with the lowest complication rate and the highest success rate. In an attempt to better define the easiest and safest venous approach, we have reviewed our 7-year experience with 5479 central venous percutaneous punctures (by Seldinger's technique) for the insertion of short-term (n=2109), medium/long-term (n=2627) catheters, as well as double-lumen, large-bore catheters for hemodialysis and/or hemapheresis (n=743). We have analyzed the incidence of the most frequent in-sertion-related complications by comparing seven different venous approaches: jugular vein, low lateral approach; jugular vein, high lateral approach; jugular vein, low axial approach; subclavian vein, infraclavicular approach; subclavian vein, supraclavicular approach; external jugular vein; femoral vein. The results of our retrospective study suggest that the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein, as described by Jernigan and modified according to our protocol, appears to be the easiest and safest technique for percutaneous insertion of central venous access, being characterized by the lowest incidence of accidental arte-rial puncture (1.2%) and malposition (0.8%), no pneumothorax, and an extremely low rate of repeated attempts (i.e. more than two punctures before successful cannulation) (3.3%). We advocate the 'low lateral' approach to the internal jugular vein as first-choice technique for venipuncture in both adults and children, for both short-term and long-term central venous percutaneous cannulation.

  16. Part versus whole: a randomized trial of central venous catheterization education.

    PubMed

    Chan, Angela; Singh, Sunita; Dubrowski, Adam; Pratt, Daniel D; Zalunardo, Nadia; Nair, Parvarthy; McLaughlin, Kevin; Ma, Irene W Y

    2015-10-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a complex but commonly performed procedure. How best to teach this complex skill has not been clearly delineated. We conducted a randomized trial of the effects of two types of teaching of CVC on skill acquisition and retention. We randomly assigned novice internal medicine residents to learning CVC in-part or in-whole. The part-group was taught the first part of the procedure, followed by practice, followed by being taught the second and final portion of the procedure, and followed by practice. The whole-group was taught the procedure in its entirety, followed by practice. Teaching and practice time for both groups was otherwise held constant. Performances were assessed at baseline, post-training, and at 1 month. The primary outcome was skill retention at 1-month, rated by using a global rating scale and a 22-item checklist, and defined as the score increase between 1-month and baseline. Skill acquisition is defined as the score increase post-training and baseline. Raters were blinded to the participants' identity, group assignment, and time point. Participants in the part-task group outperformed the whole-task group in skill acquisition (2.2 ± 0.8 vs 1.3 ± 1.0; g = 1.01; p = 0.04) and in skill retention (1.5 ± 0.7 vs 0.5 ± 0.8; g = 1.39; p = 0.006) using the global rating scale. Scores rated by the checklist were not significantly different (52.0 ± 25.3 vs 43.5 ± 23.4; g = 0.33; p = 0.47 for skill acquisition; and 48.5 ± 34.9 vs 41.1 ± 20.4; g = 0.35; p = 0.44 for skill retention). For teaching ultrasound-guided CVC to novice learners, teaching in part is preferable than teaching in whole.

  17. Renal function after low central venous pressure-assisted liver resection: assessment of 2116 cases

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Gallego, Camilo; Berman, Alexandra; Denis, Stephanie C; Langdon-Embry, Liana; O'Connor, David; Arslan-Carlon, Vittoria; Kingham, T Peter; D'Angelica, Michael I; Allen, Peter J; Fong, Yuman; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Jarnagin, William R; Melendez, Jose; Fischer, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Low central venous pressure (LCVP)-assisted hepatectomy is associated with decreased blood loss and lower transfusion rates. Concerns about its impact on renal function have prevented widespread application. This study was conducted to review the dynamics of renal function after LCVP-assisted hepatectomy. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective surgical database was carried out. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. The RIFLE (risk–injury–failure–loss–end-stage) criteria were used to define postoperative biochemical acute kidney injury (bAKI). Occurrences of clinically relevant AKI (cAKI) were identified in the study center postoperative database. Results During the period 2003–2012, 2116 LCVP-assisted hepatectomies were performed. The median patient age was 61 years [interquartile range (IQR): 51–70 years] and 51% of patients were male. The median number of resected segments was two; resections involved from one to four segments. Median estimated blood loss was 300 ml (IQR: 200–600 ml). Rates of morbidity and 90-day mortality were 21% and 2%, respectively. Low baseline eGFR (<90 ml/min) was seen in 84% of patients; 29% of patients had eGFR of <30 ml/min. Postoperative bAKI was seen in 17% (n = 350) of patients. Biochemical AKI with low eGFR was seen in 336 patients, representing 16% of the whole cohort; 13% of patients had been at risk, 2% experienced injury and 1% experienced failure. Kidney function had normalized at discharge in 159 of these patients. Nine patients (<1%) developed postoperative cAKI. Conclusions The majority of patients in the study cohort had low baseline eGFR. Biochemical alterations in eGFR are transient in the vast majority of patients after LCVP-assisted hepatectomy and their clinical impact is limited. The present data suggest that clinically relevant renal dysfunction is a very uncommon event in patients

  18. Catheter malplacement during central venous cannulation through arm veins in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind; Bithal, Parmod K; Dash, Harihar; Chauhan, Rajendra S; Mohanty, Bibekanand

    2003-07-01

    For successful catheter placement, central venous cannulation (CVC) through internal jugular vein and subclavian vein has been recommended in both adult and pediatric patients. But it carries a risk of serious complications, such as pneumothorax, carotid, or subclavian artery puncture, which can be life-threatening, particularly in critically ill children. So a prospective study was carried out to determine the success rate of correct catheter tip placement during CVC through antecubital veins in pediatric neurosurgical patients. A total of 200 pediatric patients (age 1-15 years) of either sex were studied. Basilic or cephalic veins of either arm were selected. All the patients were cannulated in the operation room under general anesthesia. Single lumen, proper size catheters (with stillete) were used for cannulation. The catheter was inserted in supine position with the arm abducted at right angle to the body and neck turned ipsilaterally. The length of insertion was determined from cubital fossa to the right second intercostal space. The exact position of the tip of the catheter was confirmed radiologically in ICU. Correct catheter tip placement was achieved in 98 (49%) patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of data shows that there was no statistically significant difference among correct and incorrect catheter tip placement in relation to factors including sex, side of cannulation (left or right), and type of vein (basilic or cephalic). The analysis of correct catheter tip placement in relation to age showed that the highest success rate was achieved in children of age group 6 to 10 years (60.2%) followed by 30.6% in the 11 to 15 year group. The lowest success rate of tip placement of only 9.2% was observed in younger children of age 1 to 5 years, which is statistically significant (P = 0.001). Of 102 incorrect placements reported, 37% were in 1 to 5 year age group versus 9.2% correct tip placements. The most common unsatisfactory placements were

  19. Cephalic vein cutdown for totally implantable central venous port in children: a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Hwan; Moon, Suk-Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The jugular vein cutdown for a totally implantable central venous port (TICVP) has 2 disadvantages: 2 separate incisions are needed and the risk for multiple vein occlusions. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of a cephalic vein (CV) cutdown in children. Methods We prospectively followed patients who underwent a venous cutdown for implantation of a TICVP between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2006. For patients younger than 8 months, an external jugular vein cutdown was initially tried without attempting a CV cutdown. For patients older than 8 months, a CV cutdown was tried initially. We recorded information on age, weight, outcome of the CV cutdown and complications. Results During the study period, 143 patients underwent a venous cutdown for implantation of a TICVP: 25 younger and 118 older than 8 months. The CV cutdown was successful in 73 of 118 trials. The 25th percentile and median body weight for 73 successful cases were 15.4 kg and 28.3 kg, respectively. There was a significant difference in the success rate using the criterion of 15 kg as the cutoff. The overall complication rate was 8.2%. Conclusion The CV cutdown was an acceptable procedure for TICVP in children. It could be preferentially considered for patients weighing more than 15 kg who require TICVP. PMID:24461222

  20. Pulmonary Artery Versus Central Venous Catheter Monitoring in the Outcome of Patients Undergoing Bilateral Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    YaDeau, Jacques T.; Urban, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral total knee replacement (BTKR) has been associated with a higher incidence of fat embolism (FES) compared to single knee replacement. Consequently, intraoperative monitoring with a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) has been recommended. This study compares clinical outcome in BTKR patients monitored with central venous pressure versus PAC. A retrospective chart review of 249 consecutive patients undergoing BTKR, 132 of whom had PAC insertion versus 117 who had central line insertion, over a 1-year period were included in the study. Their medical records were reviewed for co-morbidities, baseline characteristics, and type of intraoperative monitoring. Need and duration for postoperative monitoring in the postoperative care, length of hospital stay (LOHS), signs of fat embolism, development of arrhythmias, and respiratory failure were all outcome measures. A total of four patients (1.6%) had FES as per Schonfeld criteria. One of these patients died within 48 h of surgery. They all had PAC monitoring intraoperatively. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) remained unchanged during surgery which raises doubt as to the clinical utility and advisability of the use of PAC’s in this setting. There was no statistically significant difference in cardiac or pulmonary complications, or LOHS between the two groups. Central venous pressure monitoring appears to be sufficient in patients undergoing BTKR. PMID:19002531

  1. Optoacoustic measurement of central venous oxygenation for assessment of circulatory shock: clinical study in cardiac surgery patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Prough, Donald S.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock is a dangerous medical condition, in which blood flow cannot provide the necessary amount of oxygen to organs and tissues. Currently, its diagnosis and therapy decisions are based on hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, blood gases) and mental status of a patient, which all have low specificity. Measurement of mixed or central venous blood oxygenation via catheters is more reliable, but highly invasive and associated with complications. Our previous studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated that optoacoustic systems provide non-invasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific vessels, including central veins. Here we report our first results of a clinical study in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. We used a medical-grade OPO-based optoacoustic system developed in our laboratory to measure in real time blood oxygenation in the internal jugular vein (IJV) of these patients. A clinical ultrasound imaging system (GE Vivid e) was used for IJV localization. Catheters were placed in the IJV as part of routine care and blood samples taken via the catheters were processed with a CO-oximeter. The optoacoustic oxygenation data were compared to the CO-oximeter readings. Good correlation between the noninvasive and invasive measurements was obtained. The results of these studies suggest that the optoacoustic system can provide accurate, noninvasive measurements of central venous oxygenation that can be used for patients with circulatory shock.

  2. An establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion.

    PubMed

    Diao, Yong Shu; Feng, Yan Huan; Liu, Chun Cheng; Cui, Tian Lei; Fu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The patency of vascular access is of vital importance to dialysis patients. Access dysfunction is largely caused by vessel stenosis and thrombosis. Nephrologists usually find themselves helpless when all treatments fail and the vascular access seems to have exhausted. Here we report a successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a critical patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion. To our knowledge, it is the first case ever reported on the successful establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava under such a complicated condition of vascular exhaustion.

  3. Ipsilateral jugular to distal subclavian vein transposition to relieve central venous hypertension in rescue vascular access surgery: a surgical report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Acri, Ignazioe; Carmignani, Amedeo; Vazzana, Giovanni; Massara, Mafalda; Acri, Edvige; Lentini, Salvatore; Spinelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Central venous thrombosis may often arise following central venous cannulation for temporary haemodialysis access. Venous thrombosis may be clinically asymptomatic due to the presence of collateral circulation. However, if an arteriovenous (AV) fistula is prepared below the obstructed venous segment, then symptoms may occur. Central venous hypertension interferes with dialysis, compromises limb function and threatens its safety. Percutaneous treatment is mostly used. However, in some cases endovascular treatment may not be as easy and long term patency uncertain.We report our experience on 3 patients on chronic hemodialysis treatment presenting with a patent AV fistula and ipsilateral subclavian vein chronic fibrotic obstruction. They were treated by ipsilateral internal jugular to distal subclavian vein transposition. Two separate surgical incisions were performed to expose the subclavian vein distally to the occlusion and the jugular vein that was distally ligated and transposed. There was no mortality nor significant postoperative complications. Resolution of hypertensive symptoms was achieved within 3-4 weeks in all patients. The AV fistula was used for dialysis treatment starting from the first postoperative day. At follow-up (mean 13 months), there was no recurrence of upper limb venous hypertension.In patients with subclavian occlusion and ipsilateral low flow, patent AV fistula, jugular to distal subclavian vein transposition may prove useful in cases when percutaneous angioplasty is technically not feasible or long term patency is not expected.

  4. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use.

  5. Comparing the Effect of 3 Kinds of Different Materials on the Hemostasis of the Central Venous Catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Chun-Lei

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effect of 3 kinds of different materials on the hemostasis of puncture site after central venous catheterization. Method: A selection of 120 patients with peripheral central venous catheter chemotherapy in the Affiliated Hospital of our university from January 2014 to April 2015, Randomly divided into 3 groups, using the same specification (3.5cm × 2cm) alginate gelatin sponge and gauze dressing, 3 kinds of material compression puncture point, 3 groups of patients after puncture 24 h within the puncture point of local blood and the catheter after the catheter 72 h within the catheter maintenance costs. Result: (1) The local infiltration of the puncture point in the 24 h tube: The use of alginate dressing and gelatin sponge hemostatic effect is better than that of compression gauze. The difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Compared with gelatin sponge and alginate dressing hemostatic effect, The difference was not statistically significant. (2) Tube maintenance cost: Puncture point using gelatin sponge, The local maintenance costs of the catheter within 72 h after insertion of the tube are lowest, compared with alginate dressing and gauze was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: The choice of compression hemostasis material for the puncture site after PICC implantation, using gelatin sponge and gauze dressing is more effective and economic.

  6. Central venous Access device SeCurement And Dressing Effectiveness (CASCADE) in paediatrics: protocol for pilot randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Victoria; Long, Debbie A; Williams, Tara; Hallahan, Andrew; Mihala, Gabor; Cooke, Marie; Rickard, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric central venous access devices (CVADs) are associated with a 25% incidence of failure. Securement and dressing are strategies used to reduce failure and complication; however, innovative technologies have not been evaluated for their effectiveness across device types. The primary aim of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of launching a full-scale randomised controlled efficacy trial across three CVAD types regarding CVAD securement and dressing, using predefined feasibility criteria. Methods and analysis Three feasibility randomised, controlled trials are to be undertaken at the Royal Children's Hospital and the Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. CVAD securement and dressing interventions under examination compare current practice with sutureless securement devices, integrated securement dressings and tissue adhesive. In total, 328 paediatric patients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter (n=100); non-tunnelled CVAD (n=180) and tunnelled CVAD (n=48) to be inserted will be recruited and randomly allocated to CVAD securement and dressing products. Primary outcomes will be study feasibility measured by eligibility, recruitment, retention, attrition, missing data, parent/staff satisfaction and effect size. CVAD failure and complication (catheter-associated bloodstream infection, local infection, venous thrombosis, occlusion, dislodgement and breakage) will be compared between groups. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval to conduct the research has been obtained. All dissemination will be undertaken using the CONSORT Statement recommendations. Additionally, the results will be sent to the relevant organisations which lead CVAD focused clinical practice guidelines development. Trial registration numbers ACTRN12614001327673; ACTRN12615000977572; ACTRN12614000280606. PMID:27259529

  7. Peripheral Insertion of a Central Venous Access Device Under Fluoroscopic Guidance Using a Peripherally Accessed System (PAS) Port in the Forearm

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, Yasuhiro; Morita, Sojiro; Morita, Yoshitaka; Awatani, Toshihide; Takasaki, Motohiro; Horimi, Tadashi; Ozawa, Zen

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: We describe the technique, efficacy, and complications of fluoroscopy-guided implantation of a central venous access device using a peripherally accessed system (PAS) port via the forearm. Methods: Beginning in July 1994, 105 central venous access devices were implanted in 104 patients for the long-term infusion of antibiotics or antineoplasmic agents, blood products, or parenteral nutrition. The devices was inserted under fluoroscopic guidance with real-time venography from a peripheral route. Results: All ports were successfully implanted. There were no procedure-related complications. No thrombosis or local infection was observed; however, in six patients catheter-related phlebitis occurred. Conclusion: Fluoroscopy-guided implantation of a central venous access device using a PAS port via the forearm is safe and efficacious, and injection of contrast medium through a peripheral IV catheter before introduction of the catheter helps to avoid catheter-related phlebitis.

  8. Implementation of central venous catheter bundle in an intensive care unit in Kuwait: Effect on central line-associated bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Salama, Mona F; Jamal, Wafaa; Al Mousa, Haifa; Rotimi, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSIs) is an important healthcare-associated infection in the critical care units. It causes substantial morbidity, mortality and incurs high costs. The use of central venous line (CVL) insertion bundle has been shown to decrease the incidence of CLABSIs. Our aim was to study the impact of CVL insertion bundle on incidence of CLABSI and study the causative microbial agents in an intensive care unit in Kuwait. Surveillance for CLABSI was conducted by trained infection control team using National Health Safety Network (NHSN) case definitions and device days measurement methods. During the intervention period, nursing staff used central line care bundle consisting of (1) hand hygiene by inserter (2) maximal barrier precautions upon insertion by the physician inserting the catheter and sterile drape from head to toe to the patient (3) use of a 2% chlorohexidine gluconate (CHG) in 70% ethanol scrub for the insertion site (4) optimum catheter site selection. (5) Examination of the daily necessity of the central line. During the pre-intervention period, there were 5367 documented catheter-days and 80 CLABSIs, for an incidence density of 14.9 CLABSIs per 1000 catheter-days. After implementation of the interventions, there were 5052 catheter-days and 56 CLABSIs, for an incidence density of 11.08 per 1000 catheter-days. The reduction in the CLABSI/1000 catheter days was not statistically significant (P=0.0859). This study demonstrates that implementation of a central venous catheter post-insertion care bundle was associated with a reduction in CLABSI in an intensive care area setting.

  9. Use of cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques to assess contamination of central venous catheters: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Mette KS; Thomsen, Trine R; Moser, Claus; Høiby, Niels; Nielsen, Per H

    2008-01-01

    Background Catheters are the most common cause of nosocomial infections and are associated with increased risk of mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. Prevention of infections and fast and correct diagnosis is highly important. Methods In this study traditional semiquantitative culture-dependent methods for diagnosis of bacteria involved in central venous catheter-related infections as described by Maki were compared with the following culture-independent molecular biological methods: Clone libraries, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, phylogeny and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results In accordance with previous studies, the cultivation of central venous catheters from 18 patients revealed that S. epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci were most abundant and that a few other microorganisms such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae occasionally were found on the catheters. The molecular analysis using clone libraries and sequencing, denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing provided several important results. The species found by cultivation were confirmed by molecular methods. However, many other bacteria belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were also found, stressing that only a minor portion of the species present were found by cultivation. Some of these bacteria are known to be pathogens, some have not before been described in relation to human health, and some were not closely related to known pathogens and may represent new pathogenic species. Furthermore, there was a clear difference between the bacterial species found in biofilm on the external (exluminal) and internal (luminal) side of the central venous catheter, which can not be detected by Maki's method. Polymicrobial biofilms were observed on most of the catheters and were much more common than the cultivation-dependent methods indicated. Conclusion The results show that diagnosis based on molecular methods

  10. Dealing with the venous congestion of free flaps: venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Koray; Kankaya, Yüksel; Uysal, Afşin; Koçer, Uğur

    2008-11-01

    For head and neck reconstruction after tumor ablation surgery, free flaps are mostly the chosen treatment modality for most of the centers. Coping with venous insufficiency and increasing venous outflow of the flap during this process increases the success rate. To increase venous outflow, triple-lumen central venous catheter is inserted to one of the donor veins of the flap that has venous insufficiency and one intact vein anastomosis.

  11. Treatment of pneumothorax as a complication of long-term central venous port placement in oncology patients. An observational study.

    PubMed

    Biffi, R; Pozzi, S; Cenciarelli, S; Zambelli, M; Andreoni, B

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose.In percutaneous placement of central venous catheters an inadvertent, direct lesion of the lung parenchyma can occur. This is a cause of iatrogenic pneumothorax, whose incidence is approximately 1 to 4%, largely dependent on the experience of the operator, the site of venipuncture and proba-bly the technique employed. Initial treatment currently ranges from observation alone to formal tube-thoracostomy. In an attempt to define the best initial treatment, if any, we reviewed our personal series and contributions from the literature. As a result we have produced a flow-chart proposing a rational treatment of this frequent complication. Patients and Methods.One thousand four hundred twenty-one ports were placed in patients at the Department of Surgery of the European Institute of Oncology in Milan through an infraclavicular standardized percutaneous subclavian approach. They were placed during the 60-month period from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2000 for long-term chemotherapy treatment of solid tumours. Chest upright X-rays were obtained post-operatively in all cases to check the correct position of the catheter tip and the presence of pneumothorax. Results.Twenty-two patients out of 1421 (1.54%) experienced a radiologically-proven pneumothorax, ranging from 5 to 70% of the affected pleural space. Sixteen patients out of 22 (72.7%) with minor portions of affected pleural space received simple observation. In these patients the most common finding was an uncomplicated tachycardia (more than 100 beats/min); 8 of them did not complain of any symptoms. Six patients (27.2%) un-derwent an additional procedure (3 tube-thoracostomies and 3 aspirations of the pleural space), claiming symptoms of chest pain and various degrees of dyspnea. Tube thoracostomy was mainly adopted at the beginning of our experience, and in patients with a severe degree of pleural involvement (55 to 70% of the pleural space). Aspiration, instead, was used more recently and

  12. Transient neurological deficit due to a misplacement of central venous catheter despite ultrasound guidance and ultrasound assistance.

    PubMed

    Idialisoa, Rado; Jouffroy, Romain; Saint Martin, Laure Castres; Lamhaut, Lionel; Baud, Frédéric; Philippe, Pascal; Carli, Pierre; Vivien, Benoît

    2015-10-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in intensive care units (ICU), with a low incidence of complications, most of them being of mechanical origin and occurring during the insertion of the catheter. To avoid such complications, "ultrasound guidance" and "ultrasound assistance" are recommended. Nevertheless, even with trained and experienced physicians, mechanical complications of IJV access such as carotid punctures are still reported. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman, admitted into the ICU for CVC insertion due to impossibility of peripheral venous access. About 12 hours after the procedure, the patient presented a neurological deficit. The cervical and thoracic CT scan showed a transfixing path of the catheter from the left IJV into the left common carotid artery, with distal extremity of the catheter localized in the ascending aorta. The catheter was removed, and thereafter the neurological deficit immediately and definitely disappeared. Onset of a neurological deficit after CVC insertion into the IJV, regardless the time of occurrence after the procedure, should suggest complication due to the CVC insertion, even if procedure was uneventful and chest radiography confirmed the apparent accurate position of CVC.

  13. Subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm complicating central venous catheterization: endovascular treatment with Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4 and covered stent.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Umberto G; Petrocelli, Francesco; Ferro, Carlo

    2013-12-01

    Central venous catheterization is a routine vascular access procedure; however, it may be associated with life-threatening complications such as arterial puncture, leading to pseudoaneurysm formation. We report a case of a 41-year-old female that developed an iatrogenic left subclavian pseudoaneurysm complicating the attempt of left internal jugular vein cannulation for temporary hemodialysis therapy. The patient underwent urgent endovascular treatment with deployment of covered stent into the left subclavian artery (SCA) after embolization of the origin of the left internal mammary artery with Amplatzer Vascular Plug 4. The patient's recovery was unremarkable. Follow-up till 24 months reveals total exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm of the left SCA with patency of the distal branches.

  14. A delayed diagnosis of a retained guidewire during central venous catheterisation: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Vatan, Mehmet Bulent; Osken, Altug; Cakar, Mehmet Akif

    2012-11-19

    Central venous catheterisation allows delivery of medications, intravenous fluids, parenteral nutrition, haemodialysis and monitoring of haemodynamic variables. Various complications may occur during and after the procedure. However, the complete guidewire retention has rarely been reported. In this report, we have presented a complete guidewire retention as a result of inadvertent catheter insertion. After 17 months of the first operation performed upon the diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene, the patient was admitted to the cardiology polyclinic with a recurrent chest pain. Echocardiography showed a wire-shaped foreign body within the right part of the heart, and a fluoroscopic examination showed a guidewire reaching from the superior vena cava to the right external iliac vein. In retrospect, the wire was already visible on the postoperative chest x-rays and CT taken while the patient was still in intensive care unit, but its presence was overlooked at that time. The guidewire was retrieved completely during a surgery.

  15. Central venous catheterization--an anatomical review of a clinical skill. Part 2. Internal jugular vein via the supraclavicular approach.

    PubMed

    Boon, J M; van Schoor, A N; Abrahams, P H; Meiring, J H; Welch, T

    2008-01-01

    The safe and successful performance of a central venous catheterization (CVC) requires a specific knowledge of anatomy in addition to a working knowledge. Misunderstanding the anatomy may result in failure or complications. This review aims to aid understanding of the anatomical framework, pitfalls, and complications of CVC of the internal jugular veins. CVC is common practice amongst surgeons, anesthesiologists, and emergency room physicians during the preparations for major surgical procedures such as open-heart surgery, as well as for intensive care monitoring and rapid restoration of blood volume. Associated with this technique are certain anatomical pitfalls and complications that can be successfully avoided if one possesses a thorough knowledge of the contraindications, regional anatomy, and rationale of the technique.

  16. Central venous catheterization -- an anatomical review of a clinical skill -- Part 1: subclavian vein via the infraclavicular approach.

    PubMed

    Boon, J M; van Schoor, A N; Abrahams, P H; Meiring, J H; Welch, T; Shanahan, D

    2007-08-01

    The safe and successful performance of a central venous catheterization (CVC) requires a specific knowledge of anatomy in addition to a working knowledge. Misunderstanding the anatomy may result in failure or complications. This review aims to aid understanding of the anatomical framework, pitfalls, and complications of CVC of the subclavian (SCV). CVC is common practice amongst surgeons, anesthesiologists, and emergency room physicians during the preparations for major surgical procedures such as open-heart surgery, as well as, for intensive care monitoring and rapid restoration of blood volume. Associated with this technique are certain anatomical pitfalls and complications that can be successfully avoided if one possesses a thorough knowledge of the contraindications, regional anatomy, and rationale of the technique.

  17. Successful Retrieval of a Dismembered Central Venous Catheter Stuck to the Right Pulmonary Artery Using a Stepwise Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in anticancer chemotherapy have resulted in an increase in the number of patients requiring a central venous port catheter, and the incidence of catheter pinch-off syndrome has been increasing. Catheter pinch-off syndrome is a rare and unusual complication. It is difficult to retrieve dislodged catheters from the pulmonary artery, especially if the catheter is stuck to the peripheral pulmonary artery. We herein describe the successful removal of a catheter stuck in the pulmonary artery with a stepwise approach. First, a pigtail catheter was used to tug the dislodged catheter in order to free the unilateral end. Then, a gooseneck snare was used to catch and pull the catheter out of the patient. The key to success is to free the end of the catheter. PMID:27668096

  18. Imaging Review of Procedural and Periprocedural Complications of Central Venous Lines, Percutaneous Intrathoracic Drains, and Nasogastric Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Irion, Klaus L.; Allen, Carolyn; de Godoy, Daniel Marafiga; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2012-01-01

    Placements of central venous lines (CVC), percutaneous intrathoracic drains (ITDs), and nasogastric tubes (NGTs) are some of the most common interventional procedures performed on patients that are unconscious and in almost all intensive care/high dependency patients in one form or the other. These are standard procedures within the remit of physicians, and other trained health professionals. Procedural complications may occur in 7%–15% of patients depending upon the intervention and experience of the operator. Most complications are minor, but other serious complications may add significantly to morbidity and even mortality of already compromised patients. Imaging findings are the key to the detection of misplaced lines, and tubes and their prompt recognition are vital to avoid harm to the patient. It is, therefore, pertinent that healthcare professionals who perform these procedures are familiar with imaging complications of these procedures. Here, we present the imaging characteristics of procedural complications. PMID:22970363

  19. Are Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models Reporting the Right C(max)? Central Venous Versus Peripheral Sampling Site.

    PubMed

    Musther, Helen; Gill, Katherine L; Chetty, Manoranjenni; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Rowland, Malcolm; Jamei, Masoud

    2015-09-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can over-predict maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) following intravenous administration. A proposed explanation is that invariably PBPK models report the concentration in the central venous compartment, rather than the site where the samples are drawn. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate potential corrective models based on anatomy and physiology governing the blood supply at the site of sampling and incorporate them into a PBPK platform. Four models were developed and scrutinised for their corrective potential. All assumed the peripheral sampling site concentration could be described by contributions from surrounding tissues and utilised tissue-specific concentration-time profiles reported from the full-PBPK model within the Simcyp Simulator. Predicted concentrations for the peripheral site were compared to the observed C(max). The models results were compared to clinical data for 15 studies over seven compounds (alprazolam, imipramine, metoprolol, midazolam, omeprazole, rosiglitazone and theophylline). The final model utilised tissue concentrations from adipose, skin, muscle and a contribution from artery. Predicted C(max) values considering the central venous compartment can over-predict the observed values up to 10-fold whereas the new sampling site predictions were within 2-fold of observed values. The model was particularly relevant for studies where traditional PBPK models over-predict early time point concentrations. A successful corrective model for C(max) prediction has been developed, subject to further validation. These models can be enrolled as built-up modules into PBPK platforms and potentially account for factors that may affect the initial mixing of the blood at the site of sampling.

  20. Impact of Initial Central Venous Pressure on Outcomes of Conservative versus Liberal Fluid Management in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Semler, Matthew W.; Wheeler, Arthur P.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Bernard, Gordon R.; Wiedemann, Herbert P.; Rice, Todd W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), conservative fluid management increases ventilator-free days without affecting mortality. Response to fluid management may differ based on patients’ initial central venous pressure (CVP). We hypothesized initial CVP would modify the effect of fluid management on outcomes. Design Retrospective analysis of the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial, a multicenter randomized trial comparing conservative to liberal fluid management in ARDS. We examined the relationship between initial CVP, fluid strategy, and 60-day mortality in univariate and multivariable analysis. Setting Twenty acute care hospitals. Patients Nine hundred and thirty-four ventilated ARDS patients with a CVP available at enrollment, 609 without baseline shock (for whom fluid balance was managed by study protocol). Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Among patients without baseline shock, those with initial CVP > 8 mmHg experienced similar mortality with conservative and liberal fluid management (18% versus 18%, p=0.928), whereas those with CVP ≤8 mmHg experienced lower mortality with a conservative strategy (17% versus 36%, p=0.005). Multivariable analysis demonstrated an interaction between initial CVP and the effect of fluid strategy on mortality (p=0.031). At higher initial CVPs, the difference in treatment between arms was predominantly furosemide administration, which was not associated with mortality (p=0.122). At lower initial CVPs, the difference between arms was predominantly fluid administration, with additional fluid associated with increased mortality (p=0.013). Conclusions Conservative fluid management decreases mortality for ARDS patients with a low initial central venous pressure. In this population, the administration of intravenous fluids appears to increase mortality. PMID:26741580

  1. Intensivist supervision of resident-placed central venous catheters decreases the incidence of catheter-related blood stream infections.

    PubMed

    Papadimos, Thomas J; Hensely, Sandra J; Duggan, Joan M; Hofmann, James P; Khuder, Sadik A; Borst, Marilyn J; Fath, John J

    2008-04-30

    Catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) cause significant morbidity and mortality. A retrospective study of a performance improvement project in our teaching hospital's surgical intensive care unit (SICU) showed that intensivist supervision was important in reinforcing maximal sterile barriers (MSB) use during the placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) in the prevention of CRBSI. A historical control period, 1 January 2001-31 December 2003, was established for comparison. From 1 January 2003-31 December 2007, MSB use for central venous line placement was mandated for all operators. However, in 2003 there was no intensivist supervision of CVC placements in the SICU. The use of MSB alone did not cause a significant change in the CRBSI rate in the first year of the project, but close supervision by an intensivist in years 2004-2007, in conjunction with MSB use, demonstrated a significant drop in the CRBSI rate when compared to the years before intensivist supervision (2001-2003), p < .0001. A time series analysis comparing monthly rates of CRBSI (2001-2007) also revealed a significant downward trend, p = .028. Additionally, in the first year of the mandated MSB use (2003), 85 independently observed resident-placed CVCs demonstrated that breaks in sterile technique (34/85), as compared those placements that had no breaks in technique (51/85), had more CRBSI, 6/34 (17.6%) vs. 1/51 (1.9%), p < .01. Interventions to reduce CRBSI in our SICU needed emphasis on adequate supervision of trainees in CVC placement, in addition to use of MSB, to effect lower CRBSI rates.

  2. Introducing a Fresh Cadaver Model for Ultrasound-guided Central Venous Access Training in Undergraduate Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ryan; Ho, Hang; Ng, Vivienne; Tran, Melissa; Rappaport, Douglas; Rappaport, William J.A.; Dandorf, Stewart J.; Dunleavy, James; Viscusi, Rebecca; Amini, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the past decade, medical students have witnessed a decline in the opportunities to perform technical skills during their clinical years. Ultrasound-guided central venous access (USG-CVA) is a critical procedure commonly performed by emergency medicine, anesthesia, and general surgery residents, often during their first month of residency. However, the acquisition of skills required to safely perform this procedure is often deficient upon graduation from medical school. To ameliorate this lack of technical proficiency, ultrasound simulation models have been introduced into undergraduate medical education to train venous access skills. Criticisms of simulation models are the innate lack of realistic tactile qualities, as well as the lack of anatomical variances when compared to living patients. The purpose of our investigation was to design and evaluate a life-like and reproducible training model for USG-CVA using a fresh cadaver. Methods This was a cross-sectional study at an urban academic medical center. An 18-point procedural knowledge tool and an 18-point procedural skill evaluation tool were administered during a cadaver lab at the beginning and end of the surgical clerkship. During the fresh cadaver lab, procedure naïve third-year medical students were trained on how to perform ultrasound-guided central venous access of the femoral and internal jugular vessels. Preparation of the fresh cadaver model involved placement of a thin-walled latex tubing in the anatomic location of the femoral and internal jugular vein respectively. Results Fifty-six third-year medical students participated in this study during their surgical clerkship. The fresh cadaver model provided high quality and lifelike ultrasound images despite numerous cannulation attempts. Technical skill scores improved from an average score of 3 to 12 (p<0.001) and procedural knowledge scores improved from an average score of 4 to 8 (p<0.001). Conclusion The use of this novel cadaver

  3. Evaluation of cost-effectiveness from the funding body's point of view of ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion compared with the conventional technique

    PubMed Central

    Noritomi, Danilo Teixeira; Zigaib, Rogério; Ranzani, Otavio T.; Teich, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness, from the funding body's point of view, of real-time ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion compared to the traditional method, which is based on the external anatomical landmark technique. Methods A theoretical simulation based on international literature data was applied to the Brazilian context, i.e., the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). A decision tree was constructed that showed the two central venous catheter insertion techniques: real-time ultrasonography versus external anatomical landmarks. The probabilities of failure and complications were extracted from a search on the PubMed and Embase databases, and values associated with the procedure and with complications were taken from market research and the Department of Information Technology of the Unified Health System (DATASUS). Each central venous catheter insertion alternative had a cost that could be calculated by following each of the possible paths on the decision tree. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated by dividing the mean incremental cost of real-time ultrasound compared to the external anatomical landmark technique by the mean incremental benefit, in terms of avoided complications. Results When considering the incorporation of real-time ultrasound and the concomitant lower cost due to the reduced number of complications, the decision tree revealed a final mean cost for the external anatomical landmark technique of 262.27 Brazilian reals (R$) and for real-time ultrasound of R$187.94. The final incremental cost of the real-time ultrasound-guided technique was -R$74.33 per central venous catheter. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -R$2,494.34 due to the pneumothorax avoided. Conclusion Real-time ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion was associated with decreased failure and complication rates and hypothetically reduced costs from the view of the funding body, which in this

  4. Supraclavicular approach to the subclavian/innominate vein for large-bore central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Muhm, M; Sunder-Plassmann, G; Apsner, R; Kritzinger, M; Hiesmayr, M; Druml, W

    1997-12-01

    Infraclavicular and internal jugular catheterization are commonly used techniques for hemodialysis access, but may at times be impeded in patients whose anatomy makes cannulation difficult. In an effort to enlarge the spectrum of alternative access sites, we evaluated the supraclavicular approach for large-bore catheters. During an 18-month period we prospectively collected data on success rate and major and minor complications of the supraclavicular access for conventional dialysis catheters as well as Dacron-cuffed tunneled devices in 175 adult patients admitted for various extracorporeal therapies and bone marrow transplantation. Two hundred eight large-bore catheters (99 conventional dialysis catheters, 63 semirigid tunneled Dacron-cuffed catheters, and 46 Hickman catheters) were successfully placed in 164 patients (success rate, 93.8%), 58 (33.1%) of whom had been previously catheterized. Complications included pneumothorax (one patient), arterial puncture (seven patients), and puncture of the thoracic duct (two patients) without sequelae. Postinsertional chest radiographs demonstrated impressive coaxial lie of most catheters. Catheter malpositions occurred only sporadically (1%). Difficulty of introducing the catheter via a placed sheath was rarely observed. There was no clinically significant evidence of catheter-induced venous thrombosis or stenosis. We conclude that the supraclavicular route is an easy and safe first approach for large-bore catheters, as well as a useful alternative to traditional puncture sites for precatheterized and anatomically problematic patients.

  5. Complications Associated With Use of Long-Term Central Venous Catheters Among Commercially Insured Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Ma, Qinli; Pollack, Michael F.; Barron, John; Elkin, Elena B.; Bach, Peter B.; Malin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite some advantages to their use, long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with complications for patients who require chemotherapy. Understanding of these risks in commercially insured populations is limited. This information can inform medical policies that ensure the appropriate use of venous access devices. This study's objectives were to assess the extent of variation in use of long-term CVCs in a cohort of commercially insured women with breast cancer, and to assess risks of associated complications. Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using health insurance claims between January 2006 and October 2013. The cohort included commercially insured women age ≥ 18 years diagnosed with breast cancer who received infusion chemotherapy (N = 31,047). We conducted matched and case-mix adjusted Cox proportional hazard modeling to assess differences in bloodstream infections and thrombovascular complications between patients using long-term CVCs and those using temporary intravenous catheters. Results: Approximately two thirds of the cohort had a long-term CVC, although rates varied across regions (57% to 75%), health plans (65% to 70%), and insurance coverage (63% to 68%). After propensity score matching, the adjusted hazard ratio for infection was 2.70 (95% CI, 2.31 to 3.16) and thrombovascular complications, 2.61 (95% CI, 2.33 to 2.93) in patients with long-term CVCs compared with those with temporary intravenous catheters. Conclusion: Although long-term CVCs may have benefits, they are associated with increased morbidity. Regional and health plan variation in long-term CVC insertion suggests that some of their use reflects provider- or institution-driven variation in practice. Evidence-based guidelines and tools may help decrease discretionary use of long-term CVCs. PMID:26265170

  6. [A retrospective study of the relationship between bacterial numbers from central venous catheter tip cultures and blood cultures for evaluating central line-associated bloodstream infections].

    PubMed

    Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Nakayama, Asami; Yonetamari, Jun; Ando, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takashi; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Furuta, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamayo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Murakami, Nobuo; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is an infectious disease requiring special attention. It is a common cause of nosocomial infections; catheter insertion into the central veins particularly increases the risk of infection (CLA-BSI: central line-associated bloodstream infection). We examined the relationship between the number of bacterial colonies cultured from shredded central venous catheter (CVC) tips and from blood cultures in our hospital from 2011 to 2012. Coagulase-negative staphylococci topped the list of microbe isolated from the CVC tip culture, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. S. aureus and Candida spp., with growth of over 15 colony-forming units in the CVC tip culture, were also detected at high rates in the blood culture. However, gramnegative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa) did not show a similar increase in colony number in the CVC tip culture. Because microbes adhering to shredded catheter tips are readily detected by culture, this method is useful as a routine diagnostic test. In addition, prompt clinical reporting of the bacterial number of serious CLA-BSI-causing S. aureus and Candida spp. isolated from CVC tips could contribute to earlier CLA-BSI diagnosis.

  7. Vascular Access Tracking System: a Web-Based Clinical Tracking Tool for Identifying Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections in Interventional Radiology Placed Central Venous Catheters.

    PubMed

    Morrison, James; Kaufman, John

    2016-12-01

    Vascular access is invaluable in the treatment of hospitalized patients. Central venous catheters provide a durable and long-term solution while saving patients from repeated needle sticks for peripheral IVs and blood draws. The initial catheter placement procedure and long-term catheter usage place patients at risk for infection. The goal of this project was to develop a system to track and evaluate central line-associated blood stream infections related to interventional radiology placement of central venous catheters. A customized web-based clinical database was developed via open-source tools to provide a dashboard for data mining and analysis of the catheter placement and infection information. Preliminary results were gathered over a 4-month period confirming the utility of the system. The tools and methodology employed to develop the vascular access tracking system could be easily tailored to other clinical scenarios to assist in quality control and improvement programs.

  8. The jugular venous pressure revisited

    PubMed Central

    CHIACO, JOHN MICHAEL S. CHUA; PARIKH, NISHA I.; FERGUSSON, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the jugular venous pressure is often inadequately performed and undervalued. Here, we review the physiologic and anatomic basis for the jugular venous pressure, including the discrepancy between right atrial and central venous pressures. We also describe the correct method of evaluating this clinical finding and review the clinical relevance of the jugular venous pressure, especially its value in assessing the severity and response to treatment of congestive heart failure. Waveforms reflective of specific conditions are also discussed. PMID:24085809

  9. Notes From the Field: Direct Observation Versus Rating by Videos for the Assessment of Central Venous Catheterization Skills.

    PubMed

    Ma, Irene W Y; Zalunardo, Nadia; Brindle, Mary E; Hatala, Rose; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Blinded assessments of technical skills using video-recordings may offer more objective assessments than direct observations. This study seeks to compare these two modalities. Two trained assessors independently assessed 18 central venous catheterization performances by direct observation and video-recorded assessments using two tools. Although sound quality was deemed adequate in all videos, portions of the video for wire handling and drape handling were frequently out of view (n = 13, 72% for wire-handling; n = 17, 94% for drape-handling). There were no differences in summary global rating scores, checklist scores, or pass/fail decisions for either modality (p > 0.05). Inter-rater reliability was acceptable for both modalities. Of the 26 discrepancies identified between direct observation and video-recorded assessments, three discrepancies (12%) were due to inattention during video review, while one (4%) discrepancy was due to inattention during direct observation. In conclusion, although scores did not differ between the two assessment modalities, techniques of video-recording may significantly impact individual items of assessments.

  10. Horner's syndrome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit that have undergone central venous catheterization: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Butty, Z; Gopwani, J; Mehta, S; Margolin, E

    2016-01-01

    PurposeCentral venous catheterization (CVC) is estimated to be performed in millions of patients per year. Swan-Ganz catheters used for CVC are most often inserted into the internal jugular vein and during this procedure they may come into contact with the sympathetic chain. This study aims to determine the incidence of Horner's syndrome in patients admitted to intensive care unit that have undergone internal jugular CVC insertion during their admission and to determine whether ultrasonography-assisted insertion has decreased the frequency of this complication.Patients and methodsA total of 100 prospective patients admitted to the ICU were examined for the presence of anisocoria and ptosis after undergoing recent CVC. Presence of Horner's syndrome was confirmed by testing with 0.5% apraclonidine and looking for the reversal of anisocoria.ResultsFrequency of Horner's syndrome after CVC was 2% in a sample of 100 prospectively examined patients.ConclusionHorner's syndrome remains a relatively rare but definitive complication of CVC. ICU physicians should be educated about its existence and prevalence and ophthalmologists should inquire about any history of ICU admission necessitating CVC insertion in any patient presenting with Horner's syndrome.

  11. Convective Leakage Makes Heparin Locking of Central Venous Catheters Ineffective within Seconds: Experimental Measurements in a Model Superior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Michael C.; McGah, Patrick M.; Ng, Chin H.; Clark, Alicia; Gow, Kenneth W.; Aliseda, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs), placed in the Superior Vena Cava (SVC) for hemodialysis or chemotherapy, are routinely filled while not in use with heparin, an anticoagulant, to maintain patency and prevent thrombus formation at the catheter tip. The heparin-locking procedure, however, places the patient at risk for systemic bleeding, as heparin is known to leak from the catheter into the blood stream. We provide evidence from detailed in-vitro experiments that shows the driving mechanism behind heparin leakage to be convective-diffusive transport due to the pulsatile flow surrounding the catheter. This novel mechanism is supported by experimental planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of flow velocity and heparin transport from a CVC placed inside a model SVC inside a pulsatile flow loop. The results predict an initial, fast (< 10s), convection-dominated phase that rapidly depletes the concentration of heparin in the near-tip region, the region of the catheter with side holes. This is followed by a slow, diffusion-limited phase inside the catheter lumen, where the concentration is still high, that is insufficient at replenishing the lost heparin concentration in the near-tip region. The results presented here, which are consistent with previous in vivo estimates of 24-hour leakage rates, predict that the concentration of heparin in the near-tip region is essentially zero for the majority of the interdialytic phase, rendering the heparin locking procedure ineffective. PMID:26418203

  12. Establishment of rat model of central venous catheter (CVC): associated infection and evaluation of the virulence of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lian-Hua; Huang, Yun-Chao; Guo, Feng-Li; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Guang-Qiang; Duan, Lin-Can; Jin, Cong-Guo

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a central venous catheter (CVC)-associated infection model was established in rats to investigate and evaluate the effect of biofilms on the virulence of the pathogens. Twenty-four adult SD rats were randomly divided into biofilm positive (BF+) and biofilm negative (BF-) groups to be challenged with strains of S.epidermidis. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured and the infection rate and counts of bacteria cells were studied. Compared to rats of BF- group, the serum level of TNF and IL-6 significantly increased in rats of BF+ group (P < 0.01) and the level of IL-10 and IFN-γ significantly decreased (P < 0.01), striking the balance of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. The infection rate and bacterial counts in tissues and blood of rats of BF + group were significantly higher than those of rats of BF- group (P < 0.05).Inflammatory cell infiltration in vital organs (heart, lung, liver and kidneys) was more significant in rats of BF+ group than that of rats of BF- group. CVC-associated infection model can be successfully reproduced in rats by injecting 5 × 10(6) CFU of S.epidermidis. Biofilm formation can significantly enhance the virulence of the bacteria, leading to uncontrolled infection. The serum level of inflammatory cytokines, infection rate and the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration are important markers for evaluating the virulence of biofilm.

  13. Mechanic and surface properties of central-venous port catheters after removal: A comparison of polyurethane and silicon rubber materials.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ulrike; Lorenz, Edelgard; Weimann, Christiane; Sturm, Heinz; Karimov, Ilham; Ettl, Johannes; Meier, Reinhard; Wohlgemuth, Walter A; Berger, Hermann; Wildgruber, Moritz

    2016-12-01

    Central venous port devices made of two different polymeric materials, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and silicone rubber (SiR), were compared due their material properties. Both naïve catheters as well as catheters after removal from patients were investigated. In lab experiments the influence of various chemo-therapeutic solutions on material properties was investigated, whereas the samples after removal were compared according to the implanted time in patient. The macroscopic, mechanical performance was assessed with dynamic, specially adapted tests for elasticity. The degradation status of the materials was determined with common tools of polymer characterisation, such as infrared spectroscopy, molecular weight measurements and various methods of thermal analysis. The surface morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. A correlation between material properties and clinical performance was proposed. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the polyurethane catheter materials can potentially result in increased susceptibility of the catheter to bloodstream infections and thrombotic complications. The higher mechanic failure, especially with increasing implantation time of the silicone catheters is related to the lower mechanical performance compared to the polyurethane material as well as loss of barium sulphate filler particles near the surface of the catheter. This results in preformed microscopic notches, which act as predetermined sites of fracture.

  14. Rupture of totally implantable central venous access devices (Intraports) in patients with cancer: report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsikkinis, Christoforos; Filippou, Georgios K; Nissiotis, Athanasios; Rizos, Spiros

    2004-01-01

    Background Totally implantable central venous access devices (intraports) are commonly used in cancer patients to administer chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition. Rupture of intraport is a rare complication. Patients and methods During 3 years period, a total of 245 intraports were placed in cancer patients for chemotherapy. Four of these cases (two colon cancer and one each of pancreas and breast cancer) had rupture of the intraport catheter, these forms the basis of present report. Results Mean time insitu for intraports was 164∀35 days. Median follow-up time was 290 days and total port time in situ was 40180 days. The incidence of port rupture was 1 per 10,000 port days. Three of the 4 cases were managed by successful removal of catheters. In two of these the catheter was removed under fluoroscopic control using femoral route, while in the third patient the catheter (partial rupture) was removed surgically. One of the catheters could not be removed and migrated to right ventricle on manipulations. Conclusion Port catheter rupture is a rare but dreaded complication associated with subcutaneous port catheter device placement for chemotherapy. In case of such an event the patient should be managed by an experienced vascular surgeon and interventional radiologist, as in most cases the ruptured catheter can be retrieved by non operative interventional measures. PMID:15494075

  15. Ultrasound-guided central venous catheterization: A review of the relevant anatomy, technique, complications, and anatomical variations.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Taryn; Du Plessis, Maira; Prekupec, Matthew P; Gielecki, Jerzy; Zurada, Anna; Shane Tubbs, R; Loukas, Marios

    2017-03-01

    Central venous catheterization is a commonly used and important intervention. Despite its regular use it is still associated with a high incidence of complications especially infection and catheter tip embolization. Addition of ultrasound guidance to the technique has shown great improvement to the time and number of attempts for successful catheterization. The preference of vein depends greatly on the situation; subclavian vein is the preferred method overall but internal jugular vein is preferred in patients undergoing cardiac or thoracic surgery. This is especially true for pediatric patients in whom femoral vein catheterization is still preferred despite it carrying a higher risk than other locales. Addition of ultrasound guidance greatly reduces the incidence of arterial puncture and subsequent hematoma formation regardless of location. This is because it allows for visualization of anatomical variation prior to intervention and continual visualization of the needle during the placement. It is noteworthy however, that addition of ultrasound does not prevent complications such as catheter tip embolization as this may occur even with perfect placement. The value of ultrasound usage is undisputable since all studies assessing the difference between it and landmark based methods showed preferable outcome. Reduction of time and number of attempts is sufficient argument to make ultrasound guidance standard practice. Clin. Anat. 30:237-250, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Human serum potentiates the expression of genes associated with antifungal drug resistance in C. albicans biofilms on central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, L P; Anil, S; Hashem, M; Vellappally, S; Cheung, B P K

    2015-04-01

    Candida albicans is a major agent of fungaemias and frequently causes systemic disease through seeded, blood stream dissemination. These infections, particularly common in hospitalized patients with central venous catheters (CVCs), appear to persevere due to biofilm reservoirs of the yeast that tend to develop on the device. Although it is known that candidal biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antifungals compared with their planktonic counterparts, there is a paucity of data on the expression of antifungal drug resistance genes (DRGs) in candidal biofilms in CVC reservoirs. Furthermore, notwithstanding the fact that CVCs are constantly bathed in human serum, there are no studies on the effect of the latter on the DRG expression in candidal biofilms. Hence, we developed in vitro biofilms of three different C. albicans strains on silicone CVC discs immersed in human serum and evaluated the temporal expression of nine antifungal DRGs. In an attempt to evaluate the effect of hyphal elements on DRG expression, we incorporated a hyphal mutant (HM) and its wild-type (WT) counterpart, as well as a fresh clinical isolate in the studies. Human serum significantly up-regulated DRG transcripts in Candida biofilms on CVCs, at different stages of biofilm growth, while the WT strain over-expressed more DRGs than the HM strain. Here, we report, for the first time, that both human serum and the hyphal elements of the yeast have a profound modulatory effect on DRG expression in C. albicans biofilms on CVCs.

  17. Supraclavicular approach of central venous catheter insertion in critical patients in emergency settings: Re-visited

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Gaurav Singh; Chawla, Sonali; Ganguly, Suprio; Cherian, Grace; Tiwari, Akhilesh

    2013-01-01

    The supraclavicular approach was first put into clinical practice in 1965 by Yoffa and is an underused method for gaining central access. It offers several advantages over the conventional infraclavicular approach to the subclavian vein. At the insertion site, the subclavian vein is closer to the skin, and the right-sided approach offers a straighter path into the subclavian vein. Also, this site is often more accessible during CPR and surgical procedures. In patients who are obese, this anatomic area is less distorted and in patient with congestive heart failure and cervical spine instability repositioning is not required. PMID:23833470

  18. Prevention of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections: A questionnaire evaluating the knowledge of the selected 11 evidence-based guidelines by Polish nurses.

    PubMed

    Dedunska, Karina; Dyk, Danuta

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the questionnaire testing nurses' knowledge about the maintenance of a central venous catheter (CVC) and assessed it with regard to age, work experience, type of ward, frequency of trainings, and postgraduate education. There were 1,180 questionnaires (N = 784; 66.4% of the total sample) distributed in several regions of Poland for a period of 7 months. The difficulty level for each question ranged from 0.22-0.88.

  19. Entrapment of J-tip guidewires by Venatech and stainless-steel Greenfield vena cava filters during central venous catheter placement: percutaneous management in four patients.

    PubMed

    Andrews, R T; Geschwind, J F; Savader, S J; Venbrux, A C

    1998-01-01

    We present four patients in whom bedside placement of a central venous catheter was complicated by entrapment of a J-tip guidewire by a previously placed vena cava (VC) filter. Two Venatech filters were fragmented and displaced into the superior VC or brachiocephalic vein during attempted withdrawal of the entrapped wire. Two stainless-steel Greenfield filters remained in place and intact. Fluoroscopically guided extraction of both wires entrapped by Greenfield filters was successfully performed in the angiography suite.

  20. Unintentional embolization of a guide wire in the inferior vena cava during central venous catheter insertion successfully retrieved percutaneously 9 months later.

    PubMed

    Trabattoni, Daniela; Andreini, Daniele; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2014-01-01

    Central venous catheters are routinely positioned for hemodynamic monitoring and fluid administration in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and many well-known complications associated with this manoeuver have been described. Metalic guide wire embolization is a rare complication potentially associated with nonmechanical and mechanical adverse events. The case we report is peculiar as an almost fully endothelialized guide wire was successfully retrieved 9 months after its unintentional embolization in the inferior vena cava.

  1. Central venous catheter-related blood stream infections in patients receiving intravenous iloprost for pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sammut, D; Elliot, C A; Kiely, D G; Armstrong, I J; Martin, L; Wilkinson, J; Sephton, P; Jones, J; Hamilton, N; Hurdman, J; McLellan, E; Sabroe, I; Condliffe, R

    2013-07-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infection (CR-BSI) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) receiving intravenous iloprost via an indwelling central line has previously not been fully described. Recent studies have suggested a link between the pH of prostanoid infusions and the rate and nature of CR-BSI. We have investigated CR-BSI in patients receiving intravenous iloprost at our unit. Databases and hospital records were interrogated for all patients receiving intravenous iloprost between September 2007 and June 2012. Fifty-nine patients received intravenous iloprost via an indwelling central catheter with a total of 23,072 treatment days. There were 15 episodes of CR-BSI, identified using a systematic screening protocol, involving 11 patients giving an overall CR-BSI rate of 0.65/1,000 treatment days. CR-BSI rate for Gram-positive organisms was 0.26/1,000 treatment-days and for Gram-negative organisms was 0.39/1,000 treatment-days. The pH of iloprost in typical dosing regimens was comparable to the pH used in standard-diluent treprostinil and dissimilar to alkaline epoprostenol infusions. The proportion of Gram-negative CR-BSI was similar to that reported for standard-diluent treprostinil. CRP was normal on admission in 33 % of cases of confirmed CR-BSI and remained normal in 13 % of cases. CR-BSI rates with intravenous iloprost are comparable to those observed for other prostanoids. The high proportion of Gram-negative organisms observed and the neutral pH of iloprost infusions support the previously hypothesised link between pH and antimicrobial activity. Although usually elevated during a CR-BSI, CRP may be normal in early infection and a normal result cannot completely exclude infection.

  2. Heparin for clearance of peripherally inserted central venous catheter in newborns: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Balaminut, Talita; Venturini, Danielle; da Silva, Valéria Costa Evangelista; Rossetto, Edilaine Giovanini; Zani, Adriana Valongo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of two concentrations of heparin to clear the lumen of in vitro clotted neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Methods: This is an in vitro, experimental quantitative study of 76 neonatal 2.0-Fr PICCs coagulated in vitro. The catheters were divided into two groups of 38 PICCs each. In both groups an infusion of low molecular weight heparin was administered with a dose of 25IU/mL for Group 1 and 50IU/mL for Group 2. The negative pressure technique was applied to the catheters of both groups at 5, 15 and 30min and at 4h to test their permeability. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to verify the outcome of the groups according to time intervals. Results: The comparison between both groups in the first 5min showed that more catheters from Group 2 were cleared compared to Group 1 (57.9 vs. 21.1%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that less time was needed to clear catheters treated with 50IU/mL of heparin (p<0.001). Conclusions: The use of low molecular weight heparin at a concentration of 50IU/mL was more effective in restoring the permeability of neonatal PICCs occluded in vitro by a clot, and the use of this concentration is within the safety margin indicated by scientific literature. PMID:26116325

  3. Outcomes, cost comparison, and patient satisfaction during long-term central venous access in cancer patients: Experience from a Tertiary Care Cancer Institute in South India

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K. Govind; Suresh Babu, M. C.; Lokanatha, D.; Bhat, Gita R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prolonged treatment, frequent administration of chemotherapy, antibiotics and blood products in cancer patients requires long term venous access. Central venous catheters (CVC) inserted into the subclavian vein or internal jugular vein, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) and chemoport (CP) are the commonly used central venous access devices (CVAD). Aim: This study was envisaged to review our experience of CVADs over a one year period and analyze the outcome with regard to catheter life, reasons for removal, complications, patient satisfaction and cost comparison between the CVAD types in the Indian setting. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study carried out in a tertiary care cancer institute. Materials and Methods: 180 CVADs placed in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors from January 2014 to December 2014 were included. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U test. P <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: 180 CVADs were placed in 160 patients. The median catheter indwelling period was 76 days (16 days to 313 days) for CVC, 59 days (20days – 313 days) for PICC and 137 days (70 days – 258 days) for CP. 66 out of 160 patients developed complications (41.2%). 108 complication events were noted in 66 patients. There were 40 episodes of CRBSI. Out of the 68 mechanical complications, 37 were encountered during insertion of the CVAD and 31 were during the catheter indwelling period. Out of 160 patients, 138 (86.25%) were satisfied with the CVAD. The cost incurred for CVC/PICC (INR 4,480) was lower than that for CP (INR 24,150) and it was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Our patients were highly satisfied with the CVAD. Conclusion: Use of CVC and PICC is a safe, reliable and cost saving way of administration of chemotherapy in developing countries. The incidence of complications and catheter loss was acceptable. Our

  4. To reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections: is the subclavian route better than the jugular route for central venous catheterization?

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Goro; Kikuchi, Toshiki; Tsuyuzaki, Hitomi; Kawano, Rumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Kazumi; Ugajin, Kazuhisa

    2006-12-01

    The most important targets of hospital-acquired infection control are to reduce the incidence of surgical-site, catheter-related, and ventilator-associated infections. In this report, we address previously presented infection-control strategies for central venous (CV) line catheterization, using a CV catheter-related infection surveillance system. Data concerning CV catheter insertion were collected from all facilities in our 650-bed hospital, excluding the operating and hemodialysis wards. Collected data included the insertion method, purpose, length of catheter inserted, duration of catheterization, infection rate, and complication rate. Catheter-related infection was diagnosed based on bacteriological examinations from blood cultures. The total number of catheterizations was 806 a year, and average duration of catheterization was 9.8 days. The purpose of catheterization was nutritional support in 210 cases, hemodialysis in 96 cases, cardiac support in 174 cases, and other treatments in 260 cases. In 66 cases, the purpose of CV catheter was not specified. The rate of positive cultures was 7.1%, and complications other than infection occurred in 0.5%. The main causative organisms were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 38.6%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis (CNS) in 33.3%, and S. aureus in 12.3% of infections. Infection rates were 3.8 per 1000 catheter-days in subclavian, 6.1 in jugular, and 15.7 in femoral vein catheterization. In high-risk departments (intensive care unit [ICU] and emergency departments) the infection rate was 5.4 for subclavian and 10.2 for jugular catheterization, whereas it was 3.6 for subclavian and 4.6 for jugular catheterization in noncritical-care departments. Considering complications such as pneumothorax, CV catheterization of the jugular vein is recommended in certain situations.

  5. Central venous line complications with chronic ambulatory infusion of prostacyclin analogues in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Marr, Courtney R; McSweeney, Julia E; Mullen, Mary P; Kulik, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Chronic infusion of prostacyclin (PGI2) via a Broviac central venous line (CVL) is attended by risk of CVL-related complications, but we know of only one report regarding CVL-associated bloodstream infection (BSI) with PGI2 in children and none regarding other complications. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension treated with chronic intravenous infusion of PGI2 at Boston Children's Hospital and determined the rate (per 1,000 line-days) of various CVL-related complications. We also determined how often complications necessitated line replacement and hospitalization, time to replacement of CVLs, and interpatient variability in the incidence of complications. From 1999 until 2014, 26 patients meeting follow-up criteria had PGI2 infusion, representing 43,855 line-days; mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 1.4-161 months). The CVL complication rates (per 1,000 line-days) were as follows: CVL-BSI, 0.25; superficial line infection, 0.48; impaired integrity, 0.59; occlusion, 0.09; and malposition, 0.32. The total complication rate was 1.73 cases per 1,000 line-days. All CVL-BSI and malposition cases were treated with CVL removal and replacement. Of CVLs with impaired integrity, 23 could be repaired and 3 required replacement. Six of 21 superficial CVL infections required replacement of the CVL. Three of 4 occluded CVLs were replaced. CVL complications occasioned 65 hospitalizations. There was marked interpatient variability in the rate of complications, much but not all of which appeared to be related to duration of CVL placement. We conclude that non-BSI complications are very significant and that efforts to teach and emphasize other aspects of line care are therefore very important.

  6. Vancomycin stability in heparin and total parenteral nutrition solutions: novel approach to therapy of central venous catheter-related infections.

    PubMed

    Yao, J D; Arkin, C F; Karchmer, A W

    1992-01-01

    To facilitate therapy of central venous catheter-related Gram-positive bacterial infection in patients who require total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy, we studied the stability of vancomycin in a commonly used TPN solution (V-TPN) at final concentrations of 0.5 mg/mL and 1.0 mg/mL and in heparin (100 U/mL in 0.9% NaCl) at 25 micrograms/mL (V-H). Vancomycin concentrations in V-TPN and V-H after storage at 4 degrees C over 35 and 14 days, respectively, were stable (within 10% of the prestorage vancomycin concentration). After 14 days at 4 degrees C heparin activity in V-H solution was 100 +/- 4% of that noted initially. Vancomycin remained stable (100 +/- 6% of the original vancomycin concentration) when the previously refrigerated V-TPN was held for an additional 24 hours at 22 degrees C. When the previously refrigerated V-H was held for an additional 24 hours at 37 degrees C, vancomycin concentrations decreased to 78 +/- 9% of the baseline concentrations (p less than .001). The stability of vancomycin in this TPN solution allows the daily dose of vancomycin to be mixed with the solution and then infused over 10 hours. As shown with pharmacokinetic modeling, this form of therapy will achieve serum vancomycin concentrations within the therapeutic range throughout a 24-hour period. The relative stability of vancomycin in a heparin line-flush solution allows vancomycin concentration in the lumen of the catheter to be maintained at greater than or equal to 15 micrograms/mL during the interval between catheter flushing and the subsequent TPN infusion. A simplified method of administering vancomycin to patients receiving concurrent TPN is possible.

  7. Epidemiology and mortality of candidemia both related and unrelated to the central venous catheter: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arias, S; Denis, O; Montesinos, I; Cherifi, S; Miendje Deyi, V Y; Zech, F

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to compare mortality, epidemiology, and morbidity in hospitalized patients with candidemia which was both related and unrelated to the central venous catheter (CVC). This was a monocentric, retrospective cohort study of candidemia. The sample consisted of 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed nosocomial candidemia hospitalized between 2006 and 2013 in a tertiary care public hospital. We included 65 (63.1 %) patients (24 in the CVC-positive group, 41 in the CVC-negative group). Demographic data and risk factors were recorded using a structured case report form. In the group of candidemia associated to the CVC, survival at day 50 was 58.6 ± 11.9 %, compared to 26.5 ± 8.9 % for the CVC-negative group (p-value = 0.012); the hazard ratio of death was 0.38 (95 % confidence interval 0.17-0.85, p-value = 0.019). Compared with the CVC-positive patients, CVC-negative patients were often colonized with yeast (41.5 % vs. 16.7 %, p-value = 0.041), had a shorter previous in-hospital stay (20 days vs. 34 days, p-value = 0.023), and were more severely ill (severe sepsis 85.4 % vs. 58.3 %, p-value = 0.016). In this study, when the origin of candidemia was not the CVC, patients were more seriously ill, had a higher mortality rate, and the removal of the catheter seemed to lead to disappointing results. It would be useful to explore the impact of retention of the CVC on survival in the CVC-negative patients, where the CVCs are essential to treating these patients.

  8. Comparing the use of global rating scale with checklists for the assessment of central venous catheterization skills using simulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Irene W Y; Zalunardo, Nadia; Pachev, George; Beran, Tanya; Brown, Melanie; Hatala, Rose; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    The use of checklists is recommended for the assessment of competency in central venous catheterization (CVC) insertion. To explore the use of a global rating scale in the assessment of CVC skills, this study seeks to compare its use with two checklists, within the context of a formative examination using simulation. Video-recorded performances of CVC insertion by 34 first-year medical residents were reviewed by two independent, trained evaluators. Each evaluator used three assessment tools: a ten-item checklist, a 21-item checklist, and a nine-item global rating scale. Exploratory principal component analysis of the global rating scale revealed two factors, accounting for 84.1% of the variance: technical ability and safety. The two checklist scores correlated positively with the weighted factor score on technical ability (0.49 [95% CI 0.17-0.71] for the 10-item checklist; 0.43 [95% CI 0.10-0.67] for the 21-item checklist) and negatively with the weighted factor score on safety (-0.17 [95% CI -0.48-0.18] for the 10-item checklist; -0.13 [95% CI -0.45-0.22] for the 21-item checklist). A checklist score of <80% was strong indication of incompetence. However, a high checklist score did not preclude incompetence. Ratings using the global rating scale identified an additional 11 candidates (32%) who were deemed incompetent despite scoring >80% on both checklists. All these candidates committed serious errors. In conclusion, the practice of universal adoption of checklists as the preferred method of assessment of procedural skills should be questioned. The inclusion of global rating scales should be considered.

  9. Evaluation of routine postoperative chest roentgenogram for determination of the correct position of permanent central venous catheters tip

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Fereshteh; Hekmatnia, Ali; Shahabi, Javad; Keshavarzian, Amir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proper placement of central venous catheter (CVC) tip could reduce early and late catheter-related complications. Although the live fluoroscopy is standard of care for placement of the catheter, it is not available in many centers. Therefore, the present study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of bedside chest X-ray (CXR) for proper positioning of the catheter tip. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled CVC were enrolled in this study during 2010-2012. The catheter tip position was evaluated by postoperative bedside chest radiographs as well as trans-thoracic echocardiogram as definite diagnostic tool. The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium both in CXR or echocardiography. Finally, CXRs interpreted by expert radiologist. Thus findings were compared by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The patients were 57.37 ± 18.91 years of age, weighed 65.79 ± 15.58 kg and were 166.36 ± 9.91 cm tall. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR for proper catheter tip position were 74.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 28%. In addition accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 71.9%, 1.78, and 2.27 respectively. Conclusion: Bedside CXR alone does not reliably predict malpositioning after CVC placement. PMID:25767527

  10. Comparative evaluation of central venous pressure and sonographic inferior vena cava variability in assessing fluid responsiveness in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Manjri; Sen, Jyotsna; Goyal, Sandeep; Chaudhry, Dhruva

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Fluid infusion, the most critical step in the resuscitation of patients with septic shock, needs preferably continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonographically measured inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC CI) in comparison to central venous pressure (CVP) in predicting fluid responsiveness in septic shock. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients of septic shock requiring ventilatory support (invasive/noninvasive) were included. Patients with congestive heart failure, raised intra-abdominal pressure, and poor echo window were excluded from the study. They were randomly divided into two groups based on mode of fluid resuscitation – Group I (CVP) and Group II (IVC CI). Primary end-points were mean arterial pressure (MAP) of ≥65 mmHg and CVP >12 mmHg or IVC CI <20% in Groups I and II, respectively. Patients were followed till achievement of end-points or maximum of 6 h. Outcome variables (pulse rate, MAP, urine output, pH, base deficit, and ScvO2 ) were serially measured till the end of the study. Survival at 2 and 4 weeks was used as secondary end-point. Results: Primary end-point was reached in 31 patients (15 in Group I and 16 in Group II). Fluid infusion, by either method, had increased CVP and decreased IVC CI with resultant negative correlation between them (Pearson correlation coefficient –0.626). There was no significant difference in the amount of fluid infused and time to reach end-point in two groups. Comparison in outcome variables at baseline and end-point showed no significant difference including mortality. Conclusion: CVP and IVC CI are negatively correlated with fluid resuscitation, and both methods can be used for resuscitation, with IVC CI being noninferior to CVP. PMID:28149028

  11. Central venous line complications with chronic ambulatory infusion of prostacyclin analogues in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Mary P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chronic infusion of prostacyclin (PGI2) via a Broviac central venous line (CVL) is attended by risk of CVL-related complications, but we know of only one report regarding CVL-associated bloodstream infection (BSI) with PGI2 in children and none regarding other complications. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension treated with chronic intravenous infusion of PGI2 at Boston Children’s Hospital and determined the rate (per 1,000 line-days) of various CVL-related complications. We also determined how often complications necessitated line replacement and hospitalization, time to replacement of CVLs, and interpatient variability in the incidence of complications. From 1999 until 2014, 26 patients meeting follow-up criteria had PGI2 infusion, representing 43,855 line-days; mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 1.4–161 months). The CVL complication rates (per 1,000 line-days) were as follows: CVL-BSI, 0.25; superficial line infection, 0.48; impaired integrity, 0.59; occlusion, 0.09; and malposition, 0.32. The total complication rate was 1.73 cases per 1,000 line-days. All CVL-BSI and malposition cases were treated with CVL removal and replacement. Of CVLs with impaired integrity, 23 could be repaired and 3 required replacement. Six of 21 superficial CVL infections required replacement of the CVL. Three of 4 occluded CVLs were replaced. CVL complications occasioned 65 hospitalizations. There was marked interpatient variability in the rate of complications, much but not all of which appeared to be related to duration of CVL placement. We conclude that non-BSI complications are very significant and that efforts to teach and emphasize other aspects of line care are therefore very important. PMID:26064457

  12. Central venous oxygen saturation during high-risk general surgical procedures-relationship to complications and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Boyle, M S; Bennett, M; Keogh, G W; O'Brien, M; Flynn, G; Collins, D W; Bihari, D

    2014-01-01

    Major non-cardiac surgery is associated with postoperative morbidity, and perioperative central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) may be a predictor of morbidity. This pilot study aimed to define intraoperative ScvO2 and to identify factors associated with postoperative complications. ScvO2 (reflection spectrophotometry) was recorded continuously in a convenience sample of adults undergoing high-risk general surgery. Demographics, intraoperative management, surgery duration, postoperative complications and deaths within 28 days were recorded. Data from 51 patients were analysed. Two (4%) died and 24 (47%) had at least one complication (range 1 to 5). The hospital length-of-stay and duration of surgery were longer in those with complications (22.1±6.1 versus 9.6±3.6 days, P >0.0001, and 328±162 minutes versus 241±94 minutes, P=0.02, respectively). Overall, the ScvO2 was 82±8% and ranged from 40% to 97% with 17 (33%) patients having at least one episode of ScvO2 >70%. Hospital length-of-stay (P >0.0001), time ScvO2 >90% (P=0.003), surgery duration (P=0.005) and blood loss (P=0.02) were correlated with the number of complications. Using multivariate analysis, surgery duration (odds ratio 1.008 [95% confidence interval 1.002 to 1.013]; P=0.006) and change in oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER) at the end of surgery compared to the beginning (odds ratio 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.001 to 1.28]; P=0.04) were independently associated with complications. The surgery duration and an increased O2ER are factors related to the development of postoperative complications.

  13. Percutaneous retrieval of centrally embolized fragments of central venous access devices or knotted Swan-Ganz catheters. Clinical report of 14 retrievals with detailed angiographic analysis and review of procedural aspects

    PubMed Central

    Chmielak, Zbigniew; Dębski, Artur; Kępka, Cezary; Rudziński, Piotr N.; Bujak, Sebastian; Skwarek, Mirosław; Kurowski, Andrzej; Dzielińska, Zofia; Demkow, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Totally implantable venous access systems (TIVAS), Swan-Ganz (SG) and central venous catheters (CVC) allow easy and repetitive entry to the central cardiovascular system. Fragments of them may be released inadvertently into the cardiovascular system during their insertion or as a result of mechanical complications encountered during long-term utilization. Aim To present results of percutaneous retrieval of embolized fragments of central venous devices or knotted SG and review the procedural aspects with a series of detailed angiographies. Material and methods Between January 2003 and December 2012 there were 14 (~0.025%) successful retrievals in 13 patients (44 ±16 years, 15% females) of embolized fragments of TIVAS (n = 10) or CVC (n = 1) or of dislodged guide-wires (n = 2) or knotted SG (n = 1). Results Foreign bodies with the forward end located in the right ventricle (RV), as well as those found in the pulmonary artery (PA), often required repositioning with a pigtail catheter as compared to those catheter fragments which were located in the right atrium (RA) and/or great vein and possessed an accessible free end allowing their direct ensnarement with the loop snare (57.0% (4/7) vs. 66.7% (2/3) vs. 0.0% (0/3); p = 0.074 respectively). Procedure duration was 2–3 times longer among catheters retrieved from the PA than among those with the forward edge located in the RV or RA (30 (18–68) vs. 13.5 (11–37) vs. 8 min (8–13); p = 0.054 respectively). The SG catheter knotted in the vena cava superior (VCS) was encircled with the loop snare introduced transfemorally, subsequently cut at its skin entrance and then pulled down inside the 14 Fr vascular sheath. Conclusions By using the pigtail catheter and the loop snare, it is feasible to retrieve centrally embolized fragments or knotted central venous access devices. PMID:27279874

  14. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  15. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. April 2011. ... MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. ...

  16. Central venous catheter - flushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... To flush your catheter, you will need: Clean paper towels Saline syringes (clear), and maybe heparin syringes ( ... your fingers before washing. Dry with a clean paper towel. Set up your supplies on a clean ...

  17. Utilization Patterns and Outcomes Associated with the Central Venous Catheter in Septic Shock: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Walkey, Allan J.; Soylemez-Wiener, Renda; Lindenauer, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2001 a randomized trial showed decreased mortality with early, goal-directed therapy in septic shock, a strategy later recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) is necessary to administer goal-directed therapy. We sought to evaluate nationwide trends in: 1) CVC utilization and 2) the association between early CVC insertion and mortality in patients with septic shock. Design We retrospectively analyzed the proportion of septic shock cases receiving an early (day of admission) CVC and the odds of hospital mortality associated with receiving early CVC from years 1998-2001 compared with 2002-2009. Setting Non-federal acute care hospitalizations from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2009. Interventions None Patients 203,481 (population estimate: 999,545) cases admitted through an emergency department with principal diagnosis of septicemia and secondary diagnosis of shock. Measurements and Main Results From 1998-2009 population-adjusted rates of septic shock increased from 12.6 cases per 100,000 US adults to 78 cases per 100,000. During this time age-adjusted hospital mortality associated with septic shock declined from 40.4% to 31.4%. Early CVC insertion increased from 5.7% (95% CI 5.1-6.3%) to 19.2% (95% CI 18.7-19.5%) cases with septic shock, with an increased rate of early CVC placement identified after 2007. The rate of decline in age-adjusted hospital mortality was significantly greater for patients who received an early CVC (-4.2% per year, 95% CI -3.2, -4.2%) as compared with no CVC (-2.9% per year, 95% CI -2.3, -3.5%), p=0.016. Hospital mortality associated with early CVC insertion significantly decreased from a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 1.29 (95% CI 1.14-1.45) prior to 2001 to an adjusted odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.90) after 2001. Conclusions Placement of a CVC early in septic shock has increased 3-fold since 1998. The mortality associated with early CVC insertion decreased

  18. Fluid mechanics and clinical success of central venous catheters for dialysis--answers to simple but persisting problems.

    PubMed

    Ash, Stephen R

    2007-01-01

    Over 60% of patients initiating chronic hemodialysis in the United States have a chronic central venous catheter (CVC) as their first blood access device. Although it would be better if these patients started dialysis with fistulas, the CVC is used because it is a reliable and relatively safe method for obtaining blood access over a period of months. Drawing blood from a vein at 300-400 ml/minute is a relatively delicate and somewhat unpredictable process, and there is always a tendency for the vein wall to draw over the arterial tip and obstruct flow. Several methods have been employed to minimize this problem and maximize blood flow, and differing catheter designs have resulted. With all of the different catheter designs now on the market, it is natural to ask what is the logic of different designs. Moreover, in the absence of many direct comparative studies it is natural to ask whether one design is really better than another. There is some misinformation regarding catheter design and function. The following is a list of 10 frequently asked questions In this review, the hydraulic features of CVC are discussed and explained, and logical answers are provided for the following questions: 1. Why do ''D'' catheters flow better than concentric or side by side catheters? 2. Why are all catheters about the same diameter? Does making them bigger really decrease the resistance to flow? 3. Why might a split tip catheter flow better than a solid body catheter? 4. What happens to injections of lock solution at catheter volume? 5. What's better-numerous side holes or none? 6. Why does blood rise into some internal jugular catheters over time, displacing the lock solution? 7. How can a little kink (or stenosis) decrease flow so much? 8. Where should the tips be placed-superior vena cava or right atrium? 9. Which is really better, splitsheath or over-the-wire placement? 10. Which dialysis access has a lower complication rate--CVC or arteriovenous (AV) graft? There remain

  19. A comparative study of two techniques (electrocardiogram- and landmark-guided) for correct depth of the central venous catheter placement in paediatric patients undergoing elective cardiovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barnwal, Neeraj Kumar; Dave, Sona T; Dias, Raylene

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The complications of central venous catheterisation can be minimized by ensuring catheter tip placement just above the superior vena cava-right atrium junction. We aimed to compare two methods, using an electrocardiogram (ECG) or landmark as guides, for assessing correct depth of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Methods: In a prospective randomised study of sixty patients of <12 years of age, thirty patients each were allotted randomly to two groups (ECG and landmark). After induction, central venous catheterisation was performed by either of the two techniques and position of CVC tip was compared in post-operative chest X-ray with respect to carina. Unpaired t-test was used for quantitative data and Chi-square test was used for qualitative data. Results: In ECG group, positions of CVC tip were above carina in 12, at carina in 9 and below carina in 9 patients. In landmark group, the positions of CVC tips were above carina in 10, at carina in 4 and below carina in 16 patients. Mean distance of CVC tip in ECG group was 0.34 ± 0.23 cm and 0.66 ± 0.35 cm in landmark group (P = 0.0001). Complications occurred in one patient in ECG group and in nine patients in landmark group (P = 0.0056). Conclusion: Overall, landmark-guided technique was comparable with ECG technique. ECG-guided technique was more precise for CVC tip placement closer to carina. The incidence of complications was more in the landmark group. PMID:27512162

  20. Performance, pain, and quality of life on use of central venous catheter for management of pericardial effusions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ghods, Kamran; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Forozeshfard, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Different pericardial catheters have been suggested as an effective alternative method for drainage of pericardial effusion. The aim of this study was to determine the performance, pain, and quality of life on use of central venous catheter (CVC) for drainage of pericardial effusion in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Fifty-five patients who had developed pericardial effusion after an open heart surgery (2012–2015) were prospectively assessed. Triple-lumen central catheters were inserted under echocardiographic guidance. Clinical, procedural, complication, and outcome details were analyzed. Intensity of pain and quality of life of patients were assessed using the numerical rating scale and Short-Form Health Survey. CVC was inserted for 36 males and 19 females, all of whom had a mean age of 58.5±15 years, and the mean duration of the open heart surgery was 8±3.5 hours. The mean central venous pressure catheter life span was 14.6 days. No cases of recurrent effusion and complication were reported. The technical success rate of procedure was 100%. Intensity of pain and quality of life of patients had improved during follow-up. CVC insertion is a safe and effective technique for the management of pericardial effusion in patients after open heart surgery. PMID:27826210

  1. The use of web-based learning for simulation-based education and training of central venous catheterization in novice learners.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Koh, Jansen; Mackinnon, Kim; Brett, Clare; Bägli, Darius; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Both simulation-based education and training (SBET) and Web-based Learning (WBL) are increasingly used in medical education. We developed a Web-based learning course on "Observational Practice and Educational Networking" (OPEN), to augment SBET for central venous catheterization (CVC), a complex clinical skill, for novice learners. This pilot study aimed to firstly, understand the perspectives of novice learners on using WBL in preparation for SBET for a psychomotor skill and secondly, to observe how learners use the OPEN courseware to learn more about how to perform this skill.

  2. Transhepatic Venous Approach for Balloon-assisted Cervical Collateral Venous Access

    SciTech Connect

    Eyheremendy, Eduardo P.; Malizia, Patricio; Sierre, Sergio

    2011-12-15

    Central venous catheter placement is indicated in many situations, and an increasing number of patients require temporary and long-term central catheters. Frequently, patients who have undergone multiple central veins catheterizations develop complete and diffuse venous occlusion, and this constitutes a difficult-to-manage clinical problem. We report a case of a 20-year-old patient who was referred to our department for central venous line placement who manifested bilateral femoral, jugular, and subclavian veins occlusion. A central venous catheter was implanted through a cervical collateral vein, targeting on and puncturing an angioplasty balloon, and advanced into the collateral vein through a transhepatic venous access.

  3. Deep venous thrombosis of the neck and pulmonary embolism in patients with a central venous catheter admitted to cardiac rehabilitation after cardiac surgery: a prospective study of 815 patients.

    PubMed

    Frizzelli, Rino; Tortelli, Ornella; Di Comite, Vincenzo; Ghirardi, Redenta; Pinzi, Claudio; Scarduelli, Cleante

    2008-12-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are widely used for therapeutic purposes and to measure hemodynamic variables that cannot be recorded from a peripheral vein. However, the method can involve complications. In cardiac surgery, CVCs are electively placed in the right internal jugular vein but there is little information on deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in catheterized veins (CVC-related DVT) or on secondary pulmonary embolism (PE). The impact of CVC-related DVT and PE in cardiac surgery and measures to prevent PE were assessed. We used ultrasonography (US) to check the point of insertion of CVC in 815 patients in the intensive cardiac rehabilitation unit after heart surgery. In this series, 386 patients (48%) had CVC-related DVT; those already receiving anticoagulant, and considered at low risk, continued that therapy, while those taking an antiplatelet agent (aspirin 100 mg daily) but deemed at high risk of PE from the US findings were given an anticoagulant instead. Only patients with CVC-related DVT at low risk of PE continued taking aspirin. At 3 months, there were no cases of PE among patients receiving an anticoagulant, but six on antiplatelet had non-fatal PE. The prevalence of PE in the whole series of 815 patients was 0.7%. CVC-related DVT is a frequent complication of heart surgery. Anticoagulant therapy started early does not prevent thrombus formation but probably prevents PE, whereas antiplatelet gives no such protection. Sonographic screening of the CVC removal in intensive care unit may be useful for avoiding PE after CVC-related DVT.

  4. Correlation of IVC Diameter and Collapsibility Index With Central Venous Pressure in the Assessment of Intravascular Volume in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Abid; Ishtiaq, Wasib; Assad, Salman; Mansoor, Salman; Haris, Muhammad; Qadeer, Aayesha; Akhtar, Aftab

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of our study is to assess the correlation between inferior vena cava (IVC) diameters, central venous pressure (CVP) and the IVC collapsibility index for estimating the volume status in critically ill patients. Methods This cross-sectional study used the convenient sampling of 100 adult medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients for a period of three months. Patients ≥ 18 years of age with an intrathoracic central venous catheter terminating in the distal superior vena cava connected to the transducer to produce a CVP waveform were included in the study. A Mindray diagnostic ultrasound system model Z6 ultrasound machine (Mindray, NJ, USA) was used for all examinations. An Ultrasonic Transducer model 3C5P (Mindray, NJ, USA) for IVC imaging was utilized. A paired sampled t-test was used to compute the p-values. Results A total of 32/100 (32%) females and 68/100 (68%) males were included in the study with a mean age of 50.4 ± 19.3 years. The mean central venous pressure maintained was 10.38 ± 4.14 cmH2O with an inferior vena cava collapsibility index of 30.68 ± 10.93. There was a statistically significant relation among the mean CVP pressure, the IVC collapsibility index, the mean maximum and minimum IVC between groups as determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p < 0.001). There was a strong negative correlation between CVP and IVC collapsibility index (%), which was statistically significant (r = -0.827, n = 100, p < 0.0005). A strong positive correlation between CVP and maximum IVC diameter (r = 0.371, n = 100, p < 0.0005) and minimum IVC diameter (r = 0.572, n = 100, p < 0.0005) was found. Conclusion There is a positive relationship of CVP with minimum and maximum IVC diameters but an inverse relationship with the IVC collapsibility index. PMID:28348943

  5. Early thrombosis of the superior vena cava in a patient with a central venous catheter and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Robert; Shah, Malay; Suydam, Erin; Gucwa, Angela; Bowden, Talmadge; Holsten, Steven B

    2008-12-01

    Superior vena cava syndrome results from obstruction of flow through the vessel either by external compression or thrombosis. External compression by intrathoracic neoplasms is the most common etiology. Thrombosis of the vessel most often occurs in the setting of indwelling catheters or pacemakers. The diagnosis is suggested by the clinical manifestations of facial and upper extremity swelling, dyspnea, and cough. It is confirmed by CT scan showing the development of collateral flow around the lesion. In this report, we present a patient who developed superior vena cava thrombosis after undergoing a short period of central venous catheterization and a Whipple procedure for adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. The endothelial damage caused by the catheter, the low-flow state induced by the large fluid shifts during the operation, and the hypercoagulable state induced by malignancy fulfill Virchow's triad for venous thrombosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of superior vena cava syndrome after the Whipple procedure with symptoms appearing after a shorter period of catheterization than previously reported in the adult literature.

  6. Perforation of the superior vena cava 5 days after insertion of a central venous catheter through the left internal jugular vein.

    PubMed

    Kurabe, Miyuki; Watanabe, Tatsunori; Kohno, Tatsuro

    2016-06-01

    We describe a very rare case of an indwelling central venous catheter (CVC) through the left internal jugular vein that perforated the superior vena cava (SVC) wall postoperatively, although the CVC was placed in the appropriate position preoperatively. Three days after CVC insertion, a chest radiograph showed that the CVC tip had moved from the lower SVC to the upper SVC. Five days after the insertion, computed tomography showed SVC perforation and the resulting hydrothorax. In cases of CVC insertion through the left side, the CVC tip should not be placed in the upper SVC (zone B). Considering individual clinical factors and the indwelling period for the CVC, the left innominate vein (zone C) may be a suitable site for the left-sided CVC tip to reduce the risk of SVC perforation.

  7. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  8. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  9. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. 21 CFR 870.1140 - Venous blood pressure manometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venous blood pressure manometer. 870.1140 Section... pressure manometer. (a) Identification. A venous blood pressure manometer is a device attached to a venous catheter to indicate manometrically the central or peripheral venous pressure. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. [Impact of clinical practice guidelines on the incidence of bloodstream infections related to peripherally inserted central venous catheter in preterm infants].

    PubMed

    Boutaric, E; Gilardi, M; Cécile, W; Fléchelles, O

    2013-02-01

    In our neonatal intensive care unit, the incidence density of infections related to central catheters, assessed retrospectively over 2 years, exceeded that described in the literature. To reduce this incidence density, clinical practice guidelines were implemented for the insertion and maintenance of central lines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the protocol on the incidence density and the incidence rate of nosocomial bloodborne infections. This was a prospective study in a neonatal intensive care unit of the Fort-de-France University Hospital over 17 months, which included all premature infants with a central line. We studied the adherence to the protocol, possible complications related to the protocol, the characteristics of the population, the incidence rate, and the density of specific central catheter-related infections. There were 111 children, 122 catheters, and 2575 catheter days during period 1 and 101 children, 125 catheters, and 1631 catheter days during period 2. Gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower in period 2 (29.6±2.3 GW vs 27.3±1.9, P=0.001; 1239±379g vs 915±175g, P<0.001) and the catheterization duration differed between the 2 periods (20±11 days vs 13±6 days, P<0.0001). A trend for a lower incidence density of infection was observed in the second period (16 per 1000 catheter days vs 10 per 1000 catheter days, P=0.06). Although the 2 groups' baseline characteristics were different, this study suggests a positive impact of clinical practice guidelines for the insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters on the incidence of nosocomial infections related to central catheters.

  12. A preliminary study of inherited thrombophilic risk factors in different clinical manifestations of venous thromboembolism in central Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali; Abolhasani, Marziyeh; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Pourgheysari, Batoul

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Inherited thrombophilia is known to be an important risk factor for developing venous thromboembolism. Whether such abnormalities may impact the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) differently is not well defined. This preliminary study was undertaken to compare thrombophilic polymorphism in patients with DVT and PE. Methods: A total of 35 DVT, 23 DVT/PE, and 37 PE patients admitted to the Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord, Iran, between October 2009 and February 2011 were included in the study and 306 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex from the same geographical area with no history of venous or arterial diseases were included as control group. Factor V Leiden (FV 1691G/A, rs6025), prothrombin (FII 20210G/A), methylene tetrahydrofulate reductase (MTHFR 677C/T, rs1801133), and PLA2 polymorphisms of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GpIIIa 1565T/C, rs5918) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: The number of patients with the investigated polymorphisms and homozygous carriers was significantly different among the groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in the presence of FV 1691G/A and FII 20210G/A between any of the patients groups and the control group. GpIIIa 1565T/C and homozygous MTHFR 677C/T polymorphisms were higher in DVT patients compared with the control group (OR=6.65, 95% CI=3.09-14.30 and OR=4.08, 95% CI=1.35-12.38, respectively). Interpretation & conclusions: As none of the investigated polymorphisms were associated with PE, other thrombophilia polymorphisms may have a role in the pathogenesis of PE in these patients and should be investigated. Because of different prognostic risk factors among different types of patients, the treatment approach could be different. PMID:26261166

  13. Venous Sampling

    MedlinePlus

    ... parts of the body, including: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) , in which blood samples are taken from the ... for a few days before the procedure. For AVS, you will be asked to stop taking certain ...

  14. Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  15. Systemic venous drainage: can we help Newton?

    PubMed

    Corno, Antonio F

    2007-06-01

    In recent years substantial progress occurred in the techniques of cardiopulmonary bypass, but the factor potentially limiting the flexibility of cardiopulmonary bypass remains the drainage of the systemic venous return. In the daily clinical practice of cardiac surgery, the amount of systemic venous return on cardiopulmonary bypass is directly correlated with the amount of the pump flow. As a consequence, the pump flow is limited by the amount of venous return that the pump is receiving. On cardiopulmonary bypass the amount of venous drainage depends upon the central venous pressure, the height differential between patient and inlet of the venous line into the venous reservoir, and the resistance in the venous cannula(s) and circuit. The factors determining the venous return to be taken into consideration in cardiac surgery are the following: (a) characteristics of the individual patient; (b) type of planned surgical procedure; (c) type of venous cannula(s); (d) type of circuit for cardiopulmonary bypass; (e) strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass; (f) use of accessory mechanical systems to increased the systemic venous return. The careful pre-operative evaluation of all the elements affecting the systemic venous drainage, including the characteristics of the individual patient and the type of required surgical procedure, the choice of the best strategy of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of the most advanced materials and tools, can provide a systemic venous drainage substantially better than what it would be allowed by the simple "Law of universal gravitation" by Isaac Newton.

  16. Successful use of central venous catheter as permanent hemodialysis access: 84-month follow-Up in lucania.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, B; Lopez, T; Procida, M; Marino, P; Valente, V; Iannuzziello, F; Bombini, A; Bellizzi, V; Terracciano, V; Bagnato, C; Casino, F; Gaudiano, V; Mostacci, D; Santarsia, G; Biscione, R; Caputo, A; Ferlan, G; Lauria, M A; Marinaro, G; Molinari, R; Sanicandro, D; Lotito, M A; Plastino, G; Carretta, P

    2001-01-01

    Cuffed tunneled venous access catheters are commonly used for temporary and permanent access in hemodialysis (HD) patients. These catheters serve an essential role in providing permanent access in subjects in whom all other access options have been exhausted. The predominant complications are catheter thrombosis, catheter fibrin sheating and infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term survival and complications of permanent venous catheters (PVC) placed for the purpose of HD during the period from January 1992 to December 1998, at the Dialysis Units of Lucania (a southern Italian region). A total of 98 PVC were placed in 88 patients during this period. The catheters used were of three types: (a) 72 VasCath Soft Cell catheters (Bard Instrument Company, Toronto, Ont., Canada); (b) 22 PermCath catheters (Quinton Instrument Company, Seattle, Wash., USA), and (c) 4 Tesio catheters (Bellco SpA, Mirandola, Italy). Survival curves of catheters were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimator. The patient survival was 60% at the 78th month. Actually, 52 patients (27 males, 25 females) are still alive: 15 (26.9%) of these patients have diabetes mellitus and 1 has been transplanted. The actuarial survival rate of PVC was 89% in the whole population studied and 82% in subjects alive after 84 months. Twenty-five patients (28.4%) had PVC as the first reliable vascular access. Long-term complications occurred 27 times (1 episode every 44.81 month/patient) as: breakage (3.1%); thrombosis (10.2%); displacement (2.0%); subcutaneous tunnel bleeding (3.1%); inadequate blood flow (7.1%), and infection (10.2%). In conclusion, our data confirm that PVC might represent an effective long-term blood access route for HD. Again, PVC are getting the access of choice for selected patients (i.e., older subjects with cardiovascular diseases and cancer patients) and are enjoying a dramatic increase in use for subjects who are terrified of repetitive venopuncture.

  17. Venous oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation.

  18. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ≤60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion.

  19. Subclavian Vein Versus Arm Vein for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akahane, Akio Sone, Miyuki; Ehara, Shigeru; Kato, Kenichi; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare central venous ports (CVP) from two different routes of venous access-the subclavian vein and arm vein-in terms of safety for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods: Patients with HNC who underwent image-guided implantations of CVPs were retrospectively evaluated. All CVPs were implanted under local anesthesia. Primary outcome measurements were rates and types of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes included technical success and rate and reason of CVP removal. Results: A total of 162 patients (subclavian port group, 47; arm port group, 115) were included in this study. Technical success was achieved in all patients. The median follow-up period was 94 (range, 1-891) days. Two patients in the subclavian port group experienced periprocedural complications. Postprocedural AEs were observed in 8.5 and 22.6% of the subclavian port and arm port group patients, respectively (P = 0.044). Phlebitis and system occlusions were observed only in the arm port group. The rate of infection was not significantly different between the two groups. The CVP was removed in 34 and 39.1% of the subclavian port and arm port patients, respectively. Conclusions: Both subclavian and arm CVPs are feasible in patients with HNC. AEs were more frequent in the arm port group; thus, the arm port is not recommended as the first choice for patients with HNC. However, further experience is needed to improve the placement technique and the maintenance of CVPs and a prospective analysis is warranted.

  20. A novel technique to predict pulmonary capillary wedge pressure utilizing central venous pressure and tissue Doppler tricuspid/mitral annular velocities.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazunori; Inagaki, Masashi; Zheng, Can; Li, Meihua; Kawada, Toru; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Assessing left ventricular (LV) filling pressure (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, PCWP) is an important aspect in the care of patients with heart failure (HF). Physicians rely on right ventricular (RV) filling pressures such as central venous pressure (CVP) to predict PCWP, assuming concordance between CVP and PCWP. However, the use of this method is limited because discordance between CVP and PCWP is observed. We hypothesized that PCWP can be reliably predicted by CVP corrected by the relationship between RV and LV function, provided by the ratio of tissue Doppler peak systolic velocity of tricuspid annulus (S(T)) to that of mitral annulus (S(M)) (corrected CVP:CVP·S(T)/S(M)). In 16 anesthetized closed-chest dogs, S T and S M were measured by transthoracic tissue Doppler echocardiography. PCWP was varied over a wide range (1.8-40.0 mmHg) under normal condition and various types of acute and chronic HF. A significantly stronger linear correlation was observed between CVP·S(T)/S(M) and PCWP (R2 = 0.78) than between CVP and PCWP (R2 = 0.22) (P < 0.01). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that CVP·S(T)/S(M) >10.5 mmHg predicted PCWP >18 mmHg with 85% sensitivity and 88% specificity. Area under ROC curve for CVP·S T/S M to predict PCWP >18 mmHg was 0.93, which was significantly larger than that for CVP (0.66) (P < 0.01). Peripheral venous pressure (PVP) corrected by S T/S M (PVP·S(T)/S(M) also predicted PCWP reasonably well, suggesting that PVP·S(T)/S (M) may be a minimally invasive alternative to CVP·S(T)/S(M) In conclusion, our technique is potentially useful for the reliable prediction of PCWP in HF patients.

  1. Effects of diaphragmatic contraction on lower limb venous return and central hemodynamic parameters contrasting healthy subjects versus heart failure patients at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Balzan, Fernanda Machado; da Silva, Régis Chiarelli; da Silva, Danton Pereira; Sanches, Paulo Roberto Stefani; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Berton, Danilo Cortozi; Clausell, Nadine Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    The main objective was to assess the effects of abdominal breathing (AB) versus subject's own breathing on femoral venous blood flow (Qfv) and their repercussions on central hemodynamics at rest and during exercise contrasting healthy subjects versus heart failure (HF) patients. We measured esophageal and gastric pressure (PGA), Qfv and parameters of central hemodynamics in eight healthy subjects and nine HF patients, under four conditions: subject's own breathing and AB ( ∆: PGA ≥ 6 cmH2O) at rest and during knee extension exercises (15% of 1 repetition maximum) until exhaustion. Qfv and parameters of central hemodynamics [stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO)] were measured using Doppler ultrasound and impedance cardiography, respectively. At rest, healthy subjects Qfv, SV, and CO were higher during AB than subject's breathing (0.11 ± 0.02 vs. 0.06 ± 0.00 L·min(-1), 58.7 ± 3.4 vs. 50.1 ± 4.1 mL and 4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.1 L·min(-1), respectively, P ≤ 0.05). ∆SV correlated with ∆PGA during AB (r = 0.89, P ≤ 0.05). This same pattern of findings induced by AB was observed during exercise (SV: 71.1 ± 4.1 vs. 65.5 ± 4.1 mL and CO: 6.3 ± 0.4 vs. 5.2 ± 0.4 L·min(-1); P ≤ 0.05); however, Qfv did not reach statistical significance. The HF group tended to increase their Qfv during AB (0.09 ± 0.01 vs. 0.07 ± 0.03 L·min(-1), P = 0.09). On the other hand, unlike the healthy subjects, AB did not improve SV or CO neither at rest nor during exercise (P > 0.05). In healthy subjects, abdominal pump modulated venous return improved SV and CO at rest and during exercise. In HF patients, with elevated right atrial and vena caval system pressures, these findings were not observed.

  2. A peripherally inserted central catheter line, inserted the day before surgery, decreases the time from induction to incision for spinal deformity surgery and safely provides central venous access during surgery: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stuedemann, Anne E; Schwend, Richard M; Thomas, Valorie K; Leamon, Julia M; Lightner, Tammy S

    2017-02-24

    Pediatric patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity may benefit from central venous access to provide intraoperative monitoring and fluid resuscitation. For pediatric surgical patients requiring central access, we hypothesized that placing a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line preoperatively should decrease time from induction of anesthesia to incision and result in improved patient safety and decreased operating room charges. This was a retrospective, nonrandomized, and case comparison study. Clinical records of all children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or neuromuscular scoliosis treated surgically by the senior author between December 2007 and April 2012 were reviewed. Control group patients had a central venous catheter (CVC) placed by the anesthesiologist after induction of anesthesia. The trial group had a PICC placed under local anesthesia the day before surgery by an experienced vascular access team. The time from induction of anesthesia to the time for the surgical incision was determined for each study group. The CVC line placement charges were determined by the operating room time charges at $214/min. Charges saved were the mean time difference multiplied by the operating room time charge, less the charge for PICC line insertion ($1282). There were 29 neuromuscular patients, the mean age was 13 years (SD: 4 years). The mean time from induction to incision for the PICC group was 91 min [95% confidence interval (CI): 67-115 min] and for the CVC group 113 min (95% CI: 99-127 min, P=0.083). For this mean time difference of 22 min, the estimated cost savings would be $3426 per patient. There were 59 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, the mean age was 14 years (SD: 2 years). The mean time from induction to incision for the PICC group was 78 min (95% CI: 74-82 min) and for the CVC group 106 min (95% CI: 96-116  min, P≤0.001). For this mean time difference of 28 min, the estimated cost savings would

  3. Prediction of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified Infection Probability Score (mIPS).

    PubMed

    Schalk, Enrico; Hanus, Lynn; Färber, Jacqueline; Fischer, Thomas; Heidel, Florian H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the probability of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with haematologic malignancies using a modified version of the Infection Probability Score (mIPS). In order to perform a prospective, mono-centric surveillance of complications in clinical routine due to short-term central venous catheters (CVCs) in consecutive patients receiving chemotherapy from March 2013 to September 2014, IPS was calculated at CVC insertion and removal (mIPSin and mIPSex, respectively). We used the 2012 Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology (AGIHO/DGHO) criteria to define CRBSI. In total, 143 patients (mean 59.5 years, 61.4 % male) with 267 triple-lumen CVCs (4044 CVC days; mean 15.1 days, range 1-60 days) were analysed. CVCs were inserted for therapy of acute leukaemia (53.2 %), multiple myeloma (24.3 %) or lymphoma (11.2 %), and 93.6 % were inserted in the jugular vein. A total of 66 CRBSI cases (24.7 %) were documented (12 definite/13 probable/41 possible). The incidence was 16.3/1000 CVC days (2.9/3.1/10.1 per 1000 CVC days for definite/probable/possible CRBSI, respectively). In CRBSI cases, the mIPSex was higher as compared to cases without CRBSI (13.1 vs. 7.1; p < 0.001). The best mIPSex cutoff for CRBSI prediction was 8 points (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.77; sensitivity = 84.9 %, specificity = 60.7 %, negative predictive value = 92.4 %). For patients with an mIPSex ≥8, the risk for a CRBSI was high (odds ratio [OR] = 5.9; p < 0.001) and even increased if, additionally, CVC had been in use for about 10 days (OR = 9.8; p < 0.001). In case other causes of infection are excluded, a mIPSex ≥8 and duration of CVC use of about 10 days predict a very high risk of CRBSI. Patients with a mIPSex <8 have a low risk of CRBSI of 8 %.

  4. Effects of starting hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula or central venous catheter compared with peritoneal dialysis: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although several studies have demonstrated early survival advantages with peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), the reason for the excess mortality observed among incident HD patients remains to be established, to our knowledge. This study explores the relationship between mortality and dialysis modality, focusing on the role of HD vascular access type at the time of dialysis initiation. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed among local adult chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated PD and HD with a tunneled cuffed venous catheter (HD-TCC) or a functional arteriovenous fistula (HD-AVF) in our institution in the year 2008. A total of 152 patients were included in the final analysis (HD-AVF, n = 59; HD-TCC, n = 51; PD, n = 42). All cause and dialysis access-related morbidity/mortality were evaluated at one year. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to compare the survival of PD patients with those who initiated HD with an AVF or with a TCC. Results Compared with PD patients, both HD-AVF and HD-TCC patients were more likely to be older (p<0.001) and to have a higher frequency of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.017) and cardiovascular disease (p = 0.020). Overall, HD-TCC patients were more likely to have clinical visits (p = 0.069), emergency room visits (p<0.001) and hospital admissions (p<0.001). At the end of follow-up, HD-TCC patients had a higher rate of dialysis access-related complications (1.53 vs. 0.93 vs. 0.64, per patient-year; p<0.001) and hospitalizations (0.47 vs. 0.07 vs. 0.14, per patient-year; p = 0.034) than HD-AVF and PD patients, respectively. The survival rates at one year were 96.6%, 74.5% and 97.6% for HD-AVF, HD-TCC and PD groups, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, HD-TCC use at the time of dialysis initiation was the important factor associated with death (HR 16.128, 95%CI [1.431-181.778], p = 0.024). Conclusion Our results suggest that HD

  5. Bundle Approach to Reduce Bloodstream Infections in Neutropenic Hematologic Patients with a Long-Term Central Venous Catheter.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jose Manuel; Leite, Luís; França, Daniela; Capela, Rita; Viterbo, Luísa; Varajão, Natalina; Martins, Ângelo; Oliveira, Isabel; Domingues, Nélson; Moreira, Ilídia; Santo, Ana; Trigo, Filipe; Mariz, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O objetivo deste estudo foi reduzir através de um pacote de medidas as infeções sistémicas e as taxas de infeções com origem no cateter venoso central nos doentes hematológicos em neutropenia com cateter venoso central de longa duração. Material e Métodos: Estudo prospetivo não randomizado realizado na unidade onco-hematológica do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto no período compreendido entre 1 de agosto de 2010 até 31 de janeiro de 2012. Durante este período foi introduzido um pacote de medidas (grupo estudo) e comparados os resultados nos 6 meses anteriores à sua implementação (grupo de controlo). As medidas consistiram na utilização de conectores de pressão neutra em detrimento dos conectores de pressão positiva, na sua troca mais frequente e numa solução anti-séptica mais eficaz. Foram incluídos neste estudo 116 doentes hematológicos com cateter venoso central de longa duração inserido por um período superior a 72 h. Foram contabilizados 8 867 dias de cateter (6 756 dias de cateter venoso central no grupo estudo e 2 111 dias de cateter venoso central no grupo de controlo). Resultados: Obteve-se uma redução significativa nas taxas de infeções sistémicas e infeções com origem no cateter venoso central. As taxas de infeções sistémicas: [32,69 (grupo de controlo) vs. 9,43 (grupo estudo)], com uma redução de incidência de 71% [risco relativo 0,2886, CI 95% (0,1793 - 0,4647), p < 0,001] e taxas de infeções com origem no cateter venoso central: [17,53 (grupo de controlo) vs. 4,73 (grupo estudo)], com redução de incidência de 71% [risco relativo 0,2936, CI 95% (0,1793 - 0,5615), p < 0,014]. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa (p > 0,05) na contagem de neutrófilos à data da colheita das amostras de hemoculturas entre ambos os grupos: 69% (< 500 neutrófilos/mm3) [71% (grupo estudo) vs. 68% (grupo de controlo)]. Conclusões: A introdução deste pacote de medidas baseado nas variáveis do

  6. Risk of infection due to medical interventions via central venous catheters or implantable venous access port systems at the middle port of a three-way cock: luer lock cap vs. luer access split septum system (Q-Syte)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many cancer patients receive a central venous catheter or port system prior to therapy to assure correct drug administration. Even appropriate hygienic intervention maintenance carries the risk of contaminating the middle port (C-port) of a three-way cock (TWC), a risk that increases with the number of medical interventions. Because of the complexity of the cleaning procedure with disconnection and reconnection of the standard luer lock cap (referred as “intervention”), we compared luer lock caps with a “closed access system” consisting of a luer access split septum system with regard to process optimization (work simplification, process time), efficiency (costs) and hygiene (patient safety). Methods For determination of process optimization the workflow of an intervention according to the usual practice and risks was depicted in a process diagram. For determining the actual process costs, we analyzed use of material and time parameters per intervention and used the process parameters for programming the process into a simulation run (n = 1000) to determine the process costs as well as their differences (ACTUAL vs. NOMINAL) within the framework of a discrete event simulation. Additionally cultures were carried out at the TWC C-ports to evaluate possible contamination. Results With the closed access system, the mean working time of 5.5 minutes could be reduced to 2.97 minutes. The results for average process costs (labour and material costs per use) were 3.92 € for luer lock caps and 2.55 € for the closed access system. The hypothesis test (2-sample t-test, CI 0.95, p-value<0.05) confirmed the significance of the result. In 50 reviewed samples (TWC’s), the contamination rate for the luer lock cap was 8% (4 out of 50 samples were positive), the contamination rate of the 50 samples with the closed access system was 0%. Possible hygienic risks (related to material, surroundings, staff handling) could be reduced by 65.38%. Conclusions In the

  7. Double-lumen central venous catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine to prevent catheter colonisation in the intensive care unit setting: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F A; Marra, A R; Büchele, G L; Sogayar, A M C; Cal, R G R; de Sousa, J M A; Silva, E; Knobel, E; Edmond, M B

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial- and antiseptic-impregnated catheters are strategies recommended to prevent central venous catheter (CVC) colonisation. Few data regarding chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters in intensive care unit (ICU) patients have been reported. We performed a prospective, randomised study comparing the colonisation rates of chlorhexidine/silver sulfadiazine-impregnated CVCs (group 1) against standard CVCs (group 2). In order to assess catheter colonisation rates, a 4cm segment from the tips of aseptically removed catheters was cultured by the roll-plate method. In all, 109 patients were enrolled with successful catheter insertion, 51 of them in group 1 and 58 in group 2. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with regards to age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, ICU admission diagnosis, infection risk, catheter insertion sites or catheter length of stay. The colonisation rates were 29.4% (15 catheters) for group 1 and 34.5% (20 catheters) for group 2 (P=0.50). Double-lumen CVCs impregnated with chlorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine were not effective in reducing the incidence of catheter colonisation in ICU patients.

  8. The effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Maaskant, J M; De Boer, J P; Dalesio, O; Holtkamp, M J; Lucas, C

    2009-09-01

    Immuno-compromised patients are at high risk for all kind of infections. Unfortunately, they need central venous catheters (CVCs), which are associated with infectious complications. In this study we examined the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs to prevent catheter-related infections in patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by peripheral stem cell transplantation. This historical cohort study evaluated 139 patients of whom 70 patients were provided with non-impregnated CVCs and 69 patients with impregnated CVCs. Patients were treated for different diagnoses. The median number of days a CVC stayed in situ was 18 in the non-impregnated group and 16 in the impregnated group. The median duration of neutropenia of patients with non-impregnated CVCs was 9 days compared with 7 days of patients with impregnated CVCs. We found less catheter colonization (CC) in patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine CVCs (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41-0.96; P = 0.03). Catheter-related blood stream infections (CR-BSI) were also diminished, but this result was not statistically significant (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.02-1.15; P = 0.06). The reduction in CC and CR-BSI did not diminish the incidence of fever. We conclude that the use of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine impregnated CVCs provide an important improvement in the attempt to reduce CC and CR-BSI.

  9. Sustained Nitric Oxide-Releasing Nanoparticles Interfere with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion and Biofilm Formation in a Rat Central Venous Catheter Model.

    PubMed

    Mihu, Mircea Radu; Cabral, Vitor; Pattabhi, Rodney; Tar, Moses T; Davies, Kelvin P; Friedman, Adam J; Martinez, Luis R; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated in the setting of infections of indwelling medical devices, which are mediated by the microbe's ability to form biofilms on a variety of surfaces. Biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antimicrobial agents than their planktonic counterparts and often cause chronic infections and sepsis, particularly in patients with prolonged hospitalizations. In this study, we demonstrate that sustained nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles (NO-np) interfere with S. aureus adhesion and prevent biofilm formation on a rat central venous catheter (CVC) model of infection. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy showed that NO-np-treated staphylococcal biofilms displayed considerably reduced thicknesses and bacterial numbers compared to those of control biofilms in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Although both phenotypes, planktonic and biofilm-associated staphylococci, of multiple clinical strains were susceptible to NO-np, bacteria within biofilms were more resistant to killing than their planktonic counterparts. Furthermore, chitosan, a biopolymer found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and structurally integrated into the nanoparticles, seems to add considerable antimicrobial activity to the technology. Our findings suggest promising development and translational potential of NO-np for use as a prophylactic or therapeutic against bacterial biofilms on CVCs and other medical devices.

  10. Tunnelled Central Venous Catheter-Related Problems in the Early Phase of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Effects on Transplant Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yeral, Mahmut; Boğa, Can; Oğuzkurt, Levent; Alışkan, Hikmet Eda; Özdoğu, Hakan; Demiroğlu, Yusuf Ziya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Haematopoietic stem cell recipients need central venous catheters (CVCs) for easy administration of intravenous fluid, medications, apheresis, or dialysis procedures. However, CVCs may lead to infectious or non-infectious complications such as thrombosis. The effect of these complications on transplantation outcome is not clear. This manuscript presents the complication rates of double-lumen tunnelled CVCs and their effect on transplantation outcome. Materials and Methods: Data from 111 consecutive patients, of whom 75 received autologous and 36 received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantations, were collected retrospectively. The data were validated by the Record Inspection Group of the related JACIE-accredited transplantation centre. Results: Thrombosis developed in 2.7% of recipients (0.9 per 1000 catheter days). Catheter-related infection was identified in 14 (12.6%) patients (3.6 per 1000 catheter days). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most common causative agent. Engraftment time, rate of 100-day mortality, and development of grade II-IV graft-versus-host disease were not found to be associated with catheter-related complications. Conclusion: These results indicate that adverse events related with tunnelled CVCs are manageable and have no negative effects on transplant outcome. PMID:25805675

  11. Subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve activity and hepatic venous glucose are differentially regulated by the central actions of insulin in Wistar and SHR

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Izabela Martina R; Ferreira-Neto, Hildebrando C; Antunes, Vagner R

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the most important energy substrate for the maintenance of tissues function. The liver plays an essential role in the control of glucose production, since it is able to synthesize, store, and release glucose into the circulation under different situations. Hormones like insulin and catecholamines influence hepatic glucose production (HGP), but little is known about the role of the central actions of physiological doses of insulin in modulating HGP via the autonomic nervous system in nonanesthetized rats especially in SHR where we see a high degree of insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Wistar and SHR received ICV injection of insulin (100 nU/μL) and hepatic venous glucose concentration (HVGC) was monitored for 30 min, as an indirect measure of HGP. At 10 min after insulin injection, HVGC decreased by 27% in Wistar rats, with a negligible change (3%) in SHR. Pretreatment with atropine totally blocked the reduction in HVGC, while pretreatment with propranolol and phentolamine induced a decrease of 8% in HVGC after ICV insulin injection in Wistar. Intracarotid infusion of insulin caused a significant increase in subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve (SVN) activity in Wistar (12 ± 2%), with negligible effects on the lumbar splanchnic sympathetic nerve (LSSN) activity (−6 ± 3%). No change was observed in SVN (−2 ± 2%) and LSSN activities (2 ± 3%) in SHR after ICA insulin infusion. Taken together, these results show, in nonanesthetized animals, the importance of the parasympathetic nervous system in controlling HVGC, and subdiaphragmatic nerve activity following central administration of insulin; a mechanism that is impaired in the SHR. PMID:25948821

  12. Cessation of In-line Filters in Central Venous Catheters Does Not Significantly Influence the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections and Mortality in a Hospital Hematological Ward.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ambiru, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Sugita, Yasumasa; Kawajiri, Chika; Nagao, Yuhei; Shimura, Takenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective The use of intravenous in-line filters is effective for the mechanical removal of large particles, precipitates, bacteria, fungi, large lipid globules, and air. However, the routine use of in-line filters remains controversial. Many patients with hematological diseases frequently suffer from bloodstream infections (BSIs) with fatal outcomes. Methods The year before cessation of an in-line filter was defined as the "filter period" and the year after its cessation was defined as the "non-filter period." The number of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), which are defined through surveillance, the catheter utilization rate, the number of patient deaths within 7 days after removal of the central venous catheters (CVCs), and the overall survival rate following CVC insertion were measured. Results During both periods, 84 patients had a total of 140 CVCs with a total number of catheter days of 3,407. There were 10 CVCs with CLABSIs, and the overall CLABSI rate was 2.9/1,000 catheter days, including 4 CVCs with CLABSIs (2.5/1,000 catheter days) during the filter period and 6 CVCs with CLABSIs (3.3/1,000 catheter days) during the non-filter period. The CLABSI rate, catheter utilization rate, and mortality did not differ significantly between the two periods. The only independent variable that was found to be significantly associated with the development of CLABSIs was a neutrophil count of <500×10(6)/L (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study revealed that the cessation of in-line filters from CVCs does not significantly influence the incidence of BSIs and mortality in patients with hematological disease. To confirm our results, however, a large-scale randomized controlled study is warranted.

  13. Lower extremity venous reflux

    PubMed Central

    Baliyan, Vinit; Tajmir, Shahein; Ganguli, Suvranu; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Venous incompetence in the lower extremity is a common clinical problem. Basic understanding of venous anatomy, pathophysiologic mechanisms of venous reflux is essential for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. The complex interplay of venous pressure, abdominal pressure, venous valvular function and gravitational force determine the venous incompetence. This review is intended to provide a succinct review of the pathophysiology of venous incompetence and the current role of imaging in its management. PMID:28123974

  14. AngioVac Aspiration for Paradoxical Emboli Protection through a Fenestrated Fontan During Central Venous Thrombus Manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Patel, Komal; Moriarty, John M.

    2015-06-15

    This case reports describes a 39-year-old female with a history of surgically repaired hypoplastic left heart syndrome who presented with a left peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) with associated large volume subclavian and brachiocephalic vein thrombus. Due to the presence of a right-to-left shunt via a fenestrated Fontan, there was clinical concern for a paradoxical embolism during removal of the PICC. The AngioVac aspiration system was successfully utilized to aspirate thromboemboli from the level of the proximal Glenn shunt during manipulation and removal of the PICC. This is the first reported case to demonstrate the safe and effective use of the AngioVac aspiration system for protection of paradoxical emboli through a cardiac right-to-left shunt during a procedure at high risk for thromboembolism.

  15. The Effect of Interdisciplinary Team Rounds on Urinary Catheter and Central Venous Catheter Days and Rates of Infection.

    PubMed

    Arora, Navneet; Patel, Killol; Engell, Christian A; LaRosa, Jennifer A

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary team (IDT) rounds were initiated in the intensive care unit (ICU) in June 2010. All catheters were identified by location, duration, and indication. Catheters with no indication were removed. Data were collected retrospectively on catheter days and associated infections in a 20-month period before and after intervention with an aggregate of 19 207 ICU days before and 23 576 ICU days after institution of rounds. Results showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) days (5304 vs 4541 days, P = .05) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection rates (4.71 vs 1.98 infections/1000 ICU days, P < .05). Central line days statistically increased after IDT rounds (3986 vs 4305 days, P < .05) but the catheter-related bloodstream infection rate trended down (3.5 vs 1.6 infections/1000 ICU days, P = .62). This analysis suggests that IDT rounds may have an impact on reducing the number of IUC days and associated infections.

  16. Ultrasound-Guided Radiological Placement of Central Venous Port via the Subclavian Vein: A Retrospective Analysis of 500 Cases at a Single Institute.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Notiaki; Arai, Yasuaki; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Takahashi, Mahahide; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sugimuta, Kazuro

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the technical success rate and adverse events (AEs) associated with ultrasound (US)-guided radiological placement (RP) of a central venous port (CVP) via the subclavian vein (SCV). Between April 2006 and May 2007, a total of 500 US-guided RPs of a CVP via the SCV were scheduled in 486 cancer patients (mean age +/- SD, 54.1 +/- 18.1 years) at our institute. Referring to the interventional radiology report database and patients' records, technical success rate and AEs relevant to CVP placement were evaluated retrospectively. The technical success rate was 98.6% (493/500). AEs occurred in 26 cases (5.2%) during follow-up (range, 1-1080 days; mean +/- SD, 304.0 +/- 292.1 days). AEs within 24 h postprocedure occurred in five patients: pneumothorax (n = 2), arterial puncture (n = 1), hematoma formation at the pocket site (n = 2), and catheter tip migration into the internal mammary vein (n = 1). There were seven early AEs: hematoma formation at the pocket site (n = 2), fibrin sheath formation around the indwelling catheter (n = 2), and catheter-related infections (n = 3). There were 13 delayed AEs: catheter-related infections (n = 7), catheter detachments (n = 3), catheter occlusion (n = 1), symptomatic thrombus in the SCV (n = 1), and catheter migration (n = 1). No major AEs, such as procedure-related death, air embolism, or events requiring surgical intervention, were observed. In conclusion, US-guided RP of a CVP via the SCV is highly appropriate, based on its high technical success rate and the limited number of AEs.

  17. Eliminating guidewire retention during ultrasound guided central venous catheter insertion via an educational program, a modified CVC set, and a drape with reminder stickers.

    PubMed

    Peh, Wee Ming; Loh, Wann Jia; Phua, Ghee Chee; Loo, Chian Min

    2016-01-01

    Guidewire retention is a severe but preventable complication from central venous catheter (CVC) insertion. There were three cases of guidewire retention during CVC insertion in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) in Singapore General Hospital, in the period between December 2011 and February 2012. The primary objective of this quality improvement project was to eliminate future incidences of guidewire retention during CVC insertion in the MICU and medical intermediate care area (MICA) via a structured educational program and a cost effective modified CVC set. The secondary objective was to perform a cost analysis and comparison between the use of the conventional hospital CVC set and drape with our newly modified CVC dressing kit. Root cause analysis of the three cases identified major factors leading to guidewire retention. Interventions were planned and tested using PDSA cycles. Internal medicine trainees rotating through MICU and MICA during the period between February 2012 and June 2013 underwent a multi-modal structured CVC insertion training program with hands on simulation. They also used a newly modified CVC dressing kit and drape. The CVC dressing kit was modified (CVC PLUS) to include a sterile drape with reminder stickers stating "REMOVE the GUIDEWIRE," as well as a sterile ultrasound sleeve. The total number of CVC insertions performed and guidewire retentions were monitored. During the period of study there were 320 CVC insertions in the MICU and MICA. Since this quality improvement project was initiated, and up to the submission of this article, there have not been any further cases of guidewire retention in the MICU and MICA. The total cost reduction per use of CVC PLUS was S$29.26 (Singaporean Dollars). A multi-modal structured training program, integrated with a modified, pre-packed CVC set, and drapes with reminder stickers (all included in CVC PLUS) were cost effective, and improved patient safety by eliminating guidewire retention during CVC

  18. Prevention and treatment of implanted central venous catheter (CVC) - related sepsis: a report after six years of home parenteral nutrition (HPN).

    PubMed

    Santarpia, Lidia; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Alfonsi, Lucia; Violante, Gerardo; Tiseo, Domenico; De Simone, Gianni; Contaldo, Franco

    2002-06-01

    Catheter-related sepsis is a serious and common complication in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Prevention measures, prevalence of infections, types of agents and implanted central venous catheters (CVC), effectiveness of antibiotic therapy have been evaluated in 221 patients consecutively followed in our unit from January 1995 to December 2000. The clinical diagnosis of catheter-related infection was made using well-defined criteria. Patients were divided into two groups: A and B, receiving instructions with different modalities: standard (A) and detailed (B), respectively. Sixty CVC-related sepsis occurred in 32 (14%) patients. A multivariate analysis showed that the duration of HPN (P<0.001; OR=0.9), type of catheter (P=0.009; OR=0.12) and type of disease (P=0.033; OR=4.92) significantly influence catheter infection. The type of implanted CVC (159 port-a-cath in 153 patients and 71 tunnelled in 68) seems to affect the infection rate, this being lower in tunnelled (P=0.03). Infection rate was lower in B vs A group (P<0.001) with all types of catheters, suggesting the preventive role of very careful training. In particular, the incidence of CVC-related sepsis was 6/1000 days of HPN (i.e. 6/1000 days of catheterization) in Group A and 3/1000 in Group B. Systemic and antibiotic lock therapy was performed with an 83% successful rate. Gram-positive bacteria were the most frequent CVC infection agents, which are usually eradicated by antibiotic therapy lasting 7 days.

  19. Efficacy and safety of using L-cysteine as a catheter-clearing agent for nonthrombotic occlusions of central venous catheters in children.

    PubMed

    Pai, Vinita B; Plogsted, Steven

    2014-10-01

    Critically ill pediatric patients, especially in the intensive care unit, receive multiple medications and have a higher risk of central venous catheter (CVC) occlusion. If an occlusion occurs immediately after the administration of multiple medications or incompatible medications, either an acidic solution such as 0.1 N hydrochloric acid (HCl) or a basic solution of 1 mEq/mL sodium bicarbonate or 0.1 N sodium hydroxide can be used. However, compounding and storing of 0.1 N HCl has become more complex due to USP <797> guidelines for sterile compounding, and an alternative is needed. We report a series of cases in which L-cysteine was used instead of HCl to clear CVCs occluded due to administration of multiple medications. L-cysteine is a commercially available, sterile solution with a pH of 1–2.5. CVC occlusion was resolved in 10 of the 16 episodes in 13 patients. Two of the 16 occlusions were phenytoin related and would not have responded. An L-cysteine dose of 50 mg was used during 10 of the 16 episodes, 100 mg during 5 episodes, and 25 mg during 1 episode. A correlation between catheter clearance and dose was not observed. Occlusion resolution due to L-cysteine was not correlated to the prior use of tissue plasminogen activator. Metabolic acidosis, adverse effects, or damage to the catheters due to L-cysteine were not observed. On the basis of this limited experience, we propose L-cysteine as an effective alternative to 0.1 N HCl for clearing CVC occlusions caused by drugs with an acidic pKa.

  20. Development of X-ray micro-focus computed tomography to image and quantify biofilms in central venous catheter models in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Wilmari L; Howlin, Robert P; Johnston, David A; Bull, Daniel J; Jones, Gareth L; Calton, Elizabeth; Mavrogordato, Mark N; Clarke, Stuart C; Thurner, Philipp J; Faust, Saul N; Stoodley, Paul

    2016-12-30

    Bacterial infections of central venous catheters (CVCs) cause much morbidity and mortality, and are usually diagnosed by concordant culture of blood and catheter tip. However, studies suggest that culture often fails to detect biofilm bacteria. This study optimizes X-ray micro-focus computed tomography (X-ray µCT) for the quantification and determination of distribution and heterogeneity of biofilms in in vitro CVC model systems. Bacterial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilms grown on catheters in vitro in both flow and static biofilm models. Alongside this, X-ray µCT techniques were developed in order to detect biofilms inside CVCs. Various contrast agent stains were evaluated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to further optimize these methods. Catheter material and biofilm were segmented using a semi-automated matlab script and quantified using the Avizo Fire software package. X-ray µCT was capable of distinguishing between the degree of biofilm formation across different segments of a CVC flow model. EDS screening of single- and dual-compound contrast stains identified 10 nm gold and silver nitrate as the optimum contrast agent for X-ray µCT. This optimized method was then demonstrated to be capable of quantifying biofilms in an in vitro static biofilm formation model, with a strong correlation between biofilm detection via SEM and culture. X-ray µCT has good potential as a direct, non-invasive, non-destructive technology to image biofilms in CVCs, as well as other in vivo medical components in which biofilms accumulate in concealed areas.

  1. Development of X-ray micro-focus computed tomography to image and quantify biofilms in central venous catheter models in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Wilmari L; Howlin, Robert P; Johnston, David A; Bull, Daniel J; Jones, Gareth L; Calton, Elizabeth; Mavrogordato, Mark N; Clarke, Stuart C; Thurner, Philipp J; Faust, Saul N; Stoodley, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections of central venous catheters (CVCs) cause much morbidity and mortality, and are usually diagnosed by concordant culture of blood and catheter tip. However, studies suggest that culture often fails to detect biofilm bacteria. This study optimizes X-ray micro-focus computed tomography (X-ray µCT) for the quantification and determination of distribution and heterogeneity of biofilms in in vitro CVC model systems.Bacterial culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to detect Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 biofilms grown on catheters in vitro in both flow and static biofilm models. Alongside this, X-ray µCT techniques were developed in order to detect biofilms inside CVCs. Various contrast agent stains were evaluated using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to further optimize these methods. Catheter material and biofilm were segmented using a semi-automated matlab script and quantified using the Avizo Fire software package. X-ray µCT was capable of distinguishing between the degree of biofilm formation across different segments of a CVC flow model. EDS screening of single- and dual-compound contrast stains identified 10 nm gold and silver nitrate as the optimum contrast agent for X-ray µCT. This optimized method was then demonstrated to be capable of quantifying biofilms in an in vitro static biofilm formation model, with a strong correlation between biofilm detection via SEM and culture. X-ray µCT has good potential as a direct, non-invasive, non-destructive technology to image biofilms in CVCs, as well as other in vivo medical components in which biofilms accumulate in concealed areas.

  2. Intra-Operative Fluid Management in Adult Neurosurgical Patients Undergoing Intracranial Tumour Surgery: Randomised Control Trial Comparing Pulse Pressure Variance (PPV) and Central Venous Pressure (CVP)

    PubMed Central

    Salins, Serina Ruth; Kumar, Amar Nandha; Korula, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fluid management in neurosurgery presents specific challenges to the anaesthesiologist. Dynamic para-meters like Pulse Pressure Variation (PPV) have been used successfully to guide fluid management. Aim To compare PPV against Central Venous Pressure (CVP) in neurosurgical patients to assess hemodynamic stability and perfusion status. Materials and Methods This was a single centre prospective randomised control trial at a tertiary care centre. A total of 60 patients undergoing intracranial tumour excision in supine and lateral positions were randomised to two groups (Group 1, CVP n=30), (Group 2, PPV n=30). Intra-operative fluid management was titrated to maintain baseline CVP in Group 1(5-10cm of water) and in Group 2 fluids were given to maintain PPV less than 13%. Acid base status, vital signs and blood loss were monitored. Results Although intra-operative hypotension and acid base changes were comparable between the groups, the patients in the CVP group had more episodes of hypotension requiring fluid boluses in the first 24 hours post surgery. {CVP group median (25, 75) 2400ml (1850, 3110) versus PPV group 2100ml (1350, 2200) p=0.03} The patients in the PPV group received more fluids than the CVP group which was clinically significant. {2250 ml (1500, 3000) versus 1500ml (1200, 2000) median (25, 75) (p=0.002)}. The blood loss was not significantly different between the groups The median blood loss in the CVP group was 600ml and in the PPV group was 850 ml; p value 0.09. Conclusion PPV can be used as a reliable index to guide fluid management in neurosurgical patients undergoing tumour excision surgery in supine and lateral positions and can effectively augment CVP as a guide to fluid management. Patients in PPV group had better hemodynamic stability and less post operative fluid requirement. PMID:27437329

  3. Correlation of a novel noninvasive tissue oxygen saturation monitor to serum central venous oxygen saturation in pediatric patients with postoperative congenital cyanotic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Yadlapati, Ajay; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Kelly, Robert B

    2013-03-01

    Using a novel noninvasive, visible-light optical diffusion oximeter (T-Stat VLS Tissue Oximeter; Spectros Corporation, Portola Valley, CA) to measure the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) of the buccal mucosa, the correlation between StOz and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) was examined in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. Paired StO2 and serum ScvO2 measurements were obtained postoperatively and statistically analyzed for agreement and association. Thirteen children (nine male) participated in the study (age range, 4 days to 18 months). Surgeries included Glenn shunt procedures, Norwood procedures, unifocalization procedures with Blalock-Taussig shunt placement, a Kawashima/ Glenn shunt procedure, a Blalock-Taussig shunt placement, and a modified Norwood procedure. A total of 45 paired StO2-ScvO2 measurements was obtained. Linear regression demonstrated a Pearson's correlation of .58 (95% confidence interval [CI], .35-.75; p < .0001). The regression slope coefficient estimate was .95 (95% CI, .54-1.36) with an interclass correlation coefficient of .48 (95% CI, .22-.68). Below a clinically relevant average ScvO2 value, a receiver operator characteristic analysis yielded an area under the curve of .78. Statistical methods to control for repeatedly measuring the same subjects produced similar results. This study shows a moderate relationship and agreement between StO2 and ScvO2 measurements in pediatric patients with a history of congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. This real-time monitoring device can act as a valuable adjunct to standard noninvasive monitoring in which serum SyvO2 sampling currently assists in the diagnosis of low cardiac output after pediatric cardiac surgery.

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Radiological Placement of Central Venous Port via the Subclavian Vein: A Retrospective Analysis of 500 Cases at a Single Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriaki Arai, Yasuaki Takeuchi, Yoshito Takahashi, Masahide Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the technical success rate and adverse events (AEs) associated with ultrasound (US)-guided radiological placement (RP) of a central venous port (CVP) via the subclavian vein (SCV). Between April 2006 and May 2007, a total of 500 US-guided RPs of a CVP via the SCV were scheduled in 486 cancer patients (mean age {+-} SD, 54.1 {+-} 18.1 years) at our institute. Referring to the interventional radiology report database and patients' records, technical success rate and AEs relevant to CVP placement were evaluated retrospectively. The technical success rate was 98.6% (493/500). AEs occurred in 26 cases (5.2%) during follow-up (range, 1-1080 days; mean {+-} SD, 304.0 {+-} 292.1 days). AEs within 24 h postprocedure occurred in five patients: pneumothorax (n = 2), arterial puncture (n = 1), hematoma formation at the pocket site (n = 2), and catheter tip migration into the internal mammary vein (n = 1). There were seven early AEs: hematoma formation at the pocket site (n = 2), fibrin sheath formation around the indwelling catheter (n = 2), and catheter-related infections (n = 3). There were 13 delayed AEs: catheter-related infections (n = 7), catheter detachments (n = 3), catheter occlusion (n = 1), symptomatic thrombus in the SCV (n = 1), and catheter migration (n = 1). No major AEs, such as procedure-related death, air embolism, or events requiring surgical intervention, were observed. In conclusion, US-guided RP of a CVP via the SCV is highly appropriate, based on its high technical success rate and the limited number of AEs.

  5. [Diagnosing venous and venous/arterial ulcers].

    PubMed

    Perceau, Géraldine

    2012-01-01

    A venous ulcer can be diagnosed on the basis of elements arising from the questioning and the clinical examination of the patient. A venous Doppler ultrasound can specify the type of reverse flow (superficial and/or deep). Measuring the ankle brachial pressure index helps to eliminate or confirm any arterial involvement. Depending on the systolic pressure index, the ulcer will be considered as purely venous, mixed (arterial-venous) or predominantly arterial.

  6. Successful Salvage of Central Venous Catheters in Patients with Catheter-Related or Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections by Using a Catheter Lock Solution Consisting of Minocycline, EDTA, and 25% Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Raad, Issam; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Zakhour, Ramia; Jordan, Mary; Al Hamal, Zanaib; Jiang, Ying; Yousif, Ammar; Garoge, Kumait; Mulanovich, Victor; Viola, George M; Kanj, Soha; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Rosenblatt, Joel; Hachem, Ray

    2016-06-01

    In cancer patients with long-term central venous catheters (CVC), removal and reinsertion of a new CVC at a different site might be difficult because of the unavailability of accessible vascular sites. In vitro and animal studies showed that a minocycline-EDTA-ethanol (M-EDTA-EtOH) lock solution may eradicate microbial organisms in biofilms, hence enabling the treatment of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) while retaining the catheter in situ Between April 2013 and July 2014, we enrolled 30 patients with CLABSI in a prospective study and compared them to a historical group of 60 patients with CLABSI who had their CVC removed and a new CVC inserted. Each catheter lumen was locked with an M-EDTA-EtOH solution for 2 h administered once daily, for a total of 7 doses. Patients who received locks had clinical characteristics that were comparable to those of the control group. The times to fever resolution and microbiological eradication were similar in the two groups. Patients with the lock intervention received a shorter duration of systemic antibiotic therapy than that of the control patients (median, 11 days versus 16 days, respectively; P < 0.0001), and they were able to retain their CVCs for a median of 74 days after the onset of bacteremia. The M-EDTA-EtOH lock was associated with a significantly decreased rate of mechanical and infectious complications compared to that of the CVC removal/reinsertion group, who received a longer duration of systemic antimicrobial therapy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01539343.).

  7. A comprehensive approach to the prevention of central venous catheter complications: results of 10-year prospective surveillance in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Cavaliere, Mara; Pegoraro, Anna; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Zadra, Nicola; Tridello, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    We report our decennial experience with 1161 newly-placed long-term central venous catheters inserted in 919 hematology-oncology patients for a total of 413,901 CVC-days of observation. Most of the CVCs were partially-implanted, open-ended, Broviac-Hickman type of CVC (95 %). One thousand and twenty-four complications were recorded equal to 2.47 per 1000 CVC-days. The frequency of complications per CVC, the rate of episodes per 1000 CVC-days, and removal rate were malfunction/occlusion 42 %, 1.18/1000, and 2.3 %; mechanical (dislodgement/rupture/kinking) 18.3 %, 0.51/1000, and 77.4 %; bacteremia 14.8 %, 0.42/1000, and 18.6 %; exit-site/tunnel infection 11.5 %, 0.32/1000, and 9.7 %; thrombosis 0.86 %, 0.02/1000, and 30 %; pneumothorax 0.52 %, 0.01/1000, and 0. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors were for mechanical complications, a younger age <6.1 years at CVC insertion (HR 1.8, p = 0.0006); for bacteremia, a double lumen CVC (HR 3.1, p < 0.0001) and the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.5, p = 0.03); for exit-site/tunnel infection, a double lumen CVC (HR 2.1, p = 0.0003) and a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.8, p = 0.01); for malfunction/occlusion, an age <6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0003), the diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.9, p < 0.0001) and double lumen CVC (HR 1.33, p = 0.023). The cumulative incidence of premature CVC removal was 29.2 % and the risk factors associated with this event were the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.4, p = 0.0153) and an age at CVC positioning less than 6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0025). We conclude that a best-practice set of rules resulted in reduced CVC complications.

  8. ‘Matching Michigan’: a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England

    PubMed Central

    Bion, Julian; Richardson, Annette; Hibbert, Peter; Beer, Jeanette; Abrusci, Tracy; McCutcheon, Martin; Cassidy, Jane; Eddleston, Jane; Gunning, Kevin; Bellingan, Geoff; Patten, Mark; Harrison, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections from central venous catheters (CVC-BSIs) increase morbidity and costs in intensive care units (ICUs). Substantial reductions in CVC-BSI rates have been reported using a combination of technical and non-technical interventions. Methods We conducted a 2-year, four-cluster, stepped non-randomised study of technical and non-technical (behavioural) interventions to prevent CVC-BSIs in adult and paediatric ICUs in England. Random-effects Poisson regression modelling was used to compare infection rates. A sample of ICUs participated in data verification. Results Of 223 ICUs in England, 215 (196 adult, 19 paediatric) submitted data on 2479 of 2787 possible months and 147 (66%) provided complete data. The exposure rate was 438 887 (404 252 adult and 34 635 paediatric) CVC-patient days. Over 20 months, 1092 CVC-BSIs were reported. Of these, 884 (81%) were ICU acquired. For adult ICUs, the mean CVC-BSI rate decreased over 20 months from 3.7 in the first cluster to 1.48 CVC-BSIs/1000 CVC-patient days (p<0.0001) for all clusters combined, and for paediatric ICUs from 5.65 to 2.89 (p=0.625). The trend for infection rate reduction did not accelerate following interventions training. CVC utilisation rates remained stable. Pre-ICU infections declined in parallel with ICU-acquired infections. Criterion-referenced case note review showed high agreement between adjudicators (κ 0.706) but wide variation in blood culture sampling rates and CVC utilisation. Generic infection control practices varied widely. Conclusions The marked reduction in CVC-BSI rates in English ICUs found in this study is likely part of a wider secular trend for a system-wide improvement in healthcare-associated infections. Opportunities exist for greater harmonisation of infection control practices. Future studies should investigate causal mechanisms and contextual factors influencing the impact of interventions directed at improving patient care. PMID:22996571

  9. Efficacy of 1.0% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol compared with 10% povidone-iodine for long-term central venous catheter care in hematology departments: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Natsuo; Kimura, Hideo; Misao, Hanako; Matsumoto, Hayato; Imafuku, Yuji; Watanabe, Akemi; Mori, Hiroko; Yoshida, Akiko; Miura, Saori; Abe, Yoshinobu; Toba, Mamoru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Kanemitsu, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The efficacy of 1% chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol and 10% povidone-iodine for skin antisepsis of central venous catheter (CVC) sites were compared among hematology patients. The CVC site colonization rates of those groups were 11.9% and 29.2%, respectively, and the catheter-associated blood stream infections were 0.75 and 3.62 per 1,000 catheter-days, respectively. One percent chlorhexidine-gluconate ethanol was superior to povidone-iodine to reduce skin colonizers at CVC sites even when catheters were used for long duration.

  10. Central venous catheter-related infection due to Candida membranaefaciens, a new opportunistic azole-resistant yeast in a cancer patient: a case report and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Fanci, Rosa; Pecile, Patrizia

    2005-09-01

    An unusual central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection caused by Candida membranaefaciens in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is described. Clinical signs and microbiological results observed in this case may support the hypothesis of an emerging CVC-related fungaemia, because of new azole-resistant yeast, successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B. To date C. membranaefaciens (the teleomorph of Pichia membranaefaciens) has traditionally been considered non-pathogenic and this report seems to be the first case of systemic fungal infection. We believe that another fungus can be added to the list of opportunistic strains.

  11. Venous pressure in man during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsch, K. A.; Roecker, L.; Gauer, O. H.; Krause, R.; Wicke, H. J.; Leach, C.; Landry, R.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether the body fluid shift from the lower limbs toward the head that occurs during spaceflight leads to lasting increases of venous pressure in the upper body, venous pressure and hematocrit measurements were made on four astronauts before flight and 1 and 12 hours after recovery and compared with measurements in space. During the mission the hematocrit was elevated and the venous pressure lowered by 1 to 8 centimeters of water as compared with the preflight data. One hour after landing the hematocrit decreased, indicating a hemodilution, venous pressures were unexpectedly high, and a body weight loss of 4 to 5 percent was observed. Twelve hours later the venous pressures were the lowest recorded during the study. The fluid shift apparently takes place during the first several hours of spaceflight. Thereafter, the pressure in the peripheral veins and the central circulation is lower than that measured before flight.

  12. Pilot study evaluating the safety of a combined central venous catheter and inferior vena cava filter in critically ill patients at high risk of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Cadavid, Carlos A; Gil, Bladimir; Restrepo, Alvaro; Alvarez, Sergio; Echeverry, Santiago; Angel, Luis F; Tapson, Victor; Kaufman, John

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this pilot trial were to assess the safety of a new device for pulmonary embolism (PE) prophylaxis. The device, the Angel Catheter, was placed in eight patients who were in the intensive care unit and were at high risk of PE. The device was inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopic guidance via a femoral venous approach. All eight devices were inserted and subsequently retrieved without complications (follow-up, 33-36 d). One filter trapped a large clot.

  13. Upper Body Venous Compliance Exceeds Lower Body Venous Compliance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    relatively unimportant. Low calf venous compliance probably results from stiffer venous, skeletal muscle, and connective tissues, and better-developed local and central neural controls of venous distensibility. This research establishes that upper-to-lower body reduction of venous compliance can explain headward positioning of the hydrostatic indifference level in humans.

  14. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  15. A Rat Model of Central Venous Catheter to Study Establishment of Long-Term Bacterial Biofilm and Related Acute and Chronic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashwini; Lebeaux, David; Decante, Benoit; Kriegel, Irene; Escande, Marie-Christine; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Formation of resilient biofilms on medical devices colonized by pathogenic microorganisms is a major cause of health-care associated infection. While in vitro biofilm analyses led to promising anti-biofilm approaches, little is known about their translation to in vivo situations and on host contribution to the in vivo dynamics of infections on medical devices. Here we have developed an in vivo model of long-term bacterial biofilm infections in a pediatric totally implantable venous access port (TIVAP) surgically placed in adult rats. Using non-invasive and quantitative bioluminescence, we studied TIVAP contamination by clinically relevant pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and we demonstrated that TIVAP bacterial populations display typical biofilm phenotypes. In our study, we showed that immunocompetent rats were able to control the colonization and clear the bloodstream infection except for up to 30% that suffered systemic infection and death whereas none of the immunosuppressed rats survived the infection. Besides, we mimicked some clinically relevant TIVAP associated complications such as port-pocket infection and hematogenous route of colonization. Finally, by assessing an optimized antibiotic lock therapy, we established that our in vivo model enables to assess innovative therapeutic strategies against bacterial biofilm infections. PMID:22615964

  16. Microbial Biofilms on Needleless Connectors for Central Venous Catheters: Comparison of Standard and Silver-Coated Devices Collected from Patients in an Acute Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Elizabeth; Williams, Margaret; Jacob, Jesse T.; Reyes, Mary Dent; Chernetsky Tejedor, Sheri; Steinberg, James P.; Rowe, Lori; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P = 0.11). There were no significant associations (P > 0.05, chi-square test) between catheter type, side of catheter placement, number of catheter lumens, site of catheter placement, or NC placement duration and positive NC findings. There was an association (P = 0.04, chi-square test) between infusion type and positive findings for standard NCs. Viable microorganisms exhibiting intracellular esterase activity were detected on >90% of both NC types (P = 0.751), suggesting that a large percentage of organisms were not culturable using the conditions provided in this study. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. NC bacterial communities were clustered by patient and venous access type and may reflect the composition of the patient's local microbiome but also may contain organisms from the health care environment. NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24371233

  17. Microbial biofilms on needleless connectors for central venous catheters: comparison of standard and silver-coated devices collected from patients in an acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Perez, Elizabeth; Williams, Margaret; Jacob, Jesse T; Reyes, Mary Dent; Chernetsky Tejedor, Sheri; Steinberg, James P; Rowe, Lori; Ganakammal, Satishkumar Ranganathan; Changayil, Shankar; Weil, M Ryan; Donlan, Rodney M

    2014-03-01

    Microorganisms may colonize needleless connectors (NCs) on intravascular catheters, forming biofilms and predisposing patients to catheter-associated infection (CAI). Standard and silver-coated NCs were collected from catheterized intensive care unit patients to characterize biofilm formation using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods and to investigate the associations between NC usage and biofilm characteristics. Viable microorganisms were detected by plate counts from 46% of standard NCs and 59% of silver-coated NCs (P=0.11). There were no significant associations (P>0.05, chi-square test) between catheter type, side of catheter placement, number of catheter lumens, site of catheter placement, or NC placement duration and positive NC findings. There was an association (P=0.04, chi-square test) between infusion type and positive findings for standard NCs. Viable microorganisms exhibiting intracellular esterase activity were detected on >90% of both NC types (P=0.751), suggesting that a large percentage of organisms were not culturable using the conditions provided in this study. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene from selected NCs provided a substantially larger number of operational taxonomic units per NC than did plate counts (26 to 43 versus 1 to 4 operational taxonomic units/NC, respectively), suggesting that culture-dependent methods may substantially underestimate microbial diversity on NCs. NC bacterial communities were clustered by patient and venous access type and may reflect the composition of the patient's local microbiome but also may contain organisms from the health care environment. NCs provide a portal of entry for a wide diversity of opportunistic pathogens to colonize the catheter lumen, forming a biofilm and increasing the potential for CAI, highlighting the importance of catheter maintenance practices to reduce microbial contamination.

  18. Venous return curves obtained from graded series of valsalva maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastenbrook, S. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The effects were studied of a graded series of valsalva-like maneuvers on the venous return, which was measured transcutaneously in the jugular vein of an anesthetized dog, with the animal serving as its own control. At each of five different levels of central venous pressure, the airway pressure which just stopped venous return during each series of maneuvers was determined. It was found that this end-point airway pressure is not a good estimator of the animal's resting central venous pressure prior to the simulated valsalva maneuver. It was further found that the measured change in right atrial pressure during a valsalva maneuver is less than the change in airway pressure during the same maneuver, instead of being equal, as had been expected. Relative venous return curves were constructed from the data obtained during the graded series of valsalva maneuvers.

  19. Pericardial effusion associated with an appropriately placed umbilical venous catheter.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, A; Cook, V; Dunn, M

    2007-05-01

    Central venous catheterization is widely used in neonatal intensive care units to support tiny preterm babies. Pericardial effusion (PCE) and cardiac tamponade are uncommon but potentially fatal complications of percutaneous, umbilical and surgically placed central venous catheters related to intracardiac position or migration. This report describes a case of PCE arising from fluid infused via umbilical venous catheter. The case study highlights two important aspects: one, occurrence of PCE in a baby with satisfactory position of the umbilical catheter, and second, the life-saving application of basic echocardiography by bedside caregivers for the diagnosis and treatment of this critical condition.

  20. [Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)].

    PubMed

    Renner, R; Simon, J

    2009-10-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is an important and frequent disease for dermatologists, phlebologists and general practitioners. There are various hypotheses for the ethiopathology in CVI, e. g. hormone receptors and impairments concerning the venous contraction or relaxation of the vessel wall and the venous valves might play an important role. At the moment, colour doppler-duplex sonography seems to be the diagnostic method of choice. Modern therapeutic options include compression systems alone or in combination with topical or systemic treatment including minimal invasive methods like endovenous laser or radiofrequency obliteration or foam sclerotherapy.

  1. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  2. Cardiomegaly in a premature neonate after venous umbilical catheterization.

    PubMed

    Schlapbach, Luregn Jan; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre; Nelle, Mathias; McDougall, Felicity Jane

    2009-01-01

    Umbilical venous catheters allow rapid central access in neonates, but may be associated with various complications. We present a case of a newborn with pericardial effusion following umbilical venous catheterization. An extremely low birth weight infant was intubated for respiratory distress syndrome and had umbilical venous and arterial lines in place. Massive cardiomegaly was noted on the subsequent chest X-ray. Echocardiography revealed a large pericardial effusion without signs of tamponade. After removing the catheter, the effusion gradually resolved. While pericardial effusion is a well-known complication of percutaneous long central lines, only a few case reports have documented sudden cardiovascular compromise associated with umbilical venous catheters. Pericardial effusion may be asymptomatic and should be suspected in infants with central catheters and progressive cardiomegaly. The prompt removal of catheters and, if signs of cardiac tamponade are present, emergency pericardiocentesis may prove to be life-saving.

  3. Venous thrombosis: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease contributes to morbidity and mortality in certain groups of hospitalized patients, particularly those who have undergone surgery. Although principles of treatment have changed relatively little during the past 20 years, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venography, once the only reliable diagnostic technique, has been largely replaced by noninvasive tests: impedance plethysmography, venous Doppler, /sup 125/I-radiofibrinogen-uptake test, and phleborheography. Virchow's triad of stasis, vessel injury, and hypercoagulability remains a valid explanation of the pathogenesis of thrombus formation, but laboratory and clinical data have refined our knowledge of how these factors interact to result in clinically significant disease. Knowledge of the natural history of venous thrombosis, plus heightened awareness of the long-term morbidity and expense associated with the postphlebitic syndrome, have led to increased interest in preventing DVT. Clinically and economically, venous thrombosis is best managed by prevention. 61 references.

  4. Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your doctor. Do not ignore these symptoms. Risk Factors The most important factors leading to the development of chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins include: • Family history • Increasing ...

  5. Diagnosing Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, D. Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Patients often present with unexplained lower limb pain and swelling. It is important to exclude deep venous thrombosis in the diagnosis because of the threat of sudden death. Simple clinical diagnosis is unacceptable, and noninvasive tests should be used initially. Serial testing detects proximal extension of isolated calf thrombi. Multiple diagnostic modalities are employed to diagnose a new deep venous thrombosis in patients with postphlebitic syndrome. PMID:21221369

  6. Venous ulcer review

    PubMed Central

    Bevis, Paul; Earnshaw, Jonothan

    2011-01-01

    Clinical question: What is the best treatment for venous ulcers? Results: Compression aids ulcer healing. Pentoxifylline can aid ulcer healing. Artificial skin grafts are more effective than other skin grafts in helping ulcer healing. Correction of underlying venous incompetence reduces ulcer recurrence. Implementation: Potential pitfalls to avoid are: Failure to exclude underlying arterial disease before application of compression.Unusual-looking ulcers or those slow to heal should be biopsied to exclude malignant transformation. PMID:21673869

  7. Partial aortic occlusion and cerebral venous steal: venous effects of arterial manipulation in acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Pranevicius, Osvaldas; Pranevicius, Mindaugas; Liebeskind, David S

    2011-05-01

    Acute ischemic stroke therapy emphasizes early arterial clot lysis or removal. Partial aortic occlusion has recently emerged as an alternative hemodynamic approach to augment cerebral perfusion in acute ischemic stroke. The exact mechanism of cerebral flow augmentation with partial aortic occlusion remains unclear and may involve more than simple diversion of arterial blood flow from the lower body to cerebral collateral circulation. The cerebral venous steal hypothesis suggests that even a small increase in tissue pressure in the ischemic area will divert blood flow to surrounding regions with lesser tissue pressures. This may cause no-reflow (absence of flow after restoration of arterial patency) in the ischemic core and "luxury perfusion" in the surrounding regions. Such maldistribution may be reversed with increased venous pressure titrated to avoid changes in intracranial pressure. We propose that partial aortic occlusion enhances perfusion in the brain by offsetting cerebral venous steal. Partial aortic occlusion redistributes blood volume into the upper part of the body, manifested by an increase in central venous pressure. Increased venous pressure recruits the collapsed vascular network and, by eliminating cerebral venous steal, corrects perifocal perfusion maldistribution analogous to positive end-expiratory pressure recruitment of collapsed airways to decrease ventilation/perfusion mismatch in the lungs.

  8. Venous thromboembolism in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Clifford M

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increasing in the pediatric population. Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have an increased risk of thrombosis due to central venous catheters (CVCs), as well as acquired thrombophilia secondary to inflammation, or deficiencies of anticoagulant proteins due to vitamin K deficiency and/or liver dysfunction. CVC-associated thrombosis commonly results in line occlusion, but may develop into serious life-threatening conditions such as deep venous thrombosis (DVT), superior vena cava syndrome or pulmonary embolism (PE). Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) may be a long complication. Local occlusion of the catheter tip may be managed with instillation of thrombolytics (such as tPA) within the lumen of the catheter; however, CVC-associated thrombosis involving the proximal veins is most often is treated with systemic anticoagulation. Initial treatment with heparin is a standard approach, but thrombolytic therapy, which may carry higher bleeding risks, should be considered for life and limb threatening episodes of VTE. Recommended duration of anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or warfarin ranges from 3 to 6 months for major removable thrombotic risks; longer anticoagulation is considered for recurrent thrombosis, major persistent thrombophilia, or the continued presence of a major risk factor such as a CVC. While CVCs are the most common risk for development of VTE in children, studies have not demonstrated a clear benefit with routine use of systemic thromboprophylaxis. The incidence and risk factors of VTE in CF patients will be reviewed and principles of diagnosis and management will be summarized.

  9. [Homocysteine and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Monnerat, C; Hayoz, D

    1997-09-06

    Congenital homocysteinuria is a rare inherited metabolic disorder with early onset atherosclerosis and arterial and venous trombosis. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is more frequently encountered and is recognized as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Several case-control studies demonstrate an association between venous thromboembolism and moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. A patient with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia has a 2-3 relative risk of developing an episode of venous thromboembolism. The occurrence of mild hyperhomocysteinemia in heterozygotes for the mutation of Leiden factor V involves a 10-fold increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism. The biochemical mechanism by which homocysteine may promote thrombosis is not fully recognized. Homocysteine inhibits the expression of thrombomodulin, the thrombin cofactor responsible for protein C activation, and inhibits antithrombin-III binding. Treatment with folic acid reduces the plasma level of homocysteinemia, but no study has demonstrated its efficacy in reducing the incidence of venous thromboembolism or atherosclerosis. Hyperhomocysteinemia should be included in the screening of abnormalities of hemostasis and thrombosis in patients with idiopathic thromboembolism, and mild hyperhomocysteinemia may justify a trial of folic acid.

  10. Epidemiology and impact of a multifaceted approach in controlling central venous catheter associated blood stream infections outside the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Outside ICUs, CVC-ABSIs epidemiology and the results of strategies for their prevention are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and the impact of a multifaceted “bundle” approach in controlling CVC-ABSIs outside ICU. Methods From 1991 we performed prevalence studies of device and parenteral nutrition use, and prospective surveillance of all episodes of CVC-ABSIs in a 350-bed teaching hospital. CVC-ABSIs incidence/1,000 inpatient-days was calculated. An estimated CVC-ABSIs incidence/1,000 catheter-days was calculated based on the prevalence rates of catheter use and the total number of inpatient-days in each year. On november 2008, an education programme was instituted for care of catheter lines: reinforcing instructions in aseptic insertion technique, after care and hand-washing; in order to assess the adherence to these measures the quantity of alcohol-based hand-rub consumption/1,000 patient-days was quoted in litres. From January 2009, a checklist intervention for CVC insertion in ICU was started: hand hygiene, using full barrier precautions, cleaning the skin with alcoholic chlorhexidine, avoiding femoral access and removing unnecessary catheters. Compliance with the central line insertion checklist was measured by real-time audits and was achieved in 80% of cases. Results Prevalence of use of CVC and parenteral nutrition was similar throughout the study. We followed-up 309 CVC-ABSIs cases. Estimated CVC-ABSIs rate progressively increased to 15.1/1,000 catheter-days in 2008 (0.36/1,000 inpatient-days). After the intervention, the alcohol-based hand-rub consumption increased slightly and estimated CVC-ABSIs rate fell to 10.1 /1,000 catheter-days in last three years (0.19/1,000 inpatient-days), showing a 32.9% decrease. The infection rates achieved were lower in Internal Medicine wards: decreased from 14.1/1,000 catheter-days (0.17/patient-days) in 2008 to 5.2/1,000 catheter-days (0.05/1,000 inpatient-days) in

  11. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile. PMID:24436666

  12. Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Laryea, Jonathan; Champagne, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur after major general surgery. Pulmonary embolism is recognized as the most common identifiable cause of death in hospitalized patients in the United States. The risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is higher in colorectal surgical procedures compared with general surgical procedures. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in this population is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3%. Prevention of VTE is considered a patient-safety measure in most mandated quality initiatives. The measures for prevention of VTE include mechanical methods (graduated compression stockings and intermittent pneumatic compression devices) and pharmacologic agents. A combination of mechanical and pharmacologic methods produces the best results. Patients undergoing surgery should be stratified according to their risk of VTE based on patient risk factors, disease-related risk factors, and procedure-related risk factors. The type of prophylaxis should be commensurate with the risk of VTE based on the composite risk profile.

  13. Predicted burden of venous disease.

    PubMed

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun Huw

    2016-03-01

    Chronic venous disease is a common condition with clinical signs and symptoms ranging from spider veins, to varicose veins, to active venous ulceration. Both superficial and deep venous dysfunction may be implicated in the development of this disease. Socio-economic factors are shaping our population, with increasing age and body mass index resulting in significant pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. These risk factors also lead to an increased risk of developing superficial and/or deep venous insufficiency, increasing disease prevalence and morbidity. In this chapter, the authors review the current and future burden of chronic venous disease from an epidemiological, quality of life and economic perspective.

  14. [Ultrasound guidance of central venous catheterisation].

    PubMed

    Le Ray Ferrières, I; Guinier, D

    2009-12-01

    Portacath implantation with introduction of a catheter into the superior vena caval system is a commonly performed procedure. Catheterization of the internal jugular vein can be difficult due to anatomical variation, individual patient morphology, or as a result of previous catheterization. Use of 2D ultrasonography facilitates localization of the internal jugular vein and decreases the risks of catheter placement.

  15. Thyrocervical trunk pseudoaneurysm following central venous catheterization.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Valerio; Benvenuto, Domenico; Gagliardi, Massimo; Guarracini, Stefano; Di Mauro, Michele

    2011-11-01

    A 71-year-old female developed a painless neck mass three months following an aortic valve replacement, mitral commissurotomy, and coronary artery bypass. A cervical trunk angio revealed a pseudoaneurysm supplied from a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, which was successfully excised.

  16. [Medial venous catheter or midline (MVC)].

    PubMed

    Carrero Caballero, Ma Carmen; Montealegre Sanz, María; Cubero Pérez, Ma Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Current clinical practice is characterised for importance of the patient's quality of life and the need to reduce the costs of their treatment. We search intravenous therapy alternatives that meet the needs of the patient, reducing the complications associated with the use of venous catheters. Scientific evidence shows that there are midline venous catheters that offer patients and professionals the possibility of extending the duration of infusion therapy, using more venous compatibility materials, and with less risk of infection. The Midlines are becoming in a safe an efficient device for intravenous therapy, continuous and intermittent infusion, provided the necessary care by expert nurses. Midline catheters are peripheral venous access devices between 3 to 10 inches in length (8 to 25 cm). Midlines are usually placed in an upper arm vein, such as the brachial or cephalic, and the distal extreme ends below the level of the axillary line. Midlines catheters implanted in the cephalic or deep basilica veins get more blood flow. This large blood volume justifies the lower risk of mechanical or chemical phlebitis. Midlines are routinely used for two to six weeks. Due that the extrem of these catheters does not extend beyond the axillary line, there are limitations for its use: type of infused drugs, velocity of infusion, etc. In general, solutions that have pH 5 to 9, or an osmolarity less than 500 mOsm are appropriate for infusion through a Midline. Its use is recommended in case of treatments over 7 days with low irritant capacity fluids. According to the Infusion Nurses Society's standards of practice, Midline catheters are appropriate for all intravenous fluids that would normally be administered through a short peripheral IV Importantly, due that the catheter does not pass through the central veins, Midlines can be placed without a chest X-ray to confirm placement. For certain situations, Midlines are suitable for acute units and even for care home settings

  17. Reduction in catheter-related infections after switching from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine for the exit-site care of tunneled central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Paglialonga, Fabio; Consolo, Silvia; Biasuzzi, Antonietta; Assomou, Jolanda; Gattarello, Elisabetta; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Giannini, Alberto; Chidini, Giovanna; Napolitano, Luisa; Edefonti, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the optimal exit site management of tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) in pediatric patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of chlorhexidine solutions and a 5% povidone-iodine solution on the incidence of CVC-related infections in children on HD. The incidence of exit-site infection (ESI), tunnel infection (TI), and bloodstream infection (BSI) was assessed in two groups of tunneled CVCs. The iodopovidone group consisted of 14 CVCs used between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2012 in 10 children, whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 11.8 years (range 1.2-19.2): 5% povidone-iodine was used for CVC exit-site care. From 1 August 2012 to 31 January 2014, 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol was used for the exit site, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol spray for the hub in 13 CVCs was used in 10 patients (chlorhexidine group), whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 10 years (range 1.2-19.2). Ten episodes of ESI were diagnosed in the iodopovidone group (incidence 3.4/1000 CVC days), and only one in the chlorhexidine group (incidence 0.36/1000 CVC days, P = 0.008). One TI was observed in the iodopovidone group (0.34/1000 CVC days), and none in the chlorhexidine group. The incidence of BSIs decreased from 1.7/1000 CVC days (5 cases) to 0.36/1000 CVC days (1 case, P = 0.06) after switching to chlorhexidine. Two CVCs were lost due to CVC-related infections in the iodopovidone group, whereas no CVC was lost due to infections in the chlorhexidine group. In comparison with 5% povidone-iodine, the use of chlorhexidine gluconate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of ESI, TI, and BSI in children on HD.

  18. [Venous thrombosis of atypical location in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Campos Balea, Begoña; Sáenz de Miera Rodríguez, Andrea; Antolín Novoa, Silvia; Quindós Varela, María; Barón Duarte, Francisco; López López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that frequently occurs in patients with neoplastic diseases. Several models have therefore been developed to identify patient subgroups diagnosed with cancer who are at increased risk of developing VTE. The most common forms of thromboembolic episodes are deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs and pulmonary thromboembolism. However, venous thrombosis is also diagnosed in atypical locations. There are few revisions of unusual cases of venous thrombosis. In most cases, VTE occurs in the upper limbs and in the presence of central venous catheters, pacemakers and defibrillators. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy who developed a thrombosis in the upper limbs (brachial and axillary).

  19. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Heit, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombosis can affect any venous circulation. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep-vein thrombosis of the leg or pelvis, and its complication, pulmonary embolism. VTE is a fairly common disease, particularly in older age, and is associated with reduced survival, substantial health-care costs, and a high rate of recurrence. VTE is a complex (multifactorial) disease, involving interactions between acquired or inherited predispositions to thrombosis and various risk factors. Major risk factors for incident VTE include hospitalization for surgery or acute illness, active cancer, neurological disease with leg paresis, nursing-home confinement, trauma or fracture, superficial vein thrombosis, and—in women—pregnancy and puerperium, oral contraception, and hormone therapy. Although independent risk factors for incident VTE and predictors of VTE recurrence have been identified, and effective primary and secondary prophylaxis is available, the occurrence of VTE seems to be fairly constant, or even increasing. PMID:26076949

  20. Doppler ultrasound study and venous mapping in chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    García Carriazo, M; Gómez de las Heras, C; Mármol Vázquez, P; Ramos Solís, M F

    2016-01-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is very prevalent. In recent decades, Doppler ultrasound has become the method of choice to study this condition, and it is considered essential when surgery is indicated. This article aims to establish a method for the examination, including venous mapping and preoperative marking. To this end, we review the venous anatomy of the lower limbs and the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and explain the basic hemodynamic concepts and the terminology required to elaborate a radiological report that will enable appropriate treatment planning and communication with other specialists. We briefly explain the CHIVA (the acronym for the French term "cure conservatrice et hémodynamique de l'insuffisance veineuse en ambulatoire"=conservative hemodynamic treatment for chronic venous insufficiency) strategy, a minimally invasive surgical strategy that aims to restore correct venous hemodynamics without resecting the saphenous vein.

  1. Clinical review: use of venous oxygen saturations as a goal - a yet unfinished puzzle.

    PubMed

    van Beest, Paul; Wietasch, Götz; Scheeren, Thomas; Spronk, Peter; Kuiper, Michaël

    2011-01-01

    Shock is defined as global tissue hypoxia secondary to an imbalance between systemic oxygen delivery and oxygen demand. Venous oxygen saturations represent this relationship between oxygen delivery and oxygen demand and can therefore be used as an additional parameter to detect an impaired cardiorespiratory reserve. Before appropriate use of venous oxygen saturations, however, one should be aware of the physiology. Although venous oxygen saturation has been the subject of research for many years, increasing interest arose especially in the past decade for its use as a therapeutic goal in critically ill patients and during the perioperative period. Also, there has been debate on differences between mixed and central venous oxygen saturation and their interchangeability. Both mixed and central venous oxygen saturation are clinically useful but both variables should be used with insightful knowledge and caution. In general, low values warn the clinician about cardiocirculatory or metabolic impairment and should urge further diagnostics and appropriate action, whereas normal or high values do not rule out persistent tissue hypoxia. The use of venous oxygen saturations seems especially useful in the early phase of disease or injury. Whether venous oxygen saturations should be measured continuously remains unclear. Especially, continuous measurement of central venous oxygen saturation as part of the treatment protocol has been shown a valuable strategy in the emergency department and in cardiac surgery. In clinical practice, venous oxygen saturations should always be used in combination with vital signs and other relevant endpoints.

  2. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-02

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  3. Unusual venous sinuses.

    PubMed

    Srijit, D; Shipra, P

    2007-01-01

    The dural venous sinuses lie in between the two layers of the dura mater. The dural venous sinuses are important, because they receive blood from the brain and the cranial bones. All sinuses are related to the inner surface of the skull, except for the inferior sagittal and the straight sinus. The sinuses related to the inner surface of the skull produce impressions on it. During routine ostelogical teaching for undergraduate medical students, we observed an unusual oblique sinus, which connected the right and the left transverse sinuses. This unusual oblique sinus measured 2 cm and had a course from the right to the left side. The superior sagittal sinus turned onto the right but at a much higher level than the left transverse sinus. Although these sinuses communicated with each other, the normal position of the confleunce of the sinus (meeting point of superior sagittal sinus, right and left transverse sinus and the occipital sinus) was not seen. The impression meant for the posterior lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere was distinctly greater than that of the right side. The presence of such an anomaly suggests a possible developmental defect or handedness of the individual. The knowledge of the anatomical variations of the dural venous sinuses may have great clinical implications during venography, shunt surgeries and also helpful for neurologists and radiologists in addition to academic interest (Fig. 2, Ref 10) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  4. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  5. Compression therapy for venous disease.

    PubMed

    Attaran, Robert R; Ochoa Chaar, Cassius I

    2017-03-01

    For centuries, compression therapy has been utilized to treat venous disease. To date it remains the mainstay of therapy, particularly in more severe forms such as venous ulceration. In addition to mechanisms of benefit, we discuss the evidence behind compression therapy, particularly hosiery, in various forms of venous disease of the lower extremities. We review compression data for stand-alone therapy, post-intervention, as DVT prevention, post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulcer disease. We also review the data comparing compression modalities as well as the use of compression in mixed arteriovenous disease.

  6. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration.

  7. [Travel and venous thromboembolism].

    PubMed

    Hallundbæk Mikkelsen, Kristian; Knudsen, Stine Ulrik; Nannestad Jørgensen, Lars

    2013-10-28

    A literature study on the association between travel and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is conducted. Studies examining the risk of travel-associated VTE, predisposing factors and prophylactic measures are presented. It is concluded that the absolute risk of travel-associated VTE is low and holds a 2-4 fold increase after travel. The risk increases with duration, presence of other risk factors for VTE and extremes of height. Stockings reduces the risk of asymptomatic VTE. Heparin is presumed to constitute protection whereas there is no evidence of a prophylactic effect of acetylsalicylic acid.

  8. Venous thromboembolism and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    D’Uva, Maristella; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Strina, Ida; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, the association between a hypercoagulable state and its causes and adverse pregnancy outcome, in particular recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been studied extensively. Although the first studies were focused only on the association between thrombophilia and RPL, subsequent studies underlined also a potential role of antithrombotic treatment to prevent vascular complication such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered also for pregnant subjects carriers of molecular thrombophilia or that previously experienced VTE, in order to prevent VTE during pregnancy, while antithrombotic treatment for VTE should be performed during all pregnant periods. PMID:22282678

  9. Pathophysiology of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Raffetto, J D; Mannello, F

    2014-06-01

    Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a debilitating condition with a prevalence between 60-70%. The disease pathophysiology is complex and involves genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, with individuals developing visible telengiectasias, reticular veins, and varicose veins. Patient with significant lower extremity symptoms have pain, dermal irritation, swelling, skin changes, and are at risk of developing debilitating venous ulceration. The signature of CVD is an increase in venous pressure referred to as venous hypertension. The various symptoms presenting in CVD and the clinical signs that are observed indicate that there is inflammation, secondary to venous hypertension, and it leads to a number of inflammatory pathways that become activated. The endothelium and glycocalyx via specialized receptors are critical at sensing changes in shear stress, and expression of adhesion molecules allows the activation of leukocytes leading to endothelial attachment, diapedisis, and transmigration into the venous wall/valves resulting in venous wall injury and inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissues. There is a complex of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteases and proteinases, produced by activated leukocytes, that are expressed and unbalanced resulting in an environment of persistent inflammation with the clinical changes that are commonly seen, consisting of varicose veins to more advanced presentations of skin changes and venous ulceration. The structural integrity of protein and the extracellular matrix is altered, enhancing the progressive events of CVD. Work focusing on metabolic changes, miRNA regulation, inflammatory modulation and the glycocalyx will further our knowledge in the pathophysiology of CVD, and provide answers critical to treatment and prevention.

  10. Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Milena Castellar-Leones, Sandra; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare phenomenon that can be seen with some frequency in young patients. CSVT is a multifactorial condition with gender-related specific causes, with a wide clinical presentation, the leading causes differ between developed and developing countries, converting CSVT in a condition characterized by a highly variable clinical spectra, difficult diagnosis, variable etiologies and prognosis that requires fine medical skills and a high suspicious index. Patients who presents with CSVT should underwent to CT-scan venography (CVT) and to the proper inquiry of the generating cause. This disease can affect the cerebral venous drainage and related anatomical structure. The symptoms may appear in relation to increased intracranial pressure imitating a pseudotumorcerebri. Prognosis depends on the early detection. Correcting the cause, generally the complications can be prevented. Mortality trends have diminished, and with the new technologies, surely it will continue. This work aims to review current knowledge about CSVT including its pathogenesis, etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24347950

  11. Imaging of venous compression syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Suvranu; Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Gupta, Rajiv; Prabhakar, Anand M.

    2016-01-01

    Venous compression syndromes are a unique group of disorders characterized by anatomical extrinsic venous compression, typically in young and otherwise healthy individuals. While uncommon, they may cause serious complications including pain, swelling, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and post-thrombotic syndrome. The major disease entities are May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), variant iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS), venous thoracic outlet syndrome (VTOS)/Paget-Schroetter syndrome, nutcracker syndrome (NCS), and popliteal venous compression (PVC). In this article, we review the key clinical features, multimodality imaging findings, and treatment options of these disorders. Emphasis is placed on the growing role of noninvasive imaging options such as magnetic resonance venography (MRV) in facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and tailored intervention. PMID:28123973

  12. A rare malposition of the thoracic venous catheter introduced via the left internal jugular vein

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supradip; Dewan, Himanshu; Bhattacharyya, Sandip

    2008-01-01

    A rare malposition of central venous catheter in the left superior intercostal vein is described. The diagnostic features and the possible ways to prevent this complication are discussed. PMID:19742265

  13. Cost/benefit analysis of chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated venous catheters for femoral access.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Lecuona, María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Lisset; Diosdado, Sara; Marca, Lucía; Mora, María L

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-four patients with chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine-impregnated catheters had a lower rate of catheter-related bloodstream infection and lower central venous catheter-related costs per catheter day than 190 patients with a standard catheter.

  14. Contralateral effusions secondary to subclavian venous catheters. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ciment, L M; Rotbart, A; Galbut, R N

    1983-06-01

    Two cases of contralateral pleural effusions due to indwelling central venous catheters are presented. Radiographic contrast studies were performed to elucidate diagnosis and to define the mechanism of this complication; mediastinal leakage was documented in one case.

  15. Peripherally inserted central catheter - insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... nontunneled central venous catheters. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson KR, et al., eds. Image-Guided Interventions . ... by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is ...

  16. Hyperhomocysteinaemia and chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    de Franciscis, Stefano; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Longo, Paola; Buffone, Gianluca; Molinari, Vincenzo; Stillitano, Domenico M; Gallelli, Luca; Serra, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Chronic venous ulceration (CVU) is the major cause of chronic wounds of lower extremities, and is a part of the complex of chronic venous disease. Previous studies have hypothesised that several thrombophilic factors, such as hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy), may be associated with chronic venous ulcers. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of HHcy in patients with venous leg ulcers and the effect of folic acid therapy on wound healing. Eighty-seven patients with venous leg ulcers were enrolled in this study to calculate the prevalence of HHcy in this population. All patients underwent basic treatment for venous ulcer (compression therapy ± surgical procedures). Patients with HHcy (group A) received basic treatment and administered folic acid (1·2 mg/day for 12 months) and patients without HHcy (group B) received only basic treatment. Healing was assessed by means of computerised planimetry analysis. The prevalence of HHcy among patients with chronic venous ulcer enrolled in this study was 62·06%. Healing rate was significantly higher (P < 0·05) in group A patients (78·75%) compared with group B patients (63·33%). This study suggests a close association, statistically significant, between HHcy and CVU. Homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid seems to expedite wound healing. Despite these aspects, the exact molecular mechanisms between homocysteine and CVU have not been clearly defined and further studies are needed.

  17. Venous Thromboembolism in Children with Cancer and Blood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Richard H.; Thornburg, Courtney D.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children is multifactorial and most often related to a combination of inherited and acquired thrombophilias. Children with cancer and blood disorders are often at risk for VTE due to disease-related factors such as inflammation and abnormal blood flow and treatment-related factors such as central venous catheters and surgery. We will review risk factors for VTE in children with leukemia, lymphoma, and solid tumors. We will also review risk factors for VTE in children with blood disorders with specific focus on sickle cell anemia and hemophilia. We will present the available evidence and clinical guidelines for prevention and treatment of VTE in these populations. PMID:28220143

  18. [Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency--pathophysiology and treament].

    PubMed

    Tuchendler, Marek; Zwolinski, Jerzy; Stankowski, Jacek; Zapotoczny, Norbert; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Piatkowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (sclerosis multiplex--SM) is a chronic nervous sytem disease, which through formation of demyenilisation focus in the central nervous system leads to deterioration of its various functions. In the consequence it may cause invalidity of patient. Etiology of this disease is still unknown. In this article authors describe theory of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency as a possible cause of multiple sclerosis and methods of treatment of this pathology, with all doubts and controversies connected with this method. Autors also present an experimental treatment of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis, which is being performed as a scientific program to evaluate neurological outcomes of endovasculat treatment of CCSVI.

  19. Venous Air Embolism during Elective Craniotomy for Parasagittal Meningioma.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nazaruddin, W H W; Asmah, Z; Saedah, A

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 59 year old man who developed venous air embolism (VAE) during an elective craniotomy for parasagittal meningioma resection. The surgery was done in the supine position with slightly elevated head position. VAE was provisionally diagnosed by sudden decreased in the end tidal carbon dioxide pressure from 34 to 18 mmHg, followed by marked hypotension and atrial fibrillation. Prompt central venous blood aspiration, aggressive resuscitation and inotropic support managed to stabilize the patient. Post operatively, he was admitted in neuro intensive care unit and made a good recovery without serious complications.

  20. Venous ulcer: epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Abbade, Luciana P Fernandes; Lastória, Sidnei

    2005-06-01

    This review discusses the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and current therapeutic options for venous ulcer. Venous ulcer is a severe clinical manifestation of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). It is responsible for about 70% of chronic ulcers of the lower limbs. The high prevalence of venous ulcer has a significant socioeconomic impact in terms of medical care, days off work and reduced quality of life. Long-term therapeutics are needed to heal venous ulcers and recurrence is quite common, ranging from 54 to 78%. Thrombophlebitis and trauma with long-term immobilization predisposing to deep venous thrombosis are important risk factors for CVI and venous ulcer. The most recent theories about pathogenesis of venous ulcer have associated it with microcirculatory abnormalities and generation of an inflammatory response. Management of venous leg ulcers is based on understanding the pathogenesis. In recent years novel therapeutic approaches for venous ulcers have offered valuable tools for the management of patients with this disorder.

  1. Venous complications of pancreatitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Yashant; Hira, Priya

    2015-01-31

    Pancreatitis is notorious to cause vascular complications. While arterial complications include pseudoaneurysm formation with a propensity to bleed, venous complications can be quite myriad. Venous involvement in pancreatitis often presents with thrombosis. From time to time case reports and series of unusual venous complications associated with pancreatitis have, however, been described. In this article, we review multitudinous venous complications in the setting of pancreatitis and propose a system to classify pancreatitis associated venous complications.

  2. Inflammation in chronic venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Raffetto, J D

    2013-03-01

    Chronic venous ulcers (CVUs) occur in approximately 1% of the general population. Risk factors for chronic venous disease (CVD) include heredity, age, female sex and obesity. Although not restricted to the elderly, the prevalence of CVD, especially leg ulcers, increases with age. CVD has a considerable impact on health-care resources. It has been estimated that venous ulcers cause the loss of approximately two million working days and incur treatment costs of approximately $3 billion per year in the USA. Overall, CVD has been estimated to account for 1-3% of the total health-care budgets in countries with developed health-care systems. The pathophysiology of dermal abnormalities in CVU is reflective of a complex interplay that involves sustained venous hypertension, inflammation, changes in microcirculation, cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, resulting in altered cellular function and delayed wound healing.

  3. Central venous hypoxemia is a determinant of human atrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression: evidence for a novel hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha-Forkhead box class O signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Raeis, Véronique; Philip-Couderc, Pierre; Roatti, Angela; Habre, Walid; Sierra, Jorge; Kalangos, Afksendyios; Beghetti, Maurice; Baertschi, Alex J

    2010-05-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels couple cell excitability to energy metabolism, thereby providing life-saving protection of stressed cardiomyocytes. The signaling for ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression is still unknown. We tested involvement of biochemical and biophysical parameters and potential transcription factors Forkhead box (FOX) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha). Right atrial tissues were obtained during surgery from 28 children with heart disease. Expression of K(+)-inward-rectifier subunits Kir6.1/Kir6.2; sulfonyl urea receptors (SURs) SUR1A/B and SUR2A/B; and FOX class O (FOXO) 1, FOXO3, FOXF2, and HIF-1alpha were related to 31 parameters, including personal data, blood chemistry, and echocardiography. Venous hypoxemia (but not other ischemia indicators, such as venous hypercapnia or low glucose) predicts increased Kir6.1 (P<0.003) and Kir6.2 (P<0.03) protein. Kir6.1 associates with SUR2A/B mRNA (P<0.05) and correlates with FOXOs (P<0.002). FOXOs correlate with HIF-1alpha (P<0.01) and HIF-1alpha with venous hypoxemia (P<0.003). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays suggest causal links among hypoxia, HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and Kir6.1. To mimic mild ischemia encountered in some patients, cultured rat atrial myocytes were tested in hypoxia, hypercapnia, or low glucose, with normal conditions serving as the control. Mild hypoxia (24-hour) increases expression of HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 in culture (P<0.01), whereas hypercapnia and low glucose have no or opposite effects. Gene knockdown of HIF-1alpha or FOXO1 by small-interfering RNAs abolishes hypoxia-induced expression of FOXO1 and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1. These results suggest that low tissue oxygen determines increased expression of the atrial SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 gene via activation of HIF-1alpha-FOXO1. Because increased SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 has known survival benefits, this pathway offers novel therapeutic targets for children with heart disease.

  4. Recommendations for the use of long-term central venous catheter (CVC) in children with hemato-oncological disorders: management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis. On behalf of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP).

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Saracco, Paola; Grassi, Massimo; Luciani, Matteo; Banov, Laura; Carraro, Francesca; Crocoli, Alessandro; Cesaro, Simone; Zanazzo, Giulio Andrea; Molinari, Angelo Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC), used for the management of children with hemato-oncological disorders, are burdened by a significant incidence of mechanical, infective, or thrombotic complications. These complications favor an increasing risk in prolongation of hospitalization, extra costs of care, and sometimes severe life-threatening events. No guidelines for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis are available for children. To this aim, members of the coagulation defects working group and the supportive therapy working group of the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) reviewed the pediatric and adult literature to propose the first recommendations for the management of CVC-related occlusion and CVC-related thrombosis in children with hemato-oncological disorders.

  5. Biophysics of venous return from the brain from the perspective of the pathophysiology of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Zaniewski, Maciej; Simka, Marian

    2012-05-01

    This article discusses the biophysical aspects of venous outflow from the brain in healthy individuals and in patients with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency. Blood flows out of the brain differently, depending on body position. In the supine position it flows out mainly through internal jugular veins, while in the upright position it uses the vertebral veins. This phenomenon is probably not due to the active regulation of the flow but instead results from the collapse of jugular veins when the head is elevated. Such a collapse is associated with a significant increase in flow resistance, which leads to redirection of the flow towards the vertebral pathway. Theoretical calculations respecting the rules of fluid mechanics indicate that the pressure gradients necessary for moving blood from the brain toward the heart differ significantly between the supine and upright positions. The occlusion of internal jugular veins, according to fluid mechanics, should result in significant increase in the flow resistance and the restriction of cerebral flow, which is in line with clinical observations. Importantly, the biophysical analysis of cerebral venous outflow implies that the brain cannot easily compensate for increased peripheral venous resistance (namely, an occlusion of the large extracranial veins draining this organ), either by elevating the pressure gradient or by decreasing the vascular resistance through the recruitment of additional drainage pathways. This may mean that chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency may cause the destruction of the delicate nervous tissue of the central nervous system.

  6. The development of a validated checklist for femoral venous catheterization: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Davis, Joshua; Schaeffer, Arielle; Justice, Ellen M; Tinkoff, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Femoral venous catheterization is a common, invasive procedure, which may lead to serious complications. Validated checklists are central to teaching and assessing procedural skills and may result in improved health care quality. The results of the first step of the validation of a femoral venous catheterization checklist are described. A comprehensive literature review of articles published on femoral venous catheterization did not yield a checklist validated by the Delphi method. A modified Delphi technique, involving a panel of 8 interdisciplinary, interinstitutional experts, was used to develop a femoral venous catheterization checklist. The internal consistency coefficient using Cronbach α was .99. Developing a 29-item checklist for teaching and assessing femoral venous catheterization is the first step in the validation process. For this checklist to become further validated, it should be implemented and studied in the simulation and clinical environments.

  7. Management of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Finks, Shannon W.; Trujillo, Toby C.; Dobesh, Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review clinical data on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) used in the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) as well as practical considerations when using these products. Data Sources: Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for VTE, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and relevant drug international nonproprietary names were conducted. Additional online searches were conducted for prescribing information. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Relevant articles on dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban for the management of VTE compared with oral vitamin K antagonists (VKAs; published between 1966 and December 2015) were reviewed and summarized, together with information on dosing, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, and drug-drug interactions. Data Synthesis: The DOACs have the potential to circumvent many of the disadvantages of VKAs. At a minimum, they greatly increase the available therapeutic options, thus providing a greater opportunity for clinicians to select a management option that best fits the needs of individual patients. Despite the significant advance that DOACs represent, they are not without risk and require careful consideration of a number of clinical issues to optimize safety and efficacy. Conclusions: The emergence of DOACs for the management of thromboembolic disorders represents a paradigm shift from oral VKAs. The DOACs provide similar efficacy and improved safety in selected patients as compared with VKAs. Clinicians treating VTE need to be familiar with the intricacies involved in using these agents, including the appropriate dose selection for the relevant indication, avoidance of drug-drug and drug-disease interactions, and consideration of dose adjustments in specific clinical situations, such as organ dysfunction. PMID:26917821

  8. Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Venous Thromboembolism in Children: A Review of Published Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Faustino, E. Vincent S.; Raffini, Leslie J.

    2017-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a potentially preventable condition in children. In adults, pharmacologic prophylaxis has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism in distinct patient cohorts. However, pediatric randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacologic prophylaxis against thrombosis associated with central venous catheters, the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in children. Despite the lack of supporting evidence, hospital-based initiatives are being undertaken to try to prevent venous thromboembolism in children. In this study, we sought to review the published guidelines on the prevention of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized children. We identified five guidelines, all of which were mainly targeted at adolescents and used various risk-stratification approaches. In low-risk children, ambulation was the recommended prevention strategy, while mechanical prophylaxis was recommended for children at moderate risk and pharmacologic and mechanical prophylaxis were recommended for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of these strategies has not been proven. In order to determine whether venous thromboembolism can be prevented in children, innovative clinical trial designs are needed. In the absence of these trials, guidelines can be a source of valuable information to inform our practice. PMID:28184368

  9. The impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation in circulatory failure.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kwok Ming; Harding, Richard; Chamberlain, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Central and mixed venous oxygen saturations have been used to guide resuscitation in circulatory failure, but the impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation has not been thoroughly evaluated. This observational study investigated the impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation in circulatory failure. Twenty critically ill patients with circulatory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and a pulmonary artery catheter in an intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in Western Australia were recruited. Samples of arterial blood, central venous blood, and mixed venous blood were simultaneously and slowly drawn from the arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery catheter, respectively, at baseline and after the patient was ventilated with 100% inspired oxygen for 5 min. The blood samples were redrawn after a significant change in cardiac index (>or =10%) from the baseline, occurring within 24 h of study enrollment while the patient was ventilated with the same baseline inspired oxygen concentration, was detected. An increase in inspired oxygen concentration significantly increased the arterial oxygen tension from 12.5 to 38.4 kPa (93.8-288 mmHg) (mean difference, 25.9 kPa; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-31.9 kPa; P < 0.001) and the venous oxygen saturation from 69.9% to 76.5% (mean difference, 6.6%; 95% CI, 5.3% - 7.9%; P < 0.001). The effect of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation was more significant than the effect associated with changes in cardiac index (mean difference, 2.8%; 95% CI, -0.2% to 5.8%; P = 0.063). In conclusion, arterial oxygen tension has a significant effect on venous oxygen saturation, and this effect is more significant and consistent than the effect associated with changes in cardiac index.

  10. Epidemiology of chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L; Evans, C; Fowkes, F G R

    2008-01-01

    Chronic venous disease of the legs occurs commonly in the general population in the Western world. Estimates of the prevalence of varicose veins vary widely from 2-56% in men and from 1-60% in women. These variations reflect differences in variability of study populations including age, race and gender, methods of measurement and disease definition. Definitions of chronic venous disease may rely on reports of varicose veins by study participants, based on self-diagnosis or recall of a diagnosis, or on a standardized physical examination. Venous ulceration is less common, affecting approximately 0.3% of the adult population. Age and pregnancy have been established as risk factors for developing varicose veins. Evidence on other risk factors for venous disease is inconclusive. Prolonged standing has been proposed, but results of studies should be interpreted with caution given the difficulty in measuring levels of posture. Obesity has been suggested as a risk factor in women, but appears to be an aggravating factor rather than a primary cause. Other postulated risk factors include dietary intake and smoking, but evidence is lacking. Longitudinal studies using standardized methods of evaluation are required before the true incidence of chronic venous disease and associated risk factors can be determined.

  11. Analysis of venous access for therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Grishaber, J E; Cunningham, M C; Rohret, P A; Strauss, R G

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed our 2-year experience with venous access for 363 therapeutic plasma exchanges in 46 patients with neurological disease, including acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (N = 20), myasthenia gravis (N = 17), and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (N = 9). Twenty-three patients (50%) completed the planned course of therapy using only peripheral venous access, and 28 central venous catheters were placed in the remaining 23 patients. Patients utilizing central venous access did not undergo a greater number of procedures, but they were more likely to have acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (P < 0.02) or to be hospitalized in a medical intensive care unit (P < 0.01). Three types of central catheters were used, and although our experience was predominantly with 1 type, differences were noted. Only 3% of procedures (3 of 96) done with a Quinton-Mahurkar catheter were associated with a catheter failure, compared to 27% (4 of 15, P < 0.01) with a Hickman catheter and 67% (2 of 3) with a triple-lumen catheter. Life-threatening complications occurred with 3 of 28 (11%) central catheters. To optimize the success of therapeutic plasma exchange using central access, it is critical that hemapheresis personnel advise each patient's primary physician regarding the type of central venous catheter required. Currently, we recommend use of a Quinton-Mahurkar or other dual-lumen hemodialysis catheter.

  12. Dutch Venous Ulcer guideline update.

    PubMed

    Maessen-Visch, M Birgitte; de Roos, Kees-Peter

    2014-05-01

    The revised guideline of 2013 is an update of the 2005 guideline "venous leg ulcer". In this special project four separate guidelines (venous leg ulcer, varicose veins, compression therapy and deep venous disorders) were revised and developed simultaneously. A meeting was held including representatives of any organisation involved in venous disease management including patient organizations and health insurance companies. Eighteen clinical questions where defined, and a new strategy was used to accelerate the process. This resulted in two new and two revised guidelines within one year. The guideline committee advises use of the C of the CEAP classification as well as the Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and a Quality of life (QoL) score in the assessment of clinical signs. These can provide insight into the burden of disease and the effects of treatment as experienced by the patient. A duplex ultrasound should be performed in every patient to establish the underlying aetiology and to evaluate the need for treatment (which is discussed in a separate guideline). The use of the TIME model for describing venous ulcers is recommended. There is no evidence for antiseptic or antibiotic wound care products except for a Cochrane review in which some evidence is presented for cadexomer iodine. Signs of infection are the main reason for the use of oral antibiotics. When the ulcer fails to heal the use of oral aspirin and pentoxifylline can be considered as an adjunct. For the individual patient, the following aspects should be considered: the appearance of the ulcer (amount of exudate) according to the TIME model, the influence of wound care products on moisturising the wound, frequency of changing compression bandages, pain and allergies. The cost of the dressings should also be considered. Education and training of patients t improves compliance with compression therapy but does not influence wound healing rates.

  13. Pharmacological prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism.

    PubMed

    Flute, P T

    1976-02-07

    The pathogenesis of venous thrombosis is briefly discussed as a basis for the understanding of preventive measures used in this condition. Prophylaxis in venous thrombosis is then reviewed with emphasis on pharmacological treatment, and more particularly on heparin.

  14. Preventing venous ulcer recurrence: a review.

    PubMed

    Vowden, Kathryn R; Vowden, Peter

    2006-03-01

    This review article examines the available evidence on both the primary and secondary prevention of venous ulceration, exploring both the individual, social and financial implications of system failures that allow patients to remain at increased risk of recurrent ulceration. The role of both venous disease assessment and corrective superficial venous surgery are discussed in the light of recently published randomised controlled studies on the role of superficial venous surgery as both an adjunct to ulcer healing and ulcer prevention.

  15. Air travel and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Shanthi; Yach, Derek; Alwan, Ala

    2002-01-01

    There has recently been increased publicity on the risk of venous thrombosis after long-haul flights. This paper reviews the evidence base related to the association between air travel and venous thromboembolism. The evidence consists only of case reports, clinical case-control studies and observational studies involving the use of intermediate end-points, or expert opinion. Some studies have suggested that there is no clear association, whereas others have indicated a strong relationship. On the whole it appears that there is probably a link between air travel and venous thrombosis. However, the link is likely to be weak, mainly affecting passengers with additional risk factors for venous thromboembolism. The available evidence is not adequate to allow quantification of the risk. There are insufficient scientific data on which to base specific recommendations for prevention, other than that leg exercise should be taken during travel. Further studies are urgently needed in order to identify prospectively the incidence of the condition and those at risk. PMID:12077617

  16. Duplex evaluation of venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Labropoulos, Nicos; Leon, Luis R

    2005-03-01

    Duplex ultrasound is the most useful examination for the evaluation of venous valvular incompetence. Multi-frequency 4 to 7-MHz linear array transducers are typically used for this assessment of superficial and deep reflux. The examination is done with the patient standing and manual compression maneuvers are used to initiate reflux. Automatic rapid inflation and deflation cuffs may be used when a standard stimulus is needed. Cutoff values for reflux have been defined. Perforating veins must be identified and flow direction during compression recorded. When ulcers are present, duplex ultrasound is used to investigate veins of the ulcerated legs. Venous outflow obstruction is also studied by duplex ultrasound and chronic changes in deep and superficial veins following deep venous thrombosis noted. The main drawback in evaluation of chronic obstruction is inability to quantify hemodynamic significance. Anatomic variations in superficial and deep veins are common and their identification is necessary. Reporting results of duplex ultrasound studies must take into consideration the proper classification of venous disease as well as the new anatomic terms that have been accepted.

  17. Venous ulceration, fibrinogen and fibrinolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Leach, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of long and short-term venous hypertension upon lymph fibrinogen concentrations was studied in an attempt to explain the peri-capillary deposition of fibrin reported in patients with post-phlebitic syndromes. The clearance of radioactive fibrinogen/thrombin clots from the subcutaneous tissues of rats and human volunteers was also studied. Both long- and short-term venous hypertension were found to increase fibrinogen transport across the interstitial space by more than 600%. Not only was there evidence of fibrinolytic activity in the lymph but after long-term venous hypertension alpha 2 antiplasmin activity was also detectable. Skin biopsies from the venous hypertensive ankles showed deposition of interstitial fibrin. The clearance of radioactive fibrinogen/thrombin clots from the subcutaneous tissues of the rat was found to be delayed if the rats were given epsilon amino caproic acid but it could not be increased with stanozolol. In human subjects it was found that patients with lipodermatosclerosis had delayed clot clearance and retarded blood fibrinolytic activity when compared with normal volunteers and patients with uncomplicated varicose veins. The principle cause why tall men are more subject to ulcers than short men, Dr Young conceived to be then length of the column of blood in their veins; which by its pressure, renders the legs less able to recover when hurt by any violence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:6742738

  18. What went wrong? The flawed concept of cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Valdueza, José M; Doepp, Florian; Schreiber, Stephan J; van Oosten, Bob W; Schmierer, Klaus; Paul, Friedemann; Wattjes, Mike P

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, Zamboni reintroduced the concept that chronic impaired venous outflow of the central nervous system is associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), coining the term of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency ('CCSVI'). The diagnosis of 'CCSVI' is based on sonographic criteria, which he found exclusively fulfilled in MS. The concept proposes that chronic venous outflow failure is associated with venous reflux and congestion and leads to iron deposition, thereby inducing neuroinflammation and degeneration. The revival of this concept has generated major interest in media and patient groups, mainly driven by the hope that endovascular treatment of 'CCSVI' could alleviate MS. Many investigators tried to replicate Zamboni's results with duplex sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and catheter angiography. The data obtained here do generally not support the 'CCSVI' concept. Moreover, there are no methodologically adequate studies to prove or disprove beneficial effects of endovascular treatment in MS. This review not only gives a comprehensive overview of the methodological flaws and pathophysiologic implausibility of the 'CCSVI' concept, but also summarizes the multimodality diagnostic validation studies and open-label trials of endovascular treatment. In our view, there is currently no basis to diagnose or treat 'CCSVI' in the care of MS patients, outside of the setting of scientific research.

  19. Peripheral Venous Access Ports: Outcomes Analysis in 109 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.; Siegel, Randall L.; Biswal, Rajiv; Gribbin, Christopher E.; Tokarz, Robert

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. A combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically significant

  20. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure limits venous return during exercise in Varanus exanthematicus.

    PubMed

    Munns, Suzanne L; Hartzler, Lynn K; Bennett, Albert F; Hicks, James W

    2004-11-01

    The effects of treadmill exercise on components of the cardiovascular (venous return, heart rate, arterial blood pressure) and respiratory systems (minute ventilation, tidal volume, breathing frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production) and intra-abdominal pressure were investigated in the Savannah monitor lizard, Varanus exanthematicus B., at 35 degrees C. Compared with resting conditions, treadmill exercise significantly increased lung ventilation, gular pumping, intra-abdominal pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and venous return (blood flow in the post caval vein). However, venous return declines at high levels of activity, and mean arterial pressure and venous return did not attain peak values until the recovery period, immediately following activity. Elevating intra-abdominal pressure in resting lizards (via saline infusion) resulted in significant reductions in venous return when the transmural pressure of the post caval vein became negative (i.e. when intra-abdominal pressure exceeded central venous pressure). Together these results suggest that increments in intra-abdominal pressure compress the large abdominal veins and inhibit venous return. During locomotion, the physical compression of the large abdominal veins may represent a significant limitation to cardiac output and maximal oxygen consumption in lizards.

  1. Case of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Unusual Venous Infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraju, Susheel Kumar; Pasupaleti, Bhimeswarao; Juluri, Naganarasimharaju

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition when compared with vascular accidents of arterial origin representing 0.5-1% of all strokes. Unlike arterial infarcts parenchymal changes are seldom present and when present most of the times are reversible. We present a case report of 28-year-old female with thrombosis of internal cerebral veins and straight sinus and hemorrhagic infarcts in bilateral basal ganglia and bilateral thalami .The findings of bilateral symmetrical hyper intensities in basal ganglia and thalami on MRI may be due to various causes of diverse etiology and cerebral venous thrombosis remains an important cause. Early recognition and prompt anticoagulation therapy helps to reduce the mortality to a great extent. The MRI imaging features of straight sinus thrombosis and other imaging differentials are discussed. PMID:26023623

  2. Complications of Peripheral Venous Access Devices: Prevention, Detection, and Recovery Strategies.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Most hospitalized patients have placement of a peripheral venous access device, either a short peripheral catheter or a peripherally inserted central catheter. Compared with central venous catheters that are not peripherally inserted, the other 2 types are generally perceived by health care providers as safer and less complicated to manage, and less emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of complications. Expertise of nurses in inserting, managing, and removing these devices may reduce the likelihood of complications, and increased recognition of complications associated with use of the devices is important to ensure continued improvements in the safety, quality, and efficiency of health care. Complications associated with short peripheral catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters include tourniquet retention, tubing and catheter misconnections, phlebitis, air embolism, device fragment embolization, and inadvertent discharge with a retained peripheral venous access device. Integration of prevention, detection, and recovery strategies into personal nursing practice promotes the quality and safety of health care delivery.

  3. Venous pressure and dyspnea on exertion in cardiac failure: was Tinsley Randolph Harrison right?

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe

    2009-05-30

    More than 70 years ago, Harrison and his group proposed that in the absence of pulmonary edema, an increased systemic venous pressure could be a major source of dyspnea upon exertion in cardiac patients. Harrison provided evidence that in resting animals systemic venous pressure can affect ventilatory control through afferent information originating from the right side of the central circulation (i.e. right ventricle and large veins) via the vagus nerves. This review explores the concept that "increased venous pressure acts as a cause of dyspnea", which emerged from the remarkable work performed by Harrison and co-workers. Their conclusion will be however extended by developing the hypothesis that the load imposed on the venous blood returning from the skeletal muscles during any muscular activity is sensed by slow conducting muscle afferent fibers and provides a source of dyspnea in heart failure patients.

  4. Femoral venous catheters: a safe alternative for delivering parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Kanter, G; Titus, D

    1994-04-01

    Femoral vein catheterization is an alternative method of obtaining central venous access. Placement of femoral venous catheters (FVCs) is possible in the majority of patients, suitable for most indications, and associated with a low complication rate during insertion. We wished to determine the incidence of infections or other complications resulting when parenteral nutrition was delivered through FVCs. Fifty-two patients were followed from a hospital-wide population including patients in the critical care units. Triple-lumen catheters were placed by using the sterile Seldinger technique, and sites were examined daily for inflammation. Bacteriologic surveillance was accomplished by submitting the catheter tip for semiquantitative cultures. If catheter line sepsis was suspected, blood samples for cultures were drawn through the catheter and peripherally. The rate of occurrence of colonized catheters was 9.6% (five of 52), and catheter sepsis was found in one case (1.9%). Other than inflammation at six (11.5%) of 52 catheter sites, noninfectious complications of FVCs were not found. On the basis of these findings, we consider FVC-delivered parenteral alimentation a safe and effective alternative to other forms of central venous access.

  5. Venous thromboembolic disease and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fennerty, A

    2006-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with cancer. Patients have a 5–6‐fold increase in the risk for a venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with the general population, increasing to 6–7‐fold for some cancers. Prophylaxis for VTE should be considered whenever additional risk factors intervene. About 10% of patients with an idiopathic VTE will harbour an occult cancer. Half of these can probably be detected after a focused history, examination, routine blood tests and a chest x ray. The remaining cases may be diagnosed with an intensive screening protocol. About 60% of patients diagnosed on screening will have early disease, but we do not know whether screening improves the outcome. Evidence suggests that patients with cancer and a VTE should be treated with low‐molecular‐weight heparin, and treatment continued until the cancer is cured. PMID:17068274

  6. Varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H

    2009-11-01

    Varicose veins are a very frequent disorder with prevalence in our adult population between 14% for large varices and 59% for small teleangiectasias. Subjective symptoms may be very non-specific. The term "chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)" defines functional abnormalities of the venous system producing advanced symptoms like oedema, skin changes or leg ulcers. Both entities, varicose veins and CVI, may be summarized under the term "chronic venous disorders" which includes the full spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system. A classification system to describe chronic venous disorders regarding clinical appearance, etiology, anatomical distribution and pathophysiology has been proposed under the acronym of CEAP. The revised version of the CEAP classification contains also definitions of clinical signs and suggests three levels of apparative investigations adjusted to the clinical stage. Concerning the etiology of venous disorders controversial theories exist leading to different therapeutic concepts. As a matter of fact there is a vicious circle between structural changes in valves and venous wall and hemodynamic forces leading to reflux and venous hypertension. Different methods for treating varicose veins are available producing satisfactory early outcome in most cases, but followed by a high recurrence rate after years. Chronic venous insufficiency requires "chronic management". Compression therapy by bandages for initial treatment of severe stages and maintenance therapy using medical compression stockings is essential. In addition correction of venous refluxes by surgery or endovenous procedures including echo-guided foam sclerotherapy should be considered in every single case.

  7. [The PICC line, a new approach for venous access].

    PubMed

    Levigoureux, E; Charbonnel, J-F; Latour, J-F; Rosay, H

    2013-03-01

    Peripheral Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) line is a peripherally inserted central catheter. This implantable medical device is placed into a peripheral vein of the arm in order to obtain an intravenous central access. This device can find its use in various applications like intravenous delivery of parenteral nutrition, anticancer agents and antibiotics, as well as for blood sampling. PICC line is not widely used in medical practice because it remains largely unknown. The aim of this review is thus to introduce PICC line to the medical and scientific community. First, we will approach its insertion and maintenance of the dressing. We will then detail the benefits and drawbacks associated with its use, and finally discuss its position with regards to the other central venous access available.

  8. Drug treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulceration: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, T R; Scurr, J H; Smith, P D

    1991-01-01

    Treatment of venous insufficiency and venous ulceration has for many years relied on established principles of compression and limb elevation. Drug treatment has been of little benefit. In recent years, a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms underlying skin damage in venous disease has allowed more rational pharmacotherapeutic approaches to be made. This review examines these, with special reference to current theories of the cause of venous ulceration. PMID:2061904

  9. A survey of the use of ultrasound guidance in internal jugular venous cannulation.

    PubMed

    McGrattan, T; Duffty, J; Green, J S; O'Donnell, N

    2008-11-01

    It has been that suggested the use of two dimensional (2D) ultrasound to facilitate placement of central venous cannulae in the internal jugular vein improves patient safety and reduces complications. Since the introduction of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence Technology Appraisal Guideline Number 49 in 2002, promoting the use of ultrasound in placement of internal jugular venous cannulae, utilisation of ultrasound has increased throughout the United Kingdom. We report the findings of a postal survey of 2000 senior anaesthetists in the United Kingdom which enquired about their use of ultrasound for internal jugular vein cannulae placement. Only 27% use 2D ultrasound as their first choice technique, although 35% use it as their first choice when teaching. There was no significant difference in practice between those working within a sub specialty in anaesthesia. There continues to be discrepancies between the application of the guideline and how senior anaesthetists both site and teach the placement of internal jugular vein central venous cannulae.

  10. Extravasation from venous catheter: a serious complication potentially missed by lung imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, K.M.; Gordon, L.

    1983-11-01

    Three patients were referred for lung ventiliation and perfusion (V/Q) imaging with symptoms strongly suggestive of pulmonary embolus (PE). Chest roentgenograms and xenon ventilation studies on all three were normal, save for prominent mediastinal silhouettes and effusions. Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin(Tc-99m MAA), when injected through the central venous catheter (CVP), revealed mediastinal localization, whereas antecubital injections showed normal pulmonary perfusion. Contrast fluoroscopy introduced through the venous catheter in the first patient defined the extravasation. For patients under strong suspicion of PE, with a venous catheter whose distal tip is seen about the level of the heart on chest radiograph, the authors recommend administering the perfusion agent slowly through the central catheter to exclude catheter-induced complications. When extravasation is detected, injection of Tc-99m MAA by peripheral vein should be used to exclude PE.

  11. Travel, venous thromboembolism, and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Alexander S

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that prolonged air travel predisposes to venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. An effect is seen once travel duration exceeds 6 to 9 hours and becomes obvious in long-haul passengers traveling for 12 or more hours. A recent records linkage study found that increase in thrombosis rate among arriving passengers peaked during the first week and was no longer apparent after 2 weeks. Medium- to long-distance travelers have a 2- to 4-fold increase in relative thrombosis risk compared with nontravelers, but the averaged absolute risk is small (approximately one symptomatic event per 2 million arrivals, with a case-fatality rate of approximately 2%) and there is no evidence that thrombosis is more likely in economy class than in business- or first-class passengers. It remains uncertain whether and to what extent thrombosis risk is increased by short-distance air travel or prolonged travel by motorcar, train, or other means. Most travelers who develop venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism also have one or more other predisposing risk factors that may include older age, obesity, recent injury or surgery, previous thrombosis, venous insufficiency, malignancy, hormonal therapies, or pregnancy. Limited (though theoretically plausible) evidence suggests that factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation predispose to thrombosis in otherwise healthy travelers. Given that very many passengers with such predispositions do not develop thrombosis, and a lack of prospective studies to link predisposition with disease, it is not now possible to allocate absolute thrombosis risk among intending passengers or to estimate benefit-to-risk ratios or benefit-to-cost ratios for prophylaxis. Randomized comparisons using ultrasound imaging indicate a measurable incidence of subclinical leg vein thrombosis after prolonged air travel, which appears to increase with travel duration and is reduced by graded pressure elastic support stockings. Whether this

  12. Arterial and venous vasodilator actions of RS-1893, a novel cardiotonic agent, in the hindlimb preparation of the dog.

    PubMed

    Miyake, S; Shiga, H; Koike, H

    1989-10-01

    RS-1893, an orally active cardiotonic agent, has been suggested to dilate venous blood vessels, because it markedly decreases central venous pressure in anesthetized dogs. In order to evaluate venous vasodilator action of the agent, we measured hindlimb volume (HLV) in anesthetized dogs using a plethysmographic technique. RS-1893 (1-10 micrograms/kg, i.v.) produced dose-dependent increases in HLV, femoral blood flow, and left ventricular (LV)dP/dt, and a decrease in central venous pressure (CVP). In another series of experiments, we autoperfused the hindlimb with a constant flow and injected the drugs intraarterially (i.a.) to separately evaluate arterial and venous vasodilator actions. In this preparation, a decrease in perfusion pressure and an increase in HLV were considered to reflect arterial vasodilatation and venous vasodilatation, respectively. RS-1893 (0.3-3 micrograms i.a.) produced a dose-dependent increase in HLV and a decrease in perfusion pressure. Comparison of doses which increased HLV by 0.3 ml revealed that RS-1893 was about 20 times more potent than milrinone. The arterial vasodilator action of RS-1893 was about 15 times more potent than that of milrinone. We conclude that RS-1893 is a potent venous and arterial vasodilator with cardiotonic activity.

  13. Venous Access Devices: Clinical Rounds

    PubMed Central

    Matey, Laurl; Camp-Sorrell, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Nursing management of venous access devices (VADs) requires knowledge of current evidence, as well as knowledge of when evidence is limited. Do you know which practices we do based on evidence and those that we do based on institutional history or preference? This article will present complex VAD infection and occlusion complications and some of the controversies associated with them. Important strategies for identifying these complications, troubleshooting, and evaluating the evidence related to lack of blood return, malposition, infection, access and maintenance protocols, and scope of practice issues are presented. PMID:28083553

  14. Evaluation of the time course of vascular responses to venous congestion in the human lower limb.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Mark A; Brown, Margaret D

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the time course of changes in blood flow to the lower leg in response to venous distension--the veni-arteriolar vasoconstrictor response--in 31 healthy males. During a 5-min period of venous distension (thigh cuff pressure 50 mm Hg), calf blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) decreased more rapidly (within 30 s) compared to skin perfusion (after 2 min, Laser Doppler flowmetry), consistent with disparate filling times of superficial and deeper veins and a greater increase in deep vein volume. On completion of venous filling, vascular resistance in the skin was unchanged from baseline, implying that the reduction in perfusion was solely the result of reduced perfusion pressure. For the whole calf, vascular resistance was unchanged after 1 min but decreased thereafter by 35-45% from baseline, indicating adjustment of pre- or post-capillary resistances to maintain flow. Repeated plethysmographic flow measurements assisted the decrease in resistance, most likely by intermittent compression of the thigh cuff acting to displace blood volume centrally and alleviate congestion. These findings do not support an active veni-arteriolar vasoconstrictor mechanism in response to venous distension alone in the lower leg, and provide evidence of dynamic flow adjustments that should be acknowledged during procedures that involve prolonged periods of venous congestion.

  15. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  16. Venous thromboembolism at uncommon sites in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Pergantou, Helen; Avgeri, Maria; Komitopoulou, Anna; Xafaki, Panagiota; Kapsimali, Zoey; Mazarakis, Michail; Adamtziki, Eftychia; Platokouki, Helen

    2014-11-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the data of 24 children (whereof 11 neonates), with non-central venous line-related and nonmalignancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) at uncommon sites, referred to our Unit from January 1999 to January 2012. Thirty patients who also suffered deep vein thrombosis, but in upper/low extremities, were not included in the analysis. The location of rare site VTE was: portal (n=7), mesenteric (n=2) and left facial vein (n=1), spleen (n=3), lung (n=3), whereas 10 neonates developed renal venous thrombosis. The majority of patients (91.7%) had at least 1 risk factor for thrombosis. Identified thrombophilic factors were: antiphospholipid antibodies (n=2), FV Leiden heterozygosity (n=6), MTHFR C677T homozygosity (n=4), protein S deficiency (n=2), whereas all neonates had age-related low levels of protein C and protein S. All but 6 patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, followed by warfarin in 55% of cases, for 3 to 6 months. Prolonged anticoagulation was applied in selected cases. During a median follow-up period of 6 years, the clinical outcome was: full recovery in 15 patients, evolution to both chronic portal hypertension and esophageal varices in 2 children, and progression to renal failure in 7 of 10 neonates. Neonates are greatly vulnerable to complications after VTE at uncommon sites, particularly renal. Future multicentre long-term studies on neonatal and pediatric VTE at unusual sites are considered worthwhile.

  17. Catheter venography and endovascular treatment of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Keating, Lawrence; Vachon, Jason; Siskin, Gary P

    2012-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder characterized by damage to the myelin sheath insulation of nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord affecting nerve impulses which can lead to numerous physical and cognitive disabilities. The disease, which affects over 500,000 people in the United States alone, is widely believed to be an autoimmune condition potentially triggered by an antecedant event such as a viral infection, environmental factors, a genetic defect or a combination of each. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) is a condition characterized by abnormal venous drainage from the central nervous system that has been theorized to have a possible role in the pathogenesis and symptomatology of MS (1). A significant amount of attention has been given to this theory as a possible explanation for the etiology of symptoms related to MS patients suffering from this disease. The work of Dr. Zamboni, et al, who reported that treating the venous stenoses causing CCSVI with angioplasty resulting in significant improvement in the symptoms and quality of life of patients with MS (2) has led to further interest in this theory and potential treatment. The article presented describes endovascular techniques employed to diagnose and treat patients with MS and CCSVI.

  18. Iliofemoral Venous Thrombosis Mainly Related to Iliofemoral Venous Obstruction by External Tumor Compression in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Tzu-Yao; Hsu, Hui-Ching; Wen, Min-Sheng; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Hung, Yu-Hsin; Liaw, Chuang-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Background To study iliofemoral venous thrombosis related to iliofemoral venous obstruction in cancer patients. Methods In this case series study, 829 cancer patients were surveyed for iliofemoral obstruction/thrombosis within 10 years. The criteria for inclusion were: (1) presence of unilateral lower-extremity swelling; (2) computed tomography (CT) scans showing a tumor with external compression of the iliac or femoral vein, and (3) duplex ultrasound scans showing venous thrombosis or venous flow insufficiency over a femoral vein or saphenous vein. Results Sixty-three patients (8%) developed an iliofemoral venous obstruction. The presence of iliofemoral venous thrombosis was detected in 21 of these patients (33%). The rate of iliofemoral venous thrombosis was significantly higher in patients with an invasion of the inguinal region, D-dimer levels >3,000 ng/ml, gastrointestinal cancer, or invasion of the inguinal lymph nodes. However, none of our patients with iliofemoral venous thrombosis had a detection of iliofemoral venous obstruction. Improved lower-extremity swelling was reported in 84% of the patients following combination therapy involving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and systemic therapy. Conclusion Patients with an iliofemoral venous thrombosis mainly had iliofemoral venous obstruction by external tumor compression. Combination therapy with LMWH and systemic therapy were mandatory for these patients. PMID:27990113

  19. Developmental Venous Anomaly: Benign or Not Benign

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Rie; SRIVATANAKUL, Kittipong

    2016-01-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), previously called venous angiomas, are the most frequently encountered cerebral vascular malformations. However, DVA is considered to be rather an extreme developmental anatomical variation of medullary veins than true malformation. DVAs are composed of dilated medullary veins converging centripetally into a large collecting venous system that drains into the superficial or deep venous system. Their etiology and mechanism are generally accepted that DVAs result from the focal arrest of the normal parenchymal vein development or occlusion of the medullary veins as a compensatory venous system. DVAs per se are benign and asymptomatic except for under certain unusual conditions. The pathomechanisms of symptomatic DVAs are divided into mechanical, flow-related causes, and idiopathic. However, in cases of DVAs associated with hemorrhage, cavernous malformations (CMs) are most often the cause rather than DVAs themselves. The coexistence of CM and DVA is common. There are some possibilities that DVA affects the formation and clinical course of CM because CM related to DVA is generally located within the drainage territory of DVA and is more aggressive than isolated CM in the literature. Brain parenchymal abnormalities surrounding DVA and cerebral varix have also been reported. These phenomena are considered to be the result of venous hypertension associated with DVAs. With the advance of diagnostic imagings, perfusion study supports this hypothesis demonstrating that some DVAs have venous congestion pattern. Although DVAs should be considered benign and clinically silent, they can have potential venous hypertension and can be vulnerable to hemodynamic changes. PMID:27250700

  20. Stent Placement on Fresh Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schuermann, Karl

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To report on the efficacy of fixing fresh venous thrombus to the venous wall by stent placement. Methods: Seven patients underwent stenting to treat acute venous thrombosis. In two patients, the hemodialysis fistula was thrombosed with the thrombus extending into the brachial veins. In three patients, the hemodialysis fistula was patent but massive swelling of the ipsilateral arm was caused by proximal venous thrombosis. Two patients presented with iliac venous thrombosis within stented pelvic veins. Stent placement was preceded by other mechanical thrombectomy methods in all cases. Results: Attachment of thrombus to the venous wall was successful in all cases treated. Acute rethrombosis did not occur. Follow-up patency in dialysis patients was 7.2 {+-} 2.1 months. One patient had rethrombosis of the dialysis graft 3 months after primary treatment. Three patients developed restenosis within a mean period of 7.7 months. One shunt remained patent for 10 months with no event of reobstruction during follow-up. In both patients with iliac stent placement, the vein remained patent over a follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively. Conclusion: Stenting fresh venous thrombus can achieve immediate venous patency. It may be used as an alternative approach when all other percutaneous methods fail. Frequent restenosis within stented veins limits its use to very selected cases.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of venous ulcers.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lauren; Seraj, Samina

    2010-04-15

    Venous ulcer, also known as stasis ulcer, is the most common etiology of lower extremity ulceration, affecting approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population. Possible causes of venous ulcers include inflammatory processes resulting in leukocyte activation, endothelial damage, platelet aggregation, and intracellular edema. The primary risk factors for venous ulcer development are older age, obesity, previous leg injuries, deep venous thrombosis, and phlebitis. On physical examination, venous ulcers are generally irregular, shallow, and located over bony prominences. Granulation tissue and fibrin are typically present in the ulcer base. Associated findings include lower extremity varicosities, edema, venous dermatitis, and lipodermatosclerosis. Venous ulcers are usually recurrent, and an open ulcer can persist for weeks to many years. Severe complications include cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and malignant change. Poor prognostic factors include large ulcer size and prolonged duration. Evidence-based treatment options for venous ulcers include leg elevation, compression therapy, dressings, pentoxifylline, and aspirin therapy. Surgical management may be considered for ulcers that are large in size, of prolonged duration, or refractory to conservative measures.

  2. Heritability of chronic venous disease

    PubMed Central

    Krusche, Petra; Wolf, Andreas; Krawczak, Michael; Timm, Birgitt; Nikolaus, Susanna; Frings, Norbert; Schreiber, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Varicose veins without skin changes have a prevalence of approximately 20% in Northern and Western Europe whereas advanced chronic venous insufficiency affects about 3% of the population. Genetic risk factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of both these chronic venous diseases (CVD). We evaluated the relative genetic and environmental impact upon CVD risk by estimating the heritability of the disease in 4,033 nuclear families, comprising 16,434 individuals from all over Germany. Upon clinical examination, patients were classified according to the CEAP guidelines as either C2 (simple varicose veins), C3 (oedema), C4 (skin changes without ulceration), C5 (healed ulceration), or C6 (active ulcers). The narrow-sense heritability (h2) of CVD equals 17.3% (standard error 2.5%, likelihood ratio test P = 1.4 × 10−13). The proportion of disease risk attributable to age (at ascertainment) and sex, the two main risk factors for CVD, was estimated as 10.7% (Kullback–Leibler deviance R2). The heritability of CVD is high, thereby suggesting a notable genetic component in the aetiology of the disease. Systematic population-based searches for CVD susceptibility genes are therefore warranted. PMID:20354728

  3. A morphological study of the vertebral venous plexus and its connections in the Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus (Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Kotzé, S H; Boonzaier, J; Vorster, W; Hoogland, P V J M

    2011-03-01

    Bathyergus suillus are subterranean rodents found in the Western Cape of South Africa, where they inhabit sandy, humid burrows. Vertebral venous plexuses around the vertebral column have been implicated in aiding the maintenance of a constant central nervous system temperature via its connections with muscles and interscapular brown adipose tissue. The morphology of the vertebral venous plexuses and its connections in B.suillus were investigated. Frozen (n = 10) animals were defrosted; the venous system injected with latex and the vertebral venous plexuses, azygos- and intercostal veins dissected along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the vertebral column. Specimens (n = 4) were used for histological serial cross sections of the thoracic vertebrae. Veins drained from the interscapular brown adipose tissue to the external vertebral venous plexus, via a dorsal vein at the spinous process of T2 which might represent the "vein of Sulzer" described in rats. The intercostal veins cranial to the level of T8 drained directly into the ventral external vertebral venous plexus instead of into the azygos vein as seen in rats. The azygos vein was situated ventrally on the thoracic vertebral bodies in the median plane as opposed to most rodents that have a left sided azygos vein. The internal vertebral venous plexus consisted of two ventrolateraly placed longitudinal veins in the spinal epidural space. Veins from the forelimbs entered the internal vertebral venous plexus directly at the levels of C7 and T1 and have not been described in other rodents. Serial histological sections, revealed no regulatory valves in vessels leading toward the internal vertebral venous plexus, allowing blood to presumably move in both directions within the vertebral venous plexus. The vertebral venous plexus of B. suillus shows similarities to that of the rat but the vessels from the forelimbs draining directly into to the internal vertebral venous plexus and the position of the azygos vein and the

  4. Cervical venous reflux in dynamic brain scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Hayt, D B; Perez, L A

    1976-01-01

    Cervical venous reflux, shown by dynamic brain scintigraphy, was investigated through three avenues of approach: (A) by reviewing 371 randomly chosen routine dynamic intracerebral bloodflow studies to estimate its incidence; (B) by correlative positive-contrast superior venacavography in patients with characteristic cervical venous reflux; and (C) by performing dynamic brain scintigraphy while utilizing various positional and physiologic maneuvers to attempt to produce cervical venous reflux in patients who did not exhibit this phenomenon on earlier examination. Although any obstruction of the superior vena cava or a properly timed Valsalva maneuver in selected patients can produce the scintigraphic picture of cervical venous reflux, in most cases it is a normal phenomenon due to incompetent or absent cervical venous valves.

  5. Left Brachiocephalic Vein Cannulation in Bicaval Venous Drainage Is Safe, Effective, and Technically Advantageous.

    PubMed

    Aazami, Mathias Hossain; Gholoobi, Arash; Amini, Shahram; Abdollahi-Moghadam, Alireza; Soltani, Ghassem

    2016-04-01

    Direct cannulation of both venae cavae (bicaval venous cannulation) is the gold standard for right atrial isolation in intracavitary surgery, but there has been no consensus about an alternative site. Therefore, we studied an alternative method for bicaval venous drainage in which the left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) is cannulated instead of the superior vena cava. From 2012 through 2014, we performed routine LBCV cannulation in 150 consecutive patients as part of bicaval venous drainage before right atrial isolation. We prospectively collected demographic information, operative data, total pump and LBCV cannula flows with their respective calculated and indexed rates, central venous pressures, and perioperative complications. All patients survived surgery. There were no adverse technical outcomes or functional deficits associated with the technique. The mean indexed LBCV cannula flow was 1,520 ± 216 mL/min/m(2), representing an LBCV cannula-to-calculated pump-flow ratio of 64%. The mean central venous pressure during right atrial isolation was 3.7 ± 1.9 mmHg. Cannulation of the LBCV is intrinsically a safe and reproducible procedure with proven hemodynamic adequacy. Its versatility can be an asset to surgical techniques and perfusion methods. Furthermore, the hemodynamic results in our series promise alternative intrathoracic and extracardiac cannulation sites for mini-extracorporeal circulation, on-pump beating-heart procedures, and short-term circulatory assist device implementation.

  6. Left Brachiocephalic Vein Cannulation in Bicaval Venous Drainage Is Safe, Effective, and Technically Advantageous

    PubMed Central

    Gholoobi, Arash; Amini, Shahram; Abdollahi-Moghadam, Alireza; Soltani, Ghassem

    2016-01-01

    Direct cannulation of both venae cavae (bicaval venous cannulation) is the gold standard for right atrial isolation in intracavitary surgery, but there has been no consensus about an alternative site. Therefore, we studied an alternative method for bicaval venous drainage in which the left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) is cannulated instead of the superior vena cava. From 2012 through 2014, we performed routine LBCV cannulation in 150 consecutive patients as part of bicaval venous drainage before right atrial isolation. We prospectively collected demographic information, operative data, total pump and LBCV cannula flows with their respective calculated and indexed rates, central venous pressures, and perioperative complications. All patients survived surgery. There were no adverse technical outcomes or functional deficits associated with the technique. The mean indexed LBCV cannula flow was 1,520 ± 216 mL/min/m2, representing an LBCV cannula-to-calculated pump-flow ratio of 64%. The mean central venous pressure during right atrial isolation was 3.7 ± 1.9 mmHg. Cannulation of the LBCV is intrinsically a safe and reproducible procedure with proven hemodynamic adequacy. Its versatility can be an asset to surgical techniques and perfusion methods. Furthermore, the hemodynamic results in our series promise alternative intrathoracic and extracardiac cannulation sites for mini-extracorporeal circulation, on-pump beating-heart procedures, and short-term circulatory assist device implementation. PMID:27127430

  7. [Venous stent application with a simultaneous cubitofemoral approach].

    PubMed

    Link, J; Brossmann, J; Müller-Hülsbeck, S; Heller, M

    1995-07-01

    In 4 patients with superior inflow obstruction caused by stenosis or occlusion of the central veins it was not possible to pass the guide wire from transfemoral. An additional transbrachial access was applied to avoid the stenosis or occlusions. Patency of the veins from transbrachial was achieved in all cases. After pulling the extensively long guide wire through the still horizontal venous lock, successful Wallstent application was performed from transfemoral in all 4 patients. No peri-interventional or post-interventional complications were seen during 2 days follow-up.

  8. [Thrombosis of the right atrium after umbilical venous catheterization. Favourable outcome after early thrombectomy].

    PubMed

    Paupe, A; Lenclen, R; Blanc, P; Chassevent, J; Hoenn, E; Molho, M; Zannier, D; Olivier-Martin, M

    1992-02-01

    A case of right atrial thrombosis after venous umbilical catheterization in a 21 day-old premature newborn is reported. The initiating factors of such an accident and its clinical signs are evocated. The authors emphasize the value of a systematic ultrasonographic supervision of newborns with central catheters for a long period of time and the value of surgical thrombectomy.

  9. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y; Rotmans, Joris I; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Parlevliet, Karien J; Krediet, Ray T; Boeschoten, Els W; Dekker, Friedo W; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to dialysis treatment increases mortality risk. A total of 455 dialysis patients were followed for objectively verified symptomatic thrombotic events between January 1997 and June 2009. The incidence rates in dialysis patients as compared to the general population was 5.6-fold (95% CI 3.1-8.9) increased for venous thrombosis, 11.9-fold (95% CI 9.3-14.9) increased for myocardial infarction, and 8.4-fold (95% CI 5.7-11.5) increased for ischaemic stroke. The combination of haemodialysis, lowest tertile of albumin, history of venous thrombosis, and malignancy was associated with subsequent venous thrombosis. Increased age, renal vascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of venous thrombosis, and history of arterial thrombosis were associated with subsequent arterial thrombosis. The all-cause mortality risk was 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased for patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased for patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. A potential limitation of this study was that in some risk categories associations with venous thrombosis did not reach statistical significance due to small numbers. In conclusion, dialysis patients have clearly elevated risks of venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis and occurrence of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to the start of dialysis is associated with an increased mortality risk.

  10. Measurement of venous compliance (8-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirsk, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    The prime objective of this International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) investigation is to measure the bulk compliance (distensibility) of the veins in the lower leg before, during, and after spaceflight. It is of particular interest whether venous compliance over the range of both positive and negative transmural pressures (various states of venous distention and collapse) changes throughout the duration of spaceflight. Information concerning the occurrence and character of compliance changes could have implications for the design of improved antigravity suits and further the understanding of inflight and postflight venous hemodynamics.

  11. Quality of life in patients with venous stasis ulcers and others with advanced venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tracz, Edyta; Zamojska, Ewa; Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Zaborski, Daniel; Grzesiak, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    The quality of life (QoL) in patients with advanced venous insufficiency (including venous stasis ulcers, skin discoloration, stasis eczema, and lipodermatosclerosis) assessed using the Clinical Etiological Anatomical Pathophysiological (CEAP) and Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) classifications is presented. Also, disease features such as: intensity of pain, edema and inflammatory response that exerted the most profound effect on different domains of QoL are reported. The global QoL in patients with lower leg venous ulcerations was relatively similar to that observed in other patients with chronic venous insufficiency. The presence of venous ulcerations was associated with lower QoL in a Physical domain. Significant correlations were found between pain intensity and the values of Physical, Physiological, Level of Independence and Environmental domains, between edema intensity and Social domain as well as between the intensity of inflammatory response and Physical and Spiritual domains.

  12. Asian venous thromboembolism guidelines: prevention of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Liew, N C; Chang, Y H; Choi, G; Chu, P H; Gao, X; Gibbs, H; Ho, C O; Ibrahim, H; Kim, T K; Kritpracha, B; Lee, L H; Lee, L; Lee, W Y; Li, Y J; Nicolaides, A N; Oh, D; Pratama, D; Ramakrishnan, N; Robless, P A; Villarama-Alemany, G; Wong, R

    2012-12-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is under-utilized in Asia because of the misconception that its incidence is lower in Asians as compared to the Caucasians. The available data on VTE in Asia is limited due to the lack of well-designed multicenter randomized controlled trials as well as non-standardized research designs, making data comparison difficult. Emerging data indicates that the VTE incidence is not low in Asia, and is comparable to that reported in the Western literature in some instances. There is also a trend towards increasing incidence of VTE, as demonstrated by a number of hospital-based studies in Asia. This could be attributed to lifestyle changes, ageing population, increasing awareness of VTE and wider availability of Duplex ultrasound. The risk of VTE in hospitalized patients remain the same in Asians and Caucasians, even though there may be factors that are inherent to patients in Asia that influence the slight variation in incidence. The utilization rate of VTE prophylaxis remains suboptimal in Asia. The Asian Venous Thrombosis Forum (AVTF) comprises participants from various countries such as China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and experts from Australia and Europe. The forum evaluated the available data on VTE from the Asian region and formulated guidelines tailored to meet the needs of the region. We recommend that serious considerations are given to VTE prophylaxis especially in the at-risk group and a formal hospital policy be established to facilitate the implementation. On admission to the hospital, we recommend assessing the patients for both VTE and bleeding risk. We recommend mechanical prophylaxis for patients at increased risk of bleeding and utilizing it as an adjunctive measure in combination with pharmacological prophylaxis in patients with high risk of VTE. For patients undergoing general or gynecological surgery and with moderate risk for VTE, we recommend

  13. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Baytinger, V. F. Kurochkina, O. S. Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  14. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baytinger, V. F.; Kurochkina, O. S.; Selianinov, K. V.; Baytinger, A. V.; Dzyuman, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were no differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.

  15. Inadvertent Central Venous Infusion of Enteral Feed: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Indrani; Raju, Ravish Sanghi; Vyas, Frederick Lorence; John, Preeta; Sitaram, Venkatramani

    2008-01-01

    Inadvertent administration of enteral feed into an intravenous line is preventable usually by design of incompatible connectors, but these may not be available universally. We discuss a case report where this occurred and the subsequent management strategy. PMID:18990273

  16. [Long-term central venous catheter-related infections].

    PubMed

    Lebeaux, David; Joly, Dominique; Zahar, Jean-Ralph

    2014-05-01

    Long-term intravenous catheters (LTIVC) are standard practice for patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, digestive disease requiring total parenteral nutrition or end-stage renal disease. Even if they greatly improved patients' care, the use of LTIVC is also associated with microbial contamination and subsequent infection. These catheter-related infections are associated with morbidity, mortality and increased health-care costs. As patients carrying these LTIVC stay at home for their treatment (home parenteral nutrition for instance) or between cycles of treatment (antineoplastic chemotherapy or dialysis), it is mandatory that general practitioner and nurses are aware of recent data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of LTIVC-related infections.

  17. Spontaneous thrombosis of developmental venous anomaly (DVA) with venous infarct and acute cerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Kalapos, Paul; Vijay, Kanupriya

    2014-08-01

    Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), formally known as venous angioma, is a congenital anatomic variant of the venous drainage of the brain. Although they typically have a benign clinical course and a low symptomatic rate, thrombosis of a drainage vein may occur, leading to potentially debilitating complications. We report a unique case of spontaneous thrombosis of a posterior fossa developmental venous anomaly with cerebellar infarct in a 61-year-old man who presented with acute onset cerebellar ataxia. DVA thrombosis was well-depicted on CT and MR studies. Patient was put on anticoagulant therapy and complete recanalization was seen on follow-up imaging.

  18. Anatomy of the foot venous pump: physiology and influence on chronic venous disease.

    PubMed

    Uhl, J-F; Gillot, C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the location of the venous foot pump using an anatomical study. Four hundred cadaveric feet were injected with green neoprene latex followed by a dissection. A coloured segmentation of the venous system was achieved. The Lejars' concept of the venous sole of the foot is incorrect: the true blood venous reservoir of the foot is located deeply in the plantar veins, between the plantar muscles. The medial and mostly lateral plantar veins converge into the plexus shaped calcaneal crossroad, where the blood is ejected upwards into the two posterior tibial veins. In addition, the several medial perforators of the foot directly connect the deep system (medial plantar veins) to the superficial venous system (medial marginal vein). This forms a true 'medial functional unit' which is unique in the limb given its directional flow is from deep to superficial. In conclusion, the plantar veins play an important role in the physiology of the venous return since a venous reservoir of 25 mL of blood is mobilized upwards with each step during walking. Therefore, the impairment of the foot pump by a static foot disorder should be considered as an important risk factor for chronic venous disease, and should be evaluated and corrected in any patient with venous insufficiency.

  19. Cardiovascular Deconditioning and Venous Air Embolism in Simulated Microgravity in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. R.; Doursout, M.-F.; Chelly, J. E.; Powell, M. R.; Little, T. M.; Butler,B. D.

    1996-01-01

    Astronauts conducting extravehicular activities undergo decompression to a lower ambient pressure, potentially resulting in gas bubble formation within the tissues and venous circulation. Additionally, exposure to microgravity produces fluid shifts within the body leading to cardiovascular deconditioning. A lower incidence of decompression illness in actual spaceflight compared with that in ground-based altitude chamber flights suggests that there is a possible interaction between microgravity exposure and decompression illness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular and pulmonary effects of simulated hypobaric decompression stress using a tail suspension (head-down tilt) model of microgravity to produce the fluid shifts associated with weightlessness in conscious, chronically instrumented rats. Venous bubble formation resulting from altitude decompression illness was simulated by a 3-h intravenous air infusion. Cardiovascular deconditioning was simulated by 96 h of head-down tilt. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular wall thickening and cardiac output were continuously recorded. Lung studies were performed to evaluate edema formation and compliance measurement. Blood and pleural fluid were examined for changes in white cell counts and protein concentration. Our data demonstrated that in tail-suspended rats subjected to venous air infusions, there was a reduction in pulmonary edema formation and less of a decrease in cardiac output than occurred following venous air infusion alone. Mean arterial blood pressure and myocardial wall thickening fractions were unchanged with either tail-suspension or venous air infusion. Heart rate decreased in both conditions while systemic vascular resistance increased. These differences may be due in part to a change or redistribution of pulmonary blood flow or to a diminished cellular response to the microvascular insult of the venous air embolization.

  20. Inaccuracy of Venous Point-of-Care Glucose Measurements in Critically Ill Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adriano José; Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; de Almeida, Francisca Pereira; Deliberato, Rodrigo Octávio; Lobato, Michelle dos Santos; Akamine, Nelson; Silva, Eliézer; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines and consensus recommend arterial and venous samples as equally acceptable for blood glucose assessment in point-of-care devices, but there is limited evidence to support this recommendation. We evaluated the accuracy of two devices for bedside point-of-care blood glucose measurements using arterial, fingerstick and catheter venous blood samples in ICU patients, and assessed which factors could impair their accuracy. Methods 145 patients from a 41-bed adult mixed-ICU, in a tertiary care hospital were prospectively enrolled. Fingerstick, central venous (catheter) and arterial blood (indwelling catheter) samples were simultaneously collected, once per patient. Arterial measurements obtained with Precision PCx, and arterial, fingerstick and venous measurements obtained with Accu-chek Advantage II were compared to arterial central lab measurements. Agreement between point-of-care and laboratory measurements were evaluated with Bland-Altman, and multiple linear regression models were used to investigate interference of associated factors. Results Mean difference between Accu-chek arterial samples versus central lab was 10.7 mg/dL (95% LA -21.3 to 42.7 mg/dL), and between Precision PCx versus central lab was 18.6 mg/dL (95% LA -12.6 to 49.5 mg/dL). Accu-chek fingerstick versus central lab arterial samples presented a similar bias (10.0 mg/dL) but a wider 95% LA (-31.8 to 51.8 mg/dL). Agreement between venous samples with arterial central lab was the poorest (mean bias 15.1 mg/dL; 95% LA -51.7 to 81.9). Hyperglycemia, low hematocrit, and acidosis were associated with larger differences between arterial and venous blood measurements with the two glucometers and central lab. Vasopressor administration was associated with increased error for fingerstick measurements. Conclusions Sampling from central venous catheters should not be used for glycemic control in ICU patients. In addition, reliability of the two evaluated glucometers was

  1. Links between arterial and venous disease.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, P

    2007-09-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between arterial and venous disease. According to the results of recent studies, atherosclerosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE) share common risk factors, including age, obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis has the potential to promote the development of thrombotic disorders in the venous system. Another scenario assumes that the two clinical conditions are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with VTE of unknown origin are at a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerotic complications, than patients with secondary VTE and matched control individuals. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice.

  2. [Venous thromboembolic disease: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion.

  3. [Emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air].

    PubMed

    Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young

    2015-02-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.

  4. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  5. Comparison of viscoelastic properties of walls and functional characteristics of valves in lymphatic and venous vessels.

    PubMed

    Ohhashi, T

    1987-12-01

    The principal function of the lymphatic and venous system is to maintain a favorable environment for cells of the body. As a consequence mainly of hydrostatic forces, shifts of fluid usually occur between the vascular system and the extracellular space. To compensate for these shifts the veins are capable of active and passive changes in capacity that serve to modulate the filling pressure of the heart by adjusting the central blood volume. In addition to the venous function, the lymphatic function also contributes to compensate for the fluid shifts by drainage from the interstitial space. Namely, the general function of the lymphatic system is to return fluid and protein which escapes from the blood capillaries to the lymph circulation. To elucidate the mode of venous and lymph transport, therefore, it is of essential importance to obtain basic knowledge of the mechanical characteristics of the walls of the vessels and the functional characteristics of the lymphatic and venous valves dividing two adjacent compartments. In this communication, in order to answer the question, "Are Lymphatics Different From Blood Vessels?", I would like to review a comparison of viscoelastic properties of walls and functional characteristics of valves in lymph and venous vessels by use of our original data obtained with isolated canine veins and thoracic ducts and with isolated bovine mesenteric lymphatics (1-9).

  6. Microcirculation and venous ulcers: a review.

    PubMed

    Pascarella, Luigi; Schönbein, Geert W Schmid; Bergan, John J

    2005-11-01

    Recent histological and immunocytochemical analyses of venous leg ulcers suggest that lesions observed in the different stages of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) may be related to an inflammatory process. This inflammatory process leads to fibrosclerotic remodeling of the skin and then to ulceration. The vascular network of the most superficial layers of the skin appears to be the target of the inflammatory reaction. Hemodynamic forces such as venous hypertension, circulatory stasis, and modified conditions of shear stress appear to play an important role in an inflammatory reaction accompanied by leukocyte activation which clinically leads to CVI: venous dermatitis and venous ulceration. The leukocyte activation is accompanied by the expression of integrins and by synthesis and release of many inflammatory molecules, including proteolytic enzymes, leukotrienes, prostaglandin, bradykinin, free oxygen radicals, cytokines, and possibly other classes of inflammatory mediators. The inflammatory reaction perpetuates itself, leading to liposclerotic skin and subcutaneous tissue remodeling. In light of the mechanisms of venous ulcer formation cited above, therapy in the future might be directed against leukocyte activation in order to diminish the magnitude of the inflammatory response. With this in mind, the attention of many investigators has been drawn to two different drugs with an anti-inflammatory effect: pentoxifylline and flavonoids.

  7. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kasatkin, A. A. Nigmatullina, A. R.; Urakov, A. L.

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  8. Pharmacologic treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Dormandy, J A

    1995-01-01

    In terms of prevalence, total cost and morbidity, venous leg ulcers are probably by far the most important type of ulcerations in the leg. The macrocirculatory defect leading to a raised ambulatory venous pressure is now accepted as a common initial pathologic pathway. Most current treatment modalities, such as surgery or external compression, are designed to control the macrovascular defect. However, it is the microcirculatory consequences of the venous hypertension that give rise to the trophic skin changes and ultimately to ulceration. At this microcirculatory level, pharmacotherapy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. The microcirculatory pathophysiologic changes include decreased fibrinolytic activity, elevated plasma fibrinogen, microcirculatory thrombi, and inappropriate activation of the white blood cells. The oxidative burst from the activated white cells probably plays a key role by releasing locally leukocyte-derived free radicals, proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, platelet-activating factor, and a number of other noxious mediators. An important additional component in recalcitrant venous ulcers is co-existing arterial disease, which is probably present in 15-20% of cases. Decreased arterial perfusion pressure will further aggravate the ischemic changes caused by the venous hypertension. Pentoxifylline downregulates leukocyte activation, reduces leukocyte adhesion, and also has fibrinolytic effects. A number of clinical studies have therefore been carried out to examine the clinical efficacy of pentoxifylline in treatment of venous leg ulcers. Probably the largest published placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized study was reported in 1990. In this study, 80 patients received either pentoxifylline 400 mg three times a day orally or matching placebo for 6 months or until their reference ulcer healed if this occurred sooner. Complete healing of the reference ulcer occurred in 23 of the 38 patients treated with pentoxifylline

  9. Mixed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: Case report with bilateral venous collectors.

    PubMed

    Cayre, Raul O; Civetta, Julio D; Roldan, Alberto O; Rousseau, Juan J; Knudson, Ole A; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam M

    2003-01-01

    We present a case report of a 3-month-old boy with a mixed total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. The patient had situs solitus, small atrial septal defect, and 2 separate venous collectors. The right pulmonary veins drained through a right-sided venous collector into the coronary sinus. The left-sided pulmonary veins drained through the left-sided venous collector directly into the right superior vena cava. The use of the echocardiogram and Doppler color flow mapping to establish a detailed morphologic analysis, the sites of connection, and the presence of pulmonary venous obstructions as well as the value of this information to facilitate a successful surgical repair are discussed.

  10. Venous Access Ports: Indications, Implantation Technique, Follow-Up, and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, Eric M.

    2012-08-15

    The subcutaneous venous access device (SVAD or 'port') is a critical component in the care of patients with chronic disease. The modern SVAD provides reliable access for blood withdrawal and medication administration with minimal disruption to a patient's lifestyle. Because of improved materials and catheter technology, today's ports are lighter and stronger and capable of high-pressure injections of contrast for cross-sectional imaging. The majority of SVAD placement occurs in interventional radiology departments due to their ability to provide this service at lower costs, lower, complication rates, and greater volumes. Port-insertion techniques vary depending on the operator, but all consist of catheter placement in the central venous circulation followed by subcutaneous pocket creation and port attachment to the catheter with fixation and closure of the pocket. Venous access challenges occasionally occur in patients with central vein occlusions, necessitating catheterization of collateral veins or port placement in alternate locations. Complications of SVADs include those associated with the procedure as well as short- (<30 days) and long-term problems. Procedural and early complications are quite rare due to the near-universal use of real-time ultrasound guidance for vein puncture, but they can include hematoma, catheter malposition, arrhythmias, and pneumothorax. Late problems include both thrombotic complications (native venous or port-catheter thrombosis) and infections (tunnel or pocket infections or catheter-associated bloodstream infections). Most guidelines suggest that 0.3 infections/1000 catheter days is an appropriate upper threshold for the insertion of SVADs.

  11. Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

    1991-03-21

    Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance.

  12. Venous Malformation: update on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis & management

    PubMed Central

    Dompmartin, Anne; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss the current knowledge on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapeutic management of venous malformations. Venous malformations (VMs) are slow-flow vascular anomalies. They are simple, sporadic or familial (cutaneo-mucosal venous malformation or glomuvenous malformations), combined (e.g. capillaro-venous, capillaro-lymphaticovenous malformations) or syndromic (Klippel-Trenaunay, Blue Rubber Bleb Naevus and Maffucci). Genetic studies have identified causes of familial forms and of 40% of sporadic VMs. Another diagnostic advancement is the identification of elevated D-dimer level as the first biomarker of venous malformations within vascular anomalies. Those associated with pain are often responsive to Low Molecular Weight Heparin which should also be used to avoid disseminated intravascular coagulopathy secondary to intervention, especially if fibrinogen level is low. Finally, development of a modified sclerosing agent, ethylcellulose–ethanol, has improved therapy. It is efficient and safe, and widens indications for sclerotherapy to sensitive and dangerous areas such as hands, feet and periocular area. PMID:20870869

  13. [Venous malformations: clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Casanova, D; Boon, L-M; Vikkula, M

    2006-01-01

    Venous malformations (VM) are localized defects of blood vessels that are due to vascular dysmorphogenesis. These slow-flow lesions can affect any tissue or organ. Clinically, a cutaneous VM is characterized by a bluish mass that is compressible on palpation. Phleboliths are commonly present. Symptoms depend on location and size. VM are often sporadic and isolated, however, they can be associated with other malformations and be part of a syndrome; Klippel-Trenaunay (capillary-lymphatico-venous malformation with limb hypertrophy) is the most common. Glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is another type of venous anomaly. In contrast to VM, GVM is often painful on palpation and not compressible. Clinical diagnosis of VM is often made in the presence of a bluish cutaneous lesion: however, other lesions can mimick VM. The most frequent anomalies are a blue naevus, a hemorrhagic lymphatic malformation, a sub-cutaneous hemangioma or even the presence of dilated superficial normal veins due to underlying venous stenoses. This chapter will detail the clinical characteristics of venous anomalies and their differential diagnosis.

  14. Transluminally Placed Endovascular Grafts for Venous Lesions in Patients on Hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, S.F. Kim, J.; Sheley, R.C.

    2003-08-15

    This report summarizes a feasibility study of transluminally placed endovascular grafts (TPEG) using pre-expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to treat venous abnormalities inpatients on hemodialysis. Seventeen patients with peripheral(n = 11) or central (n = 6) venous lesions were treated with TPEG devices. Covered Gianturco stents were used for the peripheral lesions and covered Palmaz stents were used for central lesions. Venous abnormalities included vascular rupture after balloon angioplasty or surgical thrombectomy (n = 4),stenosis associated with an aneurysm (n = 2) and occlusive disease and central stenoses not responsive to balloon angioplasty (n = 11). The mean primary patency period was 37 days. The mean secondary patency period was 215 days. At 60,180, and 360 days the primary and secondary patency rates were 40%,32%, and 32%, and 70%, 55%, and 39%, respectively. Follow-up studies have shown various outcomes of the implanted TPEG devices,which have included stenoses within the TPEG (n = 2),stenoses central to the TPEG (n = 1), stenoses peripheral to the TPEG (n = 3), acute thrombosis extending to the TPEG without a stenosis (n = 1), graft abandoned with patent TPEG (n = 6), and TPEG patent within primary patency period at last follow-up (n =4). The TPEG devices, made with pre-expanded PTFE, appear safe in the short term, do not prevent progressive dialysis access site failure, and need to be compared to PTA and endovascular stenting in a randomized prospective trial.

  15. [Femoral venous catheterization. Does it really need to be avoided?].

    PubMed

    Lorente, L; León, C

    2009-12-01

    The guidelines to prevent central venous catheter related bloodstream infections (CVCBSI) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of 2002, Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias/ Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEMICYUC/SEIMC) of 2004, and the recently published guidelines of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/Infectious Diseases Society of America (SHEA(IDSA) of 2008 have recommended using the subclavian vein and avoiding the use of the femoral vein. They also recommend considering the use of antiseptic- or antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs for hospital units or groups of patients with a high incidence of CVCBSI. When implementing these guidelines, two questions could be asked: 1) Could the abuse of the subclavian vein and avoiding the use of the femoral vein imply a decrease in the incidence of CVCBSI, but an increase in the rate of mechanical complications as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax? 2) Couldn't antimicrobial-impregnated CVCs be used to prevent CVCBSI when the femoral venous access is used?

  16. Venous access in haemophilic children: choice and m