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Sample records for 9th world wide

  1. PREFACE: 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics and 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, N.; Valliappan, S.; Li, Q.; Russell, A.

    2010-07-01

    The use for mathematical models of natural phenomena has underpinned science and engineering for centuries, but until the advent of modern computers and computational methods, the full utility of most of these models remained outside the reach of the engineering communities. Since World War II, advances in computational methods have transformed the way engineering and science is undertaken throughout the world. Today, theories of mechanics of solids and fluids, electromagnetism, heat transfer, plasma physics, and other scientific disciplines are implemented through computational methods in engineering analysis, design, manufacturing, and in studying broad classes of physical phenomena. The discipline concerned with the application of computational methods is now a key area of research, education, and application throughout the world. In the early 1980's, the International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) was founded to promote activities related to computational mechanics and has made impressive progress. The most important scientific event of IACM is the World Congress on Computational Mechanics. The first was held in Austin (USA) in 1986 and then in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1990, Chiba (Japan) in 1994, Buenos Aires (Argentina) in 1998, Vienna (Austria) in 2002, Beijing (China) in 2004, Los Angeles (USA) in 2006 and Venice, Italy; in 2008. The 9th World Congress on Computational Mechanics is held in conjunction with the 4th Asian Pacific Congress on Computational Mechanics under the auspices of Australian Association for Computational Mechanics (AACM), Asian Pacific Association for Computational Mechanics (APACM) and International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM). The 1st Asian Pacific Congress was in Sydney (Australia) in 2001, then in Beijing (China) in 2004 and Kyoto (Japan) in 2007. The WCCM/APCOM 2010 publications consist of a printed book of abstracts given to delegates, along with 247 full length peer reviewed papers published with

  2. World Wide Web telemedicine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Valentino, Daniel J.; So, George J.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Taira, Ricky K.

    1996-05-01

    We have designed a teleradiology and telemedicine architecture over the World-Wide Web using current HIS, RIS and PACS. Our implementation allows remote access to hypermedia medical record and automatic management of interactive communications between referring physician and consultants. Security and privacy issues are also discussed. Its successful use in a telemedicine trial to China involving hundreds of doctors has shown the potential trend of telemedicine over the World-Wide Web.

  3. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route. The paper…

  4. Television and World Affairs Teaching in Schools; Report of the Atlantic Study Conference on Education (9th, Bordeaux, Sept. 3-9, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppstein, John, Ed.

    The principal papers read at the ninth conference in a series of Biennial Atlantic Study Conferences on Education, which was organized at the University of Bordeaux at Talence to benefit those concerned with the teaching of world affairs and social science in the secondary schools of the Western world, are included in this report. Titles of papers…

  5. The World Wide Web Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  6. Bridging Services: Drug Abuse, Human Services and the Therapeutic Community. Proceedings of the World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (9th, San Francisco, California, September 1-6, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    The World Federation of Therapeutic Communities is an international association of drug treatment centers that use the "Therapeutic Community" (TC) to combat chemical dependency and drug addiction. Their 1985 conference focused on bridging services between the TC and the traditional human service systems. A total of 85 separate papers were…

  7. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  8. The 9th INS scientific computational programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    Twelve groups were accepted as the 9-th INS scientific Computational Programs (ISCP). This ISCP can use full resources of the INS central computer without an operational limitation. The 9-th ISCP started on June/1/92 and ended on March/30/93. Some results were already published in journals or appeared in physical meetings. This is a sum of the used statistics of the 9-th ISCP and reports presented by groups at the 9-th ISCP.

  9. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  10. The World Wide Web: Alice Meets Cyberspace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koos, Marybeth; Smith-Shank, Deborah L.

    1996-01-01

    Uses excerpts from "Alice In Wonderland" as introductions to a tour of the uses of the World Wide Web in art education. Discusses such issues as access, copyrights, costs, and benefits. Includes an index of terms, list of related Websites, and suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  11. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  12. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  13. Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page, "Reference…

  14. Re-Framing the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, August

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation studies and describes how technical standards, protocols, and application programming interfaces (APIs) shape the aesthetic, functional, and affective nature of our most dominant mode of online communication, the World Wide Web (WWW). I examine the politically charged and contentious battle over browser…

  15. World Wide Web Robots: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Tham Yoke

    1999-01-01

    Traces the development of World Wide Web Robots and provides an overview of their main functions and workings. The focus is on search robots. Illustrations are drawn from two major search engines: AltaVista and Excite. Concludes with an examination of problems associated with the use of Web Robots and their implications for electronic publishing.…

  16. Knowledge Sharing over the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, John; Stewart, Scott; Weeks, Richard

    This paper describes a system that facilitates and encourages the sharing of knowledge among groups of users within or across organizations. KSE (Knowledge Sharing Environment) is a system of information agents for organizing, summarizing, and sharing knowledge from a number of sources, including the World Wide Web, an organization's internal…

  17. Technical Services and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheschy, Virginia M.

    The World Wide Web and browsers such as Netscape and Mosaic have simplified access to electronic resources. Today, technical services librarians can share in the wealth of information available on the Web. One of the premier Web sites for acquisitions librarians is AcqWeb, a cousin of the AcqNet listserv. In addition to interesting news items,…

  18. Teacher Education and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flake, Janice L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines changes in teacher education programs resulting from the World Wide Web, considers the role of education and paradigm shifts that have occurred, and describes an elementary education program at Florida State University. Highlights include changes in the teaching and learning process, assessment, learning environments, and skills and…

  19. Pedagogical Challenges for the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetherston, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Presents some of the perceived pedagogical challenges posed by use of the World Wide Web. Proposes that the debate surrounding use of the Web in university teaching should center on learning and not technical issues. Learning issues and challenges discussed in this article include learning approaches, using the technical features of the Web to…

  20. Publishing Mathematics on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majewski, Mirek

    1999-01-01

    Shows how mathematical concepts can be displayed on World Wide Web pages. Discusses HTML; embedding mathematical formulae into text as pictures; the use of word-processing tools; MathML, a version of HTML for math; IBM Techexplorer, a browser plug-in; and Java applets. (Author/LRW)

  1. Biomedical Journals and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonbaert, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the publication of biomedical journals on the Internet. Highlights include pros and cons of electronic publishing; the Global Health Network at the University of Pittsburgh; the availability of biomedical journals on the World Wide Web; current applications, including access to journal contents tables and electronic delivery of full-text…

  2. Integrating WorldWide Telescope with Wordpress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Mark; Luebbert, J.; Fay, J.; Gay, P. L.

    2010-01-01

    In this project we unite three major components of astronomy and new media: World Wide Telescope, Wordpress, and user supplied audio. Through an easy to use Wordpress plug-in users can create WorldWide Telescope sky tours that allow: a) astronomers and educators to spread the facts and awareness of astronomy, potentially bringing new and interested individuals into the astronomy community; b) bloggers/podcasters to create dynamic, virtual tours of the universe that are nearly boundless; and, c) readers to benefit from the alluring WorldWide Telescope tours by gaining a new and dramatic outlook on our universe. This software has the potential to augment, and in some cases replace, traditional methods of astronomy centered online lectures. With this plugin, it is possible to combine Wordpress-based website content with audio, and a sky tour that can be paused at any object. This ability to pause a sky tour allows the user to further explore the wealth of data provided within WWT. This fully customizable solution includes all of the necessary features required to reproduce a lecture in a more creative and appealing format then some of the standard, typically non-interactive, movies and podcasts currently found online. Through the creation of effective WorldWide Telescope tours, astronomers and educators can better extend astronomy content to astronomy-interested, but not yet engaged, members of the new media community. These tours will provide a better understanding and appreciation for what our universe has to offer. Through this new media approach of integrating WorldWide Telescope with blogs and podcasts, users can now extend their interest in astronomy by exploring the universe themselves, moving beyond provided content to gain a better understanding all on their own.

  3. Extracting knowledge from the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Henzinger, Monika; Lawrence, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unprecedented opportunity to automatically analyze a large sample of interests and activity in the world. We discuss methods for extracting knowledge from the web by randomly sampling and analyzing hosts and pages, and by analyzing the link structure of the web and how links accumulate over time. A variety of interesting and valuable information can be extracted, such as the distribution of web pages over domains, the distribution of interest in different areas, communities related to different topics, the nature of competition in different categories of sites, and the degree of communication between different communities or countries. PMID:14745041

  4. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that accessmore » to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.« less

  5. Thematic World Wide Web Visualization System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-10

    WebTheme is a system designed to facilitate world wide web information access and retrieval through visualization. It consists of two principal pieces, a WebTheme Server which allows users to enter in a query and automatocally harvest and process information of interest, and a WebTheme browser, which allows users to work with both Galaxies and Themescape visualizations of their data within a JAVA capable world wide web browser. WebTheme is an Internet solution, meaning that access to the server and the resulting visualizations can all be performed through the use of a WWW browser. This allows users to access and interact with SPIRE (Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration) based visualizations through a web browser regardless of what computer platforms they are running on. WebTheme is specifically designed to create databases by harvesting and processing WWW home pages available on the Internet.

  6. Redesigning courses for the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katherine Camacho; Farley, Cynthia L

    2003-01-01

    The use of computer-based instructional technologies has become almost ubiquitous in education, including health professions education. In addition, clinical practice requires the use of digital information, networking, and continued learning. Faculty, students, and clinicians must be prepared to use computer-based technologies and telecommunications. Many faculty members in the health professions need assistance with the transfer of traditional (campus-based) courses or course material to the World Wide Web. This article presents the instructional design and pedagogical aspects of redesigning a traditional campus-based course for the World Wide Web. Specific steps and a template are identified. The development of a virtual community of learners is also discussed as a critical element of on-line teaching and learning. PMID:14660946

  7. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today's science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  8. Computer vision on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. David

    1995-10-01

    The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole Internet. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. One important and novel development on the World Wide Web (WWW) has been the development of computer vision and image processing related courseware facilities and indeed image processing packages. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive packages suited primarily for teaching and demonstration packages. Within the WWW there are many pointers that highlight more research based activities. This paper addresses the issues of the implementation of the computer vision and image processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system, and also relates the practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed. A suite of multimedia based tools have been developed to facilitate such systems and these are described in the paper. A brief survey of related sources of information on the World Wide Web also is presented.

  9. World-wide fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This video explains what is known and what is not known by today`s science about the long term consequences of world-wide fallout. In the interest of accuracy, this report is confined to the fallout on which a substantial amount of information is now available. Much has been written and said about this subject both officially and unofficially. The purpose of this film is to correct any factually unsupported statements which have been and continue to be issued from time to time.

  10. 9th Caribbean Geological Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Gren

    The ninth in a series of Caribbean Geological Conferences, which are held every 3 or 4 years, took place in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, from the 15th to 26th of August 1980. The conference, which was sponsored by the government of the Dominican Republic and the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, was preceded by 2 days of field trips and was opened by President Antonio Guzman on the evening of the 17th of August. Generous support was provided by Alcoa Exploration Co., Falconbridge Dominicana, and Rosario Dominicana.Geologists and geophysicists from 25 countries presented about 130 papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from geophysics to paleontology. While the whole Caribbean area was discussed, there was special emphasis on the northern Caribbean and Hispaniola, as befitted the site of the conference. The contribution of workers from the Dirección General de Mineriá was particularly notable.

  11. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the New Orleans area schools team #2 from New Orleans, Louisiana maneuvers through an obstacle course. The team captured second place in the high school division competition. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  12. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the team from Lafayette County High school in Higginsville, Missouri, designated Lafayette County team #1, races through the course to cross the finish line to win the high school division. The team beat out 26 other teams representing high schools from 9 states. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  13. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. This photograph shows the Cornell #2 team driving their vehicle through the course. The team finished the race in second place in the college division. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle, that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  14. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. In this photograph, the Cornell #1 team, the collegiate first place winner, maneuvers their vehicle through the course. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a humanpowered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  15. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

    2008-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This event, one of the cornerstone projects for the upcoming International Year of Astronomy, is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. The 2008 Star Count benefited from the current excitement in citizen science, with 15 nights of observing in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people around the world. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user- friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of the 2007 and 2008 campaigns. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

  16. World-wide aeronautical satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter; Smith, Keith

    1988-01-01

    INMARSAT decided to expand the spectrum covered by its new generation of satellites, INMARSAT-2, to include 1 MHz (subsequently increased to 3 MHz) of the spectrum designed for aeronautical use. It began a design study that led to the specifications for the system that is now being implemented. Subsequently, INMARSAT awarded contracts for the design of avionics and high gain antennas to a number of manufactures, while several of the signatories that provide ground equipment for communicating with the INMARSAT satellites are modifying their earth stations to work with the avionic equipment. As a resullt of these activities, a world-wide aeronautical satellite system supporting both voice and data will become operational in 1989.

  17. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  18. The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This IYA Cornerstone Project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 18,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of the 2007—2009. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  19. NANOTR9: 9th Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    The conference series NanoTR is the major conference on nanoscience and nanotechnology in Turkey. It brings together leading scientists and engineers in nanotechnology to exchange information on their latest research progress. An exhibition of the companies working in the related field is also organized as a part of the event. With intensive international participation, NanoTR conference series has spread outside the national border and has become an international event in this field. Among international contributions, a wide interest from the countries around Turkey should be emphasized. 9th in the series was organized by Atatürk University in Erzurum-Turkey on June 24-28, 2013 with more than 900 scientists, researchers, private sector representatives from around the world. Conference program included 6 plenary speakers, 35 invited speakers (18 of them were from outside the country), 116 oral presentations, and 340 poster presentations. In addition to 6 plenary sessions, 17 oral and 4 poster sessions created very lively discussion forums covering a vast range of current and emerging sciences from nano-materials, nanoscience, nanofabrication, nano-engineering, nano-electronics, nano-biotechnology, to ethical and social issues of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Also, panel discussions about industrial applications, tutorial sessions have been organized for students, new-comers and company employees.

  20. Geomorphology and the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Bishop, Michael P.; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Craiger, J. Philip

    2002-10-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web have brought many dimensions of new technology to education and research in geomorphology. As with other disciplines on the Web, Web-based geomorphology has become an eclectic mix of whatever material an individual deems worthy of presentation, and in many cases is without quality control. Nevertheless, new electronic media can facilitate education and research in geomorphology. For example, virtual field trips can be developed and accessed to reinforce concepts in class. Techniques for evaluating Internet references helps students to write traditional term papers, but professional presentations can also involve student papers that are published on the Web. Faculty can also address plagiarism issues by using search engines. Because of the lack of peer review of much of the content on the Web, care must be exercised in using it for reference searches. Today, however, refereed journals are going online and can be accessed through subscription or payment per article viewed. Library reference desks regularly use the Web for searches of refereed articles. Research on the Web ranges from communication between investigators, data acquisition, scientific visualization, or comprehensive searches of refereed sources, to interactive analyses of remote data sets. The Nanga Parbat and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Projects are two examples of geomorphologic research that are achieving full potential through use of the Web. Teaching and research in geomorphology are undergoing a beneficial, but sometimes problematic, transition with the new technology. The learning curve is steep for some users but the view from the top is bright. Geomorphology can only prosper from the benefits offered by computer technologies.

  1. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  2. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  3. 9th Grade, by the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    For big urban districts, it can be slippery work to catch and hold students who are falling off track at a point that derails too many graduations: the transition from 8th to 9th grade. This article reports that the Chicago school district is putting a suite of new data reports into the hands of those who teach and counsel its 30,000 freshmen this…

  4. Historical development of world wide guided missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper attempts to put in perspective the development of missiles from early history to present time. The influence of World War II in accelerating the development of guided missiles, particularly through German scientists, is discussed. The dispersion of German scientists to other countries and the coupling of their work with native talent to develop guided missiles is traced. Particular emphasis is placed on the evolution of the missile in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Since the Soviets possess what is probably the world's most complete array of dedicated missile system types, their known inventory is reviewed in some detail.

  5. World Wide Web Astronomy 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppelman, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-11-01

    The Internet has changed astronomy. It's changed research, outreach and education and it's changed how people consume astronomy as enthusiasts. People have new ways to talk to each other and new ways to participate. Coined ``Web 2.0,'' technologies such as blogs, social networks, wikis, photo and video sharing sites, podcasts and micro-blogging have been adopted by the astronomy community and exciting things are happening as a result. The International Year of Astronomy's New Media Task Force has been working to harness the excitement of ``Web 2.0'' to make the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) highly visible on the Internet around the world.

  6. World-Wide Experience with SRF Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hutton, Adam Carpenter

    2011-03-01

    The speaker will review and analyze the performance of existing SRF facilities in the world, addressing issues of usage and availability for different customers (HEP research, material sciences, ADS). Lessons learned should be summarized for proposed future facilities (ILC, Project X, Muon Collider). The first use of superconducting cavities for accelerating beams was at HEPL, Stanford University in the early sixties. Rather quickly, other laboratories followed suit, notably the University of Illinois at Champagne, Urbana and Cornell University. There were two main uses, which still persist today. The first is to provide accelerated particles as an injector or for fixed target experiments. The second is to maintain circulating beams, either for synchrotron light sources or for colliding beam experiments. Given the differing requirements, these two uses led to rather different implementations and, in particular, different average operating gradients. A second difference in the implementation is the speed of the particle being accelerated. Electrons are sufficiently relativistic at low beam energies (> {approx} 5 MeV) that cavities designed for relativistic beams can also function acceptably at low energy. This is not the case for protons or ion accelerators so, until recently, copper cavities were used to cover the first {approx} 100 MeV. Superconducting cavities are now also being proposed to cover this energy range as well using a series of superconducting cavities, each of which is matched to the particle velocity.

  7. Use of World Wide Web and NCSA Mcsaic at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A brief history of the use of the World Wide Web at Langley Research Center is presented along with architecture of the Langley Web. Benefits derived from the Web and some Langley projects that have employed the World Wide Web are discussed.

  8. A Semiotic Analysis of Icons on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yan

    The World Wide Web allows users to interact with a graphic interface to search information in a hypermedia and multimedia environment. Graphics serve as reference points on the World Wide Web for searching and retrieving information. This study analyzed the culturally constructed syntax patterns, or codes, embedded in the icons of library…

  9. Teaching Tools: American Literature and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Mae Miller; Cooper, C. Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discusses 13 resources available to teachers of American literature on the World Wide Web including general resources, Internet sites related to electronic literature, and websites whose focus is American literature and culture. Discusses using and troubleshooting the World Wide Web in the classroom. Offers tips on how to evaluate web sources and…

  10. Learning To Use the World Wide Web. Academic Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Ernest

    This book emphasizes how to use Netscape Navigator to access the World Wide Web and associated resources and services in a step-by-step, organized manner. Chapters include -- Chapter 1: Introduction to the World Wide Web and the Internet; Chapter 2: Using a Web Browser; Chapter 3: The Basics of Electronic Mail and Using Netscape Email; Chapter 4:…

  11. The 9th Siena meeting: from genome to proteome: open innovations.

    PubMed

    Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2012-12-01

    The Siena Meeting has been held biannually since 1994, when for the first time the concept of the proteome was introduced to a large scientific audience. Over the years, the meeting has grown to be a major international conference in the field of proteomics and has attracted excellent scientists from all corners of the world. The 9th Siena Meeting: 'from Genome to Proteome: Open Innovations' was attended by 300 scientists. There were four plenary and eight parallel sessions with 50 invited talks and three poster sessions with 94 posters covering wide range of functional proteomics, signaling, biomarkers, cancer, neuroscience, glycoproteomics, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. As in the past, this year's Siena Meeting maintained its tradition of placing science at centre stage, which generated a wide range of discussions of major importance for the future. PMID:23256669

  12. The 9th Siena meeting: from genome to proteome: open innovations.

    PubMed

    Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2012-12-01

    The Siena Meeting has been held biannually since 1994, when for the first time the concept of the proteome was introduced to a large scientific audience. Over the years, the meeting has grown to be a major international conference in the field of proteomics and has attracted excellent scientists from all corners of the world. The 9th Siena Meeting: 'from Genome to Proteome: Open Innovations' was attended by 300 scientists. There were four plenary and eight parallel sessions with 50 invited talks and three poster sessions with 94 posters covering wide range of functional proteomics, signaling, biomarkers, cancer, neuroscience, glycoproteomics, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. As in the past, this year's Siena Meeting maintained its tradition of placing science at centre stage, which generated a wide range of discussions of major importance for the future.

  13. Study Probes Enrollment "Bulge" in 9th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Three decades of mounting academic and testing requirements are snagging growing numbers of students in the 9th grade. "The bulge" is the name education researchers give to the percentage increase in students in the 9th grade over the same period. This article reports on factors that might explain the growing 9th grade bottleneck and sliding…

  14. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartog-raphy. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS Internet World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  18. Contemporary Approaches to Critical Thinking and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Melanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…

  19. Treatment of gout in a recently published 9th century manuscript of Rhazes.

    PubMed

    Geronikolou, Styliani A

    2014-01-01

    Gout is a common lifestyle disease and was identified by Hippocrates in the fifth century BC although the condition was known ancient Egypt some two millennia earlier. The pharmaceutical suggestions described in a recently edited manuscript, the oldest known medical manuscript of the Arab world, is presented, here for the first time. It is entitled Treatise on Gout by Rhazes, the greatest of Arab clinicians, and was written in the late 9th or early 10th century. Rhazes' pharmaceutics are presented in descriptive tables and their components are also compared with other recipes from manuscripts of the Galen and a recently edited medieval Syrian manuscript of Le Livre des simples (Tables 1-2). It is noteworthy that Rhazes insists that the drugs should be taken before sunrise and at down, showing ignorance of current knowledge of circadian rhythms. This is of interest as arthritis chronotherapy is widely discussed in recent literature. PMID:25739155

  20. The Virtual City: Putting Charleston on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beagle, Donald

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Charleston Multimedia Project, a World Wide Web guide to the history, architecture, and culture of Charleston, South Carolina, which includes a timeline and virtual tours. Incorporates materials issued by many agencies that were previously held in vertical files. The Charleston County Library's role and future plans are also…

  1. Market Research: The World Wide Web Meets the Online Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web can provide direct market research data inexpensively or can target the appropriate professional online database and narrow the search. This article discusses the Web presence of research and investment firms, financial pages, trade associations, and electronic publications containing market research data. It lists Uniform…

  2. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  3. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users.

  4. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users. PMID:20183035

  5. Baby Steps: Starting Out on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol; McElmeel, Sharron L.

    1997-01-01

    While the Internet is the physical medium used to transport data, the World Wide Web is the collection of protocols and standards used to access the information. This article provides a basic explanation of what the Web is and describes common browser commands. Discusses graphic Web browsers; universal resource locators (URLs); file, message,…

  6. Time Series Data Visualization in World Wide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, J.

    WorldWide Telescope provides a rich set of timer series visualization for both archival and real time data. WWT consists of both interactive desktop tools for interactive immersive visualization and HTML5 web based controls that can be utilized in customized web pages. WWT supports a range of display options including full dome, power walls, stereo and virtual reality headsets.

  7. Undergraduate Data Mining on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scime, Anthony

    Currently available World Wide Web search engines determine a site's qualification as a response to a search request by matching keywords in the request to keywords representing the site. The returned sites are given a score and ranked according to the match on keywords. Many of these retrieved sites can be irrelevant to the user's true…

  8. Assessing the Motivational Quality of World Wide Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.

    As the number of World Wide Web sites continues to grow at an explosive rate, the need for design guidelines also increases. Although there are a number of resources that provide guidance on structure and content, few address the motivational aspects of Web sites. The Website Motivational Analysis Checklist (WebMAC) was developed to help diagnose…

  9. White Supremacists, Oppositional Culture and the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Josh; Roscigno, Vincent J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the previous decade, white supremacist organizations have tapped into the ever emerging possibilities offered by the World Wide Web. Drawing from prior sociological work that has examined this medium and its uses by white supremacist organizations, this article advances the understanding of recruitment, identity and action by providing a…

  10. Can the World Wide Web Make Statistics Textbooks More Fun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruxton, Graeme D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the drudgery of entering long datasets at the keyboard before being able to begin each chapter of a book. Suggests that the publishers of statistics books make the datasets available for people to download onto their computers over the World Wide Web. (AIM)

  11. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  12. The Art Site on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the World Wide Web (WWW) as a multimedia delivery system, sources of variation in WWW art sites, pioneers on the electronic frontiers of art, and dimensions of electronic exhibition space. Discusses characteristics of early and of second-generation WWW art sites, how they compare, and evolution of the art site on the WWW. (SR)

  13. World Wide Web Homepages: An Examination of Content and Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Betty; And Others

    This paper shows how the content of a World Wide Web page is selected and how an examination of the intended audience influences content. Examples from the New Mexico Tech (NMT) Library homepage show what sources are selected and what level of detail is appropriate for the intended audience. Six fundamental functions of libraries and information…

  14. World Wide Web Pages--Tools for Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Sarah; Kent, Jean

    Created to help educators incorporate World Wide Web pages into teaching and learning, this collection of Web pages presents resources, materials, and techniques for using the Web. The first page focuses on tools for teaching and learning via the Web, providing pointers to sites containing the following: (1) course materials for both distance and…

  15. Surfing the World Wide Web to Education Hot-Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Odvard Egil

    1995-01-01

    Provides a brief explanation of Web browsers and their use, as well as technical information for those considering access to the WWW (World Wide Web). Curriculum resources and addresses to useful Web sites are included. Sidebars show sample searches using Yahoo and Lycos search engines, and a list of recommended Web resources. (JKP)

  16. Introduction to the World Wide Web and Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngblood, Jim

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial provides an introduction to some of the terminology related to the use of the World Wide Web and Mosaic. It is assumed that the user has some prior computer experience. References are included to other sources of additional information.

  17. Service Learning and Building Community with the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The geography education literature touts the World Wide Web (Web) as a revolutionary educational tool, yet most accounts ignore its uses for public communication and creative expression. This article argues that students can be producers of content that is of service to local audiences. Drawing inspiration from the community networking movement,…

  18. Surfing the Net. Creativity on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses how the World Wide Web can empower students to think creatively, especially the gifted. It profiles 3 Web sites that discuss techniques, games, and strategies for enhancing creative thinking and 13 Web sites that contain information on inventors and inventions to stimulate gifted students. (Contains one reference.) (CR)

  19. Using the World Wide Web To Teach Francophone Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Deborah Berg; Van Ells, Paula Hartwig

    2002-01-01

    Examined use of the World Wide Web to teach Francophone culture. Suggests that bolstering reading comprehension in the foreign language and increased proficiency in navigating the Web are potential secondary benefits gained from the cultural Web-based activities proposed in the study.(Author/VWL)

  20. Interactivity, Information Processing, and Learning on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremayne, Mark; Dunwoody, Sharon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role of interactivity in the presentation of science news on the World Wide Web. Proposes and tests a model of interactive information processing that suggests that characteristics of users and Web sites influence interactivity, which influences knowledge acquisition. Describes use of a think-aloud method to study participants' mental…

  1. The Relationship of the World Wide Web to Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Amy C.; Bishop, Jeanne L.; Gens, Linda S.; Miller, Sharla L.; Rogers, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses use of the World Wide Web in education and its possibilities for developing higher order critical thinking skills to successfully deal with the demands of the future information society. Suggests that teachers need to provide learning environments that are learner-centered, authentic, problem-based, and collaborative. (Contains 61…

  2. The World Wide Web and High-Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bebo

    High-energy physics and the World Wide Web (WWW) share a rich history. The Web, developed at CERN as a collaboration tool and quickly adopted by the Internet community, has become a communications phenomenon. This article reviews early WWW development and its basic technology. I also summarize some significant applications of Web technology, past and present, and discuss prospects for future use.

  3. World Wide Web Search Engines: Open Text, Harvest, 2ASK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the corporate origins, development, and unique features of three World Wide Web search tools. Open Text released LiveLink Search 64 in April 1996. Harvest indexes fewer sites than many competitors but offers powerful searching options. 2ASK is a service that provides links to over 100 Internet indexing tools and rates Web sites and…

  4. Facilitating Designer-Customer Communication in the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuikka, Tuomo; Salmela, Marko

    1998-01-01

    Presents WebShaman, an application built to demonstrate how a distributed virtual prototyping system with a client/server architecture, could support geographically distant designer/customer communication. Provides an overview of smart virtual prototyping; discusses implementation of synchronous collaboration via the World Wide Web; and assesses…

  5. World Wide Web Public Access: Notes on the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examines the pros and cons of providing access to the World Wide Web for library patrons as well as suggesting solutions to problems. Discusses the establishment of a library policy governing the use of the Web, as well as the importance of workshops and instructional materials on Web use in libraries. (Author/AEF)

  6. Guiding Students in Using the World Wide Web for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubly, Kristin

    This paper addresses the need for educators and librarians to guide students in using the World Wide Web appropriately by teaching them to evaluate Internet resources using criteria designed to identify the authoritative sources. The pros and cons of information commonly found on the Web are discussed, as well as academic Internet subject or…

  7. World Wide Web Page Design: A Structured Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Gwen; Brown, M. Marlo

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to develop a World Wide Web site based on structured programming concepts. Highlights include flowcharting, first page design, evaluation, page titles, documenting source code, text, graphics, and browsers. Includes a template for HTML writers, tips for using graphics, a sample homepage, guidelines for authoring structured HTML, and…

  8. Helping Students Weave Their Way through the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Catherine B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses six strategies to help both students and teachers learn to make wise use of information on the World Wide Web: teaching the value of key word skills; using online sources available in the media center; creating pathfinders; teaching students sound searching skills that include Boolean logic; directing students to the best search engines;…

  9. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  10. Wired World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, Nicolo

    2003-05-07

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java{trademark} language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualize and analyze events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java{trademark} language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  11. World-wide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978-1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques used to assess methane concentration in the troposphere are described, and data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1983 are presented in detail. Tropospheric methane concentrations in remote locations averaged a yearly world-wide increase of 0.018 + or - 0.002 parts per million by volume (ppmv). Average world-wide tropospheric concentration of methane in dry air was 1.625 ppmv at the end of 1983 measured against an NBS standard certified as 0.97 ppmv. Contributing to this steady increase in methane concentration are increases in the source strengths from cattle and rice fields, which in turn result from CO, CH4 and HO coupling. Among the physical and chemical effects is an increase in greenhouse warming of about 0.04 C per decade.

  12. Obtaining good quality medical information from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Thom, Deone H; Polosa, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    Despite the complexity of the Internet, it is surprisingly easy to search the World Wide Web for medical information. With the right skills you can save yourself a lot of time and effort making the Internet a highly effective tool for supporting your work in health and medicine. Internet offers great opportunities for interactive learning and can help you to plan lectures and create teaching materials. Moreover, physicians can find many Web resources that can assist with articles and assignments and support academic research. Evidence-based indications about medical treatments are also available. However, Internet users need to be aware of the dangers of misleading and inaccurate medical information. In this article, we intend to illustrate to physicians the pros and cons of the World Wide Web, how to apply basic critical appraisal techniques to gather good quality medical information, and a number of useful medical Web sites. PMID:11975112

  13. Collaborative Information Agents on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information agents which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal agents provide their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal agents exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information agents such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.

  14. Student-Created Content in WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, M. J.

    2014-07-01

    Using WorldWide Telescope (WWT), the California Academy of Sciences used tour presentations created by Bay Area high school students. These students wrote, programmed, and presented their own fulldome shows utilizing WWT with the support of Academy staff. This allowed the students to create programs that were meaningful and interesting and to help determine the kinds of shows and content for future programs at the Academy. We present here our experiences and our goals for future programs.

  15. Developing basic space science world wide: progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.; Wamsteker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international cooperation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Germany (1996), France (2000), Mauritius (2001), and Argentina (2002) emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a world wide basis. Since 1996, the workshops are contributing to the development of the World Space Observatory (WSO/UV) concept. Achievements of the series of workshops are briefly summarized in this report.

  16. Star and Planet Formation through the WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    2013-07-01

    The WorldWide Telescope is a Universe Information System that can display and access nearly all astronomical images and literature available online. In the five years since its initial release, the program has been downloaded more than 10 million times, but only a very tiny fraction of those downloads, so far, are by professional research astronomers. While WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a fantastic tool for education and outreach (see wwtambassadors.org), it is also a tremendously valuable research tool, especially for putting results into their astronomical context. In this poster, we demonstrate how the WWT can be used to: 1) put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum; 2) perform literature searches from the sky; 3) compare images and catalogs at different wavelenghts, on-the-fly in seconds; 4) show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers; and 5) communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive Tours of your data and ideas. Examples of data distribution can be found at http://www.worldwidetelescope.org/COMPLETE/WWTCoverageTool.htm and a star-formation-related educational tour sample is at wwtambassadors.org/wwt/tours/dust-and-us.

  17. Internet: Diameter of the World-Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Réka; Jeong, Hawoong; Barabási, Albert-László

    1999-09-01

    Despite its increasing role in communication, the World-Wide Web remains uncontrolled: any individual or institution can create a website with any number of documents and links. This unregulated growth leads to a huge and complex web, which becomes a large directed graph whose vertices are documents and whose edges are links (URLs) that point from one document to another. The topology of this graph determines the web's connectivity and consequently how effectively we can locate information on it. But its enormous size (estimated to be at least 8×108 documents) and the continual changing of documents and links make it impossible to catalogue all the vertices and edges.

  18. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  19. Distribution of medical research articles on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kevin T

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-eight percent of 51 polled medical editors felt that published research articles should be available to the public on the World Wide Web at no charge, after a mean time from publication of 1.4 years for viewing and 1.9 years for printing. Public libraries or other government institutions could be allowed to assume the responsibility of housing and distributing the electronically stored archived material, analogous to their role with printed material, lifting the financial burden from the publishing companies.

  20. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  1. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  2. Starry Nights: The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. L.; Meymaris, K.; Russell, R.; Gallagher, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased and robust understanding of our environment requires learning opportunities that take place outside of the conventional K-12 classroom and beyond the confines of the school day. There has been an increase in extracurricular activities that bring students into the "real world", sometimes spanning past the regular school year, and often times including other family and/or community members. Citizen science or public engagement activities are becoming available across many disciplines and are attracting the attention of people of all ages. The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone to go outside, look skywards after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This inaugural Windows After Dark event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in astronomy. The activities of Star Count benefit from the current excitement in citizen science, with 15 nights of observing in October. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people around the world. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen- scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results of this exciting campaign. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices based on this inaugural campaign.

  3. FOREWORD: 9th International Conference on Compressors and their Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacevic, Ahmed, Prof

    2015-08-01

    The 9th International Conference on Compressors and their Systems will be held in London from 5th - 9th September 2015, and as its Chairman, it is my pleasure to welcome you. This series of conferences started in 1999 organised by the Fluid Machinery Group of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) but since 2009 it has been managed by City University London in conjunction with the IMechE and the Institute of Refrigeration, both of which have been very proactive in promoting it. The Organising committee is grateful for their support and continued encouragement. This year, after rigorous reviewing, we have accepted over 80 technical papers for publication, the highest number in the conference history. On behalf of the organising committee I would like to thank the reviewers for their hard work and assistance. In addition to the main technical sessions, this year we have introduced a third day, specifically for Industry, to consider technology, business and market drivers on compressor developments. The traditional series of the short courses is this year continuing prior to the main event with the second short course/forum on Computational Fluid Dynamics in rotating positive displacement machines. I would like to extend my special thanks to our main sponsors, Holroyd PTG, Howden and Kapp Niels for their continuing support for the conference. With their generous contributions we have managed to keep the conference fees at the same level as in 2013, despite extending it to 3 days and holding it outside the University this year. The welcome reception on Sunday 6th September 2015 is dedicated to the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the Centre for Positive Displacement Compressors Technology which was formed at City University in 1995 with support from the Royal Academy of Engineering and Holroyd; its main aim being to assist British manufacturers of screw compressors. The Centre has since made a significant impact on the screw compressor world, far beyond

  4. PREFACE: 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, M.; Müller, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure and privilege to welcome all the participants of the 9th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2015) to Lausanne. Since its initiation in 1986 in Sendai, Japan, the CAV symposium has grown to become the world's foremost event dedicated to cavitation. Hosted by EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne) and staged at the SwissTech Convention Center, CAV2015 is a unique opportunity to exchange with leading scientists and industry experts about the latest advances in theoretical modelling, numerical simulation and experimentation related to cavitation phenomena with a special emphasis on practical applications. The topics covered by CAV2015 include cavitation in ¬fluid machinery and fuel systems, bubble dynamics, cavitation erosion, advanced numerical simulation, sonochemistery, biomedicine and experimental techniques. CAV2015 will also host an exhibition of leading providers of state of the art measurement equipment, including high-speed imaging systems, non-intrusive velocimetry, pressure sensors, as well as numerical solvers. We have accepted over 190 papers, which will be presented in four parallel sessions. The proceedings will appear in the open access Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), which is part of the IOP Conference Series. All published papers are fully citable and upon publication will be free to download in perpetuity. We would like to thank all the reviewers for their great help during the selection process. We will also propose six plenary speakers to highlight cavitation issues in different fields. Finally, we would like to warmly thank our sponsors for their valuable support and the local Organizing Committee for the efforts in setting up this important event. We look forward to seeing you in Lausanne!

  5. Guide to the Internet. The world wide web.

    PubMed Central

    Pallen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The world wide web provides a uniform, user friendly interface to the Internet. Web pages can contain text and pictures and are interconnected by hypertext links. The addresses of web pages are recorded as uniform resource locators (URLs), transmitted by hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), and written in hypertext markup language (HTML). Programs that allow you to use the web are available for most operating systems. Powerful on line search engines make it relatively easy to find information on the web. Browsing through the web--"net surfing"--is both easy and enjoyable. Contributing to the web is not difficult, and the web opens up new possibilities for electronic publishing and electronic journals. Images p1554-a Fig 5 PMID:8520402

  6. Radiology teaching file cases on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Scalzetti, E M

    1997-08-01

    The presentation of a radiographic teaching file on the World Wide Web can be enhanced by attending to principles of web design. Chief among these are appropriate control of page layout, minimization of the time required to download a page from the remote server, and provision for navigation within and among the web pages that constitute the site. Page layout is easily accomplished by the use of tables; column widths can be fixed to maintain an acceptable line length for text. Downloading time is minimized by rigorous editing and by optimal compression of image files; beyond this, techniques like preloading of images and specification of image width and height are also helpful. Navigation controls should be clear, consistent, and readily available. PMID:9268885

  7. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  8. Curriculum development and courseware implementation using World Wide Web technology.

    PubMed

    Mantas, J; Diomidus, M

    1998-01-01

    The curriculum development of medical informatics related courses and their adoption into the faculty curriculum is one of the main tasks of the present day educators. To this end the Internet technology has supported this task. The Internet was born in December of 1969 and has grown phenomenally since. Its graphically interactive, user-friendly modality, the World Wide Web (WWW), is younger and growing even more explosively. By its nature, the WWW is a tool ideally and uniquely suited for the advancement education. This paper describes the design, development and the implementation of a Web Site for supporting the education of the students in the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Athens. The application will be used also in the European project Nightingale. PMID:10384567

  9. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  10. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  11. WorldWide Telescope in High School Astronomy Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Ana-Maria; Goodman, A. A.; Udomprasert, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This project aims to improve astronomy education at the high school level, and to increase awareness in astronomy for pre-university students, on an international scale. In 2013, the WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors Program began a collaboration with the International Olympiad in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IOAA), which was held in the city of Volos, Greece in August 2013. Now at its VIIth edition, IOAA is the largest annual astronomy competition for high school students, and it consists of one team task and three individual ones - Theoretical, Data Analysis, and Observational. Each of the participating countries (35 in 2013, compared to 21 in 2007) is responsible for selecting up to five representative students for the International round. IOAA is meant to promote future collaborations between these students, and to encourage friendships inside a global scientific community. Ana-Maria Constantin, a current Harvard undergraduate student and a former medalist of IOAA, represented WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors in Greece by giving a talk on the advantages of using WWT as a tool for research and education. As a result, the President and the International Board of the Olympiad have expressed support for including WWT in the competition for future editions. WWTA is working with the Organizing Board for next year’s competition in Romania, to include WWT as a testing tool. This poster will summarize key points from the WWTA presentation in Greece, present ideas for WWT-based activities in future IOAA competitions, and outline plans for new collaborations from representatives of Sri Lanka, Poland, Bangladesh, and Colombia. Given the positive feedback we have received after the presentation in Greece, we are also considering future implementations of WWT in summer research camps for high school students, such as the Summer Science Program.

  12. Starry Nights: The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Dennis; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international field campaign encouraging participants to go outside, look skyward after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe citizen science event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in astronomy. Star Count benefits from the current excitement in citizen science. The 2007 pilot effort included 15 nights for observations in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people from all countries. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the data from the of the 2007 campaign. We will discuss how the Star Count team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices based on this inaugural campaign, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

  13. World Wide Web resources on zoonotic infections: a subjective overview.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Georgios; Fragoulis, Konstantinos N; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-12-01

    Zoonoses are a diverse group of infections whose significance is underestimated and understudied. The prevalence of zoonoses is higher in the developing world, where health professionals are often deprived of the rapid and free availability of related scientific information; however, continuous evolution of the World Wide Web (WWW) may offer such an option. This review sought to evaluate the content of available WWW resources on zoonoses. Two authors independently identified relevant websites. The selected websites were considered of merit upon consensus of all the authors. Only websites with freely available content were included. Websites on individual zoonoses were excluded. Through the numerous sites encountered on the WWW on zoonoses, there are certain ones that offer adequate information for the public and others that can serve as useful initiators for the non-specialist. Most sites approach zoonoses one-dimensionally, either as a public health, medical or veterinarian problem. The few sites that offer updates on zoonoses unfortunately focus on regional news. Ample information for the public and non-specialists on zoonoses can be traced on the WWW. However, what is missing is a site that will continuously update health professionals who deal with zoonoses in all their medical, veterinary and public health aspects.

  14. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    SciTech Connect

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  15. Accessing NASA Technology with the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer and technology awareness applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology OPportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people.

  16. 9th International Conference on Dense Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Bott-Suzuki, Simon

    2015-08-31

    DOE OFES supported the 9th International Conference on Z-Pinches (DZP 2014) held in Napa, CA in August 2014. Funds were used to support travel for several US students, and to disseminate information through the publication of a proceedings volume.

  17. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant. PMID:23254366

  18. Browsing the World Wide Web from behind a firewall

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, R.W.

    1995-02-01

    The World Wide Web provides a unified method of access to various information services on the Internet via a variety of protocols. Mosaic and other browsers give users a graphical interface to the Web that is easier to use and more visually pleasing than any other common Internet information service today. The availability of information via the Web and the number of users accessing it have both grown rapidly in the last year. The interest and investment of commercial firms in this technology suggest that in the near future, access to the Web may become as necessary to doing business as a telephone. This is problematical for organizations that use firewalls to protect their internal networks from the Internet. Allowing all the protocols and types of information found in the Web to pass their firewall will certainly increase the risk of attack by hackers on the Internet. But not allowing access to the Web could be even more dangerous, as frustrated users of the internal network are either unable to do their jobs, or find creative new ways to get around the firewall. The solution to this dilemma adopted at Sandia National Laboratories is described. Discussion also covers risks of accessing the Web, design alternatives considered, and trade-offs used to find the proper balance between access and protection.

  19. Searching for biomedical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R P

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of biomedical information available via the Internet and its most popular retrieval system, the World Wide Web, has fostered active research and development directed toward locating resources that are appropriate for answering specific queries. The goal is to create tools that optimize information retrieval (as measured by two quantities, precision and recall) while minimizing the effort required by the user. Existing Web retrieval tools can be divided into the following groups: manually maintained topical lists; automatically generated word-based indices; software agents and multi-index searching aids; network cataloging methods; and miscellaneous hybrid and newer approaches. Improvements in current methods should arise from further research into: methods of describing objects on the Web; improved ways of searching for (and within) collections of documents as opposed to single documents; the ability to search for fielded documents; and ways to describe resources that span intra- and interdisciplinary as well as cross-cultural linguistic differences. For this last problem, the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) will be of great help. As online information retrieval improves, efforts are underway to improve the online information itself; quality control over content is being addressed as the peer-review systems of traditional printed journals migrate into the realm of electronic publication. PMID:11183455

  20. An electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Marstaller, J.E.; Zorn, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    The LBNL/UCSF Resource for Molecular Cytogenetics has been created to facilitate the application of molecular cytogenetics in clinical and biological studies. One of the primary tasks is the selection of probes optimized for use in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our group provides data management support for all the activities in the Resource. In this paper we describe an electronic laboratory notebook based on the World Wide Web. The data are located in a central database. The user interface consists of a set of HTML forms that handle data input and retrieval from a database from two locations several miles apart. A WWW client allows users to formulate retrieval and edit operations that are sent to the database. Results are filtered through Perl scripts which generate HTML documents with Hypertext links that are sent back to the client. Besides tracking laboratory information through the various stages in the biology laboratory, the system also feeds into a public web server that makes the data available to the community.

  1. Visualizing Moon Phases with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia; Goodman, Alyssa; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Zhihui Helen; Sadler, Philip; Dussault, Mary; Block, Sarah; Lotridge, Erin; Jackson, Jonathan; Constantin, Ana-Maria

    2014-07-01

    We report preliminary results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon's phases. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, three dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon's phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. We present findings from the first two phases of the study—one in which we compared learning gains from the WWT VizLab with a traditional two dimensional Moon phases simulator, and another in which we experimented with different ways of blending physical and virtual models in the classroom.

  2. Documentation of the AMIP models on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    The intercomparison of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments of a similar type has become an increasingly popular methodology for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of climate simulations. In such endeavors, attempts to attribute differences among the simulations to specific model properties require, as a minimum prerequisite, the accurate and comprehensive documentation of these features. Regrettably however, atmospheric model documentation typically is fragmentary and scattered across numerous publications. It is also often inaccurate, in the sense that the pace of model development and the proliferation of new model versions usually outstrip their recorded descriptions. More often than not, the detailed configuration of a model for a particular experiment also is undocumented. In addition, there may be much unevenness in the descriptions of different facets of models. This incompleteness usually is replicated in published results of an intercomparison experiment, in that participating models` features often are summarized only perfunctorily. Summary documentation of the numerics, dynamics, and physics of models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is now available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. This paper describes the principal attributes of the electronic model documentation and provides instructions on how to access it.

  3. Human exposure assessment resources on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Schwela, Dieter; Hakkinen, Pertti J

    2004-05-20

    Human exposure assessment is frequently noted as a weak link and bottleneck in the risk assessment process. Fortunately, the World Wide Web and Internet are providing access to numerous valuable sources of human exposure assessment-related information, along with opportunities for information exchange. Internet mailing lists are available as potential online help for exposure assessment questions, e.g. RISKANAL has several hundred members from numerous countries. Various Web sites provide opportunities for training, e.g. Web sites offering general human exposure assessment training include two from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and four from the US National Library of Medicine. Numerous other Web sites offer access to a wide range of exposure assessment information. For example, the (US) Alliance for Chemical Awareness Web site addresses direct and indirect human exposures, occupational exposures and ecological exposure assessments. The US EPA's Exposure Factors Program Web site provides a focal point for current information and data on exposure factors relevant to the United States. In addition, the International Society of Exposure Analysis Web site provides information about how this society seeks to foster and advance the science of exposure analysis. A major opportunity exists for risk assessors and others to broaden the level of exposure assessment information available via Web sites. Broadening the Web's exposure information could include human exposure factors-related information about country- or region-specific ranges in body weights, drinking water consumption, etc. along with residential factors-related information on air changeovers per hour in various types of residences. Further, country- or region-specific ranges on how various tasks are performed by various types of consumers could be collected and provided. Noteworthy are that efforts are underway in Europe to develop a multi-country collection of exposure factors and the European

  4. Data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, T.G.; Smith, A.W.; Daugherty, P.F.

    1997-04-16

    The connection between data warehousing and the metadata. used to catalog and locate warehouse data is obvious, but what is the connection between data warehousing, metadata, and the World Wide Web (WWW)? Specifically, the WWW can be used to allow users to search metadata (data about the data) and retrieve data from a warehouse database. In addition, the Internet/Intranet can be used to manage the metadata in archive databases and to streamline the database administration functions of a large archive center. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is a data archive and distribution center for the National Air and Space Administration`s (NASA`s) Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS); the ORNL DAAC provides access to tabular and imagery datasets used in ecological and environmental research. To support this effort, we have taken advantage of the rather unique and user-friendly features of the WWW to (1) allow users to search for and download the data we archive and (2) provide DAAC developers with effective metadata and data management tools. In particular, the ORNL DAAC has developed the Biogeochemical Information Ordering Management Environment (BIOME), a WWW search-and-order system, as well as a WWW-based database administrator`s (DBA`s) tool suite designed to assist the site`s DBA in the management of archive metadata and databases and several other DBA functions that are essential to site management. This paper is a case study of how the ORNL DAAC uses the WWW to both manage data and allow access to its data warehouse.

  5. World-Wide Web Tools for Locating Planetary Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanefsky, Bob; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The explosive growth of the World-Wide Web (WWW) in the past year has made it feasible to provide interactive graphical tools to assist scientists in locating planetary images. The highest available resolution images of any site of interest can be quickly found on a map or plot, and, if online, displayed immediately on nearly any computer equipped with a color screen, an Internet connection, and any of the free WWW browsers. The same tools may also be of interest to educators, students, and the general public. Image finding tools have been implemented covering most of the solar system: Earth, Mars, and the moons and planets imaged by Voyager. The Mars image-finder, which plots the footprints of all the high-resolution Viking Orbiter images and can be used to display any that are available online, also contains a complete scrollable atlas and hypertext gazetteer to help locating areas. The Earth image-finder is linked to thousands of Shuttle images stored at NASA/JSC, and displays them as red dots on a globe. The Voyager image-finder plots images as dots, by longitude and apparent target size, linked to online images. The locator (URL) for the top-level page is http: //ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/Atlas/. Through the efforts of the Planetary Data System and other organizations, hundreds of thousands of planetary images are now available on CD-ROM, and many of these have been made available on the WWW. However, locating images of a desired site is still problematic, in practice. For example, many scientists studying Mars use digital image maps, which are one third the resolution of Viking Orbiter survey images. When they douse Viking Orbiter images, they often work with photographically printed hardcopies, which lack the flexibility of digital images: magnification, contrast stretching, and other basic image-processing techniques offered by off-the-shelf software. From the perspective of someone working on an experimental image processing technique for

  6. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-02-01

    In the thin, dry air of northern Chile's Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 16,500 feet, an amazing new telescope system is taking shape, on schedule to provide the world's astronomers with unprecedented views of the origins of stars, galaxies, and planets. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will open an entirely new "window" on the Universe, allowing scientists to unravel longstanding and important astronomical mysteries. ALMA Artist's Concept Artist's Concept of Completed ALMA CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NRAO/NAOJ Click on image for high-resolution file (182 KB) "Most of the photons in the Universe are in the wavelength range that ALMA will receive, and ALMA will give us our first high-resolution views at these wavelengths. This will be a tremendous advancement for astronomy and open one of our science's last frontiers," Anneila Sargent, a Caltech professor and ALMA Board member, told the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Boston, Mass. The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared waves. ALMA, a system using up to 66 high-precision dish antennas working together, will provide astronomers with dramatically greater sensitivity, the ability to detect faint objects, and resolving power, the ability to see fine detail, than has ever before been available in this range. "This ambitious project is the product of an international collaboration that spans the globe," Sargent said. "ALMA truly will enable transformational science and providing this capability has required a massive, world-wide effort," she added. The ALMA project is a partnership between Europe, Japan and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by ESO, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the

  7. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  8. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  9. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  10. Combining Real World Experiences with WorldWide Telescope Visualization to Build a Better Parallax Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, E. F.; Gingrich, E. C.; Nottis, K. E. K.; Udomprasert, P.; Goodman, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    We present a lab activity designed to help students understand the concept of parallax in both astronomical and non-astronomical contexts. In an outdoor setting, students learn the methodology of distance determination via parallax. They identify a distant landmark to establish a reference of direction, and then measure the change in apparent direction for more nearby objects as they change position in a 2 meter radius “orbit” around the “Sun.” This hands-on activity involves large, visually-discernable angles so that students can internalize the concept of parallax from everyday experience. However, students often have difficulty transferring this experience to the astronomical realm, so we pair this hands-on activity with a more explicitly astronomically-based activity using the WorldWide Telescope visualization environment. Students apply the same methodology in this environment and learn how the apparent motion of stars is related to their distance from Earth. The combination of hands-on activity and computer-aided visualization is designed to produce a deeper understanding of parallax in the astronomical environment, and an improved understanding of the inherently three-dimensional distribution of objects in our universe. More formal assessment is underway.

  11. World-wide parliamentarians join forces to resolve population problems.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Subjects selected for discussion at the International Conference on Population and Development held from August 28 to September 1, 1979 included world population trends and prospects; government laws and policies; the status of women in family law, literacy and health; employment policies, rural to urban migration and appropriate technology; economic growth with equity and a new economic order; environmental impact and world resources; community participation in motivation and service delivery programs; international coordination of donor policies; research priorities; and governmental responsibilities. The following were among the specific objectives and goals identified: 1) formulate population policies as an integral part of socioeconomic development plans; 2) examine the impact of domestic population trends on health, education, employment, agricultural and industrial development, housing and environmental conditions; 3) strengthen the integration of population programs in all development activities; 4) ensure the basic right of people to decide the number and spacing of their children and ensure that they have the information and means to do so; and 5) promote the role and status of women in the family and society and enhance their access to education, employment, health services and financial credit. A strong commitment was made for implementation of population policies as an integral part of socioeconomic development plans. PMID:12261707

  12. General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of underground along 9th street. J street segment intersects at left, 9th street segment intersects alley at right. View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. Researching on the World Wide Web: Spend More Time Learning, Not Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Catalano, Cynthia N.

    This book explains how to conduct effective research on the World Wide Web. The book is divided into two sections: "Research Tools" and "Search Strategies." The first section includes chapters defining the World Wide Web; Web addresses; indexes; online libraries; search engines; and newsgroups and listservs. The second section outlines…

  14. Using the World Wide Web with Adult ESL Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silc, Kathleen Flannery

    This digest presents reasons for using World Wide Web activities in adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. It addresses the issue of preparing learners to use the Web and suggests activities that focus on authentic learning experiences to enhance skills. Discussion is centered in skills developed through the World Wide Web,…

  15. 76 FR 46854 - Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Product Data Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide..., 2010, applicable to workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Imaging and Printing Group, World Wide Products... 28, 2010 (75 FR 30067). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the...

  16. GeoCENS: a geospatial cyberinfrastructure for the world-wide sensor web.

    PubMed

    Liang, Steve H L; Huang, Chih-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The world-wide sensor web has become a very useful technique for monitoring the physical world at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible. Yet we believe that the full potential of sensor web has thus far not been revealed. In order to harvest the world-wide sensor web's full potential, a geospatial cyberinfrastructure is needed to store, process, and deliver large amount of sensor data collected worldwide. In this paper, we first define the issue of the sensor web long tail followed by our view of the world-wide sensor web architecture. Then, we introduce the Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Sensing (GeoCENS) architecture and explain each of its components. Finally, with demonstration of three real-world powered-by-GeoCENS sensor web applications, we believe that the GeoCENS architecture can successfully address the sensor web long tail issue and consequently realize the world-wide sensor web vision.

  17. A Galaxy Zoo - WorldWide Telescope Mashup: Expanding User Defined Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebbert, Jarod; Sands, M.; Fay, J.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.; Galaxy Zoo Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a new way of exploring your favorite Galaxy Zoo galaxies within the context of the sky using Microsoft Research's WorldWide Telescope. Galaxy Zoo has a fantastic community that is eager to learn and contribute to science through morphological classifications of galaxies. WorldWide Telescope is an interactive observatory that allows users to explore the sky. WorldWide Telescope uses images from the world's best telescopes, including the galaxies of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. WorldWide Telescope provides a fantastic sense of size and distance that is hard to experience in Galaxy Zoo. Creating tours from favorite galaxies directly from Galaxy Zoo aims to solve this dilemma.The incorporation of Galaxy Zoo and WorldWide telescope provides a great resource for users to learn more about the galaxies they are classifying. Users can now explore the areas around certain galaxies and view information about that location from within WorldWide Telescope. Not only does this encourage self-motivated research but after tours are created they can be shared with anyone. We hope this will help spread citizen science to different audiences via email, Facebook, and Twitter.Without the WorldWide Telescope team at Microsoft Research this project would not have been possible. Please go start exploring at http://wwt.galaxyzoo.org. This project was funded through the Microsoft Research Academic Program.

  18. MSCD's Development of a Campus Wide Information System on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Mary

    This paper describes the development of a campus wide information system (CWIS) at Metropolitan State College of Denver (MSCD) in Colorado. The paper discusses the background of the college, its computing environment, interactive voice response system, and information technology plan. The CWIS was first implemented on gopher. Gopher was…

  19. Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch Home Page on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The tilt rotor aircraft holds great promise for improving air travel in the future. It's benefits include vertical take off and landing combined with airspeeds comparable to propeller driven aircraft. However, the noise from a tilt rotor during approach to a landing is potentially a significant barrier to widespread acceptance of these aircraft. This approach noise is primarily caused by Blade Vortex Interactions (BVI), which are created when the blade passes near or through the vortex trailed by preceding blades. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test will measure the noise from a tilt rotor during descent conditions and demonstrate several possible techniques to reduce the noise. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test at NASA Ames Research Center will measure acoustics and performance for a full-scale XV-15 rotor. A single XV-15 rotor will be mounted on the Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test will be conducted in helicopter mode with forward flight speeds up to 100 knots and tip path plane angles up to +/- 15 degrees. These operating conditions correspond to a wide range of tilt rotor descent and transition to forward flight cases. Rotor performance measurements will be made with the RTA rotor balance, while acoustic measurements will be made using an acoustic traverse and four fixed microphones. The acoustic traverse will provide limited directionality measurements on the advancing side of the rotor, where BVI noise is expected to be the highest. Baseline acoustics and performance measurements for the three-bladed rotor will be obtained over the entire test envelope. Acoustic measurements will also be obtained for correlation with the XV-15 aircraft Inflight Rotor Aeroacoustic Program (IRAP) recently conducted by Ames. Several techniques will be studied in an attempt to reduce the highest measured BVI noise conditions. The first of these techniques will use sub-wings mounted on the blade tips. These subwings are expected to alter the size

  20. Introduction to the Proceedings of the 9th ISDH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, V. Michael, Jr.; Riskin, Seth

    2013-02-01

    The Proceedings As co-chairs of the 9th International Symposium on Display Holography, we welcome readers of this collection of papers and posters presented at the event. We hope that both attendees of the event and others pursuing the art, science, and business of holography and 3D imaging will find the authors' contributions of lasting interest and importance. The Event Since its creation at Lake Forest College in 1982 by Professor Tung H Jeong, ISDH has followed a model that differentiates it from other scientific conferences. The 9th ISDH continued this history, fully occupying a floor of the MIT Media Lab for five days. The single-track conference opened with reports on the state of holography in the various nations represented by the attendees, followed by a series of presentations on Education and Holography. One and one-half days of papers on Art and Holography followed, then sessions on Techniques and Materials, Digital Techniques, and Commercial and Applied Holography. A poster session permitted more in-depth discussion between authors and the audience. Two exhibitions of holographic works opened at ISDH: an informal display area at the symposium, and a 15-month-long MIT Museum exhibition, The Jeweled Net: Views of Contemporary Holography. The success of an event of this sort requires the help of many people and organizations. We wish especially to recognize our Honorary Conference Chairs: Tung H Jeong and Joseph W Goodman; our Technical Program Committee: Hans I Bjelkhagen, Frank Fan, Nasser Peyghambarian, and Hiroshi Yoshikawa; and our Arts and Exhibition Committee: Betsy Connors-Chen, Melissa Crenshaw, John Durant, Dieter Jung, Linda Law, Martin Richardson, Jonathan Ross, and Sally Weber. Betsy also coordinated the on-site exhibition. Kristin Hall at the MIT Media Lab made local arrangements, while registration was handled by MIT Conference Services. We also gratefully acknowledge support from Lake Forest College, holographer.org, and authentibrand

  1. The 9th Annual Meeting of the Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 3-5 March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habib, Amro

    2015-01-01

    The 9th Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery (9th SANS) Annual Meeting was held in the Sheraton Dammam Hotel and Towers, Dammam, Saudi Arabia on March 3-5, 2015, organized by the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Dammam with a theme of “Research is the Bridge to the Future.” The meeting was preceded by a Public Awareness Campaign on March 2, 2015 held at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and several pre-conference workshops that were highly beneficial for neurosurgery today. The scientific program was loaded with innovative and interactive presentations from respected and reputable speakers from different parts of the world. Abstracts were carefully selected and reviewed based on their scientific value and relevance to the clinical, surgical, academic, and research aspects of neurosurgery in the Kingdom, and the world.

  2. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  3. PREFACE: 9th National Symposium on Polymeric Materials (NSPM 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aidy; Salit, Sapuan

    2010-07-01

    NSPM 2009 is the formal proceedings of the 9th National Symposium on Polymeric Materials held in Residence Hotel Uniten Bangi on 14-16 December 2009. It is also organised with The Plastics and Rubber Institute Malaysia PRIM. The symposium proceedings consists of 94 papers covering a large number of issues on experimental and analytical studies of polymeric materials. The objectives of the symposium are to review the state-of-the art, present and latest findings and exchange ideas among engineers, researchers and practitioners involved in this field. We strongly hope the outcomes of this symposium will stimulate and enhanced the progress of experimental and analytical studies on polymeric materials as well as contribute to the fundamental understanding in related fields. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, 15 papers were selected for publications in this issue. Another 20 papers were selected for publication in Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology (PJST). The content of the material and its rapid dissemination was considered to be more important than its form. We are grateful to all the authors for their papers and presentations in this symposium. They are also the ones who help make this symposium possible through their hard work in the preparation of the manuscripts. We would also like to offer our sincere thanks to all the invited speakers who came to share their knowledge with us. We would also like to acknowledge the untiring efforts of the reviewers, research assistants and students in meeting deadlines and for their patience and perseverance. We are indeed honoured to associate this event with Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing, and Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Finally, we appreciate the sponsor support provided by Faculty of Engineering, The Plastics and Rubber Institute Malaysia (PRIM) and PETRONAS Malaysia. Thank you all. Editors: Aidy Ali and S M Sapuan

  4. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  5. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  6. The Internet as a Reference Tool: Accessing Scientific and Technical Information via the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Mona L.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Research Library has developed a World Wide Web (WWW) page to allow laboratory staff, as well as individuals from around the world, access to information via the Internet. While many Web pages offer information solely on the organization, the Los Alamos National Laboratory page provides links to reference materials…

  7. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, S; Bowie, D; Hergenrather, K

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe advantages, challenges, and ethical considerations of web based behavioural data collection. Methods: This discussion is based on the authors' experiences in survey development and study design, respondent recruitment, and internet research, and on the experiences of others as found in the literature. Results: The advantages of using the world wide web to collect behavioural data include rapid access to numerous potential respondents and previously hidden populations, respondent openness and full participation, opportunities for student research, and reduced research costs. Challenges identified include issues related to sampling and sample representativeness, competition for the attention of respondents, and potential limitations resulting from the much cited "digital divide", literacy, and disability. Ethical considerations include anonymity and privacy, providing and substantiating informed consent, and potential risks of malfeasance. Conclusions: Computer mediated communications, including electronic mail, the world wide web, and interactive programs will play an ever increasing part in the future of behavioural science research. Justifiable concerns regarding the use of the world wide web in research exist, but as access to, and use of, the internet becomes more widely and representatively distributed globally, the world wide web will become more applicable. In fact, the world wide web may be the only research tool able to reach some previously hidden population subgroups. Furthermore, many of the criticisms of online data collection are common to other survey research methodologies. PMID:12490652

  8. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crane, G.; MacGregor, I.; Meyer, S.

    1995-12-01

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase.

  9. Publishing biomedical journals on the World-Wide Web using an open architecture model.

    PubMed Central

    Shareck, E. P.; Greenes, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many respects, biomedical publications are ideally suited for distribution via the World-Wide Web, but economic concerns have prevented the rapid adoption of an on-line publishing model. PURPOSE: We report on our experiences with assisting biomedical journals in developing an online presence, issues that were encountered, and methods used to address these issues. Our approach is based on an open architecture that fosters adaptation and interconnection of biomedical resources. METHODS: We have worked with the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), as well as five other publishers. A set of tools and protocols was employed to develop a scalable and customizable solution for publishing journals on-line. RESULTS: In March, 1996, the New England Journal of Medicine published its first World-Wide Web issue. Explorations with other publishers have helped to generalize the model. CONCLUSIONS: Economic and technical issues play a major role in developing World-Wide Web publishing solutions. PMID:8947685

  10. Occupational Exploration at Ontario Junior High School: 9th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Gene; And Others

    The document contains 56 activities for Grade 9. The contents include the following areas: questions about the future; job seeking activities and guidelines; career games; a personal interest check list; unit guides for courses in World of Work (55 pages), and Career Educational Planning (40 pages) which include objectives, activities, evaluation,…

  11. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  12. PREFACE: 9th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitmann, Christoph; David, Christian; Nolting, Frithjof; Pfeiffer, Franz; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-09-01

    Conference logo This volume compiles the contributions to the International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM2008) held on 20-25 July 2008 in Zurich, Switzerland. The conference was the ninth in a series which started in Göttingen in 1984. Over the years the XRM conference series has served as a forum bringing together all relevant players working on the development of methods, building instrumentation, and applying x-ray microscopy to challenging issues in materials science, condensed matter research, environmental science and biology. XRM2008 was attended by about 300 participants who followed 44 oral presentations and presented 220 posters. Conference photograph Figure 1: Participants of the XRM2008 conference gathered in front of the main building of the ETH-Zurich. The conference showed that x-ray microscopy has become a mature field resting on three pillars. The first are workhorse instruments available even to non-specialist users. These exist at synchrotron sources world-wide as well as in laboratories. They allow the application of established microscopy methods to solve scientific projects in areas as diverse as soil science, the investigation of cometary dust particles, magnetic materials, and the analysis of ancient parchments. Examples of all of these projects can be found in this volume. These instruments have become so well understood that now they are also commercially available. The second pillar is the continued development of methods. Methods like stroboscopic imaging, wet cells or high and low temperature environments add versatility to the experiments. Methods like phase retrieval and ptychographic imaging allow the retrieval of information which hitero was thought to be inaccessible. The third pillar is the extension of such instruments and methods to new photon sources. With x-ray free electron lasers on the horizon the XRM community is working to transfer their know-how to these novel sources which will offer unprecedented brightness and

  13. Search Engines: A Primer on Finding Information on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddux, Cleborne

    1996-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of several World Wide Web search engines, including Yahoo, Infoseek, Alta Vista, Magellan, Lycos, Webcrawler, Excite, Deja News, and the LISZT Directory of discussion groups. Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are included. Discussion assesses performance and describes rules and syntax for refining or limiting a search.…

  14. The Educator's Brief Guide to the Internet and the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    This book is an introduction to the Internet and World Wide Web for educators. The purpose is to provide a practical handbook for administrators and teachers, as well as to reflect on the potential of this new technology to redefine the traditional curriculum in elementary and high schools. Throughout this book appear boxed definitions and…

  15. Automated MeSH indexing of the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, J.; Kouramajian, V.; Maram, S.; Devadhar, V.

    1995-01-01

    To facilitate networked discovery and information retrieval in the biomedical domain, we have designed a system for automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings to documents retrieved from the World-Wide Web. Our prototype implementations show significant promise. We describe our methods and discuss the further development of a completely automated indexing tool called the "Web-MeSH Medibot." PMID:8563421

  16. Navigational Structure on the World Wide Web: Usability Concerns, User Preferences, and "Browsing Behavior."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore; Monson, John A.; Xaver, Richard F.; Kilic, Gulsen; Conley, Aaron T.; Wamey, Beatrice

    There are several approaches a World Wide Web site designer considers in developing a menu structure. One consideration is the content of the menus (what choices are available to the user). Another consideration is the physical layout of the menu structure. The physical layout of a menu may be described as being one of at least three different…

  17. Teaching Intrapersonal Communication with the World-Wide Web: Cognitive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedletsky, Leonard J.; Aitken, Joan E.

    This paper offers a brief description of a course on intrapersonal communication with a home page approach using the World Wide Web. The paper notes that students use the home page for completing assignments, readings, posting responses, self-evaluation testing, research, and displaying some of their papers for the course. The paper contains…

  18. Finding and Evaluating Adult ESL Resources on the World Wide Web. ERIC Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham

    One of the challenges often mentioned by users of the World Wide Web is creating and implementing successful searches on topics of interest. This article provides background information about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) resources available on the Web. It describes various search tools, explains how to create search strategies and how…

  19. The World Wide Web in the Classroom: Access without Adult Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul Douglas; Wagner, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a multipronged approach for restricting student access to adult material on the World Wide Web: blocking software that refuses to access certain sites, an honor pledge with consequences for breaking it, and a converter to display output from a student's computer on a teacher's monitor or VCR. (SK)

  20. Establishing a Presence on the World Wide Web: A Rhetorical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Presents a framework--grounded in the classic rhetorical concept of "ethos"--for technical communicators to examine the unique characteristics of the World Wide Web and the audiences it serves. Suggests that technical and marketing communicators can use the idea of online "ethos" to evaluate existing Web sites and design new sites that convey the…

  1. Exploring Geology on the World-Wide Web--Volcanoes and Volcanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmrich, Steven Henry; Gore, Pamela J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on sites on the World Wide Web that offer information about volcanoes. Web sites are classified into areas of Global Volcano Information, Volcanoes in Hawaii, Volcanoes in Alaska, Volcanoes in the Cascades, European and Icelandic Volcanoes, Extraterrestrial Volcanism, Volcanic Ash and Weather, and Volcano Resource Directories. Suggestions…

  2. Use of a World Wide Web Site Evaluation Tool in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of assessment of materials on the World Wide Web that may be freely accessible to both instructors and students. Evaluates web sites that cover the periodic table in terms of content and design. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  3. Marketing and Selling CD-ROM Products on the World-Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Becki

    1995-01-01

    Describes three companies' approaches to marketing and selling CD-ROM products on the World Wide Web. Benefits include low overhead for Internet-based sales, allowance for creativity, and ability to let customers preview products online. Discusses advertising, information delivery, content, information services, and security. (AEF)

  4. XML: A Language To Manage the World Wide Web. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Tanous, Jennifer R.

    This digest provides an overview of XML (Extensible Markup Language), a markup language used to construct World Wide Web pages. Topics addressed include: (1) definition of a markup language, including comparison of XML with SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language); (2) how XML works, including sample tags,…

  5. An Enhanced Z39.50 Gateway to the WorldWideWeb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, David; Sloan, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Describes how a university library uses the WorldWideWeb (WWW) to enable users to access resources mounted on a local Z39.50 server and to order prints from articles stored on a CD-ROM jukebox. The software used in the construction of the system, necessary modifications to the software, and software ordering information are covered. (KRN)

  6. Monitoring and Evaluating Use of the World Wide Web in an Academic Library: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Alicia D.

    1998-01-01

    Examines use of the World Wide Web on public-access computers at the American University Library (Washington, D.C.) to identify the most frequently accessed Web sites, the frequency with which library-owned Web resources were accessed, and Web-usage patterns in the library in relation to the time of day and day of the week. (Author/AEF)

  7. Delivering an Alternative Medicine Resource to the User's Desktop via World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jie; Wu, Gang; Marks, Ellen; Fan, Weiyu

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design and implementation of a World Wide Web-based alternative medicine virtual resource. This homepage integrates regional, national, and international resources and delivers library services to the user's desktop. Goals, structure, and organizational schemes of the system are detailed, and design issues for building such a…

  8. Searching and Researching on the Internet and the World Wide Web. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Ernest; Hartman, Karen

    This book presents information specialists--researchers, librarians, and students who work with information--with an accessible approach to finding information on the World Wide Web and the Internet. Each of the chapters contains one or more step-by-step activities to demonstrate fundamental skills and concepts. The book has an accompanying Web…

  9. The promise of the World Wide Web and other telecommunication technologies within deaf education.

    PubMed

    Clymer, E W; McKee, B G

    1997-04-01

    The authors summarize a national survey that collected information on instructional technology resources available at schools serving deaf students in the United States. Results indicated that over 70% of these schools have access to the Internet and World Wide Web. The authors also explore innovative uses of the Internet and provide examples of specific applications for deaf students.

  10. Informetric Analyses on the World Wide Web: Methodological Approaches to "WEBOMETRICS."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almind, Tomas C.; Ingwersen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the application of informetric methods to the World Wide Web (Webometrics). Presents a case study comparing the number of specific informetric analysis parameters of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway on the Web. Concludes that problems with data collection occur because current tools are inadequate and because collection methods, manual and…

  11. Mosaic on Public-Access PCs: Letting the World-Wide Web into the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Timothy W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes installation and configuration of Mosaic and a World Wide Web (WWW) site at Grainger Library. Challenges include choosing a WINSOCK; customizing Mosaic for public-access computers; reducing security risks; maximizing Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME); designing a home page; producing Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) documents.…

  12. HotJava: Sun's Animated Interactive World Wide Web Browser for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Examines HotJava and Java, World Wide Web technology for use on the Internet. HotJava, an interactive, animated Web browser, based on the object-oriented Java programming language, is different from HTML-based browsers such as Netscape. Its client/server design does not understand Internet protocols but can dynamically find what it needs to know.…

  13. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  14. Journals Online News: Dispersing Collection Management Information on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Anne; And Others

    Journals Online News (JON) is a World Wide Web site created and maintained by the Collection Development Team at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) Libraries in order to speak with the UTK community about journals-related issues. Its primary function at present is to provide UTK faculty and other interested parties with the latest…

  15. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  16. Simple Exhibits, Effective Learning: Presenting the United Farm Workers' Experience on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golodner, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of an online exhibit about the history of the United Farm Workers union that was created on the World Wide Web by the Walter P. Reuther Library/Archives of Labor and Urban History. Discusses Web design, hypertext links, and ease of navigation. (Author/LRW)

  17. No Longer Conveyor but Creator: Developing an Epistemology of the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, Laura E. Skandera; Flanagan, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the impact of the World Wide Web in terms of epistemology. Topics include technological innovations, including new dimensions of virtuality; the accessibility of information; tracking Web use via cookies; how the Web transforms the process of learning and knowing; linking information sources; and the Web as an information delivery…

  18. Teaching Physiology and the World Wide Web: Electrochemistry and Electrophysiology on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Terry M.; Fleming, John; Randall, James E.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents two examples of laboratory exercises using the World Wide Web for first-year medical students. The first example introduces the physical laws that apply to osmotic, chemical, and electrical gradients and a simulation of the ability of the sodium-potassium pump to establish chemical gradients and maintain cell volume. The second module…

  19. Pedagogical Reengineering: A Pedagogical Approach to Course Enrichment and Redesign with the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Defines "pedagogical reengineering." Indicates how tele-learning can bring about enrichment or reengineering in the pedagogical profile of a course. Illustrates these ideas through experiences with four cycles of a particular course. Suggests a general approach for deciding where and how to integrate World Wide Web-based functionalities into…

  20. Interactive Display of High-Resolution Images on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Stephen W.; Hirschi, Gregory W.

    Viewing high-resolution images on the World Wide Web at a level of detail necessary for collaborative research is still a problem today, given the Internet's current bandwidth limitations and its ever increasing network traffic. ImageEyes is an interactive display tool being developed at Utah State University that addresses this problem by…

  1. Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    Social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper was examined, with 178 graduate and undergraduate students as participants. To assess the extent to which participants would demonstrate SDR, this study used the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) (Paulhus, 1993). The BIDR consists of 40…

  2. Comparing Social Desirability Responding on World Wide Web and Paper-Administered Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Dawson R.; Flowers, Claudia P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines social desirability responding (SDR) on surveys administered on the World Wide Web and on paper to graduate and undergraduate students. Discusses response bias; describes use of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; and reports findings that reveal no differences in SDR between the Web-administered and paper-administered…

  3. Spiders and Worms and Crawlers, Oh My: Searching on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Ann; Bender, Laura

    Searching on the world wide web can be confusing. A myriad of search engines exist, often with little or no documentation, and many of these search engines work differently from the standard search engines people are accustomed to using. Intended for librarians, this paper defines search engines, directories, spiders, and robots, and covers basics…

  4. Evaluation and Criteria of the World Wide Web: Reference Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csir, Floyd J.

    This paper applies an evaluation method for World Wide Web sites that provide access to online reference materials at academic and public libraries. The evaluation of Web sites was performed with a questionnaire form focusing on Web site currency, accuracy and relevancy; Web site organization/structure; Web site presentation; URL maintenance; and…

  5. The World Wide Web, the Reorganization of Knowledge, and Liberal Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jeremy J.; Hughes, Shelley K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the shift in the organization and classification of knowledge as a result of the World Wide Web and considers implications for the liberal arts and education in the liberal arts. Highlights include the postmodern period and the obsolescence of knowledge hierarchies; and personal meaning schemes. (LRW)

  6. World Wide Web Indexes and Hierarchical Lists: Finding Tools for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Kurt I.

    1996-01-01

    In World Wide Web indexing: (1) the creation process is automated; (2) the indexes are merely descriptive, not analytical of document content; (3) results may be sorted differently depending on the search engine; and (4) indexes link directly to the resources. This article compares the indexing methods and querying options of the search engines…

  7. Visual Links in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations of Image Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    As information delivery systems on the Internet increasingly evolve into World Wide Web browsers, understanding key graphical elements of the browser interface is critical to the design of effective information display and access tools. Image maps are one such element, and this document describes a pilot study that collected, reviewed, and…

  8. Image Maps in the World-Wide Web: The Uses and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochenour, John J.; And Others

    A study of nine different image maps from World Wide Web home pages was conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in information display and access, relative to visual, navigational, and practical characteristics. Nine independent viewers completed 20-question surveys on the image maps, in which they evaluated the characteristics of the maps on a…

  9. The World Wide Web for Academic Purposes: Old Study Skills for New?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaouti, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Argues for a need to explore critical information processing skills of the World Wide Web (WWW) as part of an English for academic purposes teaching and learning context. Recognizes the potential of the WWW to bring relevant and not so relevant authentic content to academic study in a way never before possible. (Author/VWL)

  10. Outreach to International Students and Scholars Using the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei

    1998-01-01

    Describes the creation of a World Wide Web site for the Science Library International Outreach Program at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Discusses design elements, content, and promotion of the site. Copies of the home page and the page containing the outreach program's statement of purpose are included. (AEF)

  11. Finding Rural Development Resources on the World Wide Web: Tips and Techniques for Efficient Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stierman, Jeanne Koekkoek

    This guide presents basic information on searching the World Wide Web and lists selected Web sites and links to resources that contain information on rural development. The guide describes and differentiates among search engines, Web directories, metacrawlers, and mutations. Searching tips include: using quotation marks around phrases; using plus…

  12. Uses and Gratifications of the World Wide Web: From Couch Potato to Web Potato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates uses and gratifications of the World Wide Web and its impact on traditional mass media, especially television. Identifies six Web use motivations: entertainment, social interaction, passing of time, escape, information, and Web site preference. Examines relationships between each use motivation and Web affinity, perceived realism, and…

  13. Virtual-Recitation: A World Wide Web Based Approach to Active Learning in Clinical Pharmacokinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Donald K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes implementation, evaluation of World Wide Web-based component in a Rutgers University (New Jersey) advanced clinical pharmacokinetics course. Scheduling accommodated nontraditional students; each week Web pages providing review and supplementary material and an online quiz were posted after class. Comparison with the previous year's…

  14. Analysis of Science Education Reform Resources on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David D.; Libidinsky, Lisa J.

    2000-01-01

    A study analyzed 51 World Wide Web K-12 instructional resources using STS (Science, Technology, and Society) competencies developed from 1996 National Science Education standards. Only 12 percent of the sites have included 25 percent or more of the STS competencies, making the web's educational benefits questionable. (Contains 10 references.) (MLH)

  15. Teaching with the World Wide Web: Internet Resources for Educators in Illinois Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.; Hall, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    This report focuses on teaching with the World Wide Web. An introduction describes the Illinois State Board of Education's (ISBE's) efforts in urging local schools to integrate information technology into all aspects of their curriculum and in emphasizing the need for technology-focused staff development for Illinois teachers. ISBE supports…

  16. The World Wide Web and Active Learning in the International Relations Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzma, Lynn M.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the use of the World Wide Web by international relations students and scholars. Considers an instructional web project for an international relations class outlining the project's contribution to active learning and the development of students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Provides advice for educators interested in…

  17. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  18. Automated Retrieval from Multiple Disparate Information Sources: The World Wide Web and the NLM's Sourcerer Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, R. P. Channing

    1995-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) experimental Sourcerer project which is developing software to accept a user query, automatically identifying appropriate information resources, and facilitating connection to those sources for information retrieval. Discusses the use of the World Wide Web and the Unified Medical Language System.…

  19. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing.

  20. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing. PMID:23036793

  1. Project ASTRO: Local Coalitions for Bringing Astronomers to 4th - 9th Grade Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1998-05-01

    We report on Project ASTRO, an NSF and NASA funded program that now links professional and amateur astronomers with local 4th through 9th grade teachers in 10 sites around the country. Each site matches and trains about 20-25 astronomer-teacher partnerships per year, focusing on hands-on, age-appropriate activities, demonstrations of the scientific method, as well as family and community outreach. Over 10,000 copies of the project's 813-page UNIVERSE AT YOUR FINGERTIPS resource and activity notebook (published by the A.S.P) are now in use in educational institututions around the world. The project's HOW-TO-MANUAL is being used as a practical guide to establishing astronomer-teacher partnerships where no formal ASTRO site exists, and a 12-minute video explaining and demonstrating the project is also available. In each of the ten sites, a coalition of educational and scientific institutions is assisting the project with in-kind donations, publicity, personnel, training, materials, etc. We are conducting an experiment (at the behest of NSF) to see to what degree the sites can become self-supporting over time. (One site, in Salt Lake City, has already received full funding from a local foundation.) We will discuss the progress of the project and will have a variety of sample materials available, including our annotated catalog of national astronomy and space science education projects (see associated URL).

  2. Scientific Tools and Techniques: An Innovative Introduction to Planetary Science / Astronomy for 9th Grade Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, Edward F.

    2014-11-01

    Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, GA (USA) offers instruction in planetary science and astronomy to gifted 9th grade students within a program called "Scientific Tools and Techniques" (STT). Although STT provides a semester long overview of all sciences, the planetary science / astronomy section is innovative since students have access to instruction in the Center's Zeiss planetarium and observatory, which includes a 0.9 m cassegrain telescope. The curriculum includes charting the positions of planets in planetarium the sky; telescopic observations of the Moon and planets; hands-on access to meteorites and tektites; and an introduction to planetary spectroscopy utilizing LPI furnished ALTA reflectance spectrometers. In addition, students have the opportunity to watch several full dome planetary themed planetarium presentations, including "Back to the Moon for Good" and "Ring World: Cassini at Saturn." An overview of NASA's planetary exploration efforts is also considered, with special emphasis on the new Orion / Space Launch System for human exploration of the solar system. A primary goal of our STT program is to not only engage but encourage students to pursue careers in the field of science, with the hope of inspiring future scientists / leaders in the field of planetary science.

  3. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: the 9th international symposium on poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Russell J; Panter, Kip E; Zhao, Mengli

    2014-07-30

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held July 15-21, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilinhot Region of the Mongolian Grasslands, encompassing grazing conditions consisting of desert, grassland, and steppes. This was the first time that an ISOPP meeting has been held in Asia and provided an opportunity for visitors from outside China to become aware of livestock poisonings caused by plant species with which they were previously not familiar while at the same time demonstrating that many of the problems experienced around the world have a common etiology. Presentations focused on botany, veterinary science, toxicology, mechanism of action, and chemistry. As is appropriate for the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, this cluster of papers consists of selected oral and poster presentations in which the chemistry of the toxins played a significant role. The symposium revealed that there is considerable scope for isolation, structural elucidation, and analysis of the toxins from the numerous poisonous plant species that have been identified in China. It became apparent that there are abundant opportunities for chemists both within China and abroad to collaborate with Chinese scientists working on biological aspects of livestock poisonings.

  4. Moving up the information food chain: Deploying softbots on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Etzioni, O.

    1996-12-31

    I view the World Wide Web as an information food chain. The maze of pages and hyperlinks that comprise the Web are at the very bottom of the chain. The WebCrawlers and Alta Vistas of the world are information herbivores; they graze on Web pages and regurgitate them as searchable indices. Today, most Web users feed near the bottom of the information food chain, but the time is ripe to move up. Since 1991, we have been building information carnivores, which intelligently hunt and feast on herbivores in Unix, on the Internet, and on the Web.

  5. General view of underground showing the 9th street segment where ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of underground showing the 9th street segment where it intersect with the east end of the J street segment (on the left). View to the east. - Coolot Building, 812 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. 2. Closeup of first floor of 9th Street facade. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Close-up of first floor of 9th Street facade. The original first floor arches are visible above the present restaurant front. - Ferree Building, 417 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. CliniWeb: managing clinical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W R; Brown, K E; Donohoe, L C; Campbell, E M; Horacek, A E

    1996-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a powerful new way to deliver on-line clinical information, but several problems limit its value to health care professionals: content is highly distributed and difficult to find, clinical information is not separated from non-clinical information, and the current Web technology is unable to support some advanced retrieval capabilities. A system called CliniWeb has been developed to address these problems. CliniWeb is an index to clinical information on the World Wide Web, providing a browsing and searching interface to clinical content at the level of the health care student or provider. Its database contains a list of clinical information resources on the Web that are indexed by terms from the Medical Subject Headings disease tree and retrieved with the assistance of SAPHIRE. Limitations of the processes used to build the database are discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:8816350

  8. User Interface on the World Wide Web: How to Implement a Multi-Level Program Online

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranford, Jonathan W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project was to write a user interface that utilizes current World Wide Web (WWW) technologies for an existing computer program written in C, entitled LaRCRisk. The project entailed researching data presentation and script execution on the WWW and than writing input/output procedures for the database management portion of LaRCRisk.

  9. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  10. Application of World Wide Web (W3) Technologies in Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou

    1996-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies are considered in relation to their application to space missions. It is considered that such technologies, including the hypertext transfer protocol and the Java object-oriented language, offer a powerful and relatively inexpensive framework for distributed application software development. The suitability of these technologies for payload monitoring systems development is discussed, and the experience gained from the development of an insect habitat monitoring system based on W3 technologies is reported.

  11. World wide use of psychotropic drugs in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Simeon, J G; Wiggins, D M; Williams, E

    1995-05-01

    1. Questionnaires were mailed to child psychiatrists world wide to obtain more precise information on views and approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders. 2. Results indicated important problems related to the management of child psychiatry practice both overseas and in Canada. 3. The choice of medication was frequently restricted by lack of availability, and political or social attitudes. 4. A consensus on diagnosis and treatment guidelines in child and adolescent psychiatry remains an important issue.

  12. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  13. Environmental Education in High School 9th-12th Biology Course Curricula Started to Be Implemented in 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Bahar, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula started to be implemented in 2007 with regard to concepts and attainments addressing to environmental education. In this regard, 9th-12th grade Biology Course Curricula were analyzed using content-analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods. 9th-12th grade…

  14. Curvature of co-links uncovers hidden thematic layers in the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Moses, Elisha

    2002-04-30

    Beyond the information stored in pages of the World Wide Web, novel types of "meta-information" are created when pages connect to each other. Such meta-information is a collective effect of independent agents writing and linking pages, hidden from the casual user. Accessing it and understanding the interrelation between connectivity and content in the World Wide Web is a challenging problem [Botafogo, R. A. & Shneiderman, B. (1991) in Proceedings of Hypertext (Assoc. Comput. Mach., New York), pp. 63-77 and Albert, R. & Barabási, A.-L. (2002) Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47-97]. We demonstrate here how thematic relationships can be located precisely by looking only at the graph of hyperlinks, gleaning content and context from the Web without having to read what is in the pages. We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient [Watts, D. J. & Strogatz, S. H. (1999) Nature (London) 393, 440-442], which we interpret as a curvature [Bridson, M. R. & Haefliger, A. (1999) Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature (Springer, Berlin)]. This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics. As an example of future directions we analyze the neural network of Caenorhabditis elegans, using the same methods.

  15. Hidden Tree Structure is a Key to the Emergence of Scaling in the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bo-Jin; Wang, Jian-Min; Chen, Gui-Sheng; Jiang, Jian; Shen, Xian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Preferential attachment is the most popular explanation for the emergence of scaling behavior in the World Wide Web, but this explanation has been challenged by the global information hypothesis, the existence of linear preference and the emergence of new big internet companies in the real world. We notice that most websites have an obvious feature that their pages are organized as a tree (namely hidden tree) and hence propose a new model that introduces a hidden tree structure into the Erdös—Rényi model by adding a new rule: when one node connects to another, it should also connect to all nodes in the path between these two nodes in the hidden tree. The experimental results show that the degree distribution of the generated graphs would obey power law distributions and have variable high clustering coefficients and variable small average lengths of shortest paths. The proposed model provides an alternative explanation to the emergence of scaling in the World Wide Web without the above-mentioned difficulties, and also explains the “preferential attachment" phenomenon.

  16. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing.

  17. The Land of Confusion? High School Students and Their Use of the World Wide Web for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examines high school students' use of the World Wide Web to complete assignments. Findings showed the students used a good variety of resources, including libraries and the World Wide Web, to find information for assignments. However, students were weak at determining the quality of the information found on web sites. Students did poorly at…

  18. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Rangi, R.; Ancona, D.

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  19. The World Wide Web: A Web Even a Fly Would Love

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, E.

    Ever since my introduction to the World Wide Web (WWW), it's been love at first byte. Searching on the WWW is similar to being able to go to a public library and allow yourself to be transported to any other book or library around the world by looking at a reference or index and clicking your heels together like Dorothy did in "The Wizard of Oz", only the clicking is done with a computer mouse. During this presentation, we will explore the WWW protocols which allow clients and servers to communicate on the Internet. We will demonstrate the ease with which users can navigate the virtual tidal wave of information available with a mere click of a button. In addition, the workshop will discuss the revolutionary aspects of this network information system and how it's impacting our libraries as a primary mechanism for rapid dissemination of knowledge.

  20. 9th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures (DAMAS 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Huajiang

    2011-07-01

    Dear Delegates We would like to welcome you to the 9th International Conference on Damage Assessment of Structures. This series of conferences has been held as a biannual event since 1995. The previous venues were Pescara (Italy, 1995), Sheffield (UK, 1997), Dublin (Ireland, 1999), Cardiff (UK, 2001), Southampton (UK, 2003), Gdansk (Poland, 2005), Torino (Italy, 2007) and Beijing (China, 2009). The conference will cover all research topics relevant to damage assessment of engineering structures and systems including signal processing of sensor measurements and theoretical techniques as well as experimental case studies, and numerical simulations. It has established itself as a major international forum for the above research areas. Typically over 100 papers are presented at each conference. It is thought appropriate to keep the conference at this size to facilitate knowledge exchange. DAMAS Conferences have had support from other learned societies and industry. These include the Technical Division of Vibration and Acoustics of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the British Society for Strain Measurement, to name a few. There are exhibitors at some conferences. The venue of DAMAS2011, Oxford, is a world-renowned university town. Oxford is also located in the Cotswolds, an area of outstanding natural beauty. And July is arguably the best month of the year in UK. It is hoped that all delegates will enjoy the conference and continue to support DAMAS conferences in the future. Huajiang Ouyang On behalf of the Organising Committee: Professor Huajiang Ouyang, University of Liverpool, UK (Conference Chair) Professor Vadim Silberschmidt, University of Loughborough, UK Professor Fulei Chu, Tsinghua University, China Professor Wieslaw Ostachowicz, Polish Academy of Science, Poland Professor Cecilia Surace, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

  1. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  2. Creating a GIS data server on the World Wide Web: The GISST example

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, P.J.; Evers, T.K.

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate user access to Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, the GIS and Computer Modeling Group from the Computational Physics and Engineering Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (TN), has developed a World Wide Web server named GISST. The server incorporates a highly interactive and dynamic forms-based interface to browse and download a variety of GIS data types. This paper describes the server`s design considerations, development, resulting implementation and future enhancements.

  3. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption. PMID:21999475

  4. Spectral properties of the Google matrix of the World Wide Web and other directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2010-05-01

    We study numerically the spectrum and eigenstate properties of the Google matrix of various examples of directed networks such as vocabulary networks of dictionaries and university World Wide Web networks. The spectra have gapless structure in the vicinity of the maximal eigenvalue for Google damping parameter α equal to unity. The vocabulary networks have relatively homogeneous spectral density, while university networks have pronounced spectral structures which change from one university to another, reflecting specific properties of the networks. We also determine specific properties of eigenstates of the Google matrix, including the PageRank. The fidelity of the PageRank is proposed as a characterization of its stability.

  5. Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia resources on the world wide web: a descriptive journey.

    PubMed

    Gantz, N M; Coldsmith, E E

    2001-03-15

    A wealth of information on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia is available on the World Wide Web for health care providers and patients. These illnesses have overlapping features, and their etiologies remain unknown. Multiple Web sites were reviewed, and selected sites providing useful information were identified. Sites were classified according to their content and target audience and were judged according to suggested standards of Internet publishing. Fifty-eight sites were classified into groups as follows: comprehensive and research Web sites for CFS and fibromyalgia, meetings, clinical trials, literature search services, bibliographies, journal, and CFS and fibromyalgia Web sites for the patient. PMID:11247716

  6. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  7. Using the World-Wide Web to Facilitate Communications of Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBurney, Sean

    1995-01-01

    The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.

  8. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  9. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  10. Analysis of Great World Wide Star Count Data: 2007-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, J. J.; Farrell, J. N.; Ward, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count (GWWSC) website provides free public access to seven years of naked-eye limiting magnitudes (NELM) reported by citizen scientists from 2007 to 2013. We summarize the data and perform a simple statistical analysis. GWWSC data are compared with the Globe at Night (GaN) data over the same time period. The global average NELM values are generally comparable across the two data sets. Global NELM data seem to reflect shifts in urban versus suburban participation over time, while regional and local NELM data are more likely to reflect changes in night sky brightness.

  11. An Image Retrieval and Processing Expert System for the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Rondon, Angelica; Bruno, Maria I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a system that is being developed in the Laboratory of Applied Remote Sensing and Image Processing at the University of P.R. at Mayaguez. It describes the components that constitute its architecture. The main elements are: a Data Warehouse, an Image Processing Engine, and an Expert System. Together, they provide a complete solution to researchers from different fields that make use of images in their investigations. Also, since it is available to the World Wide Web, it provides remote access and processing of images.

  12. The semantic architecture of the World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM).

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Adams, Sam E; Downing, Jim; Townsend, Joe A; Zhang, Yong

    2011-10-14

    The World-Wide Molecular Matrix (WWMM) is a ten year project to create a peer-to-peer (P2P) system for the publication and collection of chemical objects, including over 250, 000 molecules. It has now been instantiated in a number of repositories which include data encoded in Chemical Markup Language (CML) and linked by URIs and RDF. The technical specification and implementation is now complete. We discuss the types of architecture required to implement nodes in the WWMM and consider the social issues involved in adoption.

  13. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  14. Facilitating physician referrals on the World Wide Web: representation and appropriate utilization of clinical expertise.

    PubMed

    McHolm, G; Obeid, J; Karson, T H; Sato, L; Schaffer, J L; Greenes, R A

    1996-01-01

    In highly integrated and increasingly complex health care systems, the identification and proper utilization of clinical staff expertise are key factors for efficiently delivering high quality patient care. To achieve these capabilities on an enterprise-wide scale, we have embarked on a multi-phased project to develop World Wide Web (WWW)-based physician referral capabilities for two large teaching hospitals. Currently, users may search for information concerning the education, training, board certifications, and self-designated clinical interests of staff members. Address, phone number, email address, and a photo are also presented. Our experience indicates that institutional changes are required to successfully deploy and maintain online physician referral services and that accurate and equitable representation of clinical expertise and the incorporation of referral guidelines require an incremental introduction of a carefully planned program that addresses the needs of clinicians, administrators, and health care policy-makers. PMID:8947760

  15. Evaluation of traditional classroom teaching methods versus course delivery via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M; Carlton, K H; Ali, N S

    1999-09-01

    Higher education is moving with deliberate speed to an electronic classroom. Much has been published on faculty experiences with World Wide Web (WWW) course delivery. However, little research exists on the evaluation of these methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate students' perceptions of two approaches to teaching: classroom and WWW modules. Classroom methods were rated significantly higher in relation to content, interaction, participation, faculty preparation, and communication. Technical skills were rated higher for WWW modules. Critical thinking and time allotted for assignments were not significantly different between classroom and WWW instruction. Open-ended comments were rich and supported both positive and negative aspects of classroom and WWW-based modules. Implications call for creativity in course development, course redesign and orientation, active communication with students, support for technical problems, faculty development, and university-wide planning through partnerships.

  16. Effects of Upstream Human Changes on Nutrient Fluxes to Major Deltas World-Wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cappellen, P.; Dürr, H. H.; Maavara, T.

    2015-12-01

    Major deltas world-wide are connected to large river systems, and while they make up <1% of the shoreline, they are at the receiving end of 25-42% of all discharge, suspended sediment load and nutrient load. Thus, in addition to the pressure from human impact in the deltas, changes far upstream are tightly linked to effects downstream. The Global-NEWS approach has explored scenarios along storylines that influence future nutrient fluxes, and if highlighted for individual delta, reveals large differences in future change, with most of the influence being attributed to factors such as land use change or increased damming. Notably the latter factor has received recent attention with regards to nutrient fluxes, and phosphorus (P) in particular (Maavara et al. in review): the largest increases in P retention by reservoirs, between 2000 and 2030, are expected to occur in the Yangtze, Mekong, Amazon and Ganges-Brahmaputra river basins. Here, we discuss how Global-NEWS and other approaches assess these future changes in nutrient fluxes, and how the expected new boom in dam construction can influence these fluxes to deltas world-wide.

  17. The World Wide Web as a Medium of Instruction: What Works and What Doesn't

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Hernandez, Angel; Koszalka, Tiffany; Duke, Lee

    1997-01-01

    A conference was held on March 18-20, 1997 to investigate the lessons learned by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Projects with regard to the most effective strategies for developing instruction for the World Wide Web. The conference was a collaboration among the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and The Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Teams, the University of Idaho, and working sessions in which the participants addressed teacher training and support, technology, evaluation and pedagogy. The conference was also undertaken as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between the Dryden Education Office and The Pennsylvania State University. The DFRC Learning Technology Project goals relevant to the conference are as follows: conducting an analysis of current teacher needs, classroom infrastructure and exemplary instructional World Wide Web sites, and developing models for Web-enhanced learning environments that optimize teaching practices and student learning.

  18. Criteria used by nurses to evaluate practice-related information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Cader, Raffik; Campbell, Steve; Watson, Don

    2003-01-01

    Existing criteria used to evaluate information on the World Wide Web often are not related to nursing, especially in relation to clinical and evidence-based practice. Published criteria have been found orientated to the health-consumer, medicine, or general information. In this study, the process by which nurses evaluate practice-related information and the associated evaluative nursing criteria were investigated using a grounded theory approach. In the first stage of this ongoing investigation, semistructured interviews were used to collect data from UK postregistration nursing students. The findings from this initial study provided indications of the process and the criteria for evaluating information on the World Wide Web. Participating students identified intuition as part of the evaluative process. They identified some criteria similar to existing standards, but critically, with additional criteria that are nursing practice related. Because these new criteria are significant for evaluating nursing information, further refinement of these findings is being undertaken through the next stage of the research program.

  19. World-wide association of timberline forest advance with microsite type along a precipitation gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    Timberline forest advance associated with global climate change is occurring worldwide and is often associated with microsites. Microsites, controlled by topography, substrates, and plant cover, are localized regions dictating temperature, moisture, and solar radiation. These abiotic factors are integral to seedling survival. From a compilation of world-wide information on seedling regeneration on microsites at timberline, including our on-going research in the Pacific Northwest, we classified available literature into four microsite categories, related microsite category to annual precipitation, and used analysis of variance to detect statistical differences in microsite type and associated precipitation. We found statistical differences (p = 0.022) indicating the usefulness of understanding microsite/precipitation associations in detecting world-wide trends in timberline expansion. For example, wetter timberlines with downed wood, had regeneration associated with nurse logs, whereas on windy, drier landscapes, regeneration was typically associated with either leeward sides of tree clumps or on microsites protected from frost by overstory canopy. In our study of timberline expansion in the Pacific Northwest, we expect that such knowledge of microsite types associated with forest expansion will reveal a better understanding of mechanisms and rates of timberline forest advance during global warming.

  20. Violent ethnic wars and world-wide people movement: implications for mental health nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Procter, N G

    1998-09-01

    In recent years, the world has been subjected to violent ethnic wars for autonomy and secession. Violent conflicts over national and international territorial boundaries are marked by a murderous mistrust, hatred and a perpetual life-and-death struggle in the present. For the mental health nurse, the world-wide persistent global circumstance of international catastrophe and increasing nationalism mediated through war is inextricably linked to practice as well as the significant health and lifestyle concerns of displaced people. Central to the discussion in this paper will be the mechanisms used by the mental health nurse to maintain empathy and clinical excellence during highly sensitive practice issues; in particular, the management of feelings of frustration, anger, guilt, loneliness and sleeplessness, and repeated mental images of suffering and human butchering, because these issues intersect with national and cultural identity. In rising to the challenges these issues present, mental health nursing must co-exist with critical world events and the globalisation of national identity in cultural diversity.

  1. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group.

  2. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group. PMID:26143082

  3. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  4. Problem-Based Learning in 9th Grade Chemistry Class: "Intermolecular Forces"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Ayar-Kayali, Hulya; Urek, Raziye Ozturk; Acar, Burcin

    2008-01-01

    This research study aims to examine the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) on 9th grade students' understanding of intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole forces, London dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding). The student's alternate conceptions about intermolecular bonding and their beliefs about PBL were also measured. Seventy-eight…

  5. A Comparison of Students' Choices of 9th Grade Physical Education Activities by Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant M.; Cleven, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district and to compare preferences by ethnicity. Results indicated that basketball, football, bowling, softball/baseball, swimming, and volleyball were the most preferred activities. These preferences may be…

  6. The Effectiveness of the New 9th Grade Biology Curriculum on Students' Environmental Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Gulcan; Nisanci, Seda Hilal

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a new 9th grade biology curriculum on students' environmental awareness. Participants included 91 ninth grade students in a high school in Balikesir during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. Two classrooms, including 22 and 24 students respectively, were randomly assigned…

  7. A Chemistry Course for High Ability 8th, 9th, and 10th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Richard, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a chemistry course designed, in cooperation with local public school districts, to intellectually challenge a group of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade students. Organic chemistry and biochemistry are integrated into the course (titled Chemistry and Everyday Life) to emphasize practical applications of chemistry. The course syllabus is included.…

  8. A Summative Program Evaluation of a Comprehensive 9th Grade Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Victoria M.

    2011-01-01

    The transition from 8th grade to 9th grade is one that is replete with challenges for students, especially for minority students who live in economically disadvantaged communities. One low-income, high minority comprehensive high school in the western United States implemented five separate strategies to create a freshman transition program to aid…

  9. 20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TYPICAL VIEW OF FRONT WINDOWS FROM 4TH TO 9TH FLOOR WITH WHITE GLAZED TERRA COTTA SILL AND HEADERS. MULLIONS ARE ORANGE BROWN BRICKS LIKE THE WALLS. BRICKS ARE IN FLEMISH BOND PATTERN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. Program To Increase Selected 9th and 10th Graders' Career Decision-Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda D.

    This study addresses some of the career decision challenges facing 9th- and 10th-grade students. The researcher discovered that many students possessed inadequate decision-making strategies, that counselors did not focus on career planning prior to and during registration, and that the school district lacked a comprehensive career guidance…

  11. The Effect of Group Work on Misconceptions of 9th Grade Students about Newton's Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergin, Serap

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of group work and traditional method on 9th grade students' misconceptions about Newton Laws was investigated. The study was conducted in three classes in an Anatolian Vocational High School in Ankara/Turkey in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. Two of these classes were chosen as the experimental group and…

  12. Global perspectives on poisonous plants: The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 9th International Symposium on Poisonous Plants (ISOPP9) was held from 15th-21st July, 2013, at the Inner Mongolia Agricultural University in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. The Symposium consisted of three days of oral and poster presentations, followed by a tour of the Xilin...

  13. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (9th, San Diego, California, May 21-25, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 9th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include connecting service learning and the Environment as an Integrated Context for learning (EIC), and reports from states on…

  14. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R. and Stotler, D.P.; Post-Zwicker, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom.

  15. Virtual consolidation of Boston's Beth Israel and New England Deaconess Hospitals via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Halamka, J. D.; Safran, C.

    1997-01-01

    With the advent of Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems, medical records are increasingly distributed across multiple institutions. Timely access to these medical records is a critical need for healthcare providers. The CareWeb project provides an architecture for World Wide Web-based retrieval of electronic medical records from heterogeneous data sources. Using Health Level 7 (HL7), web technologies and readily available software components, we consolidated the electronic records of Boston's Beth Israel and Deaconess Hospitals. We report on the creation of CareWeb (freya.bidmc.harvard.edu/careweb.htm) and propose it as a means to electronically link Integrated Health Care Delivery Systems and geographically distant information resources. PMID:9357646

  16. World Wide Web interface to digital imaging and communication in medicine-capable image servers.

    PubMed

    Browning, G C; Liang, Y; Buckwalter, K A; Kruger, R A; Aisen, A

    1996-11-01

    As a trial project, the Indiana University Department of Radiology has develop[ed a low-cost manner of distributing radiological images throughout a medical environment using the World Wide Web (WWW). The interface requires the user to have a WWW-browser client, such as Netscape, running on UNIX, PC, or Macintosh platforms. A forms-based interface allows the user to query several DICOM-capable machines at the machine, patient, study, series, and image levels. Once an image transfer is initiated, images are prewindowed from 16- to 8-bits, compressed using public domain Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression routines, transferred to the WWW client program, and decompressed and displayed using a locally selected image viewing program. At the currently implemented level of compression (75% quality), the entire fetch-transform-JPEG-display process takes 2 to 5 seconds over Ethernet, depending on the platform used.

  17. Machine vision and the World Wide Web: design and training aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Paul F.; Batchelor, Bruce G.; Lewis, Melanie R. F.; Hack, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) offers the chance to generate a comprehensive collection of reference material, expert systems, programs, databases, image archives, image analysis and other tools for assisting practicing vision systems design engineers. The WWW is also an ideal medium for disseminating material for training students, educating would-be customers and new users of machine vision systems technology. The paper explores the potential for WWW-based material, and highlights some of the resources that are available today. A major purpose of this article, however, is to appeal for help in developing a comprehensive set of design and reference material that will allow highly reliable and accurate visual inspection, monitoring and control systems to be designed in future, with a minimum of effort.

  18. Research on the Internet: validation of a World-Wide Web mediated personality scale.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, T; Smith, J L

    1999-11-01

    Two studies were performed to assess the validity of a World-Wide Web (WWW) measure of self-monitoring. In Study 1, Usenet Newsgroups likely to be read by high and low self-monitors were identified and a comparison was made of the extent to which contributors engaged in a form of self-presentation (use of handles or screen names) likely to be influenced by self-monitoring tendencies. Handles were used significantly more frequently in the high self-monitoring Newsgroups, supporting the distinction made. In Study 2, participants recruited through these sets of Newsgroups completed the WWW-mediated test. Those from the high self-monitoring groups scored significantly higher. Self-reports of self-monitoring behavior also reflected scores on the scale. The results are interpreted as demonstrating the construct validity of the instrument used and the viability of criterion-group-oriented methods in Internet-mediated research. PMID:10633975

  19. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-11-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression.

  20. Building national electronic medical record systems via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Kohane, I S; Greenspun, P; Fackler, J; Cimino, C; Szolovits, P

    1996-01-01

    Electronic medical record systems (EMRSs) currently do not lend themselves easily to cross-institutional clinical care and research. Unique system designs coupled with a lack of standards have led to this difficulty. The authors have designed a preliminary EMRS architecture (W3-EMRS) that exploits the multiplatform, multiprotocol, client-server technology of the World Wide Web. The architecture abstracts the clinical information model and the visual presentation away from the underlying EMRS. As a result, computation upon data elements of the EMRS and their presentation are no longer tied to the underlying EMRS structures. The architecture is intended to enable implementation of programs that provide uniform access to multiple, heterogeneous legacy EMRSs. The authors have implemented an initial prototype of W3-EMRS that accesses the database of the Boston Children's Hospital Clinician's Workstation. PMID:8723610

  1. Health information seeking and the World Wide Web: an uncertainty management perspective.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory was applied in the present study to offer one theoretical explanation for how individuals use the World Wide Web to acquire health information and to help better understand the implications of the Web for information seeking. The diversity of information sources available on the Web and potential to exert some control over the depth and breadth of one's information-acquisition effort is argued to facilitate uncertainty management. A total of 538 respondents completed a questionnaire about their uncertainty related to cancer prevention and information-seeking behavior. Consistent with study predictions, use of the Web for information seeking interacted with respondents' desired level of uncertainty to predict their actual level of uncertainty about cancer prevention. The results offer evidence that respondents who used the Web to search for cancer information were better able than were respondents who did not seek information to achieve a level of uncertainty commensurate with the level of uncertainty they desired.

  2. Internet and World Wide Web-based tools for neuropathology practice and education.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kar-Ming; Tihan, Tarik

    2009-04-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web (www) serve as a source of information and a communication network. Together they form a so-called web or network that allows for transmission and dissemination of information in unprecedented speed, volume and detail. This article presents an overview of the current status of neuropathology content on the www. As well as considering the Internet as a resource for neuropathology practice, education and research, we also address the issue of quality assurance when evaluating Internet and www content. Four major categories of websites (archival, broker, news and blog) are discussed and resources relevant to neuropathology of each type are highlighted. We believe that our report and similar attempts can provide an opportunity to discuss appropriate and effective use of the Internet by the neuropathology community.

  3. Increasing public understanding of transgenic crops through the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Patrick F; Namuth, Deana M; Harrington, Judy; Ward, Sarah M; Lee, Donald J; Hain, Patricia

    2002-07-01

    Transgenic crops among the most controversial "science and society" issues of recent years. Because of the complex techniques involved in creating these crops and the polarized debate over their risks and beliefs, a critical need has arisen for accessible and balanced information on this technology. World Wide Web sites offer several advantages for disseminating information on a fast-changing technical topic, including their global accessibility; and their ability to update information frequently, incorporate multimedia formats, and link to networks of other sites. An alliance between two complementary web sites at Colorado State University and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln takes advantage of the web environment to help fill the need for public information on crop genetic engineering. This article describes the objectives and features of each site. Viewership data and other feedback have shown these web sites to be effective means of reaching public audiences on a complex scientific topic.

  4. CHORUS: a computer-based radiology handbook for international collaboration via the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Kahn, C E

    1995-07-01

    To facilitate collaboration among physicians, a computer-based radiology handbook was developed and published electronically via the World Wide Web on the Internet. This system, called CHORUS (Collaborative Hypertext of Radiology), allows physicians without computer expertise to read documents, contribute knowledge, and critically review the handbook's content by using a simple, graphical user interface from virtually any type of computer system. CHORUS contains 1,168 "note-card" documents that describe radiologic findings; differential diagnoses; technical information; and pertinent anatomy, pathology, and physiology. Documents are indexed by title and by organ system and are linked to related documents. Data entry forms allow physicians to comment on published documents, submit new documents, and review submitted documents. CHORUS uses public-domain technologies to present useful, easily accessible knowledge for education and clinical decision making, and it provides a medium for international medical collaboration via the Internet.

  5. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  6. A World Wide Web (WWW) server database engine for an organelle database, MitoDat.

    PubMed

    Lemkin, P F; Chipperfield, M; Merril, C; Zullo, S

    1996-03-01

    We describe a simple database search engine "dbEngine" which may be used to quickly create a searchable database on a World Wide Web (WWW) server. Data may be prepared from spreadsheet programs (such as Excel, etc.) or from tables exported from relationship database systems. This Common Gateway Interface (CGI-BIN) program is used with a WWW server such as available commercially, or from National Center for Supercomputer Algorithms (NCSA) or CERN. Its capabilities include: (i) searching records by combinations of terms connected with ANDs or ORs; (ii) returning search results as hypertext links to other WWW database servers; (iii) mapping lists of literature reference identifiers to the full references; (iv) creating bidirectional hypertext links between pictures and the database. DbEngine has been used to support the MitoDat database (Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance associated with the Mitochondrion) on the WWW.

  7. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  8. Information consumerism on the World Wide Web: implications for dermatologists and patients.

    PubMed

    Travers, Robin L

    2002-09-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is continuing to grow exponentially both in terms of numbers of users and numbers of web pages. There is a trend toward the increasing use of the WWW for medical educational purposes, both among physicians and patients alike. The multimedia capabilities of this evolving medium are particularly relevant to visual medical specialties such as dermatology. The origins of information consumerism on the WWW are examined, and the public health issues surrounding dermatologic information and misinformation, and how consumers navigate through the WWW are reviewed. The economic realities of medical information as a "capital good," and the impact this has on dermatologic information sources on the WWW are also discussed.Finally, strategies for guiding consumers and ourselves toward credible medical information sources on the WWW are outlined.

  9. Medical electronic link (MEL): providing telemedicine on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Moncur, J T; Rosen, J M; Zhu, S; Limonadi, F M

    1997-01-01

    Many tertiary care centers in the USA have attempted to implement interactive television (IATV) or dynamic telemedicine systems. The advantage these systems provide is real-time interaction. The biggest disadvantage is cost: expensive hardware, band-width and personnel. An alternative to IATV is Medical Electronic Link (MEL); a low cost, store-forward, internet-based physician consultation system. MEL allows physicians in remote locations to consult physicians at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, New Hampshire by using the World Wide Web. The Benefits of MEL are low hardware and band-width costs, accessibility, a self-explanatory interface, convenience, and its use of the case record. This system has been implemented at a family practice clinic in Manchester, NH and at the Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. PMID:10168928

  10. A development environment for knowledge-based medical applications on the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Riva, A; Bellazzi, R; Lanzola, G; Stefanelli, M

    1998-11-01

    The World-Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a platform to develop distributed applications, particularly in contexts, such as medical ones, where high usability and availability are required. In this paper we propose a methodology for the development of knowledge-based medical applications on the web, based on the use of an explicit domain ontology to automatically generate parts of the system. We describe a development environment, centred on the LISPWEB Common Lisp HTTP server, that supports this methodology, and we show how it facilitates the creation of complex web-based applications, by overcoming the limitations that normally affect the adequacy of the web for this purpose. Finally, we present an outline of a system for the management of diabetic patients built using the LISPWEB environment. PMID:9821518

  11. Starry Nights: Five Years of The Great World Wide Star Count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 40,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first five years. Data collection and online reporting is simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from the first five years of the project. We will discuss how our team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  12. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) pairs associated with World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanbro, Matthew; Briggs, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We present Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) pairs detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope and associated sferics from the World Wide Lightning Network (WWLLN). Several improvements have been made to the GBM TGF detection algorithms since launch in 2008, which have increased the rate of TGFs to ~800 a year. The improved TGF detection algorithms have also uncovered more TGFs within 200 s of each other. There are ~600 unique TGFs with a wide range of time separations. One question is whether a pair originates from the same thunderstorm or from different storms in a storm system. Detecting multiple TGFs from a single storm and their separation in time provides a measure of the electric charging timescales involved in the production of TGFs within a storm. With only gamma-ray detections, this question is difficult to answer since GBM detects TGFs up to 800 km from the nadir of Fermi. If WWLLN sferics are found for both TGFs of a pair, the improved localization uncertainty (<25km) allows us to better answer this question. We present TGF pairs that match this criteria. These pairs are temporally separated by milliseconds to ~180 s.

  13. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right. PMID:26529599

  14. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    PubMed

    Mchitarjan, Irina; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  15. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relatively similar proteolytic and PLA2 activities. In contrast, quantitative differences were observed in hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities in mice. The highest myotoxic activity was observed with the venoms of A. b. bilineatus, followed by A. p. piscivorus, whereas the venoms of A. c. contortrix and A. p. leucostoma induced the lowest myotoxic activity. The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. c. contortrix the lowest. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. Biological significance A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics. Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across

  16. Special Issue for the 9th International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-12-11

    Carbonaceous particles are a minor constituent of the atmosphere but have a profound effect on air quality, human health, visibility and climate. The importance of carbonaceous particles has been increasingly recognized and become a mainstream topic at numerous conferences. Such was not the case in 1978, when the 1st International Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere (ICCPA), or ''Carbon Conference'' as it is widely known, was introduced as a new forum to bring together scientists who were just beginning to reveal the importance and complexity of carbonaceous particles in the environment. Table 1 lists the conference dates, venues in the series as well as the proceedings, and special issues resulting form the meetings. Penner and Novakov (Penner and Novakov, 1996) provide an excellent historical perspective to the early ICCPA Conferences. Thirty years later, the ninth in this conference series was held at its inception site, Berkeley, California, attended by 160 scientists from 31 countries, and featuring both new and old themes in 49 oral and 83 poster presentations. Topics covered such areas as historical trends in black carbon aerosol, ambient concentrations, analytic techniques, secondary aerosol formation, biogenic, biomass, and HULIS1 characterization, optical properties, and regional and global climate effects. The conference website, http://iccpa.lbl.gov/, holds the agenda, as well as many presentations, for the 9th ICCPA. The 10th ICCPA is tentatively scheduled for 2011 in Vienna, Austria. The papers in this issue are representative of several of the themes discussed in the conference. Ban-Weiss et al., (Ban-Weiss et al., accepted) measured the abundance of ultrafine particles in a traffic tunnel and found that heavy duty diesel trucks emit at least an order of magnitude more ultrafine particles than light duty gas-powered vehicles per unit of fuel burned. Understanding of this issue is important as ultrafine particles have been shown to

  17. Identifying the causes of water crises: A configurational frequency analysis of 22 basins world wide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Lambin, E.; Rozelle, S.; Thompson, B.

    2010-12-01

    Freshwater "scarcity" has been identified as being a major problem world-wide, but it is surprisingly hard to assess if water is truly scarce at a global or even regional scale. Most empirical water research remains location specific. Characterizing water problems, transferring lessons across regions, to develop a synthesized global view of water issues remains a challenge. In this study we attempt a systematic understanding of water problems across regions. We compared case studies of basins across different regions of the world using configurational frequency analysis. Because water crises are multi-symptom and multi-causal, a major challenge was to categorize water problems so as to make comparisons across cases meaningful. In this study, we focused strictly on water unsustainability, viz. the inability to sustain current levels of the anthropogenic (drinking water, food, power, livelihood) and natural (aquatic species, wetlands) into the future. For each case, the causes of three outcome variables, groundwater declines, surface water declines and aquatic ecosystem declines, were classified and coded. We conducted a meta-analysis in which clusters of peer-reviewed papers by interdisciplinary teams were considered to ensure that the results were not biased towards factors privileged by any one discipline. Based on our final sample of 22 case study river basins, some clear patterns emerged. The meta-analysis suggests that water resources managers have long overemphasized the factors governing supply of water resources and while insufficient attention has been paid to the factors driving demand. Overall, uncontrolled increase in demand was twice as frequent as declines in availability due to climate change or decreased recharge. Moreover, groundwater and surface water declines showed distinct causal pathways. Uncontrolled increases in demand due to lack of credible enforcement were a key factor driving groundwater declines; while increased upstream abstractions

  18. Visualizing Moon Phases in the Classroom with WorldWide Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Sunbury, S.; Zhang, Z.; Sadler, P. M.; Dussault, M. E.; Lotridge, E.; Jackson, J.; Constantin, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from an NSF-funded project to build, test, and research the impact of a WorldWide Telescope Visualization Lab (WWT Vizlab), meant to offer learners a deeper physical understanding of the causes of the Moon’s phases and eclipses. The Moon Phases VizLab is designed to promote accurate visualization of the complex, 3-dimensional Earth-Sun-Moon relationships required to understand the Moon’s phases, while also providing opportunities for middle school students to practice critical science skills, like using models, making predictions and observations, and linking them in evidence-based explanations. In the Moon Phases VizLab, students use both computer-based models and lamp + ball physical models. The VizLab emphasizes the use of different scales in models, why some models are to scale and some are not, and how choices we make in a model can sometimes inadvertently lead to misconceptions. For example, textbook images almost always depict the Earth and Moon as being vastly too close together, and this contributes to the common misconception that the Moon’s phases are caused by the Earth’s shadow. We tested the Moon Phases VizLab in two separate phases. In Phase 1 (fall 2012), we compared learning gains from the WorldWide Telescope (WWT) VizLab with a traditional 2-dimensional Moon phases simulator. Students in this study who used WWT had overall higher learning gains than students who used the traditional 2D simulator, and demonstrated greater enthusiasm for using the virtual model than students who used the 2D simulator. In Phase 2 (spring 2013), all students in the study used WWT for the virtual model, but we experimented with different sequencing of physical and virtual models in the classroom. We found that students who began the unit with higher prior knowledge of Moon phases (based on the pre-unit assessment) had overall higher learning gains when they used the virtual model first, followed by the physical model, while students who had

  19. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  20. World-Wide and Regional Examination of Substrates Facilitating Timberline Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Upward advance of timberlines, associated with climate warming, is occurring in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as well as many other mountainous regions of the world. Examination of seedling establishment and survival of sensitive seedlings, rather than examination of older resilient trees, may give a clearer understanding of current climatic factors affecting potential expansion of timberline. Our investigation of seedling establishment along timberline edges in the PNW indicates that trees often germinate on small landforms known as microsites. Microsites include small convexities or concavities on the soil surface having a scale of centimeters to meters, but also include associations with slope, aspect, rocks or plants, or substrates dominated by mineral soil or wood. Growing on favorable microsites helps seedlings cope with some of the stresses that exist at high elevation sites including wind, cold temperatures, high radiation, drought, animal predation, and infestation by fungal pathogens found in snow and soil. Microsites, by providing warmer substrates, adequate moisture, and shelter, allow plants to function more affectively in mountain environments. Our summary of microsite type and associated timberline advance in a world-wide context indicates that factors such as snow accumulation, summer rainfall, and availability of microsites, will control timberline advance. In windswept timberline locations, rocks and plants provide shelter from wind and reduce the likelihood of night frost. In arid climates, concave microsites aid in snow deposition providing needed moisture to seedlings during periods of drought. In contrast, convex microsites and wood substrates, typical sites of regeneration in the PNW where precipitation typically exceeds 150 cm per year, facilitate early snow melt, thereby increasing growing season. Large trees at the edge of timberline fall into alpine meadows, decay, and provide sites for seedling establishment. These sites commonly called

  1. 37. Mass meeting held July 9th, 1918, in warehouse no.2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Mass meeting held July 9th, 1918, in warehouse no.2 on the Fleet Supply Base, Brooklyn, New York col Americo Pio is speaking in Italian. View depicts one of the activities mounted by Turner Construction Company to stimulates labor enthusiasm during its 1918 construction projects for the U.S. Navy and U.s. Army. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  2. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  3. World-Wide Structure of the Equatorial (Appleton) Anomaly: IRI-2001 v

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumin, S. Iss-B. Data Y.

    (where superscripts + and - refer to the anomaly crest and trough, respectively, and subscripts N and S designate the north and south) and to present the world-wide struc- ture of the anomaly by isolines of P in the longitude-time coordinates. By using such approach in our previous work [Yu.V. Dumin, Adv. Space Res., 2002, in press], it was established that patterns of the equatorial anomaly derived from various kinds of satellite measurements (for example, top-side sounding by ISS-b and in situ prob- ing by Ariel-3), in general, coincide with each other very well. The main aim of the present report is using the same procedure to compare the global structure of the equa- torial anomaly given by the recent IRI-2001 model with the above-mentioned data by ISS-b satellite. As is known, a long-standing problem of f0 F 2 representation by IRI is a longitudinal distortion, introduced by the interpolation procedures. So, comparing the patterns given by IRI-2001 with the ones drawn by use of the "primary" data can serve as a tool for testing the International Reference Ionosphere at the equatorial lati- tudes and identifying the domains of parameters (time and longitude) where the model representation should be improved.

  4. Accessibility and reliability of cutaneous laser surgery information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, J L; Alora, M B; Dover, J S; Arndt, K A

    2000-05-01

    The World Wide Web has provided the public with easy and affordable access to a vast range of information. However, claims may be unsubstantiated and misleading. The purpose of this study was to use cutaneous laser surgery as a model to assess the availability and reliability of Web sites and to evaluate this resource for the quality of patient and provider education. Three commercial methods of searching the Internet were used, identifying nearly 500,000 possible sites. The first 100 sites listed by each search engine (a total of 300 sites) were compared. Of these, 126 were listed repeatedly within a given retrieval method, whereas only 3 sites were identified by all 3 search engines. After elimination of duplicates, 40 sites were evaluated for content and currency of information. The most common features included postoperative care suggestions, options for pain management or anesthesia, a description of the way in which lasers work, and the types of lasers used for different procedures. Potential contraindications to laser procedures were described on fewer than 30% of the sites reviewed. None of the sites contained substantiation of claims or referrals to peer-reviewed publications or research. Because of duplication and the prioritization systems of search engines, the ease of finding sites did not correlate with the quality of the site's content. Our findings show that advertisements for services exceed useful information.

  5. Alaskan Auroral All-Sky Images on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to a 1995 NASA SPDS announcement of support for preservation and distribution of important data sets online, the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, proposed to provide World Wide Web access to the Poker Flat Auroral All-sky Camera images in real time. The Poker auroral all-sky camera is located in the Davis Science Operation Center at Poker Flat Rocket Range about 30 miles north-east of Fairbanks, Alaska, and is connected, through a microwave link, with the Geophysical Institute where we maintain the data base linked to the Web. To protect the low light-level all-sky TV camera from damage due to excessive light, we only operate during the winter season when the moon is down. The camera and data acquisition is now fully computer controlled. Digital images are transmitted each minute to the Web linked data base where the data are available in a number of different presentations: (1) Individual JPEG compressed images (1 minute resolution); (2) Time lapse MPEG movie of the stored images; and (3) A meridional plot of the entire night activity.

  6. An On Line Atmospheric Dispersion Model (OLADMO) for the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Adam J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of earlier and current methods of modelling atmospheric dispersion, and proposes and evaluates a screening model for operation over the World Wide Web. The On Line Atmospheric Dispersion Model (OLADMO) is a quasi boundary layer parameterised Gaussian plume model with additional algorithms to account for plume rise, building wake effects and deposition processes. The Monin-Obukhov length boundary layer parameter is utilised to define six stability classes in order to determine atmospheric turbulence and stability, whilst new equations, derived from an intercomparison study of old and next generation dispersion models, are used to calculate the horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients σ y and σ z . Using data from two field experiments in Copenhagen, Denmark and Lillestrøm, Norway, the model results from OLADMO are found to compare favourably with the results from several old and next generation dispersion models. As a consequence of the unique nature of the meteorological and location factors of the Lillestrøm experiment, all models struggled to represent the concentrations observed during the field study adequately. However, OLADMO was the best performing model in this case, with a mean normalised crosswind integrated concentration 13% closer to the mean observed concentration than its nearest competitor. Because the evaluation of the model was conducted with a limited dataset, several limitations and improvements to both the model and experimental procedure are suggested.

  7. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, R. C. Jr; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.; Thibeault, S. A.; Noor, A. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badavi, F. F.; Chang, C. K.; Qualls, G. D.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Kim, M. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Norbury, J.; Blattning, S. R.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L. H.

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA.

  8. WebPresent: a World Wide Web-based telepresentation tool for physicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath-Kumar, Srihari; Banerjea, Anindo; Moshfeghi, Mehran

    1997-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design architecture and the implementation status of WebPresent - a world wide web based tele-presentation tool. This tool allows a physician to use a conference server workstation and make a presentation of patient cases to a geographically distributed audience. The audience consists of other physicians collaborating on patients' health care management and physicians participating in continuing medical education. These physicians are at several locations with networks of different bandwidth and capabilities connecting them. Audiences also receive the patient case information on different computers ranging form high-end display workstations to laptops with low-resolution displays. WebPresent is a scalable networked multimedia tool which supports the presentation of hypertext, images, audio, video, and a white-board to remote physicians with hospital Intranet access. WebPresent allows the audience to receive customized information. The data received can differ in resolution and bandwidth, depending on the availability of resources such as display resolution and network bandwidth.

  9. WorldWide Telescope and Google Sky: New Technologies to Engage Students and the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, R. H.; Subbarao, M. U.; Dettloff, L.

    2010-08-01

    New, visually rich, astronomical software environments coupled with large web-accessible data sets hold the promise of new and exciting ways to teach, collaborate, and explore the universe. These freeware tools provide contextual views of astronomical objects, real time access to multi-wavelength sky surveys, and, most importantly, the ability to incorporate new data and to produce user created content. This interactive panel examined the capabilities of Google Sky and WorldWide Telescope, and explored case studies of how these tools have been used to create compelling and participatory educational experiences in both formal (i.e., K-12 and undergraduate non-science majors classrooms), and informal (e.g., museum) settings. The overall goal of this session was to stimulate a discussion about future uses of these technologies. Substantial time was allotted for participants to create conceptual designs of learning experiences for use at their home institutions, with feedback provided by the panel members. Activities included technical discussions (e.g., mechanisms for incorporating new data and dissemination tools), exercises in narrative preparation, and a brainstorming session to identify potential future uses of these technologies.

  10. THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB: APPLICATIONS FOR FAMILY PHYSICIANS IN SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Sebiany, Abdulaziz M.

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of the World Wide Web has revolutionized the applications of the computer and the Internet in the medical field. The Web provides an easy and cost-effective way of retrieving medical information and a more flexible way of communicating with patients and colleagues. Family practice is a specialty in which care is given to persons as individuals and members of families regardless of their age, gender or specific problems. To provide quality family practice, a family physician should be a good communicator, a critical thinker, a resource and information manager, a life-long learner, a care giver and a community advocate. Providing such high quality care requires that family practice be an information-sensitive specialty. However, the expansion of the new electronic resources on the Internet and the Web poses a real challenge to the family physician. Family physician in Saudi Arabia need to have basic skills and knowledge for easily retrieving and finding reliable Internet information for his professional development and the care of his patients. This article addresses the Web applications for family physicians in Saudi Arabia, giving examples of the most important Websites. PMID:23008644

  11. Health surveys in the workplace: comparison of postal, email and World Wide Web methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, R; Pitt, N

    1999-11-01

    Health surveys in the workplace are an important part of epidemiology, needs assessment and health promotion. Since the workplace is changing rapidly with the use of computer networks, we examined the feasibility, validity and cost of health surveys using e-mail and the World Wide Web (WWW). Five hundred systematically sampled university staff in a convenience sample of 10 English universities were surveyed using either e-mail alone, e-mail plus a WWW form or postal questionnaire. Response rates, speed of response, validity and costs were examined. The postal survey obtained the best response rate: 72% as compared with 34% for e-mail alone and 19% for the WWW, but it was also the most expensive at 92p per reply, with 35p for e-mail, and 41p for the WWW. Most of the electronic responses were made within five days. In 1997, the increased response rate justified the higher cost of postal questionnaires. e-mail and WWW surveys are easy, quick and inexpensive to administer, and despite low response rates may be useful for pilot studies. The rapid changes in the spread and use of information technology means we have to keep reassessing the methods we use for health surveys in the workplace.

  12. TOGA COARE Satellite data summaries available on the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. S.; Houze, R. A., Jr.; Mapes, B. E.; Brodzick, S. R.; Yutler, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Satellite data summary images and analysis plots from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE), which were initially prepared in the field at the Honiara Operations Center, are now available on the Internet via World Wide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These satellite data summaries consist of products derived from the Japanese Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite IR data: a time-size series of the distribution of contiguous cold cloudiness areas, weekly percent high cloudiness (PHC) maps, and a five-month time-longitudinal diagram illustrating the zonal motion of large areas of cold cloudiness. The weekly PHC maps are overlaid with weekly mean 850-hPa wind calculated from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analysis field and can be viewed as an animation loop. These satellite summaries provide an overview of spatial and temporal variabilities of the cloud population and a large-scale context for studies concerning specific processes of various components of TOGA COARE.

  13. Measurement issues related to data collection on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Ora L; Moloney, Margaret F; Dietrich, Alexa S; Myerburg, Stuart; Cotsonis, George A; Johnson, Robert V

    2003-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has become more prominent as a mode of communication, it has opened up new possibilities for research data collection. This article identifies measurement issues that occur with Internet data collection that are relevant to qualitative and quantitative research approaches as they occurred in a triangulated Internet study of perimenopausal women with migraine headaches. Issues associated with quantitative data collection over the Internet include (a) selecting and designing Internet data collection protocols that adequately address study aims while also taking advantage of the Internet, (b) ensuring the reliability and validity of Internet data collected, (c) adapting quantitative paper-and-pencil data collection protocols for the Internet, (d) making Internet data collection practical for respondents and researchers, and (e) ensuring the quality of quantitative data collected. Qualitative data collection over the Internet needs to remain true to the philosophical stance of the qualitative approach selected. Researcher expertise in qualitative data collection must be combined with expertise in computer technology and information services if data are to be of ultimate quality The advantages and limitations of collecting qualitative data in real time or at a later time are explored, as well as approaches to enhance qualitative data collection over the Internet. It was concluded that like any research approach or method, Internet data collection requires considerable creativity, expertise, and planning to take advantage of the technology for the collection of reliable and valid research data.

  14. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Schlicher, Bob G; Kulesz, James J; Abercrombie, Robert K; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  15. Creation and utilization of a World Wide Web based space radiation effects code: SIREST.

    PubMed

    Singleterry, R C; Wilson, J W; Shinn, J L; Tripathi, R K; Thibeault, S A; Noor, A K; Cucinotta, F A; Badavi, F F; Chang, C K; Qualls, G D; Clowdsley, M S; Kim, M H; Heinbockel, J H; Norbury, J; Blattning, S R; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L H

    2001-01-01

    In order for humans and electronics to fully and safely operate in the space environment, codes like HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) must be included in any designer's toolbox for design evaluation with respect to radiation damage. Currently, spacecraft designers do not have easy access to accurate radiation codes like HZETRN to evaluate their design for radiation effects on humans and electronics. Today, the World Wide Web is sophisticated enough to support the entire HZETRN code and all of the associated pre and post processing tools. This package is called SIREST (Space Ionizing Radiation Effects and Shielding Tools). There are many advantages to SIREST. The most important advantage is the instant update capability of the web. Another major advantage is the modularity that the web imposes on the code. Right now, the major disadvantage of SIREST will be its modularity inside the designer's system. This mostly comes from the fact that a consistent interface between the designer and the computer system to evaluate the design is incomplete. This, however, is to be solved in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program currently being funded by NASA. PMID:11770545

  16. ETDEWEB versus the World-Wide-Web: a specific database/web comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.

    2010-06-28

    A study was performed comparing user search results from the specialized scientific database on energy-related information, ETDEWEB, with search results from the internet search engines Google and Google Scholar. The primary objective of the study was to determine if ETDEWEB (the Energy Technology Data Exchange – World Energy Base) continues to bring the user search results that are not being found by Google and Google Scholar. As a multilateral information exchange initiative, ETDE’s member countries and partners contribute cost- and task-sharing resources to build the largest database of energy-related information in the world. As of early 2010, the ETDEWEB database has 4.3 million citations to world-wide energy literature. One of ETDEWEB’s strengths is its focused scientific content and direct access to full text for its grey literature (over 300,000 documents in PDF available for viewing from the ETDE site and over a million additional links to where the documents can be found at research organizations and major publishers globally). Google and Google Scholar are well-known for the wide breadth of the information they search, with Google bringing in news, factual and opinion-related information, and Google Scholar also emphasizing scientific content across many disciplines. The analysis compared the results of 15 energy-related queries performed on all three systems using identical words/phrases. A variety of subjects was chosen, although the topics were mostly in renewable energy areas due to broad international interest. Over 40,000 search result records from the three sources were evaluated. The study concluded that ETDEWEB is a significant resource to energy experts for discovering relevant energy information. For the 15 topics in this study, ETDEWEB was shown to bring the user unique results not shown by Google or Google Scholar 86.7% of the time. Much was learned from the study beyond just metric comparisons. Observations about the strengths of each

  17. The Effect of Scheduling Models for Introductory Algebra on 9th-Grade Students, Test Scores and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Angela L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of pacing and scheduling of algebra coursework on assigned 9th-grade students who traditionally would qualify for pre-algebra instruction and same course 9th-grade students who traditionally would qualify for standard algebra instruction. Students were selected based on completion of first-year…

  18. The Effect of Conceptual Change Approach to Eliminate 9th Grade High School Students' Misconceptions about Air Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Yavuz; Gencturk, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of teaching based on conceptual change overcome misconceptions of 9th grade high school students about the subject of air pressure. The sampling of the study was formed with two classes of 9th grade students from a general high school in the city-center of Trabzon. A quasi-experimental…

  19. EDITORIAL: The 9th Workshop on Frontiers in Low Temperature Plasma Diagnostics The 9th Workshop on Frontiers in Low Temperature Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAME ADDRESS--> Nader Sadeghi,

  1. Online data collection with special populations over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Marcell, M M; Falls, A L

    2001-10-01

    The quick ascendance of the World Wide Web as the dominant vehicle for internet communication has recently made experimentation in a multimedia environment feasible on the Internet. Although web sites containing online psychology demonstrations and experiments for non-handicapped individuals have appeared in recent years (especially in the areas of cognitive and social psychology), there appear to have been few attempts to conduct online experimentation with special populations. We recently completed two online pilot studies of families with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome members: a) A survey that asks (via Likert rating scales, adjective checklists, multiple-choice style questions, and text-entry boxes) about family background, computer use, and temperament of the special needs family member; and b) An experiment (completed by an individual with special needs) that includes auditory and visual digit span tasks and a memory-for-orientation task in which responses are entered via mouse clicks. Recruiting began with e-mail announcements to representative Down syndrome and Williams syndrome discussion groups, listserves, and bulletin boards, and submission of the project's URL (http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/testaw.htm) and key indexing terms to selected search engines. This paper reviews technical aspects of developing the online programmes as well as the strengths and weaknesses of online vs. traditional laboratory-based research in relation to issues such as experimental control, delivery of instructions, experimenter bias, participant recruitment, sample heterogeneity, generalization, attrition, privacy, financial costs, data integrity, and ethics. We conclude by offering our thoughts on two ways of implementing online experimentation with special populations: a) Using a remote parent 'helper' as a proxy to work with the target individual; and b) Collaborating with professional colleagues in Web-based projects conducted in traditional laboratory settings. PMID

  2. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  3. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  4. Online Access to Weather Satellite Imagery Through the World Wide Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W.; Baldwin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Both global area coverage (GAC) and high-resolution picture transmission (HRTP) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) are made available to laternet users through an online data access system. Older GOES-7 data am also available. Created as a "testbed" data system for NASA's future Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), this testbed provides an opportunity to test both the technical requirements of an onune'd;ta system and the different ways in which the -general user, community would employ such a system. Initiated in December 1991, the basic data system experienced five major evolutionary changes In response to user requests and requirements. Features added with these changes were the addition of online browse, user subsetting, dynamic image Processing/navigation, a stand-alone data storage system, and movement,from an X-windows graphical user Interface (GUI) to a World Wide Web (WWW) interface. Over Its lifetime, the system has had as many as 2500 registered users. The system on the WWW has had over 2500 hits since October 1995. Many of these hits are by casual users that only take the GIF images directly from the interface screens and do not specifically order digital data. Still, there b a consistent stream of users ordering the navigated image data and related products (maps and so forth). We have recently added a real-time, seven- day, northwestern United States normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite that has generated considerable Interest. Index Terms-Data system, earth science, online access, satellite data.

  5. Online data collection with special populations over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Marcell, M M; Falls, A L

    2001-10-01

    The quick ascendance of the World Wide Web as the dominant vehicle for internet communication has recently made experimentation in a multimedia environment feasible on the Internet. Although web sites containing online psychology demonstrations and experiments for non-handicapped individuals have appeared in recent years (especially in the areas of cognitive and social psychology), there appear to have been few attempts to conduct online experimentation with special populations. We recently completed two online pilot studies of families with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome members: a) A survey that asks (via Likert rating scales, adjective checklists, multiple-choice style questions, and text-entry boxes) about family background, computer use, and temperament of the special needs family member; and b) An experiment (completed by an individual with special needs) that includes auditory and visual digit span tasks and a memory-for-orientation task in which responses are entered via mouse clicks. Recruiting began with e-mail announcements to representative Down syndrome and Williams syndrome discussion groups, listserves, and bulletin boards, and submission of the project's URL (http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/testaw.htm) and key indexing terms to selected search engines. This paper reviews technical aspects of developing the online programmes as well as the strengths and weaknesses of online vs. traditional laboratory-based research in relation to issues such as experimental control, delivery of instructions, experimenter bias, participant recruitment, sample heterogeneity, generalization, attrition, privacy, financial costs, data integrity, and ethics. We conclude by offering our thoughts on two ways of implementing online experimentation with special populations: a) Using a remote parent 'helper' as a proxy to work with the target individual; and b) Collaborating with professional colleagues in Web-based projects conducted in traditional laboratory settings.

  6. Adapting EcoCyc for use on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Paley, S M; Karp, P D

    1996-06-12

    The World Wide Web (WWW) offers the potential to deliver specialized information to an audience of unprecedented size. Along with this exciting new opportunity comes a challenge for software developers: instead of rewriting our software applications to operate over the WWW, how can we maximize software reuse by retrofitting existing applications? We have developed a Web server tool, written in Common Lisp, that allows existing graphical user interface applications written using the Common Lisp Interface Manager (CLIM) to hook easily into the WWW. This tool-CWEST (CLIM-WEb Server Tool, pronounced "quest")-was developed to operate with EcoCyc, an electronic encyclopedia of the genes and metabolism of the bacterium E. coli. EcoCyc consists of a database of objects relevant to E. coli biochemistry and a user interface, implemented in CLIM, that runs on the X-window system and generates graphical displays appropriate to biological objects. Each query to the EcoCyc WWW server is treated as a command to the EcoCyc program, which dynamically generates an appropriate CLIM drawing. CWEST translates that drawing, which can be a mixture of text and graphics, into the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and/or the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), which are returned to the client. Sensitive regions embedded in the CLIM drawing are converted to hyperlinks with Universal Resource Locators (URLs) that generate further EcoCyc queries. This tight coupling of CLIM output with Web output makes CLIM a powerful high-level programming tool for Web applications. The flexibility of Common Lisp and CLIM made implementation of the server tool surprisingly easy, requiring few changes to the existing EcoCyc program. The results can be seen at URL http: @www.ai.sri.com/ecocyc/browser.html. We have made CWEST available to the CLIM community at large, with the hope that it will spur other software developers to make their CLIM applications available over the WWW. PMID:8654966

  7. Architecture for biomedical multimedia information delivery on the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-10-01

    Research engineers at the National Library of Medicine are building a prototype system for the delivery of multimedia biomedical information on the World Wide Web. This paper discuses the architecture and design considerations for the system, which will be used initially to make images and text from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) publicly available. We categorized our analysis as follows: (1) fundamental software tools: we analyzed trade-offs among use of conventional HTML/CGI, X Window Broadway, and Java; (2) image delivery: we examined the use of unconventional TCP transmission methods; (3) database manager and database design: we discuss the capabilities and planned use of the Informix object-relational database manager and the planned schema for the HNANES database; (4) storage requirements for our Sun server; (5) user interface considerations; (6) the compatibility of the system with other standard research and analysis tools; (7) image display: we discuss considerations for consistent image display for end users. Finally, we discuss the scalability of the system in terms of incorporating larger or more databases of similar data, and the extendibility of the system for supporting content-based retrieval of biomedical images. The system prototype is called the Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System. An early version was built as a Java applet and tested on Unix, PC, and Macintosh platforms. This prototype used the MiniSQL database manager to do text queries on a small database of records of participants in the second NHANES survey. The full records and associated x-ray images were retrievable and displayable on a standard Web browser. A second version has now been built, also a Java applet, using the MySQL database manager.

  8. FOREWORD: 9th Curtin University of Technology Science and Engineering International Conference 2014 (CUTSE2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieng Chen, Vincent Lee

    2015-04-01

    A very warm welcome to all participants of the 9th Curtin University Technology, Science and Engineering (CUTSE) Conference 2014. This annual conference dates back to 2006 when the first Curtin University of Technology Science and Engineering (CUTSE) Conference was held in Curtin University, Miri Sarawak. CUTSE Conference was initially intended for Curtin's undergraduates such that they are able to experience the presentation of their work in a conference environment. As time passes and following the urge of knowledge dissemination, CUTSE Conference is hence open to public. This year the Department of Mechanical Engineering has been given the honour to organize the 9th CUTSE Conference. It has been a pleasure to watch CUTSE grow from strength to strength over the years. This year, our theme is "Discovering, Innovating and Engineering". We hope that it is in this spirit that CUTSE participants may align their respective work, such that we all aim for a greater and better implementation of "Discovering, Innovating and Engineering". The 9th CUTSE Conference 2014 is an excellent avenue for researchers, engineers, scientists, academicians, professionals from industry and students to share their research findings and initiate further collaborations in their respective fields. Parallel sessions in Mechanical, Electrical, Computer, Civil and Chemical engineering as well as the sciences will be hosted over a period of two days. Each year, the conference attracts participation from a number of countries in addition to Malaysia and Australia. In addition, student participants will get the opportunity to present their research projects and gain valuable feedback from industry professionals. This year the Conference will be organised by the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Curtin Sarawak's School of Engineering and Science in collaboration with The Institute of Engineers Malaysia, Miri Branch. On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to thank this year

  9. Obtaining Streamflow Statistics for Massachusetts Streams on the World Wide Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Steeves, Peter A.; Freeman, Aleda; Singh, Raj

    2000-01-01

    A World Wide Web application has been developed to make it easy to obtain streamflow statistics for user-selected locations on Massachusetts streams. The Web application, named STREAMSTATS (available at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/massachusetts.html ), can provide peak-flow frequency, low-flow frequency, and flow-duration statistics for most streams in Massachusetts. These statistics describe the magnitude (how much), frequency (how often), and duration (how long) of flow in a stream. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published streamflow statistics, such as the 100-year peak flow, the 7-day, 10-year low flow, and flow-duration statistics, for its data-collection stations in numerous reports. Federal, State, and local agencies need these statistics to plan and manage use of water resources and to regulate activities in and around streams. Engineering and environmental consulting firms, utilities, industry, and others use the statistics to design and operate water-supply systems, hydropower facilities, industrial facilities, wastewater treatment facilities, and roads, bridges, and other structures. Until now, streamflow statistics for data-collection stations have often been difficult to obtain because they are scattered among many reports, some of which are not readily available to the public. In addition, streamflow statistics are often needed for locations where no data are available. STREAMSTATS helps solve these problems. STREAMSTATS was developed jointly by the USGS and MassGIS, the State Geographic Information Systems (GIS) agency, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Departments of Environmental Management and Environmental Protection. The application consists of three major components: (1) a user interface that displays maps and allows users to select stream locations for which they want streamflow statistics (fig. 1), (2) a data base of previously published streamflow statistics and descriptive information for 725 USGS data

  10. Educational Applications on the World Wide Web: An Example Using Amphion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Jane

    1998-01-01

    There is a great deal of excitement about using the internet and the World Wide Web in education. There are such exciting possibilities and there is a wealth and variety of material up on the web. There are however many problems, problems of access and resources, problems of quality -- for every excellent resource there are many poor ones, and there are insufficiently explored problems of teacher training and motivation. For example, Wiesenmayer and Meadows report on a study of 347 West Virginia science teachers. These teachers were enrolled in a week-long summer workshop to introduce them to the internet and its educational potential. The teachers were asked to review science sites as to overall quality and then about their usefulness in their own classrooms. The teachers were enthusiastic about the web, and gave two-thirds of the sites high ratings, and essentially all the rest average ratings. But alarmingly, over 80% of these sites were viewed as having no direct applicability in the teacher's own classroom. This summer I was assigned to work on the Amphion project in the Automated Software Engineering Group under the leadership of Michael Lowry. I wished to find educational applications of the Amphion system, which in its current implementation can be used to create fortran programs and animations using the SPICE libraries created by the NAIF group at JPL. I wished to find an application which provided real added educational value, which was in line with educational curriculum standards and which would serve a documented need of the educational community. The application selected was teaching about the causes of the seasons -- at the approximately the fourth, fifth, sixth grade level. This topic was chosen because it is in line with national curriculum standards. The fourth, fifth, sixth grade level was selected to coincide with the grade level served by the Ames Aerospace Encounter, which services 10,000 children a year on field trips. The hope is that

  11. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control through the World Wide Web: Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    NASA's New Millenium Program (NMP) has identified a variety of revolutionary technologies that will support orders of magnitude improvements in the capabilities of spacecraft missions. This program's Autonomy team has focused on science and engineering automation technologies. In doing so, it has established a clear development roadmap specifying the experiments and demonstrations required to mature these technologies. The primary developmental thrusts of this roadmap are in the areas of remote agents, PI/operator interface, planning/scheduling fault management, and smart execution architectures. Phases 1 and 2 of the ASSET Project (previously known as the WebSat project) have focused on establishing World Wide Web-based commanding and telemetry services as an advanced means of interfacing a spacecraft system with the PI and operators. Current automated capabilities include Web-based command submission, limited contact scheduling, command list generation and transfer to the ground station, spacecraft support for demonstrations experiments, data transfer from the ground station back to the ASSET system, data archiving, and Web-based telemetry distribution. Phase 2 was finished in December 1996. During January-December 1997 work was commenced on Phase 3 of the ASSET Project. Phase 3 is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer; (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple PIs as well as associated payload experimenters; (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft; (4) Implement more advanced resource

  12. Efficacy of the World Wide Web in K-12 environmental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Kimberly Jane

    1998-11-01

    Despite support by teachers, students, and the American public in general, environmental education is not a priority in U.S. schools. Teachers face many barriers to integrating environmental education into K--12 curricula. The focus of this research is teachers' lack of access to environmental education resources. New educational reforms combined with emerging mass communication technologies such as the Internet and World Wide Web present new opportunities for the infusion of environmental content into the curriculum. New technologies can connect teachers and students to a wealth of resources previously unavailable to them. However, significant barriers to using technologies exist that must be overcome to make this promise a reality. Web-based environmental education is a new field and research is urgently needed. If teachers are to use the Web meaningfully in their classrooms, it is essential that their attitudes and perceptions about using this new technology be brought to light. Therefore, this exploratory research investigates teachers' attitudes toward using the Web to share environmental education resources. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to investigate this problem. Two surveys were conducted---self-administered mail survey and a Web-based online survey---to elicit teachers perceptions and comments about environmental education and the Web. Preliminary statistical procedures including frequencies, percentages and correlational measures were performed to interpret the data. In-depth interviews and participant-observation methods were used during an extended environmental education curriculum development project with two practicing teachers to gain insights into the process of creating curricula and placing it online. Findings from the both the mail survey and the Web-based survey suggest that teachers are interested in environmental education---97% of respondents for each survey agreed that environmental education should be taught in K

  13. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    signals is a fundamental advantage of isotopomer ratios (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol 2008). These results demonstrate that increasing [CO2] has reduced the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis on a global scale. Photorespiration is a side reaction that decreases the C gain of plants; the suppression of photorespiration in all analyzed trees indicates that increasing atmospheric [CO2] is enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency of trees world-wide. The consensus response of the trees agrees with the response of annual plants in greenhouse experiments, with three important conclusions. First, the generality of the isotopomer shift confirms that the CO2 response reflects the ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration, and that it creates a robust signal in tree rings. Second, the agreement between greenhouse-grown plants and trees indicates that there has not been an acclimation response of the trees during the past centuries. Third, the results show that the regulation of tree gas exchange has during past centuries been governed by the same rules as observed in manipulative experiments, in contradiction to recent reports (Keenan et al., Nature 2013).

  14. Publishing on the WWW. Part 5 - A brief history of the Internet and the World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    Grech, V

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on the history of the Internet and the World Wide Web, the media that in recent years have created the concept of objects existing ‘on-line’ in a virtual computer environment. These objects naturally include on-line journals such as Images in Paediatric Cardiology. PMID:22368602

  15. An Investigation of the Use of the World Wide Web for On-line Inquiry in a Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, David J.; And Others

    Research on student use of digital resources identifies the challenges associated with utilizing the World Wide Web (WWW) while involved in on-line inquiry activities in the science classroom. On-line materials alone do not suffice in providing the guidance students require to effectively ask questions, plan searches, and analyze the results of…

  16. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  17. Breaking the Island Chains: A Case Study Exploring the Intricate Powers of Language Shared on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winner, Tammy; Shields, Theodore

    2002-01-01

    Details the act of writing and publishing a literacy autobiography on the World Wide Web for an English course at a college located on a small island in the Bahamas. Notes that this activity gave geographically isolated writers an opportunity to consider the intricate powers of language and their space in the larger social and cultural influences…

  18. Panning for Gold: Utility of the World Wide Web for Metadata and Authority Control in Special Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellero, Nadine P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of the World Wide Web as a name authority resource and tool for special collections' analytic-level cataloging, based on experiences at The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library. Highlights include primary documents and metadata; authority control and the Web as authority source information; and future possibilities. (Author/LRW)

  19. Enhancing Student Performance in First-Semester General Chemistry Using Active Feedback through the World Wide Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Kent A.; Blake, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The World Wide Web recently launched a new interactive feedback system for the instructors, so that can better understanding about their students and their problems. The feedback, in combination with tailored lectures is expected to enhance student performance in the first semester of general chemistry.

  20. Pre-Service Teachers Critically Evaluate Scientific Information on the World-Wide Web: What Makes Information Believable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…

  1. Students' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the World Wide Web as a Research and Teaching Tool in Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan; Gunstone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a research and teaching tool in promoting self-directed learning groups of 15-year-old students. Discusses the perceptions of students of the effectiveness of the WWW in assisting them with the construction of knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration. (Contains 33 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. An Ontology of Quality Initiatives and a Model for Decentralized, Collaborative Quality Management on the (Semantic) World Wide Web

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be. PMID:11772549

  3. An ontology of quality initiatives and a model for decentralized, collaborative quality management on the (semantic) World-Wide-Web.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, G

    2001-01-01

    This editorial provides a model of how quality initiatives concerned with health information on the World Wide Web may in the future interact with each other. This vision fits into the evolving "Semantic Web" architecture - ie, the prospective that the World Wide Web may evolve from a mess of unstructured, human-readable information sources into a global knowledge base with an additional layer providing richer and more meaningful relationships between resources. One first prerequisite for forming such a "Semantic Web" or "web of trust" among the players active in quality management of health information is that these initiatives make statements about themselves and about each other in a machine-processable language. I present a concrete model on how this collaboration could look, and provide some recommendations on what the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other policy makers in this framework could be.

  4. PREFACE: 9th International Workshop on High-pT Physics at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 9th International Workshop on High-pT at LHC. The workshop was held from 24-28 September 2013 at LPSC Grenoble, France. The first workshop of this series was organized in 2006 in Trento, Italy. The purpose of the 9th workshop was to offer an opportunity for experimentalists and theoreticians to get together and discuss experimental results from the first heavy-ion program at LHC, lessons learnt from RHIC and theoretical developments. Focus was also given to high pT physics in pA collisions, especially at the LHC energies. Emphasis was given on discussion over a large scope: high-pT physics, jets, photons, correlations, hard scattering and hard probes phenomena. The main topics of the workshop were: • Nuclear modifications of the parton distribution functions • High pT jet production in pp, pA and AA • High pT parton propagation in matter • Nuclear modifications of the fragmentation functions • Correlations with leading particles • Direct photon and heavy flavor tagging About 50 participants coming from 12 countries participated in the workshop. 6 invited talks and 31 oral contributions were presented at the conference.

  5. PREFACE: 9th International Workshop on High-pT Physics at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnafoldi, Gergely; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Estienne, Magali; Guernane, Rachid; Morsch, Andreas; Rak, Jan; Schienbein, Ingo; Shabetai, Alexandre; Silvestre Tello, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 9th International Workshop on High-pT at LHC. The workshop was held from 24-28 September 2013 at LPSC Grenoble, France. The first workshop of this series was organized in 2006 in Trento, Italy. The purpose of the 9th workshop was to offer an opportunity for experimentalists and theoreticians to get together and discuss experimental results from the first heavy-ion program at LHC, lessons learnt from RHIC and theoretical developments. Focus was also given to high pT physics in pA collisions, especially at the LHC energies. Emphasis was given on discussion over a large scope: high-pT physics, jets, photons, correlations, hard scattering and hard probes phenomena. The main topics of the workshop were: • Nuclear modifications of the parton distribution functions • High pT jet production in pp, pA and AA • High pT parton propagation in matter • Nuclear modifications of the fragmentation functions • Correlations with leading particles • Direct photon and heavy flavor tagging About 50 participants coming from 12 countries participated in the workshop. 6 invited talks and 31 oral contributions were presented at the conference.

  6. Problem-Based Learning in 9th Grade Chemistry Class: `Intermolecular Forces'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarhan, Leman; Ayar-Kayali, Hulya; Urek, Raziye Ozturk; Acar, Burcin

    2008-05-01

    This research study aims to examine the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) on 9th grade students’ understanding of intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole forces, London dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding). The student’s alternate conceptions about intermolecular bonding and their beliefs about PBL were also measured. Seventy-eight 9th grade students were stratified by cognitive levels and then randomly assigned to experimental (PBL, 40 students) and control (lecture-style teaching, 38 students) groups. Following a preparatory lesson where activation and remediation of existing knowledge occur, a pre-test was given, and no significant difference was found between the two groups of students ( p > .05). After the instruction was completed, a post-test and also a questionnaire related to the quality of the problem, the teacher’s role and group functioning were administered. Results from the post-test of both groups ( p < .05) and questionnaire showed that PBL is affective on students’ achievement, remedying formation of alternate conceptions and also social skills.

  7. Geometric frustration on a 1/9th site depleted triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, John; Beck, Jarrett

    2013-03-01

    In the searches both for new spin liquid and spin ice (artificial and macroscopic) candidates, geometrically frustrated two-dimensional spin systems have played a prominent role. Here we present a study of the classical antiferromagnetic Ising (AFI) model on the sorrel net, a 1/9th site depleted and 1/7th bond depleted triangular lattice. The AFI model on this corner-shared triangle net is found to have a large residual entropy per spin S/N = 0 . 48185 +/- 0 . 00008 , indicating the sorrel net is highly geometrically frustrated. Anticipating that it may be difficult to achieve perfect bond depletion, we investigate the physics resulting from turning back on the depleted bonds (J2). We present the phase diagram, analytic expressions for the long range partially ordered ground state spin structure for antiferromagnetic J2 and the short range ordered ground state spin structure for ferromagnetic J2, the magnetic susceptibility and the static structure factor. We briefly comment on the possibility that artificial spin ice on the sorrel lattice could by made, and on a recent report [T. D. Keene et al., Dalton Trans. 40 2983 (2011)] of the creation of a 1/9th depleted cobalt hydroxide oxalate. This work was supported by NSERC (JMH) and NSERC USRA (JJB)

  8. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  9. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  10. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  11. The city and the river A reconstruction of the strategical position of early 9th century Dorestad, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosian, Menne; Weerts, Henk; Steur, Roeland; Abrahamse, Jaap-Evert

    2013-04-01

    Why was the Early-medieval trade-port of Dorestad located at a relatively inland position in the Rhine delta and not at the coast, as one would expect? We combined palaeogeographical, environmental-archaeological, geomorphological/geological and laser-altimetry data to propose an answer to this question. Local Dorestad data had to be combined with a regional paleogeographical reconstruction of active river branches in the 9th-century Rhine delta to come to a satisfactory answer. The location of Dorestad on a high natural levee along a relatively stable navigable branch of the Rhine in the central Rhine delta was perfect for trade. The high levee gave protection from the annual river floods. Although this branch of the Rhine was fairly stable in the heydays of Dorestad, the meanders near Dorestad slowly migrated. Excavations at Dorestad show that the harbour works of Dorestad were constantly adapted to this migration, thereby following the meander on which they were located. Ships could reach the port from the sea through at least three navigable Rhine branches: the Lek, the Old Rhine and the Vecht rivers. Dorestad was thus easily accessible and yet far enough from the coast to be safe from storm floods - but was it located at its specific location for these reasons alone? We combined existing geomorphological and geological maps with recent nation-wide laser-altimetry (AHN, General Elevation model of the Netherlands') for a regional palaeogeographical reconstruction of 9th-century active Rhine branches in a GIS. This reconstruction revealed that river connections with the Flemish, French and German hinterland were perfect. Other delta branches ensured safe connections to the Zeeland delta and the open Flemish coast, all the way to Dover Straight to the south and to the open Frisian coast all the way to present Southern Denmark in the North. The dangerously closed coast of Holland without any safe shelter places for storms could thus be avoided by ships coming in

  12. Oncolytic viruses on the cusp of success?: proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Oncolytic Virus Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cole; Nigim, Fares; Chiocca, E Antonio; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2016-01-01

    Boston, Massachusetts, was the site of the 9th International Conference on Oncolytic Virus Therapeutics held 13–16 June 2015. An overarching theme of the meeting was the continued development of combinatorial treatment regimens to bolster the therapeutic potential of oncolytic viruses (OVs). Several talks focused on combining OVs with immune checkpoint inhibitors in a wide array of tumors, signaling an experimental and thematic shift toward driving immune activation to clear a tumor versus relying on direct viral oncolysis. An important aspect of the meeting was the variety of ongoing OV clinical trials. Topics ranged from basic virology to clinical trials and from academic research to intellectual property and biotechnology. There was much excitement due to the US Food and Drug Administration’s recent consideration of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) for the treatment of advanced melanoma (T-VEC was approved in October, following the conference). Here, we summarize the meeting’s primary themes, which reflect the current state of the field.

  13. Summary of the 9th annual meeting of the Italian Society for Virology.

    PubMed

    Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Parolin, Cristina; Palù, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The 9th annual meeting of the Italian Society for Virology (SIV) comprised seven plenary sessions focused on: General virology and viral genetics; Virus-Host interaction and pathogenesis; Viral oncology; Emerging viruses and zoonotic, foodborne, and environmental pathways of transmission; Viral immunology and vaccines; Medical virology and antiviral therapy; Viral biotechnologies and gene therapy. Moreover, four hot topics were discussed in special lectures: the Pioneer in human virology lecture regarding the control of viral epidemics with particular emphasis on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the Pioneer in plant virology lecture focused on cell responses to plant virus infection, a Keynote lecture on the epidemiology and genetic diversity of Crimea-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus, and the G.B. Rossi lecture on the molecular basis and clinical implications of human cytomegalovirus tropism for endothelial/epithelial cells. The meeting had an attendance of about 160 virologists. A summary of the plenary lectures and oral selected presentations is reported.

  14. Use of the World Wide Web in Lower-Division Chemistry Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Karen E.; Stevens, Richard E.

    1996-10-01

    Recent articles have identified the plethora of chemical information existing currently on the World-Wide Web (WWW) available via the Internet (1). This information medium is particularly valuable because it represents a very up-to-date source of information. Site managers can update information and it can be "instantaneously visited" by someone. As an example, several current topics of chemical significance were highlighted in a nonmajor chemistry class held in January 1996 at our college. December 31, 1995, represented the last day that leaded gasoline could be sold for use in automobiles. In early January, the FDA approved the synthetic fat olestra for use in snack foods. Both of these topics provoked great interest in students as they brought up issues of relevance and interest to their lives that were currently being discussed in the news. The WWW was utilized extensively as a source of information and current updates. Print media, such as texts and reference manuals, have a much longer "lag-time" before current information can be typeset, printed, and accessed by a researcher. Previous articles (1, 2) have focused on Internet use for upper-division classes, but we have found a useful way to bring the Internet into nonmajor and freshman level classes composed of 20-50 students. The student assignment was to find information on a chemical topic currently in the news by using the WWW and use that information to write a 2-3 page essay (3, 4). Using the Internet to find information presents one issue not previously encountered when using encyclopedias, reference books, or textbooks, but an issue raised in previous editorials in this Journal (5, 6). That difference is that virtually anyone can post information on the WWW. Thus, the WWW can have governmental organizations, environmental groups, large corporations, or just individuals posting their views. Hence, when searching a particular topic, students might find a very factual article, or they might find a very

  15. Towards the world-wide ban of indoor cigarette smoking in public places.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Luis R; Persson, James L; Romine, David C; Taylor, John T; Toole, Theron C; Trollman, Christopher J; Au, William W

    2006-01-01

    In 1984, Dr. C. Everett Koop, then Surgeon General of the US, presented an important speech on the hazards of smoking. In his speech, he stated "The ultimate goal should be a smoke-free society by the year 2000." In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated a process to ban smoking globally; on 21 May 2003, at the 56th World Health Assembly, WHO's 192 Member States unanimously adopted the world's first public health treaty, the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Although good progress has been made, reaching the ultimate goal is far from certainty. Therefore, it is time to re-visit this crucial public health activity and re-energize the effort to reach this goal. Since numerous reports have been written on the ban of smoking based on benefits to the smokers, the emphasis of our report is on benefits to non-smokers from their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We provide a concise review of the impact of ETS on health and economy. In addition, we examined the different interest groups on supporting and opposing the ban, the role of the government, private citizens and medical professionals on this activity, and certain constraints on implementing the global ban. We also provide some recommendations on how to promote the ban globally. Since cigarette smoking is an unnecessary habit that has devastating consequences around the world, banning of cigarette smoking should be a global mission. A global ban on indoor smoking in public places is an important first step in an international effort to prevent morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco smoking and ETS.

  16. Possible world-wide middle miocene iridium anomaly and its relationship to periodicity of impacts and extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, L. W.; Anders, Mark H.; Montanari, A.; Kennett, James P.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of one million years of Middle Miocene sediment deposition in ODP Hole 689B in the Weddell Sea near Antarctica, a single iridium (Ir) anomaly of 44 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 12th gram Ir per gram rock (ppt) was observed in core 6H, section 3, 50 to 60 cm, after background contributions associated with manganese precipitates and clay are subtracted. The ODP Hole 689B is 10,000 km away from another site, DSDP Hole 588B in the Tasman Sea north of New Zealand, where a single Ir anomaly of 144 + or - 7 ppt over a background of 11 ppt was found in an earlier study of 3 million years of deposition. From chemical measurements the latter deposition was thought to be impact-related. Ir measurements were made, following neutron activation, with the Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer. The age vs depth calibration curves given in the DSDP and ODP preliminary reports indicate the ages of the Iranomalies are identical, 11.7 million years, but the absolute and relative uncertainties in the curves are not known. Based on the newest age data the age estimate is 10 million years. As the Ir was deposited at the two sites at about the same time and they are one quarter of the way around the world from each other it seems likely that the deposition was world-wide. The impact of a large asteroid or comet could produce the wide distribution, and this data is supportive of the impact relationship deduced for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 588B from the chemical evidence. If the surface densities of Ir at the two sites are representative of the world-wide average, the diameter of a Cl type asteroid containing the necessary Ir would be 3 + or - 1 km, which is large enough to cause world-wide darkness and hence extinctions although the latter point is disputed.

  17. Fitting dynamical x-ray diffraction data over the World Wide Web.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Forrest, R.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Houston

    2008-01-01

    The first implementation of fitting X-ray Bragg diffraction profiles from strained multilayer crystals at a remote web-based X-ray software server is presented. The algorithms and the software solutions involved in the process are described. The suggested technology can be applied to a wide range of scientific research and has the potential to promote remote collaborations across scientific communities.

  18. The Wide and Wild World of Words: Interview with Averil Coxhead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mah, Adeline Shi Hui; Yeo, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Averil Coxhead is widely known for developing the Academic Word List, a list of 570 word families associated with great frequency in academic texts. This list has been particularly useful to teachers of English as a Second Language as well as independent learners in tertiary education. She has also developed a Science-based word list (Coxhead and…

  19. Automated generation of a World Wide Web-based data entry and check program for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, T; Kaihara, S

    1997-02-01

    The World Wide Web-based form is a promising method for the construction of an on-line data collection system for clinical and epidemiological research. It is, however, laborious to prepare a common gateway interface (CGI) program for each project, which the World Wide Web server needs to handle the submitted data. In medicine, it is even more laborious because the CGI program must check deficits, type, ranges, and logical errors (bad combination of data) of entered data for quality assurance as well as data length and meta-characters of the entered data to enhance the security of the server. We have extended the specification of the hypertext markup language (HTML) form to accommodate information necessary for such data checking and we have developed software named AUTOFORM for this purpose. The software automatically analyzes the extended HTML form and generates the corresponding ordinary HTML form, 'Makefile', and C source of CGI programs. The resultant CGI program checks the entered data through the HTML form, records them in a computer, and returns them to the end-user. AUTOFORM drastically reduces the burden of development of the World Wide Web-based data entry system and allows the CGI programs to be more securely and reliably prepared than had they been written from scratch.

  20. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education.

  1. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education. PMID:17006584

  2. The "Athena Framework": Solving the World-wide Climate and Energy Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2005-10-10

    The energy systems we have enjoyed for the last 100 years has resulted in the advanced standard of living in the developed world and a major emerging problem with climate change. Now we face a simultaneous realization that our reliance on fossil fuels is a source of conflict and economic disruption as well as causing potentially catastrophic global climate change. It is time to give serious thought to how to collectively solve this problem. Collective action is critical since individual effort by one or only a few nations cannot adequately address the issue.

  3. Pseudo-random Spray Release to Measure World-wide Transfer Functions of Cloud Albedo Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Institute for Energy Systems, School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh. S.Salter@ed.ac.uk Previous climate models of Latham's proposal to reverse global warming by using sub-micron sea spray to increase cloud albedo have used a variety of spray patterns. Kettles forced CCN concentration to be 375/cm3 everywhere. Rasch et al used the 20% and 70% most susceptible regions. Bala and Caldeira used an even spread. Jones et al. concentrated spray in the 3.3% oceans with the highest susceptibility All used the same rate through the year. We want to choose a scheme for a climate-modelling experiment designed to identify simultaneously the effects of cloud albedo control at various seasons of the year from spray at all regions of the world on climates of all other regions the world. In particular we want to know seasons and spray places which might have an undesirable effect on precipitation. The spray systems in various regions of a numerical climate model will be modulated on an off with different but known pseudo-random sequences and a selection of seasons. The mean value of the resulting weather records of the parameters of interest, mainly temperature and water run-off, at each region will be subtracted from each value of the record so as to give just the alternating component with an average value of zero. This will be correlated with each of the chosen pseudo-random sequences to give the magnitude and polarity of the effect of a treatment at each input area and selected seasons of the year with the resulting effects on all regions. By doing a time-shifted correlation we can account for phase-shift and time delay. The signal-to-noise ratio should improve with the square root of the analysis time and so we may be able to measure the transfer function with quite a small stimulus. The results of a Mathcad simulation of the process with statistical distributions approximating to natural variations temperature and precipitation show that a single run of a climate

  4. Standards-based Materials for World-Wide Distribution in the IHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    The National Science Education standards and related science literacy efforts are a vital tool for improving STEM education and for guiding development of both formal and informal science education products. The space physics community is in a position to develop excellent curricula and materials that are most effective when they are designed to meet these standards. This presentation will highlight materials and projects from the Stanford Solar Center and how clear links were made between the space physics concepts being taught and the basic science education standards they support. We will primarily focus on our Space Weather Monitor project, in which we distribute, through the International Heliophysical Year, scientific instruments and educational materials for use in high schools around the world. Although the US standards do not technically apply, we have found them valuable when designing materials for broad distribution.

  5. The Global Inventor Gap: Distribution and Equality of World-Wide Inventive Effort, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy. PMID:25849202

  6. The global inventor gap: distribution and equality of world-wide inventive effort, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy.

  7. Seven Years of World-Wide Participation in International Observe the Moon Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Jones, Andrea J.; Bleacher, Lora; Wenger, Matthew; Shaner, Andrew; Joseph, Emily C. S.; Day, Brian; Canipe, Marti; InOMN Coordinating Committee

    2016-10-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide public event that encourages observation, appreciation, and understanding of our Moon and its connection to NASA planetary science and exploration. Everyone on Earth is invited to join the celebration by hosting or attending an InOMN event - and uniting on one day each year to look at and learn about the Moon together. This year marks the seventh year of InOMN, which will be held on October 8, 2016. Between 2010 and 2015, a total of 3,275 events were registered worldwide, 49% of which were held in the United States. In 2015, a total of 545 events were registered on the InOMN website from around the world. These events were scheduled to be held in 54 different countries, 43% of which were registered in the United States from 40 states and the District of Columbia. InOMN events are hosted by a variety of institutions including astronomy clubs, observatories, schools, and universities and hosted at a variety of public and private institutions all over the world including museums, planetaria, schools, universities, observatories, parks, and private businesses and private homes. Evaluation of InOMN is led by the Planetary Science Institute who assesses the success of InOMN through analysis of event registrations, facilitator surveys, and visitor survey. Current InOMN efforts demonstrate success in meeting the overall goals of the LRO E/PO goals including raising visitors' awareness of lunar science and exploration, providing audiences with information about lunar science and exploration along with access to LRO data and science results, and inspiring visitors to want to learn more about the Moon and providing connections to opportunities to do so. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Learn more at http://observethemoonnight.org/.

  8. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  9. PREFACE: 9th International Conference on Magnetic and Superconducting Materials (MSM15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuphan Yakinci, M.; Tanatar, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The Magnetic and Superconducting Materials (MSM) Conference, which is held biannually in many countries, started in 1999 as a scientific conference on magnetism and superconductivity and their application in materials. Today MSM conferences aim to bring together regional and international research groups and technologists of related companies to discuss new materials, their results and current problems in the areas of superconductivity, magnetism, novel materials and also in the general field of Low Temperature Physics. The main goal of the MSM conference series is to increase collaboration within the region and the third world countries, and with the international community among the scientists from the developed countries. It is only through the sharing of experience with scientists around the world that one could fully benefit from natural and human resources. During the MSM15 conference we have received more than 250 abstracts from 22 different countries, plenary, invited and contributed talks were presented and many scientific subjects were widely discussed. The contributions in this volume have been reviewed by the eminent international scientists and represent some of the invited and contributed talks presented during MSM15 conference. We would like to thank to all of the participants attending the conference and also international scientific committee for their contribution to a high level conference and its overall success. We also would like to thank to our sponsors İnönü University, Gazi University, Çukurova University, Abant İzzet Baysal University and Bülent Ecevit University and more than eight scientific companies during the conference. M. Eyyuphan Yakinci, Bilal Tanatar Editors

  10. The living legacy of the Harvard Pigeon Lab: quantitative analysis in the wide world.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, A W

    2002-01-01

    From the Harvard Pigeon Lab of the 1960s arose a behavior-analytic approach that was quantitative and rigorous, rooted in Herrnstein's matching law. Researchers modified the matching law to describe choice behavior in a variety of different settings and examined its relations with other quantitative models. Beginning in the early 1970s, researchers began using the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative framework to study in the laboratory specific aspects of the world outside the laboratory. Much of this work concerned investigations of self-control-choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer. Experiments using a quantitative framework derived from the matching law have also been conducted outside the laboratory; however, these have been far less frequent. Current and future researchers will benefit the field by devising new, creative ways to investigate the matching law and related quantitative models outside the laboratory. Such research can help to demonstrate the validity of these models as basic principles of behavior, can enhance public opinion of and rewards for such research, and can stimulate further development of the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative approach by using that approach with new variables. PMID:12083687

  11. An interactive gamma-ray burst educational text for the world wide-web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horack, John M.; Rizvi, Sherene; Friend, Labraunna

    1996-08-01

    In order to strengthen education and scientific literacy among the general public, it is important to communicate the results NASA has obtained, as well as the excitement of doing world-class science. The NASA Strategic Plan specifically mandates that new opportunities and pathways be found to disseminate scientific information for consumption by the general public. We therefore announce the release of A Major League Puzzle, an interactive educational text for the WWW. A Major League Puzzle is a seven-chapter introduction to the gamma-ray burst phenomenon presented to the user through the paradigms of baseball. This resource is intended for the general public who are interested in but have not received specific training in the sciences, and is targeted to reach students at the high-school level. Using a Web-browser program such as Netscape or Mosaic, A Major League Puzzle can be accessed at ``http://wwwssl.msfc.nasa.gov/ssl/pad/astro/batse/foreword.htm.'' This work is one product of the Summer High School Apprenticeship Research Program (SHARP) conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the Summer of 1995.

  12. The living legacy of the Harvard Pigeon Lab: quantitative analysis in the wide world.

    PubMed

    Logue, A W

    2002-05-01

    From the Harvard Pigeon Lab of the 1960s arose a behavior-analytic approach that was quantitative and rigorous, rooted in Herrnstein's matching law. Researchers modified the matching law to describe choice behavior in a variety of different settings and examined its relations with other quantitative models. Beginning in the early 1970s, researchers began using the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative framework to study in the laboratory specific aspects of the world outside the laboratory. Much of this work concerned investigations of self-control-choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer. Experiments using a quantitative framework derived from the matching law have also been conducted outside the laboratory; however, these have been far less frequent. Current and future researchers will benefit the field by devising new, creative ways to investigate the matching law and related quantitative models outside the laboratory. Such research can help to demonstrate the validity of these models as basic principles of behavior, can enhance public opinion of and rewards for such research, and can stimulate further development of the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative approach by using that approach with new variables.

  13. Evaluation of the Liu model for predicting rainfall interception in forests world-wide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Shu-Guang

    2001-01-01

    Simple but effective models are needed for the prediction of rainfall interception under a full range of environmental and management conditions. The Liu model was validated using data published in the literature and was compared with two leading models in the literature: the Rutter and the Gash models. The Liu model was tested against the Rutter model on a single-storm basis with interception measurements observed from an old-growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in Oregon, USA. Simulated results by the Liu model were close to the measurements and comparable to those predicted by the Rutter model. The Liu model was further tested against the Gash model on a multistorm basis. The Gash and Liu models successfully predicted long-term interception losses from a broad range of 20 forests around the world. Results also indicated that both the Gash and the Liu models could be used to predict rainfall interception using daily rainfall data, although it was assumed in both models that there is only one storm per rain day. The sensitivity of the Liu model to stand storage capacity, canopy gap fraction and evaporation rate from wet canopy surface during rainfall was investigated. Results indicate that the Liu model has the simplest form, least data requirements and comparable accuracy for predicting rainfall interception as compared with the Rutter and the Gash models.

  14. Using the World Wide WEB to promote science education in nuclear energy and RWM

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.

    1996-12-31

    A priority of government and business in the United States and other first tier industrial countries continues to be the improvement of science, mathematics and technology (SMT) instruction in pre university level education. The U.S. federal government has made SMT instruction an educational priority and set goals for improving it in the belief that science, math and technology education are tied to our economic well being and standard of living. The new national standards in mathematics education, science education and the proposed standards in technology education are all aimed at improving knowledge and skills in the essential areas that the federal government considers important for protecting our technological advantage in the world economy. This paper will discuss a pilot project for establishing graphical Web capability in a limited number of rural Nevada schools (six) with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the state of Nevada. The general goals of the pilot project are as follows: (1) to give rural teachers and students access to up to date science information on the Web; (2) to determine whether Web access can improve science teaching and student attitudes toward science in rural Nevada schools; and (3) to identify science content on the Web that supports the National Science Standards and Benchmarks. A specific objective that this paper will address is stated as the following question: What potential do nuclear energy information office web sites offer for changing student attitudes about nuclear energy and creating greater nuclear literacy.

  15. Fish from Head to Tail: The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting in Oslo.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Müller, Ferenc; Ledin, Johan; Patton, E Elizabeth; Gjøen, Tor; Lobert, Viola Hélène; Winther-Larsen, Hanne Cecilie; Mullins, Mary; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Press, Charles McLean; Aleström, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The 9th European Zebrafish Meeting took place recently in Oslo (June 28-July 2, 2015). A total of 650 participants came to hear the latest research news focused on the zebrafish, Danio rerio, and to its distant evolutionary relative medaka, Oryzias latipes. The packed program included keynote and plenary talks, short oral presentations and poster sessions, workshops, and strategic discussions. The meeting was a great success and revealed dramatically how important the zebrafish in particular has become as a model system for topics, such as developmental biology, functional genomics, biomedicine, toxicology, and drug development. A new emphasis was given to its potential as a model for aquaculture, a topic of great economic interest to the host country Norway and for the future global food supply in general. Zebrafish husbandry as well as its use in teaching were also covered in separate workshops. As has become a tradition in these meetings, there was a well-attended Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and ZFIN workshop focused on Zebrafish Genome Resources on the first day. The full EZM 2015 program with abstracts can be read and downloaded from the EZM 2015 Web site zebrafish2015.org . PMID:26859625

  16. F/A-18 1/9th scale model tail buffet measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. A.; Glaister, M. K.; Maclaren, L. D.; Meyn, L. A.; Ross, J.

    1991-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out on a 1/9th scale model of the F/A-18 at high angles of attack to investigate the characteristics of tail buffet due to bursting of the wing leading edge extension (LEX) vortices. The tests were carried out at the Aeronautical Research Laboratory low-speed wind tunnel facility and form part of a collaborative activity with NASA Ames Research Center, organized by The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). Information from the program will be used in the planning of similar collaborative tests, to be carried out at NASA Ames, on a full-scale aircraft. The program covered the measurement of unsteady pressures and fin vibration for cases with and without the wing LEX fences fitted. Fourier transform methods were used to analyze the unsteady data, and information on the spatial and temporal content of the vortex burst pressure field was obtained. Flow visualization of the vortex behavior was carried out using smoke and a laser light sheet technique.

  17. 9th Circuit says engaging in sex is a major life activity under ADA.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the ability to engage in sexual relations is a major life activity under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The ruling suggests that all adults and adolescents infected with HIV are covered by the ADA because of the risk of transmitting the virus sexually. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled last year in the [name removed] v. [Name removed] case that the ability to procreate is a major life activity, but it left unresolved the issue of whether sexual relations were covered. Several other courts have further defined the issue and ruled that sexual dysfunction should count as a disability. The plaintiff in this case sued after his employer refused to relocate him to a different department, stating he was deprived of a reasonable accommodation. The plaintiff suffered from impotence, and claimed a disability under the ADA. The dissenting judge in the ruling noted that he did not see how one's ability to have sexual relations had any connection to employment. PMID:11367019

  18. Survey of Oral Health Awareness in Neuchâtel 9th Graders.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Klaus W; Müller, Magali E; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The oral health habits of pupils had not yet been analyzed for the canton of Neuchâtel. A questionnaire was provided to 9th grade high school pupils (final year) of the three schools located in the Neuchâtel area to asses both oral health knowledge and habits in this connection. The average age was 15.5±0.8 years, and 78.1% of the questionnaires were returned. The prophylaxis program was conducted for a total of 4.5 h during pupils’ entire time at school. The results showed that both knowledge and oral health habits could be improved. As a positive outcome, 99% of the pupils brush their teeth before going to bed. Comparisons with similar 10-year-old studies from other cantons (Bern, Vaud) showed major differences in knowledge, for example on the importance of fluoridation. Only 54% of the pupils in Neuchâtel knew that fluoride offers some protection against caries, in spite of the fact that 89% thought that brushing with fluoridated toothpaste protects against caries. Most of the pupils used a fluoridated toothpaste. Furthermore, we found that self-reported sugar consumption was correlated with caries experience, but brushing frequency was not. We recommend introducing a review course for pupils in their last school year, in order to practice interdental cleaning, redefine appropriate, tooth-friendly snacks, and emphasize the importance of regular dental check-ups. PMID:27622326

  19. World-wide deployment of Robo-AO visible-light robotic laser adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas Michael; Lu, Jessica R.; Tonry, John; Tully, R. Brent; Wright, Shelley; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Severson, Scott; Choi, Philip; Ramaprakash, A.; Chun, Mark; Connelley, Mike; Tokunaga, Alan; Hall, Donald

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, several modest-sized telescopes around the world will be upgraded with autonomous laser adaptive optics systems based on the Robo-AO prototype deployed at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. The prototype commenced scientific operations in June 2012 and more than 19,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. We are planning to move the prototype system to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for a 3-year deployment which will serve a consortium of users including Caltech, the University of Hawai`i, IUCAA, NCU and institutions in China. Additionally, 2 months per year will be made available to the US astronomical community.New Robo-AO systems are in various stages of development: a clone by IUCAA for the 2-m IGO telescope in India; a natural guide star variant, KAPAO, by Pomona College at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope in California; and second generation Robo-AO systems are planned for the 3-m IRTF and 2.2-m University of Hawai'i telescopes on Maunakea, Hawai`i. The latter will exploit Maunakea's excellent observing conditions to provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to lambda = 400 nm. An additional infrared integral-field spectrograph will be fed by the UH 2.2-m Robo-AO system to quickly classify transients, such as supernovae and asteroids, discovered by the ATLAS system in Hawai`i.

  20. Autonomous Satellite Command and Control Through the World Wide Web. Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Twiggs, Robert

    1998-01-01

    The Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) system is a simple yet comprehensive real-world operations network being developed. Phase 3 of the ASSET Project was January-December 1997 and is the subject of this report. This phase permitted SSDL and its project partners to expand the ASSET system in a variety of ways. These added capabilities included the advancement of ground station capabilities, the adaptation of spacecraft on-board software, and the expansion of capabilities of the ASSET management algorithms. Specific goals of Phase 3 were: (1) Extend Web-based goal-level commanding for both the payload PI and the spacecraft engineer. (2) Support prioritized handling of multiple (PIs) Principle Investigators as well as associated payload experimenters. (3) Expand the number and types of experiments supported by the ASSET system and its associated spacecraft. (4) Implement more advanced resource management, modeling and fault management capabilities that integrate the space and ground segments of the space system hardware. (5) Implement a beacon monitoring test. (6) Implement an experimental blackboard controller for space system management. (7) Further define typical ground station developments required for Internet-based remote control and for full system automation of the PI-to-spacecraft link. Each of those goals are examined. Significant sections of this report were also published as a conference paper. Several publications produced in support of this grant are included as attachments. Titles include: 1) Experimental Initiatives in Space System Operations; 2) The ASSET Client Interface: Balancing High Level Specification with Low Level Control; 3) Specifying Spacecraft Operations At The Product/Service Level; 4) The Design of a Highly Configurable, Reusable Operating System for Testbed Satellites; 5) Automated Health Operations For The Sapphire Spacecraft; 6) Engineering Data Summaries for Space Missions; and 7) Experiments In Automated Health

  1. [Native or not? Isotope analysis of a female skeleton on the 9th century A.D. from Elsau, Canton Zurich, Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Tütken, Thomas; Langenegger, Elisabeth; Wild, Werner

    2008-03-01

    At Elsau near Winterthur (CH), a 9th century AD grave with a female skeleton was found in 2003. This grave was reopened one to six years after burial. After manipulating the partially decayed skeleton, the grave was filled with a layer of rocks and a claw of a sea eagle as well as the paw of a fox was placed on top. At least from this time onwards, the grave was situated in the annex of a church. Because of this special burial site for the 42 year old woman, who suffered from different severe illnesses, it is thought that she belonged to the upper class. The postmortal changes at the grave are exceptional and even after thorough research, no equivalent burial procedures are known from this area. To investigate the possibility if the woman migrated to the region of Elsau, the oxygen and strontium isotope composition of several teeth and one long bone of her skeleton was analysed. The results indicate a certain but restricted mobility within the northern Alpine foreland and as a result changes of the isotope composition of the food and drinking water during her childhood. Immigration from regions in which similar burial customs to those used for the woman persisted into the 9th century AD can be largely excluded based on the isotope composition of her skeletal remains. The mobility in the pre-Alpine region supports the interpretation that the woman belonged to the upper class, whose properties where widely distributed.

  2. Confluence of genes, environment, development, and behavior in a post Genome-Wide Association Study world.

    PubMed

    Vrieze, Scott I; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2012-11-01

    This article serves to outline a research paradigm to investigate main effects and interactions of genes, environment, and development on behavior and psychiatric illness. We provide a historical context for candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies, including benefits, limitations, and expected payoffs. Using substance use and abuse as our driving example, we then turn to the importance of etiological psychological theory in guiding genetic, environmental, and developmental research, as well as the utility of refined phenotypic measures, such as endophenotypes, in the pursuit of etiological understanding and focused tests of genetic and environmental associations. Phenotypic measurement has received considerable attention in the history of psychology and is informed by psychometrics, whereas the environment remains relatively poorly measured and is often confounded with genetic effects (i.e., gene-environment correlation). Genetically informed designs, which are no longer limited to twin and adoption studies thanks to ever-cheaper genotyping, are required to understand environmental influences. Finally, we outline the vast amount of individual difference in structural genomic variation, most of which remains to be leveraged in genetic association tests. Although the genetic data can be massive and burdensome (tens of millions of variants per person), we argue that improved understanding of genomic structure and function will provide investigators with new tools to test specific a priori hypotheses derived from etiological psychological theory, much like current candidate gene research but with less confusion and more payoff than candidate gene research has to date. PMID:23062291

  3. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Rosemary A.; Houghton, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs) for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values. PMID:24084052

  4. UN/ESA workshops on basic space science: an initiative in the world-wide development of astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Hans J.

    1998-12-01

    In 1990, the United Nations in cooperation with the European Space Agency initiated the organization of a series of annual Workshops on Basic Space Science for the benefit of astronomers and space scientists in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Western Asia, and Europe. This article summarizes accomplishments of seven of these Workshops and their follow-up projects with a view to enhance the world-wide development of astronomy and space science. The Workshops are being considered unique and a model for such an endeavour.

  5. Alcoa World Alumina: Plant-Wide Assessment at Arkansas Operations Reveals More than$900,000 in Potential Annual Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The plant-wide energy-efficiency assessment performed in 2001 at the Alcoa World Alumina Arkansas Operations in Bauxite, Arkansas, identified seven opportunities to save energy and reduce costs. By implementing five of these improvements, the facility can save 15,100 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 8.76 million kilowatt-hours per year in electricity. This translates into approximate annual savings of$925,300 in direct energy costs and non-fuel operating and maintenance costs. The required capital investment is estimated at$271,200. The average payback period for all five projects would be approximately 8 months.

  6. A framework for the creation of user-oriented medical textbooks on the World-Wide-Web.

    PubMed

    Prevelakis, V; Vassilakopoulos, G

    2000-01-01

    The use of the World Wide Web as a medium for the dissemination of course textbooks has proved to be effective both pedagogically and in terms of cost. However, there are some limitations inherent in this approach. In this paper we discuss the issues involved in the production of network accessible textbooks and present a framework which attempts to address the limitations of existing schemes through the use of a view-filter mechanism. We describe our proposal from a conceptual viewpoint and then discuss its applicability through the presentation of a prototype system. Finally, conclusions are drawn and future plans discussed. PMID:10947653

  7. The World Wide Web: a review of an emerging internet-based technology for the distribution of biomedical information.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, H J; Lomax, E C; Polonkey, S E

    1996-01-01

    The Internet is rapidly evolving from a resource used primarily by the research community to a true global information network offering a wide range of databases and services. This evolution presents many opportunities for improved access to biomedical information, but Internet-based resources have often been difficult for the non-expert to develop and use. The World Wide Web (WWW) supports an inexpensive, easy-to-use, cross-platform, graphic interface to the Internet that may radically alter the way we retrieve and disseminate medical data. This paper summarizes the Internet and hypertext origins of the WWW, reviews WWW-specific technologies, and describes current and future applications of this technology in medicine and medical informatics. The paper also includes an appendix of useful biomedical WWW servers. PMID:8750386

  8. Medical knowledge packages and their integration into health-care information systems and the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Software-based medical knowledge packages (MKPs) are packages of highly structured medical knowledge that can be integrated into various health-care information systems or the World Wide Web. They have been established to provide different forms of clinical decision support such as textual interpretation of combinations of laboratory rest results, generating diagnostic hypotheses as well as confirmed and excluded diagnoses to support differential diagnosis in internal medicine, or for early identification and automatic monitoring of hospital-acquired infections. Technically, an MKP may consist of a number of inter-connected Arden Medical Logic Modules. Several MKPs have been integrated thus far into hospital, laboratory, and departmental information systems. This has resulted in useful and widely accepted software-based clinical decision support for the benefit of the patient, the physician, and the organization funding the health care system.

  9. The World Wide Web: a review of an emerging internet-based technology for the distribution of biomedical information.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Lomax, E C; Polonkey, S E

    1996-01-01

    The Internet is rapidly evolving from a resource used primarily by the research community to a true global information network offering a wide range of databases and services. This evolution presents many opportunities for improved access to biomedical information, but Internet-based resources have often been difficult for the non-expert to develop and use. The World Wide Web (WWW) supports an inexpensive, easy-to-use, cross-platform, graphic interface to the Internet that may radically alter the way we retrieve and disseminate medical data. This paper summarizes the Internet and hypertext origins of the WWW, reviews WWW-specific technologies, and describes current and future applications of this technology in medicine and medical informatics. The paper also includes an appendix of useful biomedical WWW servers.

  10. Finding Web-Based Anxiety Interventions on the World Wide Web: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Olander, Ellinor K; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background One relatively new and increasingly popular approach of increasing access to treatment is Web-based intervention programs. The advantage of Web-based approaches is the accessibility, affordability, and anonymity of potentially evidence-based treatment. Despite much research evidence on the effectiveness of Web-based interventions for anxiety found in the literature, little is known about what is publically available for potential consumers on the Web. Objective Our aim was to explore what a consumer searching the Web for Web-based intervention options for anxiety-related issues might find. The objectives were to identify currently publically available Web-based intervention programs for anxiety and to synthesize and review these in terms of (1) website characteristics such as credibility and accessibility; (2) intervention program characteristics such as intervention focus, design, and presentation modes; (3) therapeutic elements employed; and (4) published evidence of efficacy. Methods Web keyword searches were carried out on three major search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo—UK platforms). For each search, the first 25 hyperlinks were screened for eligible programs. Included were programs that were designed for anxiety symptoms, currently publically accessible on the Web, had an online component, a structured treatment plan, and were available in English. Data were extracted for website characteristics, program characteristics, therapeutic characteristics, as well as empirical evidence. Programs were also evaluated using a 16-point rating tool. Results The search resulted in 34 programs that were eligible for review. A wide variety of programs for anxiety, including specific anxiety disorders, and anxiety in combination with stress, depression, or anger were identified and based predominantly on cognitive behavioral therapy techniques. The majority of websites were rated as credible, secure, and free of advertisement. The majority required users to

  11. Weather Anomalies. 9th Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Bill

    This curriculum unit requires students to use science, geography, and language arts skills in studying the weather. Students are asked to report on weather anomalies and are provided with background information, detailed instructions, online resources, and reflection questions. The teacher's guide describes the unit's purpose, correlation to…

  12. A large-scale study of the world wide web: network correlation functions with scale-invariant boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludueña, Guillermo A.; Meixner, Harald; Kaczor, Gregor; Gros, Claudius

    2013-08-01

    We performed a large-scale crawl of the world wide web, covering 6.9 million domains and 57 million subdomains, including all high-traffic sites of the internet. We present a study of the correlations found between quantities measuring the structural relevance of each node in the network (the in- and out-degree, the local clustering coefficient, the first-neighbor in-degree and the Alexa rank). We find that some of these properties show strong correlation effects and that the dependencies occurring out of these correlations follow power laws not only for the averages, but also for the boundaries of the respective density distributions. In addition, these scale-free limits do not follow the same exponents as the corresponding averages. In our study we retain the directionality of the hyperlinks and develop a statistical estimate for the clustering coefficient of directed graphs. We include in our study the correlations between the in-degree and the Alexa traffic rank, a popular index for the traffic volume, finding non-trivial power-law correlations. We find that sites with more/less than about 103 links from different domains have remarkably different statistical properties, for all correlation functions studied, indicating towards an underlying hierarchical structure of the world wide web.

  13. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  14. Comparison of student outcomes and preferences in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course.

    PubMed

    Leasure, A R; Davis, L; Thievon, S L

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare student outcomes in an undergraduate research course taught using both World Wide Web-based distance learning technology and traditional pedagogy. Reasons given for enrolling in the traditional classroom section included the perception of increased opportunity for interaction, decreased opportunity to procrastinate, immediate feedback, and more meaningful learning activities. Reasons for selecting the Web group section included cost, convenience, and flexibility. Overall, there was no significant difference in examination scores between the two groups on the three multiple-choice examinations or for the course grades (t = -.96, P = .343). Students who reported that they were self-directed and had the ability to maintain their own pace and avoid procrastination were most suited to Web-based courses. The Web-based classes can help provide opportunities for methods of communication that are not traditionally nurtured in traditional classroom settings. Secondary benefits of the World Wide Web-based course were to increase student confidence with the computer, and introduce them to skills and opportunities they would not have had in the classroom. Additionally, over time and with practice, student's writing skills improved. PMID:10782758

  15. Comparison of student outcomes and preferences in a traditional vs. World Wide Web-based baccalaureate nursing research course.

    PubMed

    Leasure, A R; Davis, L; Thievon, S L

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare student outcomes in an undergraduate research course taught using both World Wide Web-based distance learning technology and traditional pedagogy. Reasons given for enrolling in the traditional classroom section included the perception of increased opportunity for interaction, decreased opportunity to procrastinate, immediate feedback, and more meaningful learning activities. Reasons for selecting the Web group section included cost, convenience, and flexibility. Overall, there was no significant difference in examination scores between the two groups on the three multiple-choice examinations or for the course grades (t = -.96, P = .343). Students who reported that they were self-directed and had the ability to maintain their own pace and avoid procrastination were most suited to Web-based courses. The Web-based classes can help provide opportunities for methods of communication that are not traditionally nurtured in traditional classroom settings. Secondary benefits of the World Wide Web-based course were to increase student confidence with the computer, and introduce them to skills and opportunities they would not have had in the classroom. Additionally, over time and with practice, student's writing skills improved.

  16. Successful Transition to High School: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Barr Model with 9th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsello, Maryann; Sharma, Anu; Jerabek, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Ninth grade is a pivotal year for students. Numerous studies find that academic performance in 9th grade often sets the student's trajectory throughout the high school years, as well as the probability of graduation. The Building Assets Reducing Risks (BARR) model is a comprehensive approach that addresses developmental, academic, and school…

  17. A Comparison of 9th Grade Male and Female Physical Education Activities Preferences and Support for Coeducational Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Cleven, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district, to identify which activities students felt should be offered in coeducation or gender separate formats, and to determine whether physical education is one of their favorite classes. Results…

  18. EDITORIAL: The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009) The 9th International Symposium on Measurement Science and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yuri

    2010-05-01

    The papers for this special feature have been selected for publication after the successful measurement forum that took place in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in 2009. ISMTII-2009 presented state-of-the-art approaches and solutions in the most challenging areas and focused on microscale and nanoscale measurements and metrology; novel measurements and diagnostic technologies, including nondestructive and dimensional inspection; measurements for geometrical and mechanical quantities, terahertz technologies for science, industry and biomedicine; intelligent measuring instruments and systems for industry and transport; optical and x-ray tomography and interferometry, metrology and characterization of materials, measurements and metrology for the humanitarian fields; and education in measurement science. We believe that scientists and specialists around the world found there the newest information on measurement technology and intelligent instruments, and this will stimulate work in these areas which is an essential part of progress in measurement. The ISMTII Symposia have been held successfully every two years from 1989 in the People's Republic of China, Hungary, Egypt, Hong Kong, UK and Japan under the direction of ICMI. In 2009 the ISMTII measuring forum took place in Russia, and it is a great honour for our country, as well as for the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Siberian Branch—Novosibirsk Scientific Center. This Symposium was located in historic Saint Petersburg, which from its foundation has been a unique bridge of communication between countries on all continents, and participation provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experience, information and knowledge between specialists from different countries and fields. On behalf of the Organizers, Steering Committee and International Program Committee I would like to thank all the participants for their valuable contributions without which this special feature would not have become reality, as well

  19. World Wide Wonder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer G.

    2000-01-01

    High schools across the country are expanding their vocational course offerings through the Internet, closing the gap between small-town limitations and big-city opportunities. Even hands-on training is being offered online. (Author/JOW)

  20. Variations of the vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network during 1950-2020.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network are obtained with one year resolution during the period of 1950-2020 by the method of trajectory calculations. The models of Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field and International Geomagnetic Reference Field have been used. Besides, cutoff rigidities for the whole period were obtained using model by Tsyganenko Ts89 with involving yearly mean values of Kp index. In each case an estimation of penumbra contribution was made in approximation of flat and low spectra (index in variations spectrum 0 and -1) of cosmic ray variations. The results testify total decrease of cut off rigidities practically in the all locations, which is apparently connected to the common decrease of magnetic field in a considered period.

  1. A Java viewer to publish Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) radiologic images on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Setti, E; Musumeci, R

    2001-06-01

    The world wide web is an exciting service that allows one to publish electronic documents made of text and images on the internet. Client software called a web browser can access these documents, and display and print them. The most popular browsers are currently Microsoft Internet Explorer (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) and Netscape Communicator (Netscape Communications, Mountain View, CA). These browsers can display text in hypertext markup language (HTML) format and images in Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) and Graphic Interchange Format (GIF). Currently, neither browser can display radiologic images in native Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format. With the aim to publish radiologic images on the internet, we wrote a dedicated Java applet. Our software can display radiologic and histologic images in DICOM, JPEG, and GIF formats, and provides a a number of functions like windowing and magnification lens. The applet is compatible with some web browsers, even the older versions. The software is free and available from the author.

  2. The low availability of metadata elements for evaluating the quality of medical information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Shon, J; Musen, M A

    1999-01-01

    A great barrier to the use of Internet resources for patient education is the concern over the quality of information available. We conducted a study to determine what information was available in Web pages, both within text and metadata source code, that could be used in the assessment of information quality. Analysis of pages retrieved from 97 unique sites using a simple keyword search for "breast cancer treatment" on a generic and a health-specific search engine revealed that basic publishing elements were present in low frequency: authorship (20%), attribution/references (32%), disclosure (41%), and currency (35%). Only one page retrieved contained all four elements. Automated extraction of metadata elements from the source code of 822 pages retrieved from five popular generic search engines revealed even less information. We discuss the design of a metadata-based system for the evaluation of quality of medical content on the World Wide Web that addresses current limitations in ensuring quality.

  3. The efficacy of using search engines in procuring information about orthopaedic foot and ankle problems from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nogler, M; Wimmer, C; Mayr, E; Ofner, D

    1999-05-01

    This study has attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining information specific to foot and ankle orthopaedics from the World Wide Web (WWW). Six search engines (Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, and HotBot) were used in scanning the Web for the following key words: "cavus foot," "diabetic foot," "hallux valgus,"and "pes equinovarus." Matches were classified by language, provider, type, and relevance to medical professionals or to patients. Sixty percent (407 sites) of the visited websites contained information intended for use by physicians and other medical professionals; 30% (206 sites) were related to patient information; 10% of the sites were not easily classifiable. Forty-one percent (169 sites) of the websites were commercially oriented homepages that included advertisements.

  4. Mapping the footsteps of the green anole: A template for publishing ecological data on the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, E.T.; Truett, D.F.; Truett, L.F.

    1996-10-01

    In the handful of years since the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) came into being, Web sites have developed at an astonishing rate. With the influx of Web pages comes a disparity of site types, including personal homepages, commercial sales sites, and educational data. The variety of sites and the deluge of information contained on the Web exemplify the individual nature of the WWW. Whereas some people argue that it is this eclecticism which gives the Web its charm, we propose that sites which are repositories of technical data would benefit from standardization. This paper proffers a methodology for publishing ecological research on the Web. The template we describe uses capabilities of HTML (the HyperText Markup Language) to enhance the value of the traditional scientific paper.

  5. The efficacy of using search engines in procuring information about orthopaedic foot and ankle problems from the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Nogler, M; Wimmer, C; Mayr, E; Ofner, D

    1999-05-01

    This study has attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining information specific to foot and ankle orthopaedics from the World Wide Web (WWW). Six search engines (Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, and HotBot) were used in scanning the Web for the following key words: "cavus foot," "diabetic foot," "hallux valgus,"and "pes equinovarus." Matches were classified by language, provider, type, and relevance to medical professionals or to patients. Sixty percent (407 sites) of the visited websites contained information intended for use by physicians and other medical professionals; 30% (206 sites) were related to patient information; 10% of the sites were not easily classifiable. Forty-one percent (169 sites) of the websites were commercially oriented homepages that included advertisements. PMID:10353772

  6. A model of clinical query management that supports integration of biomedical information over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, W. M.; Shortliffe, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    A model of clinical query management is described that supports the integration of various types of biomedical information and the delivery of that information through a common interface. The model extends the architecture of the World Wide Web to include a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mediator, which takes in user queries, performs syntactic and semantic processing to transform the input to a canonical form, selects the appropriate information sources to answer the query, translates the canonical query statement into a query of each information resource, queries the chosen information sources in parallel, and controls the analysis and display of results. We describe WebMedline, a CGI mediator that implements portions of this model, and discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach. PMID:8563422

  7. Crystallography Open Database (COD): an open-access collection of crystal structures and platform for world-wide collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gražulis, Saulius; Daškevič, Adriana; Merkys, Andrius; Chateigner, Daniel; Lutterotti, Luca; Quirós, Miguel; Serebryanaya, Nadezhda R; Moeck, Peter; Downs, Robert T; Le Bail, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Using an open-access distribution model, the Crystallography Open Database (COD, http://www.crystallography.net) collects all known 'small molecule / small to medium sized unit cell' crystal structures and makes them available freely on the Internet. As of today, the COD has aggregated ~150,000 structures, offering basic search capabilities and the possibility to download the whole database, or parts thereof using a variety of standard open communication protocols. A newly developed website provides capabilities for all registered users to deposit published and so far unpublished structures as personal communications or pre-publication depositions. Such a setup enables extension of the COD database by many users simultaneously. This increases the possibilities for growth of the COD database, and is the first step towards establishing a world wide Internet-based collaborative platform dedicated to the collection and curation of structural knowledge.

  8. Internet Technology in Magnetic Resonance: A Common Gateway Interface Program for the World-Wide Web NMR Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buszko, Marian L.; Buszko, Dominik; Wang, Daniel C.

    1998-04-01

    A custom-written Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program for remote control of an NMR spectrometer using a World Wide Web browser has been described. The program, running on a UNIX workstation, uses multiple processes to handle concurrent tasks of interacting with the user and with the spectrometer. The program's parent process communicates with the browser and sends out commands to the spectrometer; the child process is mainly responsible for data acquisition. Communication between the processes is via the shared memory mechanism. The WWW pages that have been developed for the system make use of the frames feature of web browsers. The CGI program provides an intuitive user interface to the NMR spectrometer, making, in effect, a complex system an easy-to-use Web appliance.

  9. A model of clinical query management that supports integration of biomedical information over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Detmer, W M; Shortliffe, E H

    1995-01-01

    A model of clinical query management is described that supports the integration of various types of biomedical information and the delivery of that information through a common interface. The model extends the architecture of the World Wide Web to include a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mediator, which takes in user queries, performs syntactic and semantic processing to transform the input to a canonical form, selects the appropriate information sources to answer the query, translates the canonical query statement into a query of each information resource, queries the chosen information sources in parallel, and controls the analysis and display of results. We describe WebMedline, a CGI mediator that implements portions of this model, and discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Highly Divergent Simian Foamy Viruses in a Wide Range of New World Primates from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Cláudia P.; Troncoso, Lian L.; Moreira, Miguel A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.; Pissinatti, Alcides; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Sharma, Bechan; Jia, Hongwei; Shankar, Anupama; Switzer, William M.; Santos, André F.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2013-01-01

    Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP) and New World primates (NWP), which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV). While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n  = 332) comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol) sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14–30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America. PMID:23844033

  11. A pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) study that suggests a major world-wide clone of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Chiu, Tsai-Hsin; Helmuth, Reiner; Schroeter, Andreas; Guerra, Beatriz; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2007-05-30

    Since human infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) have been increasing world-wide over the past years and epidemiological studies have implicated the consumption of meat, poultry, eggs and egg products, elucidation of the predominant subtypes for this Salmonella spp. is important. In this study, 107 poultry and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis obtained from Germany were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the subtypes were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan. Results showed that for these 107 poultry and food isolates, when XbaI, SpeI and NotI were used for chromosomal DNA digestion followed by PFGE analysis, a total of 19, 20 and 19 PFGE patterns, respectively, were identified. Of them, 51 (47.7%), 52 (48.6%) and 42 (39.3%) strains belong to a single pattern of X3, S3 and N3, respectively, and 34 strains belong to a pattern combination of X3S3N3, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of these 107 German isolates were compared with those of the 124 human isolates obtained in Taiwan, pattern combination of X3S3N3 was found as the most common pattern shared by isolates from both areas. PT4 is a major phage type for German and Taiwan isolates. Although most of the X3S3N3 strains are of this phage type, some strains of other PFGE patterns are also of this phage type. Since strains used in this study were unrelated, i.e., they were isolated from different origins in areas geographically far apart from each other, the PFGE study suggests a major world-wide clone of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis.

  12. Dynamic Interactive Educational Diabetes Simulations Using the World Wide Web: An Experience of More Than 15 Years with AIDA Online

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Eldon D.; DeWolf, Dennis K.; Novotny, Christopher A.; Reed, Karen; Gotwals, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. AIDA is a widely available downloadable educational simulator of glucose-insulin interaction in diabetes. Methods. A web-based version of AIDA was developed that utilises a server-based architecture with HTML FORM commands to submit numerical data from a web-browser client to a remote web server. AIDA online, located on a remote server, passes the received data through Perl scripts which interactively produce 24 hr insulin and glucose simulations. Results. AIDA online allows users to modify the insulin regimen and diet of 40 different prestored “virtual diabetic patients” on the internet or create new “patients” with user-generated regimens. Multiple simulations can be run, with graphical results viewed via a standard web-browser window. To date, over 637,500 diabetes simulations have been run at AIDA online, from all over the world. Conclusions. AIDA online's functionality is similar to the downloadable AIDA program, but the mode of implementation and usage is different. An advantage to utilising a server-based application is the flexibility that can be offered. New modules can be added quickly to the online simulator. This has facilitated the development of refinements to AIDA online, which have instantaneously become available around the world, with no further local downloads or installations being required. PMID:24511312

  13. Dynamic Interactive Educational Diabetes Simulations Using the World Wide Web: An Experience of More Than 15 Years with AIDA Online.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Eldon D; Dewolf, Dennis K; Novotny, Christopher A; Reed, Karen; Gotwals, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Background. AIDA is a widely available downloadable educational simulator of glucose-insulin interaction in diabetes. Methods. A web-based version of AIDA was developed that utilises a server-based architecture with HTML FORM commands to submit numerical data from a web-browser client to a remote web server. AIDA online, located on a remote server, passes the received data through Perl scripts which interactively produce 24 hr insulin and glucose simulations. Results. AIDA online allows users to modify the insulin regimen and diet of 40 different prestored "virtual diabetic patients" on the internet or create new "patients" with user-generated regimens. Multiple simulations can be run, with graphical results viewed via a standard web-browser window. To date, over 637,500 diabetes simulations have been run at AIDA online, from all over the world. Conclusions. AIDA online's functionality is similar to the downloadable AIDA program, but the mode of implementation and usage is different. An advantage to utilising a server-based application is the flexibility that can be offered. New modules can be added quickly to the online simulator. This has facilitated the development of refinements to AIDA online, which have instantaneously become available around the world, with no further local downloads or installations being required.

  14. 9th Seah Cheng Siang Memorial Lecture: gastric cancer--where are we now?

    PubMed

    Lam, S K

    1999-11-01

    Gastric cancer, the second most common cancer in the world, kills about one million people a year, almost half of whom are Chinese. Chinese, Japanese and Koreans as well as east Europeans top the list with over 40 per 100,000 population per year, with a wide margin over Americans, Indians and Zimbabweans in whom the rates are below 1 per 100,000. The excellent prognosis of early gastric cancer is well established, and survival of cancer involving beyond the submucosa remains poor and there is little new in management. However, recent years have witnessed a breakthrough in the understanding of causative factors and molecular genetic abnormalities in gastric cancer that should pave the way for prevention, early detection and prognostication. Established carcinogens for gastric cancer now include Helicobacter pylori and N-nitroso compounds; other causative factors include salt and salted food intake, cigarette smoking, male sex, and familial genetic abnormalities. H. pylori infection increases cancer risk by about 5 in a 10-year period. Diet high in salt carries a relative risk of up to 6, and a highly significant correlation between 24 h urinary salt content and incidence of gastric cancer has been shown in 24 countries. The risk from smoking and male sex is under 2. Many N-nitroso compounds, which come from nitrites, which in turn come from nitrates in food following bacterial transformation in a hypochlorhydric environment, are established carcinogens in animals, but their risk for human gastric cancer is still debatable. The intestinal type of gastric cancer, according to Correa's hypothesis, develops from chronic inflammation leading to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer, and is more associated with H. pylori and early gastric cancer. The diffuse type of gastric cancer does not go through these precancerous conditions and moves straight from inflammation to cancer. Associated with inflammation are an increase in proliferation and apoptosis, and this fine

  15. The Effectiveness of a Self Regulated Learning-Based Training Program on Improving Cognitive and Metacognitive EFL Reading Comprehension of 9th Graders with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a self regulated learning intervention program on cognitive and metacognitive EFL reading comprehension of 9th graders with reading disabilities. The participants in this study were 40 9th Graders with reading disabilities, selected from two schools located in Baltim Educational Edara. A…

  16. The Effect of Arabism of Romanic Alphabets on the Development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language Students' Writing Skills at Secondary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuhair, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the effect of Arabization of Romanic Alphabets on the development of 9th Grade English as a Foreign Language students' composition writing skills at secondary school level. This experimental study includes 25 secondary school students in their 9th Grade in which English is taught as a foreign language at…

  17. Affordances of students' using the World Wide Web as a publishing medium in project-based learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Nathan Daniel

    This dissertation investigates the emerging affordance of the World Wide Web as a place for high school students to become authors and publishers of information. Two empirical studies lay groundwork for student publishing by examining learning issues related to audience adaptation in writing, motivation and engagement with hypermedia, design, problem-solving, and critical evaluation. Two models of student publishing on the World Wide Web were investigated over the course of two 11spth grade project-based science curriculums. In the first curricular model, students worked in pairs to design informative hypermedia projects about infectious diseases that were published on the Web. Four case studies were written, drawing on both product- and process-related data sources. Four theoretically important findings are illustrated through these cases: (1) multimedia, especially graphics, seemed to catalyze some students' design processes by affecting the sequence of their design process and by providing a connection between the science content and their personal interest areas, (2) hypermedia design can demand high levels of analysis and synthesis of science content, (3) students can learn to think about science content representation through engagement with challenging design tasks, and (4) students' consideration of an outside audience can be facilitated by teacher-given design principles. The second Web-publishing model examines how students critically evaluate scientific resources on the Web, and how students can contribute to the Web's organization and usability by publishing critical reviews. Students critically evaluated Web resources using a four-part scheme: summarization of content, content, evaluation of credibility, evaluation of organizational structure, and evaluation of appearance. Content analyses comparing students' reviews and reviewed Web documents showed that students were proficient at summarizing content of Web documents, identifying their publishing

  18. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively ''intra-atmospheric satellites'' but likely have serial

  19. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed world wide web server: closed system research and education using the Internet

    PubMed

    Tosteson, J L; Marino, B D

    1996-01-01

    At this time, a fully materially closed system of large scale and complexity has not yet been built. However, Biosphere 2--a unique "living" Earth laboratory--is an example of a large (3.15 acres) and biologically complex (several thousand terrestrial plant species) system that can be operated with minimal exchange of ambient substances (annual exchange of materials is estimated to be approximately 10%). Biosphere 2 provides a multidisciplinary platform for scientific studies related to both Earth system processes and microcosms of the Earth that may be transported into space. The scale and versatility of the facility make Biosphere 2 a unique place to support integrated research and educational activities. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed world wide web server has been developed to facilitate such activities by disseminating information about the facility, as well as current research and education efforts. Currently, these efforts focus of studies on carbon and other elemental cycles, coral reef ecology and physiology, stable isotopic research, studies in biodiversity, and ecophysiological studies of plant responses to elevated CO2. The Biosphere 2 Global Change Testbed web server is briefly described, and goals for use of the server to promote research and education endeavors are outlined.

  20. Driving nanocars and nanomachines at interfaces: From concept of nanoarchitectonics to actual use in world wide race and hand operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Waka; Yonamine, Yusuke; Joachim, Christian; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2016-11-01

    Nanomachine and molecular machines are state-of-the-art objects in current physics and chemistry. The operation and manufacturing of nanosize machines are top-level technologies that we have desired to accomplish for a long time. There have been extensive attempts to design and synthesize nanomachines. In this paper, we review the these attempts using the concept of nanoarchitectonics toward the design, synthesis, and testing of molecular machinery, especially at interfacial media. In the first half of this review, various historical attempts to design and prepare nanomachines are introduced as well as their operation mechanisms from their basic principles. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the importance and possibilities of this research field, we also give examples of two new challenging topics in the second half of this review: (i) a world wide nanocar race and (ii) new modes of nanomachine operation on water. The nanocar race event involves actual use of nanomachines and will take place in the near future, and nanomachine operation of a dynamic fluidic interface will enable future advances in nanomachine science and technology.

  1. The visible embryo project: embedded program objects for knowledge access, creation and management through the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Doyle, M D; Ang, C S; Martin, D C; Noe, A

    1996-01-01

    We have designed a prototype knowledge management online environment for the biomedical sciences which integrates access to online representations of the scientific literature, bibliographic databases, high-performance visualization technologies, large-scale scientific databases, and tools for authoring new-generation scientific publications. This system will provide widespread access to its resources by using the World Wide Web for its underlying architecture. This system expands upon our Weblet Interactive Remote Visualization (IRV) server technology to produce a set of dedicated Internet "visualization servers" which provide interactive control of real-time visualizations from the Visible Embryo Project database from within Web pages viewed with our WebRouser software package. This system will be used to develop a set of prototype applications for both online education of medical students in developmental anatomy and for an interactive patient education system for expectant parents. We recognize that knowledge represented by these national resource databases is not static, therefore it is essential to include tools for both the creation of new "compound documents" which incorporate embedded objects, as well as for managing the peer-review of scholarly publications, in order to ensure the integrity of new knowledge as it is added to these databases in the future. We have therefore begun to design integrated tools for our system which facilitate both the creation of and the validation of new generations of scientific knowledge. PMID:9007210

  2. Proceedings of the 9th U.S.-Japan natural resources panel for earthquake research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Ellsworth, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The Panel strongly urges that the appropriate agencies in the U.S. and Japan that are represented on this panel work together with the academic sector to support and coordinate scientific work in these areas of cooperation. The Panel recognizes the importance of promoting the exchange of scientific personnel, exchange of data, and fundamental studies to advance progress in earthquake research. The U.S. and Japan should promote these exchanges throughout the world. The Panel endorses continuation of these activities.

  3. Global detection of explosive volcanic eruptions with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and application to aviation safety (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, J. W.; Holzworth, R. H.; Diefenbach, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The hazards of volcanic ash to modern aviation are now widely known, and there is a concerted global effort on the part of volcano observatories, meteorological services, and civil aviation authorities to keep aircraft out of harm’s way. A major issue with providing rapid notification of dangerous eruptions is that only about 50% of the world's volcanoes that currently threaten air operations have any sort of ground-based, real-time monitoring; thus, timely detection of explosive eruptions is more difficult owing to reliance on satellite remote sensing. We have been evaluating the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, see http://wwlln.net) as a tool to detect volcanogenic lightning associated with explosive eruptions worldwide to aid rapid eruption reporting for aviation. The WWLLN has a data latency of one minute and thus can detect and report volcanogenic lightning in near-real time. We compared explosive volcanic activity worldwide (data from the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program, volcano observatory reports, Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports, and ancillary data sources) with the entire catalog of WWLLN data for 2008 and 2009 to determine the eruption-detection capabilities of the system. Duration and number of WWLLN lightning detections is positively correlated with eruption magnitude. In 2008 the WWLLN detected lightning from all eruptions VEI 4 or larger (Chaiten, Chile; Kasatochi and Okmok, Alaska, USA), as well as four out of six of the ~VEI 3 and two ~VEI 2 eruptions. In 2009 the WWLLN detected the single VEI 4 eruption (Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands, Russia), four out six of the ~VEI 3 and a single VEI 2 eruption. At volcanoes where eruption-onset times are well determined by seismic or remote sensing means, lightning flashes started within 4 to 58 minutes of eruption onset. Lightning was detected from eruptions that produced ash clouds with heights that ranged from approximately 1-15 km above the vent, with most >9 km. Detected

  4. PREFACE: NC-AFM 2006: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomitori, Masahiko; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    The advent of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the 1980s has significantly promoted nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), one of the SPM family, has unique capabilities with high spatial resolution for nanoscale measurements in vacuum, air and liquids. In the last decade we have witnessed the rapid progress of NC-AFM with improved performance and increasing applications. A series of NC-AFM international conferences have greatly contributed to this field. Initiated in Osaka in 1998, the NC-AFM meeting has been followed by annual conferences at Pontresina, Hamburg, Kyoto, Montreal, Dingle, Seattle and Bad Essen. The 9th conference was held in Kobe, Japan, 16-20 July 2006. This special issue of Nanotechnology contains the outstanding contributions of the conference. During the meeting delegates learnt about a number of significant advances. Topics covered atomic resolution imaging of metals, semiconductors, insulators, ionic crystals, oxides, molecular systems, imaging of biological materials in various environments and novel instrumentation. Work also included the characterization of electronic and magnetic properties, tip and cantilever fabrication and characterization, atomic distinction based on analysis of tip-sample interaction, atomic scale manipulation, fabrication of nanostructures using NC-AFM, and related theories and simulations. We are greatly impressed by the increasing number of applications, and convinced that NC-AFM and related techniques are building a bridge to a future nano world, where quantum phenomena will dominate and nano devices will be realized. In addition, a special session on SPM road maps was held as a first trial in the field, where the future prospects of SPM were discussed enthusiastically. The overall success of the NC-AFM 2006 conference was due to the efforts of many individuals and groups with respect to scientific and technological progress, as well as the international

  5. Students' Conceptions about "Radiation": Results from an Explorative Interview Study of 9th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Susanne; Hopf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One basis of good teaching is to know about your students' preconceptions. Studies about typical ideas that students bring to the science classroom have been and continue to be a major field in science education research. This study aims to explore associations and ideas that students have regarding "radiation", a term widely used in various…

  6. Proceedings of the National Technological Literacy Conference (9th, Arlington, Virginia, January 21-23, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W., Ed.; Cheek, Kim A., Ed.

    Twenty-six papers illustrate the wide reach of Science, Technology, and Society (STS) studies and education. A sampling of the first section on general STS studies includes: (1) "Technology, You, and the Law" (Kenneth S. Volk); (2) "The People From 'Away': Ending Racial and Economic Exploitation in the Siting of Toxic Wastes" (Glen J. Ernst); (3)…

  7. First world wide annual time-series of silica production and dissolution rates in a coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, C.; Treguer, P.; Corvaisier, R.

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted, from April 2001 to April 2002, in the surface waters of SOMLIT-Brest station located at the outlet of the bay of Brest, a well-mixed anthropogenically nitrate-enriched macrotidal ecosystem, typical of western Europe. This study presents: (1) the first world wide annual time-series of the weekly variability of the rates of production (P) and dissolution (D) of biosilica (BSiO2) measured using 30Si stable isotope technique and validated by mass balance, and (2) the first evidence of the end of the year-round dominance of diatoms in this ecosystem. From spring to mid-summer the successive phytoplankton blooms were dominated by diatoms. The silicic acid concentration, although severely depleted relative to winter, was not completely exhausted (mean: 1.62 µM); the BSiO2 concentration, production and dissolution rates were high, averaging 1.26 µmol L-1, 0.96 µmol L-1 d-1, and 0.40 µmol L-1 d-1, respectively. From mid-summer to mid-fall the non-siliceous phytoplankters predominated, silicic acid being poorly used (mean : 4.67 µM); the BSiO2 concentration, production and dissolution rates were low averaging 0.69 µmol L-1, 0.10 µmol L-1 d-1, and 0.04 µmol L-1 d-1, respectively. The shift from diatoms to dinoflagellates dominance was under bottom-up control (phosphate and dissolved inorganic nitrogen being at limiting concentrations contrary to silicic acid).

  8. Use of World Wide Web server and browser software to support a first-year medical physiology course.

    PubMed

    Davis, M J; Wythe, J; Rozum, J S; Gore, R W

    1997-06-01

    We describe the use of a World Wide Web (Web) server to support a team-taught physiology course for first-year medical students. Our objectives were to reduce the number of formal lecture hours and enhance student enthusiasm by using more multimedia materials and creating opportunities for interactive learning. On-line course materials, consisting of administrative documents, lecture notes, animations, digital movies, practice tests, and grade reports, were placed on a departmental computer with an Internet connection. Students used Web browsers to access on-line materials from a variety of computing platforms on campus, at home, and at remote sites. To assess use of the materials and their effectiveness, we analyzed 1) log files from the server, and 2) the results of a written course evaluation completed by all students. Lecture notes and practice tests were the most-used documents. The students' evaluations indicated that computer use in class made the lecture material more interesting, while the on-line documents helped reinforce lecture materials and the textbook. We conclude that the effectiveness of on-line materials depends on several different factors, including 1) the number of instructors that provide materials; 2) the quantity of other materials handed out; 3) the degree to which computer use is demonstrated in class and integrated into lectures; and 4) the ease with which students can access the materials. Finally, we propose that additional implementation of Internet-based resources beyond what we have described would further enhance a physiology course for first-year medical students.

  9. Structure and content of chronic kidney disease information on the World Wide Web: barriers to public understanding of a pandemic.

    PubMed

    Calderón, José Luis; Zadshir, Ashraf; Norris, Keith

    2004-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a pandemic and the need to inform those at risk has never been more important. The World Wide Web (WWW) is no w considered a key source of health information, but the quality and utility of this information has been challenged. In this article, we assess structural, content, and linguistic barriers to accessed CKD information and discuss the implications of limited Internet access to communicating health. Technical (number of hyperlinks), content (number of six core CKD and risk factor information domains included), and linguistic (readability and variation in readability) barriers were assessed for websites offered by 12 kidney disease associations. The Flesch Reading Ease Index method was used to estimate readability scores, and variation in the readability of information was assessed. Eleven websites met inclusion criteria. Six of 11 websites provided information in all 6 domains of CKD information. A mean of 4 hyperlinks (range 3-5) was clicked before CKD information was available and a mean of 6 hyperlinks (range 4-12) was clicked to access all available CKD information. Mean readability scores for all six domains of CKD information exceeded national average literacy skills and far exceeded the 5th grade level readability desired for informing vulnerable populations. Information about CKD and diabetes consistently had higher readability scores. The WWW currently has little utility for informing populations at greatest risk for CKD. Barriers to accessing CKD information on the WWW are socioeconomic, technical, and linguistic. Having lower socioeconomic status, less access to computers and the WWW, multiple website hyperlinks, incomplete information, difficult readability, and significant variation in readability of CKD information on the WWW are social, structural, and content barriers to communicating CKD information. This may contribute to the growing epidemics of diminished public understanding about CKD, and disparities in

  10. A modern conceptualization of phobia in al-Balkhi's 9th century treatise: Sustenance of the Body and Soul.

    PubMed

    Awaad, Rania; Ali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Morbid fears and phobias have been mentioned in religious, philosophical and medical manuscripts since ancient times. Despite early insights by the Greeks, phobias did not appear as a separate clinical phenomenon in Western medicine until the 17th century and has evolved substantially since. However, robust investigations attempting to decipher the clinical nature of phobias emerged in pre-modern times during the oft-overlooked Islamic Golden Era (9th-12th centuries); which overlapped with Europe's medieval period. An innovative attempt was made by the 9th century Muslim scholar, Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, in his medical manuscript "Sustenance of the Body and Soul," to define phobias as a separate diagnostic entity. Al-Balkhi was one of the earliest to cluster psychological and physical symptoms of phobias under one category, "al-Fazaá", and outline a specific management plan. We analyze al-Balkhi's description of phobias, according to the modern understanding of psychiatric classifications and symptomatology as described in the DSM-5.

  11. A modern conceptualization of phobia in al-Balkhi's 9th century treatise: Sustenance of the Body and Soul.

    PubMed

    Awaad, Rania; Ali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Morbid fears and phobias have been mentioned in religious, philosophical and medical manuscripts since ancient times. Despite early insights by the Greeks, phobias did not appear as a separate clinical phenomenon in Western medicine until the 17th century and has evolved substantially since. However, robust investigations attempting to decipher the clinical nature of phobias emerged in pre-modern times during the oft-overlooked Islamic Golden Era (9th-12th centuries); which overlapped with Europe's medieval period. An innovative attempt was made by the 9th century Muslim scholar, Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, in his medical manuscript "Sustenance of the Body and Soul," to define phobias as a separate diagnostic entity. Al-Balkhi was one of the earliest to cluster psychological and physical symptoms of phobias under one category, "al-Fazaá", and outline a specific management plan. We analyze al-Balkhi's description of phobias, according to the modern understanding of psychiatric classifications and symptomatology as described in the DSM-5. PMID:26741063

  12. Types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades--four states, 2005.

    PubMed

    2007-07-27

    Excessive alcohol consumption contributes to approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youths in the United States each year (e.g., from homicides, motor-vehicle crashes, and suicides) and an average of 60 years of life lost per death. However, little is known about the specific types of alcoholic beverages consumed by youths. These data are important because numerous evidence-based strategies for reducing underage drinking rates are beverage-specific, including increasing alcohol excise taxes and increasing restrictions on the distribution and sale of alcoholic beverages. To examine types of alcoholic beverages usually consumed by students in 9th-12th grades, CDC analyzed 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from the four state surveys that included a question on the type of alcohol consumed (Arkansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, and Wyoming). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that liquor (e.g., bourbon, rum, scotch, vodka, or whiskey) was the most prevalent type of alcoholic beverage usually consumed among students in 9th-12th grades who reported current alcohol use or binge drinking. These findings suggest that considering beverage-specific alcohol consumption by youths is important when developing alcohol-control policies, specifically those related to the price and availability of particular types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:17657207

  13. Three centuries of geomagnetic field intensity changes in Spain (from the 9th to the 12th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Paccard, M.; Osete, M. L.; Chauvin, A.; Jimenez-Castillo, P.; Perez-Asensio, M.

    2013-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations (at least of ~20 μT/century) interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes by the acquisition of well-dated high-quality archeomagnetic data. In this study we report the archeomagnetic study of Spanish ceramic fragments. The collected fragments belong to 14 superposed stratigraphic levels corresponding to a surface no bigger than 3 m by 7 m. The pottery fragments dates back to the 9th and 11th centuries. The dating was established by 4 radiocarbon dates and by archeological/historical constraints including typological comparisons and well-controlled stratigraphic constrains between the different stratigraphic units. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 79 fragments, twelve new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. Together with previously published high-quality data from Western Europe, the new data provide an improved description of the intensity changes that took place in Spain between the 9th and the 12th centuries. The results confirm that rapid intensity changes took place in Western Europe during the recent history of the Earth.

  14. Summary of the 9th international symposium on high energy spin-physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1990-11-01

    Summarizing an international conference in high energy spin physics is never an easy task, because of the wide-ranging subjects in physics and technology that are involved. I have chosen to organize the topics of this conference into three broad categories relating to spin; intrinsic spin; composite spin; and spin, the experimental tool. In the first category, I will briefly revisit some historical and recent developments to set a background. In the second category, composite spin, I will discuss the status and developments in several areas, including magnetic moments of baryons, hyperon polarization in high energy high p {perpendicular} production, transverse polarization and asymmetries from transversely polarized targets in high p {perpendicular} scattering, spin structure of the proton, and the Bjorken sum rule. In the third category, I will discuss the steady, and at times rapid, progress in spin technology. In this part I include recent progress in high energy facilities, and comment on the highlights of the Workshops.

  15. Summary of the 9th IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Hodgson, E.R.; Shikama, T.

    1997-08-01

    Twenty one scientists attended an IEA workshop in Cincinnati, Ohio on May 8-9, 1997, which was mainly devoted to reviewing the current knowledge base on the phenonenon of radiation induced electrical degradation in ceramic insulators. Whereas convincing evidence for bulk RIED behavior has been observed by two research groups in sapphire after electron irradiation, definitive levels of bulk RIED have not been observed in high purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by several research groups during energetic ion or fission neutron irradiation. Possible reasons for the conflicting RIED results obtained by different research groups were discussed. It was conducted that RIED does not appear to be of immediate concern for near-term fusion devices such as ITER. However, continued research on the RIED phenomenon with particular emphasis on electron irradiations of single crystal alumina was recommended in order to determine the underlying physical mechanisms. This will allow a better determination of whether RIED might occur under any of the widely varying experimental conditions in a fusion energy device. Several critical issues which are recommended for future study were outlined by the workshop attendees.

  16. FOREWORD: The 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (NEWRAD 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, Julian; Ikonen, Erkki

    2006-04-01

    The ninth NEWRAD Conference was held in Davos, Switzerland, between 16 and 19 October 2005. The Conference was organized by the Physikalisch- Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC). The Conference was attended by 169 participants from five continents, which makes it the largest NEWRAD conference to date. The NEWRAD Conference followed the 10th international pyrheliometer comparison IPC-X, which is held every five years at PMOD/WRC. In addition, the 6th UVnet Workshop was held in connection with the NEWRAD Conference on 20 and 21 October. The NEWRAD Conference brings together people from the national metrology institutes and the principal user communities of advanced radiometry, including meteorological and remote-sensing communities. A total of 153 papers were presented, of which eight were keynote or invited talks, and there were 105 posters. Coffee breaks and extended lunch breaks created a stimulating atmosphere for lively discussions and exchange of ideas. Notwithstanding the excellent weather and the tantalizing surroundings of Davos, most participants managed to attend the poster sessions, which were organized during the noon lunch breaks. The conference proceedings can be downloaded from the NEWRAD 2005 website at www.pmodwrc.ch/newrad2005/pdfabstracts/Newrad_Proceedings_2005_A7.pdf. For this and future conferences, a new policy was adopted to publish a selected number of contributions in a special issue of Metrologia. The purpose of the change is to increase the overall impact of this journal. The NEWRAD Scientific Committee invited the contributions to this special issue on the basis of the quality of the extended abstracts, and later the submitted manuscripts were reviewed by the Committee members. On behalf of the Scientific Committee and all the participants, one of us (EI) wishes to thank Werner Schmutz and his colleagues from the Local Organizing Committee for arranging an excellent conference in the beautiful city of

  17. May a Public University Restrict Faculty Expression on Its Internet World Wide Web Sites? Academic Freedom and University Facility Use Restrictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Lisa R.

    1997-01-01

    Public university restriction of faculty expression on the institution's World Wide Web server is discussed based on recent Supreme Court decisions. It is proposed that in some circumstances, content-based restriction of faculty expression is permissible and will not violate the First Amendment academic freedom rights of faculty. (MSE)

  18. How To Succeed in Promoting Your Web Site: The Impact of Search Engine Registration on Retrieval of a World Wide Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunender, Heather; Ervin, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Character strings were planted in a World Wide Web site (Project Whistlestop) to test indexing and retrieval rates of five Web search tools (Lycos, infoseek, AltaVista, Yahoo, Excite). It was found that search tools indexed few of the planted character strings, none indexed the META descriptor tag, and only Excite indexed into the 3rd-4th site…

  19. Neutron Diffraction Study On Gamma To Alpha Phase Transition In Ce0.9th0.1 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lashley, Jason C1; Heffner, Robert H; Llobet, A; Darling, T W; Jeong, I K

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive neutron diffraction measurements were performed to study the isostructural {gamma} {leftrightarrow} {alpha} phase transition in Ce{sub 0.9}Th{sub 0.1} alloy. Using Rietveld refinements, we obtained lattice and thermal parameters as a function of temperature. From the temperature slope of the thermal parameters, we determined Debye temperatures {Theta}{sup {gamma}}{sub D} = 133(1) K and {Theta}{sup {alpha}}{sub D} = 140(1) K for the {gamma} phase and the {alpha} phase, respectively. This result implies that the vibrational entropy change is not significant at the {gamma} {leftrightarrow} {alpha} transition, contrary to that from elemental Cerium [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 105702, 2004].

  20. A World-Wide Overview of Migratory Movements. The Education of Migrant Workers -- Where Do We Stand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Francis

    1974-01-01

    A survey of world migration patterns prefaces a declaration of educational problems and ways of solving them as viewed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The problems are conceptualized on the socio-cultural and occupational levels and involve both the worker and his family. (JH)

  1. THE TEACHING PROFESSION AND THE WORLD-WIDE LITERACY PROGRAMME, A HANDBOOK FOR LEADERS OF WCOTP AFFILIATED ORGANIZATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    A LITERACY HANDBOOK PREPARED BY THE WORLD CONFEDERATION OF ORGANIZATIONS OF THE TEACHING PROFESSION INDICATES THE WAYS IN WHICH TEACHERS' ASSOCIATIONS, TRADITIONALLY CHILD-CENTERED, CAN EFFECTIVELY ENGAGE IN ADULT EDUCATION. A 1966 CASE STUDY ON THE PHILIPPINE PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION, AND WCOTP SURVEYS CONDUCTED DURING 1965 IN KENYA…

  2. The world-wide neutron monitor network as a toll to detect solar neutrons: a revisited approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishev, Alexander; Usoskin, Ilya; Artamonov, Anton; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.

    When energetic protons are accelerated in solar flares, they may locally produce secondary neutrons, which can then escape and reach the Earth. Features of these neutrons carry direct information on the conditions at the flare site. The main tool to measure solar neutrons on ground was the world neutron monitor (NM) network, later complemented by a network of dedicated solar neutron telescopes. Although measurements of solar neutrons has long history, detailed computation of the specific yield function of the NM to solar neutrons was somewhat uncertain. Here we revise the computation of the NM yield function for solar neutrons, based on new Monte-Carlo simulation of the neutron-induced atmospheric cascade, and reassess the sensitivity of the world NM network to solar neutron events.

  3. [Arterial myocardial revascularization in the 9th decade of life. Personal results and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Mortasawi, A; Ennker, I C; Albert, A; Rosendahl, U; Dalladaku, F; Alexander, T; Ennker, J

    1999-04-01

    The rate of the population being 80 years of age and even older, has an increasing tendency in the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1996, a total of 87,372 patients received surgery supported by the heart-lung-machine, 2,383 patients out of these (2.7%) were 80 years of age and older. In view of the limited life expectance, the arterial revascularization in this age category is faced with controverse discussions. We analysed our patients in relation to this aspect. Between January 1, 1995 and June 30, 1997, 4,338 patients underwent surgery supported by the heart-lung-machine. Hundred and fifty-five out of these (3.6%) were in the 9th decade of life. Seventy-seven patients out of the 155 (49.7%, 34 women, 43 men, 80 to 88 years old, mean: 82 years of age) underwent an isolated myocardial revascularization. We performed 55 (71%) elective, 16 (21%) urgent and 6 (8%) emergency surgeries. Twelve patients (15.6%) solely received venous bypasses (Group I), 65 (84.4%) additionally also received unilateral bypasses of the internal mammaria artery (IMA) (Group II). Three patients died at our facility (3.9%), 3 further patients died during the follow-up treatment in outlying hospitals, the in-patient mortality rate in Group I therefore presented a rate of 8.3%, in Group II 7.7% and in total, a rate of 7.8%. In 1996, the in-patient mortality rate could be reduced to 3.6%. The follow-up observation time ranged between 7 and 138 weeks (median 44 weeks). The survival rate for patients with an IMA-bypass after 1 year was 86.3%, after 2 years 77%, and for the entire collective 85.3% and 75%. Whereas 96% of the patients could pre-operatively be related to Class III or IV of the NYHA-classification, 55 of the 63 survivors (87%) belonged to Class I (6%) or II (81%). Two Group I patients (22.2%), 3 Group II patients (5.6%) and 7.9% of the total collective complained about repeated angina symptoms. The myocardial revascularization with the internal mammaria artery performed on patients

  4. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    PubMed Central

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  5. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery--trafficking in persons.

    PubMed

    Palmbach, Timothy M; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology.

  6. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery--trafficking in persons.

    PubMed

    Palmbach, Timothy M; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  7. Mind the gaps - the epidemiology of poor-quality anti-malarials in the malarious world - analysis of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality medicines threaten the lives of millions of patients and are alarmingly common in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, the global extent of the problem remains unknown. Accurate estimates of the epidemiology of poor quality medicines are sparse and are influenced by sampling methodology and diverse chemical analysis techniques. In order to understand the existing data, the Antimalarial Quality Scientific Group at WWARN built a comprehensive, open-access, global database and linked Antimalarial Quality Surveyor, an online visualization tool. Analysis of the database is described here, the limitations of the studies and data reported, and their public health implications discussed. Methods The database collates customized summaries of 251 published anti-malarial quality reports in English, French and Spanish by time and location since 1946. It also includes information on assays to determine quality, sampling and medicine regulation. Results No publicly available reports for 60.6% (63) of the 104 malaria-endemic countries were found. Out of 9,348 anti-malarials sampled, 30.1% (2,813) failed chemical/packaging quality tests with 39.3% classified as falsified, 2.3% as substandard and 58.3% as poor quality without evidence available to categorize them as either substandard or falsified. Only 32.3% of the reports explicitly described their definitions of medicine quality and just 9.1% (855) of the samples collected in 4.6% (six) surveys were conducted using random sampling techniques. Packaging analysis was only described in 21.5% of publications and up to twenty wrong active ingredients were found in falsified anti-malarials. Conclusions There are severe neglected problems with anti-malarial quality but there are important caveats to accurately estimate the prevalence and distribution of poor quality anti-malarials. The lack of reports in many malaria-endemic areas, inadequate sampling techniques and inadequate chemical analytical methods and

  8. Online catalog of world-wide test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of optical sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Christopherson, J.B.; Stensaas, G.L.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth-observing satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from these sensors are used to answer increasingly urgent global issues, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers can rely on the accuracy of Earth-observing data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors are vital to achieve an integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as a supporting member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and GEOSS, is working with partners around the world to establish an online catalog of prime candidate test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The online catalog provides easy public Web site access to this vital information for the global community. This paper describes the catalog, the test sites, and the methodologies to use the test sites. It also provides information regarding access to the online catalog and plans for further development of the catalog in cooperation with calibration specialists from agencies and organizations around the world. Through greater access to and understanding of these vital test sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. Copyright IAF/IAA. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational mediation as factor of motivation and meaningful learning in education of sciences of 9th grade: astronomy topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, F. M.; Furtado, W. W.

    2012-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of using hypertext and pedagogic mediation in search of a Meaningful Learning Process in Sciences. We investigate the usage of hypertext in the teaching and learning methods of Astronomy modules. A survey was conducted with students from the 9th grade of Primary School of a public school in the city of Goiânia, Goiás in Brazil. We have analyzed the possibilities that hypermedia can offer in the teaching and learning process, using as reference David Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Learning. The study was divided into four phases: application of an initial questionnaire on students, development of didactic material (hypertext), six classes held in a computer lab with the use of hypermedia and a final questionnaire applied in the lab after classes. This research indicated that the use of hypertext linked to pedagogical mediation processes is seen as a motivational tool and has potential to foster to Meaningful Learning.

  10. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  11. Integrated diagnostics: proceedings from the 9th biennial symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Krestin, G P; Grenier, P A; Hricak, H; Jackson, V P; Khong, P L; Miller, J C; Muellner, A; Schwaiger, M; Thrall, J H

    2012-11-01

    The International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology held its 9th biennial meeting in August 2011. The focus of the programme was integrated diagnostics and massive computing. Participants discussed the opportunities, challenges, and consequences for the discipline of radiology that will likely arise from the integration of diagnostic technologies. Diagnostic technologies are increasing in scope, including advanced imaging techniques, new molecular imaging agents, and sophisticated point-of-use devices. Advanced information technology (IT), which is increasingly influencing the practice of medicine, will aid clinical communication and the development of "population images" that represent the phenotype of particular diseases, which will aid the development of diagnostic algorithms. Integrated diagnostics offer increased operational efficiency and benefits to patients through quicker and more accurate diagnoses. As physicians with the most expertise in IT, radiologists are well placed to take the lead in introducing IT solutions and cloud computing to promote integrated diagnostics. To achieve this, radiologists must adapt to include quantitative data on biomarkers in their reports. Radiologists must also increase their role as participating physicians, collaborating with other medical specialties, not only to avoid being sidelined by other specialties but also to better prepare as leaders in the selection and sequence of diagnostic procedures. Key Points • New diagnostic technologies are yielding unprecedented amounts of diagnostic information.• Advanced IT/cloud computing will aid integration and analysis of diagnostic data.• Better diagnostic algorithms will lead to faster diagnosis and more rapid treatment. PMID:22699871

  12. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara, K.C.; Fellinger, A.P.; Aylward, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Hyatt, J.E.; Bush, S.R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  13. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jetz, Walter; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation) and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among species, and the capacity

  14. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods. PMID:24781877

  15. Trends in weight management goals and behaviors among 9th-12th grade students: United States, 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Zewditu; Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2015-01-01

    To examine trends in weight management goals and behaviors among U.S. high school students during 1999-2009. Data from six biennial cycles (1999-2009) of the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were analyzed. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples of 9th-12th grade students (approximately 14,000 students/cycle) completed self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression models adjusted for grade, race/ethnicity, and obesity were used to test for trends in weight management goals and behaviors among subgroups of students. Combined prevalences and trends differed by sex and by race/ethnicity and weight status within sex. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of female students trying to gain weight decreased (7.6-5.7 %). Among female students trying to lose or stay the same weight, prevalences decreased for eating less (69.6-63.2 %); fasting (23.3-17.6 %); using diet pills/powders/liquids (13.7-7.8 %); and vomiting/laxatives (9.5-6.6 %) for weight control. During 1999-2009, the prevalence of male students trying to lose weight increased (26.1-30.5 %). Among male students trying to lose or stay the same weight, the prevalence of exercising to control weight did not change during 1999-2003 and then increased (74.0-79.1 %) while the prevalence of taking diet pills/powders/liquids for weight control decreased (6.9-5.1 %) during 1999-2009. Weight management goals and behaviors changed during 1999-2009 and differed by subgroup. To combat the use of unhealthy weight control behaviors, efforts may be needed to teach adolescents about recommended weight management strategies and avoiding the risks associated with unhealthy methods.

  16. Applying a toolkit for dissemination and analysis of near real-time data through the World Wide Web: integration of the Antelope Real Time System, ROADNet, and PHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ROADNet project has enabled the acquisition and storage of diverse data streams through seamless integration of the Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) with (for example) ecological, seismological and geodetic instrumentation. The robust system architecture allows researchers to simply network data loggers with relational databases; however, the ability to disseminate these data to policy makers, scientists and the general public has (until recently) been provided on an 'as needed' basis. The recent development of a Datascope interface to the popular open source scripting language PHP has provided an avenue for presenting near real time data (such as integers, images and movies) from within the ARTS framework easily on the World Wide Web. The interface also indirectly provided the means to transform data types into various formats using the extensive function libraries that accompany a PHP installation (such as image creation and manipulation, data encryption for sensitive information, and XML creation for structured document interchange through the World Wide Web). Using a combination of Datascope and PHP library functions, an extensible tool-kit is being developed to allow data managers to easily present their products on the World Wide Web. The tool-kit has been modeled after the pre-existing ARTS architecture to simplify the installation, development and ease-of-use for both the seasoned researcher and the casual user. The methodology and results of building the applications that comprise the tool-kit are the focus of this presentation, including procedural vs. object oriented design, incorporation of the tool-kit into the existing contributed software libraries, and case-studies of researchers who are employing the tools to present their data. http://anf.ucsd.edu

  17. [Server World-Wide Web on the Internet for the provision of clinical cases and digital radiologic images for training and continuing education in radiology].

    PubMed

    Sparacia, G; Tartamella, M; Finazzo, M; Bartolotta, T; Brancatelli, G; Banco, A; Lo Casto, A; La Tona, G; Bentivegna, E

    1997-06-01

    The Internet, as a global computer network, provides opportunities to make available multimedia educational materials, such as teaching files and image databases, that can be accessed using "World-Wide Web" client browser to provide continuing medical education. Since August, 1995, at the Institute of Radiology-University of Palermo, we developed a World-Wide Web server on the Internet to provide a collection of interactive radiology educational resources such as teaching files and image database for continuing medical education in radiology. Our server is based on a UNIX workstation connected to the Internet via our campus Ethernet network and reachable at the uniform resource locator (URL) address: http:/(/)mbox.unipa.it/approximately radpa/ radpa.html. Digital CT and MR images for teaching files and image database are downloaded through an Ethernet local area network from a GE Advantage Windows workstation. US images will be acquired on-line through a video digitizing board. Radiographs will be digitized by means of a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) scanner. To set up teaching files, image database and all other documents, we use the standard "HyperText Markup Language" (HTML) to edit the documents, and the Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) or Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) format to store the images. Nine teaching files are presently available on the server, together with 49 images in the database, a list of international radiological servers, a section devoted to the museum of radiology hosted by our Institute, the electronic version of the Journal Eido Electa. In the first 12 months of public access through the Internet, 12,280 users accessed the server worldwide: 45% of them to retrieve teaching files; 35% to retrieve images from the database; the remaining 20% to retrieve other documents. Placing teaching files and image database on a World-Wide Web server makes these cases more available to residents and radiologists to provide continuing medical

  18. The Pacific Child: Investing in the Future. Conference Evaluation. Annual Pacific Educational Conference (9th, Pago Pago, August 3-5, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Diane

    Proceedings of the Pacific Region Educational Laboratory's (PREL) 9th Annual Pacific Educational Conference, held August 3-5, 1992, in Pago Pago, American Samoa are evaluated in this document. Data were collected from an overall conference evaluation survey, individual workshop surveys, workshop program information, anecdotal information, and…

  19. Perceptions of 9th and 10th Grade Students on How Their Environment, Cognition, and Behavior Motivate Them in Algebra and Geometry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harootunian, Alen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationships were examined between students' perception of their cognition, behavior, environment, and motivation. The purpose of the research study was to explore the extent to which 9th and 10th grade students' perception of environment, cognition, and behavior can predict their motivation in Algebra and Geometry…

  20. The Impact of a Teaching-Learning Program Based on a Brain-Based Learning on the Achievement of the Female Students of 9th Grade in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabatat, Kawthar; Al-Tarawneh, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the impact of teaching-learning program based on a brain-based learning on the achievement of female students of 9th grade in chemistry, to accomplish the goal of this study the researchers designed instruments of: instructional plans, pre achievement and past achievement exams to use them for the study-validity and…

  1. Influence of Computer-Assisted Roundhouse Diagrams on High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding the Subjects of "Force and Motion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakaya, F.; Gönen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Main aim of this study is to examine the influence of computer-assisted roundhouse diagrams on high school 9th grade students' academic achievements in the subjects of "Force and Motion". The study was carried out in a public high school in Diyarbakir the province in the Southeast of Turkey. In the study, the…

  2. The Development of Veteran 9th-Grade Physics Teachers' Knowledge for Using Representations to Teach the Topics of Energy Transformation and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the experiences that informed the development of three veteran (15+ years of teaching experience) 9th grade physics teachers' specialized knowledge, or PCK, for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer. Through the lens of phenomenography, the study…

  3. Alcohol, Tobacco, & Other Drug Use by 9th-12th Grade Students: Results from the 1993 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikow, Victoria A.

    This survey examined the behaviors associated with the six leading causes of death or disability in one state's high school youth. Participants were 2,439 9th-12th grade students. Results identified alcohol as the drug most frequently used by high school students, with over half of students having used alcohol by their senior year and almost half…

  4. The Basic Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag I and Ag II (9th and 10th Grades). Volume I. Bulletin 1690-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is the first volume of a state curriculum guide on vocational agriculture for use in the 9th and 10th grades in Louisiana. Three instructional areas are profiled in this volume: orientation to vocational agriculture, agricultural leadership, and soil science. The three units of the orientation area cover introducing beginning…

  5. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  6. Assessing the quality of infertility resources on the World Wide Web: tools to guide clients through the maze of fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Kyoko; Bernstein, Judith; Fidler, Anne T

    2002-01-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health information for women, but information placed on the World Wide Web does not routinely undergo a peer review process before dissemination. In this study, we present an analysis of 197 infertility-related Web sites for quality and accountability, using JAMA's minimal core standards for responsible print. Only 2% of the web sites analyzed met all four recommended standards, and 50.8% failed to report any of the four. Commercial web sites were more likely to fail to meet minimum standards (71.2%) than those with educational (46.8%) or supportive (29.8%) elements. Web sites with educational and informational components were most common (70.6%), followed by commercial sites (52.8%) and sites that offered a forum for infertility support and activism (28.9%). Internet resources available to infertile patients are at best variable. The current state of infertility-related materials on the World Wide Web offers unprecedented opportunities to improve services to a growing number of e-health users. Because of variations in quality of site content, women's health clinicians must assume responsibility for a new role as information monitor. This study provides assessment tools clinicians can apply and share with clients.

  7. Efforts and success world-wide in the field of clinical pharmacology. A personal review on the occasion of Folke Sjöqvist's 80th birthday.

    PubMed

    Orme, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this personal review I describe my early expectations and experiences when I first came to work with Prof. Folke Sjöqvist as a training fellow in the early 1970s. At that time Prof. Sjöqvist and his unit had already earned an international reputation, and in the following decades this success has been magnified many times. Although a description of the research performed by Prof. Sjöqvist during his long career is not the main objective of this article, it is clear that the research carried out in his unit has been instrumental in the development of his international reputation. Over an 18-year period from 1994 onwards, some 272 papers bearing the name of Folke Sjöqvist have been cited over 13,000 times, with an average of over 50 citations per paper. In terms of training clinical pharmacologists from around the world, at the last count 112 individuals from 37 different countries have received a substantial part of their training in his unit. As another measure of his world-wide success, 33 individuals from 18 different countries who received a substantial part of their training in his unit between 1968 and 1996 have gone on to become professors of clinical pharmacology. Prof. Sjöqvist has been requested to consult on various aspects of clinical pharmacology in 15 different countries, from Russia to Spain and from Egypt to Latvia. Here I describe the long-term involvement that Prof. Sjöqvist has had with IUPHAR (now the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology) and with institutions such as the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, I recount his role in the long-term saga involved in updating the original WHO manifesto on clinical pharmacology published in 1970 up to the eventual success of the new manifesto published by WHO in 2012. Finally, I briefly describe the international honours that have been bestowed on Prof. Sjöqvist, including various prizes, designated lectureships and honorary Doctorates (5). Taken together, these

  8. World-Wide Intelligent Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Elmar; Brusilovsky, Peter; Weber, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    New WWW technologies allow for integrating distance education power of WWW with interactivity and intelligence. Integrating on-line presentation of learning materials with the interactivity of problem solving environments and the intelligence of intelligent tutoring systems results in a new quality of learning materials that we call I3-textbooks.…

  9. A Wide World of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2007-01-01

    As the number of American students studying overseas increases, it will be difficult for colleges to establish or find enough adequate programs with challenging curricula. Students desire ever more remote locations, and colleges are being pushed to support the extremely adventurous. With more students studying abroad, and amid heightened fears…

  10. Patient information on breast reconstruction in the era of the world wide web. A snapshot analysis of information available on youtube.com.

    PubMed

    Tan, M L H; Kok, K; Ganesh, V; Thomas, S S

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer patient's expectation and choice of reconstruction is increasing and patients often satisfy their information needs outside clinic time by searching the world wide web. The aim of our study was to analyse the quality of content and extent of information regarding breast reconstruction available on YouTube videos and whether this is an appropriate additional source of information for patients. A snapshot qualitative and quantitative analysis of the first 100 videos was performed after the term 'breast reconstruction' was input into the search window of the video sharing website www.youtube.com on the 1st of September 2011. Qualitative categorical analysis included patient, oncological and reconstruction factors. It was concluded that although videos uploaded onto YouTube do not provide comprehensive information, it is a useful resource that can be utilised in patient education provided comprehensive and validated videos are made available.

  11. Molecular evidence for the predation of Critically Endangered endemic Aphanius transgrediens from the stomach contents of world wide invasive Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition among native and invasive species are difficult to study in aquatic environments. Identification of preys from semi-digested body parts sampled from stomach contents of the predator is very challenging. Recent studies were mainly based on use of DNA extracted from stomach content to identify the prey species. This study presents the molecular evidence that reveals the predation of critically endangered Aphanius transgrediens by world-wide invasive Gambusia affinis for a better understanding of the link between the invasion and the extinction of native species in freshwater ecosystems. DNA samples were extracted from semi-digested stomach contents of the invader and short fragments of mitochondrial NADH1 gene were amplified using species-specific primers designed in this study to make identification at species level. Existence of both the prey and the predator species were also confirmed using environmental DNA extracted from water samples.

  12. Social equity and access to the World Wide Web and E-mail: implications for design and implementation of medical applications.

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, K. D.; Katz, S. B.; Kohane, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The distribution and types of Internet connectivity will determine the equity of access by patient populations to emerging health technologies. We sought to measure the rates, types, and predictors of access in a patient population targeted for Web-based medical services. METHODS: Design. Cross sectional in-person interview. Setting. Emergency department of a large urban pediatric teaching hospital. Subjects. Primary caretakers of patients or patients at least 16 years old. Procedure and measures. Subjects were asked about access to e-mail and the Internet as well as about willingness to use and concerns about Web-based services. Views of equity and access and sociodemographic data were also elicited. RESULTS: 132 subjects were enrolled in the study. Of respondents, 67.2% use a computer and 36.4% can access the Internet or e-mail from home. Including Internet connections and/or e-mail accounts at work, school and public libraries, 50.7% of the sample has access. Forty percent of families have e-mail accounts. The rate at which families have connectivity is primarily correlated with income (r = 0.6, p < 0.01). At all income levels, rates of access to the World Wide Web are higher than to e-mail. White patients are much more likely to have e-mail (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8) and Web access (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.5). CONCLUSIONS: Connectivity is directly correlated with income and distributed unevenly across racial and ethnic groups. World Wide Web access is more prevalent than e-mail accounts, and both are often obtained outside the home. Design of health applications should account for these attributes of patient access. PMID:9929213

  13. World-wide satellite night-light data as a proxy of society-hydrology interaction and vulnerability to flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceola, S.; Laio, F.; Montanari, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study and the analysis of the interactions and feedbacks between hydrology and society constitute the main issue of socio-hydrology. Recent flood events, which occurred across the globe, highlighted once again that mitigation strategies are needed to reduce flood risk. In particular, quick procedures for the identification of vulnerable human settlements and flood prone areas are a necessary tool to identify priorities for flood risk management. To this aim, a 19-year long period of world-wide night light data, as a proxy of human population, and the global river network have been examined. The spatio-temporal evolution of artificial luminosity depending on the distance from the river network has been assessed in order to quantitatively identify the likelihood for a populated pixel to be reached by water. The analysis focuses both on a global and on a local scale. Hotspots, such as highly illuminated areas and developing regions, have been also examined. The analysis shows an increment of yearly-averaged artificial luminosity from 1992 to 2010 (i.e. the time period of satellite data availability), whereas light intensity tends to decrease with increasing distance from the river network. The results thus reveal an increased vulnerability of human settlements to flooding events. A nearly 70-year long period of peace and the economic development after the Second World War could reasonably explain the observed enhancement of human population proximity to water bodies.

  14. The Study Commission on the Rain Forest. 9th Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Toby

    In this interdisciplinary curriculum unit intended for ninth grade students, students explore in groups in a role playing format public policy questions related to rain forests. Examined in the lessons are political, economic, and ecological issues from which students are expected to make recommendations on what policy course should be followed.…

  15. Reliability of health information for the public on the World Wide Web: systematic survey of advice on managing fever in children at home.

    PubMed Central

    Impicciatore, P.; Pandolfini, C.; Casella, N.; Bonati, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of healthcare information on the world wide web and therefore how it may help lay people cope with common health problems. METHODS: Systematic search by means of two search engines, Yahoo and Excite, of parent oriented web pages relating to home management of feverish children. Reliability of information on the web sites was checked by comparison with published guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minimum temperature of child that should be considered as fever, optimal sites for measuring temperature, pharmacological and physical treatment of fever, conditions that may warrant a doctor's visit. RESULTS: 41 web pages were retrieved and considered. 28 web pages gave a temperature above which a child is feverish; 26 pages indicated the optimal site for taking temperature, most recommending rectal measurement; 31 of the 34 pages that mentioned drug treatment recommended paracetamol as an antipyretic; 38 pages recommended non-drug measures, most commonly tepid sponging, dressing lightly, and increasing fluid intake; and 36 pages gave some indication of when a doctor should be called. Only four web pages adhered closely to the main recommendations in the guidelines. The largest deviations were in sponging procedures and how to take a child's temperature, whereas there was a general agreement in the use of paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few web sites provided complete and accurate information for this common and widely discussed condition. This suggests an urgent need to check public oriented healthcare information on the internet for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. PMID:9224132

  16. TABES 93 - Annual Technical and Business Exhibition and Symposium, 9th, Huntsville, AL, May 11, 12, 1993, Submitted Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present symposium on space science and engineering discusses commercial space opportunities, materials processing in space, and the impact of TQM concepts on inspection of aerospace systems. Attention is given to the defense budget environment, tactical missiles and the changing world, and government/contractor development teams. Topics addressed include technology demonstration and evaluation activities in the Department of the Army, total environmental quality management in corporate America, and environmental lessons to be learned from the upcoming CFC phase-out.

  17. Biennial Conference on Chemical Education: Abstracts of Papers (9th, Bozeman, Montana, July 27-August 2, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1986

    This document includes summaries of conference presentations dealing with a wide variety of topics, including chemistry units for the elementary classroom, science experimentation in the secondary school, computer simulations, computer interfaces, videodisc technology, correspondence teaching of general chemistry, interdisciplinary energy courses,…

  18. Design and implementation of World Wide Web-based tools for image management in computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Henri, C J; Rubin, R K; Cox, R D; Bret, P M

    1997-08-01

    This article describes our experience in developing and using several web-based tools to facilitate access to and management of images from inside and outside of our department. Having recently eliminated film in ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a simple method was required to access imaging from computers already existing throughout the hospital. The success of the World Wide Web (WWW), the familiarity of endusers with web browsers, and the relative ease of developing user interfaces virtually dictated that such an approach be pursued in our case. The resulting web-based tools allow validated users to search our Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-compliant archive servers for specific exams; to download image data from a remote site; to request the retrieval of data from long-term storage; to view images, and to perform certain DICOM routing operations. The existing infrastructure of the internet has allowed us to develop a low-cost system capable of being used for teleradiology. Since low-level, machine-specific interface programming was avoided, these tools were developed rapidly and are easily adapted. The familiarity of browser-based interfaces has facilitated user acceptance, and the benefit of platform independence minimizes software portability concerns.

  19. Selfie and the city: a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database reveals a two-pronged side bias in naïve self-portraits.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist's right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a "standard" (photograph of selfie-taker) and a "mirror" (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits.

  20. Perceptions of traditional information sources and use of the world wide web to seek health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    As medical information becomes increasingly available and individuals take a more active role in managing their personal health, it is essential for scholars to better understand the general public's information-seeking behavior. The study reported here explores the use of the World Wide Web to seek health information in a contemporary information-media environment. Drawing from uses and gratifications theory and the comprehensive model of health information seeking, perceptions of traditional information sources (e.g., mass media, one's health care provider, etc.) are posited to predict use of the Web to seek health information and perceptions of information acquired from searches. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS; N = 3982) were analyzed to test study hypotheses. Trust in information-oriented media, entertainment-oriented media, and one's health care provider all predicted Web use behavior and perceptions. The implications of the findings for research on information seeking and the role of the Web in patient empowerment are discussed. PMID:17934943

  1. Searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine: a pilot study on cognitive flexibility in younger and older users.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurelie; Chevalier, Aline; Rossetti, Marilyne

    2010-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the age-related differences in searching for information on the World Wide Web with a search engine. 11 older adults (6 men, 5 women; M age=59 yr., SD=2.76, range=55-65 yr.) and 12 younger adults (2 men, 10 women; M=23.7 yr., SD=1.07, range=22-25 yr.) had to conduct six searches differing in complexity, and for which a search method was or was not induced. The results showed that the younger and older participants provided with an induced search method were less flexible than the others and produced fewer new keywords. Moreover, older participants took longer than the younger adults, especially in the complex searches. The younger participants were flexible in the first request and spontaneously produced new keywords (spontaneous flexibility), whereas the older participants only produced new keywords when confronted by impasses (reactive flexibility). Aging may influence web searches, especially the nature of keywords used.

  2. Perceptions of traditional information sources and use of the world wide web to seek health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    As medical information becomes increasingly available and individuals take a more active role in managing their personal health, it is essential for scholars to better understand the general public's information-seeking behavior. The study reported here explores the use of the World Wide Web to seek health information in a contemporary information-media environment. Drawing from uses and gratifications theory and the comprehensive model of health information seeking, perceptions of traditional information sources (e.g., mass media, one's health care provider, etc.) are posited to predict use of the Web to seek health information and perceptions of information acquired from searches. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS; N = 3982) were analyzed to test study hypotheses. Trust in information-oriented media, entertainment-oriented media, and one's health care provider all predicted Web use behavior and perceptions. The implications of the findings for research on information seeking and the role of the Web in patient empowerment are discussed.

  3. Selfie and the City: A World-Wide, Large, and Ecologically Valid Database Reveals a Two-Pronged Side Bias in Naïve Self-Portraits

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Nicola; Bertamini, Marco; Protti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Self-portraits are more likely to show the artist’s right than left cheek. This phenomenon may have a psychobiological basis: Self-portraitists often copy their subject from mirrors and, if they prefer to present their left cheek (more expressive due to right-lateralization of emotions) to the mirror, this would result in a right-cheek bias in the painting. We tested this hypothesis using SelfieCity (3200 selfies posted on Instagram from December 4 through 12, 2013 from New York, Sao Paulo, Berlin, Moskow, and Bangkok), which includes two selfie-taking styles: a “standard” (photograph of selfie-taker) and a “mirror” (photograph of mirror reflection of selfie-taker) style. We show that the first style reveals a left cheek bias, whereas the second reveals a right cheek bias. Thus side biases observed in a world-wide, large, and ecologically valid database of naïve self-portraits provide strong support for a role of psychobiological factors in the artistic composition of self-portraits. PMID:25915767

  4. 9th GCC closed forum: CAPA in regulated bioanalysis; method robustness, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, regulatory audit experiences and electronic laboratory notebooks.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Roger; LeLacheur, Richard; Dumont, Isabelle; Couerbe, Philippe; Safavi, Afshin; Islam, Rafiq; Pattison, Colin; Cape, Stephanie; Rocci, Mario; Briscoe, Chad; Cojocaru, Laura; Groeber, Elizabeth; Silvestro, Luigi; Bravo, Jennifer; Shoup, Ron; Verville, Manon; Zimmer, Jennifer; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Khadang, Ardeshir; Bourdage, James; Hughes, Nicola; Fatmi, Saadya; Di Donato, Lorella; Sheldon, Curtis; Keyhani, Anahita; Satterwhite, Christina; Yu, Mathilde; Fiscella, Michele; Hulse, James; Lin, Zhongping John; Garofolo, Wei; Savoie, Natasha; Xiao, Yi Qun; Kurylak, Kai; Harris, Sarah; Saxena, Manju; Buonarati, Mike; Lévesque, Ann; Boudreau, Nadine; Lin, Jenny; Khan, Masood U; Ray, Gene; Liu, Yansheng; Xu, Allan; Soni, Gunjan; Ward, Ian; Kingsley, Clare; Ritzén, Hanna; Tabler, Edward; Nicholson, Bob; Bennett, Patrick; van de Merbel, Nico; Karnik, Shane; Bouhajib, Mohammed; Wieling, Jaap; Mulvana, Daniel; Ingelse, Benno; Allen, Mike; Malone, Michele; Fang, Xinping

    2016-03-01

    The 9th GCCClosed Forum was held just prior to the 2015 Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (WRIB) in Miami, FL, USA on 13 April 2015. In attendance were 58 senior-level participants, from eight countries, representing 38 CRO companies offering bioanalytical services. The objective of this meeting was for CRO bioanalytical representatives to meet and discuss scientific and regulatory issues specific to bioanalysis. The issues selected at this year's closed forum include CAPA, biosimilars, preclinical method validation, endogenous biomarkers, whole blood stability, and ELNs. A summary of the industry's best practices and the conclusions from the discussion of these topics is included in this meeting report.

  5. IBC's 22nd Annual Antibody Engineering and 9th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and the 2011 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, December 5-8, 2011, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Dunlop, D Cameron; Sircar, Aroop; Wurch, Thierry; Falkowska, Emilia; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Piccione, Emily C; Brack, Simon; Berger, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The 22nd Annual Antibody Engineering and 9th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2011 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 5-8, 2011 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew ~800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a preview to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 4, 2011 focused on antibodies as probes of structure. The Antibody Engineering Conference comprised eight sessions: (1) structure and dynamics of antibodies and their membrane receptor targets; (2) model-guided generation of binding sites; (3) novel selection strategies; (4) antibodies in a complex environment: targeting intracellular and misfolded proteins; (5) rational vaccine design; (6) viral retargeting with engineered binding molecules; (7) the biology behind potential blockbuster antibodies and (8) antibodies as signaling modifiers: where did we go right, and can we learn from success? The Antibody Therapeutics session comprised five sessions: (1)Twenty-five years of therapeutic antibodies: lessons learned and future challenges; (2) preclinical and early stage development of antibody therapeutics; (3) next generation anti-angiogenics; (4) updates of clinical stage antibody therapeutics and (5) antibody drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies.

  6. IBC's 22nd Annual Antibody Engineering and 9th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and the 2011 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, December 5–8, 2011, San Diego, CA

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Dunlop, D Cameron; Sircar, Aroop; Wurch, Thierry; Falkowska, Emilia; Helguera, Gustavo; Piccione, Emily C; Brack, Simon; Berger, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The 22nd Annual Antibody Engineering and 9th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2011 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 5–8, 2011 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew ∼800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a preview to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 4, 2011 focused on antibodies as probes of structure. The Antibody Engineering Conference comprised eight sessions: (1) structure and dynamics of antibodies and their membrane receptor targets; (2) model-guided generation of binding sites; (3) novel selection strategies; (4) antibodies in a complex environment: targeting intracellular and misfolded proteins; (5) rational vaccine design; (6) viral retargeting with engineered binding molecules; (7) the biology behind potential blockbuster antibodies and (8) antibodies as signaling modifiers: where did we go right, and can we learn from success? The Antibody Therapeutics Conference comprised five sessions: (1) Twenty-five years of therapeutic antibodies: lessons learned and future challenges; (2) preclinical and early stage development of antibody therapeutics; (3) next generation anti-angiogenics; (4) updates of clinical stage antibody therapeutics and (5) antibody drug conjugates and bispecific antibodies. PMID:22453091

  7. FOREWORD: The 9th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas (ASOS 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Wiese, Wolfgang L.; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2008-07-01

    work with astrophysical applications. Professor Johansson was also honored with heart-felt acknowledgements at the conference dinner on an unusually warm Lund summer evening. Prior to the publication of these proceedings, we were extremely saddened to learn of Sveneric's passing on 10 October 2008. Sveneric Johansson, a founding father of the ASOS conference series, was widely known for his pioneering work on the atomic structure of heavy elements as a well as for his leadership of the international FERRUM Project, which successfully determined a definitive set of spectroscopic data for Fe II. His knowledge of spectroscopy, leadership qualities, and friendship will be dearly missed. Acknowledgements: The spirit of ASOS has been maintained by the dedication of the organizing committees who have kept a tight focus on the nature of the conference, yet allowed for the incorporation of new areas of research in the field. The International Program Committee for ASOS9 is to be commended for their efforts in providing an interesting program. They have also served as the primary source of referees, which along with other referees have performed a valuable service. Many thanks must be given to the local organizing committee, who made the return of ASOS to Lund a memorable experience through both the many opportunities for social gatherings during the conference and a post-conference outing through Skåne. We would also like to express our appreciation to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Royal Physiographic Society in Lund, the Wenner-Gren Foundation, and the Lund Laser Centre and Department of Physics for their generous support in making ASOS9 possible. Glenn M Wahlgren Wolfgang L Wiese Peter Beiersdorfer Editors

  8. Burkitt lymphoma research in East Africa: highlights from the 9th African organization for research and training in cancer conference held in Durban, South Africa in 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A one-day workshop on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) was held at the 9th African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) conference in 2013 in Durban, South Africa. The workshop featured 15 plenary talks by delegates representing 13 institutions that either fund or implement research on BL targeting AORTIC delegates primarily interested in pediatric oncology. The main outcomes of the meeting were improved sharing of knowledge and experience about ongoing epidemiologic BL research, BL treatment in different settings, the role of cancer registries in cancer research, and opportunities for African scientists to publish in scientific journals. The idea of forming a consortium of BL to improve coordination, information sharing, accelerate discovery, dissemination, and translation of knowledge and to build capacity, while reducing redundant efforts was discussed. Here, we summarize the presentations and discussions from the workshop. PMID:25686906

  9. The association between problematic parental substance use and adolescent substance use in an ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Elkins, Sara R; Frissell, Kevin C; Tortolero, Susan R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R

    2013-12-01

    Adolescents of parents who use substances are at an increased risk for substance use themselves. Both parental monitoring and closeness have been shown to mediate the relationship between parents' and their adolescents' substance use. However, we know little about whether these relationships vary across different substances used by adolescents. Using structural equation modeling, we examined these associations within a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders (N = 927). Path analyses indicated that maternal closeness partially mediated the association between maternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol use. Parental monitoring partially mediated the relationship between paternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, inhalant, and illicit prescription drug use. These results were consistent across gender and race/ethnicity. These findings suggest that parental interventions designed to increase closeness and monitoring may help to reduce adolescent substance use.

  10. The Association Between Problematic Parental Substance Use and Adolescent Substance Use in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 9th and 10th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Elkins, Sara R.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents of parents who use substances are at an increased risk for substance use themselves. Both parental monitoring and closeness have been shown to mediate the relationship between parents’ and their adolescents’ substance use. However, we know little about whether these relationships vary across different substances used by adolescents. Using structural equation modeling, we examined these associations within a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders (N = 927). Path analyses indicated that maternal closeness partially mediated the association between maternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol use. Parental monitoring partially mediated the relationship between paternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, inhalant, and illicit prescription drug use. These results were consistent across gender and race/ethnicity. These findings suggest that parental interventions designed to increase closeness and monitoring may help to reduce adolescent substance use. PMID:24006209

  11. Taxes Affecting the Worker: Orientation to the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Lila T.

    The guide is one of a series of 10 units composing an orientation to the world of work course designed especially for disadvantaged and handicapped students in the 9th and 10th grades. It is designed to provide basic and remedial instruction in personal development, math, and language skills while providing information and skills basic or common…

  12. The Relationships between Human Fatigue and Public Health: A Brief Commentary on Selected Papers from the 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Charli; Roberts, Paul; Dawson, Drew; Ferguson, Sally; Meuleners, Lynn; Brook, Libby; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health was held in Fremantle, Western Australia in March 2015. The purpose of the conferences in this series is to provide a forum for industry representatives, regulators, and scientists to discuss recent advances in the field of fatigue research. We have produced a Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health based on papers from the conference that were focused on various aspects of public health. First, the Special Issue highlights the fact that working long shifts and/or night shifts can affect not only cognitive functioning, but also physical health. In particular, three papers examined the potential relationships between shiftwork and different aspects of health, including the cardiovascular system, sleep disordered breathing, and eating behaviour. Second, the Special Issue highlights the move away from controlling fatigue through prescriptive hours of service rules and toward the application of risk management principles. In particular, three papers indicated that best-practice fatigue risk management systems should contain multiple redundant layers of defense against fatigue-related errors and accidents.

  13. The Relationships between Human Fatigue and Public Health: A Brief Commentary on Selected Papers from the 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Charli; Roberts, Paul; Dawson, Drew; Ferguson, Sally; Meuleners, Lynn; Brook, Libby; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health was held in Fremantle, Western Australia in March 2015. The purpose of the conferences in this series is to provide a forum for industry representatives, regulators, and scientists to discuss recent advances in the field of fatigue research. We have produced a Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health based on papers from the conference that were focused on various aspects of public health. First, the Special Issue highlights the fact that working long shifts and/or night shifts can affect not only cognitive functioning, but also physical health. In particular, three papers examined the potential relationships between shiftwork and different aspects of health, including the cardiovascular system, sleep disordered breathing, and eating behaviour. Second, the Special Issue highlights the move away from controlling fatigue through prescriptive hours of service rules and toward the application of risk management principles. In particular, three papers indicated that best-practice fatigue risk management systems should contain multiple redundant layers of defense against fatigue-related errors and accidents. PMID:27563919

  14. The Relationships between Human Fatigue and Public Health: A Brief Commentary on Selected Papers from the 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Charli; Roberts, Paul; Dawson, Drew; Ferguson, Sally; Meuleners, Lynn; Brook, Libby; Roach, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Conference on Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Resources and Health was held in Fremantle, Western Australia in March 2015. The purpose of the conferences in this series is to provide a forum for industry representatives, regulators, and scientists to discuss recent advances in the field of fatigue research. We have produced a Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health based on papers from the conference that were focused on various aspects of public health. First, the Special Issue highlights the fact that working long shifts and/or night shifts can affect not only cognitive functioning, but also physical health. In particular, three papers examined the potential relationships between shiftwork and different aspects of health, including the cardiovascular system, sleep disordered breathing, and eating behaviour. Second, the Special Issue highlights the move away from controlling fatigue through prescriptive hours of service rules and toward the application of risk management principles. In particular, three papers indicated that best-practice fatigue risk management systems should contain multiple redundant layers of defense against fatigue-related errors and accidents. PMID:27563919

  15. Urban and rural infant-feeding practices and health in early medieval Central Europe (9th-10th Century, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Kaupová, Sylva; Herrscher, Estelle; Velemínský, Petr; Cabut, Sandrine; Poláček, Lumír; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    In the Central European context, the 9th and 10th centuries are well known for rapid cultural and societal changes concerning the development of the economic and political structures of states as well as the adoption of Christianity. A bioarchaeological study based on a subadult skeletal series was conducted to tackle the impact of these changes on infant and young child feeding practices and, consequently, their health in both urban and rural populations. Data on growth and frequency of nonspecific stress indicators of a subadult group aged 0-6 years were analyzed. A subsample of 41 individuals was selected for nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses, applying an intra-individual sampling strategy (bone vs. tooth). The isotopic results attest to a mosaic of food behaviors. In the urban sample, some children may have been weaned during their second year of life, while some others may have still been consuming breast milk substantially up to 4-5 years of age. By contrast, data from the rural sample show more homogeneity, with a gradual cessation of breastfeeding starting after the age of 2 years. Several factors are suggested which may have been responsible for applied weaning strategies. There is no evidence that observed weaning strategies affected the level of biological stress which the urban subadult population had to face compared with the rural subadult population. PMID:25256815

  16. An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years) - 9th INTEGRAL Workshop and celebration of the 10th anniversary of the launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 9th INTEGRAL workshop "An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years)" took place from 15 to 19 October 2012 in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Bibliothèque François Mitterrand). The workshop was sponsored by ESA, CNES and other French and European Institutions. During this week, and in particular on 17 October 2012, we celebrated the 10th anniversary of the launch of the INTEGRAL mission. The main goal of this workshop was to present and to discuss (via invited and contributed talks and posters) latest results obtained in the field of high-energy astrophysics using the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory INTEGRAL, as well as results from observations from other ground- and space-based high-energy observatories and from associated multi-wavelength campaigns. Contributions to the workshop covered the following scientific topics: - X-ray binaries (IGR sources, black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs) - Isolated neutron stars (gamma-ray pulsars, magnetars) - Nucleo-synthesis (SNe, Novae, SNRs, ISM) and gamma-ray lines (511 keV) - Galactic diffuse continuum emission (including Galactic Ridge) - Massive black holes in AGNs, elliptical galaxies, nucleus of the Galaxy - Sky surveys, source populations and unidentified gamma-ray sources - Cosmic background radiation - Gamma-ray bursts - Coordinated observations with other ground- and space-based observatories - Science data processing and analysis (posters only) - Future instruments and missions (posters only)

  17. Power Conversion and Transmission Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

    The document is a guide to a 9th and 10th grade industrial education course investigating the total system of power--how man controls, converts, transmits, and uses energy; the rationale is that if one is to learn of the total system of industry, the subsystem of power must be investigated. The guide provides a "body of knowledge" chart…

  18. Earthlinks '97: Proceedings of the Biennial National Conference of the Australian Association for Environmental Education and the Marine Education Society of Australasia (9th, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, January 13-17, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, John J., Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 9th Biennial National Conference of the Australian Association for Environmental Education and the Marine Society of Australasia. The contents provide a valuable snapshot of the state of environmental education in Australia while moving towards the end of the 20th century. Papers include: (1) "Stand…

  19. The World Health Report 2008 – Primary Healthcare: How Wide Is the Gap between Its Agenda and Implementation in 12 High-Income Health Systems?

    PubMed Central

    Gauld, Robin; Blank, Robert; Burgers, Jako; Cohen, Alan B.; Dobrow, Mark; Ikegami, Naoki; Kwon, Soonman; Luxford, Karen; Millett, Christopher; Wendt, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization's 2008 report asserted that the focus on primary healthcare (PHC) within health systems should increase, with four sets of reforms required. The WHO's PHC advocacy is well founded, yet its report is a policy document that fails to address adoption and implementation questions within WHO member countries. This paper examines the prospects for the WHO PHC agenda in 12 high-income health systems from Asia, Australasia, Europe and North America, comparing performances against the WHO agenda. Methods: A health policy specialist on each of the 12 systems sketched policy activities in each of the four areas of concern to the WHO: (a) whether there is universal coverage, (b) service delivery reforms to build a PHC-oriented system, (c) reforms integrating public health initiatives into PHC settings and (d) leadership promoting dialogue among stakeholders. Findings: All 12 systems demonstrate considerable gaps between the actual status of PHC and the WHO vision when assessed in terms of the four WHO reform dimensions, although many initiatives to enhance PHC have been implemented. Institutional arrangements pose significant barriers to PHC reform as envisioned by the WHO. Conclusions: PHC reform requires more attention from policy makers. Meanwhile, the WHO PHC report is perhaps too idealistic and fails to address the fundamentals for successful policy adoption and implementation within member countries. PMID:23372580

  20. PREFACE: 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity and 9th International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Grinberga, Liga; Sarakovskis, Anatolijs; Rutkis, Martins

    2015-03-01

    The joint International Symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT successfully has united two international events - 12th Russia/CIS/Baltic/Japan Symposium on Ferroelectricity (RCBJSF-12) and 9th International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2014). The RCBJSF symposium is a continuation of series of meetings on ferroelectricity, the first of which took place in Novosibirsk (USSR) in 1976. FM&NT conferences started in 2006 and have been organized by Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia in Riga. In 2012 the International program committee decided to transform this conference into a traveling Baltic State conference and the FM&NT-2013 was organized by the Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Estonia. In 2014 the joint international symposium RCBJSF-2014-FM&NT was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia and was part of Riga - 2014, the European Capital of Culture event. The purpose of the joint Symposium was to bring together scientists, students and high-level experts in solid state physics, materials science, engineering and related disciplines. The number of the registered participants from 26 countries was over 350. During the Symposium 128 high quality scientific talks (5 plenary, 42 invited, 81 oral) and over 215 posters were presented. All presentations were divided into 4 parallel sessions according to 4 main topics of the Symposium: Ferroelectricity, including ferroelectrics and multiferroics, pyroelectrics, piezoelectrics and actuators, integrated ferroelectrics, relaxors, phase transitions and critical phenomena. Multifunctional Materials, including theory, multiscale and multiphenomenal material modeling and simulation, advanced inorganic, organic and hybrid materials. Nanotechnologies, including progressive methods, technologies and design for production, investigation of nano- particles, composites, structures, thin films and coatings. Energy, including perspective materials and

  1. The development of veteran 9th-grade physics teachers' knowledge for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Andrew

    The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the experiences that informed the development of three veteran (15+ years of teaching experience) 9th grade physics teachers' specialized knowledge, or PCK, for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer. Through the lens of phenomenography, the study was guided by the assumption that there are a limited number of experiences in which teachers engage throughout their career that contribute in significant ways to the development of their knowledge. The primary sources of data were observations of an entire unit of instruction on energy and a series of four stimulated-recall interviews throughout the unit of instruction. The stimulated recall interviews focused on the participants' instruction and knowledge regarding the representations used throughout the energy unit. These data sources were supported by interviews focused on the participants' work history and professional development as well interviews focused on their unit/lesson plans. The results of the phenomenographic analysis revealed that nine categories of experiences informed the development of the three participant's PCK for using representations to teach the energy topics. The categories included: 1) teaching experience, 2) Physics First professional development, 3) other school district-supported professional development 4) collaboration with current colleagues, 5) past collaboration with experienced teachers, 6) academic experiences as a learner of science, 7) school district expectations, 8) collaboration with university faculty and other university professional development, and 9) non-academic life experiences. The analysis also revealed that as a result of engaging in the nine experiences, the participants developed more integrated knowledge for using representations in their instruction, which included understandings regarding the essential features of specific representations, knowledge of barriers to

  2. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology II. Characterization of Chinese pottery exported to the Islamic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    1992-02-01

    The early 9th century A.D. trade links between China's Tang dynasty and the Western world, by land along the caravan routes of the Silk Road and by sea via India and the Gulf, encouraged a taste for many kinds of Chinese ceramics among the affluent societies of the Islamic empire. Using PIXE analysis to determine the primary composition and minor element patterns of the clay fabrics of a wide range of pottery recovered from the Islamic city of Siraf (in southern Iran), we have established clear differences between Chinese wares imported to that region and a variety of imitative wares of local origin. Parallels and contrasts are drawn between our data and those obtained by Chinese scholars in recent years for the products of various Tang kiln sites, particularly for a series of distinctive stonewares from Tongguan (Hunan province).

  3. Wide Wide World of Statistics: International Statistics on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foudy, Geraldine

    2000-01-01

    Explains how to find statistics on the Internet, especially international statistics. Discusses advantages over print sources, including convenience, currency of information, cost effectiveness, and value-added formatting; sources of international statistics; United Nations agencies; search engines and power searching; and evaluating sources. (LRW)

  4. The presence of major world-wide clones for phage type 4 and 8 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and the evaluation of their virulence levels by invasiveness assays in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jen-Chieh; Lin, Jer-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Tsen, Hau-Yang

    2006-10-01

    Seventy-seven animal isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) obtained from the United States were analyzed by phage typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Thirty-nine strains were found with phage types (PT) 4, 8, and 13a. When the chromosomal DNA of these 39 isolated strains with PT4, 8, and 13a were digested with XbaI, SpeI and NotI, followed by PFGE analysis, 28 strains were found with a pattern combination of X4S4N4, which was the major subtype. When PFGE patterns of the US isolates with PT 4 and 8 were compared with those of the Taiwanese and German isolates, pattern X3S3N3 was confirmed to be the world-wide subtype shared by PT 4 isolates, as previously reported, while pattern X4S4N4 was newly found to be the most common subtype shared by PT 8 strains. The presence of such major world-wide clones, however, does not necessarily mean that these clones are highly virulent, at least not according to the results of invasiveness assays using cultured human intestinal epithelium cell line Int-407 and living BALB/mice.

  5. Course Development on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathleen P.

    1998-01-01

    Guidelines for developing Web-based course materials include considerations of available resources, how technology aids in meeting curricular goals and objectives, Web-site design and construction, and Web-course evaluation. (SK)

  6. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  7. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  8. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009) Selected papers from the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodssi, Reza; Livermore, Carol; Arnold, David

    2010-10-01

    This special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering presents papers selected from the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009), which was held in Washington DC, USA from 1-4 December 2009. Since it was first held in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the PowerMEMS workshop has focused on small-scale systems that process, convert, or generate macroscopically significant amounts of power, typically with high power density or high energy density. In the workshop's early years, much of the research presented was on small-scale fueled systems, such as micro heat engines and micro fuel cells. The past nine years have seen a dramatic expansion in the range of technologies that are brought to bear on the challenge of high-power, small-scale systems, as well as an increase in the applications for such technologies. At this year's workshop, 158 contributed papers were presented, along with invited and plenary presentations. The papers focused on applications from micro heat engines and fuel cells, to energy harvesting and its enabling electronics, to thermal management and propulsion. Also presented were the technologies that enable these applications, such as the structuring of microscale, nanoscale and biological systems for power applications, as well as combustion and catalysis at small scales. This special section includes a selection of 12 expanded papers representing energy harvesting, chemical and fueled systems, and elastic energy storage at small scales. We would like to express our appreciation to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee, the Local Organizing Committee, and to the workshop's financial supporters. We are grateful to the referees for their contributions to the review process. Finally, we would like to thank Dr Ian Forbes, the editorial staff of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, and the staff

  9. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  10. Special Issue: Proceedings From the 9th International Congress on Isozymes, Genes, and Gene Families, San Antonio, TX, April 14-19, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McCarrey, John R.; VandeBerg, John L.

    1998-10-01

    This volume includes 27 peer-reviewed papers, plus an overview of the International Congress on Genes, Gene Families, and Isozymes. These proceedings provide a representative portion of the outstanding scientific program compiled for the Congress. Presented is a volume that documents the vigorous state of this field, and the manner in which is has progressed to include a wide range of approaches, from classic isozyme analysis to modern molecular biology.

  11. Neurosurgical notes: World War II.

    PubMed

    Pool, J L

    2000-03-01

    This concerns my activities as a neurosurgeon in the European Theater of Operations and the North African, Tunisian campaign, during World War II. Action during the Battle of the Bulge came later. Our mobile tent hospital, the 9th Evacuation Hospital, was similar to that depicted in the television show M*A*S*H. To lend flavor to these comments, I have referred to medical and surgical matters in other units as well as our own, mentioned global aspects of the war, and included vignettes of life off-duty. The story begins after induction into the Army Medical Corps as a volunteer in July 1942 and ends with honorable discharge in April 1946. PMID:10719869

  12. WebWise 2.0: The Power of Community. WebWise Conference on Libraries and Museums in the Digital World Proceedings (9th, Miami Beach, Florida, March 5-7, 2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, David

    2009-01-01

    Since it was coined by Tim O'Reilly in formulating the first Web 2.0 Conference in 2004, the term "Web 2.0" has definitely caught on as a designation of a second generation of Web design and experience that emphasizes a high degree of interaction with, and among, users. Rather than simply consulting and reading Web pages, the Web 2.0 generation is…

  13. Part C Updates: 9th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danaher, Joan; Goode, Sue; Lazara, Alex

    2007-01-01

    "Part C Updates" is a compilation of information on various aspects of the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities (Part C) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This is the ninth volume in a series of compilations, which included two editions of Part H Updates, the former name of the program.…

  14. Nine Months to 9th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jill P.

    2012-01-01

    Many students enter large comprehensive high schools without having the necessary social and academic skills or understanding of what will be expected of them as they move through the high school curriculum. To help a higher number of students experience success, schools must help them develop academic, social, and self-management skills.…

  15. The 9th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with performance and development of various spacecraft components, mechanical devices, and subsystems. Topics discussed include: manipulator arms, the Skylab Parasol, cooling system performance, extendable booms, magnetically suspended reaction wheels, the Skylab Trash Airlock, magnetometers, actuators, life support systems, and technology transfer.

  16. World oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

  17. World gravity standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  18. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  19. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  20. Windows to the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Using an Around the World unit to introduce students to over 30 nations, Wilson proposes "trail mix" over "melting pot" as a metaphor for multiculturalism in this article. Students kept a travel journal as they explored different cultures, and a school-wide celebration of diversity included trying out the dress, music, and language of each.…