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Sample records for 9l gliosarcoma tumors

  1. Distribution of hematoporphyrin derivative in the rat 9l gliosarcoma brain tumor analyzed by digital video fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Boggan, J E; Walter, R; Edwards, M S; Borcich, J K; Davis, R L; Koonce, M; Berns, M W

    1984-12-01

    A digital video fluorescence microscopy technique was used to evaluate the distribution of hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) in the rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma brain-tumor model at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after intravenous administration of 10 mg/kg of the drug. Compared to surrounding normal brain, there was significant preferential uptake of HPD into the tumor. In sections surveyed, fluorescence reached a maximum value by 24 hours; however, only 33% to 44% of the tumor was fluorescent. In contrast, fluorescence within the surrounding normal brain was maximum at 4 hours, but was present in less than 1% of the brain tissue evaluated. The effect of HPD sensitization to a laser light dose (633 nm) of 30 joules/sq cm delivered through the intact skull was evaluated histologically in 10 rats. A patchy coagulation necrosis, possibly corresponding to the distribution of HPD fluorescence seen within the tumor, was observed. There was evidence that photoradiation therapy (PRT) affects defective tumor vasculature and that a direct tumor cell toxicity spared normal brain tissue. Despite these findings, limited uptake of HPD in tumor and the brain adjacent to tumor may decrease the effectiveness of PRT in the 9L gliosarcoma brain-tumor model. Because of the similarity between the capillary system of the 9L tumor and human brain tumors, PRT may have a limited therapeutic effect in patients with malignant brain tumors. PMID:6239014

  2. The therapeutic ratio in BNCT: Assessment using the Rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor and spinal cord models

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Fisher, C.D.; Bywaters, A.; Morris, G.M.; Hopewell, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    During any radiation therapy, the therapeutic tumor dose is limited by the tolerance of the surrounding normal tissue within the treatment volume. The short ranges of the products of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction produced during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) present an opportunity to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor dose/normal tissue dose) to levels unprecedented in photon radiotherapy. The mixed radiation field produced during BNCT comprises radiations with different linear energy transfer (LET) and different relative biological effectiveness (RBE). The short ranges of the two high-LET products of the `B(n,a)`Li reaction make the microdistribution of the boron relative to target cell nuclei of particular importance. Due to the tissue specific distribution of different boron compounds, the term RBE is inappropriate in defining the biological effectiveness of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction. To distinguish these differences from true RBEs we have used the term {open_quotes}compound biological effectiveness{close_quotes} (CBE) factor. The latter can be defined as the product of the true, geometry-independent, RBE for these particles times a {open_quotes}boron localization factor{close_quotes}, which will most likely be different for each particular boron compound. To express the total BNCT dose in a common unit, and to compare BNCT doses with the effects of conventional photon irradiation, multiplicative factors (RBEs and CBEs) are applied to the physical absorbed radiation doses from each high-LET component. The total effective BNCT dose is then expressed as the sum of RBE-corrected physical absorbed doses with the unit Gray-equivalent (Gy-Eq).

  3. Cell cycle dependence of protophorphyrin IX generation in 9L rat gliosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shiming; Da, Xing; Chen, Qun

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that utilizes optical energy to activate a photosensitizer drug in a target tissue. Always, the curative effect is dependent on the light fluence, the concentration of the photosensitizer and the concentration of the oxygen. To date, Protophorphyrin IX (PpIX) as the only one endogenous photosensitizer is widely used in PDT of brain tumors. Since PpIX is synthesized in intracellular structure, and is likely dependent on the phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle dependence of PpIX production is thus investigated in the current work in 9L gliosarcoma cells.

  4. Preferential Effect of Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation Therapy on Intracerebral 9L Gliosarcoma Vascular Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, Audrey; Lemasson, Benjamin; Le Duc, Geraldine; Maisin, Cecile; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Renaud, Luc; Khalil, Enam; Remy, Chantal; Poillot, Cathy; Bravin, Alberto; Laissue, Jean A.; Barbier, Emmanuel L.; Serduc, Raphael

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) relies on spatial fractionation of the incident photon beam into parallel micron-wide beams. Our aim was to analyze the effects of MRT on normal brain and 9L gliosarcoma tissues, particularly on blood vessels. Methods and Materials: Responses to MRT (two arrays, one lateral, one anteroposterior (2 x 400 Gy), intersecting orthogonally in the tumor region) were studied during 6 weeks using MRI, immunohistochemistry, and vascular endothelial growth factor Western blot. Results: MRT increased the median survival time of irradiated rats (x3.25), significantly increased blood vessel permeability, and inhibited tumor growth; a cytotoxic effect on 9L cells was detected 5 days after irradiation. Significant decreases in tumoral blood volume fraction and vessel diameter were measured from 8 days after irradiation, due to loss of endothelial cells in tumors as detected by immunochemistry. Edema was observed in the normal brain exposed to both crossfired arrays about 6 weeks after irradiation. This edema was associated with changes in blood vessel morphology and an overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Conversely, vascular parameters and vessel morphology in brain regions exposed to one of the two arrays were not damaged, and there was no loss of vascular endothelia. Conclusions: We show for the first time that preferential damage of MRT to tumor vessels versus preservation of radioresistant normal brain vessels contributes to the efficient palliation of 9L gliosarcomas in rats. Molecular pathways of repair mechanisms in normal and tumoral vascular networks after MRT may be essential for the improvement of such differential effects on the vasculature.

  5. Efficacy of pyropheophorbide-a-hexyl ether for photodynamic therapy of rat 9L gliosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autry-Conwell, Susan A.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Boggan, James E.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Pandey, Ravindra K.; Dougherty, Thomas J.

    1993-06-01

    In preliminary studies, the efficacy of a new photosensitizer, pyropheophorbide-(alpha) - hexyl ether (HPPH #23), for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) was assessed using the rat 9L gliosarcoma tumor model in subcutaneous flank tumors, intracranial tumors, and in vivo. Flank and intracranial tumors were irradiated with 75 - 203 J/cm2 24 hours after 0.3 - 0.6 mg/kg IV injection of HPPH #23. At 24 hours post-PDT, and flank tumors showed a range of necrosis at the highest laser dose from 50 - 100%. The overlying skin and underlying muscle were spared. Intracranial tumors exhibited moderate to severe hemorrhagic necrosis. Areas of brain adjacent to tumor within the irradiated field also showed some damage. In vitro phototoxicity of HPPH #23 was compared to that of Photofrin II (PhII). Cells growing in culture dishes were exposed to HPPH #23 or PhII for 20 hours, washed free of unbound drug, then irradiated at 2.5 J/cm2, 17 mW/cm2 at 665 nm (HPPH #23) or 630 nm (PhII). Irradiated cultures were maintained in dark incubators for an additional 4 - 5 days, and phototoxic inhibition of cell proliferation was quantified by the sulphorhodamine B spectrophotometric assay. Under identical irradiation conditions, the IC50 for HPPH #23 (0.25 (mu) g/ml) was 10-fold lower than that of PhII (2.5 (mu) g/ml). Complete cell kill was achieved at sensitizer doses of 0.5 (mu) g/ml (HPPH #23) and 5.0 (mu) g/ml (PhII).

  6. Post-acute response of 9L gliosarcoma to Photofrin-mediated PDT in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuepeng; Jiang, Feng; Kalkanis, Steven N; Zhang, ZhengGang; Hong, Xin; Yang, Hongyan; Chopp, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the chronic responses of 9L glioma and normal brain to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Tumor size, proliferation activity of glioma cells, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in both the tumor area and the brain adjacent to tumor (BAT) were observed 7 days after clinically relevant doses of PDT treatment. 9L Gliosarcoma cells were implanted into the brain of 20 athymic nude mice. Fifteen mice were injected intraperitoneally with Photofrin at a dose of 2 mg/kg on day 6 after tumor implantation and were treated with laser at different optical doses of 40 J/cm(2) (n = 5), 80 J/cm(2) (n = 5), and 120 J/cm(2) (n = 5) at 24 h after Photofrin injection, respectively. The remaining five tumor-bearing mice served as a tumor-only control. All animals were killed 14 days after tumor implantation. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunostaining were performed to assess tumor volume, VEGF expression in the tumor and the BAT, as well as Ki67 expression in the tumor area. The tumor volume of the mice receiving 80 or 120 J/cm(2) group was significantly smaller than the control group (p < 0.01). VEGF immunoreactivity in the BAT was significantly increased in the 120 J/cm(2) PDT-treated mice (p < 0.001), compared with the immunoreactivity seen in untreated mice and those receiving Photofrin and lower optical doses. No significant differences were detected in the proliferation of glioma cells and VEGF expression in the tumor area between these groups. These data indicate that PDT can shrink tumor, especially at the high light dose, and that PDT induces expression of VEGF in the BAT, which is associated with tumor recurrence. Therefore, PDT combined with anti-angiogenic agents may be an effective treatment strategy for glioma. PMID:17505777

  7. Increased efficacy of chemo- and radio-therapy by a hemoglobin solution in the 9L gliosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Teicher, B A; Dupuis, N P; Emi, Y; Ikebe, M; Kakeji, Y; Menon, K

    1995-01-01

    Tissue oxygen tensions were measured in the rat 9L gliosarcoma under conditions of normal air breathing or carbogen breathing and after intravenous administration of a hemoglobin solution with air breathing or carbogen breathing. Administration of the hemoglobin decreased the level of hypoxia in the tumors. Treatment of the animals with the antiangiogenic combination of TNP-470 and minocycline also increased tumor oxygenation compared with untreated controls. Treatment with the antiangiogenic agents along with administration of the hemoglobin solution/carbogen breathing decreased the hypoxic fraction (% pO2 readings < or = 5 mmHg) from 71 % to 30%. Treatment of the tumor-bearing animals with BCNU or adriamycin modestly reduced hypoxia in the tumors, while treatment with fractionated radiation markedly increased hypoxia in the tumors. Tumor growth delay was used to assess the response of the subcutaneous tumor to the various treatment combinations. There was a strong correlation between increased therapeutic response and decreased tumor hypoxia. Tumor growth delay from BCNU increased from 5.3 days to 16.4 days with TNP-470/-minocycline/hemoglobin solution/carbogen. Similarly, the tumor growth delay from adriamycin increased from 3.9 days to 17.0 days with TNP-470/minocycline/hemoglobin solution/carbogen. Finally, the tumor growth delay from fractionated radiation increased from 4.8 days to 13.3 days with TNP-470/minocycline/hemoglobin solution/carbogen. When etanidazole was added to the complete radiation regimen, the tumor growth delay increased further to 20.5 days. These data show that the addition of non-toxic agents that increase tumor oxygenation to cytotoxic therapies can markedly increase therapeutic response. PMID:7669943

  8. Selective enhancement of radiation response of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase transduced 9L gliosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo by antiviral agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Sang Hie; Kolozsvary, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate in a well-characterized tumor model that the radiosensitivity of tumor cells transduced with a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HS-tk) would be selectively enhanced by antiviral agents. Rat 9L gliosarcoma cells transduced with a retroviral vector containing an HS-tk gene, 9L-tk cells were exposed to various doses or irradiation under either in vitro or in vivo conditions. The radiation sensitizing potential of two antiviral drugs, bromovinyl deoxyuridine (BVdU) and dihydroxymethyl ethyl methyl guanine (acyclovir), was evaluated in vitro. The radiosensitizing ability of BVdU was also evaluated with a 9L-tk tumor growing in the rat brain. Tumors growing in the right hemisphere of rat brains were irradiated stereotactically with single-dose irradiation. The radiation response of 9L-tk cells was selectively enhanced by antiviral agents relative to nontransduced cells. In the cell culture, when a 24-h drug exposure (20 {mu}g/ml) preceded radiation, the sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) for BVdU and acyclovir was 1.4 {plus_minus} 0.1 and 1.3 {plus_minus} 0.1, respectively. Exposure of cells to 10 {mu}g/ml acyclovir for two 24-h periods both pre- and postirradiation resulted in a SER of 1.6 {plus_minus} 0.1. In vivo, a significant increase in median survival time of rats with 9L-tk tumors was found when BVdU was administered prior to single-dose irradiation relative to the survival time of similar rats receiving radiation alone. An antiviral agent can enhance cell killing by radiation with selective action in cells transduced with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. The results suggest that the three-pronged therapy of HS-tk gene transduction, systemically administered antiviral drug, and stereotactically targeted radiation therapy will improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy for the treatment of radioresistant tumors. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  9. The radiation response of cells from 9L gliosarcoma tumours is correlated with [F18]-EF5 uptake

    PubMed Central

    KOCH, CAMERON J.; SHUMAN, ANNE L.; JENKINS, WALTER T.; KACHUR, ALEXANDER V.; KARP, JOEL S.; FREIFELDER, RICHARD; DOLBIER, WILLIAM R.; EVANS, SYDNEY M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Tumour hypoxia affects cancer biology and therapy-resistance in both animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to determine whether EF5 ([2-(2-nitro-1-H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)-acetamide]) binding and/or radioactive drug uptake correlated with single-dose radiation response in 9L gliosarcoma tumours. Materials and methods Twenty-two 9L tumours were grown in male Fischer rats. Rats were administered low specific activity 18F-EF5 and their tumours irradiated and assessed for cell survival and hypoxia. Hypoxia assays included EF5 binding measured by antibodies against bound-drug adducts and gamma counts of 18F-EF5 tumour uptake compared with uptake by normal muscle and blood. These assays were compared with cellular radiation response (in vivo to in vitro assay). In six cases, uptake of tumour versus muscle was also assayed using images from a PET (positron emission tomography) camera (PENN G-PET). Results The intertumoural variation in radiation response of 9L tumour-cells was significantly correlated with uptake of 18F-labelled EF5 (i.e., including both bound and non-bound drug) using either tumour to muscle or tumour to blood gamma count ratios. In the tumours where imaging was performed, there was a significant correlation between the image analysis and gamma count analysis. Intertumoural variation in cellular radiation response of the same 22 tumours was also correlated with mean flow cytometry signal due to EF5 binding. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first animal model/drug combination demonstrating a correlation of radioresponse for tumour-cells from individual tumours with drug metabolism using either immunohistochemical or non-invasive techniques. PMID:19995239

  10. Irradiation of intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma by a single array of microplanar x-ray beams from a synchrotron: balance between curing and sparing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnard, Pierrick; LeDuc, Géraldine; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Troprès, Irène; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Kusak, Audrey; Clair, Charlotte; Bernard, Hélène; Dallery, Dominique; Laissue, Jean A.; Bravin, Alberto

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this work was the understanding of microbeam radiation therapy at the ESRF in order to find the best compromise between curing of tumors and sparing of normal tissues, to obtain a better understanding of survival curves and to report its efficiency. This method uses synchrotron-generated x-ray microbeams. Rats were implanted with 9L gliosarcomas and the tumors were diagnosed by MRI. They were irradiated 14 days after implantation by arrays of 25 µm wide microbeams in unidirectional mode, with a skin entrance dose of 625 Gy. The effect of using 200 or 100 µm center-to-center spacing between the microbeams was compared. The median survival time (post-implantation) was 40 and 67 days at 200 and 100 µm spacing, respectively. However, 72% of rats irradiated at 100 µm spacing showed abnormal clinical signs and weight patterns, whereas only 12% of rats were affected at 200 µm spacing. In parallel, histological lesions of the normal brain were found in the 100 µm series only. Although the increase in lifespan was equal to 273% and 102% for the 100 and 200 µm series, respectively, the 200 µm spacing protocol provides a better sparing of healthy tissue and may prove useful in combination with other radiation modalities or additional drugs.

  11. Long-term immunological memory in the resistance of rats to transplanted intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma (9LGS) following subcutaneous immunization with 9LGS cells.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, H M; Joel, D D; Slatkin, D N; Micca, P L; Nawrocky, M M; Youngs, K; Tu, W; Coderre, J A

    2000-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary human brain tumor. About 7000 new cases are diagnosed yearly in the USA. Despite current neurosurgical and postoperative radiotherapeutic tumor cytoreduction methods, in most cases occult foci of tumor cells infiltrate surrounding edematous brain tissues and cause recurrent disease within one year. GBM is almost invariably fatal within a few years after it is diagnosed. Our goal is to achieve long-term control of GBM by combining immunoprophylaxis with a radiation-based technique, such as boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT), potentially capable of specifically targeting the infiltrating tumor cells while sparing the surrounding normal brain tissue. It has long been known that the subcutaneous (sc) injection of irradiated cells or untreated cultured cells (and the removal of the resulting tumors) derived from the well characterized, highly immunogenic 9L gliosarcoma (9LGS) rat model into young isogenic rats can prevent tumor growth after subsequent sc or intracranial (ic) injection of untreated, otherwise lethal 9LGS cells. In this study we have confirmed, quantified and extended those findings to study the efficacy of such immunological memory in normal aging rats and in aging rats previously treated for ic 9LGS tumors by BNCT. (1) The sc injection of 5,000,000 untreated 9LGS cells and the surgical removal of the resulting tumors (method A) protected 80% of normal young rats from an ic challenge with 10,000 untreated 9LGS cells, and a single sc injection of 5,000,000 lethally X-irradiated 9LGS cells (method B) protected 66% of them, but multiple sc injections with a crude particulate fraction prepared from 9LGS cells were not protective. Protection is long-lasting since contralateral ic rechallenge of six-month survivors with an injection of 10,000 viable 9LGS cells resulted in 100% survival. (2) Normal one-year-old rats were only slightly less protected than were normal young rats, approximately 70% rather

  12. Evolution of DNA aptamers for malignant brain tumor gliosarcoma cell recognition and clinical tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiaoyi; Wu, Liang; Wang, Yuzhe; Zhu, Zhi; Song, Yanling; Tan, Yuyu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Li, Jiuxing; Kang, Dezhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-06-15

    Gliosarcoma, a variant of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is a highly invasive malignant tumor. Unfortunately, this disease still marked by poor prognosis regardless of modern treatments. It is of great significance to discover specific molecular probes targeting gliosarcoma for early cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we have selected a group of DNA aptamers with high affinity and selectivity against gliosarcoma cells K308 using cell-SELEX. All the dissociation constants of these aptamers against gliosarcoma cells were in the nanomolar range and aptamer WQY-9 has the highest affinity and good selectivity among them. Furthermore, truncated aptamer sequence, WQY-9-B, shows similar recognition ability to aptamer WQY-9. In addition, WQY-9-B was found to be able to bind selectively and internalize into cytoplasm of target cancer cell at 37 °C. More importantly, compared to a random sequence, aptamer WQY-9-B showed excellent recognition rate (73.3%) for tissue sections of clinical gliosarcoma samples. These data suggests that aptamer WQY-9-B has excellent potential as an effective molecular probe for gliosarcoma diagnosis. PMID:26802746

  13. In vivo L-DOPA production by genetically modified primary rat fibroblast or 9L gliosarcoma cell grafts via coexpression of GTPcyclohydrolase I with tyrosine hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Leff, S E; Rendahl, K G; Spratt, S K; Kang, U J; Mandel, R J

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the biochemical requirements for in vivo L-DOPA production by cells genetically modified ex vivo in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD), rat syngeneic 9L gliosarcoma and primary Fischer dermal fibroblasts (FDFs) were transduced with retroviral vectors encoding the human tyrosine hydroxylase 2 (hTH2) and human GTP cyclohydrolase I (hGTPCHI) cDNAs. As GTPCHI is a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway for synthesis of the essential TH cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), only hTH2 and GTPCHI cotransduced cultured cells produced L-DOPA in the absence of added BH4. As striatal BH4 levels in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats are minimal, the effects of cotransduction with hTH2 and hGTPCHI on L-DOPA synthesis by striatal grafts of either 9L cells or FDFs in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were tested. Microdialysis experiments showed that those subjects that received cells cotransduced with hTH2 and hGTPCHI produced significantly higher levels of L-DOPA than animals that received either hTH2 or untransduced cells. However, animals that received transduced FDF grafts showed a progressive loss of transgene expression until expression was undetectable 5 weeks after engraftment. In FDF-engrafted animals, no differential effect of hTH2 vs hTH2 + hGTPCHI transgene expression on apomorphine-induced rotation was observed. The differences in L-DOPA production found with cells transduced with hTH2 alone and those cotransduced with hTH2 and hGTPCHI show that BH4 is critical to the restoration of the capacity for L-DOPA production and that GTPCHI expression is an effective means of supplying BH4 in this rat model of PD. PMID:9628761

  14. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings. PMID:26183264

  15. Cell proliferation kinetics and radiation response in 9L tumor spheroids

    SciTech Connect

    Sweigert, S.E.

    1984-05-01

    Cell kinetic parameters, including population doubling-time, cell cycle time, and growth fraction, were measured in 9L gliosarcoma spheroids. These parameters were studied as the spheroids grew from 50 ..mu..m to over 900 ..mu..m in diameter. Experiments relating the cell kinetic parameters to the radiation response of 9L spheroids were also carried out. The major findings were that the average cell cycle time (T/sub c/), is considerably longer in large spheroids than in exponentially-growing monolayers, the radiosensitivity of noncycling (but still viable) cells in spheroids is not significantly different from that of cycling spheroid cells, and the radiation-induced division delay is approximately twice as long in spheroid cells as in monolayer cells given equal radiation doses. The cell loss factor for spheroids of various sizes was calculated, by using the measured kinetic parameters in the basic equations for growth of a cell population. 157 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Identical mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components of gliosarcomas suggest a common origin from glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Biernat, W.; Aguzzi, A.; Sure, U.

    1995-09-01

    Gliosarcomas are morphologically heterogeneous tumors of the central nervous system composed of gliomatous and sarcomatous components. The histogenesis of the latter is still a matter of debate. As mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene represent an early event in the development of gliomas, we attempted to determine whether both components of gliosarcomas share identical alterations of the p53 gene. Using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and direct DNA sequencing of the p53 gene, we analyzed dissected gliomatous and sarcomatous parts of 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gliosarcomas. The two tumors that contained a p53 alteration were found to carry the identical mutation (exon 5; codon 151, CCC {r_arrow} TCC; codon 173, GTG {r_arrow} GTA) in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components. These findings suggest a common origin of the two cellular components from neoplastic glial cells. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Gliosarcoma with liposarcomatous component, bone infiltration and extracranial growth.

    PubMed

    Borota, O C; Scheie, D; Bjerkhagen, B; Jacobsen, E A; Skullerud, K

    2006-01-01

    Gliosarcoma is a highly malignant brain tumor consisting of both a glioblastoma and a mesenchymal component. The latter typically resembles fibrosarcoma, but differentiation patterns resembling osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, angiosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma have also been described. Molecular-genetic studies have shown that both glioblastoma and the mesenchymal component share identical cytogenetic abnormalities or mutations, suggesting a monoclonal origin from glial cells. We report an unusual case of gliosarcoma that presented as a large intracerebral tumor with infiltration of the temporal bone and the soft tissues in the infratemporal fossa. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of alternating areas of glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma. Focally, areas ofosteosarcomatous and liposarcomatous differentiation were found. Although gliosarcoma with transcranial penetration is very rare, it should be suspected in case of intracranial tumor with glioblastoma-imaging features, infiltration of bone and extracranial growth. Our case of liposarcomatous differentiation in gliosarcoma--together with another very recently reported similar case--expands the morphologic heterogeneity of this peculiar brain tumor. PMID:16866302

  18. Model selection in magnetic resonance imaging measurements of vascular permeability: Gadomer in a 9L model of rat cerebral tumor.

    PubMed

    Ewing, James R; Brown, Stephen L; Lu, Mei; Panda, Swayamprava; Ding, Guangliang; Knight, Robert A; Cao, Yue; Jiang, Quan; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Churchman, Jamie L; Fenstermacher, Joseph D

    2006-03-01

    Vasculature in and around the cerebral tumor exhibits a wide range of permeabilities, from normal capillaries with essentially no blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage to a tumor vasculature that freely passes even such large molecules as albumin. In measuring BBB permeability by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), various contrast agents, sampling intervals, and contrast distribution models can be selected, each with its effect on the measurement's outcome. Using Gadomer, a large paramagnetic contrast agent, and MRI measures of T(1) over a 25-min period, BBB permeability was estimated in 15 Fischer rats with day-16 9L cerebral gliomas. Three vascular models were developed: (1) impermeable (normal BBB); (2) moderate influx (leakage without efflux); and (3) fast leakage with bidirectional exchange. For data analysis, these form nested models. Model 1 estimates only vascular plasma volume, v(D), Model 2 (the Patlak graphical approach) v(D) and the influx transfer constant K(i). Model 3 estimates v(D), K(i), and the reverse transfer constant, k(b), through which the extravascular distribution space, v(e), is calculated. For this contrast agent and experimental duration, Model 3 proved the best model, yielding the following central tumor means (+/-s.d.; n = 15): v(D) = 0.07 +/- 0.03 for K(i) = 0.0105 +/- 0.005 min(-1) and v(e) = 0.10 +/- 0.04. Model 2 K(i) estimates were approximately 30% of Model 3, but highly correlated (r = 0.80, P < 0.0003). Sizable inhomogeneity in v(D), K(i), and k(b) appeared within each tumor. We conclude that employing nested models enables accurate assessment of transfer constants among areas where BBB permeability, contrast agent distribution volumes, and signal-to-noise vary. PMID:16079791

  19. Bevacizumab and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumor, Lymphoma, Intracranial Glioblastoma, Gliosarcoma or Anaplastic Astrocytoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-14

    Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IVA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IVB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. Tissue pO{sub 2} of Orthotopic 9L and C6 Gliomas and Tumor-Specific Response to Radiotherapy and Hyperoxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Nadeem Li Hongbin; Hou, Huagang; Lariviere, Jean P.; Gladstone, David J.; Demidenko, Eugene; Swartz, Harold M.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia is a well-known therapeutic problem; however, a lack of methods for repeated measurements of glioma partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) limits the ability to optimize the therapeutic approaches. We report the effects of 9.3 Gy of radiation and carbogen inhalation on orthotopic 9L and C6 gliomas and on the contralateral brain pO{sub 2} in rats using a new and potentially widely useful method, multisite in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. Methods and Materials: Intracerebral 9L and C6 tumors were established in the left hemisphere of syngeneic rats, and electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was successfully used for repeated tissue pO{sub 2} measurements after 9.3 Gy of radiation and during carbogen breathing for 5 consecutive days. Results: Intracerebral 9L gliomas had a pO{sub 2} of 30-32 mm Hg and C6 gliomas were relatively hypoxic, with a pO{sub 2} of 12-14 mm Hg (p < 0.05). The tissue pO{sub 2} of the contralateral brain was 40-45 mm Hg in rats with either 9L or C6 gliomas. Irradiation resulted in a significant increase in pO{sub 2} of the 9L gliomas only. A significant increase in the pO{sub 2} of the 9L and C6 gliomas was observed in rats breathing carbogen, but this effect decreased during 5 days of repeated experiments in the 9L gliomas. Conclusion: These results highlight the tumor-specific effect of radiation (9.3.Gy) on tissue pO{sub 2} and the different responses to carbogen inhalation. The ability of electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry to provide direct repeated measurements of tissue pO{sub 2} could have a vital role in understanding the dynamics of hypoxia during therapy that could then be optimized by scheduling doses at times of improved tumor oxygenation.

  1. Response of 9L rat brain tumor multicellular spheroids to single and fractionated doses of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Sano, Y; Hoshino, T; Barker, M; Deen, D F

    1984-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the relative effect of each of four fractions of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) against 9L rat brain tumor multicellular spheroids and to compare the results of the cell survival and growth delay assays. Similar levels of cell kill resulted when BCNU was administered either as single fractions of 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, or 6.0 micrograms/ml for 1 hr or as one to four fractions of 1.5 micrograms/ml that were administered sequentially for 1 hr each. Survival was increased if the assay was delayed until 24 hr after drug treatment, which indicates that 9L cells in spheroids recover from BCNU-induced potentially lethal damage. When BCNU was administered in 1.5-micrograms/ml fractions, plating efficiencies depended markedly on the interval between the fractions. The 12-hr protocol produced an overall higher cell kill. Fractionation schedules of 24 and 36 hr produced less cell kill than did the other schedules. Survival plateaued for the last three treatments with BCNU in the 36-hr schedule. Cells in S phase at the time of administration of the initial 1.5-micrograms/ml fraction of BCNU moved into G1- and G2-M phases by 12 hr after treatment. For time periods longer than 12 hr, cells began to appear in the BCNU-resistant S phase. Thus, the movement of cells into the drug-sensitive and -resistant phases after the first fraction correlates well with the corresponding overall cytotoxic effect produced by treatment with the combined BCNU (1.5 micrograms/ml) fractions. For a higher concentration (3.0 micrograms/ml for 1 hr), maximum cell kill was reached within the 12- to 18-hr interval, after which cell kill plateaued. Cells were not found in the S-phase fraction 12 to 36 hr after the first treatment with 3.0 micrograms/ml; maximum cell kill for the fractionated protocols resulted at these times. Therefore, BCNU, which is classified as a cell cycle-nonspecific drug, can induce a partial synchrony in 9L spheroid cells, which determines

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy of intracerebral rat gliosarcomas.

    PubMed Central

    Joel, D D; Fairchild, R G; Laissue, J A; Saraf, S K; Kalef-Ezra, J A; Slatkin, D N

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of intracerebrally implanted rat gliosarcomas was tested. Preferential accumulation of 10B in tumors was achieved by continuous infusion of the sulfhydryl borane dimer, Na4(10)B24H22S2, at a rate of 45-50 micrograms of 10B per g of body weight per day from day 11 to day 14 after tumor initiation (day 0). This infusion schedule resulted in average blood 10B concentrations of 35 micrograms/ml in a group of 12 gliosarcoma-bearing rats and 45 micrograms/ml in a group of 10 similar gliosarcoma-bearing rats treated by BNCT. Estimated tumor 10B levels in these two groups were 26 and 34 micrograms/g, respectively. On day 14, boron-treated and non-boron-treated rats were exposed to 5.0 or 7.5 MW.min of radiation from the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor that yielded thermal neutron fluences of approximately 2.0 x 10(12) or approximately 3.0 x 10(12) n/cm2, respectively, in the tumors. Untreated rats had a median postinitiation survival time of 21 days. Reactor radiation alone increased median postinitiation survival time to 26 (5.0 MW.min) or 28 (7.5 MW.min) days. The 12 rats that received 5 MW.min of BNCT had a median postinitiation survival time of 60 days. Two of these animals survived greater than 15 months. In the 7.5 MW.min group, the median survival time is not calculable since 6 of the 10 animals remain alive greater than 10 months after BNCT. The estimated radiation doses to tumors in the two BNCT groups were 14.2 and 25.6 Gy equivalents, respectively. Similar gliosarcoma-bearing rats treated with 15.0 or 22.5 Gy of 250-kilovolt peak x-rays had median survival times of only 26 or 31 days, respectively, after tumor initiation. Images PMID:2263630

  3. Thapsigargin-induced grp78 expression is mediated by the increase of cytosolic free calcium in 9L rat brain tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, L Y; Chiang, A S; Hung, J J; Hung, H I; Lai, Y K

    2000-06-01

    Exposure of 9L rat brain tumor cells to 300 nM thapsigargin (TG), a sarcoendoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPases inhibitor, leads to an immediate suppression of general protein synthesis followed by an enhanced synthesis of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, GRP78. Synthesis of GRP78 increases significantly and continues to rise after 4 h of treatment, and this process coincides with the accumulation of grp78 mRNA. TG-induced grp78 expression can be suppressed by the cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)](c)) chelator dibromo-1, 2-bis(aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) in a concentration-dependent manner. Induction of grp78 is completely abolished in the presence of 20 microM BAPTA under which the TG-induced increase of [Ca(2+)](c) is also completely prevented. By adding ethyleneglycol bis(beta-aminoethyl)ether-N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acid in the foregoing experiments, in a condition such that endoplasmic reticulum calcium ([Ca(2+)](ER)) is depleted and calcium influx from outside is prevented, TG-induced grp78 expression is also abolished. These data lead us to conclude that increase in [Ca(2+)](c), together with the depletion of [Ca(2+)](ER), are the major causes of TG-induced grp78 expression in 9L rat brain tumor cells. By using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), we found that the nuclear extracts prepared from TG-treated cells exhibit an increase in binding activity toward the extended grp78 promoter as well as the individual cis-acting regulatory elements, CRE and CORE. Moreover, this increase in binding activity is also reduced by BAPTA. By competitory assays using the cis-acting regulatory elements as the competitors as well as the EMSA probes, we further show that all of the tested cis elements-CRE, CORE, and C1-are involved in the basal as well as in the TG-induced expression of grp78 and that the protein factor(s) that binds to the C1 region plays an important role in the formation and maintenance of the transcription complex. PMID:10861839

  4. Primary gliosarcoma with long-survival: report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Zhen; Yang, Di; Shen, Jie; Li, Yuan; Wu, Huanwen; Meng, Yunxiao; Zhang, Shuying; Luo, Yufeng; Cao, Jinling; Liang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare high-grade malignant tumor with poor prognosis. The survival period of GS ranges from 4 to 18.5 months. Rarely would it be over 40 months. Survival of intraventricular GS is less than 8 months. Methods: There were 2 cases of primary gliosarcoma in our hospital with long-term survival after resection, with one of pure intraventricular origin. We confirmed that our diagnosis was correct by light microscopy, GFAP immunohistochemistry and histochemistry of reticular fiber staining. Results: In the first case, a 47-year-old man with intraventricular gliosarcoma survived for 130 months after surgery. In another case, a 63-year-old woman survived for 4 years after resection. Both cases of GS exhibited biphasic glioblastoma and fibrosarcoma with necrosis. According to the review of surgical records, complete tumor resections, including extended resections were carried out in both cases. The two patients received postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy without any further recurrence and metastasis. Conclusions: We reported two cases of GS with long survival. The presented cases demonstrate that, in rare instances, gliosarcoma may show prolonged survival with after surgical excision combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:25337286

  5. Phase I/II study of sorafenib in combination with temsirolimus for recurrent glioblastoma or gliosarcoma: North American Brain Tumor Consortium study 05-02

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eudocia Q.; Kuhn, John; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Abrey, Lauren; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Lieberman, Frank; Robins, H. Ian; Chang, Susan M.; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Drappatz, Jan; Mehta, Minesh P.; Levin, Victor A.; Aldape, Kenneth; Dancey, Janet E.; Wright, John J.; Prados, Michael D.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of single-agent targeted molecular therapies in glioblastoma has been limited to date. The North American Brain Tumor Consortium examined the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of combination therapy with sorafenib, a small molecule inhibitor of Raf, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor–β, and temsirolimus (CCI-779), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin. This was a phase I/II study. The phase I component used a standard 3 × 3 dose escalation scheme to determine the safety and tolerability of this combination therapy. The phase II component used a 2-stage design; the primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) rate. Thirteen patients enrolled in the phase I component. The maximum tolerated dosage (MTD) for combination therapy was sorafenib 800 mg daily and temsirolimus 25 mg once weekly. At the MTD, grade 3 thrombocytopenia was the dose-limiting toxicity. Eighteen patients were treated in the phase II component. At interim analysis, the study was terminated and did not proceed to the second stage. No patients remained progression free at 6 months. Median PFS was 8 weeks. The toxicity of this combination therapy resulted in a maximum tolerated dose of temsirolimus that was only one-tenth of the single-agent dose. Minimal activity in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme was seen at the MTD of the 2 combined agents. PMID:23099651

  6. Phase I/II study of sorafenib in combination with temsirolimus for recurrent glioblastoma or gliosarcoma: North American Brain Tumor Consortium study 05-02.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eudocia Q; Kuhn, John; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Abrey, Lauren; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Lieberman, Frank; Robins, H Ian; Chang, Susan M; Yung, W K Alfred; Drappatz, Jan; Mehta, Minesh P; Levin, Victor A; Aldape, Kenneth; Dancey, Janet E; Wright, John J; Prados, Michael D; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Gilbert, Mark R; Wen, Patrick Y

    2012-12-01

    The activity of single-agent targeted molecular therapies in glioblastoma has been limited to date. The North American Brain Tumor Consortium examined the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of combination therapy with sorafenib, a small molecule inhibitor of Raf, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, and temsirolimus (CCI-779), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin. This was a phase I/II study. The phase I component used a standard 3 × 3 dose escalation scheme to determine the safety and tolerability of this combination therapy. The phase II component used a 2-stage design; the primary endpoint was 6-month progression-free survival (PFS6) rate. Thirteen patients enrolled in the phase I component. The maximum tolerated dosage (MTD) for combination therapy was sorafenib 800 mg daily and temsirolimus 25 mg once weekly. At the MTD, grade 3 thrombocytopenia was the dose-limiting toxicity. Eighteen patients were treated in the phase II component. At interim analysis, the study was terminated and did not proceed to the second stage. No patients remained progression free at 6 months. Median PFS was 8 weeks. The toxicity of this combination therapy resulted in a maximum tolerated dose of temsirolimus that was only one-tenth of the single-agent dose. Minimal activity in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme was seen at the MTD of the 2 combined agents. PMID:23099651

  7. p28 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-19

    Teratoid Tumor, Atypical; Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brainstem Tumors; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Medulloblastoma; Neuroectodermal Tumor, Primitive

  8. Primary Multifocal Gliosarcoma of the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ramesh M.; Finn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare and exceedingly malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system. It displays clinical features similar to glioblastoma, yet is histologically unique as it harbors both gliomatous and sarcomatous cellular components. Involvement of the neuro-axis is predominantly limited to the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. Primary GS of the spinal cord is rarely encountered. We report a case of a 54 year old male who presented with 2 months of progressive, bilateral lower extremity sensory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neuro-axis revealed multiple intradural lesions involving the cervical and thoracic spinal cord without evidence of intracranial involvement. Surgical resection of a dural based, extramedullary cervical lesion and two exophytic, intramedullary thoracic lesions revealed gliosarcoma, WHO grade IV. The patient died approximately 11 months after presentation. This report confirms that GS is not limited to supratentorial involvement and can primarily affect the spinal cord. PMID:27134708

  9. Identification of AREG and PLK1 pathway modulation as a potential key of the response of intracranial 9L tumor to microbeam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Audrey; Sakakini, Nathalie; Atifi, Michèle El; Le Clec'h, Céline; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Rogalev, Léonid; Laissue, Jean Albert; Rihet, Pascal; Le Duc, Géraldine; Pelletier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) relies on the spatial fractionation of a synchrotron beam into parallel micron-wide beams allowing deposition of hectogray doses. MRT controls the intracranial tumor growth in rodent models while sparing normal brain tissues. Our aim was to identify the early biological processes underlying the differential effect of MRT on tumor and normal brain tissues. The expression of 28,000 transcripts was tested by microarray 6 hr after unidirectional MRT (400 Gy, 50 µm-wide microbeams, 200 µm spacing). The specific response of tumor tissues to MRT consisted in the significant transcriptomic modulation of 431 probesets (316 genes). Among them, 30 were not detected in normal brain tissues, neither before nor after MRT. Areg, Trib3 and Nppb were down-regulated, whereas all others were up-regulated. Twenty-two had similar expression profiles during the 2 weeks observed after MRT, including Ccnb1, Cdc20, Pttg1 and Plk1 related to the mitotic role of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) pathway. The up-regulation of Areg expression may indicate the emergence of survival processes in tumor cells triggered by the irradiation; while the modulation of the "mitotic role of Plk1" pathway, which relates to cytokinetic features of the tumor observed histologically after MRT, may partially explain the control of tumor growth by MRT. The identification of these tumor-specific responses permit to consider new strategies that might potentiate the antitumoral effect of MRT. PMID:25382544

  10. PDT-induced apoptosis: investigations using two malignant brain tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilge, Lothar D.; Menzies, Keir; Bisland, Stuart K.; Lin, Annie; Wilson, Brian C.

    2002-06-01

    PDT included necrosis in brain tissue and an intracranial tumor has been quantified for various photosensitizers, and it has been shown to be dependent on the sub-cellular localization of these photosensitizers. In quantifying non- necrotic biological endpoints, such as PDT induced apoptosis, the expression and translation of apoptosis inhibiting or promoting genes is of considerable importance. We studied the susceptibility of two glioblastoma cell lines to under go apoptotic cell death following photodynamic treatment with either Photofrin or delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta) ALA) in vivo. Murine 9L Gliosarcoma cells or human U87 Glioblastoma cells were implanted into the cortex of rats, and following 12 or 14 days of growth respectively, subjected to either Photofrin-mediated PDT or ALA-mediated PDT. 9L gliosarcoma cells express the phosphatase Tensin homologue (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene while in U87 cells PTEN is mutated. Differences in the Photofrin mediated PDT induced apoptosis were noted between the two different cell lines in vivo, suggesting that Photofrin mediated PDT may be dependent on apoptotic pathways. ALA induced PPIX showed higher selectivity towards 9L than Photofrin mediated PDT. These studies suggests that PDT could be used as an effective treatment for intracranial neoplasm. Endogenous photosensitizers such as ALA could be used to promote apoptosis in tumor cells due to PDT treatment and thereby minimize the extent of necrotic infarction in the surrounding normal brain.

  11. Genetic Alterations in Gliosarcoma and Giant Cell Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Ohta, Takashi; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Satomi, Kaishi; Capper, David; Pierscianek, Daniela; Sure, Ulrich; Vital, Anne; Paulus, Werner; Mittelbronn, Michel; Antonelli, Manila; Kleihues, Paul; Giangaspero, Felice; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The majority of glioblastomas develop rapidly with a short clinical history (primary glioblastoma IDH wild-type), whereas secondary glioblastomas progress from diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. IDH mutations are the genetic hallmark of secondary glioblastomas. Gliosarcomas and giant cell glioblastomas are rare histological glioblastoma variants, which usually develop rapidly. We determined the genetic patterns of 36 gliosarcomas and 19 giant cell glioblastomas. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were absent in all 36 gliosarcomas and in 18 of 19 giant cell glioblastomas analyzed, indicating that they are histological variants of primary glioblastoma. Furthermore, LOH 10q (88%) and TERT promoter mutations (83%) were frequent in gliosarcomas. Copy number profiling using the 450k methylome array in 5 gliosarcomas revealed CDKN2A homozygous deletion (3 cases), trisomy chromosome 7 (2 cases), and monosomy chromosome 10 (2 cases). Giant cell glioblastomas had LOH 10q in 50% and LOH 19q in 42% of cases. ATRX loss was detected immunohistochemically in 19% of giant cell glioblastomas, but absent in 17 gliosarcomas. These and previous results suggest that gliosarcomas are a variant of, and genetically similar to, primary glioblastomas, except for a lack of EGFR amplification, while giant cell glioblastoma occupies a hybrid position between primary and secondary glioblastomas. PMID:26443480

  12. Cerebral gliosarcoma: Analysis of 16 patients and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gajendra; Das, Kuntal K.; Sharma, Pradeep; Guruprasad, B.; Jaiswal, Sushila; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K.; Sahu, Rabi N.; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K.; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gliosarcoma (GS), a subtype of glioblastoma (GBM), is a rare primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. Certain features like temporal lobe affinity, tendency for extraneural metastasis and poorer outcome compared to GBM indicate that GS may indeed be a separate clinicopathologic entity. This led us to revisit this entity in our settings. Materials and Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, 16 cases of histologically proven GSs (14 primary, two secondary) were treated. Patient data were retrieved retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with? Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0. (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier method. Results: GS predominantly affected males in their fifth decade of life. Raised intracranial pressure was the most common mode of clinical presentation. Temporal lobe was the most commonly affected part of the brain and majority of primary and all of secondary GBM were located peripherally. In 7 (43.8%) patients, tumor was radiologically well-demarcated and enhanced strongly and homogenously on contrast as compared to 9 (56.2%) patients where the tumor was ill-defined and showed heterogenous patchy or ring enhancement. Extent of excision was total in seven patients (43.8%), near total in 4 (25%) and subtotal in five patients (31.2%). Median survival was 6 months. Patients with well-demarcated, enhancing mass on imaging intraoperatively had firm tumors with a good plane of cleavage and had a better survival (8 months) compared to those in whom the tumor radiologically and intraoperatively mimicked GBM (2 months). Conclusion: GS is associated with poor survival (median survival 6 months). Radiological and intraoperative findings help categorize these tumors into GBM like GS and meningioma like GS. While the former histologically mimics GBM and has very poor survival (2 months), GS with meningioma like feature tends to have better survival (8 months). PMID:26396606

  13. Delayed onset of paresis in rats with experimental intramedullary spinal cord gliosarcoma following intratumoral administration of the paclitaxel delivery system OncoGel

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Betty M.; Hdeib, Alia; Caplan, Justin; Legnani, Federico G.; Fowers, Kirk D.; Brem, Henry; Jallo, George; Pradilla, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Object Treatment options for anaplastic or malignant intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) remain limited. Paclitaxel has potent cytotoxicity against experimental intracranial gliomas and could be beneficial in the treatment of IMSCTs, but poor CNS penetration and significant toxicity limit its use. Such limitations could be overcome with local intratumoral delivery. Paclitaxel has been previously incorporated into a biodegradable gel depot delivery system (OncoGel) and in this study the authors evaluated the safety of intramedullary injections of OncoGel in rats and its efficacy against an intramedullary rat gliosarcoma. Methods Safety of intramedullary OncoGel was tested in 12 Fischer-344 rats using OncoGel concentrations of 1.5 and 6.0 mg/ml (5 μl); median survival and functional motor scores (Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan [BBB] scale) were compared with those obtained with placebo (ReGel) and medium-only injections. Efficacy of OncoGel was tested in 61 Fischer-344 rats implanted with an intramedullary injection of 9L gliosarcoma containing 100,000 cells in 5 μl of medium, and randomized to receive OncoGel administered on the same day (in 32 rats) or 5 days after tumor implantation (in 29 rats) using either 1.5 mg/ml or 3.0 mg/ml doses of paclitaxel. Median survival and BBB scores were compared with those of ReGel-treated and tumor-only rats. Animals were killed after the onset of deficits for histopathological analysis. Results OncoGel was safe for intramedullary injection in rats in doses up to 5 μl of 3.0 mg/ml of paclitaxel; a dose of 5 μl of 6.0 mg/ml caused rapid deterioration in BBB scores. OncoGel at concentrations of 1.5 mg/ml and 3.0 mg/ml paclitaxel given on both Day 0 and Day 5 prolonged median survival and preserved BBB scores compared with controls. OncoGel 1.5 mg/ml produced 62.5% long-term survivors when delivered on Day 0. A comparison between the 1.5 mg/ml and the 3.0 mg/ml doses showed higher median survival with the 1.5 mg/ml dose on Day 0

  14. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the jejunum presenting as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in a patient with a history of gliosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso Puentes, Nidia; Jimenez-Alfaro Larrazabal, Carmen; García Higuera, Maria Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Small bowel malignant tumors are rare and sarcomatoid carcinomas have rarely been reported at this site. We report a 56-year-old woman, with history of an excised gliosarcoma, who presented with recurrent obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. She underwent endoscopy and colonoscopy, which failed to identify the cause of the bleeding. The abdominal computed tomography scan located a tumor in the small bowel. Pathology revealed a jejunal sarcomatoid carcinoma. She developed tumor recurrence and multiple liver metastases shortly after surgery. Immunohistochemistry is required for accurate diagnosis. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, which is associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:24759341

  15. Radiotherapy plus concomitant temozolomide in primary gliosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Adeberg, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Denise; Harrabi, Semi Ben; Diehl, Christian; Koelsche, Christian; Rieken, Stefan; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Debus, Juergen

    2016-06-01

    Clinical guidelines for gliosarcoma (GSM) are poorly defined and GSM patients are usually treated in accordance with existing guidelines for glioblastoma (GBM), with maximal surgical resection followed by chemoradiation with temozolomide (TMZ). However, it is not clear yet if GSM patients profit from TMZ therapy and if O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is crucial. We retrospectively evaluated 37 patients with histologically proven, primary GSM who had received radiation therapy since the temozolomide era (post-2005). Twenty-five patients (67.6 %) received combined chemoradiation with temozolomide, and 12 cases (32.4 %) received radiation therapy alone. Molecular markers were determined retrospectively. Survival and correlations were calculated using log-rank, univariate, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards-ratio analyses. All cases were isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) wildtype, MGMT promoter methylation could be observed in 33.3 % of the assessable cases (10/30) and TERT promoter mutation was seen in a high frequency of 86.7 % (26/30). The influence of TMZ therapy on overall survival (OS) was significantly improved compared with cases in which radiation therapy alone was performed (13.9 vs. 9.9 months; p = 0.045), independently of MGMT promoter methylation. The positive effect of TMZ on OS was confirmed in this study's multivariate analyses (p = 0.04), after adjusting our results for potential confounders. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that concomitant TMZ together with radiation therapy increases GSM-patient survival independent of MGMT promoter methylation. Thus, GSM can be treated in accordance to GBM guidelines. MGMT promoter methylation was infrequent and TERT promoter mutation common without influencing the survival rates. The mechanisms of TMZ effects in GSM are still not fully understood and merit further clinical and molecular-genetic and -biological evaluation. PMID:27025857

  16. PDE5 Inhibitors Enhance Tumor Permeability and Efficacy of Chemotherapy in a Rat Brain Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Black, Keith L.; Yin, Dali; Ong, John M.; Hu, Jinwei; Konda, Bindu M.; Wang, Xiao; Ko, MinHee K.; Bayan, Jennifer-Ann; Sacapano, Manuel R.; Espinoza, Andreas; Morris-Irvin, Dwain K; Shu, Yan

    2008-01-01

    The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB) significantly limits delivery of therapeutic concentrations of chemotherapy to brain tumors. A novel approach to selectively increase drug delivery is pharmacologic modulation of signaling molecules that regulate BTB permeability, such as those in cGMP signaling. Here we show that oral administration of sildenafil (Viagra) and vardenafil (Levitra), inhibitors of cGMP-specific PDE5, selectively increased tumor capillary permeability in 9L gliosarcoma-bearing rats with no significant increase in normal brain capillaries. Tumor-bearing rats treated with the chemotherapy agent, adriamycin, in combination with vardenafil survived significantly longer than rats treated with adriamycin alone. The selective increase in tumor capillary permeability appears to be mediated by a selective increase in tumor cGMP levels and increased vesicular transport through tumor capillaries, and could be attenuated by iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor for calcium-dependent potassium (KCa) channels, that are effectors in cGMP signaling. The effect by sildenafil could be further increased by simultaneously using another BTB “opener”, bradykinin. Collectively, this data demonstrates that oral administration of PDE5 inhibitors selectively increases BTB permeability and enhance anti-tumor efficacy for a chemotherapeutic agent. These findings have significant implications for improving delivery of anti-tumor agents to brain tumors. PMID:18674521

  17. Gene transfer into experimental brain tumors mediated by adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and retrovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Boviatsis, E J; Chase, M; Wei, M X; Tamiya, T; Hurford, R K; Kowall, N W; Tepper, R I; Breakefield, X O; Chiocca, E A

    1994-02-01

    Three vectors derived from retrovirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV), and adenovirus were compared in cultured rat 9L gliosarcoma cells for gene transfer efficiency and in a 9L rat brain tumor model for histologic pattern and distribution of foreign gene delivery, as well as for associated tumor necrosis and inflammation. At a multiplicity of infection of 1, in vitro transfer of a foreign gene (lacZ from Escherichia coli) into cells was more efficient with either the replication-defective retrovirus vector or the replication-conditional thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient HSV vector than with the replication-defective adenovirus vector. In vivo, stereotactic injections of each vector into rat brain tumors revealed three main histopathologic findings: (i) retrovirus and HSV vector-mediated gene transfer was relatively selective for cells within the tumor, whereas adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer occurred into several types of endogenous neural cells, as well as into cells within the tumor; (ii) gene transfer to multiple infiltrating tumor deposits without apparent gene transfer to intervening normal brain tissue occurred uniquely in one animal inoculated with the HSV vector, and (iii) extensive necrosis and selective inflammation in the tumor were evident with the HSV vector, whereas there was minimal evidence of tumor necrosis and inflammation with either the retrovirus or adenovirus vectors. PMID:8186298

  18. Human and rat glioma growth, invasion, and vascularization in a novel chick embryo brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Alexandra; Fotos, Joseph S; Little, Brian W; Galileo, Deni S

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms that control the insidiously invasive nature of malignant gliomas are poorly understood, and their study would be facilitated by an in vivo model that is easy to manipulate and inexpensive. The developing chick embryo brain was assessed as a new xenograft model for the production, growth, and study of human and rat glioma cell lines. Three established glioma lines (U-87 MG, C6, and 9L) were injected into chick embryo brain ventricles on embryonic day (E) 5 and brains were examined after several days to two weeks after injection. All glioma lines survived, produced vascularized intraventricular tumors, and invaded the brain in a manner similar to that in rodents. Rat C6 glioma cells spread along vasculature and also invaded the neural tissue. Human U-87 glioma cells migrated along vasculature and exhibited slight invasion of neural tissue. Rat 9L gliosarcoma cells were highly motile, but migrated only along the vasculature. A derivative of 9L cells that stably expressed the cell surface adhesion molecule NgCAM/L1 was produced and also injected into chick embryo brain ventricles to see if this protein could facilitate tumor cell migration away from the vasculature into areas such as axonal tracts. 9L/NgCAM cells, however, did not migrate away from the vasculature and, thus, this protein alone cannot be responsible for diffuse invasiveness of some gliomas. 9L/NgCAM cell motility was assessed in vitro using sophisticated time-lapse microscopy and quantitative analysis, and was significantly altered compared to parental 9L cells. These studies demonstrate that the chick embryo brain is a successful and novel xenograft model for mammalian gliomas and demonstrate the potential usefulness of this new model for studying glioma tumor cell growth, vascularization, and invasiveness. PMID:16158250

  19. Uptake of [sup 10]B in gliosarcomas following the injection of gluthathione monoethyl ester and sulfhydryl borane

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.; Coderre, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The sulfhydryl borane Na[sub 2][sup 10]B[sub 12]H[sub 11]SH (BSH) was developed as a capture agent for BNCT about 20 years ago and is the compound currently used clinically in Japan for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Tumor [sup 10]B concentrations following the infusion of the oxidized BSH, a disulfide dimer (Na[sub 4][sup 10]B[sub 24]H[sub 22]S[sub 2]), are nearly twice those obtained following administration of equal amounts of boron as BSH. Also, the rate of decrease of tumor [sup 10]B concentration is slower after dimer infusion than after BSH infusion. When BNCT was administered to rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas, the animals infused with dimer had a significant longer median survival time. Dimer, on the other hand, induces a moderately severe, but reversible, hepatotoxicity which may complicate its use in humans. Intracellular glutathione plays an important role in defense against radical-mediated tissue injury. Glutathione monoesters have been reported to have a protective effective on cisplatin toxicity and on radical-induced acute pancreatitis. We investigated the possibility of reducing dimer-induced hepatotoxicity by pre-administration of GSH-ME. The results indicate that not only does the pre-administration of GSH-ME markedly reduce dimer-induced hepatotoxicity, but also results in nearly a doubling of tumor boron concentration. Furthermore, GSH-ME markedly increases tumor boron uptake and retention following administration of BSH.

  20. Uptake of {sup 10}B in gliosarcomas following the injection of gluthathione monoethyl ester and sulfhydryl borane

    SciTech Connect

    Joel, D.D.; Slatkin, D.N.; Coderre, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    The sulfhydryl borane Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 12}H{sub 11}SH (BSH) was developed as a capture agent for BNCT about 20 years ago and is the compound currently used clinically in Japan for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Tumor {sup 10}B concentrations following the infusion of the oxidized BSH, a disulfide dimer (Na{sub 4}{sup 10}B{sub 24}H{sub 22}S{sub 2}), are nearly twice those obtained following administration of equal amounts of boron as BSH. Also, the rate of decrease of tumor {sup 10}B concentration is slower after dimer infusion than after BSH infusion. When BNCT was administered to rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas, the animals infused with dimer had a significant longer median survival time. Dimer, on the other hand, induces a moderately severe, but reversible, hepatotoxicity which may complicate its use in humans. Intracellular glutathione plays an important role in defense against radical-mediated tissue injury. Glutathione monoesters have been reported to have a protective effective on cisplatin toxicity and on radical-induced acute pancreatitis. We investigated the possibility of reducing dimer-induced hepatotoxicity by pre-administration of GSH-ME. The results indicate that not only does the pre-administration of GSH-ME markedly reduce dimer-induced hepatotoxicity, but also results in nearly a doubling of tumor boron concentration. Furthermore, GSH-ME markedly increases tumor boron uptake and retention following administration of BSH.

  1. Pronounced antitumor effects and tumor radiosensitization of double suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Rogulski, K R; Zhang, K; Kolozsvary, A; Kim, J H; Freytag, S O

    1997-11-01

    The efficacy of HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) and Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapies as cancer treatments are currently being examined in humans. We demonstrated previously that compared to single suicide gene therapy, greater levels of targeted cytotoxicity and radiosensitization can be achieved in vitro by genetically modifying tumor cells to express CD and HSV-1 TK concomitantly, as a fusion protein. In the present study, the efficacy of the combined double suicide gene therapy/radiotherapy approach was examined in vivo. Nude mice were injected either s.c. or i.m. with 9L gliosarcoma cells expressing an E. coli CD/HSV-1 TK fusion gene. Double suicide gene therapy using 5-fluorocytosine (500 mg/kg) and ganciclovir (30 mg/kg) proved to be markedly better at delaying tumor growth and achieving a tumor cure than single suicide gene therapy, which used 5-fluorocytosine or ganciclovir administered independently. Importantly, double suicide gene therapy was highly effective against large experimental tumors (>2 cm3), reducing tumor volume an average of 99% and producing a 40% tumor cure. Moreover, double suicide gene therapy profoundly potentiated the antitumor effects of radiation. The results indicate that double suicide gene therapy, particularly when coupled with radiotherapy, may represent a highly effective means of eradicating tumors. PMID:9815600

  2. Characterization of a canine glioma cell line as related to established experimental brain tumor models.

    PubMed

    Rainov, N G; Koch, S; Sena-Esteves, M; Berens, M E

    2000-07-01

    A large animal tumor model for anaplastic glioma has been recently developed using immunotolerant allogeneic Beagle dogs and an established canine glioma cell line, J3T. This model offers advantages in terms of tumor morphology and similarity to human anaplastic glioma. The present study was aimed at evaluating the biological characteristics of the J3T canine glioma cell line as related to experimental gene therapy studies. Furthermore, development and morphology of canine brain tumors in a xenogeneic immunodeficient SCID mouse model was investigated. It was demonstrated that cultured J3T cells can be efficiently infected by adenovirus (AV), herpes-simplex type I (HSV), or retrovirus (RV) vectors, as well as by non-virus vectors such as cationic liposome/DNA complexes. Thus, in terms of infectability and transfectability, J3T cells seem to be closer to human glioma than the 9L rodent gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity of selection antibiotics such as G418, puromycin, and hygromycin on J3T cells essentially resemble cytotoxicity seen with other established glioma lines, for example, 9L, U87, or U343. RV-mediated HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy demonstrated comparable LD50 for TK-expressing and control (non-expressing) J3T and 9L cells treated with Ganciclovir. Further, it was proven that J3T cells are tumorigenic and may grow heterotopically and orthotopically in a xenogeneic immunodeficient host, the SCID mouse, although morphology and growth pattern of these xenogeneic tumors differ from the demonstrated invasive phenotype in the Beagle dog. PMID:10901232

  3. Clinical outcome of gliosarcoma compared with glioblastoma multiforme: a clinical study in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guobin; Huang, Shengyue; Zhang, Junting; Wu, Zhen; Lin, Song; Wang, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a rare biphasic neoplasms of the central nervous system composed of a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) admixed with a sarcomatous component. In clinical practice GSM is generally managed similarly to GBM. However, there are conflicting reports regarding their clinical aggressiveness, cell line of origin and possible prognosis compared with those of GBM. The objective of this study was to compare clinic-pathological features in GSM patients with the GBM patients during the same study period. 518 patients with GBM were treated at our hospital between 2008 and 2013, among them 51 were GSM. In this series the GSMs represented 9.8 % of all GBMs and included 58.8 % male with a median age of 44.7 years. The locations, all supratentorial, included temporal in 41.2 %, frontal in 25.5 %, parietal in 19.6 %, and occipital in 13.7 %. All patients underwent tumor resection followed by post-operative radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation studies were significantly more frequent in the GBMs than GSMs (80.1 % vs. 44.7 %, P < 0.001). The median progression free survival and overall survival for the patients with GSM were 8.0 and 13.0 months, respectively, as compared with 9.0 and 14.0 months in the GBM group (log rank test P = 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). The Cox proportional hazards regression model indicated that the extent of tumor resection (HR = 1.518, P = 0.009) and pathological types (HR = 0.608, P = 0.002) were the significant prognostic factors in our own series. With regard to clinical features and outcomes, GSM and GBM cannot be distinguished clinically. GSM in China may be managed similarly to GBM, with maximal safe surgical resection followed by chemo-radiotherapy. Our study adds further evidence to support GSM as a unique clinical entity with a likely worse prognosis than GBM. PMID:26725096

  4. In vitro influence of hypoxia on bioluminescence imaging in brain tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Jarvi, Mark; Niedre, Mark; Mocanu, Joseph D.; Moriyama, Yumi; Li, Buhong; Lilge, Lothar; Wilson, Brian C.

    2007-02-01

    Bioluminescence Imaging (BLI) has been employed as an imaging modality to identify and characterize fundamental processes related to cancer development and response at cellular and molecular levels. This technique is based on the reaction of luciferin with oxygen in the presence of luciferase and ATP. A major concern in this technique is that tumors are generally hypoxic, either constitutively and/or as a result of treatment, therefore the oxygen available for the bioluminescence reaction could possibly be reduced to limiting levels, and thus leading to underestimation of the actual number of luciferase-labeled cells during in vivo procedures. In this report, we present the initial in vitro results of the oxygen dependence of the bioluminescence signal in rat gliosarcoma 9L cells tagged with the luciferase gene (9L luc cells). Bioluminescence photon emission from cells exposed to different oxygen tensions was detected by a sensitive CCD camera upon exposure to luciferin. The results showed that bioluminescence signal decreased at administered pO II levels below about 5%, falling by approximately 50% at 0.2% pO II. Additional experiments showed that changes in BLI was due to the cell inability to maintain normal levels of ATP during the hypoxic period reducing the ATP concentration to limiting levels for BLI.

  5. Long-term Survival (>13 Years) in a Child With Recurrent Diffuse Pontine Gliosarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Burzynski, Stanislaw R.; Janicki, Tomasz J.; Marszalek, Ania

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant of glioblastoma multiforme. The authors describe the case of an unusual pontine location of GS in a 9-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed with low-grade astrocytoma (LGA) that was successfully controlled for 4 years. Subsequently, his brain tumor transformed into a GS. Prior treatment of his LGA included subtotal tumor resection 3 times, standard radiation therapy, and Gamma Knife procedure twice. His LGA was also treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen of carboplatin and vincristine, and his GS with subtotal resection, high-dose cyclophosphamide, and thiotepa with stem cell rescue and temozolomide. Unfortunately, he developed disseminated disease with multiple lesions and leptomeningeal involvement including a tumor occupying 80% of the pons. Upon presentation at our clinic, he had rapidly progressing disease. He received treatment with antineoplastons (ANP) A10 and AS2-1 for 6 years and 10 months under special exception to our phase II protocol BT-22. During his treatment with ANP his tumor stabilized, then decreased, and, ultimately, did not show any metabolic activity. The patient’s response was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scans. His pathology diagnosis was confirmed by external neuropathologists, and his response to the treatment was determined by central radiology review. He experienced the following treatment-related, reversible toxicities with ANP: fatigue, xerostomia and urinary frequency (grade 1), diarrhea, incontinence and urine color change (grade 2), and grade 4 hypernatremia. His condition continued to improve after treatment with ANP and, currently, he complains only of residual neurological deficit from his previous surgery. He achieved a complete response, and his overall and progression-free survival is in excess of 13 years. This report indicates that it is possible to obtain long-term survival of a child with a highly aggressive recurrent GS

  6. Phase II Study of Erlotinib Plus Temozolomide During and After Radiation Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme or Gliosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Michael D.; Chang, Susan M.; Butowski, Nicholas; DeBoer, Rebecca; Parvataneni, Rupa; Carliner, Hannah; Kabuubi, Paul; Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer; Rabbitt, Jane; Page, Margaretta; Fedoroff, Anne; Sneed, Penny K.; Berger, Mitchel S.; McDermott, Michael W.; Parsa, Andrew T.; Vandenberg, Scott; James, C. David; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Stokoe, David; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This open-label, prospective, single-arm, phase II study combined erlotinib with radiation therapy (XRT) and temozolomide to treat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and gliosarcoma. The objectives were to determine efficacy of this treatment as measured by survival and to explore the relationship between molecular markers and treatment response. Patients and Methods Sixty-five eligible adults with newly diagnosed GBM or gliosarcoma were enrolled. We intended to treat patients not currently treated with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) with 100 mg/d of erlotinib during XRT and 150 mg/d after XRT. Patients receiving EIAEDs were to receive 200 mg/d of erlotinib during XRT and 300 mg/d after XRT. After XRT, the erlotinib dose was escalated until patients developed tolerable grade 2 rash or until the maximum allowed dose was reached. All patients received temozolomide during and after XRT. Molecular markers of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and methylation status of the promotor region of the MGMT gene were analyzed from tumor tissue. Survival was compared with outcomes from two historical phase II trials. Results Median survival was 19.3 months in the current study and 14.1 months in the combined historical control studies, with a hazard ratio for survival (treated/control) of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.91). Treatment was well tolerated. There was a strong positive correlation between MGMT promotor methylation and survival, as well as an association between MGMT promotor-methylated tumors and PTEN positivity shown by immunohistochemistry with improved survival. Conclusion Patients treated with the combination of erlotinib and temozolomide during and following radiotherapy had better survival than historical controls. Additional studies are warranted. PMID:19075262

  7. Synthesis, Radiolabeling and Biological Evaluation of (R)- and (S)-2-Amino-3-[18F]Fluoro-2-Methylpropanoic Acid (FAMP) and (R)- and (S)-3-[18F]Fluoro-2-Methyl-2-N-(Methylamino)propanoic Acid (NMeFAMP) as Potential PET Radioligands for Imaging Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiping; McConathy, Jonathan; Williams, Larry; Camp, Vernon M.; Malveaux, Eugene J.; Zhang, Zhaobin; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    The non-natural amino acids (R)- and (S)-2-amino-3-fluoro-2-methylpropanoic acid 5 and (R)- and (S)-3-fluoro-2-methyl-2-N-(methylamino)propanoic acid 8 were synthesized in shorter reaction sequences than in the original report starting from enantiomerically pure (S)- and (R)-α-methyl-serine, respectively. The reaction sequence provided the cyclic sulfamidate precursors for radiosynthesis of (R)- and (S)-[18F]5 and (R)- and (S)-[18F]8 in fewer steps than in the original report. (R)- and (S)-[18F]5 and(R)- and (S)-[18F]8 were synthesized by no-carrier-added nucleophilic [18F]fluorination in 52–66% decay-corrected-yields with radiochemical purity over 99%. The cell assays showed that all four compounds were substrates for amino acid transport and enter 9L rat gliosarcoma cells in vitro at least in part by system-A amino acid transport. The biodistribution studies demonstrated that in vivo tumor to normal brain ratios for all compounds were high with ratios of 20:1 to115:1 in rats with intracranial 9L tumors. The (R)- enantiomers of [18F]5 and [18F]8 demonstrated higher tumor uptake in vivo compared to the (S)- enantiomers. PMID:20028004

  8. A Systematic Review on the Characteristics, Treatments and Outcomes of the Patients with Primary Spinal Glioblastomas or Gliosarcomas Reported in Literature until March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Stefanie; von Bueren, André O.; Klautke, Gunther; Guckenberger, Matthias; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with primary spinal glioblastomas (GB) or gliosarcomas (GS) reported in literature until March 2015. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cases of glioblastomas / gliosarcomas with primary spinal origin, using predefined search terms. Furthermore we performed hand searches tracking the references from the selected papers. Eighty-two articles published between 1938 and March 2015 were eligible. They reported on 157 patients. Median age at diagnosis was 22 years. The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy clearly increased from the time before 1980 until present. Median overall survival from diagnosis was 8.0 ± 0.9 months. On univariate analysis age influenced overall survival, whereas tumor location, gender and the extent of initial resection did not. Outcomes did not differ between children (< 18 years) and adults. However, the patients who were treated after 1980 achieved longer survival times than the patients treated before. On multivariable analysis only age (< 60 years) and the time period of treatment (≥ 1980) were confirmed as positive independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, primary spinal GB / GS mainly affect younger patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. However, most likely due to the increasing use of adjuvant treatment, modest therapeutic progress has been achieved over recent decades. The characteristics and treatments of primary spinal glioblastomas should be entered into a central registry in order to gain more information about the ideal treatment approach in the future. PMID:26859136

  9. Phase II and pharmacogenomics study of enzastaurin plus temozolomide during and following radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and gliosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan M.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Polley, Mei–Yin; Pieper, Russell; Costello, Joseph F.; Vandenberg, Scott; Parvataneni, Rupa; Nicole, Angelina; Sneed, Patricia K.; Clarke, Jennifer; Hsieh, Emily; Costa, Bruno M.; Reis, Rui M.; Hristova-Kazmierski, Maria; Nicol, Steven J.; Thornton, Donald E.; Prados, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This open-label, single-arm, phase II study combined enzastaurin with temozolomide plus radiation therapy (RT) to treat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and gliosarcoma. Adults with newly diagnosed disease and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 60 were enrolled. Treatment was started within 5 weeks after surgical diagnosis. RT consisted of 60 Gy over 6 weeks. Temozolomide was given at 75 mg/m2 daily during RT and then adjuvantly at 200 mg/m2 daily for 5 days, followed by a 23-day break. Enzastaurin was given once daily during RT and in the adjuvant period at 250 mg/day. Cycles were 28 days. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, and correlations between efficacy and molecular markers analyzed from tumor tissue samples were also evaluated. A prospectively planned analysis compared OS and PFS of the current trial with outcomes from 3 historical phase II trials that combined novel agents with temozolomide plus RT in patients with GBM or gliosarcoma. Sixty-six patients were enrolled. The treatment regimen was well tolerated. OS (median, 74 weeks) and PFS (median, 36 weeks) results from the current trial were comparable to those from a prior phase II study using erlotininb and were significantly better than those from 2 other previous studies that used thalidomide or cis-retinoic acid, all in combination with temozolomide plus RT. A positive correlation between O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation and OS was observed. Adjusting for age and KPS, no other biomarker was associated with survival outcome. Correlation of relevant biomarkers with OS may be useful in future trials. PMID:21896554

  10. Phase II and pharmacogenomics study of enzastaurin plus temozolomide during and following radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme and gliosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Butowski, Nicholas; Chang, Susan M; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Polley, Mei-Yin; Pieper, Russell; Costello, Joseph F; Vandenberg, Scott; Parvataneni, Rupa; Nicole, Angelina; Sneed, Patricia K; Clarke, Jennifer; Hsieh, Emily; Costa, Bruno M; Reis, Rui M; Hristova-Kazmierski, Maria; Nicol, Steven J; Thornton, Donald E; Prados, Michael D

    2011-12-01

    This open-label, single-arm, phase II study combined enzastaurin with temozolomide plus radiation therapy (RT) to treat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and gliosarcoma. Adults with newly diagnosed disease and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 60 were enrolled. Treatment was started within 5 weeks after surgical diagnosis. RT consisted of 60 Gy over 6 weeks. Temozolomide was given at 75 mg/m(2) daily during RT and then adjuvantly at 200 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days, followed by a 23-day break. Enzastaurin was given once daily during RT and in the adjuvant period at 250 mg/day. Cycles were 28 days. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, and correlations between efficacy and molecular markers analyzed from tumor tissue samples were also evaluated. A prospectively planned analysis compared OS and PFS of the current trial with outcomes from 3 historical phase II trials that combined novel agents with temozolomide plus RT in patients with GBM or gliosarcoma. Sixty-six patients were enrolled. The treatment regimen was well tolerated. OS (median, 74 weeks) and PFS (median, 36 weeks) results from the current trial were comparable to those from a prior phase II study using erlotinib and were significantly better than those from 2 other previous studies that used thalidomide or cis-retinoic acid, all in combination with temozolomide plus RT. A positive correlation between O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation and OS was observed. Adjusting for age and KPS, no other biomarker was associated with survival outcome. Correlation of relevant biomarkers with OS may be useful in future trials. PMID:21896554

  11. A Systematic Review on the Characteristics, Treatments and Outcomes of the Patients with Primary Spinal Glioblastomas or Gliosarcomas Reported in Literature until March 2015.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Stefanie; von Bueren, André O; Klautke, Gunther; Guckenberger, Matthias; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Pietschmann, Sophie; Müller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with primary spinal glioblastomas (GB) or gliosarcomas (GS) reported in literature until March 2015. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cases of glioblastomas / gliosarcomas with primary spinal origin, using predefined search terms. Furthermore we performed hand searches tracking the references from the selected papers. Eighty-two articles published between 1938 and March 2015 were eligible. They reported on 157 patients. Median age at diagnosis was 22 years. The proportion of patients who received adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy clearly increased from the time before 1980 until present. Median overall survival from diagnosis was 8.0 ± 0.9 months. On univariate analysis age influenced overall survival, whereas tumor location, gender and the extent of initial resection did not. Outcomes did not differ between children (< 18 years) and adults. However, the patients who were treated after 1980 achieved longer survival times than the patients treated before. On multivariable analysis only age (< 60 years) and the time period of treatment (≥ 1980) were confirmed as positive independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, primary spinal GB / GS mainly affect younger patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. However, most likely due to the increasing use of adjuvant treatment, modest therapeutic progress has been achieved over recent decades. The characteristics and treatments of primary spinal glioblastomas should be entered into a central registry in order to gain more information about the ideal treatment approach in the future. PMID:26859136

  12. Convection-enhanced delivery of camptothecin-loaded polymer nanoparticles for treatment of intracranial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Andrew J.; Saucier-Sawyer, Jennifer K.; Booth, Carmen J.; Liu, Jie; Patel, Toral; Piepmeier, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Direct delivery of chemotherapy agents to the brain via degradable polymer delivery systems—such as Gliadel®—is a clinically proven method for treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, but there are important limitations with the current technology—including the requirement for surgery, profound local tissue toxicity, and limitations in diffusional penetration of agents—that limit its application and effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate another technique for direct, controlled delivery of chemotherapy to the brain that provides therapeutic benefit with fewer limitations. In our new approach, camptothecin (CPT)-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles are infused via convection-enhanced delivery (CED) to a stereotactically defined location in the brain, allowing simultaneous control of location, spread, and duration of drug release. To test this approach, CPT-PLGA nanoparticles (~100 nm in diameter) were synthesized with 25% drug loading. When these nanoparticles were incubated in culture with 9L gliosarcoma cells, the IC50 of CPT-PLGA nanoparticles was 0.04 µM, compared to 0.3 µM for CPT alone. CPT-PLGA nanoparticles stereotactically delivered by CED improved survival in rats with intracranial 9L tumors: the median survival for rats treated with CPT-PLGA nanoparticles (22 days) was significantly longer than unloaded nanoparticles (15 days) and free CPT infusion (17 days). CPT-PLGA nanoparticle treatment also produced significantly more long-term survivors (30% of animals were free of disease at 60 days) than any other treatment. CPT was present in tissues harvested up to 53 days post-infusion, indicating prolonged residence at the local site of administration. These are the first results to demonstrate the effectiveness of combining polymer-controlled release nanoparticles with CED in treating fatal intracranial tumors. PMID:21691426

  13. Inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor growth in the brain. Suppression of endothelial cell turnover by penicillamine and the depletion of copper, an angiogenic cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Brem, S. S.; Zagzag, D.; Tsanaclis, A. M.; Gately, S.; Elkouby, M. P.; Brien, S. E.

    1990-01-01

    Microvascular proliferation, a hallmark of malignant brain tumors, represents an attractive target of anticancer research, especially because of the quiescent nonproliferative endothelium of the normal brain. Cerebral neoplasms sequester copper, a trace metal that modulates angiogenesis. Using a rabbit brain tumor model, normocupremic animals developed large vascularized VX2 carcinomas. By contrast, small, circumscribed, relatively avascular tumors were found in the brains of rabbits copper-depleted by diet and penicillamine treatment (CDPT). The CDPT rabbits showed a significant decrease in serum copper, copper staining of tumor cell nuclei, microvascular density, the tumor volume, endothelial cell turnover, and an increase in the vascular permeability (breakdown of the blood-brain barrier), as well as peritumoral brain edema. In non-tumor-bearing animals, CDPT did not alter the vascular permeability or the brain water content. CDPT also inhibited the intracerebral growth of the 9L gliosarcoma in F-344 rats, with a similar increase of the peritumoral vascular permeability and the brain water content. CDPT failed to inhibit tumor growth and the vascularization of the VX2 carcinoma in the thigh muscle or the metastases to the lung, findings that may reflect regional differences in the responsiveness of the endothelium, the distribution of copper, or the activity of cuproenzymes. Metabolic and pharmacologic withdrawal of copper suppresses intracerebral tumor angiogenesis; angiosuppression is a novel biologic response modifier for the in situ control of tumor growth in the brain. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1700617

  14. Polyethyleneimine-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for brain tumor drug delivery using magnetic targeting and intra-carotid administration.

    PubMed

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E; Yang, Victor C

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the applicability of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified magnetic nanoparticles (GPEI) as a potential vascular drug/gene carrier to brain tumors. In vitro, GPEI exhibited high cell association and low cell toxicity--properties which are highly desirable for intracellular drug/gene delivery. In addition, a high saturation magnetization of 93 emu/g Fe was expected to facilitate magnetic targeting of GPEI to brain tumor lesions. However, following intravenous administration, GPEI could not be magnetically accumulated in tumors of rats harboring orthotopic 9L-gliosarcomas due to its poor pharmacokinetic properties, reflected by a negligibly low plasma AUC of 12 +/- 3 microg Fe/ml min. To improve "passive" GPEI presentation to brain tumor vasculature for subsequent "active" magnetic capture, we examined the intra-carotid route as an alternative for nanoparticle administration. Intra-carotid administration in conjunction with magnetic targeting resulted in 30-fold (p=0.002) increase in tumor entrapment of GPEI compared to that seen with intravenous administration. In addition, magnetic accumulation of cationic GPEI (zeta-potential = + 37.2 mV) in tumor lesions was 5.2-fold higher (p=0.004) than that achieved with slightly anionic G100 (zeta-potential= -12 mV) following intra-carotid administration, while no significant accumulation difference was detected between the two types of nanoparticles in the contra-lateral brain (p=0.187). These promising results warrant further investigation of GPEI as a potential cell-permeable, magnetically-responsive platform for brain tumor delivery of drugs and genes. PMID:20494439

  15. Polyethyleneimine-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for brain tumor drug delivery using magnetic targeting and intra-carotid administration

    PubMed Central

    Chertok, Beata; David, Allan E.; Yang, Victor C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the applicability of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified magnetic nanoparticles (GPEI) as a potential vascular drug/gene carrier to brain tumors. In vitro, GPEI exhibited high cell association and low cell toxicity – properties which are highly desirable for intracellular drug/gene delivery. In addition, a high saturation magnetization of 93 emu/g Fe was expected to facilitate magnetic targeting of GPEI to brain tumor lesions. However, following intravenous administration, GPEI could not be magnetically accumulated in tumors of rats harboring orthotopic 9L-gliosarcomas due to its poor pharmacokinetic properties, reflected by a negligibly low plasma AUC of 12 ± 3 μg Fe/ml*min. To improve “passive” GPEI presentation to brain tumor vasculature for subsequent “active” magnetic capture, we examined the intra-carotid route as an alternative for nanoparticle administration. Intra-carotid administration in conjunction with magnetic targeting resulted in 30-fold (p = 0.002) increase in tumor entrapment of GPEI compared to that seen with intravenous administration. In addition, magnetic accumulation of cationic GPEI (ζ-potential = + 37.2 mV) in tumor lesions was 5.2-fold higher (p = 0.004) than that achieved with slightly anionic G100 (ζ-potential = −12 mV) following intra-carotid administration, while no significant accumulation difference was detected between the two types of nanoparticles in the contra-lateral brain (p = 0.187). These promising results warrant further investigation of GPEI as a potential cell-permeable, magnetically-responsive platform for brain tumor delivery of drugs and genes. PMID:20494439

  16. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  17. Dimers of Melampomagnolide B Exhibit Potent Anticancer Activity against Hematological and Solid Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Janganati, Venumadhav; Ponder, Jessica; Jordan, Craig T; Borrelli, Michael J; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Crooks, Peter A

    2015-11-25

    Novel carbamate (7a-7h) and carbonate (7i, 7j, and 8) dimers of melampomagnolide B have been synthesized by reaction of the melampomagnolide-B-triazole carbamate synthon 6 with various terminal diamino- and dihydroxyalkanes. Dimeric carbamate products 7b, 7c, and 7f exhibited potent growth inhibition (GI50 = 0.16-0.99 μM) against the majority of cell lines in the NCI panel of 60 human hematological and solid tumor cell lines. Compound 7f and 8 exhibited anticancer activity that was 300-fold and 1 × 10(6)-fold more cytotoxic than DMAPT, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μM against rat 9L-SF gliosarcoma cells. Compounds 7a-7j and 8 were also screened against M9-ENL1 and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) primary cell lines and exhibited 2- to 10-fold more potent antileukemic activity against M9-ENL1 cells (EC50 = 0.57-2.90 μM) when compared to parthenolide (EC50 = 6.0) and showed potent antileukemic activity against five primary AML cell lines (EC50 = 0.76-7.3 μM). PMID:26540463

  18. Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluorine F 18 EF5 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Who Are Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Meningeal Melanocytoma

  19. Clinical management and survival outcomes of gliosarcomas in the era of multimodality therapy.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Omprakash; van Heerden, Jolandi; Nowak, Anna K; Bynevelt, Michael; McDonald, Kerrie; Marsh, Julie; Lee, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a rare primary malignant brain tumour accounting for less than 0.5% of all intracranial tumours. It has a biphasic histological composition, demonstrating both gliomatous and sarcomatous elements. In clinical practice GSM are generally managed similarly to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, unique features including its clinical propensity for extra-cranial metastasis, distinct radiological features and possible worse prognosis than GBM suggest that GSM may be a distinct clinico-pathological entity. Hence we reviewed patterns of care and outcomes for a series of Australian patients diagnosed with GSM in the era of combined chemo-radiotherapy. Patients were identified by searching the Australian Genomics and Clinical Outcomes of Glioma (AGOG) database and the Western Australian Interhospital Neurosurgical database. Nineteen patients with GSM were identified. Of these, 15 patients were diagnosed with primary GSM and four patients developed secondary GSM after radiation therapy for primary GBM. For comparative purposes, 408 primary GBM patients were identified from the AGOG database during the same study period. The overall median survival for all primary GSM patients was 9.7 months. In comparison the overall median survival for GBM patients recruited to the AGOG database over the same period was 12.2 months. The median survival for secondary GSM patients from the time of diagnosis was 5 months. Primary and secondary GSM pose a great clinical challenge due to their rarity. Our study adds further evidence to support GSM as a unique clinical entity with a likely worse prognosis than GBM. PMID:24332268

  20. Brachium Pontis Gliosarcoma With Well-Differentiated Cartilaginous Tissue: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xie, Yuanyang; Liu, Yan; Tan, Jun; Chen, Zhongliang; Xiao, Yu; Xia, Ying; Peng, Zefeng

    2015-10-01

    Gliosarcoma (GS) belongs to World Health Organization grade IV neoplasm and displaying glial and mesenchymal differentiation. Only rare cases of GS have been reported in the brachium pontis and 4th ventricle region. Here, we report a rare case of GS located on brachium pontis region and extending into the 4th ventricle with well-differentiated cartilaginous metaplasia. A 28-year-old male patient experienced intermittent headache, vomiting, and gait disorders for 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a heterogeneous ring-enhancement lesion with weak central enhancement in left brachium pontis and 4th ventricle region. Histology revealed the GS was constituted with glial and sarcomatous elements. After immunohistochemical analysis, a diagnosis of GS with cartilaginous differentiation was then made.Symptoms of GS, including headache, aphasia, hemiparesis, cognitive decline, and seizures, mainly determined by the location. The clinical manifestation and radiologic characteristic is not significantly different from that of glioblastoma. The grade of resection is the significant factor related to prognosis of GS, and the clinical effect of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy need further study. Reporting additional cases would be of great help in better understanding of this location and pathologic type of GS. PMID:26496287

  1. Improved anti-tumor effect of liposomal doxorubicin after targeted blood-brain barrier disruption by MRI-guided focused ultrasound in rat glioma

    PubMed Central

    Treat, Lisa H.; McDannold, Nathan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) inhibits the entry of the majority of chemotherapeutic agents into the brain. Previous studies have illustrated the feasibility of drug delivery across the BBB using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles. Here, we investigated the effect of FUS-enhanced delivery of doxorubicin on survival in rats with and 9L gliosarcoma cells inoculated in the brain. Each rat received either: (1) no treatment (control; N=11), (2) FUS only (N=9), (3) i.v. liposomal doxorubicin (DOX only; N=17), or (4) FUS with concurrent i.v. injections of liposomal doxorubicin (FUS+DOX; N=20). Post-treatment MRI showed that FUS+DOX reduced tumor growth compared to DOX only. Further, we observed a modest but significant increase in median survival time after a single treatment FUS+DOX treatment (p=0.0007), whereas neither DOX nor FUS had any significant impact on survival on its own. These results suggest that combined ultrasound-mediated BBB disruption may significantly increase the antineoplastic efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin in the brain. PMID:22818878

  2. Identification and characterization of rat Bcl9l gene in silico.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2005-03-01

    Drosophila wingless (wg), shaggy (sgg), armadillo (arm), legless (lgs), pygopus (pygo), pangolin (pan), and engrailed (en) are segment polarity genes implicated in Wg-Arm (WNT-beta-catenin) pathway. Drosophila lgs encodes nuclear scaffold protein functioning as positive regulator for Wg-Arm pathway. Cancer-associated genes BCL9 and BCL9L are human homologs for Drosophila lgs. Here, we identified and characterized rat Bcl9l gene by using bioinformatics. Rat Bcl9l gene, consisting of eight exons, was located within AC124034.4 and AC105645.5 genome sequences. Bcl9l gene was linked to Blr1 gene at rat chromosome 8q22 in the tail-to-tail manner with an interval less than 2 kb. Rat Bcl9l gene was found to encode a 1494-aa Bcl9l protein, which showed 97.7% and 94.2% total-amino-acid identity with mouse Bcl9l and human BCL9L, respectively. B9H1-B9H6 domains, originally identified as conserved regions among mammalian BCL9 and BCL9L homologs, were also identified within rat Bcl9l. B9H1 and B9H2 domains corresponded to HD1 and HD2 domains of Drosophila lgs, functioning as binding regions for Pygo and Arm, respectively. B9H4 domain was characterized by multiple Ser-Pro repeats. Thr 954 within B9H4 domain of rat Bcl9l was conserved in mammalian BCL9 and BCL9L homologs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mammalian Bcl9l homologs were more related to human BCL9 than to Drosophila lgs. This is the first report on rat Bcl9l gene. PMID:15703843

  3. Delivery of Transferrin-Conjugated Polysaccharide Nanoparticles in 9L Gliosacoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Young-Wook; Jung, Shin; Pei, Jian; Wen, Min; Li, Song-Yuan; Ryu, Hyang-Hwa; Lim, Jung Cheol; Jang, Woo-Youl; Kim, In-Young; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Jung, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of drug targeting via the transferrin receptor-mediated pathway, iron-saturated transferrin was conjugated with chitosan (Tr-chitosan) and complexed with doxorubicin-conjugated methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-dextran succinate (DEX-DOX). DEX-DOX nanoparticles have spherical morphologies with less than 150 nm particle sizes. When Tr-chitosan was complexed with DEX-DOX nanoparticles (TR nanoparticle), particle sizes were increased to higher than 200 nm. Viability of 9L cells with treatment of doxorubicin (DOX) or DEX-DOX nanoparticle was dose-dependently decreased regardless of transferrin receptor blocking. However, cytotoxicity of TR nanoparticles was reduced by blocking of transferrin receptor. Flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopic observation showed that fluorescence intensity of tumor cells with treatment of TR nanoparticles was significantly decreased by blocking of transferring receptor while DEX-DOX nanoparticles were not affected by blocking of transferring receptor. These results indicated that TR nanoparticles are promising candidates for brain tumor drug delivery. PMID:26328315

  4. Dimers of melampomagnolide B exhibit potent anticancer activity against hematological and solid tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Janganati, Venumadhav; Ponder, Jessica; Jordan, Craig T.; Borrelli, Michael J.; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Crooks, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel carbamate and carbonate dimers of melampomagnolide B (MMB) have been synthesized by reaction of the MMB-triazole carbamate synthon 6 with various terminal diamino and dihydroxy alkanes. The resulting dimeric products 7b, 7c and 7f were selected and evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of 60 human hematological and solid tumor cell lines. The most active compounds, 7b, 7c and 7f, exhibited GI50 values in the range 250-780 nM against the majority of leukemia cell lines in the tumor cell panel. Specifically, compounds 7b and 7f exhibited potent growth inhibition against non-small cell lung cancer cell lines NCI-H522 (GI50 = 160 nM) and HOP-92 (GI50 = 170 nM), respectively. Also, compound 7f also potently inhibited the growth of melanoma cell lines LOX IMVI, MALME-3M, and UACC-62 (GI50 values = 170, 190 and 190 nM, respectively); breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 (GI50 = 190 nM); colon cancer cell line HCT-116 (GI50 = 190 nM); and renal cancer cell line RXF 393 (GI50 = 160 nM). Compound 7f and the simple dicarbonate dimer of MMB (8) showed anticancer activity 300-fold and 1 × 106-fold, respectively, more cytotoxic than 7f and DMAPT at a concentration of 10 μM against rat 9L-SF gliosarcoma cells. The dimeric compounds 7a-7j & 8 were also screened for antileukemic activity against M9-ENL1 acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells and primary AML cell specimens. These compounds exhibited two to twelve-fold more potent antileukemic activity (EC50 = 0.5-2.9 μM) against the M9-ENL1 cell line when compared to parthenolide (EC50 = 6.0 μM). The dimeric analogues were also active against the primary AML cell specimens in the nanomolar to lower micromolar range and exhibited two to ten-fold more potent antileukemic activity (EC50 = 0.86-4.2 μM) when compared to parthenolide (EC50 = 2.5-16 μM). Thus, dimer 7f exhibited promising anticancer activity against a variety of both hematological and solid human tumor cell lines, while dimer 8 was

  5. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  6. Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... be removed because of their location or harmful effect on the surrounding normal brain tissue. If a tumor is cancer , possible treatments may include: Chemotherapy Radiation Surgery Targeted cancer therapy Biologic therapy Other treatment options

  7. Magnetic Targeting of Novel Heparinized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Evaluated in a 9L-glioma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Shin, Meong Cheol; Yang, Victor C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A novel PEGylated and heparinized magnetic iron oxide nano-platform (DNPH) was synthesized for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tumor targeting. Methods Starch-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (“D”) were crosslinked, aminated (DN) and then simultaneously PEGylated and heparinized with different feed ratios of PEG and heparin (DNPH1-4). DNPH products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The magentic targeting of DNPH3, with appropriate amounts of conjugated PEG and heparin, in a mouse 9L-glioma subcutaneous tumor model was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/electron spin resonance (ESR). Results DNPH3 showed long circulating properties in vivo (half-life > 8 h, more than 60-fold longer than that of parent D) and low reticuloendothelial system (RES) recognition in liver and spleen. Protamine, a model cationic protein, was efficiently loaded onto DNPH3 with a maxium loading content of 26.4 μg/mg Fe. Magnetic capture of DNPH3 in tumor site with optimized conditions (I.D. of 12 mg/kg, targeting time of 45 min) was up to 29.42 μg Fe/g tissue (12.26% I.D./g tissue). Conclusion DNPH3 showed the potential to be used as a platform for cationic proteins for simultaneous tumor targeting and imaging. PMID:24065589

  8. Enhancement in blood-tumor barrier permeability and delivery of liposomal doxorubicin using focused ultrasound and microbubbles: evaluation during tumor progression in a rat glioma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Muna; Park, Juyoung; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Zhang, Yong-Zhi; McDannold, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    Effective drug delivery to brain tumors is often challenging because of the heterogeneous permeability of the ‘blood tumor barrier’ (BTB) along with other factors such as increased interstitial pressure and drug efflux pumps. Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles can enhance the permeability of the BTB in brain tumors, as well as the blood-brain barrier in the surrounding tissue. In this study, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was used to characterize the FUS-induced permeability changes of the BTB in a rat glioma model at different times after implantation. 9L gliosarcoma cells were implanted in both hemispheres in male rats. At day 9, 14, or 17 days after implantation, FUS-induced BTB disruption using 690 kHz ultrasound and definity microbubbles was performed in one tumor in each animal. Before FUS, liposomal doxorubicin was administered at a dose of 5.67 mg kg-1. This chemotherapy agent was previously shown to improve survival in animal glioma models. The transfer coefficient Ktrans describing extravasation of the MRI contrast agent Gd-DTPA was measured via DCE-MRI before and after sonication. We found that tumor doxorubicin concentrations increased monotonically (823  ±  600, 1817  ±  732 and 2432  ±  448 ng g-1) in the control tumors at 9, 14 and 17 d. With FUS-induced BTB disruption, the doxorubicin concentrations were enhanced significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.0001 at days 9, 14, and 17, respectively) and were greater than the control tumors by a factor of two or more (2222  ±  784, 3687  ±  796 and 5658  ±  821 ng g-1) regardless of the stage of tumor growth. The transfer coefficient Ktrans was significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced compared to control tumors only at day 9 but not at day 14 or 17. These results suggest that FUS-induced enhancements in tumor drug delivery are relatively consistent over time, at least in this tumor model. These results are

  9. Ataxia-Pancytopenia Syndrome Is Caused by Missense Mutations in SAMD9L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Hui; Below, Jennifer E; Shimamura, Akiko; Keel, Sioban B; Matsushita, Mark; Wolff, John; Sul, Youngmee; Bonkowski, Emily; Castella, Maria; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu; Nickerson, Deborah; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Bird, Thomas D; Raskind, Wendy H

    2016-06-01

    Ataxia-pancytopenia (AP) syndrome is characterized by cerebellar ataxia, variable hematologic cytopenias, and predisposition to marrow failure and myeloid leukemia, sometimes associated with monosomy 7. Here, in the four-generation family UW-AP, linkage analysis revealed four regions that provided the maximal LOD scores possible, one of which was in a commonly microdeleted chromosome 7q region. Exome sequencing identified a missense mutation (c.2640C>A, p.His880Gln) in the sterile alpha motif domain containing 9-like gene (SAMD9L) that completely cosegregated with disease. By targeted sequencing of SAMD9L, we subsequently identified a different missense mutation (c.3587G>C, p.Cys1196Ser) in affected members of the first described family with AP syndrome, Li-AP. Neither variant is reported in the public databases, both affect highly conserved amino acid residues, and both are predicted to be damaging. With time in culture, lymphoblastic cell lines (LCLs) from two affected individuals in family UW-AP exhibited copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity for large portions of the long arm of chromosome 7, resulting in retention of only the wild-type SAMD9L allele. Newly established LCLs from both individuals demonstrated the same phenomenon. In addition, targeted capture and sequencing of SAMD9L in uncultured blood DNA from both individuals showed bias toward the wild-type allele. These observations indicate in vivo hematopoietic mosaicism. The hematopoietic cytopenias that characterize AP syndrome and the selective advantage for clones that have lost the mutant allele support the postulated role of SAMD9L in the regulation of cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that AP syndrome is distinct from the dyskeratoses congenita telomeropathies, with which it shares some clinical characteristics. PMID:27259050

  10. Arylethynyl Substituted 9,lO-Anthraquinones: Tunable Stokes Shifts by Substitution and Solvent Polarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Panzner, Matthew J.; Tyson, Daniel S.; Kinder, James D.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    2-Arylethynyl- and 2,6- and 2,7-diarylethynyl-substituted 9,lO-anthraquinones were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reactions of 2-bromo-, 2,6-dibromo-, and 2,7-dibromo-9,10- anthraquinone with para-substituted phenylacetylenes. While the redox properties of those compounds are almost insensitive to substitution, their absorption maxima are linearly related to the Hammett constants with different slopes for electron donors and electron acceptors. ABI compounds are photoluminescent both in solution (quantum yields of emission <= 6 %), and as solids. The emission spectra have the characteristics of charge-transfer bands with large Stokes shifts (100-250 nm). The charge-transfer character of the emitting state is supported by large dipole moment differences between the ground and the excited state as concluded on the basis of molecular modeling and Lippert-Mataga correlations of the Stokes shifts with solvent polarity. Maximum Stokes shifts are attained by both electron-donating and -withdrawing groups. This is explained by a destabilization of the HOMO by electron donors and a stabilization of the LUMO by electron acceptors. X-ray crystallographic analysis of, for example, 2,7-bisphenylethynfl- 9,lO-anthraquinone reveals a monoclinic P21In space group and no indication for pi-overlap that would promote quenching, thus explaining emission from the solid state. Representative reduced forms of the title compounds were isolated as stable acetates of the corresponding dihydrs-9,10- anthraquinones. The emission of these compounds is blue-shifted relative to the parent oxidized forms and is attributed to internal transitions in the dihydro-9,lO-anthraquinone core.

  11. The importance of choice of anaesthetics in studying radiation effects in the 9L rat glioma.

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, M.; Wróblewski, K.; Manevich, Y.; Kim, S.; Biaglow, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we demonstrate that the glycolysis of the tumour 9L glioma, in vivo, may be manipulated with ketamine/xylazine combinations of anaesthetics. Xylazine alone or in combination with ketamine causes hyperglycaemia which is enhanced by glucose injections. Intracellular tumour pH is acidified when glucose is administered with ketamine/xylazine. However, the combination of inorganic phosphate and insulin with ketamine/xylazine and glucose caused an alkaline shift in the tumour pH as measured by 31P NMR. The anaesthetic combination of ketamine/acepromazine did not produce alterations in blood glucose or in tumour pH status as detected by 31P NMR spectroscopy. These results demonstrate dramatic effects of ketamine/xylazine on the acidification or alkalinisation of the cells of 9L glioma. These altered metabolic states are of potential therapeutic importance. The choice of xylazine alone would be useful for chemotherapy and hyperthermia modalities, both known to be dependent upon glucose metabolism and resultant acidification. PMID:8763885

  12. LEF1 and B9L shield β-catenin from inactivation by Axin, desensitizing colorectal cancer cells to tankyrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    de la Roche, Marc; Ibrahim, Ashraf E K; Mieszczanek, Juliusz; Bienz, Mariann

    2014-03-01

    Hyperactive β-catenin drives colorectal cancer, yet inhibiting its activity remains a formidable challenge. Interest is mounting in tankyrase inhibitors (TNKSi), which destabilize β-catenin through stabilizing Axin. Here, we confirm that TNKSi inhibit Wnt-induced transcription, similarly to carnosate, which reduces the transcriptional activity of β-catenin by blocking its binding to BCL9, and attenuates intestinal tumors in Apc(Min) mice. By contrast, β-catenin's activity is unresponsive to TNKSi in colorectal cancer cells and in cells after prolonged Wnt stimulation. This TNKSi insensitivity is conferred by β-catenin's association with LEF1 and BCL9-2/B9L, which accumulate during Wnt stimulation, thereby providing a feed-forward loop that converts transient into chronic β-catenin signaling. This limits the therapeutic value of TNKSi in colorectal carcinomas, most of which express high LEF1 levels. Our study provides proof-of-concept that the successful inhibition of oncogenic β-catenin in colorectal cancer requires the targeting of its interaction with LEF1 and/or BCL9/B9L, as exemplified by carnosate. PMID:24419084

  13. An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis on Characteristics, Treatments and Outcomes of Glioblastoma/ Gliosarcoma Patients with Metastases Outside of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Michael J.; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Kortmann, Rolf Dieter; Müller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or gliosarcoma (GS) and metastases outside of the central nervous system (CNS). Methods PubMed and Web of Science searches for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to GBM/ GS patients with metastatic dissemination were conducted using the keywords gliosarcoma, glioblastoma, GBM, metastasis, metastases and metastatic. Additionally, we performed hand search following the references from the selected papers. Cases with metastases to the CNS were excluded and evaluated in a separate study. Results 109 articles published between 1928 and 2013 were eligible. They reported on 150 patients. We observed a remarkable increase in the number of cases per decade over time. Median overall survival from diagnosis of metastasis (OSM+) was 6.0 ± 0.8 months and median overall survival from initial diagnosis (OSID) 13 ± 2.4 months. On univariate analyses, gender, age, the histological subtype, the time interval between initial diagnosis and diagnosis of metastasis and pulmonary involvement did not influence OSM+. We did not observe any substantial treatment progress. A comparison of the present cohort with 84 GBM/ GS patients with exclusive CNS dissemination suggests that metastases outside the CNS are related to a slightly more favorable outcome. Conclusions The occurrence of extra-CNS metastasis from GBM/ GS is associated with a dismal prognosis, however it seems to compare slightly favorable to CNS dissemination. Crucial treatment progress has not been achieved over recent decades. A central registry should be considered to consecutively gain more information about the ideal therapeutic approach. PMID:25860797

  14. Interstitial hyperthermia of experimental brain tumor using implant heating system.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Tanaka, T; Kida, Y; Matsui, M; Ikeda, T

    1989-07-01

    New experimental system of induction hyperthermia for brain tumor using ferromagnetic implant with low Curie point has been developed. The metal implant is cylindrical needle and made of Fe-Pt alloy with low Curie point suitable for hyperthermia (50-60 degrees C). Induction coil and generator which produce maximum power of 200W and variable frequency of 100-500kHz, yielding magnetic power of 16.7Oe, have been developed. Interstitial hyperthermia was made on rat brain tumor model (T9 gliosarcoma) by this system. Significant effects of single hyperthermia (45 degrees C for 30 minutes) were observed by the extension of life span and morphological changes of the tumor. PMID:2778493

  15. 18F FDOPA PET/CT or PET/MRI in Measuring Tumors in Patients With Newly Diagnosed or Recurrent Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-22

    Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Protoplasmic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Untreated Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Untreated Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Untreated Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Glioblastoma; Untreated Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Untreated Childhood Gliosarcoma; Untreated Childhood

  16. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  17. Boronated dipeptide borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine as a potential boron carrier in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Takagaki, M; Powell, W; Sood, A; Spielvogel, B F; Hosmane, N S; Kirihata, M; Ono, K; Masunaga, S I; Kinashi, Y; Miyatake, S I; Hashimoto, N

    2001-07-01

    Takagaki, M., Ono, K., Masunaga, S-I., Kinashi, Y., Oda, Y., Miyatake, S-I., Hashimoto, N., Powell, W., Sood, A. and Spielvogel, B. F. Boronated Dipeptide Borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine as a Potential Boron Carrier in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors. Radiat. Res. 156, 118-122 (2001).A boronated dipeptide, borotrimethylglycylphenylalanine (BGPA), was synthesized as a possible boron carrier for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant brain tumors. In vitro, at equal concentrations of (10)B in the extracellular medium, BGPA had the same effect in BNCT as p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Boron analysis was carried out using prompt gamma-ray spectrometry and track-etch autoradiography. The tumor:blood and tumor:normal brain (10)B concentration ratios were 8.9 +/- 2.1 and 3.0 +/- 1.2, respectively, in rats bearing intracranial C6 gliosarcomas using alpha-particle track autoradiography. The IC(50), i.e. the dose capable of inhibiting the growth of C6 gliosarcoma cells by 50% after 3 days of incubation, was 5.9 x 10(-3) M BGPA, which is similar to that of 6.4 x 10(-3) M for BPA. The amide bond of BGPA is free from enzymatic attack, since it is protected from hydrolysis by the presence of a boron atom at the alpha-carbon position of glycine. These results suggest promise for the use of this agent for BNCT of malignant brain tumors. Further preclinical studies of BGPA are warranted, since BGPA has advantages over both BPA and BSH. PMID:11418080

  18. Tumor immunity in rat lymph nodes following transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Rabson, J A; Geyer, S J; Levine, G; Swartz, W M; Futrell, J W

    1982-01-01

    Inguinal lymph nodes in the Buffalo rat were autotransplanted to the popliteal fossa by an intact vascular pedicle or by microvascular anastomosis. These revascularized nodes had normal histology and made spontaneous afferent and efferent lymphatic reconnection with surrounding lymphatic vessels, as documented by ink and silicone rubber injection studies. Lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc antimony sulfide colloid correctly predicted the 44 of 120 node transplants that had made afferent reconnection. To demonstrate immunologic activity of lymph nodes following transplantation, a cellular adherance assay was employed to detect cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymph node cells isolated from rats sensitized to an allogeneic gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity was detected in nontransplanted regional nodes sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.01) and in nodes transplanted by vascular pedicle and then sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that lymph nodes can be transplanted with restoration of functional lymphatic anatomy, and that following transplantation, lymph nodes retain the ability to mount an immune response against tumor. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7092359

  19. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 and Cediranib Maleate in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-22

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Solid Neoplasm; Male Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  20. Sinus Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumors Nasal Deformities Choanal Atresia Epiphora (Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Sinus Tumors Abtin Tabaee, MD Introduction Tumors of the nose and paranasal sinuses are rare, accounting for fewer than 1% of all tumors. These ...

  1. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  2. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  3. Spinal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - spinal cord ... spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Most often these are ependymomas and other ... gene mutations. Spinal tumors can occur: Inside the spinal cord (intramedullary) In the membranes (meninges) covering the spinal ...

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F labeled alanine derivatives as potential tumor imaging agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Zha, Zhihao; Qu, Wenchao; Qiao, Hongwen; Lieberman, Brian P.; Plössl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This paper reports the synthesis and labeling of 18F alanine derivatives. We also investigate their biological characteristics as potential tumor imaging agents mediated by alanine-serine-cysteine preferring (ASC) transporter system. Methods Three new 18F alanine derivatives were prepared from corresponding tosylate-precursors through a two-step labelling reaction. In vitro uptake studies to evaluate and to compare these three analogs were carried out in 9L glioma and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. Potential transport mechanisms, protein incorporation and stability of 3-(1-[18F]fluoromethyl)-L-alanine (L[18F]FMA) were investigated in 9L glioma cells. Its biodistribution was determined in a rat-bearing 9L tumor model. PET imaging studies were performed on rat bearing 9L glioma tumors and transgenic mouse carrying spontaneous generated M/tomND tumor (mammary gland adenocarcinoma). Results New 18F alanine derivatives were prepared with 7–34% uncorrected radiochemical yields, excellent enantiomeric purity (>99%) and good radiochemical purity (>99%). In vitro uptake of the L-[18F]FMA in 9L glioma and PC-3 prostate cancer cells was higher than those observed for other two alanine derivatives and [18F]FDG in first 1 h. Inhibition of cell uptake studies suggested that L-[18F]FMA uptake in 9L glioma was predominantly via transport system ASC. After entering into cells, L-[18F]FMA remained stable and was not incorporated into protein within 2 h. In vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that L-[18F]FMA had relatively high uptake in liver and kidney. Tumor uptake was fast, reaching a maximum within 30 min. The tumor-to-muscle, tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-brain ratios at 60 min post injection were 2.2, 1.9 and 3.0, respectively. In PET imaging studies, tumors were visualized with L-[18F]FMA in both 9L rat and transgenic mouse. Conclusion L-[18F]FMA showed promising properties as a PET imaging agent for up-regulated ASC transporter associated with tumor

  5. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    SciTech Connect

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Z.; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-06-04

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the α-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the β-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays, and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components.

  6. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mortimer, Jenny C.; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Z.; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-06-04

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the α-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the β-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays,more » and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components.« less

  7. An unusual xylan in Arabidopsis primary cell walls is synthesised by GUX3, IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Jenny C; Faria-Blanc, Nuno; Yu, Xiaolan; Tryfona, Theodora; Sorieul, Mathias; Ng, Yao Z; Zhang, Zhinong; Stott, Katherine; Anders, Nadine; Dupree, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Xylan is a crucial component of many plant primary and secondary cell walls. However, the structure and function of xylan in the dicotyledon primary cell wall is not well understood. Here, we characterized a xylan that is specific to tissues enriched in Arabidopsis primary cell walls. Unlike previously described xylans, this xylan carries a pentose linked 1–2 to the α-1,2-d-glucuronic acid (GlcA) side chains on the β-1,4-Xyl backbone. The frequent and precisely regular spacing of GlcA substitutions every six xylosyl residues along the backbone is also unlike that previously observed in secondary cell wall xylan. Molecular genetics, in vitro assays, and expression data suggest that IRX9L, IRX10L and IRX14 are required for xylan backbone synthesis in primary cell wall synthesising tissues. IRX9 and IRX10 are not involved in the primary cell wall xylan synthesis but are functionally exchangeable with IRX9L and IRX10L. GUX3 is the only glucuronyltransferase required for the addition of the GlcA decorations on the xylan. The differences in xylan structure in primary versus secondary cell walls might reflect the different roles in cross-linking and interaction with other cell wall components. PMID:26043357

  8. Brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K. L.; Mazziotta, J. C.; Becker, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental tumor biology are being applied to critical clinical problems of primary brain tumors. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, which are sparse in normal brain, is increased as much as 20-fold in brain tumors. Experimental studies show promise in using labeled ligands to these receptors to identify the outer margins of malignant brain tumors. Whereas positron emission tomography has improved the dynamic understanding of tumors, the labeled selective tumor receptors with positron emitters will enhance the ability to specifically diagnose and greatly aid in the pretreatment planning for tumors. Modulation of these receptors will also affect tumor growth and metabolism. Novel methods to deliver antitumor agents to the brain and new approaches using biologic response modifiers also hold promise to further improve the management of brain tumors. Images PMID:1848735

  9. Preparation of curcumin loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers and their in vitro antitumor activity against Glioma 9L cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Gang; Fu, Shaozhi; Zhou, Liangxue; Liang, Hang; Fan, Min; Luo, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuquan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop implantable curcumin-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) nanofibers, which might have potential application in cancer therapy. Curcumin was incorporated into biodegradable PCEC nanofibers by electrospinning method. The surface morphology of the composite nanofibers was characterized on Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The average diameter of the nanofibers was 2.3-4.5μm. In vitro release behavior of curcumin from the fiber mats was also studied in detail. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that the PCEC fibers themselves did not affect the growth of rat Glioma 9L cells. Antitumor activity of the curcumin-loaded fibers against the cells was kept over the whole experiment process, while the antitumor activity of pure curcumin disappeared within 48 h. These results strongly suggested that the curcumin/PCEC composite nanofibers might have potential application for postoperative chemotherapy of brain cancers.

  10. Plerixafor After Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High Grade Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-21

    Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglial Tumors; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET)

  11. Combination Adenovirus + Pembrolizumab to Trigger Immune Virus Effects

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-08

    Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasm; Glioma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Malignant Brain Tumor; Neoplasm, Neuroepithelial; Neuroectodermal Tumors; Neoplasm by Histologic Type; Neoplasm, Nerve Tissue; Nervous System Diseases

  12. Tumor Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... acoustic neuroma is also known as a schwannoma, vestibular schwannoma, or neurilemmoma. Characteristics Arises from cells that ... multiple CNS tumors, including neurofibromas, multiple meningiomas, bilateral vestibular schwannomas, optic nerve gliomas, and spinal cord tumors. ...

  13. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  14. Urogenital tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Lapatinib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Oligodendroglioma

  16. Impact of IUdR on Rat 9L glioma cell survival for 25-35 keV photon-activated auger electron therapy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Diane; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Brown, Thomas A D; Ii, Kenneth L Matthews; Dugas, Joseph P; Ham, Kyungmin; Varnes, Marie E

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to measure the energy dependence of survival of rat 9L glioma cells labeled with iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) that underwent photon-activated Auger electron therapy using 25-35 keV monochromatic X rays, i.e., above and below the K-edge energy of iodine. Rat 9L glioma cells were selected because of their radioresistance, ability to be implanted for future in vivo studies and analogy to radioresistant human gliomas. Survival curves were measured for a 4 MV X-ray beam and synchrotron produced monochromatic 35, 30 and 25 keV X-ray beams. IUdR was incorporated into the DNA at levels of 0, 9 and 18% thymidine replacement for 4 MV and 35 keV and 0 and 18% thymidine replacement for 30 and 25 keV. For 10 combinations of beam energy and thymidine replacement, 62 data sets (3-13 per combination) provided 776 data points (47-148 per combination). Survival versus dose data taken for the same combination, but on different days, were merged by including the zero-dose points in the nonlinear, chi-squared data fitting using the linear-quadratic model and letting the best estimate to the zero-dose plating efficiency for each of the different days be a fitting parameter. When comparing two survival curves, the ratio of doses resulting in 10% survival gave sensitization enhancement ratios (SER10) from which contributions due to linear energy transfer (LET) (SER10,LET), IUdR radiosensitization (SER10,RS), the Auger effect (SER10,AE) and the total of all effects (SER10,T) were determined. At 4 MV and 35, 30 and 25 keV, SER10,LET values were 1.00, 1.08 ± 0.03, 1.22 ± 0.02 and 1.37 ± 0.02, respectively. At 4 MV SER10,RS values for 9 and 18% IUdR were 1.28 ± 0.02 and 1.40 ± 0.02, respectively. Assuming LET effects were independent of percentage IUdR and radiosensitization effects were independent of energy, SER10,AE values for 18% IUdR at 35, 30 and 25 keV were 1.35 ± 0.05, 1.06 ± 0.03 and 0.98 ± 0.03, respectively. The value for 9% IUdR at 35 keV was 1

  17. Pindborg tumor

    PubMed Central

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S.; Dinakar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references. PMID:27041911

  18. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur at any age. They are often more aggressive in adults than in children. In adults, tumors ... The treatment depends on how aggressive the tumor is, and whether it is a glioma or another type of cancer. Treatment may involve combinations of surgery, radiation , ...

  19. Vascular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Abel; Buchanan, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided into two main groups: tumors and malformations. Vascular tumors are a large and complex group of lesions, especially for clinicians with none or little experience in this field. In the past, these lesions caused a great deal of confusion because many appear analogous to the naked eye. Thankfully, recent advances in diagnostic techniques have helped the medical community to enhance our comprehension, accurately label, diagnose, and treat these lesions. In this article, we will review the most frequent vascular tumors and provide the reader with the tools to properly label, diagnose, and manage these complex lesions. PMID:25045329

  20. Efficacy of local polymer-based and systemic delivery of the anti-glutamatergic agents riluzole and memantine in rat glioma models

    PubMed Central

    Yohay, Kaleb; Tyler, Betty; Weaver, Kyle D.; Pardo, Andrea C.; Gincel, Dan; Blakeley, Jaishri; Brem, Henry; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Object The poor outcome of malignant gliomas is largely due to local invasiveness. Previous studies suggest that gliomas secrete excess glutamate and destroy surrounding normal peritumoral brain by means of excitotoxic mechanisms. In this study the authors assessed the effect on survival of 2 glutamate modulators (riluzole and memantine) in rodent glioma models. Methods In an in vitro growth inhibition assay, F98 and 9L cells were exposed to riluzole and memantine. Mouse cerebellar organotypic cultures were implanted with F98 glioma cells and treated with radiation, radiation + riluzole, or vehicle and assessed for tumor growth. Safety and tolerability of intracranially implanted riluzole and memantine CPP:SA polymers were tested in F344 rats. The efficacy of these drugs was tested against the 9L model and riluzole was further tested with and without radiation therapy (RT). Results In vitro assays showed effective growth inhibition of both drugs on F98 and 9L cell lines. F98 organotypic cultures showed reduced growth of tumors treated with radiation and riluzole in comparison with untreated cultures or cultures treated with radiation or riluzole alone. Three separate efficacy experiments all showed that localized delivery of riluzole or memantine is efficacious against the 9L gliosarcoma tumor in vivo. Systemic riluzole monotherapy was ineffective; however, riluzole given with RT resulted in improved survival. Conclusions Riluzole and memantine can be safely and effectively delivered intracranially via polymer in rat glioma models. Both drugs demonstrate efficacy against the 9L gliosarcoma and F98 glioma in vitro and in vivo. Although systemic riluzole proved ineffective in increasing survival, riluzole acted synergistically with radiation and increased survival compared with RT or riluzole alone. PMID:24484234

  1. Hypothalamic tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  2. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, or malignant, with cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain ... targeted therapy. Targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. Many people get ...

  3. Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, and the condition, or histology , of the cancer cells when observed under a microscope. "Favorable" histology is associated with a good chance of a cure; tumors with "unfavorable" histology are more aggressive and ...

  4. Tumor Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... types: Germ cell tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To assess stage, ... NSE) Cancer types: Small cell lung cancer and neuroblastoma Tissue analyzed: Blood How used: To help in ...

  5. Wilms tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this tumor in most children is unknown. A missing iris of the eye (aniridia) is a birth ... Nausea Swelling in the abdomen (abdominal hernia or mass) Vomiting Exams and Tests The doctor or nurse ...

  6. Design of a Phase I Clinical Trial to Evaluate M032, a Genetically Engineered HSV-1 Expressing IL-12, in Patients with Recurrent/Progressive Glioblastoma Multiforme, Anaplastic Astrocytoma, or Gliosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Daxa M; Foreman, Paul M; Nabors, L Burt; Riley, Kristen O; Gillespie, G Yancey; Markert, James M

    2016-06-01

    M032 is a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) that selectively replicates in tumor cells. M032 kills tumor cells directly through oncolytic replication and then proceeds to infect tumor cells in proximity, continuing the process of tumor destruction. In addition to this direct oncolytic activity, the virus carries a therapeutic payload-thus acting as a gene therapy vector-and causes the tumor cell to synthesize and secrete the immunity-stimulating protein interleukin-12 (IL-12) before cell death. (1) Human IL-12 is expressed and promotes an immune response against surviving tumor cells, increasing the antitumor effect of the therapy. IL-12 also produces an antiangiogenic effect, by interfering with the production of new tumor blood vessels necessary for tumor growth. Thus, M032 oHSV exerts antitumor effects through three distinct potential mechanisms. The virus has also been genetically engineered to minimize toxic effects for the patient. Preclinical animal models support the safety of intracranial inoculation with M032 in two relevant species (mouse and nonhuman primate). This clinical protocol outlines the dose-escalating phase I study for evaluation of M032 in patients with recurrent or progressive malignant glioma. PMID:27314913

  7. Acute inflammation induces immunomodulatory effects on myeloid cells associated with anti-tumor responses in a tumor mouse model.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed L; Attia, Zeinab I; Galal, Sohaila M

    2016-03-01

    Given the self nature of cancer, anti-tumor immune response is weak. As such, acute inflammation induced by microbial products can induce signals that result in initiation of an inflammatory cascade that helps activation of immune cells. We aimed to compare the nature and magnitude of acute inflammation induced by toll-like receptor ligands (TLRLs) on the tumor growth and the associated inflammatory immune responses. To induce acute inflammation in tumor-bearing host, CD1 mice were inoculated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) (5 × 10(5) cells/mouse), and then treated with i.p. injection on day 1, day 7 or days 1 + 7 with: (1) polyinosinic:polycytidylic (poly(I:C)) (TLR3L); (2) Poly-ICLC (clinical grade of TLR3L); (3) Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) (coding for TLR9L); (4) Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) (coding for TLR9L); and (5) Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA). Treatment with poly(I:C), Poly-ICLC, BCG, CFA, or IFA induced anti-tumor activities as measured by 79.1%, 75.94%, 73.94%, 71.88% and 47.75% decreases, respectively in the total number of tumor cells collected 7 days after tumor challenge. Among the tested TLRLs, both poly(I:C) (TLR3L) and BCG (contain TLR9L) showed the highest anti-tumor effects as reflected by the decrease in the number of EAc cells. These effects were associated with a 2-fold increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing the myeloid markers CD11b(+)Ly6G(+), CD11b(+)Ly6G(-), and CD11b(+)Ly6G(-). We concluded that Provision of the proper inflammatory signal with optimally defined magnitude and duration during tumor growth can induce inflammatory immune cells with potent anti-tumor responses without vaccination. PMID:26966565

  8. Acute inflammation induces immunomodulatory effects on myeloid cells associated with anti-tumor responses in a tumor mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohamed L.; Attia, Zeinab I.; Galal, Sohaila M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the self nature of cancer, anti-tumor immune response is weak. As such, acute inflammation induced by microbial products can induce signals that result in initiation of an inflammatory cascade that helps activation of immune cells. We aimed to compare the nature and magnitude of acute inflammation induced by toll-like receptor ligands (TLRLs) on the tumor growth and the associated inflammatory immune responses. To induce acute inflammation in tumor-bearing host, CD1 mice were inoculated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) (5 × 105 cells/mouse), and then treated with i.p. injection on day 1, day 7 or days 1 + 7 with: (1) polyinosinic:polycytidylic (poly(I:C)) (TLR3L); (2) Poly-ICLC (clinical grade of TLR3L); (3) Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) (coding for TLR9L); (4) Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) (coding for TLR9L); and (5) Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA). Treatment with poly(I:C), Poly-ICLC, BCG, CFA, or IFA induced anti-tumor activities as measured by 79.1%, 75.94%, 73.94%, 71.88% and 47.75% decreases, respectively in the total number of tumor cells collected 7 days after tumor challenge. Among the tested TLRLs, both poly(I:C) (TLR3L) and BCG (contain TLR9L) showed the highest anti-tumor effects as reflected by the decrease in the number of EAc cells. These effects were associated with a 2-fold increase in the numbers of inflammatory cells expressing the myeloid markers CD11b+Ly6G+, CD11b+Ly6G−, and CD11b+Ly6G−. We concluded that Provision of the proper inflammatory signal with optimally defined magnitude and duration during tumor growth can induce inflammatory immune cells with potent anti-tumor responses without vaccination. PMID:26966565

  9. Tumor-Specific Expression and Detection of a CEST Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Minn, Il; Bar-Shir, Amnon; Yarlagadda, Keerthi; Bulte, Jeff W. M.; Fisher, Paul B.; Wang, Hao; Gilad, Assaf A.; Pomper, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop an imaging tool that enables the detection of malignant tissue with enhanced specificity using the exquisite spatial resolution of MRI. Methods Two mammalian gene expression vectors were created for the expression of the lysine-rich protein (LRP) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-3 promoter) for constitutive and tumor-specific expression of LRP, respectively. Using those vectors, stable cell lines of rat 9L glioma, 9LCMV-LRP and 9LPEG-LRP, were established and tested for CEST contrast in vitro and in vivo. Results 9LPEG-LRP cells showed increased CEST contrast compared with 9L cells in vitro. Both 9LCMV-LRP and 9LPEG-LRP cells were capable of generating tumors in the brains of mice, with a similar growth rate to tumors derived from wild-type 9L cells. An increase in CEST contrast was clearly visible in tumors derived from both 9LCMV-LRP and 9LPEG-LRP cells at 3.4 ppm. Conclusion The PEG-3 promoter:LRP system can be used as a cancer-specific, molecular-genetic imaging reporter system in vivo. Because of the ubiquity of MR imaging in clinical practice, sensors of this class can be used to translate molecular-genetic imaging rapidly. PMID:25919119

  10. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Isotretinoin in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  11. [Craniosinusonasal tumors].

    PubMed

    Blagoveshchenskaia, N S; Egorova, V K

    1997-01-01

    Tumors extending into the nasal cavity, cranium, and paranasal sinuses have a number of distinctive features to take into consideration. Among them are the communication with an open air, high incidence of associated intracranial infections, specific complications (i.e. suppurative sinusitis, polyps, mucocele, pneumocephalus, nasal CSF leak). The features mentioned make these lesions unique. 50 consecutive patients underwent treatment in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute. The diagnosis was confirmed either by CT, MRI, or at operation. Rhinological and otoneurological signs were also subjected to analysis. Most frequently these tumors (the majority of which were meningiomas (n = 34) extended into the nasal cavity (40 patients) and paranasal sinuses (n = 50). It was noted that the clinical signs vary depending on the histological type of tumor, its location and direction of growth (i.e. medial or lateral). Medially growing tumors usually involved 2-4 sinuses, while laterally growing tumors involved only one sinus. Among the symptoms, disturbances of smell, conductive hearing impairment, deformation of both the soft and hard palate, slowing of the experimental nystagmus due to disturbed extraocular movements. Some light is shed on the differential diagnosis, indications for various surgical approaches (transcranial, transnasal, and facial). The results of surgical treatment and postoperative complications are presented in the paper. The diagnosis and treatment of such patients require an interdisciplinary approach while would involve a team of a neurosurgeon, neuroradiologist, otoneurologist, and a neuro-ophthalmologist. PMID:9424946

  12. [Thymic tumors].

    PubMed

    Le Péchoux, C; Mahé, M; Bretel, J-J; Roberti, E; Ruffié, P

    2005-11-01

    Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare and slow-growing tumors, which develop within the anterior mediastinum. Thymomas are often associated with autoimmune disorders and most particularly myasthenia gravis. The treatment of choice remains a complete surgical resection. Postoperative radiotherapy is often combined in case of invasive thymoma invading into adjacent organs. Postoperative radiotherapy in stage II with invasion into capsule has been more controversial lately. In inoperable locally advanced, or metastatic thymic tumors, neoadjuvant cisplatin-based followed by surgery and radiotherapy has given interesting results in the past years. PMID:16168694

  13. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  14. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    PubMed

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  15. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Liu, H.B.; Slatkin, D.N.; Wielopolski, L.; Bergland, R.; Elowitz, E.; Chadha, M.

    1994-12-31

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report.

  16. Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... org Tel: 773-577-8750; 800-886-2282 Fax: 847-827-9918 National Brain Tumor Society 55Chapel ... http://www.braintumor.org Tel: 866-455-3214 Fax: 617-924-9998 Pituitary Network Association P.O. ...

  17. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of IRX9, IRX9L and IRX14 Proteins Involved in Xylan Biosynthesis: Glycosyltransferase Activity Is Not Required for IRX9 Function in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanfang; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Ebert, Berit; Lau, Jane; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2014-01-01

    Xylans constitute the main non-cellulosic polysaccharide in the secondary cell walls of plants. Several genes predicted to encode glycosyltransferases are required for the synthesis of the xylan backbone even though it is a homopolymer consisting entirely of β-1,4-linked xylose residues. The putative glycosyltransferases IRX9, IRX14, and IRX10 (or the paralogs IRX9L, IRX14L, and IRX10L) are required for xylan backbone synthesis in Arabidopsis. To investigate the function of IRX9, IRX9L, and IRX14, we identified amino acid residues known to be essential for catalytic function in homologous mammalian proteins and generated modified cDNA clones encoding proteins where these residues would be mutated. The mutated gene constructs were used to transform wild-type Arabidopsis plants and the irx9 and irx14 mutants, which are deficient in xylan synthesis. The ability of the mutated proteins to complement the mutants was investigated by measuring growth, determining cell wall composition, and microscopic analysis of stem cross-sections of the transgenic plants. The six different mutated versions of IRX9 and IRX9-L were all able to complement the irx9 mutant phenotype, indicating that residues known to be essential for glycosyltransferases function in homologous proteins are not essential for the biological function of IRX9/IRX9L. Two out of three mutated IRX14 complemented the irx14 mutant, including a mutant in the predicted catalytic amino acid. A IRX14 protein mutated in the substrate-binding DxD motif did not complement the irx14 mutant. Thus, substrate binding is important for IRX14 function but catalytic activity may not be essential for the function of the protein. The data indicate that IRX9/IRX9L have an essential structural function, most likely by interacting with the IRX10/IRX10L proteins, but do not have an essential catalytic function. Most likely IRX14 also has primarily a structural role, but it cannot be excluded that the protein has an important enzymatic

  18. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  19. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  20. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  1. Brain tumor (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  2. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  3. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumor - metastatic (secondary); Cancer - brain tumor (metastatic) ... For many people with metastatic brain tumors, the cancer is not curable. It will eventually spread to other areas of the body. Prognosis depends on the type of tumor ...

  4. Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  5. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff ... Types of Tumors Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics Brain Tumor Dictionary Webinars Anytime Learning Donate to the ABTA Help advance the understanding ...

  6. [Tumor surgery].

    PubMed

    Hausamen, J E

    2000-05-01

    Surgery is still the primary therapeutic approach in treatment of tumors in the head and neck area, dating back to the early nineteenth century. More than 150 years ago, hemimaxillectomies and mandibular resections as well as hemiglossectomies were already performed by leading surgeons. The block principle we are now following dates back to Crile, who also established the principle of cervical lymph node dissection. Ablative oncologic surgery has always been closely linked with plastic and reconstructive surgery, rendering radical surgical interventions possible without disfiguring patients. The development of facial reconstructive surgery proceeded in stages, in the first instance as secondary reconstruction using tube pedicled flaps. The change to the concept of primary reconstruction occurred via arterialized skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps to the widely accepted and performed free tissue transfer. Free bone grafting, inaugurated earlier and still representing the majority of bone grafting, has been supplemented for certain reconstructive purposes by free vascularized bone transfer from various donor sites. Although the five-year-survival rate of carcinoma of the oral cavity has remained unchanged in the past 30 years, distinctive improvements in tumor surgery can be recorded. This is primarily based on improved diagnostics such as modern imaging techniques and the refinement of surgical techniques. The DOSAK has worked out distinctive guidelines for effective ablative oncologic surgery. Surgical approaches offering wide exposure and carrying low morbidity play a decisive role in radical resections. For this reason, midfacial degloving offers an essential improvement for the resection of midface tumors, especially from an aesthetic point of view. Tumors situated deep behind the viscerocranium at the skull base can be clearly exposed either through a lateral approach following a temporary osteotomy of the mandibular ramus or a transmandibular, transmaxillar, or

  7. [Desmoid tumors].

    PubMed

    Montagliani, L; Duverger, V

    2008-01-01

    Desmoid tumors are a rare form of malignancy with a great propensity for local extension and recurrence. They typically occur in the abdominal wall or within the abdomen but also may occur extra-abdominally. Most cases are sporadic but traumatic, hormonal, and genetic etiologies have been implicated. The only curative treatment is wide surgical excision, but the risk of local recurrence is high. Several adjuvant or complementary treatments have been proposed and the results show promise; the authors review all these therapies. PMID:18438278

  8. Adolescent and Pediatric Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... abta.org Donate Now Menu Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ... or Complete our contact form Adolescent & Pediatric Brain Tumors Brain Tumors In Children Pediatric Brain Tumor Diagnosis Family ...

  9. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor - Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on how many people survive this type of ...

  10. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  11. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  12. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  13. Pathology of eyelid tumors.

    PubMed

    Pe'er, Jacob

    2016-03-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  14. Pathology of eyelid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pe’er, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The eyelids are composed of four layers: skin and subcutaneous tissue including its adnexa, striated muscle, tarsus with the meibomian glands, and the palpebral conjunctiva. Benign and malignant tumors can arise from each of the eyelid layers. Most eyelid tumors are of cutaneous origin, mostly epidermal, which can be divided into epithelial and melanocytic tumors. Benign epithelial lesions, cystic lesions, and benign melanocytic lesions are very common. The most common malignant eyelid tumors are basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians and sebaceous gland carcinoma in Asians. Adnexal and stromal tumors are less frequent. The present review describes the more important eyelid tumors according to the following groups: Benign and malignant epithelial tumors, benign and malignant melanocytic tumors, benign and malignant adnexal tumors, stromal eyelid tumors, lymphoproliferative and metastatic tumors, other rare eyelid tumors, and inflammatory and infections lesions that simulate neoplasms. PMID:27146927

  15. Tumors and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  16. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Islet cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors ... In the healthy pancreas, cells called islet cells produce hormones that regulate a several bodily functions. These include blood sugar level and the production of ...

  17. Childhood Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  18. [Synovial tumors and tumor-like lesions].

    PubMed

    Doepfer, A-K; Meurer, A

    2015-10-01

    Synovial tumors comprise a variety of lesions, including those with benign and aggressive neoplastic changes as well as inflammatory causes. In this article we focus on neoplastic tumors. Synovial tumors with other etiologies, such as sarcoidosis, granuloma, synovitis, or gouty arthritis, are not dealt with here. Through a precise differentiation between these disease entities can an optimization of treatment be achieved. PMID:26370407

  19. Inhibition of TNFα-induced iNOS expression in HSV-tk transduced 9L glioblastoma cell lines by Marasmius oreades substances through NF-κB- and MAPK-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ruimi, Nili; Petrova, Roumyana D; Agbaria, Riad; Sussan, Sherbel; Wasser, Solomon P; Reznick, Abraham Z; Mahajna, Jamal

    2010-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous, radical molecule that plays a role in various physiological processes. Previously, we reported that transduction of murine colon cancer cells (MC38) with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene resulted in a significant over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and activation of NF-kB pathway. In this study we show that TNFα, but not LPS, was significantly able to stimulate the production of NO in HSV-tk transduced 9L glioblastoma cell lines, mediated by the up-regulation of iNOS transcript and iNOS protein. The TNFα-induced up-regulation of iNOS expression was mediated by MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways as revealed by using selective pharmaceutical inhibitors. A culture liquid extract of the edible and medicinal mushroom Marasmius oreades that was previously shown to inhibit iNOS expression in MCF-7 was utilized to prepare fractions and evaluate their ability to affect TNFα-induced iNOS expression in HSV tk transduced 9L cell lines. While most of the tested fractions were shown to inhibit TNFα-induced iNOS expression, they targeted different signaling pathways in a selective fashion. Here, we report that fraction SiSiF1 interfered with IKBα phosphorylation and consequently interfered with NF-κB activation pathway. SiSiF1 showed minimal interference with the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK proteins. In contrast, fraction SiSiF3 selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and fractions SiSiF4 and SiSiF5 selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK with no observed effect against IKBα and p38 phosphorylation. Our data illustrate the complexity of iNOS regulation in HSV tk transduced 9L cell lines and also the richness of natural products with bioactive substances that may act synergistically through different signaling pathways to affect iNOS gene expression. PMID:20224909

  20. Adrenal Gland Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... here Home > Types of Cancer > Adrenal Gland Tumor Adrenal Gland Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Adrenal Gland Tumor. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Adrenal Gland Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and ...

  1. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. PMID:26614700

  2. Tumor heterogeneity and circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chufeng; Guan, Yan; Sun, Yulan; Ai, Dan; Guo, Qisen

    2016-05-01

    In patients with cancer, individualized treatment strategies are generally guided by an analysis of molecular biomarkers. However, genetic instability allows tumor cells to lose monoclonality and acquire genetic heterogeneity, an important characteristic of tumors, during disease progression. Researchers have found that there is tumor heterogeneity between the primary tumor and metastatic lesions, between different metastatic lesions, and even within a single tumor (either primary or metastatic). Tumor heterogeneity is associated with heterogeneous protein functions, which lowers diagnostic precision and consequently becomes an obstacle to determining the appropriate therapeutic strategies for individual cancer patients. With the development of novel testing technologies, an increasing number of studies have attempted to explore tumor heterogeneity by examining circulating tumor cells (CTCs), with the expectation that CTCs may comprehensively represent the full spectrum of mutations and/or protein expression alterations present in the cancer. In addition, this strategy represents a minimally invasive approach compared to traditional tissue biopsies that can be used to dynamically monitor tumor evolution. The present article reviews the potential efficacy of using CTCs to identify both spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity. This review also highlights current issues in this field and provides an outlook toward future applications of CTCs. PMID:26902424

  3. Pathogenesis of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Run; Melmed, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are common and mostly benign neoplasia which cause excess or deficiency of pituitary hormones and compressive damage to adjacent organs. Oncogene activation [e.g. PTTG (pituitary tumor-transforming gene) and HMGA2], tumor suppressor gene inactivation (e.g. MEN1 and PRKAR1A), epigenetic changes (e.g. methylation) and humoral factors (e.g. ectopic production of stimulating hormones) are all possible pituitary tumor initiators; the micro-environment of pituitary tumors including steroid milieu, angiogenesis and abnormal cell adhesion further promote tumor growth. Senescence, a cellular defence mechanism against malignant transformation, may explain the benign nature of at least some pituitary tumors. We suggest that future research on pituitary tumor pathogenesis should incorporate systems approaches, and address regulatory mechanisms for pituitary cell proliferation, development of new animal models of pituitary tumor and isolation of functional human pituitary tumor cell lines. PMID:20541667

  4. Hypoxia in Microscopic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; O’Donoghue, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been commonly observed in a broad spectrum of primary solid malignancies. Hypoxia is associated with tumor progression, increased aggressiveness, enhanced metastatic potential and poor prognosis. Hypoxic tumor cells are resistant to radiotherapy and some forms of chemotherapy. Using an animal model, we recently showed that microscopic tumors less than 1 mm diameter were severely hypoxic. In this review, models and techniques for the study of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are discussed. PMID:18384940

  5. Non-invasive monitoring of hemodynamic changes in orthotropic brain tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, Dheerendra; Sharma, Vikrant; Liu, Hanli

    2007-02-01

    Radio surgical interventions such as Gamma Knife and Cyberknife have become attractive as therapeutic interventions. However, one of the drawbacks of cyberknife is radionecrosis, which is caused by excessive radiation to surrounding normal tissues. Radionecrosis occurs in about 10-15% of cases and could have adverse effects leading to death. Currently available imaging techniques have failed to reliably distinguish radionecrosis from tumor growth. Development of imaging techniques that could provide distinction between tumor growth and radionecrosis would give us ability to monitor effects of radiation therapy non-invasively. This paper investigates the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a new technique to monitor the growth of brain tumors. Brain tumors (9L glioma cell line) were implanted in right caudate nucleus of rats (250-300 gms, Male Fisher C) through a guide screw. A new algorithm was developed, which used broadband steady-state reflectance measurements made using a single source-detector pair, to quantify absolute concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives and reduced scattering coefficients. Preliminary results from the brain tumors indicated decreases in oxygen saturation, oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations and increases in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations with tumor growth. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology could provide an efficient, noninvasive means of monitoring vascular oxygenation dynamics of brain tumors and further facilitate investigations of efficacy of tumor treatments.

  6. Noncoherent light for PDT of spontaneous animal tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Ridgway, Tisha D.; Higbee, Russell G.; Reeds, Kimberly

    2004-07-01

    Cultured 9L cells were incubated with graded doses of pheophorbide-a-hexyl ether (HPPH) and exposed to 665 nm red light from either a noncoherent light source or a KTP-pumped dye laser. Cell death was observed after irradiation using either light source, with the noncoherent light being most effective at the highest HPPH concentrations. To determing the practicality of using the noncoherent light source for clinical PDT, dogs and cats with spontaneous tumors were injected intravenously with 0.15 mg/kg HPPH one hour before their tumors were irradiated with 665 nm noncoherent light (50 mW cm-2, 100 J cm-2). Of the 9 tumors treated, 8 complete responses were observed, all of which occurred in animals with squamous cell carcinoma. After 68 weeks of follow up, the median initial disease free interval had not been reached. These data support the use of noncoherent light sources for PDT of spontaneous tumors in animals, representing a cost-effective alternative to medical lasers in both veterinary and human dermatology and oncology.

  7. Tumor microenvironment and nanotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Sethi, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies delineate a predominant role for the tumor microenvironment in tumor growth and progression. Improved knowledge of cancer biology and investigation of the complex functional interrelation between the cellular and noncellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment have provided an ideal platform for the evolution of novel cancer nanotherapies. In addition, multifunctional “smart” nanoparticles carrying imaging agents and delivering multiple drugs targeted preferentially to the tumor/tumor microenvironment will lead to early diagnosis and better treatment for patients with cancer. The emerging knowledge of the tumor microenvironment has enabled rational designing of nanoparticles for combinatorial treatment strategies that include radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy. This multimodality approach is thus expected to achieve therapeutic efficacy and enhance the quality of life of cancer patients. This review highlights the unique characteristics of the tumor microenvironment that are exploited by nanotechnology to develop novel drug delivery systems aimed to target the tumor/tumor microenvironment. PMID:24634853

  8. Pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine enhanced uptake and retention of BSH in brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsuda, M; Akutsu, H; Ishikawa, E; Shirakawa, M; Matsumura, A

    2014-06-01

    To determine the influence of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on boron biodistribution after sulfhydryl borane (BSH) administration for boron neutron capture therapy, the effectiveness of the combination of BSO with sulfhydril- (BSH) and non-sulfhydril (B12H12 and BNH3) boron compounds, and the interval between BSO and BSH administration, the retention of boron in tissues have been evaluated using a 9L rat tumor model. Simultaneous administration of BSH and BSO showed significantly higher boron accumulation compared to that without BSO, however there was no difference in tissue boron level between B12H12 and BNH3 administration with BSO or without BSO. The longer interval (6h) between BSH and BSO administration related to the highest boron concentration in the brain and subcutaneous tumors compared to shorter intervals (0.5, 3h). Boron concentration in subcutaneous and brain tumors was maintained for 6 and 12h after the administration of BSH following BSO pretreatment. PMID:24731546

  9. Spinal tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Binning, Mandy; Klimo, Paul; Gluf, Wayne; Goumnerova, Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Pediatric spine tumors encompass a diverse group of pathologic diagnoses that differ markedly based on the location and age of the child. Children can be affected by primary and metastatic tumors, making the differential diagnosis and treatment options extensive. This article discusses the features of spinal tumors in children based primarily on location: extradural, intradural-extramedullary, and intramedullary tumors. Because this article deals with such a broad topic, detailed descriptions and outcomes of surgical and nonsurgical treatments for each particular tumor are limited. Rather, the key clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic features of each tumor are discussed. PMID:17991588

  10. WE-E-BRE-08: Impact of IUdR in Rat 9L Glioma Cell Survival for 25–35 KeV Photo-Activated Auger Electron Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, D; Hogstrom, K; Brown, T; Dugas, J; Varnes, M; Matthews, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the biological effect from Auger electrons with 9% and 18% iododeoxyuridine (IUdR) incorporated into the DNA of rat 9L glioma cells at photon energies above and below the K-edge of iodine (33.2 keV). Methods: Rat 9L glioma cell survival versus dose curves with 0%, 9%, and 18% thymidine replacement with IUdR were measured using four irradiation energies (4 MV x-rays; monochromatic 35, 30, and 25 keV synchrotron photons). For each of 11 conditions (Energy, %IUdR) survival curves were fit to the data (826 cell cultures) using the linear-quadratic model. The ratio of doses resulting in 10% survival gave sensitization enhancement ratios (SER10) from which contributions due to linear-energy transfer (LET), radiosensitization (RS), and Auger effect (AE) were extracted. Results: At 35, 30, and 25 keV, SER10,LET values were 1.08±0.03, 1.22±0.02, and 1.37±0.02, respectively. At 4 MV SER10,RS values for 9% and 18% IUdR were 1.28±0.02 and 1.40±0.02, respectively. Assuming LET effects are independent of %IUdR and radiosensitization effects are independent of energy, SER10,AE values for 18% IUdR at 35, 30, and 25 keV were 1.35±0.05, 1.06±0.03, and 0.98±0.03, respectively; values for 9% IUdR at 35 and 25 keV were 1.01±0.04 and 0.82±0.02, respectively. Conclusion: For 18% IUdR the radiosensitization effect of 1.40 and the Auger effect of 1.35 at 35 keV are equally important to the combined effect of 1.90. No measureable Auger effect was observed for energies below the K-edge at 20 and 25 keV, as expected. The insignificant Auger effect at 9% IUdR was not expected. Additional data (40–70 keV) and radiobiological modeling are being acquired to better understand the energy dependence of Auger electron therapy with IUdR. Funding support in part by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program and in part by Contract No. W81XWH-10-1-0005 awarded by the U.S. Army Research Acquisition Activity. This paper does not necessarily

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F labeled FET prodrugs for tumor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Lieberman, Brian P.; Ploessl, Karl; Kung, Hank F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET, [18F]1) is a useful amino-acid-based imaging agent for brain tumors. This paper reports the synthesis and evaluation of three FET prodrugs, O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosyl-L-glycine (FET-Gly, [18F]2), O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosyl-L-alanine (FET-Ala, [18F]3) and N-acetyl O-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (AcFET, [18F]4), which could be readily hydrolyzed to FET in vivo for tumor imaging. We investigated their metabolism in the blood and imaging properties in comparison to FET ([18F]1). Methods Three new [18F]FET derivatives, 2 – 4, were prepared from their corresponding tosylate-precursors through nucleophilic fluorination and subsequent deprotection reactions. In vitro uptake studies were carried out in 9L glioma cancer cell lines. In vitro and in vivo hydrolysis studies were conducted to evaluate the hydrolysis of FET prodrugs in blood and in Fisher 344 rats. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were then performed in rats bearing 9L tumors. Results New FET prodrugs were prepared with 3 – 28 % decay corrected radiochemical yields, good enantiomeric purity (> 95 %) and high radiochemical purity (> 95 %). FET-Gly ([18F]2), FET-Ala ([18F]3), and AcFET ([18F]4) exhibited negligible uptake in comparison to the high uptake of FET ([18F]1) in 9L cells. Metabolism studies of FET-Gly ([18F]2), FET-Ala ([18F]3), and AcFET ([18F]4) in rat and human blood showed that FET-Ala ([18F]3) was hydrolyzed to FET ([18F]1) faster than FET-Gly ([18F]2) or AcFET ([18F]4). Most of the FET-Ala (79 %) was converted to FET ([18F]1) within 5 min in blood in vivo. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that FET-Ala ([18F]3) displayed the highest tumor uptake. The tumor-to-background ratios of FET-Ala ([18F]3) and FET ([18F]1) were comparable and appeared to be better than those of FET-Gly ([18F]2) and AcFET ([18F]4). PET imaging studies showed that both FET ([18F]1) and FET-Ala ([18F]3) could visualize tumors effectively, and that

  12. Phase II Pediatric Study With Dabrafenib in HGG Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Glioblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Choroid Plexus Carcinoma; Anaplastic Ganglioglioma; Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Pineoblastoma; Medulloblastoma; PNET; Rhabdoid Tumor; Perineurioma; MPNST; Malignant Meningloma; Anaplastic Hemangiopericytoma

  13. Bafetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent High-Grade Glioma or Brain Metastases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-18

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Tumors Metastatic to Brain; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma

  14. A Pilot Feasibility Study of Oral 5-Fluorocytosine and Genetically-Modified Neural Stem Cells Expressing E.Coli Cytosine Deaminase for Treatment of Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Grade III Glioma; Recurrent Grade IV Glioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent High Grade Glioma

  15. Stages of Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  16. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... stress. Growth hormone helps control body growth and metabolism. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is involved in growth, body temperature, and heart rate. Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors (also called nonsecretory tumors) do ...

  17. Tumor suppressor ARF

    PubMed Central

    Través, Paqui G.; Luque, Alfonso; Hortelano, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    ARF (alternative reading frame) is one of the most important tumor regulator playing critical roles in controlling tumor initiation and progression. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel and unexpected role for ARF as modulator of inflammatory responses. PMID:23162766

  18. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you insights into your child's treatment. LEARN MORE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... to make progress in “immunogenomics” Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  19. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  20. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lung carcinoid tumor symptoms Surgery to treat lung carcinoid tumors Surgery is the main treatment for ... often be cured by surgery alone. Types of lung surgery Different operations can be used to treat ( ...

  1. Dinosaurs Got Tumors, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159760.html Dinosaurs Got Tumors, Too Benign facial growth discovered in ... 2016 THURSDAY, July 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even dinosaurs developed tumors, with some more prone to growths ...

  2. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... brain from an unknown location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Growing brain tumors can place pressure ... not know the original location. This is called cancer of unknown primary (CUP) origin. Metastatic brain tumors occur in about ...

  3. American Brain Tumor Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form The American Brain Tumor Association was the first and is the only national organization committed to funding brain tumor research and providing ...

  4. Brain Tumor Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... facts and statistics here include brain and central nervous system tumors (including spinal cord, pituitary and pineal gland ... U.S. living with a primary brain and central nervous system tumor. This year, nearly 17,000 people will ...

  5. Intramedullary tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Uttara

    2011-01-01

    Intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord account for 35-40% of intraspinal tumors in children. The biological behavior of these tumors is of slow progression, and hence aggressive surgery has been advocated. Surgical adjuncts include use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, preoperative ultrasound, microsurgical techniques and ultrasonic suction devices. Osteoplastic laminoplasty approaches avoid post-laminectomy deformities in younger children. Postoperative radiotherapy and more recently chemotherapy regimes have been proposed for incompletely resected tumors. PMID:22069435

  6. Brain and Spinal Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Brain and Spinal Tumors Information Page Synonym(s): Spinal Cord ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Brain and Spinal Tumors? Tumors of the brain and ...

  7. What Is Wilms Tumor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor): In these tumors, the look of the cancer cells varies widely, and the cells’ nuclei (the central parts that contain the DNA) tend to be very large and distorted. This is called anaplasia . The more anaplasia a tumor has, the harder it is to cure. Other types of kidney cancers in children Most ...

  8. Neuroimaging of Spinal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Merhemic, Zulejha; Stosic-Opincal, Tatjana; Thurnher, Majda M

    2016-08-01

    Intradural tumors are relatively rare neoplasms; however, when unrecognized in a timely manner, they can result in serious deficits and disability. These tumors lack obvious clinical symptoms until compression of the cord or neurologic deficits occur. The most common intramedullary lesions are ependymomas, astrocytomas, and hemangioblastomas. Meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors (schwannomas and neurofibromas) comprise most intradural-extramedullary tumors. Less common tumors are hemangiopericytoma, paraganglioma, melanocytoma, melanoma, metastases, and lymphoma. MR imaging is the imaging method of choice, helpful for localization and characterization of these lesions before treatment and for follow-up after treatment. PMID:27417401

  9. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Bournazou, Eirini; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Persistent JAK-STAT3 signaling is implicated in many aspects of tumorigenesis. Apart from its tumor-intrinsic effects, STAT3 also exerts tumor-extrinsic effects, supporting tumor survival and metastasis. These involve the regulation of paracrine cytokine signaling, alterations in metastatic sites rendering these permissive for the growth of cancer cells and subversion of host immune responses to create an immunosuppressive environment. Targeting this signaling pathway is considered a novel promising therapeutic approach, especially in the context of tumor immunity. In this article, we will review to what extent JAK-STAT3-targeted therapies affect the tumor microenvironment and whether the observed effects underlie responsiveness to therapy. PMID:24058812

  10. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis. PMID:25676911

  11. Tumor-Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Teesalu, Tambet; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC), contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor-homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR) motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular “zip code” of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies, and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is present in the

  12. Imaging the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    LeBleu, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex, heterogeneous, and dominant component of solid tumors. Cancer imaging strategies of a subset of characteristics of the tumor microenvironment are under active development and currently used modalities and novel approaches are summarized here. Understanding the dynamic and evolving functions of the tumor microenvironment is critical to accurately inform imaging and clinical care of cancer. Novel insights into distinct roles of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression urge careful interpretation of imaging data and impel the development of novel modalities. PMID:26049696

  13. Tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  14. [18F](2S,4S)-4-(3-Fluoropropyl)glutamine as a Tumor Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although the growth and proliferation of most tumors is fueled by glucose, some tumors are more likely to metabolize glutamine. In particular, tumor cells with the upregulated c-Myc gene are generally reprogrammed to utilize glutamine. We have developed new 3-fluoropropyl analogs of glutamine, namely [18F](2S,4R)- and [18F](2S,4S)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine, 3 and 4, to be used as probes for studying glutamine metabolism in these tumor cells. Optically pure isomers labeled with 18F and 19F (2S,4S) and (2S,4R)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine were synthesized via different routes and isolated in high radiochemical purity (≥95%). Cell uptake studies of both isomers showed that they were taken up efficiently by 9L tumor cells with a steady increase over a time frame of 120 min. At 120 min, their uptake was approximately two times higher than that of l-[3H]glutamine ([3H]Gln). These in vitro cell uptake studies suggested that the new probes are potential tumor imaging agents. Yet, the lower chemical yield of the precursor for 3, as well as the low radiochemical yield for 3, limits the availability of [18F](2S,4R)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine, 3. We, therefore, focused on [18F](2S,4S)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine, 4. The in vitro cell uptake studies suggested that the new probe, [18F](2S,4S)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine, 4, is most sensitive to the LAT transport system, followed by System N and ASC transporters. A dual-isotope experiment using l-[3H]glutamine and the new probe showed that the uptake of [3H]Gln into 9L cells was highly associated with macromolecules (>90%), whereas the [18F](2S,4S)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine, 4, was not (<10%). This suggests a different mechanism of retention. In vivo PET imaging studies demonstrated tumor-specific uptake in rats bearing 9L xenographs with an excellent tumor to muscle ratio (maximum of ∼8 at 40 min). [18F](2S,4S)-4-(3-fluoropropyl)glutamine, 4, may be useful for testing tumors that may metabolize glutamine related amino

  15. In Vitro Characterization of a Targeted, Dye-Loaded Nanodevice for Intraoperative Tumor Delineation

    PubMed Central

    Orringer, Daniel A.; Koo, Yong-Eun L.; Chen, Thomas; Kim, Gwangseong; Hah, Hoe Jin; Xu, Hao; Wang, Shouyan; Keep, Richard; Philbert, Martin A.; Kopelman, Raoul; Sagher, Oren

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To synthesize and complete in vitro characterization of a novel, tumor-targeted nanodevice for visible intraoperative delineation of brain tumors. METHODS The ability of dye-loaded polyacrylamide nanoparticles (NPs) containing methylene blue, Coomassie blue, or indocyanine green, to cause color change in the 9L glioma cell lines was evaluated. Cells were incubated with dye-loaded NPs, photographed, and analyzed colorimetrically. Confocal microscopy was used to determine subcellular localization of NPs in treated cells. RESULTS Incubation of glioma cell lines with dye-loaded NPs resulted in clearly visible, quantifiable cell tagging in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Dye-loaded NPs were observed to bind to the surface and become internalized by glioma cells. Coating the NP surface with F3, a peptide that binds to the tumor cell surface receptor nucleolin, significantly increased NP affinity for glioma cells. F3-targeting also significantly increased the rate of cell tagging by dye-loaded NPs. Finally, F3-targeted NPs demonstrated specificity for targeting various cancer cell lines based on their surface expression of cell surface nucleolin. CONCLUSIONS F3-targeted dye-loaded NPs efficiently cause definitive color change in glioma cells. This report represents the first use of targeted NPs to cause a visible color change in tumor cell lines. Similar nanodevices may be used in the future to enable visible intraoperative tumor delineation during tumor resection. PMID:19404156

  16. Determination of radiobiological parameters for the safe clinical application of BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Hopewell, J.W.; Morris, G.M.; Coderre, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    In the present report the effects of BNCT irradiation on the skin and spinal cord of Fischer 344 rats, for known concentrations of {sup 10}B in the blood and these normal tissues, are compared with the effects of the neutron beam alone or photon irradiation. The biological effectiveness of irradiation in the presence of the capture agents BSH and BPA have been compared. Irradiations were carried out using the thermal beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Therapy experiments were also carried out as part of this study, using the rat 9L-gliosarcoma cell line, in order to establish the potential therapeutic advantage that might be achieved using the above capture agents. This cell line grows as a solid tumor in vivo as well as in vitro. The implications of these findings, with respect to the clinical use of the Petten HBII based epithermal neutron beam, will be discussed.

  17. Radioresistance of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Kevin; Knisely, Jonathan; Symons, Marc; Ruggieri, Rosamaria

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as part of the standard of care treatment of the majority of brain tumors. The efficacy of RT is limited by radioresistance and by normal tissue radiation tolerance. This is highlighted in pediatric brain tumors where the use of radiation is limited by the excessive toxicity to the developing brain. For these reasons, radiosensitization of tumor cells would be beneficial. In this review, we focus on radioresistance mechanisms intrinsic to tumor cells. We also evaluate existing approaches to induce radiosensitization and explore future avenues of investigation. PMID:27043632

  18. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  19. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  20. Click conjugation of peptide to hydrogel nanoparticles for tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ming; Zong, Hong; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-10-13

    Here we introduce a modified peptide-decorated polymeric nanoparticle (NP) for cancer cell targeting, which can deliver drugs, such as doxorubicin (Dox), to several kinds of cancer cells. Specifically, we employ a nucleolin-targeting NP, with a matrix based on a copolymer of acrylamide (AAm) and 2-carboxyethyl acrylate (CEA). The negatively charged co(CEA-AAm) NP was conjugated with a nucleolin-targeting F3 peptide using a highly efficient and specific copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne click reaction. F3 peptide binds to angiogenic tumor vasculatures and other nucleolin overexpressing tumor cells. Attaching F3 peptide onto the NP increases the NP uptake by the nucleolin-expressing glioma cell line 9L and the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Notably, the F3-conjugated NPs show much higher uptake by the nucleolin-overexpressing glioma cell line 9L than that by the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, the latter having a lower expression of nucleolin on its plasma membrane surface. Moreover, the F3 peptide also dramatically enhances the uptake of co(CEA-AAm) NPs by the drug-resistant cell line NCI/ADR-RES. Also, with this F3-conjugated co(CEA-AAm) NP, a high loading and slow release of doxorubicin were achieved. PMID:25162488

  1. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, an uncommon tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, K.; Kumar, Senthil; Vijayasamundeeswari; Vigneswari, Srivel

    2012-01-01

    Here we report a case of adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) in the maxilla in a young girl aged 14 years and its surgical management. We also review the literature and variations in the nomenclature and classifications of this interesting tumor. The review of literature gives an interesting picture regarding terminologies in the past and dilemma in classifying this tumor. The introduction of the name adenomatoid odontogenic tumour has resulted in the simpler and fruitful surgical management like enucleation and curettage with no reports of recurrences. In the past, similar lesion with the terminology like adeno ameloblastoma has resulted in unnecessary mutilating surgery. The conflicting views whether the lesion is being neoplasm or an anomalous hamartomatous growth is also being discussed. PMID:22919236

  2. Eltrombopag with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors: a randomized phase I study.

    PubMed

    Winer, Eric S; Safran, Howard; Karaszewska, Boguslawa; Richards, Donald A; Hartner, Lee; Forget, Frederic; Ramlau, Rodryg; Kumar, Kirushna; Mayer, Bhabita; Johnson, Brendan M; Messam, Conrad A; Mostafa Kamel, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Preventing chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia could avoid chemotherapy dose reductions and delays. The safety and maximum tolerated dose of eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, with gemcitabine-based therapy was evaluated. Patients with advanced solid tumors and platelets ≤300 × 10(9) /L receiving gemcitabine plus cisplatin or carboplatin (Group A) or gemcitabine monotherapy (Group B) were randomized 3:1 to receive eltrombopag or placebo at a starting dose of 100 mg daily administered on days -5 to -1 and days 2-6 starting from cycle 2 of treatment. Nineteen patients (Group A, n = 9; Group B, n = 10) received eltrombopag 100 mg and seven (Group A, n = 3; Group B, n = 4) received matching placebo. Nine eltrombopag patients in Group A and eight in Group B had 38 and 54 occurrences of platelet counts ≥400 × 10(9) /L, respectively. Mean platelet nadirs across cycles 2-6 were 115 × 10(9) /L and 143 × 10(9) /L for eltrombopag-treated patients versus 53 × 10(9) /L and 103 × 10(9) /L for placebo-treated patients in Groups A and B, respectively. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported for eltrombopag; however, due to several occurrences of thrombocytosis, a decision was made not to dose-escalate eltrombopag to >100 mg daily. In Groups A and B, 14% of eltrombopag versus 50% of placebo patients required chemotherapy dose reductions and/or delays for any reason across cycles 3-6. Eltrombopag 100 mg once daily administered 5 days before and after day 1 of chemotherapy was well tolerated with an acceptable safety profile, and will be further tested in a phase II trial. Fewer patients receiving eltrombopag required chemotherapy dose delays and/or reductions compared with those receiving placebo. PMID:25165041

  3. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  4. Metastatic pleural tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... persons. Alternative Names Tumor - metastatic pleural Images Pleural space References Arenberg D, Pickens A. Metastatic malignant tumors. In: Mason RJ, Murray JF, Broaddus VC, et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

  5. General Information about Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islet Cell Tumors) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors) Go ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  6. Tumor angiogenesis--characteristics of tumor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hida, Kyoko; Maishi, Nako; Torii, Chisaho; Hida, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Tumor blood vessels provide nutrition and oxygen to the tumor, resulting in tumor progression. They also act as gatekeepers, inducing tumor metastasis. Thus, targeting tumor blood vessels is an important strategy in cancer therapy. Tumor endothelial cells (TECs), which line the inner layer of blood vessels of the tumor stromal tissue, are the main targets of anti-angiogenic therapy. Because new tumor blood vessels generally sprout from pre-existing vasculature, they have been considered to be the same as normal blood vessels. However, tumor blood vessels demonstrate a markedly abnormal phenotype that includes several important morphological changes. The degree of angiogenesis is determined by the balance between the angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors released by the tumor and host cells. Recent studies have revealed that TECs also exhibit altered characteristics which depend on the tumor microenvironment. Here, we review recent studies on TEC abnormalities and heterogeneity with respect to tumor progression and consider their therapeutic implications. PMID:26879652

  7. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor in childhood and with current treatment modalities, the survival is more than 95%. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant fashion and hence the offsprings of all patients with the germline retinoblastoma need to be screened from birth. This review discusses the various pediatric genetic ocular tumors discussing the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Method of treating tumors

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Burke, Patricia A.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Goodman, Simon; Matzku, legal representative, Kerstin; Matzku, Siegfried

    2006-04-18

    A method of treating tumors, such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the like, includes the sequential steps of administering to the patient at least one dose of an antiangiogenic cyclo-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing pentapeptide (cRGD pentapeptide); administering to the patient an anti-tumor effective amount of a radioimmunotherapeutic agent (RIT); and then administering to the patient at least one additional dose of cRGD pentapeptide. The cRGD pentapeptide is preferably cyclo-(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-[N-Me]-Val), and the RIT is preferably a radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complex in which chelating agent is chemically bonded to a tumor-targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody.

  9. Tumor microenvironment indoctrination

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nastiness of cancer does not only reside in the corruption of cancer cells by genetic aberrations that drive their sustained proliferative power—the roots of malignancy—but also in its aptitude to reciprocally sculpt its surrounding environment and cellular stromal ecosystem, in such a way that the corrupted tumor microenvironment becomes a full pro-tumorigenic entity. Such a contribution had been appreciated three decades ago already, with the discovery of tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Nevertheless, the recent emergence of the tumor microenvironment as the critical determinant in cancer biology is paralleled by the promising therapeutic potential it carries, opening alternate routes to fight cancer. The study of the tumor microenvironment recruited numerous lead-scientists over the years, with distinct perspectives, and some of them have kindly accepted to contribute to the elaboration of this special issue entitled Tumor microenvironment indoctrination: An emerging hallmark of cancer. PMID:22863738

  10. Primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, N A

    1980-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are a rare, but potentially curably form of heart disease. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary for diagnosis as these tumors have protean manifestations that mimic a variety of other cardiac and noncardiac diseases. Presently, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography are utilized as safe, reliable, and noninvasive imaging modalities. Seventy-five per cent of these tumors are benign, with myxoma accounting for 50% and rhabodomyoma comprising 20% of lesions. Various histologic types of sarcoma are the predominant malignant cardiac neoplasms. With strict attention to avoiding perioperative tumor embolization, surgical resection of these lesions can be accomplished with minimal morbidity and mortality. Sixteen consecutive primary tumors of the heart have been surgically treated at Duke University Medical Center since 1966 with no perioperative deaths and no late recurrences. Images Figs. 2A and B. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Figs. 5A and B Fig. 6. PMID:7362282

  11. Acetate Dependence of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Sarah A.; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Fu, Allie; Manning, H. Charles; Horton, Jay D.; Hammer, Robert E.; McKnight, Steven L.; Tu, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. How highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors are able to produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions remains poorly understood. Here we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

  12. Modern Brain Tumor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Cha, Soonmee

    2015-01-01

    The imaging and clinical management of patients with brain tumor continue to evolve over time and now heavily rely on physiologic imaging in addition to high-resolution structural imaging. Imaging remains a powerful noninvasive tool to positively impact the management of patients with brain tumor. This article provides an overview of the current state-of-the art clinical brain tumor imaging. In this review, we discuss general magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods and their application to the diagnosis of, treatment planning and navigation, and disease monitoring in patients with brain tumor. We review the strengths, limitations, and pitfalls of structural imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging techniques, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography/MR, and functional imaging. Overall this review provides a basis for understudying the role of modern imaging in the care of brain tumor patients. PMID:25977902

  13. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. PMID:26216635

  14. Real-time intraoperative full-range complex FD-OCT guided cerebral blood vessel identification and brain tumor resection in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Huang, Yong; Pradilla, Gustavo; Tyler, Betty; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    This work utilized an ultra-high-speed full-range complex-conjugate-free optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system to perform real-time intraoperative imaging to guide two common neurosurgical procedures: the cerebral blood vessel identification and the brain tumor resection. The cerebral blood vessel identification experiment is conducted ex vivo on human cadaver specimen. Specific cerebral arteries and veins in different positions of the specimen are visualized and the spatial relations between adjacent vessels are indentified through real-time 3D visualization. The brain tumor resection experiment is conducted in vivo on 9L gliomas established in rat brains. The normal brain-tumor margin can be clearly identified in depth of the tissue from sagittal, coronal and axial slices of the intraoperatively acquired 3D data set. The real-time full-range FD-OCT guided in vivo rat flank tumor resection is also conducted.

  15. Epilepsy and brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Chang, Edward F; Vecht, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70-80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60-75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20-50% of patients with meningioma and 20-35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60-90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  16. Benign follicular tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Tellechea, Oscar; Cardoso, José Carlos; Reis, José Pedro; Ramos, Leonor; Gameiro, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Inês; Baptista, António Poiares

    2015-01-01

    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. In this article, the authors present the microscopic structure of the normal hair follicle as a basis to understand the type and level of differentiation of the various follicular tumors. The main clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of benign follicular tumors are then discussed, including dilated pore of Winer, pilar sheath acanthoma, trichoadenoma, trichilemmoma, infundibuloma, proliferating trichilemmal cyst/tumor, trichoblastoma and its variants, pilomatricoma, trichodiscoma/fibrofolliculoma, neurofollicular hamartoma and trichofolliculoma. In addition, the main syndromes presenting with multiple follicular tumors are also discussed, namely Cowden, Birt-Hogg-Dubé, Rombo and Bazex-Dupré-Christol syndromes, as well as multiple tumors of follicular infundibulum (infundibulomatosis) and multiple trichoepitheliomas. Although the diagnosis of follicular tumors relies on histological examination, we highlight the importance of their knowledge for the clinician, especially when in presence of patients with multiple lesions that may be the cutaneous marker of a cancer-prone syndrome. The dermatologist is therefore in a privileged position to recognize these lesions, which is extremely important to provide further propedeutic, appropriate referral and genetic counseling for these patients. PMID:26734858

  17. Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sredni, Simone T; Tomita, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RT), or malignant rhabdoid tumors, are among the most aggressive and lethal forms of human cancer. They can arise in any location in the body but are most commonly observed in the brain, where they are called atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), and in the kidneys, where they are called rhabdoid tumors of the kidney. The vast majority of rhabdoid tumors present with a loss of function in the SMARCB1 gene, also known as INI1, BAF47, and hSNF5, a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Recently, mutations in a 2nd locus of the SWI/SNF complex, the SMARCA4 gene, also known as BRG1, were found in rhabdoid tumors with retention of SMARCB1 expression. Familial cases may occur in a condition known as rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS). In RTPS, germline inactivation of 1 allele of a gene occurs. When the mutation occurs in the SMARCB1 gene, the syndrome is called RTPS1, and when the mutation occurs in the SMARCA4 gene it is called RTPS2. Children presenting with RTPS tend to develop tumors at a younger age, but the impact that germline mutation has on survival remains unclear. Adults who carry the mutation tend to develop multiple schwannomas. The diagnosis of RTPS should be considered in patients with RT, especially if they have multiple primary tumors, and/or in individuals with a family history of RT. Because germline mutations result in an increased risk of carriers developing RT, genetic counseling for families with this condition is recommended. PMID:25494491

  18. Canine mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  19. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  20. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors. PMID:26966341

  1. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Progressive Carcinoid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-14

    Atypical Carcinoid Tumor; Foregut Carcinoid Tumor; Hindgut Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Midgut Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1

  2. Erlotinib and Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  3. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma or Recurrent or Progressive Meningioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-07-09

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Grade III Meningioma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  4. Phase I Study of Cellular Immunotherapy for Recurrent/Refractory Malignant Glioma Using Intratumoral Infusions of GRm13Z40-2, An Allogeneic CD8+ Cytolitic T-Cell Line Genetically Modified to Express the IL 13-Zetakine and HyTK and to be Resistant to Glucocorticoids, in Combination With Interleukin-2

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Anaplastic Ependymoma; Anaplastic Meningioma; Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Brain Stem Glioma; Ependymoblastoma; Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma; Gliosarcoma; Grade III Meningioma; Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Mixed Glioma; Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Brain Tumor

  5. Ovarian tumors secreting insulin.

    PubMed

    Battocchio, Marialberta; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Chiarelli, Silvia; Trento, Mariangela; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Pasquali, Claudio; De Carlo, Eugenio; Dassie, Francesca; Mioni, Roberto; Rebellato, Andrea; Fallo, Francesco; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Martini, Chiara; Vettor, Roberto; Maffei, Pietro

    2015-08-01

    Combined ovarian germ cell and neuroendocrine tumors are rare. Only few cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion have been hypothesized in the literature. An ovarian tumor was diagnosed in a 76-year-old woman, referred to our department for recurrent hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinism. In vivo tests, in particular fasting test, rapid calcium infusion test, and Octreotide test were performed. Ectopic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was demonstrated in vivo and hypoglycemia disappeared after hysteroadnexectomy. Histological exam revealed an ovarian germ cell tumor with neuroendocrine and Yolk sac differentiation, while immunostaining showed insulin positivity in neuroendocrine cells. A cell culture was obtained by tumoral cells, testing Everolimus, and Pasireotide. Insulin was detected in cell culture medium and Everolimus and Pasireotide demonstrated their potentiality in reducing insulin secretion, more than controlling cell viability. Nine cases of hyperinsulinism due to ovarian ectopic secretion reported in literature have been reviewed. These data confirm the ovarian tissue potentiality to induce hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic syndrome after neoplastic transformation. PMID:25896552

  6. Wilms' tumor after treatment.

    PubMed

    Brisigotti, M; Cozzutto, C; Fabbretti, G; Caliendo, L; Haupt, R; Cornaglia-Ferraris, P; Callea, F

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-one Wilms' tumors (WTs) from 59 patients who received preoperative therapy were studied. Twenty-seven WTs from 26 patients who did not receive preoperative treatment were also reviewed as controls. Marked and diffuse morphological changes occurred in treated cases. Necrosis affected mostly undifferentiated and replicating elements and was extensive, up to 90% of tumor mass. Minimal residual tumor, permitting recognition as Wilms', was always spared. Epithelial and rhabdomyoblastic components were more resistant to treatment; moreover, they appeared to be susceptible to differentiation and maturation. Necrosis and muscle cell differentiation seemed to have prognostic implications. Cases with extensive necrosis (greater than 90%) had a better outcome, although the difference was not statistically significant. The rhabdomyoblast/tumor mass ratio, after treatment, appears to carry prognostic meaning. Chemotherapy had no apparent effect on anaplasia. PMID:1329055

  7. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Update Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  8. Posterior fossa tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the posterior fossa, it can block the flow of spinal fluid and cause increased pressure on the brain and ... the cancer early. A total blockage in the flow of spinal fluid can be life threatening. If tumors are found ...

  9. What Are Pituitary Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... too little makes you sluggish. If a pituitary tumor makes too much TSH, it can cause hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid gland). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also known as corticotropin ) causes ...

  10. Intraperitoneal Solitary Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10 cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20 cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

  11. Intraperitoneal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Benabdejlil, Youssef; Kouach, Jaouad; Babahabib, Abdellah; Elhassani, Moulay Elmehdi; Rharassi, Issam; Boudhas, Adil; Bakkali, Hicham; Elmarjany, Mohammed; Moussaoui, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the pelvis are rare. We report the case of a 32-years-old patient who presented with abdominopelvic mass. The imaging studies showed a right adnexal mass of more than 10 cm. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20 cm mass at the Douglas pouch which was adhered to the posterior wall of the uterus. Complete resection of the mass was performed. Histological analysis showed a spindle cell undifferentiated tumor whose morphological and immunohistochemical profile are consistent with solitary fibrous tumor. It is important to know that although these tumors are rare, their evolution can be pejorative. Therefore, long-term followup should be recommended. PMID:25276449

  12. Children's Tumor Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Involved in your local community in the fight to End NF. Click here to learn more . ... Children's Tumor Foundation is making strides in the fight against NF. Calendar View Full Calendar Fri Sep ...

  13. Skin tumors on squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Reilly, J.R.

    1955-01-01

    Skin tumors having the gross appearance of previously reported fibromas are reported on gray squirrels from N. Y., Md., Va., N. C., and W. Va. and from a fox squirrel from W. Va. and a porcupine from Pa.

  14. [Regression grading in gastrointestinal tumors].

    PubMed

    Tischoff, I; Tannapfel, A

    2012-02-01

    Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy is a well-established and essential part of the interdisciplinary treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. Neoadjuvant treatment leads to regressive changes in tumors. To evaluate the histological tumor response different scoring systems describing regressive changes are used and known as tumor regression grading. Tumor regression grading is usually based on the presence of residual vital tumor cells in proportion to the total tumor size. Currently, no nationally or internationally accepted grading systems exist. In general, common guidelines should be used in the pathohistological diagnostics of tumors after neoadjuvant therapy. In particularly, the standard tumor grading will be replaced by tumor regression grading. Furthermore, tumors after neoadjuvant treatment are marked with the prefix "y" in the TNM classification. PMID:22293790

  15. [Grading of neuroendocrine tumors].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W; Schnabel, P A; Komminoth, P

    2016-07-01

    The current WHO classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) differentiates between typical carcinoids (low grade NET), atypical carcinoids (intermediate grade NET) and small cell and large cell carcinomas (high grade NET) according to the prognosis. Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the gastrointestinal tract and the pancreas are graded in an identical way. Together with the TNM system this enables a preoperative estimation of the prognosis in biopsies and fine needle aspirates. Well-differentiated tumors are graded into G1 tumors by the number of mitoses, <2 per 10 high-power fields (HPF) and the Ki-67 (index <3 %) and G2 tumors (2-20 mitoses/10 HPF, Ki-67 3-20 %). Discrepancies between the number of mitoses and the Ki-67 index are not uncommon and in these cases the higher value of the two should be applied. The more differentiated tumors of the G3 type have to be differentiated from undifferentiated carcinomas of the small cell type and large cell type with a much poorer prognosis. Prognosis relevant grading of thyroid cancers is achieved by special subtyping so that the G1-G3 system is not applicable. The rare cancers of the parathyroid gland and of the pituitary gland are not graded. Adrenal tumors also have no grading system. The prognosis is dependent on the Ki-67 index and with some reservations on the established scoring systems. PMID:27379621

  16. Towards tumor immunodiagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kotoula, Vassiliki

    2016-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic markers applicable on tissue or cytologic material may be prognostic or predictive of response to immunomodulatory drugs and may also be classified according to whether they are cell-specific or tumor-tissue-specific. Cell-specific markers are evaluated under the microscope as (I) morphological, corresponding to the assessment of tumor infiltrating immune cells on routine hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) sections; and (II) immunophenotypic, including the immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of markers characteristic for tumor infiltrating immune cells. Tumor-tissue-specific markers are assessed in tissue extracts that may be enriched in neoplastic cells but almost inevitably also contain stromal and immune cells infiltrating the tumor. Such markers include (I) immune-response-related gene expression profiles, and (II) tumor genotype characteristics, as recently assessed with large-scale genotyping methods, usually next generation sequencing (NGS) applications. Herein, we discuss the biological nature of immunodiagnostic markers, their potential clinical relevance and the shortcomings that have, as yet, prevented their clinical application. PMID:27563650

  17. Towards tumor immunodiagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kourea, Helen; Kotoula, Vassiliki

    2016-07-01

    Immunodiagnostic markers applicable on tissue or cytologic material may be prognostic or predictive of response to immunomodulatory drugs and may also be classified according to whether they are cell-specific or tumor-tissue-specific. Cell-specific markers are evaluated under the microscope as (I) morphological, corresponding to the assessment of tumor infiltrating immune cells on routine hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) sections; and (II) immunophenotypic, including the immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of markers characteristic for tumor infiltrating immune cells. Tumor-tissue-specific markers are assessed in tissue extracts that may be enriched in neoplastic cells but almost inevitably also contain stromal and immune cells infiltrating the tumor. Such markers include (I) immune-response-related gene expression profiles, and (II) tumor genotype characteristics, as recently assessed with large-scale genotyping methods, usually next generation sequencing (NGS) applications. Herein, we discuss the biological nature of immunodiagnostic markers, their potential clinical relevance and the shortcomings that have, as yet, prevented their clinical application. PMID:27563650

  18. Automatic brain tumor segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew C.; Hall, Lawrence O.; Goldgof, Dmitry B.; Velthuizen, Robert P.; Murtaugh, F. R.; Silbiger, Martin L.

    1998-06-01

    A system that automatically segments and labels complete glioblastoma-multiform tumor volumes in magnetic resonance images of the human brain is presented. The magnetic resonance images consist of three feature images (T1- weighted, proton density, T2-weighted) and are processed by a system which integrates knowledge-based techniques with multispectral analysis and is independent of a particular magnetic resonance scanning protocol. Initial segmentation is performed by an unsupervised clustering algorithm. The segmented image, along with cluster centers for each class are provided to a rule-based expert system which extracts the intra-cranial region. Multispectral histogram analysis separates suspected tumor from the rest of the intra-cranial region, with region analysis used in performing the final tumor labeling. This system has been trained on eleven volume data sets and tested on twenty-two unseen volume data sets acquired from a single magnetic resonance imaging system. The knowledge-based tumor segmentation was compared with radiologist-verified `ground truth' tumor volumes and results generated by a supervised fuzzy clustering algorithm. The results of this system generally correspond well to ground truth, both on a per slice basis and more importantly in tracking total tumor volume during treatment over time.

  19. Brain tumors in infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyyed Mohammad; Habibi, Zohreh; Hanaei, Sara; Moradi, Ehsan; Nejat, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain tumors in infants have different clinical presentations, anatomical distribution, histopathological diagnosis, and clinical prognosis compared with older children. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in patients <12 months old who were operated on for primary brain tumor in Children's Hospital Medical Center since 2008 to 2014. Results: Thirty-one infants, 20 males and 11 females, with the mean age of 7.13 months (0.5–12) were enrolled. There were 16 supratentorial and 15 infratentorial tumors. The presenting symptoms included increased head circumference (16); bulge fontanel (15); vomiting (15); developmental regression (11); sunset eye (7); seizure (4); loss of consciousness (4); irritability (3); nystagmus (2); visual loss (2); hemiparesis (2); torticollis (2); VI palsy (3); VII, IX, X nerve palsy (each 2); and ptosis (1). Gross total and subtotal resection were performed in 19 and 11 cases, respectively. Fourteen patients needed external ventricular drainage in the perioperative period, from whom four infants required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. One patient underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting without tumor resection. The most common histological diagnoses were primitive neuroectodermal tumor (7), followed by anaplastic ependymoma (6) and grade II ependymoma. The rate of 30-day mortality was 19.3%. Eighteen patients are now well-controlled with or without adjuvant therapy (overall survival; 58%), from whom 13 cases are tumor free (disease free survival; 41.9%), 3 cases have residual masses with fixed or decreased size (progression-free survival; 9.6%), and 2 cases are still on chemotherapy. Conclusion: Brain tumors in infants should be treated with surgical resection, followed by chemotherapy when necessary. PMID:26962338

  20. Longitudinal in vivo monitoring of rodent glioma models through thinned skull using laser speckle contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, Abhishek; Seifert, Alan C.; Schlattman, Dan; Ouyang, Yu; Li, Khan W.; Basaldella, Luca; Brem, Henry; Tyler, Betty M.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2012-12-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a contrast agent free imaging technique suited for longitudinal assessment of vascular remodeling that accompanies brain tumor growth. We report the use of LSCI to monitor vascular changes in a rodent glioma model. Ten rats are inoculated with 9L gliosarcoma cells, and the angiogenic response is monitored five times over two weeks through a thinned skull imaging window. We are able to visualize neovascularization and measure the number of vessels per unit area to assess quantitatively the microvessel density (MVD). Spatial spread of MVD reveals regions of high MVD that may correspond to tumor location. Whole-field average MVD values increase with time in the tumor group but are fairly stable in the control groups. Statistical analysis shows significant differences in MVD values between the tumor group and both saline-receiving and unperturbed control groups over the two-week period (p<0.05). In conclusion, LSCI is suitable for investigation of tumor angiogenesis in rodent models. In addition, the statistical difference (p<0.02) between MVD values of the tumor (24.40±1.41) and control groups (15.40±1.60) on the 14th day after inoculation suggests a potential use of LSCI in the clinic in distinguishing tumor environments from normal vasculature.

  1. Chemoimmunotherapy: reengineering tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy drugs have long been considered immune suppressive. However, more recent data indicate that some cytotoxic drugs effectively treat cancer in part by facilitating an immune response to the tumor when given at the standard dose and schedule. These drugs induce a form of tumor cell death that is immunologically active, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response specific for the tumor. In addition, cancer chemotherapy drugs can promote tumor immunity through ancillary and largely unappreciated immunologic effects on both the malignant and normal host cells present within the tumor microenvironment. These more subtle immunomodulatory effects are dependent on the drug itself, its dose, and its schedule in relation to an immune-based intervention. The recent approvals of two new immune-based therapies for prostate cancer and melanoma herald a new era in cancer treatment and have led to heightened interest in immunotherapy as a valid approach to cancer treatment. A detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of interactions between chemotherapy drugs and the immune system is essential for devising the optimal strategy for integrating new immune-based therapies into the standard of care for various cancers, resulting in the greatest long-term clinical benefit for cancer patients. PMID:23389507

  2. Mesenteric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Poras

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs), also known as inflammatory pseudotumors and inflammatory fibrosarcomas, are uncommon mesenchymal tumors composed of myofibroblastic spindle cells admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. Once thought to be reactive, these lesions are now considered to be neoplastic. These tumors can occur throughout the body, most commonly in the lung, mesentery and omentum. Patients commonly present with painless abdominal mass or with intestinal obstruction. IMTs may be multicentric, have a high local recurrence rate and may metastasize in rare cases. The lesions show wide variability in their histologic features and cellularity, and marked inflammatory infiltration, predominantly of plasmatocytes and lymphocytes, and occasionally neutrophils and eosinophils. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements and/or ALK1 and p80 immunoreactivity are reported in 33-67% of the tumors. Owing to the rarity of these lesions, there are no specific imaging findings that distinguish IMTs from other mesenteric masses. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Local recurrence rates are high, and re-excision is the preferred therapy for local recurrences. ALK-positive tumors show good response to ALK inhibitors. Current knowledge and comprehensive review of the available literature on IMTs is herein presented. PMID:25608706

  3. Neuroimaging of spine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Nandor K; Pfiffner, Thomas J; Mechtler, Laszlo L

    2016-01-01

    Intramedullary, intradural/extramedullary, and extradural spine tumors comprise a wide range of neoplasms with an even wider range of clinical symptoms and prognostic features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), commonly used to evaluate the spine in patients presenting with pain, can further characterize lesions that may be encountered on other imaging studies, such as bone scintigraphy or computed tomography (CT). The advantage of the MRI is its multiplane capabilities, superior contrast agent resolution, and flexible protocols that play an important role in assessing tumor location, extent in directing biopsy, in planning proper therapy, and in evaluating therapeutic results. A multimodality approach can be used to fully characterize the lesion and the combination of information obtained from the different modalities usually narrows the diagnostic possibilities significantly. The diagnosis of spinal tumors is based on patient age, topographic features of the tumor, and lesion pattern, as seen at CT and MRI. The shift to high-end imaging incorporating diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, whole-body short tau inversion recovery, positron emission tomography, intraoperative and high-field MRI as part of the mainstream clinical imaging protocol has provided neurologists, neuro-oncologists, and neurosurgeons a window of opportunity to assess the biologic behavior of spine neoplasms. This chapter reviews neuroimaging of spine tumors, primary and secondary, discussing routine and newer modalities that can reduce the significant morbidity associated with these neoplasms. PMID:27430436

  4. Tumor-associated macrophages: effectors of angiogenesis and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Hughes, Russell; Lewis, Claire E

    2009-08-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a prominent inflammatory cell population in many tumor types residing in both perivascular and avascular, hypoxic regions of these tissues. Analysis of TAMs in human tumor biopsies has shown that they express a variety of tumor-promoting factors and evidence from transgenic murine tumor models has provided unequivocal evidence for the importance of these cells in driving angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, immunosuppression, and metastasis. This review will summarize the mechanisms by which monocytes are recruited into tumors, their myriad, tumor-promoting functions within tumors, and the influence of the tumor microenvironment in driving these activities. We also discuss recent attempts to both target/destroy TAMs and exploit them as delivery vehicles for anti-cancer gene therapy. PMID:19269310

  5. Devil Facial Tumor Disease.

    PubMed

    Pye, R J; Woods, G M; Kreiss, A

    2016-07-01

    Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is an emergent transmissible cancer exclusive to Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and threatening the species with extinction in the wild. Research on DFTD began 10 years ago, when nothing was known about the tumor and little about the devils. The depth of knowledge gained since then is impressive, with research having addressed significant aspects of the disease and the devils' responses to it. These include the cause and pathogenesis of DFTD, the immune response of the devils and the immune evasion mechanisms of the tumor, the transmission patterns of DFTD, and the impacts of DFTD on the ecosystem. This review aims to collate this information and put it into the context of conservation strategies designed to mitigate the impacts of DFTD on the devil and the Tasmanian ecosystem. PMID:26657222

  6. [Hepatic tumors and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Mornex, F; Peiffert, D; Huertas, A

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological developments led to develop the concept of focused liver radiation therapy. We must distinguish primary and secondary tumors as the indications are restricted and must be discussed as an alternative to surgical or medical treatments. For hepatocellular carcinoma 5 to 10cm (or more), a conformational radiation with or without intensity modulation is performed. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is being evaluated and is increasingly proposed as an alternative to radiofrequency ablative treatment for primary or secondary tumors (typically less than 5cm). Tumor (and liver) movements induced by respiratory motions must be taken into account. Strict dosimetric criteria must be met with particular attention to the dose-volume histograms to liver and the hollow organs, including cases of SBRT. PMID:27521035

  7. Decay Dynamics of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010

  8. Renal Tumor Biopsy Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xue-Song; Zhou, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review hot issues and future direction of renal tumor biopsy (RTB) technique. Data Sources: The literature concerning or including RTB technique in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all the relevant articles on RTB technique in English, with no limitation of study design. Results: Computed tomography and ultrasound were usually used for guiding RTB with respective advantages. Core biopsy is more preferred over fine needle aspiration because of superior accuracy. A minimum of two good-quality cores for a single renal tumor is generally accepted. The use of coaxial guide is recommended. For biopsy location, sampling different regions including central and peripheral biopsies are recommended. Conclusion: In spite of some limitations, RTB technique is relatively mature to help optimize the treatment of renal tumors. PMID:27174334

  9. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yeon-Lim

    2015-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed. PMID:26493957

  10. Calcifying Fibrous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Chorti, Angeliki; Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT) is a benign lesion characterized by its specific histological findings and is found as solitary or multiple lesions in several locations of the human body. The aim of the present systematic review is to give a detailed account of all reported cases of CFT in the literature and to analyze the available data, to completely characterize the entity from epidemiological, medical, and surgical aspects. A bibliographic research was performed from 1988 until 2015. A database with the patients’ characteristics was made, including sex, age, location of the tumor, symptoms, symptoms duration, size of the tumor, diagnostic methods, treatment, metastasis, and follow-up. A total of 104 articles were identified, reporting 157 cases of CFT. Mean age of patients was 33.58 years and the ratio between men and women was 1:1.27. The most common locations of CFT were stomach (18%), small intestine (8.7%), pleura (9.9%), mesentery (5%), and peritoneum (6.8%). Mean diameter of the tumor was estimated 4.6 cm. The correlations proceeded showed that as age increases, size decreases (P = 0.001) and that the tumor is larger in females (P = 0.027). Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the larger tumors appear in the neck and adrenal gland (P = 0.001). The percentage of asymptomatic patients was 30.57%. Computed tomography and biopsy were the most common tests for the diagnosis of CFT. Open surgical procedure was performed in the majority of cases. The median hospitalization was 6.06 days and the mean follow-up period was 29.97 months. Recurrences were mentioned in 10 of 96 patients with available data. No deaths owing to CFT were mentioned in the literature. CFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarging mass revealed by clinical or imaging examination either incidentally or after specific acute or chronic symptomatology. PMID:27196478

  11. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy is

  12. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy

  13. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G; Grant, P G; Ueda, D L; Autry-Conwell, S A; Hou, Y; Boggan, J E

    2002-12-04

    Purpose: To assess the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Materials and Methods: Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results/Discussion: With{sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis, {sup 11}B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 {micro}m, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 'B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis. Conclusions: When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the assessing the microdistribution of {sup 11}B. {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* reaction is well suited for Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  14. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the genes can be called “genetic.” However, only about 5 to 10 percent of all cancer is hereditary (ie, passed down from one generation to another in a family). In cases of hereditary brain tumors, a mutation, or change in the DNA ...

  15. [Mediastinal tumors: introduction].

    PubMed

    Trousse, D; Avaro, J-P

    2010-02-01

    Mediastinal tumors are relatively uncommon, usually incidentally discovered on a chest X-ray in asymptomatic patients. Young adults are particularly concerned. Mediastinal masses represent a group of heterogeneous histological type cell. A definite diagnosis is essential leading to an adequate prompt therapeutic strategy when either benign disease or aggressive malignant tumor is conceivable. Indeed the therapeutic management of such tumors could be strictly medical, requiring exclusive surgical approach or includes a multimodal treatment. Clinical examination and imaging are important tools in the diagnostic approach. However the specific diagnosis could be complex and requires histological confirmation by an experienced pathologist after examination of large biopsies of the tumor. Several investigations, including surgical invasive exploration, should be quickly requested in order to achieve a final diagnosis and refer patients in an adequate therapeutic scheme without delay. The aim of this article is to point out the available diagnostic tools in mediastinal masses, including surgical approach, and to identify the role of surgical resection in specific subtypes. PMID:20207291

  16. Tumor cell intravasation.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Serena P H; Cabrera, Ramon M; Segall, Jeffrey E

    2016-07-01

    The process of entering the bloodstream, intravasation, is a necessary step in the development of distant metastases. The focus of this review is on the pathways and molecules that have been identified as being important based on current in vitro and in vivo assays for intravasation. Properties of the vasculature which are important for intravasation include microvessel density and also diameter of the vasculature, with increased intravasation correlating with increased vessel diameter in some tumors. TGFB signaling can enhance intravasation at least in part through induction of EMT, and we discuss other TGFB target genes that are important for intravasation. In addition to TGFB signaling, a number of studies have demonstrated that activation of EGF receptor family members stimulates intravasation, with downstream signaling through PI3K, N-WASP, RhoA, and WASP to induce invadopodia. With respect to proteases, there is strong evidence for contributions by uPA/uPAR, while the roles of MMPs in intravasation may be more tumor specific. Other cells including macrophages, fibroblasts, neutrophils, and platelets can also play a role in enhancing tumor cell intravasation. The technology is now available to interrogate the expression patterns of circulating tumor cells, which will provide an important reality check for the model systems being used. With a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying intravasation, the goal is to provide new opportunities for improving prognosis as well as potentially developing new treatments. PMID:27076614

  17. Benign small bowel tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J M; Melvin, D B; Gray, G; Thorbjarnarson, B

    1975-01-01

    The clinical record and histologic sections of 84 cases of benign small bowel tumor are reviewed. Manifestations of systemic diseases, congenital anomalies, and lesions of either the ileocecal valve or periampullary region were excluded. In the same time span there were 96 small bowel malignancies. Clinical presentation, pathologic findings, management and result are compared to the collected published experience of about 2000 cases. There were 36 leiomyomas, 22 lipomas, 9 angiomas, 6 neurofibromas and 4 fibromas. Thirty-six men and 48 women were affected; the majority in their fifth and sixth decade. Seventy-eight were operative and 6 autopsy diagnoses. The most common symptom was obstruction (42%) followed by hemorrhage (34%) and pain (22%), relative frequency differing for the various specific tumors. There were rarely significant physical findings. A diagnosis of small bowel tumor was made radiologically in 30 patients. Because of the nonspecificity of other signs and symptoms, an acute awareness of the possibility of small bowel tumor is mandatory for preoperative anticipation of the diagnosis. Local resection was performed in all with no deaths or significant postoperative complications. PMID:1078626

  18. [Mediastinal germ cell tumors].

    PubMed

    Bremmer, F; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    The mediastinum is among the most frequent anatomic region in which germ cell tumors (GCT) arise, second only to the gonads. Mediastinal GCT (mGCT) account for 16 % of all mediastinal neoplasms. Although the morphology and (according to all available data) the molecular genetics of mediastinal and gonadal GCT are identical, a number of unique aspects exist. There is a highly relevant bi-modal age distribution. In pre-pubertal children of both sexes, mGCT consist exclusively of teratomas and yolk sac tumors. The prognosis is generally favorable with modern treatment. In post-pubertal adults, virtually all patients with malignant mGCT are males; the prognosis is more guarded and depends (among other factors) on the histological GCT components and is similar to GCT in other organs. So-called somatic type malignancies (i. e. clonally related, non-germ cell neoplasias arising in a GCT) are much more frequent in mGCT than in other organs, and the association between mediastinal yolk sac tumors and hematological malignancies, such as myelodysplasias and leukemias, is unique to mediastinal tumors. The prognosis of GCT with somatic type malignancies is generally dismal. PMID:27491549

  19. Dinosaurs Got Tumors, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... have led indirectly to its death, however. One theory is that predators might have considered the tumor a sign of weakness or vulnerability, leading to an attack. The study was published July 5 in Scientific Reports . SOURCE: University of Southampton, news release, July ...

  20. Osteochondroma (Bone Tumor)

    MedlinePlus

    .org Osteochondroma Page ( 1 ) An osteochondroma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops during childhood or adolescence. It is an abnormal growth ... of motion in the area of your pain. Page ( 2 ) AAOS ... orthopaedic surgeon, or locate one in your area through the AAOS “Find an ...

  1. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  2. Brain tumor stem cells.

    PubMed

    Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2010-06-01

    Since the end of the 'no-new-neuron' theory, emerging evidence from multiple studies has supported the existence of stem cells in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Along with this discovery, neural stem cells became candidate cells being at the origin of brain tumors. In fact, it has been demonstrated that molecular mechanisms controlling self-renewal and differentiation are shared between brain tumor stem cells and neural stem cells and that corruption of genes implicated in these pathways can direct tumor growth. In this regard, future anticancer approaches could be inspired by uncovering such redundancies and setting up treatments leading to exhaustion of the cancer stem cell pool. However, deleterious effects on (normal) neural stem cells should be minimized. Such therapeutic models underline the importance to study the cellular mechanisms implicated in fate decisions of neural stem cells and the oncogenic derivation of adult brain cells. In this review, we discuss the putative origins of brain tumor stem cells and their possible implications on future therapies. PMID:20370314

  3. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  4. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  5. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  6. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A.; Nikolaev, Boris P.; Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A.; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y.; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V.; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y.; Margulis, Boris A.; Pitkin, Emil; Guzhova, Irina V.

    2015-08-01

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION-Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M2). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T2-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION-Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M2 measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors.

  7. Living with a Brain Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ... Mentor The ABTA's Online Support Community Understanding The Affordable Care Act Living with a Brain Tumor Understanding Emotions Talking ...

  8. General Information about Pituitary Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Pituitary Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors that may spread to bones of the skull or the sinus cavity below the pituitary gland. ... sella (the bone at the base of the skull , where the pituitary gland sits). Recurrent Pituitary Tumors ...

  10. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Brain Tumors Afinitor (Everolimus) Afinitor Disperz (Everolimus) Avastin (Bevacizumab) ...

  11. [Surgical treatment of eyelid tumors].

    PubMed

    Serra, J M; Valiente, E; Paloma, V; Samayoa, V; Ordiales, G; Mesa, F

    1989-01-01

    Our surgical protocol for reconstruction of eyelid's defects after tumor excision is presented. Each technique is applied depending on the site and extension of the lesion and also on the pathologic characteristics of the tumor. PMID:2490181

  12. The rare benign liver tumors.

    PubMed

    Skalicky, T; Treska, V; Liska, V; Sutnar, A; Molacek, J; Mirka, H; Ferda, J; Ohlidalova, K

    2007-01-01

    As opposed to malignant secondary tumors, metastases of the colorectal carcinoma are benign tumors of the liver that are quite rare in the Czech Republic. From the 55 patients operated on since 2000 at our department for benign liver tumors, the most frequent are haemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocelular adenoma. Only 7.3% of them form a different histological type of a tumor than this most frequently occurring trio of tumors. The authors describe three cases of rather rare liver tumors with benign behavior that have the potential of becoming malignant. It concerns mucin producing biliary tumors, which correspond to the pancreatic intraductal papillary mucin tumor, hepatic cystadenoma with ovarian stroma and a liver hamartoma in an adult patient (Ref 13). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:17694811

  13. Altered glycosylation in tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reading, C.L. ); Hakomori, S. ); Marcus, D.M. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding on the following: Glycoconjugates of normal and tumor cells; Glycosyltransferases in normal and neoplastic cells; Mammalian lectins of normal tissues and tumor cells; and Immune recognition of carbohydrates and clinical applications.

  14. Stages of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  15. Pituitary: Non-Secretory Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... categories—tumor mass effects and hyposecretion effects. Tumor mass effects Visual field disturbances, most commonly loss of ... surgery. The goal is to completely remove the mass or cyst and preserve normal pituitary, brain, and ...

  16. Bednar Tumor: An Uncommon Entity

    PubMed Central

    Amonkar, Gayathri P.; Rupani, Asha; Shah, Ajay; Deshpande, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Bednar tumor is an uncommon variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Also known as pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, this tumor is of intermediate grade. It is seen in adults and has a predisposition to affect the shoulder region. We report a rare case of Bednar tumor in a 40-year-old female patient. The diagnosis of Bednar tumor must be considered while reporting pigmented subcutaneous spindle cell lesions.

  17. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S C; Richards, P; Meinken, G E; Larson, S M; Grunbaum, Z

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate. (ACR)

  18. Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumors.

    PubMed

    Stephens, L C; Ang, K K; Schultheiss, T E; Milas, L; Meyn, R E

    1991-09-01

    Early radiation responses of transplantable murine ovarian (OCaI) and hepatocellular (HCaI) carcinomas were examined at 6, 24, 48, 96, and 144 h after single photon doses of 25, 35, or 45 Gy. Previous studies using tumor growth delay and tumor radiocurability assays had shown OCaI tumors to be relatively radiosensitive and HCaI tumors to be radioresistant. At 6 h, approximately 20% of nuclei in OCaI tumors showed aberrations characteristic of cell death by apoptosis. This contrasted to an incidence of 3% in HCaI tumors. Mitotic activity was eliminated in OCaI tumors but was only transiently suppressed in HCaI tumors. At 24-96 h, OCaI tumors continued to display apoptosis and progressive necrosis, whereas HCaI tumors responded by exhibiting marked pleomorphism. Factors other than mitotic activity may influence tumor radiosensitivity, and one of these may be susceptibility to induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death), because this was a prominent early radiation response by the radiosensitive OCaI tumors. PMID:1886987

  19. Tumor Organoids Fill the Niche.

    PubMed

    Shroyer, Noah F

    2016-06-01

    Organoid technologies have significant potential as effective patient avatars. Fujii et al. (2016) and van de Wetering et al. (2015) derive biobanks of colorectal tumor and matching normal organoids and identify associations between tumor subtype, oncogenic drivers, gene-drug interactions, and varying niche requirements for tumor organoid growth, engraftment, and metastasis. PMID:27257754

  20. The controversy of Warthin's tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Chapnik, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    Warthin's tumor is controversial. This controversy is multifaceted and relates to all aspects of the tumor from its historical beginnings to its pathogenesis, investigations, and treatments. In this paper, an in depth study of Warthin's tumor has been made to help clarify these controversies.

  1. Tumor-Induced Hyperlipidemia Contributes to Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianfeng; Li, Lena; Lian, Jihong; Schauer, Silvia; Vesely, Paul W.; Kratky, Dagmar; Hoefler, Gerald; Lehner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Summary The known link between obesity and cancer suggests an important interaction between the host lipid metabolism and tumorigenesis. Here, we used a syngeneic tumor graft model to demonstrate that tumor development influences the host lipid metabolism. BCR-Abl-transformed precursor B cell tumors induced hyperlipidemia by stimulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and blunting VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) turnover. To assess whether tumor progression was dependent on tumor-induced hyperlipidemia, we utilized the VLDL production-deficient mouse model, carboxylesterase3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH) knockout mice. In Ces3/Tgh–/– tumor-bearing mice, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were attenuated. Importantly tumor weight was reduced in Ces3/Tgh–/– mice. Mechanistically, reduced tumor growth in Ces3/Tgh–/– mice was attributed to reversal of tumor-induced PCSK9-mediated degradation of hepatic LDLR and decrease of LDL turnover. Our data demonstrate that tumor-induced hyperlipidemia encompasses a feed-forward loop that reprograms hepatic lipoprotein homeostasis in part by providing LDL cholesterol to support tumor growth. PMID:27050512

  2. Tumor-Induced Hyperlipidemia Contributes to Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianfeng; Li, Lena; Lian, Jihong; Schauer, Silvia; Vesely, Paul W; Kratky, Dagmar; Hoefler, Gerald; Lehner, Richard

    2016-04-12

    The known link between obesity and cancer suggests an important interaction between the host lipid metabolism and tumorigenesis. Here, we used a syngeneic tumor graft model to demonstrate that tumor development influences the host lipid metabolism. BCR-Abl-transformed precursor B cell tumors induced hyperlipidemia by stimulating very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and blunting VLDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) turnover. To assess whether tumor progression was dependent on tumor-induced hyperlipidemia, we utilized the VLDL production-deficient mouse model, carboxylesterase3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH) knockout mice. In Ces3/Tgh(-/-) tumor-bearing mice, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were attenuated. Importantly tumor weight was reduced in Ces3/Tgh(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, reduced tumor growth in Ces3/Tgh(-/-) mice was attributed to reversal of tumor-induced PCSK9-mediated degradation of hepatic LDLR and decrease of LDL turnover. Our data demonstrate that tumor-induced hyperlipidemia encompasses a feed-forward loop that reprograms hepatic lipoprotein homeostasis in part by providing LDL cholesterol to support tumor growth. PMID:27050512

  3. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Erica C; Sciallis, Andrew P; Miller, Barbra S

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  4. Retroperitoneal calcifying fibrous tumor mimicking an adrenal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Prochaska, Erica C.; Sciallis, Andrew P.; Miller, Barbra S.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of a retroperitoneal tumor may be difficult due to close proximity of multiple organs. Evaluation of retroperitoneal tumors often leads to surgery, many times to obtain a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy. Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are very rare soft tissue tumors occurring most often in young patients. They are most often found arising in the thoracic cavity, mediastinum, abdominal cavity and extremities and usually have a benign clinical course. Macrocscopically, the tumors are well circumscribed and firm with a white-tan appearance. Histologically, CFT comprised a hypocellular proliferation of bland spindle cells, densely hyalinized collagen, chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and dystrophic calcifications. Other considerations in the pathologic differential diagnosis include solitary fibrous tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. PMID:27252518

  5. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Solid Tumors and Liver or Kidney Dysfunction

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Adult Subependymoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Esophageal Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Esophageal Cancer

  6. Unusual Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marina Reis; Gabrielli, Marisa Aparecida Cabrini; Gabrielli, Mario Francisco Real; Andrade, Cleverton Roberto de; Silva, Breno Nogueira; Pereira-Filho, Valfrido Antonio

    2016-03-01

    The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm. It can, however, have locally aggressive behavior. This is a case of an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of unusual location and behavior in a 15-year-old female patient. A panoramic radiograph revealed a large radiolucent lesion involving the retained tooth 33. Teeth involved in this lesion were displaced and with apparent root resorption. A prototype of the mandible showed a marked expansion of cortical bone, fenestration points in the lingual cortex, and fragility of the base of the mandible. Therefore, because of the risk of postoperative pathologic fracture the placement of a 2.4-mm reconstruction plate was indicated. Total enucleation of the lesion, as well as placement of a reconstruction plate were performed. Despite the large bone destruction, with the correct surgical procedure and the use of the reconstruction plate the patient recovered without incidents and a 24-month postoperative radiography showed satisfactory bone formation. PMID:26963303

  7. Modeling tumor evolutionary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Stransky, Beatriz; de Souza, Sandro J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumorigenesis can be seen as an evolutionary process, in which the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell involves a number of limiting genetic and epigenetic events, occurring in a series of discrete stages. However, not all mutations in a cell are directly involved in cancer development and it is likely that most of them (passenger mutations) do not contribute in any way to tumorigenesis. Moreover, the process of tumor evolution is punctuated by selection of advantageous (driver) mutations and clonal expansions. Regarding these driver mutations, it is uncertain how many limiting events are required and/or sufficient to promote a tumorigenic process or what are the values associated with the adaptive advantage of different driver mutations. In spite of the availability of high-quality cancer data, several assumptions about the mechanistic process of cancer initiation and development remain largely untested, both mathematically and statistically. Here we review the development of recent mathematical/computational models and discuss their impact in the field of tumor biology. PMID:23420281

  8. Targeting tumor acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main features of solid tumors is extracellular acidity, which correlates with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. We introduced novel approach in targeting of acidic tumors, and translocation of cell-impermeable cargo molecules across cellular membrane. Our approach is based on main principle of insertion and folding of a polypeptide in lipid bilayer of membrane. We have identified family of pH Low Insertion Peptides (pHLIPs), which are capable spontaneous insertion and folding in membrane at mild acidic conditions. The affinity of peptides of pHLIP family to membrane at low pH is several times higher than at neutral pH. The process of peptides folding occurs within milliseconds. The energy released in a result of folding (about 2 kcal/mol) could be used to move polar cargo across a membrane, which is a novel concept in drug delivery. pHLIP peptides could be considered as a pH-sensitive single peptide molecular transporters and conjugated with imaging probes for fluorescence, MR, PET and SPECT imaging, they represent a novel in vivo marker of acidity. The work is supported by NIH grants CA133890 and GM073857 to OAA, DME, YRK.

  9. Familial pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Alband, Neda; Korbonits, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial neoplasms that present a major clinical concern due to hormone overproduction and/or tumor mass effects. The majority of pituitary adenomas occur sporadically; however, familial cases are increasingly being recognized, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), Carney complex (CNC), and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA). Familial pituitary tumors appear to differ from their sporadic counterparts both in their genetic basis and in clinical characteristics. Evidence suggests that, especially in MEN1 and FIPA, tumors are more aggressive and affect patients at a younger age, therefore justifying the importance of early diagnosis, while in Carney complex pituitary hyperplasia is common. The genetic alterations responsible for the formation of familial pituitary syndromes include the MEN1 gene, responsible for about 80% of MEN1 cases, the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A, responsible for about 70% of Carney complex cases, and AIP, the gene coding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein, responsible for about 20% of FIPA cases. Rarely other genes have also been found responsible for familial pituitary adenoma cases. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) also has a genetic origin due to mosaic mutations in the G protein-coupled α subunit coded by the GNAS1 gene. In this chapter, we summarize the genetic and clinical characteristics of these familial pituitary syndromes and MAS. PMID:25248598

  10. Management of Frontal Sinus Tumors.

    PubMed

    Selleck, Anne Morgan; Desai, Dipan; Thorp, Brian D; Ebert, Charles S; Zanation, Adam M

    2016-08-01

    The most common primary tumors of the frontal sinus are osteomas and inverted papillomas, although a variety of other tumors involving this space have been reported. With the advent of new surgical techniques and instrumentation, an endoscopic approach to this region has become feasible. The preoperative assessment and decision making must take into account the complexity of frontal sinus anatomy, tumor type, tumor location, and associated attachments. These procedures allow adequate visualization, tumor removal, and postoperative monitoring, and preserve fairly normal sinus function. Open techniques may also be required and should be in the surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:27450620

  11. Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems. Carcinoid tumors often are found incidentally (by accident). These tumors aren’t causing any symptoms but ... Carcinoid Tumors? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking ...

  12. Signs and Symptoms of Wilms Tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... early? Next Topic How are Wilms tumors diagnosed? Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor Wilms tumors can ... the abdomen (belly): This is often the first sign of a Wilms tumor. Parents may notice this ...

  13. Laser therapy in intraocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  14. Tumor size: effect on monoclonal antibody uptake in tumor models

    SciTech Connect

    Hagan, P.L.; Halpern, S.E.; Dillman, R.O.; Shawler, D.L.; Johnson, D.E.; Chen, A.; Krishnan, L.; Frincke, J.; Bartholomew, R.M.; David, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of tumor size on the incorporation of radiolabeled monoclonal antitumor antibodies (MoAbs) into human tumors growing in nude mice. The colon tumors ranged in size from 0.03-1.6 g, the melanoma from 0.1 to 6.7 g, and the lymphoma from 0.06 to 10.2 g. Indium-111 was primarily used as the radiolabel, however, both 125I and 111In were used as tracers for the MoAb in one experiment. The per g radiopharmaceutical uptake by tumors was inversely proportional to tumor size when tumor specific MoAb was administered. This finding was independent of the radiolabel and was demonstrable when the mice bore two tumors of differing size. When the MoAb was not specific for the tumor, the data were less well defined and a statistically significant correlation with size did not occur. These data are strong evidence for a decrease in per g uptake of labeled tumor specific antibodies as tumors increase in size.

  15. [Tumors and tumor-like diseases of the carpal bones].

    PubMed

    Baron, J; Scharizer, E

    1987-07-01

    This presentation concerns the findings in 105 tumors or tumor-like lesions in the bones of the carpus. These tumors generally produce complaints which are uncharacteristic and they are quite difficult to recognize on X-ray. Due to this difficulty, there may be many different therapies before the correct final diagnosis is confirmed. These tumors are usually found in the scaphoid, capitate, lunate, or hamate. Of the 105 tumors, 45.7% were osteoid osteoma, which has an incidence of only 11.33% of all bone tumors in the body as a whole. Of the remaining tumors, 15.24% were diagnoses to be intraosseous ganglia (= tumorlike lesions). Lesser percentages were giant-cell tumors, osteochondromas, chondromas. One intraosseous lipoma was found and this had never before been reported. The majority of the patients were between twenty and thirty years of age. With surgical removal, complaints are generally reduced. Dramatic relief from pain is reported by patients when an osteoid osteoma is removed. The most important deduction from these findings is that tumors in the carpus are not as rare as once assumed. The possibility of bone tumors should be considered in patients with intractable pain in the carpus. PMID:3623270

  16. Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles cure and image Brain Tumors: Selective MRI Contrast Enhancement and Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopelman, Raoul

    2008-03-01

    Aimed at targeted therapy and imaging of brain tumors, our approach uses targeted, multi-functional nano-particles (NP). A typical nano-particle contains a biologically inert, non-toxic matrix, biodegradable and bio-eliminable over a long time period. It also contains active components, such as fluorescent chemical indicators, photo-sensitizers, MRI contrast enhancement agents and optical imaging dyes. In addition, its surface contains molecular targeting units, e.g. peptides or antibodies, as well as a cloaking agent, to prevent uptake by the immune system, i.e. enabling control of the plasma residence time. These dynamic nano-platforms (DNP) contain contrast enhancement agents for the imaging (MRI, optical, photo-acoustic) of targeted locations, i.e. tumors. Added to this are targeted therapy agents, such as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A simple protocol, for rats implanted with human brain cancer, consists of tail injection with DNPs, followed by 5 min red light illumination of the tumor region. It resulted in excellent cure statistics for 9L glioblastoma.

  17. Study of Kidney Tumors in Younger Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Congenital Mesoblastic Nephroma; Diffuse Hyperplastic Perilobar Nephroblastomatosis; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Renal Cell Cancer; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Renal Cell Cancer; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  18. Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Sweety Sagarmal; Joy, Tabita; Tupkari, Jagdish Vishnu; Landge, Jayant Shivaji

    2016-01-01

    Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) is a rare, odontogenic neoplasm which is considered to be a solid variant of calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) with locally aggressive behavior. It accounts for only 2–14% of all COCs. To the best of our knowledge, only 88 cases of DGCT have been reported in the literature from 1968 to 2014. Herewith, we report a case of DGCT in a 68-year-old male patient with clinical presentation as a soft tissue growth over alveolar ridge and histopathologically characterized by ameloblastomatous epithelium, abundance of eosinophilic material and ghost cells. PMID:27194885

  19. Role of tumor associated macrophages in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Riabov, Vladimir; Gudima, Alexandru; Wang, Nan; Mickley, Amanda; Orekhov, Alexander; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI

  20. Modeling Tumor Invasion: Effects of Native Vascularity and Tumor Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlinski, Edward

    2001-03-01

    A hybrid cellular automaton model is described and used to simulate early tumor growth and examine the roles of host tissue vascular density and tumor metabolism in the ability of a small number of monoclonal transformed cells to develop into an invasive tumor. The model incorporates normal cells, tumor cells, necrotic or empty space, and a random network of native microvessels as components of a cellular automaton state vector. Diffusion of glucose and lactic acid (the latter resulting from the tumor's excessive reliance on anaerobic metabolism) to and from the microvessels, and their utilization or production by cells, is modeled through the solution of differential equations. In this way, the cells and microvessels affect the extracellular concentrations of glucose and acid which, in turn, affect the rules governing the evolution of the automaton's state vector. Simulations of the model demonstrate that: (i) high tumor acid production is favorable for tumor growth and invasion, however for every acid production rate, there exists a range of optimal microvessel densities (leading to a local pH favorable to tumor but not to normal cells) for which growth and invasion is most effective, (ii) at vascular densities below this range, both tumor and normal cells die due to excessively low pH, (iii) for vascular densities above the optimal range the microvessel network is highly efficient at removing acid and therefore the tumor cells lose their advantage over normal cells gained by high local acid concentration. While significant spatial gradients of glucose formed, no regions of detrimentally poor glucose perfusion (for either cell type) were observed, regardless of microvessel density. Depending on metabolic phenotype, a variety of tumor morphologies similar to those clinically observed were realized in the simulations. Lastly, a sharp transition (analogous to that of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence) between states of initial tumor confinement and efficient

  1. Improving drug delivery to solid tumors: priming the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Khawar, Iftikhar Ali; Kim, Jung Ho; Kuh, Hyo-Jeong

    2015-03-10

    Malignant transformation and growth of the tumor mass tend to induce changes in the surrounding microenvironment. Abnormality of the tumor microenvironment provides a driving force leading not only to tumor progression, including invasion and metastasis, but also to acquisition of drug resistance, including pharmacokinetic (drug delivery-related) and pharmacodynamic (sensitivity-related) resistance. Drug delivery systems exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and active targeting moieties were expected to be able to cope with delivery-related drug resistance. However, recent evidence supports a considerable barrier role of tumors via various mechanisms, which results in imperfect or inefficient EPR and/or targeting effect. The components of the tumor microenvironment such as abnormal tumor vascular system, deregulated composition of the extracellular matrix, and interstitial hypertension (elevated interstitial fluid pressure) collectively or cooperatively hinder the drug distribution, which is prerequisite to the efficacy of nanoparticles and small-molecule drugs used in cancer medicine. Hence, the abnormal tumor microenvironment has recently been suggested to be a promising target for the improvement of drug delivery to improve therapeutic efficacy. Strategies to modulate the abnormal tumor microenvironment, referred to here as "solid tumor priming" (vascular normalization and/or solid stress alleviation leading to improvement in blood perfusion and convective molecular movement), have shown promising results in the enhancement of drug delivery and anticancer efficacy. These strategies may provide a novel avenue for the development of new chemotherapeutics and combination chemotherapeutic regimens as well as reassessment of previously ineffective agents. PMID:25526702

  2. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients

  3. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood-brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  4. Aquaporins and Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Maugeri, Rosario; Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Fricano, Anna; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Brain primary tumors are among the most diverse and complex human cancers, and they are normally classified on the basis of the cell-type and/or the grade of malignancy (the most malignant being glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), grade IV). Glioma cells are able to migrate throughout the brain and to stimulate angiogenesis, by inducing brain capillary endothelial cell proliferation. This in turn causes loss of tight junctions and fragility of the blood–brain barrier, which becomes leaky. As a consequence, the most serious clinical complication of glioblastoma is the vasogenic brain edema. Both glioma cell migration and edema have been correlated with modification of the expression/localization of different isoforms of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of water channels, some of which are also involved in the transport of other small molecules, such as glycerol and urea. In this review, we discuss relationships among expression/localization of AQPs and brain tumors/edema, also focusing on the possible role of these molecules as both diagnostic biomarkers of cancer progression, and therapeutic targets. Finally, we will discuss the possibility that AQPs, together with other cancer promoting factors, can be exchanged among brain cells via extracellular vesicles (EVs). PMID:27367682

  5. Cutaneous tumors in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Walker, Joanna L; Wang, Annie R; Kroumpouzos, George; Weinstock, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the frequency and natural course of certain skin tumors. Pregnancy-associated changes in melanocytic nevi are transient, and there is no substantiated evidence of increased risk of malignant transformation of melanocytic nevi in gestation. Characteristic vascular and pigment-related dermatoscopic features are helpful in evaluating pigmented lesions, but a biopsy should be performed for significant change or other worrisome features in a lesion. Outcomes for pregnancy-associated melanoma do not appear to be poorer compared with nonpregnancy melanoma; however, data are limited for advanced (stage III/IV) melanoma. Some studies suggest increased propensity for lymphovascular spread, but more data are needed for definitive conclusions and guidelines on prognostication, workup, and treatment of pregnancy-associated melanoma. Vascular tumors, particularly pyogenic granuloma (granuloma gravidarum), occur with increased frequency and are associated with pro-angiogenic hormonal influences. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans has a more aggressive course during pregnancy with both prompt surgical treatment and close monitoring for recurrence being indicated. PMID:27265074

  6. Primary omental yolk sac tumor.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Ga Won; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon

    2013-11-01

    Extra-ovarian yolk sac tumor arising in the omentum is extremely rare. As yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum has been rarely reported, its clinical information is very limited. The authors encountered a case of yolk sac tumor originated from the omentum, and reported the case herein. A 32-year-old woman was presented with developed low abdominal distension for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of ovarian malignancy with ascites and peritoneal seeding nodules. Explorative laparotomy was performed and then the findings from frozen biopsy of omentum were suggestive of poorly differentiated tumor though whether it was primary or metastatic was uncertain. Thus, staging laparotomy were performed. Histopathology confirmed that the tumor was a yolk sac tumor of omentum origin. Then, 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy at intervals of 3 weeks were performed using bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin regimen. Four-year outpatient follow-up thereafter showed no relapse. PMID:24396822

  7. Primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Goel, V; Talwar, V; Dodagoudar, C; Singh, S; Sharma, A; Patnaik, N

    2015-01-01

    Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the kidney is a rare entity. Very few cases of primary renal PNET have been reported to date. Most literature about rPNET is isolated case reports. We report a case of rPNET in a 39-year-old male with a pre-operative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma with renal vein thrombosis. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy with thrombolectomy, and histopathological examination revealed a highly aggressive tumor composed of monotonous sheets of round cells. Tumor cells were positive for CD 99 and FLI-1, hence confirming the diagnosis of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor. Post-surgery, patient was given VAC/IE-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In view of highly aggressive nature of this tumor, prompt diagnosis and imparting effective chemotherapy regimen to the patient is required, and it is important to differentiate PNET from other small round-cell tumors because of different therapeutic approach. PMID:25766349

  8. [Salivary gland tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Thariat, Juliette; Vedrine, Pierre-Olivier; Orbach, Daniel; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Badoual, Cécile; Butori, Catherine; Teissier, Natacha; Toussaint, Bruno; Castillo, Laurent

    2011-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors in children are rare: they correspond to 8-10% of head and neck pediatric tumors. Clinicians of all disciplines should be aware of this diagnosis in front of non-inflammatory mass of the parotid or in the territory of other salivary glands. In children, 50% of salivary gland tumors are malignant which contrasts with a 10-25% risk in adults. Epithelial tumors are the most common, mucoepidermoïd carcinomas of the parotid in particular. Surgery is the treatment of choice in epithelial tumors. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be indicated in case of unfavorable prognostic factors but must be balanced with the risk of radiation-induced growth defects and secondary cancer. The role of chemotherapy is limited in these tumors, but should be discussed in case of an inoperable or metastatic lesion. PMID:21690035

  9. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  10. Intra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rapalino, Otto; Batchelor, Tracy; González, R Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide variety of intra-axial primary and secondary brain neoplasms. Many of them have characteristic imaging features while other tumors can present in a similar fashion. There are peculiar posttreatment imaging phenomena that can present as intra-axial mass-like lesions (such as pseudoprogression or radiation necrosis), further complicating the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with intracerebral tumors. The purpose of this chapter is to present a general overview of the most common intra-axial brain tumors and peculiar posttreatment changes that are very important in the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of patients with brain tumors. PMID:27432670

  11. Radiosurgery for Pediatric Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Erin S; Chao, Samuel T; Angelov, Lilyana; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Barnett, Gene; Jung, Edward; Recinos, Violette R; Mohammadi, Alireza; Suh, John H

    2016-03-01

    The utility of radiosurgery for pediatric brain tumors is not well known. For children, radiosurgery may have an important role for treating unresectable tumors, residual disease, or tumors in the recurrent setting that have received prior radiotherapy. The available evidence demonstrates utility for some children with primary brain tumors resulting in good local control. Radiosurgery can be considered for limited residual disease or focal recurrences. However, the potential toxicities are unique and not insignificant. Therefore, prospective studies need to be performed to develop guidelines for indications and treatment for children and reduce toxicity in this population. PMID:26536284

  12. A Primary Retroperitoneal Mucinous Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Heelan Gladden, Alicia A.; Wohlauer, Max; McManus, Martine C.; Gajdos, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    A twenty-five-year-old female presented with a large retroperitoneal mass. Workup included history and physical exam, imaging, biopsy, colonoscopy, and gynecologic exam. After surgical resection, the mass was determined to be a primary retroperitoneal mucinous tumor (PRMT). Clinically and histologically, these tumors are similar pancreatic and ovarian mucinous neoplasms. PRMTs are rare and few case reports have been published. PRMTs are divided into mucinous cystadenomas, mucinous borderline tumors of low malignant potential, and mucinous carcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential so resection is indicated and in some cases adjuvant chemotherapy and/or surveillance imaging. PMID:25874152

  13. [Tumor of the Parotid Gland].

    PubMed

    Pötzl, Teresa; Iselin, Sabine; Husner, Alexander

    2016-05-11

    Salivary gland tumors are a rare, histologically heterogeneous group of tumors which constitute approximately 4–6 % of all head and neck neoplasms. In 2/3 of cases they are benign, especially in the parotid gland. We report about a rare tumor of the parotid gland presenting as an extraskeletal chondroma. Histologically there were multiple S 100 protein-positive nests of chondrocytes. The externally completed cytology suspected a pleomorphic adenoma, nevertheless, the final histopathological findings showed another tumor entity. PMID:27167480

  14. [Imaging of childhood brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Couanet, D; Adamsbaum, C

    2006-06-01

    Brain tumors represent around a quarter of all solid tumors observed in the pediatric population. Infratentorial tumors are the most frequent, mostly encountered between 4 and 11 years of age. Early imaging is important because initial symptoms can be misinterpreted as statural and pubertal disorders or pseudoabdominal symptoms with apathy and vomiting in infants. Because signal abnormalities on MRI are most often not specific, it is essential to take into account the clinical and topographic characteristics of the lesion to establish an appropriate differential diagnosis. The main patterns of brain tumors observed in pediatrics are presented. Brain metastases are very unusual in children, in contrast to lepto-meningeal metastasis. PMID:16778744

  15. Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of treatment options for patients with metastatic carcinomas has created an accompanying need for methods to determine if the tumor will be responsive to the intended therapy and to monitor its effectiveness. Ideally, these methods would be noninvasive and provide quantitative real-time analysis of tumor activity in a variety of carcinomas. Assessment of circulating tumor cells shed into the blood during metastasis may satisfy this need. Here we review the CellSearch technology used for the detection of circulating tumor cells and discuss potential future directions for improvements. PMID:25133014

  16. [Ovarian germ cell tumors in girls].

    PubMed

    Nechushkina, I V; Karseladze, A I

    2015-01-01

    Morphological structure of tumor influences on the clinical course of the disease in children with germ cell tumors. Patients with ovarian dysgerminoma at the time of diagnosis are significantly older than patients with immature teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Immature teratoma and mixed germ cell tumors are significantly larger compared to other germ cell tumors. Yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma are the most common cause of emergency surgical interventions and are accompanied by rupture of tumor capsule. PMID:26087605

  17. Therapeutic Trial for Patients With Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumor and Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Ewing Sarcoma of Bone or Soft Tissue; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  18. Intra-cerebral ventricular infusion of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of a rat glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Rewers, A.B.; Redgate, S.; Fisher, E.R.; Boggs, S.S. )

    1990-07-01

    The efficacy of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer when administered by continuous infusion into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of the lateral cerebral ventricle was evaluated in a 9L gliosarcoma rat brain tumor model. Stereotactic implantation of a 5 x 10(4) tumor cell suspension into the left caudate nucleus was carried out in four groups of 10 rats each. Control animals had a median survival of 16.9 days (range 16-21 days). IUDR, 8.4 mg over 7 days administered by continuous infusion into the left lateral ventricle produced a slight survival advantage (median survival 21.5 days, range 12-56). Irradiation of the entire brain, 8 Gy on days 4, 6 and 7 after tumor cell implantation also produced a slight improvement in survival (median 19.5 days, range 17-34). The combination of radiation and IUDR infusion into the CSF produced a marked survival advantage (median 30.5, range 22-54) compared to the control and single modality treatment groups. This is the first demonstration of the effectiveness of IUDR as a radiosensitizer when administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle in the treatment of an intraparenchymal brain tumor.

  19. Brain response to photodynamic therapy and Photofrin, nonsulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine and tin purpurin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereski, Mary O.; Madigan, Lara; Chopp, Michael

    1995-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PhotofrinR, nonsulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc), and tin ethyl etiopurpurin I (SnET2) was investigated on normal and tumored (9L gliosarcoma) rat brain. Rats were injected 48 h prior to PDT (3 - 280 J/cm2, 100 mW/cm2) with PhotofrinR (12.5 mg/kg) and AlClPc (2.0 mg/kg) and 24 h prior with SnET2 (1.0 mg/kg). Substantial lesions were present in normal brain with PhotofrinR and with AlClPc at all energy levels. No lesions were present with SnET2. Tumor response for PhotofrinR and AlClPc did not occur with doses less than 140 J/cm2. Drug concentrations for tumored/contralateral hemisphere for PhotofrinR and AlClPc were 1.86 and 7.86, respectively. These data indicate: (1) normal brain is more sensitive than the tumored brain with PhotofrinR and AlClPc, and (2) normal brain sensitivity to SnET2 is less than that with PhotofrinR and AlClPc.

  20. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  1. Cathepsins mediate tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Gong-Jun; Peng, Zheng-Ke; Lu, Jin-Ping; Tang, Fa-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsins are highly expressed in various human cancers, associated with tumor metastasis. It is superfamily, concluding A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, L, K, O, S, V, and W family members. As a group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases, each member has a different function, playing different roles in distinct tumorigenic processes such as proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and invasion. Cathepsins belong to a diverse number of enzyme subtypes, including cysteine proteases, serine proteases and aspartic proteases. The contribution of cathepsins to invasion in human cancers is well documented, although the precise mechanisms by which cathepsins exert their effects are still not clear. In the present review, the role of cathepsin family members in cancer is discussed. PMID:24340132

  2. Cystic Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sonal; Rahim, Ahmed Mujib Bangalore; Parakkat, Nithin Kavassery; Kapoor, Shekhar; Mittal, Kumud; Sharma, Bhushan; Shivappa, Anil Bangalore

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT) is a well-established benign epithelial lesion of odontogenic origin. Rightfully called “the master of disguise,” this lesion has been known for its varied clinical and histoarchitectural patterns. Not only does AOT predominantly present radiologically as a unilocular cystic lesion enclosing the unerupted tooth (which is commonly mistaken as a dentigerous cyst) but the lesion also presents rarely with a cystic component histopathologically. We present one such unusual case of cystic AOT associated with an impacted canine, mimicking a dentigerous cyst. The present case aims to highlight the difference between cystic AOT and dentigerous cyst radiographically. The exact histogenesis of AOT and its variants still remains obscure. An attempt has been made to hypothesize the new school of thought regarding the origin of AOT. PMID:26579317

  3. Tumor-Related Hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Kio, Ebenezer; Doi, Suhail A. R.

    2007-01-01

    Hyponatremia is an important and common electrolyte disorder in tumor patients and one that has been reported in association with a number of different primary diagnoses. The correct diagnosis of the pathophysiological basis for each patient is important because it significantly alters the treatment approach. In this article, we review the epidemiology and presentation of patients with hyponatremia, the pathophysiologic groups for the disorder with respect to sodium and water balance and the diagnostic measures for determining the correct pathophysiologic groups. We then present the various treatment options based on the pathophysiologic groups including a mathematical approach to the use of hypertonic saline in management. In cancer patients, hyponatremia is a serious comorbidity that requires particular attention as its treatment varies by pathophysiologic groups, and its consequences can have a deleterious effect on the patient’s health. PMID:18086907

  4. [Recent advances in transmissible tumors].

    PubMed

    Tingting, Yin; Lu, Wang; Guodong, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Transmissible tumors are a class of tumor that can be transmitted between individuals through living cells. So far, four types of transmissible tumors including canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT),Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD), soft-shell clams leukemia (SSCL), and hamsters reticulum cell sarcoma (HRCS)have been discovered and identified. In the last decades, these transmissible tumors have been proved to be transmitted through living cells by cytological, histological and genetic studies. CTVT, the oldest mammalian somatic cell line, and DFTD originated from Schwann cell have been reported to avoid immunological recognition by down-regulating MHC expression, while a high copy number of Steamer retrotransposon is commonly exist in SSCL. In recent years, the whole-genome sequencing of CTVT and DFTD have been completed which facilitates studies on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, transmission and evolution of transmissible tumors at the whole-genome level. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in transmissible tumors and discuss the research focus in next decade. PMID:26582522

  5. TUMOR PROMOTION IN RAT LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An initiation promotion bioassay for chemical carcinogens and tumor promoters has been developed in rat liver using presumed preneoplastic lesions, foci of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTase)-positive hepatocytes, as the endpoint. To evaluate the tumor-promoting activity of phe...

  6. Compensatory angiogenesis and tumor refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N

    2015-01-01

    Since the establishment of tumor angiogenesis as a therapeutic target, an excitement in developing the anti-angiogenic agents was resulted in tailoring a humanized monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a key factor in recruiting angiogenesis. The past three decades' research in the area of angiogenesis also invented a series of novel and effective anti-angiogenic agents targeting the VEGF signaling axis. Despite the demonstrable clinical benefits of anti-angiogenic therapy, the preclinical and clinical data of the current therapeutic settings clearly indicate the transient efficacy, restoration of tumor progression and aggressive recurrence of tumor invasion after the withdrawal of anti-angiogenic therapy. Therefore, the impact of this therapeutic regime on improving overall survival of patients has been disappointing in clinic. The recent advances in pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis and related molecular and cellular underpinnings attributed the conspiracy of compensatory angiogenic pathways in conferring evasive and intrinsic tumor resistance to anti-angiogenic agents. The understandings of how these pathways functionally cross-talk for sustaining tumor angiogenesis during VEGF blockade is essential and perhaps may act as a basic prerequisite for designing novel therapeutic strategies to combat the growing arrogance of tumors toward anti-angiogenic agents. The present review offers a discourse on major compensatory angiogenic pathways operating at cellular and molecular levels and their attributes with resistance to anti-angiogenic agents along with strategic opinions on future setting in targeting tumor angiogenesis. PMID:26029827

  7. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  8. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  9. Malignant phylloides tumor in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Blaker, Kristen M; Sahoo, Sunati; Schweichler, Maria R; Chagpar, Anees B

    2010-03-01

    Malignant phylloides tumors are exceedingly rare with few cases being reported in pregnancy. We describe the first case ever reported of a malignant phylloides tumor presenting in the first trimester of pregnancy and provide insight into the complexities of management as well as a review of the known literature. An extensive PubMed literature search for "cystosarcoma," "phylloides," and "pregnancy" was performed. References of each citation were reviewed. Only six previous cases of phylloides tumor in pregnancy were found, none of which were in the first trimester. Medical records of a patient presenting to our institution at 9 weeks gestation with a malignant phylloides tumor were reviewed. We further provide a review of the current literature of the management of phylloides tumor in pregnancy. A 27-year-old white G2P0SA1 woman with no family history of breast cancer presented with a right breast mass at her first prenatal examination at 9 weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound confirmed a solid mass measuring 24 mm. Core needle biopsy demonstrated a malignant phylloides tumor. She previously had a fibroadenoma removed from the same breast 7 years previously. The current tumor was excised to clear margins. Histopathological examination revealed a 4-cm fibroepithelial tumor with marked stromal cellularity and a high mitotic count (five to seven mitoses/high-power field), confirming the diagnosis of malignant phylloides tumor. The patient continued her pregnancy without complications. Six other cases of phylloides tumor presenting in pregnancy have been reported in the literature, one of which had bilateral disease. Of these, the average patient age was 32 years (range, 28 to 35 years). The majority of these patients presented in their third trimester (mean, 29 weeks; range, 20 to 36 weeks) and often had large tumors (mean, 15 cm; range, 5 to 21 cm). Four of the seven tumors (57%) required a mastectomy. Previous cases have shown phylloides tumors to present in the third

  10. [Radiotherapy of benign intracranial tumors].

    PubMed

    Delannes, M; Latorzeff, I; Chand, M E; Huchet, A; Dupin, C; Colin, P

    2016-09-01

    Most of the benign intracranial tumors are meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, pituitary adenomas, craniopharyngiomas, and glomus tumors. Some of them grow very slowly, and can be observed without specific treatment, especially if they are asymptomatic. Symptomatic or growing tumors are treated by surgery, which is the reference treatment. When surgery is not possible, due to the location of the lesion, or general conditions, radiotherapy can be applied, as it is if there is a postoperative growing residual tumor, or a local relapse. Indications have to be discussed in polydisciplinary meetings, with precise evaluation of the benefit and risks of the treatments. The techniques to be used are the most modern ones, as multimodal imaging and image-guided radiation therapy. Stereotactic treatments, using fractionated or single doses depending on the size or the location of the tumors, are commonly realized, to avoid as much a possible the occurrence of late side effects. PMID:27523417

  11. [Radiological evaluation of congenital tumors].

    PubMed

    Aguado del Hoyo, A; Ruiz Martín, Y; Lancharro Zapata, Á; Marín Rodríguez, C; Gordillo Gutiérrez, I

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we consider tumors that are diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first three months of life. This is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with special biological and epidemiological characteristics that differentiate them from tumors arising in children or adults. In the last two decades, the prenatal detection of congenital tumors has increased due to the generalized use of prenatal sonographic screening. Advances in imaging techniques, especially in fetal magnetic resonance imaging, have enabled improvements in the diagnosis, follow-up, clinical management, and perinatal treatment of these tumors. This image-based review of the most common congenital tumors describes their histologic types, locations, and characteristics on the different imaging techniques used. PMID:26115799

  12. Metabolic exchanges within tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chiarugi, Paola; Cirri, Paolo

    2016-09-28

    Tumor progression toward malignancy often requires a metabolic rewiring of cancer cells to meet changes in metabolic demand to forefront nutrient and oxygen withdrawal, together with strong anabolic requests to match high proliferation rate. Tumor microenvironment highly contributes to metabolic rewiring of cancer cells, fostering complete nutrient exploitation, favoring OXPHOS of lipids and glutamine at the expense of glycolysis and enhancing exchanges via extracellular microvesicles or exosomes of proteins, lipids and small RNAs among tumor and stromal cells. Noteworthy, the same molecular drivers of metabolic reprogramming within tumor and stroma are also able to elicit motility, survival and self-renewal on cancer cells, thereby sustaining successful escaping strategies to circumvent the hostile hypoxic, acidic and inflammatory environment. This review highlights the emerging role of nutrients and vesicle-mediated exchanges among tumor and stromal cells, defining their molecular pathways and offering new perspectives to develop treatments targeting this complex metabolic rewiring. PMID:26546872

  13. Pediatric Brain Tumors: An Update.

    PubMed

    Segal, Devorah; Karajannis, Matthias A

    2016-07-01

    Brain tumors collectively represent the most common solid tumors in childhood and account for significant morbidity and mortality. Until recently, pediatric brain tumors were diagnosed and classified solely based on histologic criteria, and treatments were chosen empirically. Recent research has greatly enhanced our understanding of the diverse biology of pediatric brain tumors, their molecular and genetic underpinnings, leading to improved diagnostic accuracy and risk stratification, as well as the development of novel biomarkers and molecular targeted therapies. For subsets of patients, these new treatment options have already resulted in improved survival and decreased treatment toxicity. In this article, we provide an overview of the most common childhood brain tumors, describe recent key advances in the field, and discuss the therapeutic challenges that remain. PMID:27230809

  14. [Genodermatoses with malignant skin tumors].

    PubMed

    Hübinger, L; Frank, J

    2014-06-01

    Cutaneous malignancies can manifest as isolated and sporadic tumors as well as multiple and disseminated tumors. In the latter case they often point to a genetic disease, which either can be restricted to the skin exclusively or also involve extracutaneous organs in the context of a hereditary tumor syndrome. Such hereditary tumor syndromes are clinically and genetically very heterogeneous. Therefore, the prevailing specific skin tumors play an important diagnostic role in the case of complex symptom constellations. Elucidation of the genetic basis of rare monogenetically inherited disorders and syndromes can contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of frequently occurring cutaneous malignancies because the mutated genes often encode proteins, which have a key position in metabolic signaling pathways that are of high significance for the development of targeted therapies. Here we provide an overview of genodermatoses, which are associated with basal cell carcinomas, sebaceous carcinomas, keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas. PMID:24898507

  15. The History of Tumor Virology

    PubMed Central

    Javier, Ronald T.; Butel, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    In the century since its inception, the field of tumor virology has provided groundbreaking insights into the causes of human cancer. Peyton Rous founded this scientific field in 1911 by discovering an avian virus that induced tumors in chickens; however, it took 40 years for the scientific community to comprehend the effect of this seminal finding. Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses—EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. Such knowledge proved instrumental to the development of the first cancer vaccines against cancers having an infectious etiology. Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses—human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi’s sarcoma virus. In fact, current estimates suggest that viruses are involved in 15% to 20% of human cancers worldwide. Thus, viruses not only have been shown to represent etiologic agents for many human cancers but have also served as tools to reveal mechanisms that are involved in all human malignancies. This rich history promises that tumor virology will continue to contribute to our understanding of cancer and to the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures for this disease in the 21st century. PMID:18829521

  16. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  17. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-29

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  18. ABT-751 in Treating Young Patients With Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-14

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  19. Can Wilms Tumor Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Signs and symptoms of Wilms tumor Can Wilms tumor be found early? Wilms tumors are ... point they have often grown quite large. They can be found earlier in some children with tests ...

  20. At the double for tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Research on zebrafish reveals how a tumor suppressor works in two different types of cells, and how hypotonic stress promotes tumor formation when the function of this tumor suppressor is lost. PMID:27421119

  1. At the double for tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Research on zebrafish reveals how a tumor suppressor works in two different types of cells, and how hypotonic stress promotes tumor formation when the function of this tumor suppressor is lost. PMID:27421119

  2. Tumor-associated macrophages (not tumor cells) are the determinants of photosensitizer tumor localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd

    1995-03-01

    The distribution of Photofrin and several other photosensitizers among major cellular populations contained in solid mouse tumors was examined using flow cytometry. Seven tumor models were included in the analysis: sarcomas EMT6, KHT, RIF, FsaR and FsaN, Lewis lung carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma SCCVII. In all these tumors, the highest photosensitizer levels were found in a subpopulation of tumor associated macrophages consisting of activated cells (as suggested by their increased size, granularity, and the number of interleukin 2 receptors). There was no evidence of selective photosensitizer accumulation in malignant tumor cells. Results consistent with these observations were also obtained with the carcinogen induced squamous cell carcinoma growing in hamster cheek pouch.

  3. Metronomic photodynamic therapy (mPDT) for intracranial neoplasm: physiological, biological, and dosimetry considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart L.; Lilge, Lothar; Lin, Annie; Wilson, Brian C.

    2003-10-01

    Metronomic photodynamic therapy (mPDT), a procedure in which both the photosensitizer and light are delivered continuously so that the individual doses overlap pharmacologically is introduced. The fundamental hypothesis in mPDT is that by providing therapy at low fluence over extended periods of time, there is potential for improved selectivity in tumor cell kill through non necrotic pathways. This is especially important in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, in which selectivity between damage to tumor cells versus normal brain tissue is critical. Previous studies have shown that low-dose PDT using aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PiIX) can induce apoptosis in tumor cells without causing necrosis in either tumor or normal brain tissue nor apoptosis in the latter. However, in order to achieve tumor control, multiple PDT treatments, such as hyper fractionation or metronomic delivery, are required, where the frequency and duration of the treatment are determined by the levels of apoptosis achieved in relationship to tumor cell doubling times, mPDT poses two substantial technical challenges: extended delivery of ALA and implantation of interstitial devices for extended light delivery at a sufficiently high enough density to achieve low fluence exposure to the brain adjacent to tumor or the entire hemisphere. In a rat model we evaluated the feasibility of delivering sustained ALA administration via the drinking water for up to 10 days without loss of PPIX selectivity. Post mortem quantitative spectrofluorimetry of tumor, normal brain and other tissues demonstrates a 4 times higher PPIX concentration in the 9L gliosarcoma model without noticeable toxicity. Light sources and delivery devices based either on laser diode or light emitting diode (LED) coupled to an implanted optical fiber were shown to be feasible. The maximum permissible spacing of cylindrical isotropic emitters is determined using known apoptotic indices and the necrosis

  4. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Michelle E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL), and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes. PMID:26904699

  5. Benign bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Gilday, D L; Ash, J M

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of 99mTc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions. PMID:1082170

  6. Ovarian tumors of the hen.

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, T N

    1987-01-01

    Present available information regarding ovarian tumors in hens is incomplete in most aspects, and this lack of knowledge hampers use of hens as models for study of ovarian cancer. A study of 466 hens ranging from 2 to 7 years of age and covering a period of more than 3 years has provided much needed information relative to reproductive tract neoplasia. On the basis of this study, it is apparent that hens have a high rate of ovarian tumors, but that such tumors are uncommon in hens less than 2 years of age. Adenocarcinomas with a high degree of morphologic variability are the most common ovarian tumors in hens. Hormonal imbalance does not appear to be a factor in the development of these adenocarcinomas. Steroidogenic and morphologically distinctive granulosa cell tumors originating from follicles in atrophic ovaries represent another common ovarian tumor type. Unique to the hen are oviductal adenocarcinomas. These tumors arise from the albumin-secreting glands of the oviduct, occur with relatively high frequency, and must be differentiated from ovarian adenocarcinomas. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PMID:3665870

  7. Chemopreventive agents targeting tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that tumor development and progression depend not only on the perturbed genes that govern cell proliferation, but is also highly determined by the non-tumor cells of the stromal compartment surrounding the tumor called tumor microenvironment (TME). These findings highlight the importance of targeting the microenvironment in combination with therapies aimed at tumor cells as a valuable approach. The innate and adaptive immune cells in the TME interact among themselves and also with the endothelial cells, pericytes and mast cells of the stromal compartment through various autocrine and paracrine manner to regulate abnormal cell proliferation. Direct cytotoxic killing of cancer cells and/or reversion of the immunosuppressive TME are to be considered as better strategies for chemoprevention and chemotherapy. With a growing emphasis on a "hallmark targeting" strategy for cancer therapy, the TME now appears as a promising target for cancer prevention using natural products. Clarification on the nontumor stromal cells, the mediators involved, interactions with immune response cells, and immune-evasive mechanisms are needed in order to manipulate the characteristics of the TME by natural pharmacological agents to design effective therapies. This review will provide a glimpse on the roles played by various non-tumor cells in tumor progression and their intervention by pharmacological agents. PMID:26679106

  8. Gene Expression in Oligodendroglial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Elisabeth J.; Haylock, Brian; Husband, David; du Plessis, Daniel; Sibson, D. Ross; Warnke, Peter C.; Walker, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Background: Oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss are more likely to be chemosensitive and have longer survival than those with intact 1p/19q, but not all respond to chemotherapy, warranting investigation of the biological basis of chemosensitivity. Methods: Gene expression profiling was performed using amplified antisense RNA from 28 oligodendroglial tumors treated with chemotherapy (26 serial stereotactic biopsy, 2 resection). Expression of differentially expressed genes was validated by real-time PCR. Results: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clustering of multiple samples from the same case in 14/17 cases and identified subgroups associated with tumor grade and 1p/19q status. 176 genes were differentially expressed, 164 being associated with 1p/19q loss (86% not on 1p or 19q). 94 genes differed between responders and non-responders to chemotherapy; 12 were not associated with 1p/19q loss. Significant differential expression was confirmed in 11/13 selected genes. Novel genes associated with response to therapy included SSBP2, GFRA1, FAP and RASD1. IQGAP1, INA, TGIF1, NR2F2 and MYCBP were differentially expressed in oligodendroglial tumors with 1p/19q loss. Conclusion: Gene expression profiling using serial stereotactic biopsies indicated greater homogeneity within tumors than between tumors. Genes associated with 1p/19q status or response were identified warranting further elucidation of their role in oligodendroglial tumors. PMID:20966545

  9. Laser therapy in ocular tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia; Ionita, Marcel A.; Moroseanu, A.; Dascalu, Traian; Lupei, Voicu; Ionita-Manzatu, V.

    1998-07-01

    The medical laser equipments made at NILPRP have been exploited intensively for more than 10 years at CMH. The availability and reliability of the first like-on equipment have increased, following improvements in optical delivery system and cooling circuit. This paper shows the impact of technical advances on the development of ophthalmologic laser therapy. Intraocular tumors pose special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include addition to systemic and ophthalmologic examinations, ancillary examinations, such as transillumination, fluorescence angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake tests, radiology, computerized tomography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. The enucleation of the involved eye used to be a generally accepted management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutic alternatives. This study covers 31 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed either by Argon Laser photocoagulation and/or by Nd:YAG laser surgical treatment. Four cases were intraocular metastasse and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for intraocular metastasse but very adequate therapy for primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body or iris tumors) using Nd:YAG laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  10. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  11. Statistical mechanics model of angiogenic tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António Luis; Lipowska, Dorota; Lipowski, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We examine a lattice model of tumor growth where the survival of tumor cells depends on the supplied nutrients. When such a supply is random, the extinction of tumors belongs to the directed percolation universality class. However, when the supply is correlated with the distribution of tumor cells, which as we suggest might mimic the angiogenic growth, the extinction shows different critical behavior. Such a correlation affects also the morphology of the growing tumors and drastically raises tumor-survival probability. PMID:22400505

  12. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population. PMID:26600624

  13. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  14. Concepts in solid tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sidow, Arend; Spies, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary mechanisms in cancer progression give tumors their individuality. Cancer evolution is different from organismal evolution, however, and here we discuss where concepts from evolutionary genetics are useful or limited in facilitating an understanding of cancer. Based on these concepts we construct and apply the simplest plausible model of tumor growth and progression. Simulations using this simple model illustrate the importance of stochastic events early in tumorigenesis, highlight the dominance of exponential growth over linear growth and differentiation, and explain the clonal substructure of tumors. PMID:25733351

  15. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Shurell, Elizabeth; Singh, Arun; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C

    2016-10-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the sixth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Most MPNSTs arise in association with a peripheral nerve or preexisting neurofibroma. Neurofibromatosis type is the most important risk factor for MPNST. Tumor size and fludeoxyglucose F 18 avidity are among the most helpful parameters to distinguish MPNST from a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The histopathologic diagnosis is predominantly a diagnosis of light microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains are most helpful to distinguish high-grade MPNST from its histologic mimics. Current surgical management of high-grade MPNST is similar to that of other high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27591499

  16. Polyethylene Glycol Modified, Cross-Linked Starch Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Magnetic Tumor Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Adam J.; David, Allan E.; Wang, Jianxin; Galbán, Craig J.; Hill, Hannah L.; Yang, Victor C.

    2010-01-01

    While successful magnetic tumor targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles has been achieved in a number of models, the rapid blood clearance of magnetically suitable particles by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) limits their availability for targeting. This work aimed to develop a long-circulating magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (MNP) platform capable of sustained tumor exposure via the circulation and, thus, enhanced magnetic tumor targeting. Aminated, cross-linked starch (DN) and aminosilane (A) coated MNPs were successfully modified with 5 kDa (A5, D5) or 20 kDa (A20, D20) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains using simple N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry and characterized. Identical PEG-weight analogues between platforms (A5 & D5, A20 & D20) were similar in size (140–190 nm) and relative PEG labeling (1.5% of surface amines – A5/D5, 0.4% – A20/D20), with all PEG-MNPs possessing magnetization properties suitable for magnetic targeting. Candidate PEG-MNPs were studied in RES simulations in vitro to predict long-circulating character. D5 and D20 performed best showing sustained size stability in cell culture medium at 37°C and 7 (D20) to 10 (D5) fold less uptake in RAW264.7 macrophages when compared to previously targeted, unmodified starch MNPs (D). Observations in vitro were validated in vivo, with D5 (7.29 hr) and D20 (11.75 hr) showing much longer half-lives than D (0.12 hr). Improved plasma stability enhanced tumor MNP exposure 100 (D5) to 150 (D20) fold as measured by plasma AUC0-∞ Sustained tumor exposure over 24 hours was visually confirmed in a 9L-glioma rat model (12 mg Fe/kg) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Findings indicate that both D5 and D20 are promising MNP platforms for enhanced magnetic tumor targeting, warranting further study in tumor models. PMID:21176955

  17. Modification of tumor response by manipulation of tumor oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    1999-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) requires tissue oxygenation during light irradiation. Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or induced by PDT during light irradiation, can severely hamper the effectiveness of a PDT treatment. Lowering the light irradiation does rate or fractionating a light dose may improve cell kill of PDT induced hypoxic cells, but will have no effects on pre-existing hypoxic cells. In the current study, we used hyper-oxygenation during PDT to overcome cell hypoxia in PDT. C3H mice with transplanted mammary carcinoma tumor were injected with 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin and irradiated with 630 nm laser light 24 hours later. Tumor oxygenation was manipulated by subjecting the animals to 3 a.t.p. hyperbaric oxygen or normobaric oxygen during PDT light irradiation. The results show a significant improvement in tumor response when PDT was delivered during hyper-oxygenation. With hyper-oxygenation, up to 80% of treated tumors showed no re-growth after 60 days. In comparison, only 20% of tumors treated while animals breathed normal room air, did not re-grow. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of manipulating tumor oxygenation, tumor p02 was measured with microelectrodes positioned in pre-existing hypoxic regions before and during the PDT light irradiation. The results show that hyper-oxygenation may oxygenate pre-existing hypoxic cells and compensate oxygen depletion induced by PDT light irradiation. In conclusion, hyper-oxygenation may provide effective ways to improve PDT treatment efficiency by oxygenating both pre-existing and treatment induced cell hypoxia.

  18. renal tumors and tumor-like lesions in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kissane, J M; Dehner, L P

    1992-07-01

    Renal enlargement presenting as an abdominal mass(es) is attended by a lengthly differential diagnosis of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions with a range in serious connotations and consequences. Simple compensatory hypertrophy and unilateral multicystic dysplasia are relatively innocuous and easily recognized with appropriate imaging studies; they are also related in the sense that the normal contralateral kidney hypertrophies in the absence of a non-functioning dysplastic kidney. Bilateral nephromegaly in a neonate is generally a sign of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease or multicystic dysplasia secondary to distal obstructive uropathy. Primary neoplasms of kidney in the pediatric population in the past were traditionally classified as Wilms' tumors, but that erroneous practice has been eliminated with the recognition of several distinctive neoplasms in addition to classic Wilms' tumor. Separating a typical Wilms' tumor from mesoblastic nephroma, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney and the malignant rhabdoid tumor, for treatment and prognostic purposes, has become the accepted norm in the past 12-13 years. Another important advance at the cellular level is the recognition of a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 in the cultured cells of Wilms' tumor and in the germ cell line in certain clinical settings of Wilms' tumors. A dramatic expansion in the understanding and management of childhood renal neoplasms has occurred through the multimodality approach of laboratory investigation and applied clinical research. PMID:1323320

  19. Macrophages in Tumor Microenvironments and the Progression of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ning-Bo; Lü, Mu-Han; Fan, Ya-Han; Cao, Ya-Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are widely distributed innate immune cells that play indispensable roles in the innate and adaptive immune response to pathogens and in-tissue homeostasis. Macrophages can be activated by a variety of stimuli and polarized to functionally different phenotypes. Two distinct subsets of macrophages have been proposed, including classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages express a series of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules, such as IL-12, IL-23, TNF-α, iNOS and MHCI/II. In contrast, M2 macrophages express a wide array of anti-inflammatory molecules, such as IL-10, TGF-β, and arginase1. In most tumors, the infiltrated macrophages are considered to be of the M2 phenotype, which provides an immunosuppressive microenvironment for tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages secrete many cytokines, chemokines, and proteases, which promote tumor angiogenesis, growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Recently, it was also found that tumor-associated macrophages interact with cancer stem cells. This interaction leads to tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. So mediating macrophage to resist tumors is considered to be potential therapy. PMID:22778768

  20. Peri-tumoral leakage during intra-tumoral convection-enhanced delivery has implications for efficacy of peri-tumoral infusion before removal of tumor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoliang; Saito, Ryuta; Nakamura, Taigen; Zhang, Rong; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-03-01

    In cases of malignant brain tumors, infiltrating tumor cells that exist at the tumor-surrounding brain tissue always escape from cytoreductive surgery and, protected by blood-brain barrier (BBB), survive the adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, eventually leading to tumor recurrence. Local interstitial delivery of chemotherapeutic agents is a promising strategy to target these cells. During our effort to develop effective drug delivery methods by intra-tumoral infusion of chemotherapeutic agents, we found consistent pattern of leakage from the tumor. Here we describe our findings and propose promising strategy to cover the brain tissue surrounding the tumor with therapeutic agents by means of convection-enhanced delivery. First, the intracranial tumor isograft model was used to define patterns of leakage from tumor mass after intra-tumoral infusion of the chemotherapeutic agents. Liposomal doxorubicin, although first distributed inside the tumor, distributed diffusely into the surrounding normal brain once the leakage happen. Trypan blue dye was used to evaluate the distribution pattern of peri-tumoral infusions. When infused intra- or peri-tumorally, infusates distributed robustly into the tumor border. Subsequently, volume of distributions with different infusion scheduling; including intra-tumoral infusion, peri-tumoral infusion after tumor resection, peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal with or without systemic infusion of steroids, were compared with Evans-blue dye. Peri-tumoral infusion without tumor removal resulted in maximum volume of distribution. Prior use of steroids further increased the volume of distribution. Local interstitial drug delivery targeting tumor surrounding brain tissue before tumor removal should be more effective when targeting the invading cells. PMID:24865286

  1. Exploiting apoptosis in photodynamic therapy: is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendon, Cesar A.; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2003-06-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme is the most common form of malignant brain tumors and accounts for approximately 25% of all primary brain tumors. Only 5% of these patients survive longer than 2 years. The standard form of treatment is radiation therapy and surgery if the site is accessible. Different forms of adjuvant chemotherapy have been largely proven unsuccessful. Another form of adjuvant therapy, Photodynamic Therapy (PDT), has undergone preliminary trials showing some promising results but at the cost of increased side effects like rise in intracranial blood pressure and neurological deficiency. Apoptotic cell kill used as a biological treatment endpoint can possibly ameliorate these side effects. This study evaluates the significance of apoptotic cell death in the 9L rat gliosarcoma using the aminolevulinic acid (ALA) induced endogenous photosensitizer Protophorphyrin IX (PpIX). A strong influence of drug incubation time with cell kill was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cell death was less than 10% for 2 and 4 hours incubation times and irradiation times ensuring up to 70 and 80% cell kill respectively. Accumulation of PpIX in the mitochondria and cytoplasm was quantified by confocal fluorescence microscopy showing a linear relationship of PpIX fluorescence with concentration. The possibility of an in vitro threshold in the PDT dose is discussed, above which cell repair mechanisms may become exhausted. In conclusion for the range of parameters investigated, apoptotic cell kill may be hard to exploit therapeutically in this tumor model.

  2. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  3. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Cytogenetics of human brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkernagel, S.W.; Kletz, T.; Day-Salvatore, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome studies of 55 brain tumors, including meningiomas, gliomas, astrocyomas and pituatary adenomas, were performed. Primary and first passage cultures were successfully obtained in 75% of these samples with an average of 18 G-banded metaphases analyzed per tumor. 44% of all the brain tumors showed numerical and or structural abnormalities. 46% of the primary and 38% of the first passage cultures showed similar numerical gains/losses and complex karyotypic changes. The most frequent numerical abnormalities (n {ge} 5) included loss of chromosomes 10, 22, and Y. The structural abnormalities most often seen involved 1p, 2, 5, 7, 17q and 19. This is an ongoing study which will attempt to correlate tumor type with specific karyotypic changes and to see if any of the observed chromosomal abnormalities provide prognostic indicators.

  5. Markers of bile duct tumors

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Giordano, Maria; Paladina, Isabella; Rando, Alessandra; Uccello, Mario; Basile, Francesco; Biondi, Antonio; Carnazzo, Santo; Alessandria, Innocenza; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2011-01-01

    Biliary tract carcinomas are relatively rare, representing less than 1% of cancers. However, their incidence has increased in Japan and in industrialized countries like the USA. Biliary tract tumors have a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate because they are usually detected late in the course of the disease; therapeutic treatment options are often limited and of minimal utility. Recent studies have shown the importance of serum and molecular markers in the diagnosis and follow up of biliary tract tumors. This review aims to introduce the main features of the most important serum and molecular markers of biliary tree tumors. Some considerable tumor markers are cancer antigen 125, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen, chromogranin A, mucin 1, mucin 5, alpha-fetoprotein, claudins and cytokeratins. PMID:21528090

  6. Dendrimer technologies for brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vijay; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-05-01

    Despite low prevalence, brain tumors are one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Unfortunately the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a highly regulated, well coordinated and efficient barrier, checks the permeation of most of the drugs across it. Hence, crossing this barrier is one of the most significant challenges in the development of efficient central nervous system therapeutics. Surface-engineered dendrimers improve biocompatibility, drug-release kinetics and aptitude to target the BBB and/or tumors and facilitate transportation of anticancer bioactives across the BBB. This review sheds light on different aspects of brain tumors and dendrimers based on different approaches for treatment including recent research, opportunities and challenges encountered in development of novel and efficient dendrimer-based therapeutics for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:26891979

  7. [Mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum].

    PubMed

    Rieker, R J; Marx, A; Agaimy, A; Ströbel, P

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the thymus and mediastinum account for only 2 % of neoplasms of the mediastinum and are therefore very rare. With very few exceptions the histology, immunohistochemistry and (based on current knowledge) molecular biology of mediastinal soft tissue tumors are not different from their counterparts in other organs. Characteristic features are more concerned with clinical epidemiological and therapeutic aspects as well as the multitude of possible differential diagnoses. With the exception of organ-specific tumors, such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), virtually all entities encountered in peripheral soft tissues can also arise in the mediastinum. Primary mediastinal soft tissue sarcomas (STS) must be distinguished from secondary radiation-induced STS after irradiation, e. g. for breast cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma and from STS arising as somatic type malignancies in mediastinal germ cell tumors. PMID:27488616

  8. Primary tracheobronchial tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Varela, Patricio; Pio, Luca; Torre, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Primary tracheobronchial tumors are rare lesions that can be benign or malignant, with different location along the airway tree. Symptoms may include wheezing, chronic pneumonia, asthma, chest pain, recurrent cough, atelectasis, haemoptysis, and weight loss. Due to the heterogeneity of symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult and the airway involvement can lead progressively to a bronchial or tracheal obstruction. Due to the rarity of primary tracheobronchial tumors in children, there are not any oncological guidelines on pre-operative work-up, treatment, and follow-up. Only few reports and multicentric studies are reported. In most cases, surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice. Brachytherapy, endoscopic treatment, and chemotherapy are rarely described. In this article we present an overview on these rare tumors, including pathological aspects, clinical presentation, imaging assessment, and endoscopic or open surgical treatments. We discuss different surgical approaches, according with tumor location. PMID:27301601

  9. Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Beta-2 Microglobulin Tumor Marker Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: B2M; B 2 M; β2-Microglobulin; Thymotaxin Formal name: Beta 2 ...

  10. Geometrical approach to tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells and particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former paper [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (2006)], and in the present work we extend our analysis and try to shed light on the possible geometrical principles that drive tumor growth. We present two-dimensional models that reproduce the experimental observations, and analyze the unexplored three-dimensional case, for which interesting conclusions on tumor growth are derived. PMID:17025466

  11. [Classification of primary bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Dominok, G W; Frege, J

    1986-01-01

    An expanded classification for bone tumors is presented based on the well known international classification as well as earlier systems. The current status and future trends in this area are discussed. PMID:3461626

  12. Percutaneous Ablation of Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Dupuy, Damian E.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal tumors comprise a broad spectrum of benign and malignant neoplasms, and include functional adrenal adenomas, pheochromocytomas, primary adrenocortical carcinoma and adrenal metastases. Percutaneous ablative approaches that have been described and used in the treatment of adrenal tumors include percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation and chemical ablation. Local tumor ablation in the adrenal gland presents unique challenges, secondary to the adrenal gland’s unique anatomic and physiologic features. The results of clinical series employing percutaneous ablative techniques in the treatment of adrenal tumors are reviewed in this article. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the adrenal gland are presented, including approaches commonly used in our practices, and risks and potential complications are discussed. PMID:20540918

  13. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ... temporal bone and skull base. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: desmoid tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition aggressive fibromatosis deep fibromatosis desmoid fibromatosis familial infiltrative fibromatosis ... catenin protein and somatic APC mutations in sporadic aggressive fibromatoses (desmoid tumors). Am J Pathol. 1997 Aug; ...

  15. Tumor suppression by stromal TIMPs.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Masayuki; Jackson, Hartland W; Khokha, Rama

    2016-05-01

    The tumor stroma has the capacity to drive cancer progression, although the mechanisms governing these effects are incompletely understood. Recently, we reported that deletion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (Timps) in fibroblasts unleashes the function of cancer-associated fibroblasts and identifies a novel mode of stromal-tumor communication that activates key oncogenic pathways invoving Notch and ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) via stromal exosomes. PMID:27314104

  16. Digitally deconvolving the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Aran, Dvir; Butte, Atul J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding a tumor's complex cellular heterogeneity will be crucial for the development of better treatment strategies. A new study suggests a novel method for the in silico dissociation of solid tumors and presents novel insights that have implications for immunotherapy in cancer.Please see the related Research article: www.dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-1028-7 . PMID:27549319

  17. Translational progress on tumor biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hongwei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Lu, Yi; Xie, Liye; Chen, Qian; Keller, Evan T; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Qinghua; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to apply basic research achievements to the clinic. In particular, mechanistic studies should be developed by bench researchers, depending upon clinical demands, in order to improve the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. To date, translational medicine has been addressed in cancer biology, particularly in the identification and characterization of novel tumor biomarkers. This review focuses on the recent achievements and clinical application prospects in tumor biomarkers based on translational medicine. PMID:26557902

  18. Tumor formations in scleractinian corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Y.; Bull, G.; Pichon, M.

    1984-03-01

    A highly localized incidence of skeletal malformations (tumors) in the scleractinian corals Platygyra pini and P. sinensis on an inshore fringing reef at Cockle Bay, Magnetic Island within the Great Barrier Reef province is reported. These tumors are typified by a localized area of increased growth rate resulting in roughly circular protuberances extending up to 4.5 cm above the colony's surface. In both species, similar proportions of their populations carried tumors (24.1 % in P. pini and 18.7 % in P. sinensis). Larger colonies (>80 cm in diameter) are at least 7 times more likely to possess tumors than smaller colonies (<40 cm in diameter). X-radiographs of the skeletal malformations indicate a point of origin, presumably from a single budded polyp with subsequent, localized, accelerated growth. The mean radial growth rate of the tumorous area was 29 % greater than that of the surrounding normal regions. In contrast to the normal tissue, the tumorous tissue exhibited proliferation of cells, atrophied gastrodermal cells and mesenterial filaments which were larger and disordered in structure. The environmental conditions at Cockle Bay are relatively extreme with high turbidity, periodic exposure of the reef flat, abrupt changes in salinity during the wet season and mechanical damage to corals caused by unpredictable cyclonic storms. It is suggested that a combination of environmental stresses coupled with an injury inflicted on the corals are possible stimuli that initiate the development of these abnormal growth through either bacterial attack or the development of an aberrant polyp during tissue repair.

  19. Glomus Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won; Kwon, Soon Beom; Eo, Su Rak; Kwon, Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background Glomus tumors were first described by Wood in 1812 as painful subcutaneous tubercles. It is an uncommon benign neoplasm involving the glomus body, an apparatus that involves in thermoregulation of cutaneous microvasculature. Glomus tumor constitutes 1%-5% of all hand tumors. It usually occurs at the subungual region and more commonly in aged women. Its classical clinical triad consists of pain, tenderness and temperature intolerance, especially cold sensitivity. This study reviews 15 cases of glomus tumor which were analyzed according to its anatomic location, surgical approach and histologic findings. Methods Fifteen patients with subungual glomus tumors of the hand operated on between January 2006 and March 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were evaluated preoperatively with standard physical examination including ice cube test and Love's test. Diagnostic imaging consisted of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. All procedures were performed with tourniquet control under local anesthesia. Eleven patients underwent excision using the transungual approach, 3 patients using the volar approach and 1 patient using the lateral subperiosteal approach. Results Total of 15 cases were reviewed. 11 tumors were located in the nail bed, 3 in the volar pulp and 1 in the radial aspect of the finger tip. After complete excision, patients remained asymptomatic in the immediate postoperative period. In the long term follow up, patients exhibited excellent cosmetic results with no recurrence. Conclusions Accurate diagnosis should be made by physical, radiologic and pathologic examinations. Preoperative localization and complete extirpation is essential in preventing recurrence and subsequent nail deformity. PMID:26015884

  20. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Ulviye; Uz Unlu, Mehtat; Bilgen, M Sadik; Yazici, Zeynep

    2013-11-01

    Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor with a low malignancy potential. The patient is usually a child or a young adolescent and the tumor is usually localized in the upper extremities. We report on a case of a 21-year old male with a plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor in the left fibula admitted to our hospital due to a swelling and pain in the left lower extremity. Radiologically a lytic lesion in the distal end of left fibula consistent with a non-aggressive lesion with low biological activity was found. Treated with curettage, the specimen revealed plexiform proliferation of mononuclear histiocyte-like cells, multinucleated osteoclast-like cells, and spindle fibroblast-like cells in variable proportions histopathologically. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD68 in scattered fashion in histiocytes and giant cells, and spindle like cells showed positivity for smooth muscle actin. Under electron microscopy, rough endoplasmic reticulum and collagen bundles in the spindle cells suggested fibroblastic differentiation. Also multiple large electron-dense lysosomal granules in histiocytoid cells were found. Multinucleated giant cells exhibited osteoclast-like appearance. All these findings suggested plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor. Interestingly, the tumor was localized in bone. During the follow up for 27 months after the resection, there was no recurrence or metastasis. PMID:24274718

  1. Scintigraphic imaging of carcinoid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M.; Kamanabroo, D.

    1985-05-01

    131-1-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131-1-MIBG) is used for scintigraphic localization and treatment of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Several other tumors, deriving from neuroectoderm (APUD tumors) may also produce catecholamines. 4 patients with surgically proven carcinoid tumors were studied by 131-1-MIBG scintigraphy. Scintigraphic images were performed with a computer assisted gamma camera 2.24, 48 and 72 hours after IV injection of 26 MBq 131-I-MIBG. In one patient single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 185 Mgq 123-I-MIBG was performed additionally. Catecholamines were determined in 24-hours-urinary samples by HPLC. Serotonine was determined in plasma. Catecholamine excretion was normal in all patients, whereas serotonine was elevated in all of them. In 2 of 4 patients slight tracer uptake was observed in some of liver metastases, whereas other metastases in the liver and the primary tumor did not show 131-1-MIBG uptake. In one patient with a carcinoid tumor of the pancreas 131-1-MIBG scintigraphy and SPECT with 123-1-MIBG was positive. In one patient scintigraphy was false negative. MIBG scintigraphy is not only suitable for imaging pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma, but may also localize carcinoid tumors and their metastases.

  2. Tumor Stroma, Tumor Blood Vessels, and Antiangiogenesis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Harold F

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors generally require a vascularized connective tissue stroma if they are to grow beyond minimal size. They generate that stroma in part by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent vascular permeability and angiogenic factor. Increased vascular permeability leads to deposition of a provisional fibrin stroma, which supports tumor, connective tissue, and inflammatory cell migration and plays an active role in the formation of mature vascularized stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least 6 distinct types, and develop linearly over time. They include both angiogenic (mother vessels, glomeruloid microvascular proliferations, vascular malformations, capillaries) and arteriovenogenic (feeding arteries, draining veins) blood vessels. Attacking the tumor vasculature with drugs that target VEGF or its receptors (VEGFR) has come into vogue but has been less effective than had been hope for. One reason for this is that anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy attacks only a subset of tumor blood vessels, the earliest to form. New targets on late-forming blood vessels such as feeding arteries would be useful in helping antivascular cancer therapy fulfill its promise. PMID:26222073

  3. CD44 enhances tumor aggressiveness by promoting tumor cell plasticity.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Yvette W J; Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; van der Schaft, Daisy W J; Soetekouw, Patricia M M B; Pauwels, Patrick; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Griffioen, Arjan W

    2015-08-14

    Aggressive tumor cells can obtain the ability to transdifferentiate into cells with endothelial features and thus form vasculogenic networks. This phenomenon, called vasculogenic mimicry (VM), is associated with increased tumor malignancy and poor clinical outcome. To identify novel key molecules implicated in the process of vasculogenic mimicry, microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expression profiles of aggressive (VM+) and non-aggressive (VM-) cells derived from Ewing sarcoma and breast carcinoma. We identified the CD44/c-Met signaling cascade as heavily relevant for vasculogenic mimicry. CD44 was at the center of this cascade, and highly overexpressed in aggressive tumors. Both CD44 standard isoform and its splice variant CD44v6 were linked to increased aggressiveness in VM. Since VM is most abundant in Ewing sarcoma tumors functional analyses were performed in EW7 cells. Overexpression of CD44 allowed enhanced adhesion to its extracellular matrix ligand hyaluronic acid. CD44 expression also facilitated the formation of vasculogenic structures in vitro, as CD44 knockdown experiments repressed migration and vascular network formation. From these results and the observation that CD44 expression is associated with vasculogenic structures and blood lakes in human Ewing sarcoma tissues, we conclude that CD44 increases aggressiveness in tumors through the process of vasculogenic mimicry. PMID:26189059

  4. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dahui; Zheng, Zhong; Shen, Shanxiang; Smith, Prudence; Khalil, Farah K

    2016-01-01

    Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing. PMID:27597976

  5. Necessity of Microdissecting Different Tumor Components in Pulmonary Tumor Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhong; Shen, Shanxiang; Smith, Prudence; Khalil, Farah K.

    2016-01-01

    Microdissection is a useful method in tissue sampling prior to molecular testing. Tumor heterogeneity imposes new challenges for tissue sampling. Different microdissecting methods have been employed in face of such challenge. We improved our microdissection method by separately microdissecting the morphologically different tumor components. This improvement helped the pyrosequencing data analysis of two specimens. One specimen consisted of both adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components. When both tumor components were sequenced together for KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) gene mutations, the resulting pyrogram indicated that it was not a wild type, suggesting that it contained KRAS mutation. However, the pyrogram did not match any KRAS mutations and a conclusion could not be reached. After microdissecting and testing the adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine components separately, it was found that the adenocarcinoma was positive for KRAS G12C mutation and the neuroendocrine component was positive for KRAS G12D mutation. The second specimen consisted of two morphologically different tumor nodules. When microdissected and sequenced separately, one nodule was positive for BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) V600E and the other nodule was wild type at the BRAF codon 600. These examples demonstrate that it is necessary to microdissect morphologically different tumor components for pyrosequencing. PMID:27597976

  6. Kidney Tumors | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Pediatric kidney tumors fall into four primary categories: Wilms tumors (~85% of all cases), clear cell sarcomas of the kidney (~5%), congenital mesoblastic nephromas (~4%), and rhabdoid tumors of the kidney (~3%). The TARGET initiative is investigating three of these tumor types.

  7. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade

    2016-08-01

    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors. PMID:27334481

  8. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  9. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  10. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  11. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  12. 9 CFR 381.87 - Tumors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tumors. 381.87 Section 381.87 Animals... § 381.87 Tumors. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected by a tumor shall be condemned... by the size, position, or nature of the tumor, the whole carcass shall be condemned....

  13. Tumor suppressor molecules and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Peter J.; Barber, Jack R.

    2004-09-07

    The invention provides substantially pure tumor suppressor nucleic acid molecules and tumor suppressor polypeptides. The invention also provides hairpin ribozymes and antibodies selective for these tumor suppressor molecules. Also provided are methods of detecting a neoplastic cell in a sample using detectable agents specific for the tumor suppressor nucleic acids and polypeptides.

  14. Inhibition of IL-17A in tumor microenvironment augments cytotoxicity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Hayata, Keiji; Iwahashi, Makoto; Ojima, Toshiyasu; Katsuda, Masahiro; Iida, Takeshi; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ueda, Kentaro; Nakamura, Masaki; Miyazawa, Motoki; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    It remains controversial whether IL-17A promotes or inhibits cancer progression. We hypothesized that IL-17A that is locally produced in the tumor microenvironment has an important role in angiogenesis and tumor immunity. We investigated the effect of inhibiting IL-17A at tumor sites on tumor growth and on local and systemic anti-tumor immunity. MC38 or B16 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into mice, and intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector expressing siRNA against the mouse IL-17A gene (Ad-si-IL-17) significantly inhibited tumor growth in both tumor models compared with control mice. Inhibition of IL-17A at tumor sites significantly suppressed CD31, MMP9, and VEGF expression in tumor tissue. The cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in mice treated with Ad-si-IL-17 was significantly higher than in control mice; however, CD8(+) T cells from splenocytes had similar activity levels. Suppression of IL-17A at tumor sites led to a Th1-dominant environment, and moreover, eliminated myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells at tumor sites but not in splenocytes. In conclusion, blockade of IL-17A at tumor sites helped suppress tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis as well as cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation at tumor sites. PMID:23372655

  15. Status of gallium-67 in tumor detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.

    1980-04-01

    The efficacy of gallium-67 citrate in detecting specific tumors is discussed. Tumors in which gallium-67 imaging is useful as a diagnostic tool include Hodgkin's disease, histiocystic lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, hepatoma melanoma, and leukemia. It has not been found to be effective in diagnosing head and neck tumors, gastrointestinal tumors, genitourinary tract tumors, breast tumors, and pediatric tumors. Gallium may be useful in the evaluation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma, mesothelioma, and carcinoma of the lung. It may also be useful for determining response to treatment and prognosis in some neoplasms.

  16. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  17. The Role of Stroma in Tumor Development

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Zena; Lu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an essential role in various stages of cancer development. This environment, composed of the extracellular matrix, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and cells of the immune system regulates the behavior of and co-evolve with tumor cells. Many of the components, including the innate and adaptive immune cells, play multifaceted roles during cancer progression and can promote or inhibit tumor development, depending on local and systemic conditions. Interestingly, a strategy by which tumor cells gain drug resistance is by modifying the tumor microenvironment. Together, understanding the mechanisms by which the tumor microenvironment functions should greatly facilitate the development of new therapeutic interventions by targeting the tumor niche. PMID:26222075

  18. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid Bousquet, Guilhem; Marsiglia, Hugo; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Magne, Nicolas; Malard, Yann; Lacroix, Magalie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Senkus, Elzbieta; Christie, David; Drumea, Karen; Lagneau, Edouard; Kadish, Sidney P.; Scandolaro, Luciano; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

  19. WWOX: a fragile tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Morgan S.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    WWOX, the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene at chromosome region 16q23.3-q24.1, spanning chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, encodes the 46 kDa Wwox protein. WWOX is a tumor suppressor that is lost or reduced in expression in a wide variety of cancers, including breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung. The function of WWOX as a tumor suppressor implies that it serves an essential function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. Indeed, in vitro studies show that Wwox protein interacts with many binding partners to regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation and/or maturation. It has been reported that newborn Wwox knockout mice exhibit nascent osteosarcomas while Wwox+/- mice exhibit increased incidence of spontaneous and induced tumors. Furthermore, absence or reduction of Wwox expression in mouse xenograft models results in increased tumorigenesis, which can be rescued by Wwox re-expression, though there is not universal agreement among investigators regarding the role of Wwox loss in these experimental models. Despite this proposed tumor suppressor function, the overlap of WWOX with FRA16D sensitizes the gene to protein-inactivating deletions caused by replication stress. The high frequency of deletions within the WWOX locus in cancers of various types, without the hallmark protein inactivation-associated mutations of ‘classical’ tumor suppressors, has led to the proposal that WWOX deletions in cancers are passenger events that occur in early cancer progenitor cells due to fragility of the genetic locus, rather than driver events which provide the cancer cell a selective advantage. Recently, a proposed epigenetic cause of chromosomal fragility has suggested a novel mechanism for early fragile site instability and has implications regarding the involvement of tumor suppressor genes at CFSs in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene and put this into the context of fragility associated with the FRA16D

  20. Angiogenesis in Spontaneous Tumors and Implications for Comparative Tumor Biology

    PubMed Central

    Benazzi, C.; Al-Dissi, A.; Chau, C. H.; Figg, W. D.; Sarli, G.; de Oliveira, J. T.; Gärtner, F.

    2014-01-01

    Blood supply is essential for development and growth of tumors and angiogenesis is the fundamental process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting ones. Angiogenesis is a prognostic indicator for a variety of tumors, and it coincides with increased shedding of neoplastic cells into the circulation and metastasis. Several molecules such as cell surface receptors, growth factors, and enzymes are involved in this process. While antiangiogenic therapy for cancer has been proposed over 20 years ago, it has garnered much controversy in recent years within the scientific community. The complex relationships between the angiogenic signaling cascade and antiangiogenic substances have indicated the angiogenic pathway as a valid target for anticancer drug development and VEGF has become the primary antiangiogenic drug target. This review discusses the basic and clinical perspectives of angiogenesis highlighting the importance of comparative biology in understanding tumor angiogenesis and the integration of these model systems for future drug development. PMID:24563633

  1. Rat adenocarcinoma 13762 expresses tumor rejection antigens but tumor-bearing animals exhibit tumor-specific immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Frey, A B; Appleman, L J

    1993-11-01

    Rat adenocarcinoma 13762 was adapted to continuous growth in culture and used in a variety of experiments to investigate the immune response to inoculation of animals with replication-defective tumor cells. The results demonstrate that 13762 cells express tumor-specific tumor rejection antigens that elicit protective immunity to tumorigenic challenge. By several criteria there is no apparent humoral component of the anti-tumor immunity; however, anti-tumor immunity is characterized by nylon-wool nonadherent spleen T cells. Anti-tumor T cells demonstrate tumoricidal activity in local adoptive transfer assays and are not found in spleens of naive animals or animals immunized against either nontumorigenic Rat 1 cells or a syngeneic fibrosarcoma. Despite the expression of tumor rejection antigens 13762 tumor, and the demonstrable ability of injection of irradiated tumor to induce anti-tumor immunity, tumors elicited in unimmunized syngeneic animals grow progressively. The reasons for growth of antigenic tumor are unknown but are shown not to be due to defective antigen expression in 13762 tumor since, in addition to being able to elicit T cell immune response in immunized animals, 13762 tumor expresses MHC Class I molecules and can be a target for allogeneic T cell recognition in vitro. These data suggest that in tumor-bearing animals an effective anti-tumor immune response is either not initiated or down-regulated. Since animals bearing 13762 tumors can be immunized against an unrelated syngeneic sarcoma, can produce humoral responses to several protein antigens, and can produce delayed type hypersensitivity response against dinitrofluorobenzene, the immune response to 13762-induced tumors appears specifically suppressed. In support of this contention, 13762 cells express high levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 in vitro which is postulated to impact upon the nascent anti-tumor immune response. PMID:8403560

  2. Metastasis Suppressors and the Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Leah M.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Welch, Danny R.

    2011-01-01

    The most lethal and debilitating attribute of cancer cells is their ability to metastasize. Throughout the process of metastasis, tumor cells interact with other tumor cells, host cells and a variety of molecules. Tumor cells are also faced with a number of insults, such as hemodynamic sheer pressure and immune selection. This brief review explores how metastasis suppressor proteins regulate interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironments in which tumor cells find themselves. PMID:21168504

  3. Multiple Glomus Tumors of the Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Park, In Ja; Song, Joon Seon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    A glomus tumor is a very rare neoplasm consisting of cells that resemble the modified smooth muscle cells of normal glomus bodies. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old male with multiple omental glomus tumors. The patient underwent a complete resection of the glomus tumors. This is a rare case of omental glomus tumors, and to our knowledge, this patient is the first with multiple omental glomus tumors to be described. PMID:26361617

  4. [Cartilage tumors : Pathology and radiomorphology].

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Herget, G; Kurz, P

    2016-06-01

    Primary cartilage-forming tumors of the bone are frequent entities in the daily work of skeletal radiologists. This article describes the correlation of pathology and radiology in cartilage-forming skeletal tumors, in particular, enchondroma, osteochondroma, periosteal chondromas, chondroblastoma and various forms of chondrosarcoma. After reading, the radiologist should be able to deduce the different patterns of cartilage tumors on radiographs, CT, and MRI from the pathological aspects. Differentiation of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Some imaging parameters, e. g., deep cortical scalloping (more than two thirds of the cortical thickness), cortical destruction, or a soft-tissue mass, are features of a sarcoma. Osteochondromas are bony protrusions with a continuous extension of bone marrow from the parent bone, the host cortical bone runs continuously from the osseous surface of the tumor into the shaft of the osteochondroma and the osteochondroma has a cartilage cap. Chondromyxoid fibromas are well-defined lytic and eccentric lesions of the metaphysis of the long bones, with nonspecific MRI findings. Chondroblastomas have a strong predilection for the epiphysis of long tubular bones and develop an intense perifocal bone marrow edema. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are bimorphic lesions with a low-grade chondrogenic component and a high-grade noncartilaginous component. Most chondrogenic tumors have a predilection with regard to site and age at manifestation. PMID:27233920

  5. Adrenalectomy for metastatic adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Kita, Masafumi; Tamaki, Gaku; Okuyama, Mitsuhiko; Saga, Yuji; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2007-11-01

    The indications for adrenalectomy in cases of metastatic adrenal tumor remain controversial. To clarify indications and outcomes of adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis, we performed a retrospective review of all 8 patients who underwent adrenalectomy for adrenal metastasis between 1990 and 2006 in Asahikawa Medical College Hospital. The Primary tumor was renal cell carcinoma in 2 cases, and eccrine poro carcinoma, rectal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer and cancer of unknown origin in 1 case each. Open adrenalectomy was performed in all cases, including 1 case that was converted from laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Of the 4 patients with solitary adrenal metastasis, 3 were considered tumor-free after adrenalectomy, while the remaining patient was not due to unresectable primary tumor. Of the 3 patients with complete resection, one remained alive as of 88 months after adrenalectomy but was then lost to follow-up, and the other 2 patients remain alive 12 and 7 months after adrenalectomy. Of the 2 patients with other resectable metastasis who were tumor-free after removal of all metastases, one was alive 31 months postoperatively and the other died 23 months after operation. The remaining 2 cases with other unresectable metastasis died within 6 months after adrenalectomy. At least in cases of solitary adrenal metastasis, adrenalectomy can be effective if other valid methods are unavailable. PMID:18051798

  6. Heterogeneity of the Tumor Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Janice A.; Chang, Sung-Hee; Shih, Shou-Ching; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.

    2012-01-01

    The blood vessels supplying tumors are strikingly heterogeneous and differ from their normal counterparts with respect to organization, structure, and function. Six distinctly different tumor vessel types have been identified, and much has been learned about the steps and mechanisms by which they form. Four of the six vessel types (mother vessels, capillaries, glomeruloid microvascular proliferations, and vascular malformations) develop from preexisting normal venules and capillaries by angiogenesis. The two remaining vessel types (feeder arteries and draining veins) develop from arterio-venogenesis, a parallel, poorly understood process that involves the remodeling of preexisting arteries and veins. All six of these tumor vessel types can be induced to form sequentially in normal mouse tissues by an adenoviral vector expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A164. Current antiangiogenic cancer therapies directed at VEGF-A or its receptors have been of only limited benefit to cancer patients, perhaps because they target only the endothelial cells of the tumor blood vessel subset that requires exogenous VEGF-A for maintenance. A goal of future work is to identify therapeutic targets on tumor blood vessel endothelial cells that have lost this requirement. PMID:20490982

  7. The exosomes in tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanfang; Gu, Yan; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are a kind of nanometric membrane vesicles and can be released by almost all kinds of cells, including cancer cells. As the important mediators in intercellular communications, exosomes mediate exchange of protein and genetic material derived from parental cells. Emerging evidences show that exosomes secreted by either host cells or cancer cells are involved in tumor initiation, growth, invasion and metastasis. Moreover, communications between immune cells and cancer cells via exosomes play dual roles in modulating tumor immunity. In this review, we focus on exosome-mediated immunosuppression via inhibition of antitumor responses elicited by immune cells (DCs, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, etc.) and induction of immunosuppressive or regulatory cell populations (MDSCs, Tregs and Bregs). Transfer of cytokines, microRNAs (miRNAs) and functional mRNAs by tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) is crucial in the immune escape. Furthermore, exosomes secreted from several kinds of immune cells (DCs, CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs) also participate in immunosuppression. On the other hand, we summarize the current application of DC-derived and modified tumor-derived exosomes as tumor vaccines. The potential challenges about exosome-based vaccines for clinical application are also discussed. PMID:26405598

  8. [MR spectroscopy in brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Papanagiotou, P; Backens, M; Grunwald, I Q; Farmakis, G; Politi, M; Roth, C; Reith, W

    2007-06-01

    MRT allows the anatomical visualization of intracerebral space-occupying lesions, and when magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is used in routine clinical practice it can give more information and be helpful in the diagnosis of such lesions. In MRS with long echo times for nerve tissue there are five metabolites that are particularly significant: N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine, choline, lactate, and lipids. NAA levels are lowered in the presence of intracerebral tumors. Creatine is lowered in situations of hypermetabolic metabolism and elevated in hypometabolic conditions, but remains constant in many pathologic states and can be used as a reliable reference value. With malignant tumors there are usually elevated choline concentrations, reflecting increased membrane synthesis and a higher cell turnover. The lactate level rises following a switch in metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic glycolysis, and this is frequently observed in the presence of malignant tumors. The occurrence of lipid peaks in a tumor spectrum suggests the presence of tissue necroses or metastases. There are typical constellations that are seen on MRS for individual tumors, which are discussed in detail in the present paper. PMID:17530212

  9. Carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with intracranial tumors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Tanaka, R

    1980-09-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and tumor cyst fluid obtained from patients with a variety of intracranial tumors was determined by radioimmunoassay Slightly elevated levels of plasma CEA, ranging from 2.6 to 3.8 ng/ml, were noted in six (4%) of 161 patients with primary brain tumors: in three gliomas, two pineal tumors, and one acoustic neurinoma, respectively. On the other hand, 17 (37%) of 46 patients with metastatic brain tumors showed a definite elevation, and most of them had values higher than 5.0 ng/ml. Of 37 patients with primary brain tumors, only one with a pineal germinoma showed a significant elevation of CEA in CSF, whereas eight (44%) of 18 patients with metastatic brain tumors showed high values of CEA in CSF. All six patients with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis showed elevated CEA in CSF. Levels of CEA in tumor cyst fluid were determined in 17 patients with intracranial tumors, including 12 gliomas, two craniopharyngiomas, two metastatic tumors, and one meningioma; elevation of CEA in tumor fluid was noted in two craniopharyngiomas and one metastatic tumor. Sequential determination of CEA of plasma or CSF revealed that the CEA levels were well correlated with the activity of brain tumors. Consequently, the determination of CEA in plasma or CSF is valuable for the differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic brain tumors and for the management of CEA-producing tumors. PMID:7420150

  10. Cellular Potts Modeling of Tumor Growth, Tumor Invasion, and Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Merks, Roeland M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing wealth of available molecular data, the growth of tumors, invasion of tumors into healthy tissue, and response of tumors to therapies are still poorly understood. Although genetic mutations are in general the first step in the development of a cancer, for the mutated cell to persist in a tissue, it must compete against the other, healthy or diseased cells, for example by becoming more motile, adhesive, or multiplying faster. Thus, the cellular phenotype determines the success of a cancer cell in competition with its neighbors, irrespective of the genetic mutations or physiological alterations that gave rise to the altered phenotype. What phenotypes can make a cell “successful” in an environment of healthy and cancerous cells, and how? A widely used tool for getting more insight into that question is cell-based modeling. Cell-based models constitute a class of computational, agent-based models that mimic biophysical and molecular interactions between cells. One of the most widely used cell-based modeling formalisms is the cellular Potts model (CPM), a lattice-based, multi particle cell-based modeling approach. The CPM has become a popular and accessible method for modeling mechanisms of multicellular processes including cell sorting, gastrulation, or angiogenesis. The CPM accounts for biophysical cellular properties, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and cell adhesion, which play a key role in cancer. Multiscale models are constructed by extending the agents with intracellular processes including metabolism, growth, and signaling. Here we review the use of the CPM for modeling tumor growth, tumor invasion, and tumor progression. We argue that the accessibility and flexibility of the CPM, and its accurate, yet coarse-grained and computationally efficient representation of cell and tissue biophysics, make the CPM the method of choice for modeling cellular processes in tumor development. PMID:23596570

  11. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article

    PubMed Central

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  12. Update on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Logan R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are relatively rare tumors comprising 1-2% of all pancreas neoplasms. In the last 10 years our understanding of this disease has increased dramatically allowing for advancements in the treatment of pNETs. Surgical excision remains the primary therapy for localized tumors and only potential for cure. New surgical techniques using laparoscopic approaches to complex pancreatic resections are a major advancement in surgical therapy and increasingly possible. With early detection being less common, most patients present with metastatic disease. Management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care combining the best of surgery, chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. In addition to surgical advances, recently, there have been significant advances in systemic therapy and targeted molecular therapy. PMID:25493258

  13. Tumor Targeting, Trifunctional Dendritic Wedge

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a newly designed trifunctional theranostic agent for targeting solid tumors. This agent combines a dendritic wedge with high boron content for boron neutron capture therapy or boron MRI, a monomethine cyanine dye for visible-light fluorescent imaging, and an integrin ligand for efficient tumor targeting. We report photophysical properties of the new agent, its cellular uptake and in vitro targeting properties. Using live animal imaging and intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques, we observed a rapid accumulation of the agent and its retention for a prolonged period of time (up to 7 days) in fully established animal models of human melanoma and murine mammary adenocarcinoma. This macromolecular theranostic agent can be used for targeted delivery of high boron load into solid tumors for future applications in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25350602

  14. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Shankar, Samantha; Munday, William R; Malhotra, Ajay

    2016-09-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare pigmented craniofacial tumor of newborns and infants. We report the imaging findings of a 3-month old male patient with a maxillary MNTI. Detailed discussion on imaging features on various magnetic resonance sequences and CT scan are included. Characteristic radiographic appearance is also described. MNTI, of neural crest origin, display a biphasic population of melanin containing cells and neuroblastic cells, within a moderately vascularized fibrous stroma. The child underwent complete surgical excision with no evidence of recurrence at one year follow up. MNTI is an unusual tumor occurring in early childhood with a predilection for the maxilla. Clinical findings, CT scan and MRI may allow a preoperative diagnosis. PMID:27095686

  15. Epilepsy associated tumors: Review article.

    PubMed

    Giulioni, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Martinoni, Matteo; Marliani, Anna Federica; Toni, Francesco; Bartiromo, Fiorina; Volpi, Lilia; Riguzzi, Patrizia; Bisulli, Francesca; Naldi, Ilaria; Michelucci, Roberto; Baruzzi, Agostino; Tinuper, Paolo; Rubboli, Guido

    2014-11-16

    Long-term epilepsy associated tumors (LEAT) represent a well known cause of focal epilepsies. Glioneuronal tumors are the most frequent histological type consisting of a mixture of glial and neuronal elements and most commonly arising in the temporal lobe. Cortical dysplasia or other neuronal migration abnormalities often coexist. Epilepsy associated with LEAT is generally poorly controlled by antiepileptic drugs while, on the other hand, it is high responsive to surgical treatment. However the best management strategy of tumor-related focal epilepsies remains controversial representing a contemporary issues in epilepsy surgery. Temporo-mesial LEAT have a widespread epileptic network with complex epileptogenic mechanisms. By using an epilepsy surgery oriented strategy LEAT may have an excellent seizure outcome therefore surgical treatment should be offered early, irrespective of pharmacoresistance, avoiding both the consequences of uncontrolled seizures as well as the side effects of prolonged pharmacological therapy and the rare risk of malignant transformation. PMID:25405186

  16. Extra-axial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Rapalino, Otto; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2016-01-01

    Extra-axial brain tumors are the most common adult intracranial neoplasms and encompass a broad spectrum of pathologic subtypes. Meningiomas are the most common extra-axial brain tumor (approximately one-third of all intracranial neoplasms) and typically present as slowly growing dural-based masses. Benign meningiomas are very common, and may occasionally be difficult to differentiate from more aggressive subtypes (i.e., atypical or malignant varieties) or other dural-based masses with more aggressive biologic behavior (e.g., hemangiopericytoma or dural-based metastases). Many neoplasms that typically affect the brain parenchyma (intra-axial), such as gliomas, may also present with primary or secondary extra-axial involvement. This chapter provides a general and concise overview of the common types of extra-axial tumors and their typical imaging features. PMID:27432671

  17. Notch Signaling in Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Judy S.; Singleton, Ciera S.; Miele, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoids and neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from the neuroendocrine cells of the GI tract, endocrine pancreas, and the respiratory system. NETs remain significantly understudied with respect to molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, particularly the role of cell fate signaling systems such as Notch. The abundance of literature on the Notch pathway is a testament to its complexity in different cellular environments. Notch receptors can function as oncogenes in some contexts and tumor suppressors in others. The genetic heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the roles and the potential therapeutic implications of Notch signaling in NETs, a comprehensive analysis of Notch expression patterns and potential roles across all NET subtypes is required. PMID:27148486

  18. Adult Wilms tumor: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, V.; Guglielmo, N.; Melandro, F.; Mazzesi, G.; Alesini, F.; Bosco, S.; Berloco, P.B.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) occurs infrequently in adults. Even rarer is adult WT with extension by direct intravascular spread into the right side of the heart. The present report describes a WT with intracaval and intracardiac extension in a 38-year-young man. In addition, thrombus extension above the infrahepatic IVC represents a major technical topic for surgeons because of the possible occurrence of uncontrollable hemorrhages and tumor fragmentation. We report the results of a surgical approach to caval thrombosis including the isolation of the IVC from the liver as routinely performed during liver harvesting. The morphologic and immune-histochemical findings confirmed the diagnosis. PMID:25553532

  19. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of tongue.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shan-Yin; Chang, Kung-Chao; Tsai, Hung-Wen; D D S, Ying-Tai Jin

    2012-01-01

    Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT) is a rare entity of the dorsal tongue first described in 1995. Herein, we report a rare case of lingual ECMT in a 41-year-old man. Patient presented with an asymptomatic, small nodule (0.5 cm in diameter) in the anterior tongue. The pathological findings showed uni-lobular proliferation of fusiform cells, arranged in net-like sheets or swirls, in a chondromyxoid background. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but negative for epithelial markers. Familiarity with this entity helps pathologists make a correct diagnosis. PMID:23455793

  20. Acute spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jasek, A M; Day, H J

    1994-10-01

    An 83-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy was admitted to our institution with weakness and anemia and subsequently developed acute tumor lysis syndrome secondary to newly diagnosed Burkitt's leukemia/lymphoma. This syndrome has been previously described in patients with hematologic malignancies; however, its development has been related to the administration of chemotherapy, steroids, or radiotherapy. The spontaneous occurrence of tumor lysis syndrome has not been previously reported; however, Cohen et al. [Am J Med 58:486-491, 1980] report 8 of 37 patients with "clinically insignificant pretreatment derangements" of serum potassium, phosphate, and calcium. PMID:8092128

  1. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With High-Risk Wilms Tumor

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-17

    Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors; Rhabdoid Tumor of the Kidney; Stage I Wilms Tumor; Stage II Wilms Tumor; Stage III Wilms Tumor; Stage IV Wilms Tumor; Stage V Wilms Tumor

  2. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar αSMA + CD146 + PDGFRβ+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFRβ immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  3. Ceramide Kinase Promotes Tumor Cell Survival and Mammary Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Ania W.; Pant, Dhruv K.; Pan, Tien-chi; Chodosh, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent breast cancer is typically an incurable disease and, as such, is disproportionately responsible for deaths from this disease. Recurrent breast cancers arise from the pool of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) that survive adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and patients with detectable DTCs following therapy are at substantially increased risk for recurrence. Consequently, the identification of pathways that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells following therapy could aid in the development of more effective therapies that decrease the burden of residual disease and thereby reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We now report that Ceramide Kinase (Cerk) is required for mammary tumor recurrence following HER2/neu pathway inhibition and is spontaneously up-regulated during tumor recurrence in multiple genetically engineered mouse models for breast cancer. We find that Cerk is rapidly up-regulated in tumor cells following HER2/neu down-regulation or treatment with Adriamycin and that Cerk is required for tumor cell survival following HER2/neu down-regulation. Consistent with our observations in mouse models, analysis of gene expression profiles from over 2,200 patients revealed that elevated CERK expression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in women with breast cancer. Additionally, although CERK expression is associated with aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, including those that are ER–, HER2+, basal-like, or high grade, its association with poor clinical outcome is independent of these clinicopathological variables. Together, our findings identify a functional role for Cerk in breast cancer recurrence and suggest the clinical utility of agents targeted against this pro-survival pathway. PMID:25164007

  4. 5-Iodo-2-deoxyuridine administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of disseminated glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Rewers, A.B.; Redgate, E.S.; Fisher, E.R.; Boggs, S.S. )

    1989-09-06

    A rat brain tumor model (Fischer 344 rats) with the clinical and pathological features of dissemination via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways was used to demonstrate the efficacy of 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IUDR) as a radiosensitizer when it is administered directly into the CSF. Stereotaxic implantation of 9L gliosarcoma cells (5 X 10(5)) into the CSF of the lateral cerebral ventricle resulted in widespread dissemination and median survival of 18.5 and 20 days (range, 10-22) in two experiments. A continuous 7-day infusion of IUDR into the CSF starting on the day of tumor implantation did not provide any beneficial effect. Irradiation of the cranial spinal axis with 800 rad on days 4, 6, and 7 after implantation achieved an increase in survival time that was modest but statistically significant. However, the combination of IUDR infusion and radiotherapy resulted in marked improvement in survival time and a 10% cure rate (two of 20 rats). This is the first demonstration in vivo that IUDR administered into the CSF can be a potent radiosensitizer.

  5. Assessment of the biodistribution of an [18F]FDG-loaded perfluorocarbon double emulsion using dynamic micro-PET in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Piert, Morand R.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Sherman, Phillip S.; Quesada, Carole A.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) double emulsions loaded with a water-soluble, therapeutic agent can be triggered by ultrasound in a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). Elucidating the stability and biodistribution of these sonosensitive vehicles and encapsulated agents are critical in developing targeted drug delivery strategies using ultrasound. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was encapsulated in a PFC double emulsion and the in vitro diffusion of FDG was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Using dynamic micro positron emission tomography (micro-PET) and direct tissue sampling, the biodistribution of FDG administered as a solution (i.e. non-emulsified) or as an emulsion was studied in Fisher 344 rats (n = 6) bearing subcutaneous 9L gliosarcoma. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) and area under the curve of the SUV (AUCSUV) of FDG were calculated for various tissues. The FDG flux from the emulsion decreased by up to a factor of 6.9 compared to the FDG solution. FDG uptake, calculated from the AUCSUV, decreased by 36% and 44% for brain and tumor, respectively, when comparing FDG solution versus FDG emulsion (p < 0.01). Decreases in AUCSUV in highly metabolic tissues such as brain and tumor demonstrated retention of FDG within the double emulsion. No statistically significant differences in lung AUCSUV were observed, suggesting minimal accumulation of the emulsion in the pulmonary capillary bed. The liver AUCSUV increased by 356% for the FDG emulsion, thus indicating significant hepatic retention of the emulsion. PMID:23613440

  6. Adaptive (TINT) Changes in the Tumor Bearing Organ Are Related to Prostate Tumor Size and Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Hanibal Hani; Strömvall, Kerstin; Nilsson, Maria; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In order to grow, tumors need to induce supportive alterations in the tumor-bearing organ, by us named tumor instructed normal tissue (TINT) changes. We now examined if the nature and magnitude of these responses were related to tumor size and aggressiveness. Three different Dunning rat prostate tumor cells were implanted into the prostate of immune-competent rats; 1) fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu tumor cells 2) fast growing and poorly metastatic AT-1 tumor cells, and 3) slow growing and non-metastatic G tumor cells. All tumor types induced increases in macrophage, mast cell and vascular densities and in vascular cell-proliferation in the tumor-bearing prostate lobe compared to controls. These increases occurred in parallel with tumor growth. The most pronounced and rapid responses were seen in the prostate tissue surrounding MatLyLu tumors. They were, also when small, particularly effective in attracting macrophages and stimulating growth of not only micro-vessels but also small arteries and veins compared to the less aggressive AT-1 and G tumors. The nature and magnitude of tumor-induced changes in the tumor-bearing organ are related to tumor size but also to tumor aggressiveness. These findings, supported by previous observation in patient samples, suggest that one additional way to evaluate prostate tumor aggressiveness could be to monitor its effect on adjacent tissues. PMID:26536349

  7. Cathepsin S from both tumor and tumor-associated cells promote cancer growth and neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Small, Donna M; Burden, Roberta E; Jaworski, Jakub; Hegarty, Shauna M; Spence, Shaun; Burrows, James F; McFarlane, Cheryl; Kissenpfennig, Adrien; McCarthy, Helen O; Johnston, James A; Walker, Brian; Scott, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Recent murine studies have demonstrated that tumor-associated macrophages in the tumor microenvironment are a key source of the pro-tumorigenic cysteine protease, cathepsin S. We now show in a syngeneic colorectal carcinoma murine model that both tumor and tumor-associated cells contribute cathepsin S to promote neovascularization and tumor growth. Cathepsin S depleted and control colorectal MC38 tumor cell lines were propagated in both wild type C57Bl/6 and cathepsin S null mice to provide stratified depletion of the protease from either the tumor, tumor-associated host cells, or both. Parallel analysis of these conditions showed that deletion of cathepsin S inhibited tumor growth and development, and revealed a clear contribution of both tumor and tumor-associated cell derived cathepsin S. The most significant impact on tumor development was obtained when the protease was depleted from both sources. Further characterization revealed that the loss of cathepsin S led to impaired tumor vascularization, which was complemented by a reduction in proliferation and increased apoptosis, consistent with reduced tumor growth. Analysis of cell types showed that in addition to the tumor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and endothelial cells can produce cathepsin S within the microenvironment. Taken together, these findings clearly highlight a manner by which tumor-associated cells can positively contribute to developing tumors and highlight cathepsin S as a therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:23629809

  8. [Classification and natural history of bladder tumors].

    PubMed

    Allory, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Urinary bladder tumors are mainly of urothelial type. Classifications include stage and grade to provide with the required prognostic factors and help to select the most adequate treatment. Though somatic mutations in bladder tumors are known, their used for targeted therapy are restricted to clinical trials. Upper urinary tract tumors are classified as urinary bladder tumor at histological level, but tumor staging is specified according to calyx, renal pelvis or ureter location; in young patients with upper urinary tract tumor, a Lynch syndrome should be eliminated. PMID:25668829

  9. Macrophage Diversity Enhances Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Binzhi; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    There is persuasive clinical and experimental evidence that macrophages promote cancer initiation and malignant progression. During tumor initiation they create an inflammatory environment that is mutagenic and which promotes growth. As tumors progress to malignancy, macrophages stimulate angiogenesis, enhance tumor cell migration, invasion, and suppress anti-tumor immunity. At metastatic sites macrophages prepare the target tissue for arrival of tumor cells and then a different subpopulation of macrophages promotes tumor cell extravasation, survival, and subsequent growth. Specialized subpopulations of macrophages may represent important new therapeutic targets. PMID:20371344

  10. Immunohistochemical features of the gastrointestinal tract tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hannah H.

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract tumors include a wide variety of vastly different tumors and on a whole are one of the most common malignancies in western countries. These tumors often present at late stages as distant metastases which are then biopsied and may be difficult to differentiate without the aid of immunohistochemical stains. With the exception of pancreatic and biliary tumors where there are no distinct immunohistochemical patterns, most gastrointestinal tumors can be differentiated by their unique immunohistochemical profile. As the size of biopsies decrease, the role of immunohistochemical stains will become even more important in determining the origin and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumors. PMID:22943017

  11. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Ryota; Kuroshima, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of brain metastases for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is reportedly 1.5~5%, and the origin is usually pulmonary. A 77-year-old man presented to our hospital with headache and disturbance of specific skilled motor activities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a massive neoplastic lesion originating in the left temporal and parietal lobes that caused a mass edematous effect. Grossly, total resection of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination revealed much nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. Staining for CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin was positive, indicating NET. The MIB-1 index was 37%. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as NET. After surgery, gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but the origin was not seen. After discharge, CT and FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography) were performed every 3 months. Two years later we have not determined the origin of the tumor. It is possible that the brain is the primary site of this NET. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this phenomenon. PMID:25506006

  12. Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Samuel J; Krakovitz, Paul R

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric maxillary and mandibular tumors offer considerable challenges to otolaryngologists, oral surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists alike. Because of the close proximity to vital structures, appropriate steps toward a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan are of paramount importance. This article reviews the most common causes of pediatric jaw masses and discusses diagnostic and therapeutic considerations and recommendations. PMID:25442129

  13. Expanding Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Results from two phase III studies suggest that everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, and (177)Lutetium-DOTATATE, a radiopharmaceutical, may be effective new options for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Both therapies were well tolerated and significantly prolonged progression-free survival. PMID:26826165

  14. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Adam D; Ki, Dong Hyuk; He, Shuning; Look, A Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are tumors derived from Schwann cells or Schwann cell precursors. Although rare overall, the incidence of MPNST has increased with improved clinical management of patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome. Unfortunately, current treatment modalities for MPNST are limited, with no targeted therapies available and poor efficacy of conventional radiation and chemotherapeutic regimens. Many murine and zebrafish models of MPNST have been developed, which have helped to elucidate the genes and pathways that are dysregulated in MPNST tumorigenesis, including the p53, and the RB1, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, RAS-ERK and Wnt signaling pathways. Preclinical results have suggested that new therapies, including mTOR and ERK inhibitors, may synergize with conventional chemotherapy in human tumors. The discovery of new genome editing technologies, like CRISPR-cas9, and their successful application to the zebrafish model will enable rapid progress in the faithful modeling of MPNST molecular pathogenesis. The zebrafish model is especially suited for high throughput screening of new targeted therapeutics as well as drugs approved for other purposes, which may help to bring enhanced treatment modalities into human clinical trials for this devastating disease. PMID:27165368

  15. Tumors of the Infratemporal Fossa

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rammohan; Quak, Jasper; Egeler, Saskia; Smeele, Ludi; Waal, Isaac v.d.; Valk, Paul v.d.; Leemans, Rene

    2000-01-01

    Neoplastic processes involving the infratemporal fossa may originate from the tissues in the region, but more often are the result of extension from neighboring structures. Metastatic lesions located in the region are rarely encountered. Because of its concealed localization, tumors may remain unnoticed for some time. Clinical signs and symptoms often arise late, are insidious, and may be mistakenly attributed to other structures. The close proximity of the area to the intracranial structures, the orbit, the paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx, and the facial area demands careful planning of surgical excision and combined procedures may be called for. Modern imaging techniques have made three-dimensional visualization of the extent of the pathology possible. Treatment depends on the histopathology and staging of the tumor. Several surgical approaches have been developed over the years. Radical tumor excision with preservation of the quality of life remain the ultimate goal for those tumors where surgery is indicated. Experience over a decade with various pathologies is presented. ImagesFigure 1p6-bFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171095

  16. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  17. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  18. Translational Implications of Tumor Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Quezada, Sergio A.; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics have led to an unprecedented view of the cancer genome and its evolution. Genomic studies have demonstrated the complex and heterogeneous clonal landscape of tumors of different origins, and the potential impact of intratumor heterogeneity on treatment response and resistance, cancer progression and the risk of disease relapse. However, the significance of subclonal mutations, in particular mutations in driver genes, and their evolution through time and their dynamics in response to cancer therapies, is yet to be determined. The necessary tools are now available to prospectively determine whether clonal heterogeneity can be used as a biomarker of clinical outcome, and to what extent subclonal somatic alterations might influence clinical outcome. Studies that employ longitudinal tissue sampling, integrating both genomic and clinical data, have the potential to reveal the subclonal composition and track the evolution of tumors in order to address these questions, and to begin to define the breadth of genetic diversity in different tumor types, and its relevance to patient outcome. Such studies may provide further evidence for novel drug resistance mechanisms informing novel combinatorial, adaptive and tumour immune-therapies placed within the context of tumor evolution. PMID:25770293

  19. Molecular Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Chen, Clara C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells. These tumors may arise from various organs, including lung, thymus, thyroid, stomach, duodenum, small bowel, large bowel, appendix, pancreas, adrenal, and skin. Most are well differentiated and have the ability to produce biogenic amines and various hormones. NET usually occur sporadically but they also be associated with various familial syndromes. For the vast majority of NET, surgical resection is the treatment of choice whenever feasible. Localization of NET prior to surgery and for staging and follow-up relies on both anatomic and functional imaging modalities. In fact, the unique secretory characteristics of these tumors lend themselves to imaging by molecular imaging modalities, which can target specific metabolic pathways or receptors. Neuroendocrine cells have a variety of such target receptors and pathways for which radiopharmaceuticals have been developed, including [123I/131I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), [ 111In]pentetreotide, [68Ga] somatostatin analogs, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), [11C/18F] dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), [11C] 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 99mTc pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid ([99mTc] (V) DMSA, and [18F] fluorodopamine (FDA). Here, we review the molecular imaging approaches for NET using various radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:21167384

  20. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  1. Palifosfamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-11

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Teratoma; Malignant Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Malignant Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Seminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Non-Seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Extragonadal Seminoma; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

  2. Medulloblastoma/Primitive neuroectodermal tumor and germ cell tumors: the uncommon but potentially curable primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Samkari, Ayman; Hwang, Eugene; Packer, Roger J

    2012-08-01

    This article presents an overview of medulloblastomas, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and germ cell tumors for the practicing oncologist. Discussion includes the definition of these tumors, histopathologic findings, molecular and genetic characteristics, prognoses, and evolution of treatment. PMID:22794288

  3. Rapid decrease in tumor perfusion following VEGF blockade predicts long-term tumor growth inhibition in preclinical tumor models.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Adler, Alexander P; Cooper, Blerta; Griffith, Jennifer; Wei, Yi; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Thurston, Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key upstream mediator of tumor angiogenesis, and blockade of VEGF can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and decrease tumor growth. However, not all tumors respond well to anti-VEGF therapy. Despite much effort, identification of early response biomarkers that correlate with long-term efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy has been difficult. These difficulties arise in part because the functional effects of VEGF inhibition on tumor vessels are still unclear. We therefore assessed rapid molecular, morphologic and functional vascular responses following treatment with aflibercept (also known as VEGF Trap or ziv-aflibercept in the United States) in preclinical tumor models with a range of responses to anti-VEGF therapy, including Colo205 human colorectal carcinoma (highly sensitive), C6 rat glioblastoma (moderately sensitive), and HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (resistant), and correlated these changes to long-term tumor growth inhibition. We found that an overall decrease in tumor vessel perfusion, assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US), and increases in tumor hypoxia correlated well with long-term tumor growth inhibition, whereas changes in vascular gene expression and microvessel density did not. Our findings support previous clinical studies showing that decreased tumor perfusion after anti-VEGF therapy (measured by DCE-US) correlated with response. Thus, measuring tumor perfusion changes shortly after treatment with VEGF inhibitors, or possibly other anti-angiogenic therapies, may be useful to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:23238831

  4. TUMOR CONTAMINATION IN THE BIOPSY PATH OF PRIMARY MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study factors possibly associated with tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors. Method: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgical treatment with diagnoses of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor and chondrosarcoma were studied retrospectively. The sample was analyzed to characterize the biopsy technique used, histological type of the tumor, neoadjuvant chemotherapy used, local recurrences and tumor contamination in the biopsy path. Results: Among the 35 patients studied, four cases of contamination occurred (11.43%): one from osteosarcoma, two from Ewing's tumor and one from chondrosarcoma. There was no association between the type of tumor and presence of tumor contamination in the biopsy path (p = 0.65). There was also no association between the presence of tumor contamination and the biopsy technique (p = 0.06). On the other hand, there were associations between the presence of tumor contamination and local recurrence (p = 0.01) and between tumor contamination and absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors was associated with local recurrence. On the other hand, the histological type of the tumor and the type of biopsy did not have an influence on tumor contamination. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a protective effect against this complication. Despite these findings, tumor contamination is a complication that should always be taken into consideration, and removal of the biopsy path is recommended in tumor resection surgery. PMID:27047877

  5. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Progressive Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma; WDHA Syndrome

  6. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  7. CT and MR of pineal region tumors.

    PubMed

    Gouliamos, A D; Kalovidouris, A E; Kotoulas, G K; Athanasopoulou, A K; Kouvaris, J R; Trakadas, S J; Vlahos, L J; Papavasiliou, C G

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging features of pineal region tumors were analyzed in 14 oncologic cases. The tumors were classified as germ-cell tumors, glial tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, meningiomas, and cysts. They demonstrated different MR signal characteristics on precontrast scans and nodular or ring type enhancement with occasional central lucencies, except for benign cysts, which have not shown enhancement. MR images were useful in defining the relationship of the tumor to the posterior third ventricle, sylvian aqueduct, vein of Galen, and tentorium. Although CT can demonstrate in more evident fashion displacement of the original pineal calcification as well as tumor calcifications, MR imaging demonstrates different signal characteristics in germinomas and pineoblastomas which can be a useful adjunct in the evaluation and differential diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:8295504

  8. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors by Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... partial gastrectomy) along with nearby lymph nodes. Small intestine Some small tumors in the duodenum (the first ... vessels and lymph nodes) for larger tumors. Large intestine (other than appendix and rectum) The usual treatment ...

  9. Biology and Treatment of Rhabdoid Tumor.

    PubMed

    Geller, James I; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumor is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy that primarily affects infants and young children. These tumors typically arise in the brain and kidney, although extrarenal, non-central nervous system tumors in almost all soft-tissue sites have been described. SMARCB1 is a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and functions as a tumor suppressor in the vast majority of rhabdoid tumors. Patients with germline mutations or deletions affecting SMARCB1 are predisposed to the development of rhabdoid tumors, as well as the genetic disorder schwannomatosis. The current hypothesis is that rhabdoid tumors are driven by epigenetic dysregulation, as opposed to the alteration of a specific biologic pathway. The strategies for novel therapeutic approaches based on what is currently known about rhabdoid tumor biology are presented. PMID:26349416

  10. Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults Download Printable ... the topics below to get started. What Is Brain/CNS Tumors In Adults? What are adult brain ...

  11. Deciphering and Reversing Tumor Immune Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Motz, Greg T.; Coukos, George

    2013-01-01

    Generating an anti-tumor immune response is a multi-step process that is executed by effector T cells that can recognize and kill tumor targets. However, tumors employ multiple strategies to attenuate the effectiveness of T cell-mediated attack. This is achieved by interfering with nearly every step required for effective immunity, from deregulation of antigen-presenting cells, to establishment of a physical barrier at the vasculature that prevents homing of effector tumor-rejecting cells, and through the suppression of effector lymphocytes through the recruitment and activation of immunosuppressive cells like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tolerogenic monocytes and T regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we review the ways in which tumors exert immune suppression and highlight the new therapies that seek to reverse this phenomenon and promote anti-tumor immunity. Understanding anti-tumor immunity, and how it becomes disabled by tumors, will ultimately lead to improved immune therapies and prolonged survival of patients. PMID:23890064

  12. General Information about Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  13. General Information about Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  14. Liquid Biopsies: Genotyping Circulating Tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Genotyping tumor tissue in search of somatic genetic alterations for actionable information has become routine practice in clinical oncology. Although these sequence alterations are highly informative, sampling tumor tissue has significant inherent limitations; tumor tissue is a single snapshot in time, is subject to selection bias resulting from tumor heterogeneity, and can be difficult to obtain. Cell-free fragments of DNA are shed into the bloodstream by cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, and the load of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) correlates with tumor staging and prognosis. Moreover, recent advances in the sensitivity and accuracy of DNA analysis have allowed for genotyping of cfDNA for somatic genomic alterations found in tumors. The ability to detect and quantify tumor mutations has proven effective in tracking tumor dynamics in real time as well as serving as a liquid biopsy that can be used for a variety of clinical and investigational applications not previously possible. PMID:24449238

  15. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  16. Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Swartling, Fredrik J; Čančer, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

  17. How Are Lung Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Lung Carcinoid Tumor » Detailed Guide » How are lung carcinoid tumors diagnosed? Share this Page Close Push escape to close share window. Print ...

  18. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  19. General Information about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ... Treatment of GI carcinoid tumors in the jejunum (middle part of the small intestine) and ileum (last part ...

  1. How Are Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... as symptoms that might be caused by a mass (tumor) in the stomach, intestines, or rectum. Some ... attention to the abdomen, looking for a tumor mass or enlarged liver. If your medical history and ...

  2. Tumor Quantification in Clinical Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bing; Bading, James; Conti, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is used extensively in clinical oncology for tumor detection, staging and therapy response assessment. Quantitative measurements of tumor uptake, usually in the form of standardized uptake values (SUVs), have enhanced or replaced qualitative interpretation. In this paper we review the current status of tumor quantification methods and their applications to clinical oncology. Factors that impede quantitative assessment and limit its accuracy and reproducibility are summarized, with special emphasis on SUV analysis. We describe current efforts to improve the accuracy of tumor uptake measurements, characterize overall metabolic tumor burden and heterogeneity of tumor uptake, and account for the effects of image noise. We also summarize recent developments in PET instrumentation and image reconstruction and their impact on tumor quantification. Finally, we offer our assessment of the current development needs in PET tumor quantification, including practical techniques for fully quantitative, pharmacokinetic measurements. PMID:24312151

  3. Genetics Home Reference: gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells in the gastrointestinal tract and patches of dark skin on various areas of the body. Some ... Cancer Society: Treating Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) Cancer.Net: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor--Diagnosis Genetic Testing Registry: Gastrointestinal ...

  4. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic? Past Issues / ... risk for a woman to develop tumors." Got Fibroids? Volunteers Wanted: Sisters Who Have (Or Have Had) ...

  5. Key roles of aquaporins in tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Marios C; Saadoun, Samira

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are protein channels that facilitate the flow of water across plasma cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. This review summarizes the evidence that aquaporins play key roles in tumor biology including tumor-associated edema, tumor cell migration, tumor proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Aquaporin inhibitors may thus be a novel class of anti-tumor agents. However, attempts to produce small molecule aquaporin inhibitors have been largely unsuccessful. Recently, monoclonal human IgG antibodies against extracellular aquaporin-4 domains have become available and could be engineered to kill aquaporin-4 over-expressing cells in the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma. We conclude this review by discussing future directions in aquaporin tumor research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. PMID:25204262

  6. Deregulated proliferation and differentiation in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J; Čančer, Matko; Frantz, Aaron; Weishaupt, Holger; Persson, Anders I

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons, is deregulated in neural stem cell (NSC)- and progenitor-derived murine models of malignant medulloblastoma and glioma, the most common brain tumors of children and adults, respectively. Molecular characterization of human malignant brain tumors, and in particular brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), has identified neurodevelopmental transcription factors, microRNAs, and epigenetic factors known to inhibit neuronal and glial differentiation. We are starting to understand how these factors are regulated by the major oncogenic drivers in malignant brain tumors. In this review, we will focus on the molecular switches that block normal neuronal differentiation and induce brain tumor formation. Genetic or pharmacological manipulation of these switches in BTSCs has been shown to restore the ability of tumor cells to differentiate. We will discuss potential brain tumor therapies that will promote differentiation in order to reduce treatment-resistance, suppress tumor growth, and prevent recurrence in patients. PMID:25416506

  7. Interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in tumor biology have revealed that a detailed analysis of the complex interactions of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma) is mandatory in order to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and the development of metastasis. The mutual interactions between tumor cells and cellular and non-cellular components (extracellular matrix = ECM) of the tumor microenvironment will eventually lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and promote tumor development and progression. Thus, interactions of genetically altered tumor cells and the ECM on the one hand and reactive non-neoplastic cells on the other hand essentially control most aspects of tumorigenesis such as epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), migration, invasion (i.e. migration through connective tissue), metastasis formation, neovascularisation, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this mini-review we will focus on these issues that were recently raised by two review articles in CCS. PMID:21914164

  8. Tumors of the ocular surface: A review

    PubMed Central

    Honavar, Santosh G; Manjandavida, Fairooz P

    2015-01-01

    Tumors of the Ocular Surface clinically manifest with a very wide spectrum and include several forms of epithelial, stromal, caruncular, and secondary tumors. As a group, these tumors are seen commonly in the clinical practice of a comprehensive ophthalmologist, cornea specialist, and an ocular oncologist. This review is aimed to discuss the common tumors of the ocular surface and emphasize on their clinical diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25971163

  9. [Classification of malignant tumors of suprarenal glands].

    PubMed

    Komissarenko, I V; Rybakov, S I; Kvacheniuk, A N

    2004-09-01

    The extent of diagnostic possibilities of medical technique, permitting to reveal the majority of suprarenal tumors, and the most modem information technologies as well demands creation of the suprarenal tumors applicable classification, well-adopted for physician in practice and also for scientist dealing with analysis of the investigation results in these pathology. Taking into account hormonal activity of majority of tumors, influencing the patients management tactic, the authors propose the insight on suprarenal tumor diagnosis of their own. PMID:15560595

  10. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Provenzi, Valentina Oliveira; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano Machado; Rosa, Rosana Cardoso Manique; Roehe, Adriana Vial; dos Santos, Pedro Paulo Albino; Faulhaber, Fabrízia Rennó Sodero; de Oliveira, Ceres Andréia Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ) and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ) with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015) and histologic types of risk (p=0.008). It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037). When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013), i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable. PMID:25623730

  11. A highly tumor-targeted nanoparticle of podophyllotoxin penetrated tumor core and regressed multidrug resistant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Aniruddha; Ernsting, Mark J.; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar

    2015-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin (PPT) exhibited significant activity against P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cell lines; however, due to its poor solubility and high toxicity, PPT cannot be dosed systemically, preventing its clinical use for MDR cancer. We developed a nanoparticle dosage form of PPT by covalently conjugating PPT and polyethylene glycol (PEG) with acetylated carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Ac) using one-pot esterification chemistry. The polymer conjugates self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) of variable sizes (20–120 nm) depending on the PPT-to-PEG molar ratio (2–20). The conjugate with a low PPT/PEG molar ratio of 2 yielded NPs with a mean diameter of 20 nm and released PPT at ~5%/day in serum, while conjugates with increased PPT/PEG ratios (5 and 20) produced bigger particles (30 nm and 120 nm respectively) that displayed slower drug release (~2.5%/day and ~1%/day respectively). The 20 nm particles exhibited 2- to 5-fold enhanced cell killing potency and 5- to 20-fold increased tumor delivery compared to the larger NPs. The biodistribution of the 20 nm PPT-NPs was highly selective to the tumor with 8-fold higher accumulation than all other examined tissues, while the larger PPT-NPs (30 and 100 nm) exhibited increased liver uptake. Within the tumor, >90% of the 20 nm PPT-NPs penetrated to the hypovascular core, while the larger particles were largely restricted in the hypervascular periphery. The 20 nm PPT-NPs displayed significantly improved efficacy against MDR tumors in mice compared to the larger PPT-NPs, native PPT and the standard taxane chemotherapies, with minimal toxicity. PMID:25818440

  12. Cyclane-aminol 10-hydroxycamptothecin analogs as novel DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shixuan; Geng, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Song, Ge; Ha, Lisha; Sun, Chenguang; Qian, Yuan; Fan, Qingyu; Guo, Hongmin

    2014-07-01

    A novel series of cyclane-aminol 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) analogs was designed and synthesized through the Mannich reaction using HCPT as the lead compound, such as 10-hydroxyl-9-L-prolinol (+) methylcamptothecin (PRPT), 10-hydroxyl-9-(4'-hydroxy) piperidinylmethylcamptothecin (PPPT), and 10-hydroxy-9-(4'-hydroxyethyl)-piperazinylmethycamptothecin (QPPT). Three kinds of new cyclane-aminols were introduced into the structure of HCPT, which modified strong cytotoxic HCPT into cyclane-aminol HCPT analogs with moderate cytotoxicity and improved selectivity toward DNA topoisomerase I inhibition in tumor cells. Special metabolic pathways for cyclane-aminol HCPT analogs in rats were discovered, which differed from other HCPT analogs. Cyclane-aminol HCPT analogs can capture O2 and cause an increase in intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels with selective induction of apoptosis in tumor cells rather than in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Among them, PPPT has a much better druggability than topotecan (TPT) and has the potential to be developed into an antitumor agent. PMID:24525588

  13. Management of hemangiomas and other vascular tumors.

    PubMed

    Greene, Arin K

    2011-01-01

    Vascular tumors of childhood are typically benign. The 4 most common types are infantile hemangioma (IH), congenital hemangioma (CH), kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE), and pyogenic granuloma (PG). Vascular tumors must be differentiated from vascular malformations. Although tumors and malformations may appear as raised, blue, red, or purple lesions, their management differs significantly. PMID:21095471

  14. Rare tumors of the rectum. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Errasti Alustiza, José; Espín Basany, Eloy; Reina Duarte, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Most rectal neoplasms are adenocarcinomas, but there is a small percentage of tumors which are of other histological cell lines such as neuroendocrine tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas and squamous cell carcinomas, which have special characteristics and different treatments. We have reviewed these rare tumors of the rectum from a clinical and surgical point of view. PMID:24629769

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hCG and LDH may be at any level. Poor prognosis A nonseminoma extragonadal germ cell tumor is in the poor prognosis group if: the tumor is in the ... extragonadal germ cell tumor does not have a poor prognosis group. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There ...

  16. Extracorporeal Irradiation in Malignant Bone Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, R B; Jha, A K; Neupane, P; Chaurasia, P P; Sigdel, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) is relatively a rare method used in the management of malignant bone tumors (MBT). It consists of en block removal of the tumor bearing bone segment, removal of the tumor from the bone, irradiation and re implantation back in the body. PMID:27549504

  17. Anti-tumor effect of SLPI on mammary but not colon tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Reiteri, R Macarena; Payés, Cristian; Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Sánchez, Mercedes L; Maffia, Paulo C; Diament, Miriam; Karas, Romina; Orqueda, Andrés; Rizzo, Miguel; Alaniz, Laura; Mazzolini, Guillermo; Klein, Slobodanka; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, H Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor that was related to cancer development and metastasis dissemination on several types of tumors. However, it is not known the effect of SLPI on mammary and colon tumors. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of SLPI on mammary and colon tumor growth. The effect of SLPI was tested on in vitro cell apoptosis and in vivo tumor growth experiments. SLPI over-expressing human and murine mammary and colon tumor cells were generated by gene transfection. The administration of murine mammary tumor cells over-expressing high levels of SLPI did not develop tumors in mice. On the contrary, the administration of murine colon tumor cells over-expressing SLPI, developed faster tumors than control cells. Intratumoral, but not intraperitoneal administration of SLPI, delayed the growth of tumors and increased the survival of mammary but not colon tumor bearing mice. In vitro culture of mammary tumor cell lines treated with SLPI, and SLPI producer clones were more prone to apoptosis than control cells, mainly under serum deprivation culture conditions. Herein we demonstrated that SLPI induces the apoptosis of mammary tumor cells in vitro and decreases the mammary but not colon tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, SLPI may be a new potential therapeutic tool for certain tumors, such as mammary tumors. PMID:22767220

  18. Molecular subtypes of serous borderline ovarian tumor show distinct expression patterns of benign tumor and malignant tumor-associated signatures.

    PubMed

    Curry, Edward W J; Stronach, Euan A; Rama, Nona R; Wang, Yuepeng Y P; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona A

    2014-03-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors show heterogeneity in clinical behavior. Most have excellent prognosis, although a small percentage show recurrence or progressive disease, usually to low-grade serous carcinoma. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular relationship between these entities and identify potential markers of tumor progression and therapeutic targets. We studied gene expression using Affymetrix HGU133plus2 GeneChip microarrays in 3 low-grade serous carcinomas, 13 serous borderline tumors and 8 serous cystadenomas. An independent data set of 18 serous borderline tumors and 3 low-grade serous carcinomas was used for validation. Unsupervised clustering revealed clear separation of benign and malignant tumors, whereas borderline tumors showed two distinct groups, one clustering with benign and the other with malignant tumors. The segregation into benign- and malignant-like borderline molecular subtypes was reproducible on applying the same analysis to an independent publicly available data set. We identified 50 genes that separate borderline tumors into their subgroups. Functional enrichment analysis of genes that separate borderline tumors to the two subgroups highlights a cell adhesion signature for the malignant-like subset, with Claudins particularly prominent. This is the first report of molecular subtypes of borderline tumors based on gene expression profiling. Our results provide the basis for identification of biomarkers for the malignant potential of borderline ovarian tumor and potential therapeutic targets for low-grade serous carcinoma. PMID:23948749

  19. Tumor sialylation impedes T cell mediated anti-tumor responses while promoting tumor associated-regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Cornelissen, Lenneke A. M.; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Engels, Steef; Verstege, Marleen I.; Boon, Louis; Geerts, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The increased presence of sialylated glycans on the tumor surface has been linked to poor prognosis, yet the effects on tumor-specific T cell immunity are hardly studied. We here show that hypersialylation of B16 melanoma substantially influences tumor growth by preventing the formation of effector T cells and facilitating the presence of high regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies. Knock-down of the sialic acid transporter created “sialic acid low” tumors, that grew slower in-vivo than hypersialylated tumors, altered the Treg/Teffector balance, favoring immunological tumor control. The enhanced effector T cell response in developing “sialic acid low” tumors was preceded by and dependent on an increased influx and activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Thus, tumor hypersialylation orchestrates immune escape at the level of NK and Teff/Treg balance within the tumor microenvironment, herewith dampening tumor-specific T cell control. Reducing sialylation provides a therapeutic option to render tumors permissive to immune attack. PMID:26741508

  20. Tumor sialylation impedes T cell mediated anti-tumor responses while promoting tumor associated-regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Perdicchio, Maurizio; Cornelissen, Lenneke A M; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Engels, Steef; Verstege, Marleen I; Boon, Louis; Geerts, Dirk; van Kooyk, Yvette; Unger, Wendy W J

    2016-02-23

    The increased presence of sialylated glycans on the tumor surface has been linked to poor prognosis, yet the effects on tumor-specific T cell immunity are hardly studied. We here show that hypersialylation of B16 melanoma substantially influences tumor growth by preventing the formation of effector T cells and facilitating the presence of high regulatory T cell (Treg) frequencies. Knock-down of the sialic acid transporter created "sialic acid low" tumors, that grew slower in-vivo than hypersialylated tumors, altered the Treg/Teffector balance, favoring immunological tumor control. The enhanced effector T cell response in developing "sialic acid low" tumors was preceded by and dependent on an increased influx and activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells. Thus, tumor hypersialylation orchestrates immune escape at the level of NK and Teff/Treg balance within the tumor microenvironment, herewith dampening tumor-specific T cell control. Reducing sialylation provides a therapeutic option to render tumors permissive to immune attack. PMID:26741508

  1. Tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Piovan, E; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    The role played by neuroradiologic examinations in the diagnosis of neoformations of the pineal region is considered. Results of reports of literature are compared with the personal experience (40 patients) to draw possible significant conclusions for the diagnosis of the oncological type. First, intrinsic pineal lesions should be separated from those of adjacent structures. Reliable discriminating parameters useful in the differential diagnosis are represented by sex and age. Diagnosis based on biochemistry with markers was shown not to be univocal. A further separation can be based on CT and MRI findings. In particular, teratomas appear as solid tumors with calcification and fat. The latter is depicted on MRI even if minimal. To the contrary, germinomas do not contain fat and are markedly enhancing. Microcysts seem to be more common in tumors originating from parenchymal pineal cells. A reliable differential diagnosis is however possible only for small-sized lesions where identification of the anatomical structure of origin is easier. PMID:8677341

  2. Tumor Metabolism of Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ru, Peng; Williams, Terence M.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Guo, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Constitutively activated oncogenic signaling via genetic mutations such as in the EGFR/PI3K/Akt and Ras/RAF/MEK pathways has been recognized as a major driver for tumorigenesis in most cancers. Recent insights into tumor metabolism have further revealed that oncogenic signaling pathways directly promote metabolic reprogramming to upregulate biosynthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, protein, DNA and RNA, leading to enhanced growth of human tumors. Therefore, targeting cell metabolism has become a novel direction for drug development in oncology. In malignant gliomas, metabolism pathways of glucose, glutamine and lipid are significantly reprogrammed. Moreover, molecular mechanisms causing these metabolic changes are just starting to be unraveled. In this review, we will summarize recent studies revealing critical gene alterations that lead to metabolic changes in malignant gliomas, and also discuss promising therapeutic strategies via targeting the key players in metabolic regulation. PMID:24217114

  3. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods. PMID:25512768

  4. Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Regional Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Somatostatinoma

  5. Surgical treatment of thymic tumors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cameron D; Kessler, Kenneth A

    2005-01-01

    Thymoma is a rare neoplasm usually with an indolent growth pattern; however, local invasion and/or metastases may occur. The association with several paraneoplastic syndromes, especially myasthenia gravis, makes thymoma an interesting biologic tumor model. Surgery has been the standard of care for early stage disease with high cure rates anticipated. Multimodality therapy can result in long-term disease-free survival for patients presenting with locally advanced disease. PMID:16104357

  6. Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

  7. Radionuclide therapy of adrenal tumors.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Chen, Clara C

    2012-10-01

    Adrenal tumors arising from chromaffin cells will often accumulate radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thus are amenable to therapy with I-131 MIBG. More recently, therapy studies have targeted the somatostatin receptors using Lu-177 or Y-90 radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Because pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) and neuroblastoma (NB), which often arise from the adrenals, express these receptors, clinical trials have been performed with these reagents. We will review the experience using radionuclide therapy for targeting PHEO/PGL and NBs. PMID:22718415

  8. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  9. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  10. Tumor Microenvironment as a New Target for Tumor Immunotherapy of Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liqiao; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-07-29

    Many researches show that polysaccharides derived from fungi and plants have strong pharmacological activities such as enhancing the organism immune and anti-tumor function, and have few toxic and side effects. So the polysaccharides show a wide application prospect in the prevention and therapy of tumor. The tumor microenvironment consists of tumor cells and tumor cells' surrounding environment. The tumor microenvironment not only plays a key role in the development of tumor, but also is a potential treasure for searching new ways to treat tumor. In this review, we summarized polysaccharides' regulation effects on tumor microenvironment progression and tried to give a new theoretical basis for the exploitation of polysaccharides with anti-tumor activity. PMID:26463881

  11. Tumor Stroma Manipulation By MSC.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Giulia; Spano, Carlotta; Rossignoli, Filippo; D Souza, Naomi; Golinelli, Giulia; Fiori, Agnese; Horwitz, Edwin M; Guarneri, Valentina; Piacentini, Federico; Paolucci, Paolo; Dominici, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Tumor stroma (TS) plays relevant roles in all steps of cancer development. We here address several fundamental aspects related with the interaction between cancer cells and their stromal counterparts. Dissecting these players is of pivotal importance to understand oncogenesis, immunoescape and drug resistance. In addition, this better comprehension will allow the introduction of novel and more effective therapeutic approaches where manipulated stromal elements may become detrimental for tumor growth. Our group and others rely on the use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) as anti-cancer tools, since these putative TS cell precursors can deliver potent apoptosis-inducing agents. Multimodal-armed MSC can target a variety of cancers in vitro and, when injected in vivo, they localize into tumors mediating cell death without evident toxicities to normal tissues. While several aspects of these strategies shall require further investigations, these approaches collectively indicate how TS manipulation by MSC represents a tool to influence the fate of cancer cells, creating a new generation of anti-cancer strategies. PMID:26953248

  12. Percutaneous Tumor Ablation with Radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Bradford J.; Ramkaransingh, Jeffrey R.; Fojo, Tito; Walther, McClellan M.; Libutti, Stephen K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) is a new minimally invasive treatment for localized cancer. Minimally invasive surgical options require less resources, time, recovery, and cost, and often offer reduced morbidity and mortality, compared with more invasive methods. To be useful, image-guided, minimally invasive, local treatments will have to meet those expectations without sacrificing efficacy. METHODS Image-guided, local cancer treatment relies on the assumption that local disease control may improve survival. Recent developments in ablative techniques are being applied to patients with inoperable, small, or solitary liver tumors, recurrent metachronous hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and neoplasms in the bone, lung, breast, and adrenal gland. RESULTS Recent refinements in ablation technology enable large tumor volumes to be treated with image-guided needle placement, either percutaneously, laparoscopically, or with open surgery. Local disease control potentially could result in improved survival, or enhanced operability. CONCLUSIONS Consensus indications in oncology are ill-defined, despite widespread proliferation of the technology. A brief review is presented of the current status of image-guided tumor ablation therapy. More rigorous scientific review, long-term follow-up, and randomized prospective trials are needed to help define the role of RFA in oncology. PMID:11900230

  13. Calpains: markers of tumor aggressiveness?

    PubMed

    Roumes, Hélène; Leloup, Ludovic; Dargelos, Elise; Brustis, Jean-Jacques; Daury, Laetitia; Cottin, Patrick

    2010-05-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are soft-tissue sarcoma commonly encountered in childhood. RMS cells can acquire invasive behavior and form metastases. The metastatic dissemination implicates many proteases among which are mu-calpain and m-calpain. Study of calpain expression and activity underline the deregulation of calpain activity in RMS. Analysis of kinetic characteristics of RMS cells, compared to human myoblasts LHCN-M2 cells, shows an important migration velocity in RMS cells. One of the major results of this study is the positive linear correlation between calpain activity and migration velocity presenting calpains as a marker of tumor aggressiveness. The RMS cytoskeleton is disorganized. Specifying the role of mu- and m-calpain using antisense oligonucleotides led to show that both calpains up-regulate alpha- and beta-actin in ARMS cells. Moreover, the invasive behavior of these cells is higher than that of LHCN-M2 cells. However, it is similar to that of non-treated LHCN-M2 cells, when calpains are inhibited. In summary, calpains may be involved in the anarchic adhesion, migration and invasion of RMS. The direct relationship between calpain activity and migration velocities or invasive behavior indicates that calpains could be considered as markers of tumor aggressiveness and as potential targets for limiting development of RMS tumor as well as their metastatic behavior. PMID:20193680

  14. Tumor Mechanics and Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jason C.; Barnes, J. Matthew; Desai, Shraddha R.; Sistrunk, Christopher; Conklin, Matthew; Schedin, Pepper; Keely, Patricia J.; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosplasia is a characteristic of most solid tumors and leads to fibrosis through abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, remodeling and post translational modifications. The resulting stiff tumor stroma not only compromises vascular integrity to induce hypoxia and impede drug delivery, but also promotes aggressiveness by potentiating the activity of key growth, invasion, and survival pathways. Intriguingly, many of the pro-tumorigenic signaling pathways which are mechanically activated by ECM stiffness also promote glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis, and an altered metabolism is a recognized hallmark of cancer. Indeed, emerging evidence suggests that metabolic alterations and an abnormal ECM may cooperatively drive cancer cell aggression and treatment resistance. Accordingly, improved methods to monitor tissue mechanics and metabolism promise to improve diagnostics and treatments to ameliorate ECM stiffening and elevated mechanosignaling may improve patient outcome. Here we discuss the interplay between ECM mechanics and metabolism in tumor biology and suggest that monitoring these processes and targeting their regulatory pathways may improve diagnostics, therapy, and the prevention of malignant transformation. PMID:25532934

  15. Microwave Therapy for Bone Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuda, Kazuo; Inaoka, Shuken; Saito, Hirokazu; Hassan, Moinuddin; Koyama, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    In vivo microwave treatments for bone tumor are designed, which enable us to conserve the activity and functionality of the matrix of living tissues. This treatment is composed of two steps. In the first step, the tumor was coagulated by the application of microwaves emitted from the antenna inserted into the tumor tissue, and then removed. In the second step, the surrounding tissue suspected to be invaded with transformed cells was covered with hydro gels and heated similarly. The tissue itself was heated by the conduction from the gels. The tissue temperature should be kept at 60°C for 30 minutes. This treatment should kill the whole cells within the tissues, but the mechanical strength and the biochemical activity of the matrix should be left intact. The matrix preserves the mechanical functions and ensures the maximum regeneration ability of the tissue. In this study, various hydro gels were examined and the most promising one was selected. Animal experiments were carried out and successful heating verified the applicability of the treatment.

  16. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors

    PubMed Central

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, “pure” or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection. PMID:25789299

  17. Antiangiogenic therapy in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lakka, Sajani S; Rao, Jasti S

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the recruitment of new blood vessels, is an essential component of tumor progression. Malignant brain tumors are highly vascularized and their growth is angiogenesis-dependent. As such, inhibition of the sprouting of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels is one of the most promising antiglioma therapeutic approaches. Numerous classes of molecules have been implicated in regulating angiogenesis and, thus, novel agents that target and counteract angiogenesis are now being developed. The therapeutic trials of a number of angiogenesis inhibitors as antiglioma drugs are currently under intense investigation. Preliminary studies of angiogenic blockade in glioblastoma have been promising and several clinical trials are now underway to develop optimum treatment strategies for antiangiogenic agents. This review will cover state-of-the-art antiangiogenic targets for brain tumor treatment and discuss future challenges. An increased understanding of the angiogenic process, the diversity of its inducers and mediators, appropriate drug schedules and the use of these agents with other modalities may lead to radically new treatment regimens to achieve maximal efficacy. PMID:18928341

  18. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  19. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-01-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88–95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  20. Tumor markers of bladder cancer: the schistosomal bladder tumors versus non-schistosomal bladder tumors

    PubMed Central

    Abdulamir, Ahmed S; Hafidh, Rand R; Kadhim, Haider S; Abubakar, Fatimah

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying molecular pathways and clinicopathological criteria in schistosomal bladder tumor (SBT) versus non-schistosomal bladder tumor (NSBT). Methods This study explored the role of p53, p16, bcl-2, ki-67, c-myc, Rb and EGFR, by using Immunohistochemistry assay, in 45 SBT and 39 NSBT patients in comparison with 16 schistosomal chronic cystitis (SC), 28 non-schistosomal chronic cystitis (NSC), and 20 normal control (CTL) subjects. The studied markers in SBT and NSBT were correlated with different clinicopathological criteria namely, tumor histopathology, grading, invasiveness, stage, and presentation of the disease. Results SBT was associated with high grade invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) while NSBT was associated with lower grade less invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The expression of p53, bcl-2, c-myc, and EGFR was higher in SBT than in NSBT while Rb was higher in NSBT than in SBT. However, p16 and ki-67 were not different between SBT and NSBT. The profile of molecular markers in SC was similar to NSC except for EGFR which was higher in SC than in NSC. Both SC and NSC showed higher level of p53, bcl-2, ki-67, and EGFR than in CTL group while p16, Rb, and c-myc were not different. p53 was associated with high grade SCC in both SBT and NSBT. Bcl-2 was associated with high grade invasive tumors in SBT and NSBT. P16 was associated with low grade, late stage, and recurrent SBT and high grade, invasive, late stage, and recurrent NSBT. Rb was associated with SCC in SBT, invasive tumors in NSBT, and late stage and recurrent presentation in both SBT and NSBT. C-myc was associated with high grade, invasive, and late stage SBT and SCC, high grade, invasive, and late stage NSBT. EGFR was associated with invasive SCC in SBT and invasive, high grade, and late stage TCC in NSBT. ki-67 was associated with invasive SBT and high grade late stage NSBT. Conclusion SBT and NSBT showed distinct

  1. Myoglobin tames tumor growth and spread.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Ulrich; Dang, Chi V

    2009-04-01

    Tumor growth is accompanied by tissue hypoxia, but does this reduced oxygen availability promote further tumor expansion, resulting in a vicious cycle? In this issue of the JCI, Galluzzo et al. report that increasing oxygen tension in tumor cells by ectopically expressing the oxygen-binding hemoprotein myoglobin indeed affects tumorigenesis (see the related article beginning on page 865). Tumors derived from cells transfected with myoglobin grew more slowly, were less hypoxic, and were less metastatic. These results will spur further mechanistic inquiry into the role of hypoxia in tumor expansion. PMID:19348046

  2. Gastric glomus tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Gastric glomus tumors are rare mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a 72-year-old patient who presented with episodes of melena and was subsequently investigated for a tumor of the antrum of the stomach. Surgical resection revealed a 2 × 2 × 1.7 cm well circumscribed submucosal tumor, extending into the muscularis propria. The histopathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated a glomus tumor of the stomach. We discuss the preoperative investigation, the diagnostic problems and the surgical treatment of the patient with this rare submucosal lesion. PMID:20307271

  3. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sashidharan, Palankezhe; Matele, Apoorva; Matele, Usha; Al Felahi, Nowfel; Kassem, Khalid F.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the identification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, its molecular and immunohiostochemical basis, and its management have been a watershed in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors. This paradigm shift occurred over the last two decades and gastrointestinal stromal tumors have now come to be understood as rare gastrointestinal tract tumors with predictable behavior and outcome, replacing the older terminologies like leiomyoma, schwannoma or leiomyosarcoma. This report presents a case of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor operated recently in a 47-year-old female patient and the outcome, as well as literature review of the pathological identification, sites of origin, and factors predicting its behavior, prognosis and treatment. PMID:24715944

  4. Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Hongjun; Li, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system to measure and analyze the reflectance spectra of the human tongue with high spatial resolution is proposed for tongue tumor detection. To achieve fast and accurate performance for detecting tongue tumors, reflectance data were collected using spectral acousto-optic tunable filters and a spectral adapter, and sparse representation was used for the data analysis algorithm. Based on the tumor image database, a recognition rate of 96.5% was achieved. The experimental results show that hyperspectral imaging for tongue tumor diagnosis, together with the spectroscopic classification method provide a new approach for the noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis of tongue tumors. PMID:22368462

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy and MRI of mouse tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusentsov, Nikolay A.; Brusentsova, Tatiana N.; Filinova, Elena Yu.; Jurchenko, Nikolay Y.; Kupriyanov, Dmitry A.; Pirogov, Yuri A.; Dubina, Andry I.; Shumskikh, Maxim N.; Shumakov, Leonid I.; Anashkina, Ekaterina N.; Shevelev, Alexandr A.; Uchevatkin, Andry A.

    2007-04-01

    A dextran-ferrite magnetic fluid was successfully tested as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. The same magnetic fluid was then combined with Melphalan, a chemotherapeutic drug, and used for magnetohydrodynamic thermochemotherapy of different tumors. The placement of the tumors in an AC magnetic field led to hyperthermia at 46 °C for 30 min. In combination with tumor slime aspiration, a 30% regression of ˜130 mm 3 non-metastatic P388 tumors in BDF 1 mice was reached, together with a life span increase of 290%. The same procedure associated with cyclophosphamide treatment of ˜500 mm 3 metastases tumor increased the animal's life span by 180%.

  6. Mesothelioma following Wilms' tumor in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Antman, K.H.; Ruxer, R.L. Jr.; Aisner, J.; Vawter, G.

    1984-07-15

    A high percentage of children with Wilms' tumor are cured with multimodal treatment. A small percentage of these children will develop second tumors, perhaps related to a genetic predisposition to neoplasia or possibly secondary to the treatment utilized for Wilms' tumor. Malignant mesothelioma has been associated with contact with asbestos but has also been reported after radiation exposure. Two patients are reported who developed malignant mesothelioma of the pleura after treatment for Wilms' tumor in childhood. Both received orthovoltage radiation; one patient also received triethylenemelamine (TEM), an alkylating agent closely related to nitrogen mustard, for 5 years. Factors in the development of second tumors are discussed.

  7. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? What should you ask your doctor about gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? It is important to ... Staging Treating Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors ...

  8. Aflac ST0901 CHOANOME - Sirolimus in Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ewing's Sarcoma; Osteosarcoma; Astrocytoma; Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Ependymoma; Germ Cell Tumor; Glioma; Medulloblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor; Retinoblastoma; Clear Cell Sarcoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Hepatoblastoma; Neuroblastoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  9. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-22

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  10. Imaging findings of various talus bone tumors-clinico-radiologic features of talus bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ji Young; Chung, Hye Won; Kwon, Jong Won; Hong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Guen Young; Ryu, Kyung Nam

    2016-01-01

    Osseous neoplasms of the foot are uncommon, accounting for only 3.3% of all primary bone tumors. Bone tumors of the talus are even rarer, and there are not many publications that comprehensively evaluate the imaging findings of talus tumors. The purpose of this article is to review the benign and malignant bone tumors affecting this uncommon site and to describe the clinical and radiologic features of each tumor. PMID:27317211

  11. A new ODE tumor growth modeling based on tumor population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oroji, Amin; Omar, Mohd bin; Yarahmadian, Shantia

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new mathematical model for the population of tumor growth treated by radiation is proposed. The cells dynamics population in each state and the dynamics of whole tumor population are studied. Furthermore, a new definition of tumor lifespan is presented. Finally, the effects of two main parameters, treatment parameter (q), and repair mechanism parameter (r) on tumor lifespan are probed, and it is showed that the change in treatment parameter (q) highly affects the tumor lifespan.

  12. Polymeric Nanoparticles for Nonviral Gene Therapy Extend Brain Tumor Survival in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles have the potential to be safer alternatives to viruses for gene delivery; however, their use has been limited by poor efficacy in vivo. In this work, we synthesize and characterize polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles and evaluate their efficacy for DNA delivery of herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSVtk) combined with the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) in a malignant glioma model. We investigated polymer structure for gene delivery in two rat glioma cell lines, 9L and F98, to discover nanoparticle formulations more effective than the leading commercial reagent Lipofectamine 2000. The lead polymer structure, poly(1,4-butanediol diacrylate-co-4-amino-1-butanol) end-modified with 1-(3-aminopropyl)-4-methylpiperazine, is a poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) and formed nanoparticles with HSVtk DNA that were 138 ± 4 nm in size and 13 ± 1 mV in zeta potential. These nanoparticles containing HSVtk DNA showed 100% cancer cell killing in vitro in the two glioma cell lines when combined with GCV exposure, while control nanoparticles encoding GFP maintained robust cell viability. For in vivo evaluation, tumor-bearing rats were treated with PBAE/HSVtk infusion via convection-enhanced delivery (CED) in combination with systemic administration of GCV. These treated animals showed a significant benefit in survival (p = 0.0012 vs control). Moreover, following a single CED infusion, labeled PBAE nanoparticles spread completely throughout the tumor. This study highlights a nanomedicine approach that is highly promising for the treatment of malignant glioma. PMID:25643235

  13. Bayesian Inference of Tumor Hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, R.; Tenti, G.; Sivaloganathan, S.

    2009-12-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a state of oxygen deprivation in tumors. It has been associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes and with increased resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In this study, we report on the application of Bayesian sequential analysis in estimating the most probable value of tumor hypoxia quantification based on immunohistochemical assays of a biomarker. The `gold standard' of tumor hypoxia assessment is a direct measurement of pO2 in vivo by the Eppendorf polarographic electrode, which is an invasive technique restricted to accessible sites and living tissues. An attractive alternative is immunohistochemical staining to detect proteins expressed by cells during hypoxia. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme expressed on the cell membrane during hypoxia to balance the immediate extracellular microenvironment. CAIX is widely regarded as a surrogate marker of chronic hypoxia in various cancers. The study was conducted with two different experimental procedures. The first data set was a group of three patients with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which five biopsies were obtained. Each of the biopsies was fully sectioned and from each section, the proportion of CAIX-positive cells was estimated. Measurements were made by image analysis of multiple deep sections cut through these biopsies, labeled for CAIX using both immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques [1]. The second data set was a group of 24 patients, also with invasive cervical carcinomas, from which two biopsies were obtained. Bayesian parameter estimation was applied to obtain a reliable inference about the proportion of CAIX-positive cells within the carcinomas, based on the available biopsies. From the first data set, two to three biopsies were found to be sufficient to infer the overall CAIX percentage in the simple form: best estimate±uncertainty. The second data-set led to a similar result in 70% of the cases. In the remaining cases Bayes' theorem warned us

  14. Ehrlich tumor inhibition using doxorubicin containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Elbialy, Nihal Saad; Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, DOX in solution or DOX encapsulated within liposomes prepared from DMPC/CHOL/DPPG/PEG-PE (100:100:60:4) in molar ratio. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC50 of liposomes containing DOX was greater than that DOX only. Tumor growth inhibition curves in terms of mean tumor size (cm(3)) were presented. All the DOX formulations were effective in preventing tumor growth compared to saline. Treatment with DOX loaded liposomes displayed a pronounced inhibition in tumor growth than treatment with DOX only. Histopathological examination of the entire tumor sections for the various groups revealed marked differences in cellular features accompanied by varying degrees in necrosis percentage ranging from 12% for saline treated mice to 70% for DOX loaded liposome treated mice. The proposed liposomal formulation can efficiently deliver the drug into the tumor cells by endocytosis (or passive diffusion) and lead to a high concentration of DOX in the tumor cells. The study showed that the formulation of liposomal doxorubicin improved the therapeutic index of DOX and had increased anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich tumor models. PMID:25972739

  15. The retinoblastoma gene in human pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, V.L.; Arnold, A.; Alexander, J.M.; Klibanski, A. )

    1993-09-01

    Functional inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor gene is important in the pathogenesis of many human tumors. Recently, the frequent occurrence of pituitary tumors was reported in mice genetically engineered to have one defective RB allele, a genetic background analogous to that of patients with familial retinoblastoma. The molecular pathogenesis of human pituitary tumors is largely unknown, and the potential role of RB gene inactivation in these neoplasms has not been examined. Consequently, the authors studied 20 human pituitary tumors (12 clinically nonfunctioning tumors, 4 somatotroph adenomas, 2 prolactinomas, and 2 corticotrophy adenomas) for tumor-specific allelic loss of the RB gene using a highly informative polymorphic locus within the gene. Control leukocyte DNA samples from 18 of these 20 patients were heterozygous at this locus, permitting genetic evaluation of their paired tumor specimens. In contrast to the pituitary tumors in the mouse model, none of these 18 human tumors exhibited RB allelic loss. These findings indicate that RB gene inactivation probably does not play an important role in the pathogenesis of common types of human pituitary tumors. 24 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Genomic landscapes of breast fibroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Ley Moy; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Thangaraju, Saranya; Dey, Sucharita; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Wijaya, Giovani Claresta; Lim, Jing Quan; Huang, Dachuan; Li, Zhimei; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Chan, Jason Yong Sheng; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Tan, Wai Jin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ahmad, Buhari Shaik; Iau, Philip; Chan, Ching Wan; Tang, Anthony P H; Yong, Wei Sean; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ho, Gay Hui; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Wong, Chow Yin; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Teh, Bin Tean

    2015-11-01

    Breast fibroepithelial tumors comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathological entities, from benign fibroadenomas to malignant phyllodes tumors. Although MED12 mutations have been frequently found in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, the landscapes of genetic alterations across the fibroepithelial tumor spectrum remain unclear. Here, by performing exome sequencing of 22 phyllodes tumors followed by targeted sequencing of 100 breast fibroepithelial tumors, we observed three distinct somatic mutation patterns. First, we frequently observed MED12 and RARA mutations in both fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, emphasizing the importance of these mutations in fibroepithelial tumorigenesis. Second, phyllodes tumors exhibited mutations in FLNA, SETD2 and KMT2D, suggesting a role in driving phyllodes tumor development. Third, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors harbored additional mutations in cancer-associated genes. RARA mutations exhibited clustering in the portion of the gene encoding the ligand-binding domain, functionally suppressed RARA-mediated transcriptional activation and enhanced RARA interactions with transcriptional co-repressors. This study provides insights into the molecular pathogenesis of breast fibroepithelial tumors, with potential clinical implications. PMID:26437033

  17. Interaction of MSC with tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Catharina; Yang, Yuanyuan; Hass, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Tumor development and tumor progression is not only determined by the corresponding tumor cells but also by the tumor microenvironment. This includes an orchestrated network of interacting cell types (e.g. immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC)) via the extracellular matrix and soluble factors such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and various metabolites. Cell populations of the tumor microenvironment can interact directly and indirectly with cancer cells by mutually altering properties and functions of the involved partners. Particularly, mesenchymal stroma/stem cells (MSC) play an important role during carcinogenesis exhibiting different types of intercellular communication. Accordingly, this work focusses on diverse mechanisms of interaction between MSC and cancer cells. Moreover, some functional changes and consequences for both cell types are summarized which can eventually result in the establishment of a carcinoma stem cell niche (CSCN) or the generation of new tumor cell populations by MSC-tumor cell fusion. PMID:27608835

  18. Tumor angiogenesis in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Alani, Rhoda M; Silverthorn, Courtney F; Orosz, Kate

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade much research has focused on understanding the molecular pathways that regulate the development of a tumor-associated vasculature. In 1999, Lyden and colleagues showed that mice deficient in one to three Id1 or Id3 alleles could not support the growth of tumor xenografts due to defects in tumor-associated angiogenesis. Three recently published manuscripts have now re-examined the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature using more clinically relevant tumor model systems. Remarkably, all three studies have found strikingly different results compared to the original xenograft data published in 1999. Below we review the current understanding of the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature given the most recent data and suggest ways in which animal tumor model systems might be put to better use to provide more clinically relevant information. PMID:15153806

  19. [Synchronous tumors of the gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, Tr; Doran, H; Catrina, E; Mihalache, O; Degeratu, D; Predescu, G

    2010-01-01

    The term "synchronous tumors" is reserved for simultaneous evolution of two or more tumors with distinct sites, in which the possibility that one tumor is a metastasis of the other has been excluded. In medical practice, the involvement of two different cavitary organs of the gastrointestinal tract is very rare. We present two clinical cases of synchronous tumors: one of a malignant degeneration of a colonic polyp, associated to a jejunal tumor; the other of a patient with a gastric adenocarcinoma, who also had a bulky rectal villous tumor. We tried to find out the etiology of the tumors and the frequency of these associations, mentioned in medical literature. Immunohistochemistry investigations, genetic analysis and familial screening must complete an individualized medical approach in which the surgical technique must be adequate for each case. PMID:20405687

  20. Prospective sonographic study of 3093 breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Chao, T C; Lo, Y F; Chen, S C; Chen, M F

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the predictive ability of sonographic tumor characteristics to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, we examined 3093 breast tumors (2360 benign and 733 malignant tumors) with ultrasonography. The ratio of the longest dimension to the anteroposterior diameter of benign tumors was significantly larger than that of malignant tumors (1.88+/-0.1 versus 1.69+/-0.02, P < 0.0001). Shape, margins, echogenicity, internal echo pattern, retrotumor acoustic shadowing, compressibility, and microcalcification were significant factors in the logistic regression model. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of breast sonography for malignancy were 86.1, 66.1, 44.1, 93.9, and 70.8%, respectively. Biopsy of the tumor for pathologic diagnosis is recommended if sonographic features are suggestive of malignancy. PMID:10327015